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Sample records for early diagnostic guess

  1. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  2. Prior probability (the pretest best guess) affects predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Erb, Hollis N

    2011-06-01

    Authors who publish evaluations of dichotomous (yes/no) diagnostic tests often include the predictive values of their test at a single prior probability (eg, the prevalence of the target disease within the evaluation data set). The objectives of this technical note are to demonstrate why single-probability predictive values are misleading and to show a better way to display positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for a newly evaluated test. Secondly, this technical note will show readers how to calculate predictive values from only sensitivity and specificity for any desired prior probability. As prior probability increases from 0% to 100%, PPV increases from 0% to 100%, but NPV goes in the opposite direction (drops from 100% to 0%). Because prior probabilities vary so greatly across situations, predictive values should be provided in publications for the full range of potential prior probabilities (if provided at all). This is easily done with a 2-curve graph displaying the predictive values (y-axis) against the prior probability (x-axis).

  3. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent G.; Tong, Frank; Sack, Alexander T.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise. PMID:28384347

  4. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; van de Ven, Vincent G; Tong, Frank; Sack, Alexander T

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise.

  5. Guessing and the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holster, Trevor A.; Lake, J.

    2016-01-01

    Stewart questioned Beglar's use of Rasch analysis of the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) and advocated the use of 3-parameter logistic item response theory (3PLIRT) on the basis that it models a non-zero lower asymptote for items, often called a "guessing" parameter. In support of this theory, Stewart presented fit statistics derived from…

  6. Guessing and the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holster, Trevor A.; Lake, J.

    2016-01-01

    Stewart questioned Beglar's use of Rasch analysis of the Vocabulary Size Test (VST) and advocated the use of 3-parameter logistic item response theory (3PLIRT) on the basis that it models a non-zero lower asymptote for items, often called a "guessing" parameter. In support of this theory, Stewart presented fit statistics derived from…

  7. Cognitive aging and early neurophychological diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jolies, J

    1999-03-01

    With aging, most cognitive functions decline, especially processes concerning memorizing, attention, concentration, organizing, planning and problem solving. Neuropsychology can make an important contribution in early and differential diagnostics. The borderline between normal and pathological cognitive aging is especially important in this respect. The neuropsychologist gains insight in medical, biological, psychological and social factors of the aging person. Has the profile of complaints and deficits a normal background or is a pathological process taking place? It is important to people who are unnecessarily worried about possible dementia. Neuropsychological assessment also provides information about a patient's disturbed and undisturbed cognitive functions, their personality and their way of coping with problems in every day's life. This is of major importance, because it provides information and possibilities for biological or psychological interventions. Because of the complexity of problems that may occur, it is necessary that the neuropsychologist is experienced and works in a multidisciplinary team in which neurological and psychiatric expertise is present.

  8. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  9. Diagnostic Transitions from Childhood to Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William E.; Adair, Carol E.; Smetanin, Paul; Stiff, David; Briante, Carla; Colman, Ian; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John; Poulton, Richie; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantifying diagnostic transitions across development is needed to estimate the long-term burden of mental illness. This study estimated patterns of diagnostic transitions from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to early adulthood. Methods: Patterns of diagnostic transitions were estimated using data from three prospective,…

  10. Electrochemical Biosensors for Early Stage Zika Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Tiwari, Sneham; Jayant, Rahul D; Vashist, Arti; Nikkhah-Moshaie, Roozbeh; El-Hage, Nazira; Nair, Madhavan

    2017-04-01

    Health agencies have declared the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection an epidemic and a public health emergency of global concern due to its association with microcephaly and serious neurological disorders. The unavailability of effective drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tools increases the demand for efficient analytical devices to detect ZIKV infection. However, high costs, longer diagnostic times, and stringent expertise requirements limit the utility of reverse transcriptase-PCR methods for rapid diagnostics. Therefore, developing portable, sensitive, selective, and cost-effective sensing systems to detect ZIKV at picomolar concentrations in biofluids would be a breakthrough in diagnostics and therapeutics. This paper highlights the advancements in developing smart sensing strategies to monitor ZIKV progression, with rapid point-of-care diagnostics as the ultimate aim.

  11. Generically Used Expert Scheduling System (GUESS): User's Guide Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira

    1996-01-01

    This user's guide contains instructions explaining how to best operate the program GUESS, a generic expert scheduling system. GUESS incorporates several important features for a generic scheduler, including automatic scheduling routines to generate a 'first' schedule for the user, a user interface that includes Gantt charts and enables the human scheduler to manipulate schedules manually, diagnostic report generators, and a variety of scheduling techniques. The current version of GUESS runs on an IBM PC or compatible in the Windows 3.1 or Windows '95 environment.

  12. Introducing First-Year Medical Students to Early Diagnostic Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, P. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A method of instruction in gynecology is described that encouraged the formulation of early diagnostic hypotheses, an important part of clinical problem-solving. Students were given a set of clinical clues to help them make broad diagnostic hypotheses. Student ability, results, and student perceptions of the course are provided. (Author/LBH)

  13. Guessing Patterns of Palestinian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwaik, Raghad A.; Shehadeh, Adnan M.

    2013-01-01

    Top-down models of reading emphasize methods and techniques that promote active reading which involves utilizing contextual clues to guess vocabulary meaning. This study aims at analyzing the correlation between EFL students' general reading proficiency and guessing patterns, and identifying the types of contextual clues actually used by EFL…

  14. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  15. IRT Models for Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ernesto San; del Pino, Guido; De Boeck, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An ability-based guessing model is formulated and applied to several data sets regarding educational tests in language and in mathematics. The formulation of the model is such that the probability of a correct guess does not only depend on the item but also on the ability of the individual, weighted with a general discrimination parameter. By so…

  16. Guessing versus Choosing an Upcoming Task

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of guessing vs. choosing an upcoming task. In a task-switching paradigm with four tasks, two groups of participants were asked to either guess or choose which task will be presented next under otherwise identical conditions. The upcoming task corresponded to participants’ guesses or choices in 75 % of the trials. However, only participants in the Choosing condition were correctly informed about this, whereas participants in the Guessing condition were told that tasks were determined at random. In the Guessing condition, we replicated previous findings of a pronounced reduction of switch costs in case of incorrect guesses. This switch cost reduction was considerably less pronounced with denied choices in the Choosing condition. We suggest that in the Choosing condition, the signaling of prediction errors associated with denied choices is attenuated because a certain proportion of denied choices is consistent with the overall representation of the situation as conveyed by task instructions. In the Guessing condition, in contrast, the mismatch of guessed and actual task is resolved solely on the level of individual trials by strengthening the representation of the actual task. PMID:27047423

  17. Extremely Early Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    James, Veronica Jean

    2011-11-17

    This article reports the results of a blinded fiber diffraction study of skin samples taken from TRAMP mice and age-matched controls to determine whether changes noted in fiber diffraction studies of human skin were present in these TRAMP mice studies. These mice are bred to progress to Gleeson Type 3 to Type 5 prostate cancer. Small strips, 1 mm x 5 mm, cut from the mouse skin samples were loaded into cells in the same way as human samples and slightly stretched to remove the crimp. They remained fully hydrated throughout exposure to the synchrotron beam. The added change that was reported for prostate cancer in 2009 was obtained for all TRAMP mice samples, indicating that this change can be read as High Grade Cancer in human diagnostic tests. These changes were evident for all 3 and 7 week old TRAMP mice samples but not for any of the control samples. This indicates that the changes in the fibre diffraction patterns appear much earlier than in any other available prostate cancer diagnostic test, as none of these can verify the presence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mice before 10 weeks of age. The fiber diffraction test is therefore the most accurate and earliest test for high grade prostate cancer.

  18. [Early gastric cancer: epidemiology, diagnostic and management].

    PubMed

    Koessler, T; Roth, A; Cacheux, W

    2014-05-21

    Stomach cancers are diagnosed at an early stage in less than 10% of cases in Europe. They are superficial tumours, involving the mucosa and the submucosa only. Node involvement is the most important prognostic factor for these tumours. To determine the optimal therapeutic strategy, it is necessary to carry out a precise work-up involving an endoscopy, with chemical or virtual colorations and an echo-endoscopy. Gastric surgery is the reference treatment. Nowadays, endoscopic tumour resection is a validated curative alternative. High quality medical expertise is needed for those tumours with a good prognosis, after evaluating risk for node involvement, and should be followed by Helicobacter pylori eradication and regular endoscopic surveillance.

  19. Dementia with Lewy bodies: early diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Iseki, Eizo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kasanuki, Koji; Chiba, Yuhei; Ota, Kazumi; Murayama, Norio; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-06-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is defined pathologically as neurodegeneration associated with Lewy bodies (LB). LB-related symptoms, including olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, and mood and sleep disorders, are increasingly recognized as clinical signs that enable the early detection of DLB, because these symptoms often antedate dementia by years or even decades. It remains unknown if the clinical history of LB-related symptoms is sufficient for the prodromal state of DLB to be suspected in memory clinics. We retrospectively investigated the clinical courses, including olfactory dysfunction, dysautonomia, depression, and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, of 90 patients with probable DLB. The timing of LB-related symptoms that preceded or followed relative to the onset of memory loss was calculated. LB-related symptoms were present in 79 of 90 patients (87.8%) with probable DLB before or at the time of memory loss onset. These symptoms preceded the onset of memory loss between 1.2 and 9.3 years. We also report on four non-demented patients with a clinical history of LB-related symptoms in our memory clinic. All four patients showed reduced cardiac [(123) I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine levels. Moreover, [(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans revealed glucose hypometabolism in the occipital cortex in two patients. One patient converted to probable DLB with the development of parkinsonism 2 years after major depression was diagnosed. Based on a clinical history of LB-related symptoms, we propose a conceptual framework to identify these symptomatic but non-demented individuals that led us to suspect the underlying pathophysiology of Lewy body disease. Further prospective study is warranted to determine the clinical significance of LB-related symptoms in non-demented patients.

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder in early childhood: classification and diagnostic issues

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The 0–3 diagnostic classification of infant mental health, on the basis of DSM-IV-R, describes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a pattern of symptoms that may be shown by children who have experienced a single traumatic event, a series of connected traumatic events, or chronic, enduring stress situations. This definition, related to young children, needs the consideration of several factors to understand the child's symptoms, organize the diagnostic process, and realize clinical interventions. In this sense, the clinician must appreciate the classification criteria of PTSD in early childhood in the context of the child's age, temperament, and developmental level. This report presents a review of the research in the domain of the PTSD in early childhood with particular attention to the developmental considerations to define critical diagnostic criteria, specifically organized on the child characteristics, competences, and needs. Along this line, it will describe two proposed modifications of the diagnostic classification in childhood: the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Alternative Algorithm (PTSD-AA) and the definition of developmental trauma disorder (DTD). PMID:24371512

  1. Does Incorrect Guessing Impair Fact Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sean H. K.; Pashler, Harold; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Carpenter, Shana K.; Mozer, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a test has been shown to produce enhanced retention of the retrieved information. On tests, however, students often encounter questions the answers for which they are unsure. Should they guess anyway, even if they are likely to answer incorrectly? Or are errors engrained, impairing subsequent learning of the correct answer? We sought to…

  2. Does Incorrect Guessing Impair Fact Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sean H. K.; Pashler, Harold; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Carpenter, Shana K.; Mozer, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a test has been shown to produce enhanced retention of the retrieved information. On tests, however, students often encounter questions the answers for which they are unsure. Should they guess anyway, even if they are likely to answer incorrectly? Or are errors engrained, impairing subsequent learning of the correct answer? We sought to…

  3. The Value of Guess and Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Shannon M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Algebra Standard states that instructional programs at the middle grades should enable students to "represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols" (2000, p. 222). Guess and check is a powerful problem-solving strategy that can connect a conceptual…

  4. The Value of Guess and Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Shannon M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Algebra Standard states that instructional programs at the middle grades should enable students to "represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols" (2000, p. 222). Guess and check is a powerful problem-solving strategy that can connect a conceptual…

  5. Parallel Guessing: A Strategy for High-Speed Computation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-19

    for using additional hardware to obtain higher processing speed). In this paper we argue that "parallel guessing" for image analysis is a useful...34distance" from a true solution, or the correctness of a guess, can be readily checked. We review image - analysis algorithms having a parallel guessing or

  6. Comment on 3PL IRT Adjustment for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ting-Wei; Camilli, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Guessing behavior is an issue discussed widely with regard to multiple choice tests. Its primary effect is on number-correct scores for examinees at lower levels of proficiency. This is a systematic error or bias, which increases observed test scores. Guessing also can inflate random error variance. Correction or adjustment for guessing formulas…

  7. Early detection of autism. Diagnostic instruments for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, C; Nordin, V; Ehlers, S

    1996-06-01

    Autism and Asperger syndrome are disorders with early childhood onset. They are believed to exist on the same spectrum of impairments of reciprocal communication and social interaction restriction of imagination and behaviour. A number of screening and diagnostic tools have been developed in the field, and several of these are briefly reviewed here. It is concluded that autism may be screened around age 18 months and a diagnosis reliably be made around age 30 months, whereas a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is not usually suspected, screened or made until into the child's school age.

  8. Early onset neonatal sepsis: diagnostic dilemmas and practical management.

    PubMed

    Bedford Russell, A R; Kumar, R

    2015-07-01

    Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Developing urinary metabolomic signatures as early bladder cancer diagnostic markers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Sun, Zeyu; Chen, Deying; Su, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jing; Li, Gonghui; Lin, Biaoyang; Yan, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate of bladder cancer (BCa) patients, yet there is a lack of a reliable urine-based assay for early detection of BCa. Urine metabolites represented a potential rich source of biomarkers for BCa. This study aimed to develop a metabolomics approach for high coverage discovery and identification of metabolites in urine samples. Urine samples from 23 early stage BCa patients and 21 healthy volunteers with minimum sample preparations were analyzed by a short 30 min UPLC-HRMS method. We detected and quantified over 9000 unique UPLC-HRMS features, which is more than four times than about 2000 features detected in previous urine metabolomic studies. Furthermore, multivariate OPLS-DA classification models were established to differentiate urine samples from bladder cancer cohort and normal health cohort. We identified three BCa-upregulated metabolites: nicotinuric acid, trehalose, AspAspGlyTrp, and three BCa-downregulated metabolites: inosinic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, GlyCysAlaLys. Finally, analysis of six post-surgery BCa urine samples showed that these BCa-metabolomic features reverted to normal state after tumor removal, suggesting that they reflected metabolomic features associated with BCa. ROC analyses using two linear regression models to combine the identified markers showed a high diagnostic performance for detecting BCa with AUC (area under the ROC curve) values of 0.919 to 0.934. In summary, we developed a high coverage metabolomic approach that has potential for biomarker discovery in cancers.

  10. An Early Diagnostic Tool for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kambiz, Shoista; van Neck, Johan W.; Cosgun, Saniye G.; van Velzen, Marit H. N.; Janssen, Joop A. M. J. L.; Avazverdi, Naim; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Walbeehm, Erik T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin’s rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the skin rewarming rate in diabetic rats is related to microvascular changes and whether this is accompanied by changes observed in classical diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats’ hind paws. Peripheral neuropathy was determined by the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), mechanical sensitivity, and electrophysiological recordings. Data were obtained in diabetic rats at four, six, and eight weeks after the induction of diabetes and in controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, a delayed rewarming rate, decreased skin blood flow and decreased density of IENFs were observed. However, the mechanical hyposensitivity and decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) developed 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our study shows that the skin rewarming rate is related to microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Moreover, the skin rewarming rate is a non-invasive method that provides more information for an earlier diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy than the classical monofilament test and MNCV in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:25984949

  11. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascular risk factors, that may influence the clinical presentation and age at onset. For example, although many EODs are more likely to have Mendelian genetic and/or metabolic causes, the presence of comorbidities may drive the individual at risk for late-onset dementia to manifest the symptoms at an earlier age, which contributes further to the observed heterogeneity and may confound diagnostic investigation. A personalized medicine approach to diagnosis should therefore be considered depending on the age at onset, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. Genetic counseling and testing as well as specialized biochemical screening are often required, especially in those under the age of 40 and in those with a family history of autosomal dominant or recessive disease. Novel treatments in the drug development pipeline for EOD, such as genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease, should target the specific pathogenic cascade implicated by the mutation or biochemical defect. PMID:24565469

  13. Getting Lucky: How Guessing Threatens the Validity of Performance Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Brett P.

    2016-01-01

    There is always a chance that examinees will answer multiple choice (MC) items correctly by guessing. Design choices in some modern exams have created situations where guessing at random through the full exam--rather than only for a subset of items where the examinee does not know the answer--can be an effective strategy to pass the exam. This…

  14. Getting Lucky: How Guessing Threatens the Validity of Performance Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Brett P.

    2016-01-01

    There is always a chance that examinees will answer multiple choice (MC) items correctly by guessing. Design choices in some modern exams have created situations where guessing at random through the full exam--rather than only for a subset of items where the examinee does not know the answer--can be an effective strategy to pass the exam. This…

  15. Medicine is not science: guessing the future, predicting the past.

    PubMed

    Miller, Clifford

    2014-12-01

    Irregularity limits human ability to know, understand and predict. A better understanding of irregularity may improve the reliability of knowledge. Irregularity and its consequences for knowledge are considered. Reliable predictive empirical knowledge of the physical world has always been obtained by observation of regularities, without needing science or theory. Prediction from observational knowledge can remain reliable despite some theories based on it proving false. A naïve theory of irregularity is outlined. Reducing irregularity and/or increasing regularity can increase the reliability of knowledge. Beyond long experience and specialization, improvements include implementing supporting knowledge systems of libraries of appropriately classified prior cases and clinical histories and education about expertise, intuition and professional judgement. A consequence of irregularity and complexity is that classical reductionist science cannot provide reliable predictions of the behaviour of complex systems found in nature, including of the human body. Expertise, expert judgement and their exercise appear overarching. Diagnosis involves predicting the past will recur in the current patient applying expertise and intuition from knowledge and experience of previous cases and probabilistic medical theory. Treatment decisions are an educated guess about the future (prognosis). Benefits of the improvements suggested here are likely in fields where paucity of feedback for practitioners limits development of reliable expert diagnostic intuition. Further analysis, definition and classification of irregularity is appropriate. Observing and recording irregularities are initial steps in developing irregularity theory to improve the reliability and extent of knowledge, albeit some forms of irregularity present inherent difficulties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. New dermatological biomedical microscopes for early clinical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Leon

    1993-09-01

    With the current developments in optics, including laser optics, there should be more progress on the development of instrumentation for dermatological diagnostics, even clinical diagnostics. This report introduces new microscopy, much still under development, and research. A frank appeal for this program is made for multi-discipline help from optical physicists, biophysicists, biomedical engineers, even laser biomedical engineers, investigative dermatologists, and pathologists. If one is allowed to say, the most current advanced clinical diagnostic microscope is the polarizing microscope under the stimulus of Rox Anderson, Lynn Drake, Steven Jacques, and Peter Dorogi. The other microscopes for clinical dermatological research to be developed include the confocal scanning microscopy with the emphasis for living tissue, the ultrasonic biomedical microscope (UBM) for dermatology, and the holographic microscope, related to our studies on the biomedical aspects of optical phase conjugation. All these are introduced briefly for our studies and for definite pleas to help us.

  17. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  18. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  19. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  20. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  1. Diagnostic shortfalls in early childhood chronic stress: a review of the issues.

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Gorter, J W; Rosenbaum, P

    2013-11-01

    Clinical effects of early childhood chronic stress should be regarded as causing a developmental brain injury. However, current diagnostic constructs fail to capture the associated disabilities in emotional-behavioural regulation of stress and attachment functions adequately. We first focus on neglect as a prototypical early childhood chronic stressor; next we explore clinical associations of neglect; and finally we cite research pertaining to possible underlying pathophysiology of the effects of early childhood chronic stress. In addition, we discuss diagnostic labels that children with histories of early childhood neglect commonly acquire, and implications for treatment.

  2. Early motor delays as diagnostic clues in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Harris, Susan R

    2017-06-28

    Early identification of autism facilitates referral for early intervention services, shown to be effective in enhancing parent-child interaction as well as adaptive behavior, communication, and socialization. Traditional hallmarks for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social communication and social interaction as well as stereotypic or repetitive behavioral patterns. Research during the past decade suggests that developmental motor delays during early childhood may also be important predictors of this difficult-to-make diagnosis. The purpose of this short communication is to describe specific research findings about developmental motor delays and other neuromotor concerns that may contribute to the early diagnosis of ASD and thus hasten referral for early therapeutic intervention. In that there is reasonable consensus that motor delays during the first year of life may represent a prodrome of ASD, pediatricians should not rule out the possibility of ASD in infants with concerning motor behaviors. What is Known: • Early identification of autism facilitates referral for early intervention services. • Traditional hallmarks for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include deficits in social communication and social interaction as well as repetitive patterns of behavior. What is New: • Recent research suggests that developmental motor delays during early childhood may also be important predictors of ASD. • Pediatricians should consider the possibility of ASD in infants with motor delays or other concerning motor behaviors.

  3. The Exploration of the Relationship between Guessing and Latent Ability in IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Song

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between successful guessing and latent ability in IRT models. A new IRT model was developed with a guessing function integrating probability of guessing an item correctly with the examinee's ability and the item parameters. The conventional 3PL IRT model was compared with the new 2PL-Guessing model on…

  4. Early fetal echocardiography: Experience of a tertiary diagnostic service.

    PubMed

    Mogra, Ritu; Saaid, Rahmah; Kesby, Greg; Hayward, Janette; Malkoun, Jessica; Hyett, Jon

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that most of the major cardiac abnormalities can be diagnosed at 14-15 weeks of gestation. We present our experience of early fetal echocardiography. This is a retrospective cohort study of women referred for early fetal echocardiography at 13-16 weeks of gestation at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Sydney Ultrasound for Women between August 2011 and March 2014. Findings of early fetal echocardiography, details of subsequent ultrasound examinations and pregnancy outcome were recorded. Early fetal echocardiography was performed in 400 euploid fetuses at a mean gestational age of 15(+2)  weeks. 85% of women were referred for increased nuchal translucency. 383/400 (96%) women had both normal early and late fetal echocardiograms 15/400 (3.7%) were found to have a cardiac defect at early fetal echocardiography, including 14 major and one minor abnormality. Two additional minor cardiac defects were diagnosed at later antenatal ultrasounds. One case, defined as being normal antenatally, was found to have a minor cardiac abnormality post-natally. Eight (57%) women whose fetus had a major cardiac defect chose to terminate the pregnancy. In the pregnancies that continued, the sensitivity and specificity for major cardiac defects was 100%, 95% CI (0.98-1.00). Early fetal echocardiography is feasible and highly sensitive and specific in experienced hands. The high specificity facilitates early reassurance of those women assessed at increased risk for fetal cardiac malformations. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  6. Policy Analysis of Diagnostic Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education Programs. Research Report #12. Early Childhood Assessment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; And Others

    Detailed qualitative case studies of four early childhood special education programs, representing a variety of approaches to decision making as well as different community settings (urban, suburban, and rural), present information regarding their diagnostic assessment procedures. In general, programs reported that the main objective of diagnostic…

  7. Combined assessment of midbrain hyperechogenicity, hyposmia and motor asymmetry improves diagnostic accuracy in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Poewe, Werner; Mahlknecht, Philipp

    2012-08-01

    The differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes can be challenging, particularly in early disease stages, when overlapping clinical signs and symptoms may lead to erroneous classification. However, an early differentiation between Parkinson's disease (PD) and other diseases causing Parkinsonism is crucial for prognostic and therapeutic reasons and is essential for clinical research. In a recent study, Busse et al. investigated the diagnostic utility of a set of tests to improve diagnostic differentiation between PD, essential tremor and other Parkinsonian disorders. The authors studied a total of 632 patients divided into a retrospective (n = 517) and a prospective (n = 115) group. Diagnostic anchors were based on clinical criteria. Combining midbrain hyperechogenicity, hyposmia and motor asymmetry increased specificity and positive predictive value for diagnosis of PD up to 98% at the expense of sensitivity, whereas two features provided 91% sensitivity with 77% specificity. The results of this study further support the diagnostic utility of transcranial sonography in diagnosing PD.

  8. Priming guesses on a forced-recall test.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Janet M; Meade, Michelle L

    2004-07-01

    The forced-recall paradigm requires participants to fill all spaces on the memory test even if they cannot remember all the list words. In the present study, the authors used that paradigm to examine the influence of implicit memory on guessing--when participants fill remaining spaces after they cannot remember list items. They measured explicit memory as the percentage of targets that participants designated as remembered from the list and implicit memory as the percentage of targets they wrote but did not designate as remembered (beyond chance level). The authors examined implicit memory on guessing with forced recall (Experiment 1), forced cued recall with younger and older adults (Experiment 2), and forced free and cued recall under a depth-of-processing manipulation (Experiment 3). They conclude that implicit memory influences guesses of targets in the forced-recall paradigm.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Early Radiology in Acute Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Allan, R. N.; Dykes, P. W.; Toye, D. K. M.

    1972-01-01

    The accuracy of early radiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been studied by a comparison of the radiological opinion with the established diagnosis. A full examination has proved safe and uncomplicated with a high degree of accuracy and no false-positive results. Analysis of the errors shows that the presence of residue discourages the radiologist from making the correct diagnosis, and modification of the standard bariummeal technique may be needed to overcome this difficulty. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:4538882

  10. An accelerated diagnostic protocol for the early, safe discharge of low-risk chest pain patients.

    PubMed

    Altherwi, Tawfeeq; Grad, Willis B

    2015-07-01

    Can an accelerated 2-hour diagnostic protocol using the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measurement as the only biomarker be implemented to allow an earlier and safe discharge of low-risk chest pain patients? Than M, Cullen L, Aldous S, et al. 2-Hour accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms using contemporary troponins as the only biomarker: the ADAPT trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59(23):2091-8. To determine whether an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) for possible cardiac chest pain could identify low-risk patients suitable for early discharge using cTnI as the sole biomarker.

  11. Novel hybrid technology for early diagnostics of sepsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Grabovskis, Andris; Kazune, Sigita; Rubins, Uldis; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Volceka, Karina; Kviesis-Kipge, Edgars; Spigulis, Janis

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis is a potentially fatal disease with mortality rate as high as 50% in patients with septic shock; mortality rate can increase by 7.6% per hour if appropriate treatment is not started. Internationally accepted guidelines for diagnosis of sepsis rely on vital sign monitoring and laboratory tests in order to recognize organ failure. This pilot study aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral and thermal imaging techniques to identify and quantify early alterations in skin oxygenation and perfusion induced by sepsis. The study comprises both physiological model experiments on healthy volunteers in a laboratory environment, as well as screening case series of patients with septic shock in the intensive care department. Hyperspectral imaging is used to determine one of the main characteristic visual signs of skin oxygenation abnormalities - skin mottling, whereas changes in peripheral perfusion have been visualized by thermal imaging as heterogeneous skin temperature areas. In order to mimic septic skin mottling in a reproducible way in laboratory environment, arterial occlusion provocation test was utilized on healthy volunteers. Visualization of oxygen saturation by hyperspectral imaging allows diagnosing microcirculatory alterations induced by sepsis earlier than visual assessment of mottling. Thermal images of sepsis patients in the clinic clearly reveal hotspots produced by perforating arteries, as well as cold regions of low blood supply. The results of this pilot study show that thermal imaging in combination with hyperspectral imaging allows the determination of oxygen supply and utilization in critically ill septic patients.

  12. Guessing, Partial Knowledge, and Misconceptions in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Paul Ngee Kiong; Lau, Sie Hoe; Hong, Kian Sam; Usop, Hasbee

    2011-01-01

    The number right (NR) method, in which students pick one option as the answer, is the conventional method for scoring multiple-choice tests that is heavily criticized for encouraging students to guess and failing to credit partial knowledge. In addition, computer technology is increasingly used in classroom assessment. This paper investigates the…

  13. Orbital Battleship: A Guessing Game to Reinforce Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurushkin, Mikhail; Mikhaylenko, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A competitive educational guessing game "Orbital Battleship" which reinforces Madelung's and Hund's rules, values of quantum numbers, and understanding of periodicity was designed. The game develops strategic thinking, is not time-consuming, requires minimal preparation and supervision, and is an efficient and fun alternative to more…

  14. Orbital Battleship: A Guessing Game to Reinforce Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurushkin, Mikhail; Mikhaylenko, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A competitive educational guessing game "Orbital Battleship" which reinforces Madelung's and Hund's rules, values of quantum numbers, and understanding of periodicity was designed. The game develops strategic thinking, is not time-consuming, requires minimal preparation and supervision, and is an efficient and fun alternative to more…

  15. Grade of Membership Response Time Model for Detecting Guessing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokropek, Artur

    2016-01-01

    A response model that is able to detect guessing behaviors and produce unbiased estimates in low-stake conditions using timing information is proposed. The model is a special case of the grade of membership model in which responses are modeled as partial members of a class that is affected by motivation and a class that responds only according to…

  16. Uneducated Guesses: Using Evidence to Uncover Misguided Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2011-01-01

    "Uneducated Guesses" challenges everything our policymakers thought they knew about education and education reform, from how to close the achievement gap in public schools to admission standards for top universities. In this explosive book, Howard Wainer uses statistical evidence to show why some of the most widely held beliefs in…

  17. The Knowledge or Random Guessing Model for Matching Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; Gremmen, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    A statistical test of the knowledge or random guessing model is presented. A version of the model is introduced in which it is assumed that alternatives can be ordered according to a Guttman scale. Three examples illustrate its application to data from a total of 590 college students. (Author/SLD)

  18. Uneducated Guesses: Using Evidence to Uncover Misguided Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2011-01-01

    "Uneducated Guesses" challenges everything our policymakers thought they knew about education and education reform, from how to close the achievement gap in public schools to admission standards for top universities. In this explosive book, Howard Wainer uses statistical evidence to show why some of the most widely held beliefs in…

  19. Neuropsychological functioning in early-onset first-episode psychosis: comparison of diagnostic subgroups.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Arantzazu; Rapado, Marta; Arango, Celso; Robles, Olalla; de la Serna, Elena; González, Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Manuel; Andrés, Patricia; Mayoral, María; Bombín, Igor

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the nature and extent of cognitive impairment in first-episode early-onset psychosis (FE-EOP) soon after their stabilisation and to search for potential differences according to specific diagnostic sub-groups of patients. As part of a Spanish multicentre longitudinal study, 107 FE-EOP patients and 98 healthy controls were assessed on the following cognitive domains: attention, working memory, executive functioning, and verbal learning and memory. Three diagnostic categories were established in the patient sample: schizophrenia (n = 36), bipolar disorder (n = 19), and other psychosis (n = 52). Patients performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive domains. The three diagnostic sub-groups did not differ in terms of impaired/preserved cognitive functions or degree of impairment. FE-EOP patients show significant cognitive impairment that, during this early phase, seems to be non-specific to differential diagnosis.

  20. Is There Something to Be Gained from Guessing? Middle School Students' Use of Systematic Guess and Check

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanning, Debra I.

    2007-01-01

    This article will share results from research that investigated how sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students who had not been exposed to formal algebraic methods approached word problems of an algebraic nature. Student use of systematic guess and check, the predominate approach taken by these students, is the focus. The goal is to consider the…

  1. Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis: anybody's guess.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Matthew D; Mittal, Anubhav; Wilms, Heath R; Phillips, Anthony; Petrov, Maxim S; Windsor, John A

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the quality of current evidence about fluid therapy (FT) in acute pancreatitis (AP). Intravenous FT is thought to be important in the early management of patients with AP. Clinically relevant questions remain regarding the type of fluid, the rate of administration, and the goal of FT. A comprehensive literature search for human studies was performed using online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library). The quality of the entire body of evidence was then graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group guidelines in relation to 3 key areas: type of fluid, rate of fluid administration, and goal-directed FT. The initial search yielded 410 studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. Only 2 randomized studies compared types of fluids. Nine studies looked at aggressive versus nonaggressive resuscitation protocols, of which 4 concluded that an aggressive approach yielded better outcomes and 5 concluded that a nonaggressive approach was better. Two studies investigated goal-directed FT, using different goals; one demonstrating benefit and the other none. Analysis of the body of evidence as per the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group revealed that the majority of evidence was of low or very low quality. FT is considered a cornerstone of the early management of patients with AP and yet the evidence on which it is based remains paltry and of poor quality. This systematic review has demonstrated the equipoise necessary for the design of randomized controlled trials to answer pressing questions relating to the type of fluid, the rate of administration, and how FT should be guided.

  2. On the Correction for Guessing on a Multiple-Choice Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution theory underlying corrections for guessing is analyzed, and the probability distributions of the random variables are derived. The correction in grade, based on random guessing of unknown answers, is compared with corrections based on educated guessing. (Author/MH)

  3. Does Diagnostic Classification of Early-Onset Psychosis Change over Follow-Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraguas, David; de Castro, Maria J.; Medina, Oscar; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diagnostic stability and the functional outcome of patients with early-onset psychosis (EOP) over a 2-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 24 patients (18 males (75%) and 6 females (25%), mean age [plus or minus] SD: 15.7 [plus or minus] 1.6 years) with a first episode of EOP formed the sample. Psychotic symptoms…

  4. Does Diagnostic Classification of Early-Onset Psychosis Change over Follow-Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraguas, David; de Castro, Maria J.; Medina, Oscar; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diagnostic stability and the functional outcome of patients with early-onset psychosis (EOP) over a 2-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 24 patients (18 males (75%) and 6 females (25%), mean age [plus or minus] SD: 15.7 [plus or minus] 1.6 years) with a first episode of EOP formed the sample. Psychotic symptoms…

  5. Device diagnostics and early identification of acute decompensated heart failure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blair, Tara Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of heart failure (HF) management are based on reactive strategies to treat late indicators of decompensated HF. Advances in monitoring methods have become available with the evolution of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac-resynchronization therapy devices. These devices provide new diagnostic data and remote monitoring capabilities that allow clinicians to proactively monitor patients for earlier signs of worsening HF. The integration of data obtained from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac-resynchronization therapy technology could improve outpatient HF care, potentially leading to decreased readmission rates and improved patient outcomes. This review will synthesize the literature regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic data and the usability of the data in the clinical setting. Articles for review were obtained using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, PubMed, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Device diagnostics showed strong correlation with established HF biomarkers and hemodynamic measures. The findings from this review indicate that device diagnostic parameters predict impending HF much earlier than traditional methods of monitoring do. Device diagnostics are also more accurate in the early prediction of HF when compared with noninvasive objective measures, particularly when multiple parameters are combined and monitored for trends. Device diagnostics possess a distinct advantage over traditional methods of monitoring for HF because they allow clinicians to remotely monitor the status of their HF patients without relying on patient compliance for data entry and reporting. Studies regarding the efficacy of device diagnostic parameters suggest that their integration into clinical practice will provide a more accurate and reliable mechanism for assisting clinicians in risk stratifying and predicting potential episodes of decompensated HF.

  6. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  7. Early Identification of Autism: Early Characteristics, Onset of Symptoms, and Diagnostic Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.

    2009-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also…

  8. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  9. Early Identification of Autism: Early Characteristics, Onset of Symptoms, and Diagnostic Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.

    2009-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also…

  10. Early diagnostic suggestions improve accuracy of GPs: a randomised controlled trial using computer-simulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Rosen, Andrea; Round, Thomas; Wright, Ellen; Douiri, Abdel; Delaney, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Background Designers of computerised diagnostic support systems (CDSSs) expect physicians to notice when they need advice and enter into the CDSS all information that they have gathered about the patient. The poor use of CDSSs and the tendency not to follow advice once a leading diagnosis emerges would question this expectation. Aim To determine whether providing GPs with diagnoses to consider before they start testing hypotheses improves accuracy. Design and setting Mixed factorial design, where 297 GPs diagnosed nine patient cases, differing in difficulty, in one of three experimental conditions: control, early support, or late support. Method Data were collected over the internet. After reading some initial information about the patient and the reason for encounter, GPs requested further information for diagnosis and management. Those receiving early support were shown a list of possible diagnoses before gathering further information. In late support, GPs first gave a diagnosis and were then shown which other diagnoses they could still not discount. Results Early support significantly improved diagnostic accuracy over control (odds ratio [OR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.03 to 1.66, P = 0.027), while late support did not (OR 1.10; 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.37). An absolute improvement of 6% with early support was obtained. There was no significant interaction with case difficulty and no effect of GP experience on accuracy. No differences in information search were detected between experimental conditions. Conclusion Reminding GPs of diagnoses to consider before they start testing hypotheses can improve diagnostic accuracy irrespective of case difficulty, without lengthening information search. PMID:25548316

  11. A wild bootstrap approach for the selection of biomarkers in early diagnostic trials.

    PubMed

    Zapf, Antonia; Brunner, Edgar; Konietschke, Frank

    2015-05-01

    In early diagnostic trials, particularly in biomarker studies, the aim is often to select diagnostic tests among several methods. In case of metric, discrete, or even ordered categorical data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (denoted by AUC) is an appropriate overall accuracy measure for the selection, because the AUC is independent of cut-off points. For selection of biomarkers the individual AUC's are compared with a pre-defined threshold. To keep the overall coverage probability or the multiple type-I error rate, simultaneous confidence intervals and multiple contrast tests are considered. We propose a purely nonparametric approach for the estimation of the AUC's with the corresponding confidence intervals and statistical tests. This approach uses the correlation among the statistics to account for multiplicity. For small sample sizes, a Wild-Bootstrap approach is presented. It is shown that the corresponding intervals and tests are asymptotically exact. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the derived Wild-Bootstrap approach keeps and exploits the nominal type-I error at best, even for high accuracies and in case of small samples sizes. The strength of the correlation, the type of covariance structure, a skewed distribution, and also a moderate imbalanced case-control ratio do not have any impact on the behavior of the approach. A real data set illustrates the application of the proposed methods. We recommend the new Wild Bootstrap approach for the selection of biomarkers in early diagnostic trials, especially for high accuracies and small samples sizes.

  12. Usage of analytical representations of time functions of some parameters of blood for early diagnostics of an internal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinov, Igor A.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Brook, Sergey B.

    2000-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data obtained at clinical examination of 5 specially fitted groups of the patients the analytical system of early diagnostic of metabolic condition appropriate for an atherosclerosis and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was designed.

  13. An Optimal Initial Guess Generator for Entry Interface Targeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senent, Juan S.

    2009-01-01

    If a pure numerical iterative approach is used, targeting entry interface (EI) conditions for nominal and abort return trajectories or for correction maneuvers can be computationally expensive. This paper describes an algorithm to obtain an optimal impulsive maneuver that generates a trajectory satisfying a set of EI targets: inequality constraints on longitude, latitude and azimuth and a fixed flight-path angle. Most of the calculations require no iterations, making it suitable for real-time applications or large trade studies. This algorithm has been used to generate initial guesses for abort trajectories during Earth-Moon transfers.

  14. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  15. Using standardized diagnostic instruments to classify children with autism in the study to explore early development.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E; Moody, Eric J; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E

    2015-05-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to classify children with ASD, (2) examine psychometric properties of different ASD classification methods, including the SEED method that incorporates rules for resolving ADI-R and ADOS discordance, and (3) determine whether restricted interests and repetitive behaviors were noted for children who had instrument discordance resolved using ADI-R social and communication scores. Results support the utility of SEED criteria when well-defined groups of children are an important clinical or research outcome.

  16. State of the art of diagnostic technology for early-stage melanoma.

    PubMed

    Guitera, Pascale; Menzies, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    In the past few decades, rapid improvements in noninvasive optical technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis of early-stage melanoma. Current knowledge and limitations of these tools will be reviewed in this article. Dermoscopy has been recognized as the 'gold standard' in the screening phase. Digital dermoscopy monitoring and total-body photography are used to identify so-called 'featureless' melanoma only on the criteria of change over time. Automated instruments, as well as optical and nonmorphological methods, are still under development, and offer many opportunities to improve the speed and accuracy of the diagnosis of melanoma and/or to reduce the need for expertise. Despite a penetration depth limited to the upper dermis, the quasi-histological imaging achieved by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy has been demonstrated to significantly aid diagnostic accuracy for selected melanocytic lesions. Future perspectives on diagnostic instrumentation will also be explored.

  17. Diagnostic value of lumbar root stimulation at the early stage of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kurt Incesu, Tulay; Secil, Yaprak; Tokucoglu, Figen; Gurgor, Nevin; Özdemirkiran, Tolga; Akhan, Galip; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate diagnostic value of electrical lumbar root stimulation (RS) at the laminar level in the early stage of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Fifteen patients (30 sides) and nine controls (17 sides) were included in the study. Conventional nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, F responses and electrical lumbar RS were obtained from both groups. The needle electrical stimulation was performed at the L2-3 intervertebral level. Vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were investigated bilaterally and simultaneously in the first and fourth weeks. In all patients, the amplitudes elicited by lumbar RS were significantly attenuated while the conventional electrophysiological findings were normal and/or not diagnostic in 6 of 15 patients (40%) within the first week. Motor latencies by the lumbar RS were prolonged in the patients, compared to the controls, but the results were not statistically significant. M-responses elicited by lumbar RS appear to be helpful in disclosing proximal conduction abnormalities of GBS early in the course. Lumbar RS seems to be a useful method in making the diagnosis of GBS early and there is no considerable side effect of this particular method. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Opportunities for volatile fatty acids using in early diagnostics of infected pancreonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Gagua, A K; Ivanenkov, I M; Vorob'ev, P Iu

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the treatment results of 108 patients with pancreonecrosis (PN). Gas-liquid chromatography with definition of blood concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was used additionally for timely diagnostics of infected pancreonecrosis. Volatile fatty acids are toxic metabolites of microorganisms. Statistically significant threshold values of VFA were revealed. These values allow to diagnose timely early phase of PN infection and the nature of the microflora. It was defined changes of VFA depending on the severity of infectious process in pancreas and retroperitoneal fiber.

  19. Ataxic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: diagnostic techniques and neuropathologic observations in early disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, H R; Hedley-Whyte, E T; Freidberg, S R; Baker, R A

    1985-02-01

    We studied two cases of ataxic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. EEG, CT, evoked responses, and CSF were normal in one purely ataxic patient. Diagnosis was established by cerebellar biopsy. Autopsy demonstrated devastating spongiform changes in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and thalamus with rare focal changes in cerebral cortex. In the second patient, late generalized changes developed with dementia. Diagnostic studies included abnormal visual evoked responses, CSF with abnormal oligoclonal bands and IgG, and subacute spongiform encephalopathy in frontal lobe biopsy. Early diagnosis is best established by biopsy of brain areas most likely to be involved on the basis of clinical neurologic findings.

  20. GUESS-ing Polygenic Associations with Multiple Phenotypes Using a GPU-Based Evolutionary Stochastic Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hastie, David I.; Zeller, Tanja; Liquet, Benoit; Newcombe, Paul; Yengo, Loic; Wild, Philipp S.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Nielsen, Sune F.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Ho, Weang Kee; Castagné, Raphaële; Munzel, Thomas; Tregouet, David; Falchi, Mario; Cambien, François; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Fumeron, Fredéric; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Froguel, Philippe; Danesh, John; Petretto, Enrico; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tiret, Laurence; Richardson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) yielded significant advances in defining the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease. Still, a major hurdle of GWAS is narrowing down multiple genetic associations to a few causal variants for functional studies. This becomes critical in multi-phenotype GWAS where detection and interpretability of complex SNP(s)-trait(s) associations are complicated by complex Linkage Disequilibrium patterns between SNPs and correlation between traits. Here we propose a computationally efficient algorithm (GUESS) to explore complex genetic-association models and maximize genetic variant detection. We integrated our algorithm with a new Bayesian strategy for multi-phenotype analysis to identify the specific contribution of each SNP to different trait combinations and study genetic regulation of lipid metabolism in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Despite the relatively small size of GHS (n = 3,175), when compared with the largest published meta-GWAS (n>100,000), GUESS recovered most of the major associations and was better at refining multi-trait associations than alternative methods. Amongst the new findings provided by GUESS, we revealed a strong association of SORT1 with TG-APOB and LIPC with TG-HDL phenotypic groups, which were overlooked in the larger meta-GWAS and not revealed by competing approaches, associations that we replicated in two independent cohorts. Moreover, we demonstrated the increased power of GUESS over alternative multi-phenotype approaches, both Bayesian and non-Bayesian, in a simulation study that mimics real-case scenarios. We showed that our parallel implementation based on Graphics Processing Units outperforms alternative multi-phenotype methods. Beyond multivariate modelling of multi-phenotypes, our Bayesian model employs a flexible hierarchical prior structure for genetic effects that adapts to any correlation structure of the predictors and increases the power to identify associated variants. This

  1. Diagnostic value of the plasmatic ADM level for early ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi; Lu, Qi; Tao, Yu; Wang, Yu-Dong; Zhao, Wen-Xia

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the plasmatic ADM level in early pregnancy and to investigate the diagnostic value of ADM in early ectopic pregnancy (EP). 70 patients with EP who had menopause for 5~8 weeks were included as study group, while 155 women with normal intrauterine pregnancy were also included as control group. The correlation between ADM level and menopause weeks was statistically analyzed and ROC curve was used to identify the diagnostic value of ADM. (1) In 155 cases of normal intrauterine pregnancy, the plasmatic ADM level was increased with menopause weeks in linear relationship, and the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.991 (P<0.05). In 70 patients with EP, no significant increase was found with menopause weeks and no linear relationship can be found between ADM level and menopause weeks in EP group. The correlation coefficient (R) was 0.744 (P>0.05). (2) The multiple of median of plasmatic ADM level in EP group of menopause for 8 weeks was obviously lower than the intrauterine control group (P<0.01). (3) ROC curve was used to analyze the cut-off value of ADM level in the diagnosis of EP, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.523 (P>0.05) regardless of menopause weeks, however, the area under the ROC curve was 0.702 (P<0.05) at 8 weeks after menopause with sensitivity of 53.50% and specificity of 85.00%. Different from normal intrauterine pregnancy, plasmatic ADM level in early EP was relatively lower and no significant increase was found with menopause weeks; further studies are still needed for plasmatic ADM level as an indicator in the early diagnosis of EP.

  2. Diagnostic value evaluation of trefoil factors family 3 for the early detection of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Guo, Jian-Hai; An, Wei-Min; Tian, Sheng-Tao; Yu, Hai-Peng; Yang, Xue-Ling; Wang, Hua-Ming; Guo, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    AIM The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CC). METHODS Serum TFF3 and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) were detected in 527 individuals, including 115 healthy control (HC), 198 colorectal adenoma (CA), and 214 CC individuals in the training group. RESULTS Serum TFF3 showed no significant correlation with age, gender, or tumor location but showed significant correlation with the tumor stage. Serum TFF3 in the CC group was significantly higher than in the HC or CA group. The AUC values of TFF3 for discriminating between HC and CC and between CA and CC were 0.930 (0.903, 0.958) and 0.834 (0.796, 0.873). A multivariate model combining TFF3 and CEA was built. Compared to TFF3 or CEA alone, the multivariate model showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). For discriminating between HC and CC, HC and early stage CC, HC and advanced stage CC, CA and CC, CA and early stage CC, and CA and advanced stage CC in the training group, the sensitivities were 92.99%, 91.46%, 93.18%, 73.83%, 76.83%, and 81.82%, and the specificities were 91.30%, 91.30%, 93.91%, 88.38%, 77.27%, and 88.38%, respectively. After validation, the sensitivities were 89.39%, 85.71%, 90.79%, 72.73%, 71.43%, and 78.95%, and the specificities were 87.85%, 87.85%, 2.52%, 87.85%, 80.77%, and 87.50%, respectively. CONCLUSION The multivariate diagnostic model that included TFF3 and CEA showed significant improvement over the conventional biomarker CEA and might provide a potential method for the early detection of CC. PMID:28405143

  3. Reducing the Cost of the Diagnostic Odyssey in Early Onset Epileptic Encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Charuta; Kolbe, Diana L; Mansilla, M Adela; Mason, Sara O; Smith, Richard J H; Campbell, Colleen A

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has revolutionized the way we think about and diagnose epileptic encephalopathies. Multiple recent review articles discuss the benefits of WES and suggest various algorithms to follow for determining the etiology of epileptic encephalopathies. Incorporation of WES in these algorithms is leading to the discovery of new genetic diagnoses of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) at a rapid rate; however, WES is not yet a universally utilized diagnostic tool. Clinical WES may be underutilized due to provider discomfort in ordering the test or perceived costliness. At our hospital WES is not routinely performed for patients with EOEE due to limited insurance reimbursement. In fact for any patient with noncommercial insurance (Medicaid) the institution does not allow sending out WES as this is not "established"/"proven to be highly useful and cost effective"/"approved test" in patients with epilepsy. Recently, we performed WES on four patients from three families and identified novel mutations in known epilepsy genes in all four cases. These patients had State Medicaid as their insurance carrier and were followed up for several years for EOEE while being worked up using the traditional/approved testing methods. Following a recently proposed diagnostic pathway, we analyzed the cost savings (US dollars) that could be accrued if WES was performed earlier in the diagnostic odyssey. This is the first publication that addresses the dollar cost of traditional testing in EOEE as performed in these four cases versus WES and the potential cost savings.

  4. Reducing the Cost of the Diagnostic Odyssey in Early Onset Epileptic Encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Mansilla, M. Adela; Campbell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) has revolutionized the way we think about and diagnose epileptic encephalopathies. Multiple recent review articles discuss the benefits of WES and suggest various algorithms to follow for determining the etiology of epileptic encephalopathies. Incorporation of WES in these algorithms is leading to the discovery of new genetic diagnoses of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) at a rapid rate; however, WES is not yet a universally utilized diagnostic tool. Clinical WES may be underutilized due to provider discomfort in ordering the test or perceived costliness. At our hospital WES is not routinely performed for patients with EOEE due to limited insurance reimbursement. In fact for any patient with noncommercial insurance (Medicaid) the institution does not allow sending out WES as this is not “established”/“proven to be highly useful and cost effective”/“approved test” in patients with epilepsy. Recently, we performed WES on four patients from three families and identified novel mutations in known epilepsy genes in all four cases. These patients had State Medicaid as their insurance carrier and were followed up for several years for EOEE while being worked up using the traditional/approved testing methods. Following a recently proposed diagnostic pathway, we analyzed the cost savings (US dollars) that could be accrued if WES was performed earlier in the diagnostic odyssey. This is the first publication that addresses the dollar cost of traditional testing in EOEE as performed in these four cases versus WES and the potential cost savings. PMID:27243033

  5. Early Functional Limitations in Cognitively Normal Older Adults Predict Diagnostic Conversion to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Lau, Karen; Harvey, Danielle; Denny, Katherine G; Barba, Cheyanne; Mefford, Anthony N

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether specific types of early functional limitations in cognitively normal older adults are associated with subsequent development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as the relative predictive value of self versus informant report in predicting diagnostic conversion to MCI. As a part of a longitudinal study design, participants underwent baseline and annual multidisciplinary clinical evaluations, including a physical and neurological examination, imaging, laboratory work, and neuropsychological testing. Data used in this study were collected as part of longitudinal research at the University of California, Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center. Individuals diagnosed as having normal cognition at study baseline who had an informant who could complete informant-based ratings and at least one follow-up visit (N = 324). Participants and informants each completed the Everyday Cognition Scale (ECog), an instrument designed to measure everyday function in six cognitively relevant domains. Self- and informant-reported functional limitations on the ECog were associated with significantly greater risk of diagnostic conversion to MCI (informant: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-3.2, P = .002), with self-report having a slightly higher hazard (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.4-3.6, P < .001). When controlling for baseline cognitive abilities, the effect remained significant for self- and informant-reported functional limitations. Deficits in everyday memory and executive function domains were the strongest predictors of diagnostic conversion to MCI. Detection of early functional limitations may be clinically useful in assessing the future risk of developing cognitive impairment in cognitively normal older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Diagnostic delays in children with early-onset epilepsy: impact, reasons, and opportunities to improve care

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Baca, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Delayed diagnosis of early-onset epilepsy is a potentially important and avoidable complication in epilepsy care. We examined the frequency of diagnostic delays in young children with newly presenting epilepsy, their developmental impact, and reasons for delays. Methods Children who developed epilepsy before their third birthday were identified in a prospective community-based cohort. An interval ≥1 month from second seizure to diagnosis was considered a delay. Testing of development at baseline and for up to three years after and of IQ 8–9 years later was performed. Detailed parental baseline interview accounts and medical records were reviewed to identify potential reasons for delays. Factors associated with delays included the parent, child, pediatrician, neurologist, and scheduling. Results Diagnostic delays occurred in 70/172 (41%) children. Delays occurred less often if children had received medical attention for the first seizure (p<0.0001), previously had neonatal or febrile seizures (p=0.02), had only convulsions before diagnosis (p=0.005) or had a college-educated parent (p=0.01). A ≥1 month diagnostic delay was associated with an average 7.4 point drop (p=0.02) in the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Behavior motor score. The effect was present at diagnosis, persisted for at least three years, and was also apparent in IQ scores 8–9 years later which were lower in association with a diagnostic delay by 8.4 points (p=0.06) for processing speed up to 14.5 points (p=0.004) for full scale IQ, after adjustment for parental education and other epilepsy-related clinical factors. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis included parents not recognizing events as seizures (N=47), pediatricians missing or deferring diagnosis (N=15), neurologists deferring diagnosis (N=7), and scheduling problems (N=11). Significance Diagnostic delays occur in many young children with epilepsy. They are associated with substantial decrements in development and IQ later

  7. Proposed experiment for the quantum ``Guess My Number'' protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, Adán; López-Tarrida, Antonio J.

    2005-02-01

    An experimental realization of the entanglement-assisted “Guess My Number” protocol for the reduction of communication complexity, introduced by Steane and van Dam, would require producing and detecting three-qubit GHZ states with an efficiency η>0.70 , which would require single photon detectors of efficiency σ>0.89 . We propose a modification of the protocol which can be translated into a real experiment using present-day technology. In the proposed experiment, the quantum reduction of the multiparty communication complexity would require an efficiency η>0.05 , achievable with detectors of σ>0.47 , for four parties, and η>0.17 (σ>0.55) for three parties.

  8. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  9. Automating Initial Guess Generation for High Fidelity Trajectory Optimization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Benjamin; Lantoine, Gregory; Sims, Jon; Whiffen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Many academic studies in spaceflight dynamics rely on simplified dynamical models, such as restricted three-body models or averaged forms of the equations of motion of an orbiter. In practice, the end result of these preliminary orbit studies needs to be transformed into more realistic models, in particular to generate good initial guesses for high-fidelity trajectory optimization tools like Mystic. This paper reviews and extends some of the approaches used in the literature to perform such a task, and explores the inherent trade-offs of such a transformation with a view toward automating it for the case of ballistic arcs. Sample test cases in the libration point regimes and small body orbiter transfers are presented.

  10. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of hand and foot MRI for early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Mangnus, Lukas; Newsum, Elize C; Bloem, Johan L; Huizinga, Tom W J; le Cessie, Saskia; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of MRI for early RA. In some RA patients, a classifiable diagnosis cannot be made at first presentation; these patients present with unclassified arthritis (UA). The use of MRI for early diagnosis of RA is recommended, yet the evidence for its reliability is limited. MRI of hand and foot was performed in 589 early arthritis patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (229 presented with RA, 159 with other arthritides and 201 with UA). Symptom-free controls provided a reference for defining an abnormal MRI. In preliminary investigations, MRI of patients who presented with RA was compared with MRI of symptom-free controls and of patients with other arthritides. Thereafter, the value of MRI in early RA diagnosis was determined in UA patients using the 1-year follow-up on fulfilling the 1987 RA criteria and start of disease-modifying drugs as outcomes. Preliminary investigations were promising. Of the UA patients, 14% developed RA and 37% started disease-modifying treatment. MRI-detected tenosynovitis was associated with RA development independent of other types of MRI-detected inflammation [odds ratio (OR) = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.4, 23] and also independent of age and other inflammatory measures (swollen joints, CRP) (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 12.9). Within UA patients, the negative predictive value of abnormal tenosynovitis was 95% (95% CI: 89%, 98%) and the positive predictive value 25% (95% CI: 17%, 35%). The performance was best in the subgroup of UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis (18% developed RA): the positive predictive value was 36% (95% CI: 23%, 52%), the negative predictive value was 98% (95% CI: 88%, 100%), the sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 70%, 99%) and the specificity was 63% (95% CI: 51%, 74%). MRI contributes to the identification of UA patients who will develop RA, mostly in UA patients presenting with oligoarthritis.

  11. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-05-03

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0-12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers.

  12. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of 64 simultaneously measured autoantibodies for early detection of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Simone; Chen, Hongda; Butt, Julia; Michel, Angelika; Knebel, Phillip; Holleczek, Bernd; Zörnig, Inka; Eichmüller, Stefan B.; Jäger, Dirk; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been suggested as biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. However, studies that systematically assess the diagnostic performance of a large number of autoantibodies are rare. Here, we used bead-based multiplex serology to simultaneously measure autoantibody responses against 64 candidate TAAs in serum samples from 329 gastric cancer patients, 321 healthy controls and 124 participants with other diseases of the upper digestive tract. At 98% specificity, sensitivities for the 64 tested autoantibodies ranged from 0–12% in the training set and a combination of autoantibodies against five TAAs (MAGEA4 + CTAG1 + TP53 + ERBB2_C + SDCCAG8) was able to detect 32% of the gastric cancer patients at a specificity of 87% in the validation set. Sensitivities for early and late stage gastric cancers were similar, while chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor lesion of gastric cancer, was not detectable. However, the 5-marker combination also detected 26% of the esophageal cancer patients. In conclusion, the tested autoantibodies and combinations alone did not reach sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer screening. Nevertheless, some autoantibodies, such as anti-MAGEA4, anti-CTAG1 or anti-TP53 and their combinations could possibly contribute to the development of cancer early detection tests (not necessarily restricted to gastric cancer) when being combined with other markers. PMID:27140836

  13. [Diagnostic performance of surface electrocardiogram in early detection of chagasic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Bochard-Villanueva, Bruno; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; García-González, Pilar; Morell-Cabedo, Salvador; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco

    2015-03-15

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows early detection of myocardial involvement by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) in the early detection of Chagas' cardiomyopathy (CCM) compared with CMR. We included 43 asymptomatic patients (30 women, 42 ± 9.8 years), diagnosed of Chagas disease. The sample was divided into 2 groups according to the presence (n=17) or absence (n=26) of electrocardiographic abnormalities. All patients underwent CMR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was used as a marker of early myocardial involvement. Six (14%) patients had a LGE significantly higher in the group who had electrocardiographic abnormalities (29 vs. 4%, P<.05). With CMR as the method of reference, the ECG had a sensitivity of 83% and a negative predictive value of 96% to detect CCM. ECG is a useful, inexpensive and globally available tool for the screening of CCM in asymptomatic patients but with proven myocardial involvement in CMR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  15. The Influence of Cognitive Factors on Guesses About the Meaning of English Word Groups and Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Rong-jun; Li, Feng-zhi

    2008-01-01

    During the English language learning, it is common for Chinese students to have to guess the meaning of new word groups or phrases. The guessing ability may be related to the cognitive sameness and differences between Chinese and English people. In order to validate this hypothesis, the author carried out a research by having students doing test…

  16. The Costs and Benefits of Testing and Guessing on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Mark J.; Balota, David A.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether 2 types of interpolated tasks (i.e., retrieval-practice via free recall or guessing a missing critical item) improved final recognition for related and unrelated word lists relative to restudying or completing a filler task. Both retrieval-practice and guessing tasks improved correct recognition relative to restudy and filler…

  17. Children's Evaluation of the Certainty of Another Person's Inductive Inferences and Guesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2012-01-01

    In three studies, 5-10-year-old children and an adult comparison group judged another's certainty in making inductive inferences and guesses. Participants observed a puppet make strong inductions, weak inductions, and guesses. Participants either had no information about the correctness of the puppet's conclusion, knew that the puppet was correct,…

  18. The Costs and Benefits of Testing and Guessing on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Mark J.; Balota, David A.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether 2 types of interpolated tasks (i.e., retrieval-practice via free recall or guessing a missing critical item) improved final recognition for related and unrelated word lists relative to restudying or completing a filler task. Both retrieval-practice and guessing tasks improved correct recognition relative to restudy and filler…

  19. Computerized Classification Testing under the One-Parameter Logistic Response Model with Ability-Based Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Huang, Sheng-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The one-parameter logistic model with ability-based guessing (1PL-AG) has been recently developed to account for effect of ability on guessing behavior in multiple-choice items. In this study, the authors developed algorithms for computerized classification testing under the 1PL-AG and conducted a series of simulations to evaluate their…

  20. Children's Evaluation of the Certainty of Another Person's Inductive Inferences and Guesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.

    2012-01-01

    In three studies, 5-10-year-old children and an adult comparison group judged another's certainty in making inductive inferences and guesses. Participants observed a puppet make strong inductions, weak inductions, and guesses. Participants either had no information about the correctness of the puppet's conclusion, knew that the puppet was correct,…

  1. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Certainty of Deductive Inferences, Inductive Inferences, and Guesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.; Hecht, Mary; Bremer, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Children and adults rated their own certainty following inductive inferences, deductive inferences, and guesses. Beginning in kindergarten, participants rated deductions as more certain than weak inductions or guesses. Deductions were rated as more certain than strong inductions beginning in Grade 3, and fourth-grade children and adults…

  2. Children's and Adults' Judgments of the Certainty of Deductive Inferences, Inductive Inferences, and Guesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillow, Bradford H.; Pearson, RaeAnne M.; Hecht, Mary; Bremer, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Children and adults rated their own certainty following inductive inferences, deductive inferences, and guesses. Beginning in kindergarten, participants rated deductions as more certain than weak inductions or guesses. Deductions were rated as more certain than strong inductions beginning in Grade 3, and fourth-grade children and adults…

  3. Correction for Guessing in the Framework of the 3PL Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ting-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Guessing behavior is an important topic with regard to assessing proficiency on multiple choice tests, particularly for examinees at lower levels of proficiency due to greater the potential for systematic error or bias which that inflates observed test scores. Methods that incorporate a correction for guessing on high-stakes tests generally rely…

  4. Children's and adults' evaluation of the certainty of deductive inferences, inductive inferences, and guesses.

    PubMed

    Pillow, Bradford H

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments investigated kindergarten through fourth-grade children's and adults' (N = 128) ability to (1) evaluate the certainty of deductive inferences, inductive inferences, and guesses; and (2) explain the origins of inferential knowledge. When judging their own cognitive state, children in first grade and older rated deductive inferences as more certain than guesses; but when judging another person's knowledge, children did not distinguish valid inferences from invalid inferences and guesses until fourth grade. By third grade, children differentiated their own deductive inferences from inductive inferences and guesses, but only adults both differentiated deductive inferences from inductive inferences and differentiated inductive inferences from guesses. Children's recognition of their own inferences may contribute to the development of knowledge about cognitive processes, scientific reasoning, and a constructivist epistemology.

  5. Developmentally sensitive diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders in early childhood: the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV, the research diagnostic criteria-preschool age, and the diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood-revised.

    PubMed

    Egger, Helen L; Emde, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children, including the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. We briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Last, we review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children.

  6. Diagnostic performance of the ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and two diagnostic algorithms in an early arthritis clinic (REACH).

    PubMed

    Alves, Celina; Luime, Jolanda Jacoba; van Zeben, Derkjen; Huisman, Anne-Margriet; Weel, Angelique Elisabeth Adriana Maria; Barendregt, Pieternella Johanna; Hazes, Johanna Maria Wilhelmina

    2011-09-01

    An ACR/EULAR task force released new criteria to classify rheumatoid arthritis at an early stage. This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of these criteria and algorithms by van der Helm and Visser in REACH. Patients with symptoms ≤12 months from REACH were used. Algorithms were tested on discrimination, calibration and diagnostic accuracy of proposed cut-points. Two patient sets were defined to test robustness; undifferentiated arthritis (UA) (n=231) and all patients including those without synovitis (n=513). The outcomes evaluated were methotrexate use and persistent disease at 12 months. In UA patients all algorithms had good areas under the curve 0.79, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.83 for the ACR/EULAR criteria, 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87 for van der Helm and 0.83, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.88 for Visser. All calibrated well. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 and 0.66 for the ACR/EULAR criteria, 0.1 and 1.0 for van der Helm and 0.59 and 0.93 for Visser. Similar results were found in all patients indicating robustness. The ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria showed good diagnostic properties in an early arthritis cohort reflecting daily practice, as did the van der Helm and Visser algorithms. All were robust. To promote uniformity and comparability the ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria should be used in future diagnostic studies.

  7. 3D-DIR for early differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of NMO

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbing; Yan, Hong; Ding, Qixing; Mao, Cunhua; Shen, Yelong; Wang, Guangbin

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute or subacute lesion of demyelinating disease involving the optic nerve and spinal cord, and imaging techniques and their effects have been the focus of investigations. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of three-dimensional double inversion recovery (3D-DIR) in the early differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of NMO. Forty-eight patients with suspicious NMO were included into the study and underwent a combination of serum NMO-IgG quantitative detection and 3D-DIR examination. Forty cases (83.3%) of the suspicious cases were confirmed with NMO. The average time from onset to definite diagnosis was 3.5±0.6 days. The brain showed high T2W and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signals, involving 5.8±1.2 sites on average, distributed in the peripheral lateral ventricle, medulla, cerebral white matter, the third ventricle, peripheral aqueduct of sylvius, pons and diencephalon. The average T2W signal strength was 2.73±0.12. The signal intensity of DIR was significantly higher than that of T2W and FLAIR, and the difference was statistically significant. The optic nerve and chiasma showed a high FLAIR signal, with an average signal intensity of 2.13±0.14. The spinal cord showed swelling, necrosis and cavity lesion, involving the gray and white matter of the central site, transversely, with an average lesion length of 4.7±0.6 centrum. The relative signal intensity of DIR was significantly higher than that of T2W and FLAIR. Following treatment, the signal intensity of the brain, optic nerve, optic chiasma and spinal cord decreased significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, 3D-DIR has great application value in the early differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of NMO. PMID:27588068

  8. DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5: SELECTIVE REVIEWS FROM A NEW NOSOLOGY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Carter, Alice S; Cohen, Julie; Egger, Helen; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Keren, Miri; Lieberman, Alicia; Mulrooney, Kathleen; Oser, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-5; ZERO TO THREE) is scheduled to be published in 2016. The articles in this section are selective reviews that have been undertaken as part of the process of refining and updating the nosology. They provide the rationales for new disorders, for disorders that had not been included previously in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood: Revised Edition (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and for changes in how certain types of disorders are conceptualized.

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic utility of the ultrathin endoscope and the conventional endoscope in early gastric cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Suganuma, Takanori; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nego, Masami; Imada, Shin-Ichi; Imai, Mizuka; Yoshimoto, Kazuhito; Ueki, Nobue; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Uragami, Naoyuki; Tsuchida, Tomohiro; Fujisaki, Junko; Hoshino, Etsuo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2009-04-01

    Currently, transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy using an ultrathin endoscope is being widely carried out as a screening test for early gastric cancer. We compared the diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy with that of conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy in detecting 42 lesions of early gastric cancer that had a diameter of diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy was inadequate, especially in the case of lesions that were located in the upper third region of the stomach and variegated lesions. In conclusion, the diagnostic utility of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy might be lower than that of conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy in terms of screening for early gastric cancer. The disadvantages of ultrathin esophagogastroduodenoscopy should be taken carefully into consideration while examining lesions.

  10. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Vladimir V; Filonenko, E V; Telegina, L V; Boulgakova, N N; Smirnov, V V

    2002-11-30

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  11. Diagnostic Classification 0-3: Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, Washington, DC.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multi-disciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  12. Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood. Diagnostic Classification: 0-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Serena, Ed.

    The diagnostic framework presented in this manual seeks to address the need for a systematic, multidisciplinary, developmentally based approach to the classification of mental health and developmental difficulties in the first 4 years of life. An introduction discusses clinical approaches to assessment and diagnosis, gives an overview of the…

  13. Multimodal MRI for early diabetic mild cognitive impairment: study protocol of a prospective diagnostic trial.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2016-08-24

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediary state between normal cognition and dementia, often occurs during the prodromal diabetic stage, making early diagnosis and intervention of MCI very important. Latest neuroimaging techniques revealed some underlying microstructure alterations for diabetic MCI, from certain aspects. But there still lacks an integrated multimodal MRI system to detect early neuroimaging changes in diabetic MCI patients. Thus, we intended to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to detect early diabetic MCI that is determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In this study, healthy controls, prodromal diabetes and diabetes subjects (53 subjects/group) aged 40-60 years will be recruited from the physical examination center of Tangdu Hospital. The neuroimaging and psychometric measurements will be repeated at a 0.5 year-interval for 2.5 years' follow-up. The primary outcome measures are 1) Microstructural and functional alterations revealed with multimodal MRI scans including structure magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pCASL); 2) Cognition evaluation with MoCA. The second outcome measures are obesity, metabolic characteristics, lifestyle and quality of life. The study will provide evidence for the potential use of multimodal MRI techniques with psychometric evaluation in diagnosing MCI at prodromal diabetic stage so as to help decision making in early intervention and improve the prognosis of T2DM. This study has been registered to ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02420470 ) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015.

  14. Plasma presepsin level is an early diagnostic marker of severe febrile neutropenia in hematologic malignancy patients.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kaoru; Shigeta, Masayo; Okuno, Takafumi; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Kito, Katsuyuki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yamagishi, Yuka; Andoh, Akira; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2017-01-05

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common infectious complication in chemotherapy. The mortality of FN is higher in hematologic malignancy patients, and early diagnostic marker is needed. Presepsin is a prompt and specific marker for bacterial sepsis, but its efficacy in severe febrile neutropenia (FN) is not well confirmed. We tried to clarify whether it is a useful maker for early diagnosis of FN in patients during massive chemotherapy. We measured plasma presepsin levels every 2-3 day in FN cases and evaluated its change during the course of massive chemotherapy. The patients had hematologic malignancy or bone marrow failure, and in all cases, neutropenia was severe during the episode. The baseline levels, onset levels, increase rate at FN onset, and onset / baseline ratio were evaluated for their efficacy of early FN diagnosis. Eleven episodes of bacteremia (six gram negatives and five gram positives) in severe neutropenia were analyzed in detail. While plasma presepsin level was strongly associated to the CRP level (r = 0.61, p < 0.01), it was not associated with the absolute WBC count (r = -0.19, p = 0.19), absolute neutrophil count (r = -0.11, p = 0.41) or absolute monocyte count (r = -0.12, p = 0.40). The average of onset presepsin level was 638 ± 437 pg/mL and the cutoff value (314 pg/mL) has detected FN onset in 9 of 11 cases. The two cases undetected by presepsin were both Bacillus species bacteremia. Plasma presepsin level is a reliable marker of FN even in massive chemotherapy with very low white blood cell counts. Closer monitoring of this molecule could be a help for early diagnosis in FN. But bacteremia caused by Bacillus species was an exception in our study.

  15. [Identification of early diagnostic molecules in soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma japonicum by MASS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Song, Li-Jun; He, Wei; Yin, Xu-Ren; Qian, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yong-Liang; Cao, Guo-Qun; Ke, Xue-Dan; Yu, Chuan-Xin

    2012-04-01

    To identify the molecules of soluble egg antigen (SEA) for early diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The 2-DE of SEA was executed through first direction isoelectric focusing (IEF) in immobilized pH gradient gel 3-10 (IPG3-10) and second direction SDS-PAGE. The protein dots of SEA on the SDS-PAGE gel were transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. These nitrocellulose membranes were responded to the sera of healthy, sera of mice at 1 week, 2 weeks and 6 weeks post-infection respectively, then the membrane color was developed with the second antibody of HRP labeled goat anti -mouse IgG conjugate and substrate DAB. The protein dots recognized by sera of mice in the early stage of schistosome infection were identified by LC-MS/MS. After matching and analyzing the Western blot patterns of SEA responding to acute infection sera (1 week and 2 weeks post-infection), chronic infection sera (6 weeks post-infection) and healthy sera by PDQuest 1.0 software, two protein dots were found to be recognized by sera of mice at 1 week, 2 weeks and 6 weeks post-infection, and three protein dots were only recognized by the sera of mice at 6 weeks post-infection, no protein dot was recognized by healthy mouse sera. The data of LC-MS/MS showed that the two protein molecules recognized by the sera of mice with schistosome infection in the early stage were heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp78/Bip) respectively. The results of this study preliminarily indicate that HSP70 and Grp78 in SEA have early diagnostic value for S. japonicum infection.

  16. Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Koikkalainen, Juha; Niskanen, Eini; Zhang, Dong Ping; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC), 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI), 198 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification), 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI) with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD), 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI). Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

  17. Potential diagnostic role of diffusion tensor imaging in early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongwei; Xu, Feng; Gu, Rui; Han, Xinzuo; Wang, Anqing; Liu, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the potential diagnostic role of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the early stage of modified corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). A total of 20 beagles were randomly classified (1:1) into either an experimental group (LM), which were intramuscularly injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS) on three consecutive days, or control (CON) group, which were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI were performed at pre-induction and 8 and 12 weeks post-induction. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the range of interest in the femoral head were quantified using DTI. Proximal femora were examined for ONFH at 8 and 12 weeks. The results demonstrated that ONFH developed in four beagles at 8 weeks and in six beagles at 12 weeks, whereas no ONFH was detected in the CON group. No abnormalities were detected by MRI and DTI, and no mortality occurred. In beagles with ONFH in the LM group, the ADC values were 4.7±0.2×10−4 and 4.8±0.3×10−4 mm2/sec at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, which were significantly increased compared with the CON group (2.5±0.3×10−4 and 2.4±0.3×10−4 mm2, respectively) and the LM group without ONFH (2.6±0.4×10−4 and 2.4±0.3×10−4 mm2, respectively) (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that intramuscular injection of LPS and MPS may lead to early-stage ONFH in beagles. As such, the detection of locally elevated ADC values in the femoral head may aid in the early diagnosis of ONFH. PMID:27882161

  18. Urinary albumin and transferrin as early diagnostic markers of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, Hiroto; SOGAWA, Kazuyuki; SAKAGUCHI, Kazuko; ABE, Saori; SAGIZAKA, Wataru; MOCHIZUKI, Shunsuke; HORIE, Waka; WATANABE, Toshifumi; SHIBATA, Yui; SATOH, Mamoru; SANDA, Akihiro; NOMURA, Fumio; SUZUKI, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Feline renal diseases are increasingly noted in veterinary practice. It is important to diagnose and identify the pathological basis of renal dysfunction accurately at an early stage, but there are only a few reports on this area in clinical veterinary medicine. We investigated the efficacy of measurement of urinary albumin (u-Alb) and urinary transferrin (u-Tf) for early diagnosis using 5-µl urine samples collected noninvasively by catheterization from normal (IRIS stage I) cats and cats with stage I chronic kidney disease (CKD). The u-Alb levels in normal and stage I CKD cats were 6.0 ± 4.5 and 11.2 ± 8.4 mg/dl, respectively, and the u-Tf levels were 0.09 ± 0.42 and 0.52 ± 0.79 mg/dl, respectively. Based on ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of u-Alb and u-Tf were higher than those of the currently used biomarker, the plasma creatinine level. The sensitivity of u-Alb was higher than that of u-Tf, whereas the specificity of u-Tf was higher than that of u-Alb. The validity of the threshold albumin level (20 mg/dl) was confirmed by measurements using SDS-PAGE. Since leakage of u-Tf in urine precedes leakage of u-Alb, inclusion of u-Tf in biochemistry tests may be appropriate for IRIS staging as a diagnostic marker of early diagnosis of renal disorder in cats. PMID:25819688

  19. Automated initial guess in digital image correlation aided by Fourier-Mellin transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Yuejiao; Tian, Long

    2017-01-01

    The state-of-the-art digital image correlation (DIC) method using iterative spatial-domain cross correlation, e.g., the inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm, for full-field displacement mapping requires an initial guess of deformation, which should be sufficiently close to the true value to ensure a rapid and accurate convergence. Although various initial guess approaches have been proposed, automated, robust, and fast initial guess remains to be a challenging task, especially when large rotation occurs to the deformed images. An integrated scheme, which combines the Fourier-Mellin transform-based cross correlation (FMT-CC) for seed point initiation with a reliability-guided displacement tracking (RGDT) strategy for the remaining points, is proposed to provide accurate initial guess for DIC calculation, even in the presence of large rotations. By using FMT-CC algorithm, the initial guess of the seed point can be automatically and accurately determined between pairs of interrogation subsets with up to ±180 deg of rotation even in the presence of large translation. Then the initial guess of the rest of the calculation points can be accurately predicted by the robust RGDT scheme. The robustness and effectiveness of the present initial guess approach are verified by numerical simulation tests and real experiment.

  20. Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt

    2014-06-07

    A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Guessing and Its Interactions with Other Test Characteristics on Confidence Interval Procedures for Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of guessing on the point estimate of coefficient alpha has been studied in the literature, but the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test characteristics on the interval estimators for coefficient alpha has not been fully investigated. This study examined the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test…

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Guessing and Its Interactions with Other Test Characteristics on Confidence Interval Procedures for Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Insu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of guessing on the point estimate of coefficient alpha has been studied in the literature, but the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test characteristics on the interval estimators for coefficient alpha has not been fully investigated. This study examined the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test…

  3. A Diagnostic/Prescriptive Approach to Early Identification and Its Effects on First-Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerich, Robert L.

    After a review was made of the literature related to early identification of reading problems, a battery of diagnostic tests was constructed of receptive and expressive language elements assumed necessary for success in reading. After pilot work and revisions, the battery (PDQ) was administered to 916 entering kindergarten pupils by their…

  4. The Diagnostic Accuracy of a New Test of Early Nonword Repetition for Differentiating Late Talking and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of a new Test of Early Nonword Repetition (TENR) for 2-year-old children. Method: 232 British-English-speaking children aged 27 ([plus or minus] 3) months were assessed on 3 standardized tests (receptive and expressive vocabulary and visual processing) and a novel nonword repetition (NWR) test. Parents…

  5. The Diagnostic Accuracy of a New Test of Early Nonword Repetition for Differentiating Late Talking and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of a new Test of Early Nonword Repetition (TENR) for 2-year-old children. Method: 232 British-English-speaking children aged 27 ([plus or minus] 3) months were assessed on 3 standardized tests (receptive and expressive vocabulary and visual processing) and a novel nonword repetition (NWR) test. Parents…

  6. A Diagnostic/Prescriptive Approach to Early Identification and Its Effects on First-Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerich, Robert L.

    After a review was made of the literature related to early identification of reading problems, a battery of diagnostic tests was constructed of receptive and expressive language elements assumed necessary for success in reading. After pilot work and revisions, the battery (PDQ) was administered to 916 entering kindergarten pupils by their…

  7. Development and validation of a novel molecular biomarker diagnostic test for the early detection of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Allison; Thomas, Mervyn; Brandon, Roslyn A; Brandon, Richard B; Lipman, Jeffrey; Tang, Benjamin; McLean, Anthony; Pascoe, Ranald; Price, Gareth; Nguyen, Thu; Stone, Glenn; Venter, Deon

    2011-06-20

    Sepsis is a complex immunological response to infection characterized by early hyper-inflammation followed by severe and protracted immunosuppression, suggesting that a multi-marker approach has the greatest clinical utility for early detection, within a clinical environment focused on Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) differentiation. Pre-clinical research using an equine sepsis model identified a panel of gene expression biomarkers that define the early aberrant immune activation. Thus, the primary objective was to apply these gene expression biomarkers to distinguish patients with sepsis from those who had undergone major open surgery and had clinical outcomes consistent with systemic inflammation due to physical trauma and wound healing. This was a multi-centre, prospective clinical trial conducted across four tertiary critical care settings in Australia. Sepsis patients were recruited if they met the 1992 Consensus Statement criteria and had clinical evidence of systemic infection based on microbiology diagnoses (n = 27). Participants in the post-surgical (PS) group were recruited pre-operatively and blood samples collected within 24 hours following surgery (n = 38). Healthy controls (HC) included hospital staff with no known concurrent illnesses (n = 20). Each participant had minimally 5 ml of PAXgene blood collected for leucocyte RNA isolation and gene expression analyses. Affymetrix array and multiplex tandem (MT)-PCR studies were conducted to evaluate transcriptional profiles in circulating white blood cells applying a set of 42 molecular markers that had been identified a priori. A LogitBoost algorithm was used to create a machine learning diagnostic rule to predict sepsis outcomes. Based on preliminary microarray analyses comparing HC and sepsis groups, a panel of 42-gene expression markers were identified that represented key innate and adaptive immune function, cell cycling, WBC differentiation, extracellular remodelling and immune

  8. Interferon stimulated genes as peripheral diagnostic markers of early pregnancy in sheep: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Mauffré, V; Grimard, B; Eozenou, C; Inghels, S; Silva, L; Giraud-Delville, C; Capo, D; Sandra, O; Constant, F

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the diagnostic reliability of pregnancy detection using changes in interferon stimulated gene (ISG) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in circulating immune cells in ewes. Two different groups of ewes (an experimental group, experiment 1 and a farm group, experiment 2) were oestrus-synchronized and blood sampled on day 14 (D0=day of insemination in control animals, experiment 1) and day 15 (experiment 2). Real-time PCR were performed to evaluate the abundance of different ISG mRNAs. In the experimental group, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 29 ewes born and bred in experimental facilities were isolated using a Percoll gradient method. Gene expression for Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1) and Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mRNA were, respectively, 8.3-fold, 6.1-fold and 2.7-fold higher (P0.10) in CXCL10, STAT1, MX1, Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2 (MX2) and ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) mRNA expression were found between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. The ROC curves and the hierarchical classification generated from the real-time PCR data failed to discriminate between pregnant and non-pregnant animals. In this group of animals, our results show a strong variability in ISG expression patterns: 17% of animals identified as non-pregnant by the five tests were in fact pregnant, only 52% of pregnant animals had at least two positive results (two genes above threshold), whereas up to five positive results (five genes above threshold) were needed to avoid misclassification. In conclusion, this study illustrates the high variability in ISG expression levels in immune circulating cells during early pregnancy and, therefore, highlights the limits of using ISG expression levels in blood samples, collected on PAXgene® tubes on farms, for early pregnancy detection in sheep.

  9. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  10. [Alarming signs and symptoms in the early diagnostics of late onset Pompe disease: super omnia clinica].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, S S; Kurbatov, S A; Bredelev, V A; Kovalchuk, M O

    2015-01-01

    Pompe disease (PD) is a rare autosomal recessive muscle lysosomal glycogenosis caused by a deficiency of acid-α-glucosidase. There are two main forms of the disease: aggressive infantile PD started within the first year of life with a severe enzyme deficiency and multiorgan involvement, and late onset PD (LOPD) with progressive signs and symptoms including predominant proximal, axial muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency started at any time from 1 till 75 years and older. Usually due to physician's unawareness, most adults with PD are diagnosed with great delay. The typical features and early nonspecific signs in four patients, aged between 35 and 72 years, with confirmed LOPD are delineated and discussed in correspondence with the age of first signs, age development of muscle weakness, distribution and age of final diagnosis. The disorders for differential diagnosis and spectrum of conditions that expanded the possibility of PB are listed. The fluorometrically analyzed level of acid α-glucosidase from dried blood spots is considered to be the first choice diagnostic method for clinically suspected cases of LOPD.

  11. Optimized spectral analysis in magnetic resonance spectroscopy for early tumor diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkić, Karen; Belkić, Dževad

    2014-12-01

    Molecular imaging through magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide information about key metabolites. Conventional applications of MRS are hampered by data analysis via the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Most MRS studies for cancer detection have relied upon estimations of a mere handful or even a single composite metabolite, e.g. total choline. These have yielded incremental improvements in diagnostic accuracy. In vitro studies reveal richer metabolic information for identifying cancer, particularly in closely-overlapping resonances. Among these are phosphocholine, a marker of malignant transformation. The FFT cannot assess these congested spectral components. This can be done by the fast Pade transform (FPT), an advanced, high-resolution, quantification-equipped method, applied to MRS time signals as encoded from patients with breast cancers and other cancers, with benign pathology and with normal tissue, as illustrated herein for the latter. With realistic noise levels, the FPT accurately computes the metabolite concentrations, including phosphocholine, which completely underlies phosphoethanolamine. In sharp contrast, the FFT produces a rough envelope spectrum with only a few shortened, broadened peaks, and key metabolites altogether absent. The FPT clearly separates true metabolites from spurious resonances. The efficiency and high resolution of the FPT translates into shortened examination time of the patient. These capabilities strongly suggest that by applying the FPT to time signals encoded in vivo from breast cancer and other malignancies, MRS will fulfill its potential to become a clinically- reliable, cost-effective method for early cancer detection.

  12. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  13. Diagnostic tool for early detection of ovarian cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Molpus, Kelly; Brader, Kevin; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    With an overall survival rate of about 35 percent, ovarian cancer claims more than 13,000 women in the US each year. It is estimated that roughly 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer. Current screening techniques are challenged due to cost-effectiveness, variable false-positive results, and the asymptomatic nature of the early stages of ovarian cancer. The predominant screening method for ovarian cancers is transvaginal sonography (TVS). TVS is fairly accomplished at ovarian cancer detection, however it is inefficient in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. Accurate diagnosis of the ovarian tumor relies on exploratory laparotomy, thus increasing the cost and hazard of false- positive screening methods. Raman spectroscopy has been sued successfully as a diagnostic tool in several organ systems in vitro. These studies have shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to provide diagnosis of subtle changes in tissue pathology with high accuracy. Based on this success, we have developed a Raman spectroscopic system for application in the ovary. Using this system, the Raman signatures of normal and various types of non-normal human ovarian tissues were characterized in vitro. Raman spectra are being analyzed, and empirical as well as multivariate discriminatory algorithms developed. Based on the result of this study, a strategy for in vivo trials will be planned.

  14. Method for guessing the response of a physical system to an arbitrary input

    DOEpatents

    Wolpert, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Stacked generalization is used to minimize the generalization errors of one or more generalizers acting on a known set of input values and output values representing a physical manifestation and a transformation of that manifestation, e.g., hand-written characters to ASCII characters, spoken speech to computer command, etc. Stacked generalization acts to deduce the biases of the generalizer(s) with respect to a known learning set and then correct for those biases. This deduction proceeds by generalizing in a second space whose inputs are the guesses of the original generalizers when taught with part of the learning set and trying to guess the rest of it, and whose output is the correct guess. Stacked generalization can be used to combine multiple generalizers or to provide a correction to a guess from a single generalizer.

  15. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Coane, Jennifer H; Huff, Mark J; Hutchison, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks.

  16. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietrowska, Monika; Marczak, Lukasz; Polanska, Joanna; Behrendt, Katarzyna; Nowicka, Elzbieta; Walaszczyk, Anna; Chmura, Aleksandra; Deja, Regina; Stobiecki, Maciej; Polanski, Andrzej; Tarnawski, Rafal; Widlak, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints) detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women). Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions) that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity). Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0.0003) increased level of

  17. Test Review: The Psychological Corporation. (2003). "The Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment" (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Assessment Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews "The Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, Second Edition" (ERDA-Second Edition), a norm-referenced individually administered diagnostic measure of early reading skills as described in Reading First federal legislation (Part B, Subpart 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act as amended by the No Child Left…

  18. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation.

  19. Identification of early diagnostic antigens from major excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cui, Jing; Hu, Dan Dan; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2014-01-22

    The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) come mainly from the excretory granules of the stichosome and the cuticles (membrane proteins), are directly exposed to the host's immune system, and are the main target antigens, which induce the immune responses. Although the ES proteins are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, their main disadvantage are the false negative results during the early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with Western blot were used to screen the early diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The protein spots recognized by the sera from BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis at 18 days post-infection (dpi) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and putatively annotated using GO terms obtained from the InterPro databases. The ES proteins were analyzed by 2-DE, and more than 33 protein spots were detected with molecular weight varying from 40 to 60 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. When probed with the sera from infected mice at 18 dpi, 21 protein spots were recognized and then identified, and they were characterized to correlate with five different proteins of T. spiralis, including two serine proteases, one deoxyribonuclease (DNase) II, and two kinds of trypsin. The five proteins were functionally categorized into molecular function and biological process according to GO hierarchy. 2-DE and Western blot combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to screen the diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The five proteins of T. spiralis identified (two serine proteases, DNase II and two kinds of trypsin) might be the early specific diagnostic antigens of trichinellosis.

  20. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  1. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  2. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the hand as an early diagnostic method for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Rapoport, I E; Luchikhina, E L; Pogozheva, E Iu; Smirnov, A V; Karateev, D E

    2010-01-01

    To provide the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of changes revealed by the data of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hand and by those of X-ray study of the hand and foot in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). The study enrolled 110 patients (90 females, 20 males; age 49.6 +/- 12.2 years) examined in the framework of the RADICAL program at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The mean duration of the disease was 5.61 +/- 3.17 months. The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was established by the 1987 ARA criteria in all the patients on primary standard examination comprising X-ray study of the hand and feet and evaluation by the modified Sharp method. MRI of the hand was performed in all the patients, by assessing the result by the OMERACT-RAMRIS procedure. Destructive changes (cysts and erosions) evidenced by X-ray study were found in the wrists, metacarpophalangeal articulations (MPA), and foot in 7.27, 8.2, and 13.64%, respectively. MRI revealed destructions in the wrist, MPA, and metacarpal bone base in 50, 60, and 16.36%, respectively. Overall, erosions could be seen on X-ray films and MRI scans in 20.91 and 67.27%, respectively (p < 0.0001). MRI revealed bone edema (osteitis) in 46.4% of the patients; there was no difference in the detection rate between the extremities. MRI synovitis was found in 99% of the patients, the right hand being significantly more commonly affected. Detailed characterization of the changes revealed by MRI and Xray was obtained in patients with ERA. MRI detected erosions significantly more frequently than did X-ray (p < 0.001), which confirms the high value of low-field MRI diagnosis on primary examination of patients with ERA and supports the opinion that the results of this study should be included into the diagnostic criteria of ERA.

  3. Early diagnostic value of plasma PCT and BG assay for CRBSI after OLT.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Wang, Y; Shen, Z; Zhu, Z; Song, Y; Han, R

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) and (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) tests for early detection or exclusion of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Fifty-five patients with clinically suspected CRBSI were assessed after OLT in this prospective study. On the day of clinical suspicion of CRBSI, blood samples were obtained from central venous catheters and a peripheral vein for blood cultures and from a peripheral vein for PCT and BG tests. Plasma PCT and BG values were measured by using an immunoluminometric assay and Fungitell BG assay, respectively. No prisoners or organs from prisoners were used in this study. Twenty-five patients (45%) were diagnosed with CRBIS. Among them, 13 (52%) displayed gram-positive bacteriemia, 11 (44%) gram-negative bacteriemia, and 1 (4%) fungemia. The PCT values were higher in CRBSI than in non-CRBSI patients (P = .003). CRBSI patients did not show significant increases in plasma BG values compared with non-CRBSI subjects (P = .051). PCT and BG area under receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.840 and 0.486, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a PCT of ≥ 3.1 ng/mL for the diagnosis of CRBSI were 0.72, 0.87, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively. The figures for a BG of ≥ 83 pg/mL were 0.32, 0.90, 0.73, and 0.61, respectively. Among the 24 patients with bacteria infections, PCT was higher in patients with gram-negative than those with gram-positive bacterial infections (P = .022). We concluded that the PCT assay may be a useful rapid diagnostic adjunct for the diagnosis of suspected CRBSI in OLT patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  5. Sub-lethal Ocular Trauma (SLOT): Establishing a Standardized Blast Threshold to Facilitate Diagnostic, Early Treatment, and Recovery Studies for Blast Injuries to the Eye and Optic Nerve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Early Treatment , and Recovery Studies for Blast Injuries to the Eye and Optic Nerve PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Walt Gray, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...lethal Ocular Trauma (SLOT): Establishing a Standardized Blastr 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Threshold to Facilitate Diagnostic, Early Treatment , and Recovery...Establishing a Standardized Blast Threshold to Facilitate Diagnostic, early Treatment , and Recovery Studies for Blast Injurieσ to the Eye and Optic Nerve

  6. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  7. Label-free visualization of collagen in submucosa as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jingting; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Guan, Guoxian; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    The collagen signature in colorectal submucosa is changed due to remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the malignant process and plays an important role in noninvasive early detection of human colorectal cancer. In this work, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the changes of collagen in normal colorectal submucosa (NCS) and cancerous colorectal submucosa (CCS). What's more, the collagen content was quantitatively measured. It was found that in CCS the morphology of collagen becomes much looser and the collagen content is significantly reduced compared to NCS. These results suggest that MPM has the ability to provide collagen signature as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of colorectal cancer.

  8. [Rapid diagnostics of early phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants under protected cultivation by near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mao, Han-ping; Wang, Kai-liang; Chen, Zheng-wei; Huang, Xiao-wei

    2011-12-01

    The morphological symptom of phosphorus deficiency at early stage is similar to the appearance of leaf aging process in preliminary phase, so that visual diagnostics of phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants at early stage is practically impossible. Near infrared reflectance spectra contain information about differences in compositions of leaf tissues between phosphorus-deficient plants and healthy plants. In the present paper, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to provide diagnostic information on phosphorus deficiency of mini-cucumber plants grown under non-soil conditions. Near infrared spectra was collected from 90 leaves of mini-cucumber plants. Raw cucumber spectra was preprocessed by SNV and divided into 27 intervals. The top 10 principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of BP-ANN classifiers by principal component analysis (PCA) while the values of nutrient deficient were used as the output variables of BP-ANN and three layers BP-ANN discrimination model was built. The best experiment results were based on the top 3 principal components of No. 7 interval when the spectra was divided into 27 intervals and identification rates of the ANN model are 100% in both training set and the prediction set. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with BP-ANN can be efficiently utilized for rapid and early diagnostics of phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants.

  9. Cytokines are early diagnostic biomarkers of graft-versus-host disease in liver recipients.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xue-Qin; Chen, Xin-Hua; Sahebally, Zayd; Xu, Yu-Ning; Yin, Sheng-Yong; Wu, Li-Ming; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2017-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with high mortality. Early diagnosis is essential to start treatment and to improve outcomes. Because of the inflammatory nature, we hypothesis that cytokine profile of patients with GVHD may serve as diagnostic markers. The present study was to evaluate the role of cytokine profile in the diagnosis of GVHD. An immunoassay was used to detect 29 cytokines simultaneously in the serum; the measuring sensitivity of all cytokines was pg/mL. Healthy subjects undergoing annual routine physical examinations served as negative controls; 23 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had undergone liver transplantation (the LT group) comprised the test subjects. A total of 22 kidney recipients with biopsy-confirmed GVHD (the RT group) were included for comparison. HCC patients with radical surgery (the HCC group, n=22) served as positive control. The liver contents of the three cytokines, IL-2, IL-18, and IFN-gamma, were detected with immunohistochemistry. Serum granzyme B and perforin were measured by flow cytometry. Of the 29 cytokines, the levels of IL-2 and IL-18 were increased significantly in liver recipients with GVHD compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). The serum levels of these three cytokines in the healthy, HCC, LT, and RT groups were IL-2: 0.90+/-0.02, 4.14+/-0.61, 5.10+/-0.89, and 1.48+/-0.09 pg/mL; IL-18: 80.61+/-9.35, 109.51+/-10.93, 230.11+/-12.92, and 61.98+/-7.88 pg/mL; IFN-gamma: 24.06+/-3.88, 24.84+/-3.21, 40.37+/-5.88, and 15.33+/-4.72 pg/mL, respectively. Immunohistochemistry showed that these 3 cytokines expressions in the liver were parallel to the serum cytokine. After standard anti-GVHD treatment, the expressions of IL-2, IL-18, and IFN-gamma were decreased in the liver (P<0.05). Serum granzyme B and perforin were significantly increased in GVHD patients (P<0.05). IL-2, IL-18 and IFN-gamma were from liver and might serve as biomarkers for monitoring GVHD development and the effects of anti

  10. Diagnostic performance of conventional endoscopy in the identification of submucosal invasion by early gastric cancer: the "non-extension sign" as a simple diagnostic marker.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Takashi; Yao, Kenshi; Imamura, Kentaro; Kojima, Toshiki; Ohtsu, Kensei; Chuman, Kenta; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Rino; Iwashita, Akinori

    2017-03-01

    The ability to differentiate between mucosal (M) or microinvasive submucosal (SM1: depth of less than 500 µm) and invasive submucosal (SM2: depth of 500 µm or more) cancer is paramount when choosing the method of treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC). The "non-extension sign" relates to a localized increase in thickness and rigidity due to massive submucosal invasion by a cancer. The present study sought to assess the ability of conventional endoscopy (CE) to correctly identify SM2 cancer using only the non-extension sign. This is a retrospective study based on a prospectively collected database. EGCs had been diagnosed according to invasion depth as M-SM1 or SM2. In terms of the endoscopic diagnostic criterion, lesions positive for the non-extension sign were classified as SM2 cancers, while those negative for the non-extension sign were classified as M-SM1 cancers. Histopathological findings were used as the gold standard. We examined a total of 863 lesions from 704 patients, comprising 104 true-positive, 733 true-negative, 9 false-positive, and 17 false-negative lesions. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 87.0-97.0 %), a specificity of 97.7 % (95 % CI, 96.7-98.8 %), a positive predictive value of 85.9 % (95 % CI, 79.7-92.1 %), a negative predictive value of 98.8 % (95 % CI, 98.0-99.6 %), and a diagnostic accuracy of 96.9 % (95 % CI, 95.8-98.1 %). The non-extension sign may be useful for accurately determining the suitability of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment. Nevertheless, considering the limitations of retrospective analysis, a further prospective study is warranted to confirm the diagnostic reliability of the non-extension sign.

  11. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  12. Is a new perspective for definition and diagnostic criteria of fibromyalgia in early stage cancer patients necessary?

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2014-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a most common pain syndrome characterized by the presence of chronic widespread pain and tenderness with manual palpation. However there is no enough data about frequent of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with cancer. How often FM is being used in oncological practice and how we are managing this case by medical oncologists. Widespread pain index and symptom severity scale are not clear enough in patients with cancer when ACR-2010 diagnostic criteria for FM are considered. In conclusion, there is it may more prevalence of fibromyalgia in patients with cancer. For the diagnosis of fibromyalgia, be new diagnostic criteria for early-stage cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-Linear EMG Parameters for Differential and Early Diagnostics of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Meigal, Alexander Y; Rissanen, Saara M; Tarvainen, Mika P; Airaksinen, Olavi; Kankaanpää, Markku; Karjalainen, Pasi A

    2013-01-01

    The pre-clinical diagnostics is essential for management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although PD has been studied intensively in the last decades, the pre-clinical indicators of that motor disorder have yet to be established. Several approaches were proposed but the definitive method is still lacking. Here we report on the non-linear characteristics of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and tremor acceleration as a possible diagnostic tool, and, in prospective, as a predictor for PD. Following this approach we calculated such non-linear parameters of sEMG and accelerometer signal as correlation dimension, entropy, and determinism. We found that the non-linear parameters allowed discriminating some 85% of healthy controls from PD patients. Thus, this approach offers considerable potential for developing sEMG-based method for pre-clinical diagnostics of PD. However, non-linear parameters proved to be more reliable for the shaking form of PD, while diagnostics of the rigid form of PD using EMG remains an open question.

  14. Diagnostic Efficacy of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of 66 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xihong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The diagnostic efficacy of sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB) in early oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) still remains controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic value of SLNB in clinically neck-negative T1-2 OSCC. Methods A systematic literature search for relevant literature published up to September 11, 2016 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials, and the reference lists of eligible studies were examined. Data from different studies were pooled to estimate the summary sentinel lymph node(SLN) identification rate, sensitivity, negative predictive value. Summary receiver operator characteristic curve(SROC) was plotted and area under the SROC curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the overall diagnostic efficacy. Threshold effect was assessed with use of the spearman correlation coefficient. Between-study heterogeneity was tested using the Q tests and the I2 statistics. Subgroup analyses were conducted in view of the greater effect of different study characteristics on diagnostic efficacy of SLN. Deeks’ funnel plot asymmetry test was performed to evaluate publication bias. Sensitivity analysis was evaluated through omitting studies one by one and comparing the pooled results of random-effects model and fixed-effects model. All analyses were performed using Review Manager (version 5.3.5), Meta-DiSc (version 1.4), Comprehensive Meta Analysis (version 2.0) and STATA (version 12). Results 66 studies comprising 3566 patients with cT1-2N0 OSCC were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled SLN identification rate was 96.3%(95% CI: 95.3%-97.0%). The pooled sensitivity was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.85–0.89), pooled negative predictive value was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93–0.95), and AUC was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.97–0.99). Subgroup analyses indicated that SLN assessment with immunohistochemistry(IHC) achieved a significantly higher sensitivity than without IHC. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that

  15. The Clinical Utility and Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Identification of Early and Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current diagnostic strategies for detection of structural articular cartilage abnormalities, the earliest structural signs of osteoarthritis, often do not capture the condition until it is too far advanced for the most potential benefit of non-invasive interventions. Purpose Systematically review the literature relative to the following questions: (1) Is MRI a valid, sensitive, specific, accurate and reliable instrument to identify knee articular cartilage abnormalities compared to arthroscopy? (2) Is MRI a sensitive tool that can be utilized to identify early cartilage degeneration? Study Design Systematic Review Methods A systematic search was performed in November 2010 using PubMed MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), SPORTDiscus (from 1985), and SCOPUS (from 1996) databases. Results Fourteen level I and 13 level II studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and provided information related to diagnostic performance of MRI compared to arthroscopic evaluation. The diagnostic performance of MRI demonstrated a large range of sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies. The sensitivity for identifying articular cartilage abnormalities in the knee joint was reported between 26–96%. Specificity and accuracy was reported between 50–100% and 49–94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying early osteoarthritis were reported between 0–86%, 48–95%, and 5–94%, respectively. As a result of inconsistencies between imaging techniques and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed and it was difficult to fully synthesize the information to state firm conclusions about the diagnostic performance of MRI. Conclusions There is evidence in some MRI protocols that MRI is a relatively valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable clinical tool for identifying articular cartilage degeneration. Due to heterogeneity of MRI sequences it is not possible to make definitive

  16. Early Identification of Developmental Delays through Surveillance, Screening, and Diagnostic Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Erickson, Stephanie; Johnston, Mark; Bass, Tamicah; Lucinski, Loraine; Bleuel, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Developmental and behavioral problems in young children are prevalent in the United States. While young children experience an increased prevalence of such problems, a lack of early identification services continues to exist. Not only are early identification services required under American law, such as the Individual with Disabilities Education…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder in the DSM-5: Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Christiansz, Jessica A; Gray, Kylie M; Taffe, John; Tonge, Bruce J

    2016-06-01

    Changes to the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria raised concerns among parents and practitioners that the criteria may exclude some children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD). Few studies have examined DSM-5 sensitivity and specificity in children less than 5 years of age. This study evaluated 185 children aged 20-55 months with DSM-IV PDD or developmental delay. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) data was assigned to DSM-5 subdomains. Children displaying the required symptomatology were classified with DSM-5 ASD. DSM-IV clinical diagnoses were compared to DSM-5 classifications. Using combined ADI-R/ADOS information, sensitivity was .84 and specificity was .54. Comorbid behaviour and emotional problems were significantly lower in children with PDD that did not meet DSM-5 criteria.

  18. Correlates of Rapid-Guessing Behavior in Low-Stakes Testing: Implications for Test Development and Measurement Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Pastor, Dena A.; Kong, Xiaojing J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that rapid-guessing behavior can degrade the validity of test scores from low-stakes proficiency tests. This study examined, using hierarchical generalized linear modeling, examinee and item characteristics for predicting rapid-guessing behavior. Several item characteristics were found significant; items with more text…

  19. A Response to Holster and Lake Regarding Guessing and the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey; McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Stewart questioned vocabulary size estimation methods proposed by Beglar and Nation for the Vocabulary Size Test, further arguing Rasch mean square (MSQ) fit statistics cannot determine the proportion of random guesses contained in the average learner's raw score, because the average value will be near 1 by design. He illustrated this by…

  20. Awenen Niin? = Who Am I? 20 "Guess Who" Annual Rhymes in English & Ojibwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sally; And Others

    Designed in consultation with Ojibwe elders and tested with students of all ages, the illustrated bilingual booklet uses rhyming "guess who" English riddles with Ojibwe translations to teach about the special characteristics and centrality of 20 woodland animals in American Indian culture. Animals included are the bald eagle, bear,…

  1. Socio-Economic Differences in Guessing Strategy on a Binary-Choice Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wayne V.

    Guessing patterns differ between children of lower and middle class. It is hypothesized that lower class children, because they live in an environment affording fewer rewards for problem solving, come to expect a lower degree of success than their middle class peers. Eighty white kindergarten children attending urban public school were divided…

  2. The Effect of Guessing on Item Reliability under Answer-Until-Correct Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael; Moloney, James

    1978-01-01

    The answer-until-correct (AUC) procedure requires that examinees respond to a multi-choice item until they answer it correctly. Using a modified version of Horst's model for examinee behavior, this paper compares the effect of guessing on item reliability for the AUC procedure and the zero-one scoring procedure. (Author/CTM)

  3. A New Procedure for Detection of Students' Rapid Guessing Responses Using Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Hongwen; Rios, Joseph A.; Haberman, Shelby; Liu, Ou Lydia; Wang, Jing; Paek, Insu

    2016-01-01

    Unmotivated test takers using rapid guessing in item responses can affect validity studies and teacher and institution performance evaluation negatively, making it critical to identify these test takers. The authors propose a new nonparametric method for finding response-time thresholds for flagging item responses that result from rapid-guessing…

  4. Can Differential Rapid-Guessing Behavior Lead to Differential Item Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Wise, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation examined whether different rates of rapid guessing between groups could lead to detectable levels of differential item functioning (DIF) in situations where the item parameters were the same for both groups. Two simulation studies were designed to explore this possibility. The groups in Study 1 were simulated to reflect…

  5. Guessing versus Choosing--And Seeing versus Believing--In False Belief Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, Heidemarie; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Three- and 4-year-old children were tested using videos of puppets in various versions of a theory of mind change-of-location situation, in order to answer several questions about what children are doing when they pass false belief tests. To investigate whether children were guessing or confidently choosing their answer to the test question, a…

  6. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  7. Awenen Niin? = Who Am I? 20 "Guess Who" Annual Rhymes in English & Ojibwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sally; And Others

    Designed in consultation with Ojibwe elders and tested with students of all ages, the illustrated bilingual booklet uses rhyming "guess who" English riddles with Ojibwe translations to teach about the special characteristics and centrality of 20 woodland animals in American Indian culture. Animals included are the bald eagle, bear,…

  8. Mathematics in the Making: Mapping Verbal Discourse in Polya's "Let Us Teach Guessing" Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxaw, Mary P.; DeFranco, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed analysis of verbal discourse within an exemplary mathematics lesson--that is, George Polya teaching in the Mathematics Association of America [MAA] video classic, "Let Us Teach Guessing" (1966). The results of the analysis reveal an inductive model of teaching that represents recursive cycles rather than linear…

  9. Guess Who's Coming to Dinner: The Importance of Multiculturalism in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alicia L.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of multiculturalism in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina can be illustrated through a comparative view of the 1967 controversial, seminal, and Academy Award winning film, "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner". In the film, a multicultural cast starred in a groundbreaking tale of interracial marriage--then still illegal in some United…

  10. The Effect of Testing Condition on Word Guessing in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannamaa, Mairi; Kikas, Eve; Raidvee, Aire

    2008-01-01

    Elementary school children's word guessing is studied, and the results from individual and collective testing conditions are compared. The participants are 764 students from the second, third, and fourth grades (ages 8-11, 541 students from mainstream regular classes and 223 students with learning disabilities). About half of these students are…

  11. A Response to Holster and Lake Regarding Guessing and the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jeffrey; McLean, Stuart; Kramer, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Stewart questioned vocabulary size estimation methods proposed by Beglar and Nation for the Vocabulary Size Test, further arguing Rasch mean square (MSQ) fit statistics cannot determine the proportion of random guesses contained in the average learner's raw score, because the average value will be near 1 by design. He illustrated this by…

  12. Does Correction for Guessing Reduce Students' Performance on Multiple-Choice Examinations? Yes? No? Sometimes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Elder, Tracey J.; Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) examinations are becoming increasingly popular in higher education because they can be used effectively to assess breadth of knowledge in large cohorts of students. This present research investigated psychology students' performance on, and experiences of, MC examinations with and without correction for guessing. In Study 1,…

  13. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Bhola, Dennison S.; Wise, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study four methods were compared for setting a response time threshold that differentiates rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior when examinees are obliged to complete a low-stakes test. The four methods examined were: (1) a fixed threshold for all test items; (2) thresholds based on item surface features such as the amount of…

  14. Setting the Response Time Threshold Parameter to Differentiate Solution Behavior from Rapid-Guessing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaojing J.; Wise, Steven L.; Bhola, Dennison S.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared four methods for setting item response time thresholds to differentiate rapid-guessing behavior from solution behavior. Thresholds were either (a) common for all test items, (b) based on item surface features such as the amount of reading required, (c) based on visually inspecting response time frequency distributions, or (d)…

  15. Comparing Accuracy of Parameter Estimation Using IRT Models in the Presence of Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Qiong

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated how the accuracy of person ability and item difficulty parameter estimation varied across five IRT models with respect to the presence of guessing, targeting, and varied combinations of sample sizes and test lengths. The data were simulated with 50 replications under each of the 18 combined conditions. Five IRT models…

  16. Mathematics in the Making: Mapping Verbal Discourse in Polya's "Let Us Teach Guessing" Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxaw, Mary P.; DeFranco, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed analysis of verbal discourse within an exemplary mathematics lesson--that is, George Polya teaching in the Mathematics Association of America [MAA] video classic, "Let Us Teach Guessing" (1966). The results of the analysis reveal an inductive model of teaching that represents recursive cycles rather than linear…

  17. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Huff, Mark J.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks. PMID:26393390

  18. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-02-09

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  19. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  20. Chemiluminescence and Toluidine Blue as Diagnostic Tools for Detecting Early Stages of Oral Cancer: An invivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravikiran, A.; Samatha, Y.; Rao, Purna Chandra; Naik, Ravindra; Vashisht, Divy

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a need for development and use of diagnostic aids that help the dental specialist more readily identify and assess Potentially Malignant Epithelial Lesions (PMELs) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). This study was done to assess the value of two such commercially available tools: chemiluminescent light kit or ViziLite and 1% toluidine blue. Aims and Objectives: a) To detect epithelial dysplastic changes using chemiluminescene (commercially available as ViziLite) and toluidine blue staining in PMELs and OSCC patients and compare the results obtained with histopathological examination. b) To determine whether these techniques can be used to detect early epithelial dysplastic changes in clinically normal appearing oral mucosa of high risk (with habits) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients- 25 patients with PMELs, specifically oral leukoplakia, 10 patients with clinically diagnosed OSCC and 25 high risk patients with no clinically visible lesion, were screened with ViziLite and toluidine blue staining; followed by incisional biopsy. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of ViziLite were calculated to be 95.45% and 84.6% respectively. ViziLite detected early epithelial dysplastic changes in one high risk patient with clinically normal appearing oral mucosa. Sensitivity and specificity of toluidine blue were calculated to be 86.36% and 76.9% respectively. Conclusion: ViziLite was relatively reliable in screening PMELs compared to toluidine blue, and was a useful chair side diagnostic aid. PMID:24959513

  1. Early life exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans and risk of childhood cancer: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jill; Neta, Gila; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Ansell, Pat; Linet, Martha S; Ron, Elaine; Roman, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood cancer risks associated with exposure to diagnostic radiation and ultrasound scans in utero and in early infancy (age 0-100 days). Design Case-control study. Setting England and Wales. Participants 2690 childhood cancer cases and 4858 age, sex, and region matched controls from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS), born 1976-96. Main outcome measures Risk of all childhood cancer, leukaemia, lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours, measured by odds ratios. Results Logistic regression models conditioned on matching factors, with adjustment for maternal age and child’s birth weight, showed no evidence of increased risk of childhood cancer with in utero exposure to ultrasound scans. Some indication existed of a slight increase in risk after in utero exposure to x rays for all cancers (odds ratio 1.l4, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.45) and leukaemia (1.36, 0.91 to 2.02), but this was not statistically significant. Exposure to diagnostic x rays in early infancy (0-100 days) was associated with small, non-significant excess risks for all cancers and leukaemia, as well as increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio 5.14, 1.27 to 20.78) on the basis of small numbers. Conclusions Although the results for lymphoma need to be replicated, all of the findings indicate possible risks of cancer from radiation at doses lower than those associated with commonly used procedures such as computed tomography scans, suggesting the need for cautious use of diagnostic radiation imaging procedures to the abdomen/pelvis of the mother during pregnancy and in children at very young ages. PMID:21310791

  2. A comparison of early diagnostic utility of Alzheimer disease biomarkers in brain magnetic resonance and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Monge Argilés, J A; Blanco Cantó, M A; Leiva Salinas, C; Flors, L; Muñoz Ruiz, C; Sánchez Payá, J; Gasparini Berenguer, R; Leiva Santana, C

    2014-09-01

    The goals of this study were to compare the early diagnostic utility of Alzheimer disease biomarkers in the CSF with those in brain MRI in conditions found in our clinical practice, and to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of both techniques used together. Between 2008 and 2009, we included 30 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who were examined using 1.5 Tesla brain MRI and AD biomarker analysis in CSF. MRI studies were evaluated by 2 radiologists according to the Korf́s visual scale. CSF biomarkers were analysed using INNOTEST reagents for Aβ1-42, total-tau and phospho-tau181p. We evaluated clinical changes 2 years after inclusion. By 2 years after inclusion, 15 of the original 30 patients (50%) had developed AD (NINCDS-ADRA criteria). The predictive utility of AD biomarkers in CSF (RR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.7; P<.01) was greater than that of MRI (RR 1.5; 95% CI 95%, 0.7-3.4; P<.2); using both techniques together yielded a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 100%. Normal results on both complementary tests ruled out progression to AD (100%) within 2 years of inclusion. Our results show that the diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers in CSF is higher than that of biomarkers in MRI. Combined use of both techniques is highly accurate for either early diagnosis or exclusion of AD in patients with MCI. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    PubMed

    Farid, Karim; Hong, Young T; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Fryer, Tim D; Menon, David K; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1-6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs <55yrs. There was a significant decrease in early-phase atrophy-corrected whole-cortex SUV relative to cerebellar vermis (SUVR) in the CAA vs age-matched HC group. None of the age-matched controls fell below the lower 95% confidence limit derived from the young HCs, while 6/11 CAA patients did (sensitivity = 55%, specificity = 100%). Combining both early- and late-phase 11C-PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD.

  4. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    PubMed Central

    Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Menon, David K.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1–6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs <55yrs. There was a significant decrease in early-phase atrophy-corrected whole-cortex SUV relative to cerebellar vermis (SUVR) in the CAA vs age-matched HC group. None of the age-matched controls fell below the lower 95% confidence limit derived from the young HCs, while 6/11 CAA patients did (sensitivity = 55%, specificity = 100%). Combining both early- and late-phase 11C-PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD. PMID:26439113

  5. Aurora A's Functions During Mitotic Exit: The Guess Who Game.

    PubMed

    Reboutier, David; Benaud, Christelle; Prigent, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, the knowledge of Aurora A kinase functions during mitosis was limited to pre-metaphase events, particularly centrosome maturation, G2/M transition, and mitotic spindle assembly. However, an involvement of Aurora A in post-metaphase events was also suspected, but not clearly demonstrated due to the technical difficulty to perform the appropriate experiments. Recent developments of both an analog-specific version of Aurora A and small molecule inhibitors have led to the first demonstration that Aurora A is required for the early steps of cytokinesis. As in pre-metaphase, Aurora A plays diverse functions during anaphase, essentially participating in astral microtubules dynamics and central spindle assembly and functioning. The present review describes the experimental systems used to decipher new functions of Aurora A during late mitosis and situate these functions into the context of cytokinesis mechanisms.

  6. [Biochemical predictors of anthracyclin and trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity in early diagnostics of cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Słowik, Agnieszka; Lelakowska-Pieła, Maria; Konduracka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The treatment based on athracyclines and trastuzumab may lead to heart failure in oncological setting. Assessment of the heart function is conducted using radiological examinations, especially echocardiography. Biochemical diagnostics enables to depict clinically silent cardiac dysfunction at an earlier stage. Biomarkers that showed to be the most promising in predicting the development of deterioration of systolic and/or diastolic function in course of chemotherapy are troponins and NT-pro-BNP. However, no cut-off point had been yet determined, especially in terms of cardiotoxicity induced by oncological therapy. Biomarkers serum level may be dependent on many conditions, mostly comorbidities, what makes the interpretation of the results difficult. Trials involving mikro RNA particles, which depict the molecular level of the pathological changes, also those involved in the development of cardiomyopathy, are underway. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms as early manifestations of emergent dementia: Provisional diagnostic criteria for mild behavioral impairment.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Smith, Eric E; Geda, Yonas; Sultzer, David; Brodaty, Henry; Smith, Gwenn; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Sweet, Rob; Miller, David; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2016-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in dementia and in predementia syndromes such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NPS in MCI confer a greater risk for conversion to dementia in comparison to MCI patients without NPS. NPS in older adults with normal cognition also confers a greater risk of cognitive decline in comparison to older adults without NPS. Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) has been proposed as a diagnostic construct aimed to identify patients with an increased risk of developing dementia, but who may or may not have cognitive symptoms. We propose criteria that include MCI in the MBI framework, in contrast to prior definitions of MBI. Although MBI and MCI can co-occur, we suggest that they are different and that both portend a higher risk of dementia. These MBI criteria extend the previous literature in this area and will serve as a template for validation of the MBI construct from epidemiologic, neurobiological, treatment, and prevention perspectives.

  8. Neuropsychiatric symptoms as early manifestations of emergent dementia: Provisional diagnostic criteria for mild behavioral impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zahinoor; Smith, Eric E.; Geda, Yonas; Sultzer, David; Brodaty, Henry; Smith, Gwenn; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Sweet, Rob; Miller, David; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in dementia and in predementia syndromes such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). NPS in MCI confer a greater risk for conversion to dementia in comparison to MCI patients without NPS. NPS in older adults with normal cognition also confers a greater risk of cognitive decline in comparison to older adults without NPS. Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) has been proposed as a diagnostic construct aimed to identify patients with an increased risk of developing dementia, but who may or may not have cognitive symptoms. We propose criteria that include MCI in the MBI framework, in contrast to prior definitions of MBI. Although MBI and MCI can co-occur, we suggest that they are different and that both portend a higher risk of dementia. These MBI criteria extend the previous literature in this area and will serve as a template for validation of the MBI construct from epidemiologic, neurobiological, treatment, and prevention perspectives. PMID:26096665

  9. Limited diagnostic value of procalcitonin in early diagnosis of adult onset Still’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward because of fever lasting for 14 days. On admission to the hospital the patient was in a generally good state, without any abnormalities on physical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnostic imaging comprising chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography showed no abnormalities. During the hospitalization, there occurred episodes of fever with skin rash and musculoskeletal pain of the lower limbs. Procalcitonin concentrations continued to increase. C-reactive protein concentrations decreased during therapy, starting from 191 mg/l. On the 23rd day of the disease, edema of the feet, ankles, and knees appeared. On the basis of the clinical picture and after excluding other possible causes of fever, the patient was diagnosed with adult onset Still’s disease. The procalcitonin concentration was normalized after 5 days of steroid therapy. The patient was discharged under ambulatory rheumatologic supervision. PMID:27826176

  10. Limited diagnostic value of procalcitonin in early diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old female patient was referred to the Infectious Diseases Ward because of fever lasting for 14 days. On admission to the hospital the patient was in a generally good state, without any abnormalities on physical examination. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnostic imaging comprising chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasonography, and echocardiography showed no abnormalities. During the hospitalization, there occurred episodes of fever with skin rash and musculoskeletal pain of the lower limbs. Procalcitonin concentrations continued to increase. C-reactive protein concentrations decreased during therapy, starting from 191 mg/l. On the 23(rd) day of the disease, edema of the feet, ankles, and knees appeared. On the basis of the clinical picture and after excluding other possible causes of fever, the patient was diagnosed with adult onset Still's disease. The procalcitonin concentration was normalized after 5 days of steroid therapy. The patient was discharged under ambulatory rheumatologic supervision.

  11. Diagnostic reference levels in low- and middle-income countries: early "ALARAm" bells?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Steven; Groenewald, Willem A; Pitcher, Richard D

    2017-04-01

    Background In 1996 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introduced diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a quality assurance tool for radiation dose optimization. While many countries have published DRLs, available data are largely from high-income countries. There is arguably a greater need for DRLs in low- and middle-income-countries (LMICs), where imaging equipment may be older and trained imaging technicians are scarce. To date, there has been no critical analysis of the published work on DRLs in LMICs. Such work is important to evaluate data deficiencies and stimulate future quality assurance initiatives. Purpose To review the published work on DRLs in LMICs and to critically analyze the comprehensiveness of available data. Material and Methods Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science database searches were conducted for English-language articles published between 1996 and 2015 documenting DRLs for diagnostic imaging in LMICs. Retrieved articles were analyzed and classified by geographical region, country of origin, contributing author, year of publication, imaging modality, body part, and patient age. Results Fifty-three articles reported DRLs for 28 of 135 LMICs (21%), reflecting data from 26/104 (25%) middle-income countries and 2/31 (6%) low-income countries. General radiography (n = 26, 49%) and computerized tomography (n = 17, 32%) data were most commonly reported. Pediatric DRLs (n = 14, 26%) constituted approximately one-quarter of published work. Conclusion Published DRL data are deficient in the majority of LMICs, with the paucity most striking in low-income countries. DRL initiatives are required in LMICs to enhance dose optimization.

  12. Early-onset psychoses: comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in 3 diagnostic groups.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Maria Giuseppina; Fratta, Anna Lisa; Pintor, Manuela; Zuddas, Alessandro; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2009-09-01

    A comparison of clinical features and adult outcome in adolescents with three types of psychotic disorders: schizophrenic (SPh), schizoaffective (SA) and bipolar with psychotic features (BPP). Subjects (n = 41) were finally diagnosed (DSM-IV criteria) with SPh (n = 17), SA (n = 11) or BPP (n = 13). Clinical evaluation took place at onset and at a 3-year follow-up in all 41, and at least after 5 years in 36 patients. Symptoms were rated on the basis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), integrating items from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). The Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) and the Global Assessment Scale (GAF) were used to evaluate global functioning. Significant differences in clinical features were found in the three diagnostic groups as regards several parameters, some present on one and not on other rating scales, underscoring the insufficiency of a single scale for accurate analysis of the features of a psychotic disorder. At onset, a comparison using the simple presence/absence of symptoms showed scant differences among groups, while differences emerged if symptom severity was included in the comparison. Functioning at 3- and 5-year follow-ups showed a significantly better outcome in the BPP group and more substantial deterioration, with similar evolution, in the SPh and SA groups. The integration of several rating scales differentiated between diagnostic groups more effectively. The similar adult functioning outcome in the SPh and SA groups showed how difficult it is to clearly separate these two disorders.

  13. Combining simple patient-oriented tests with state-of-the-art molecular diagnostics for early diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2015-06-01

    Early diagnosis is an important strategy to improve outcomes from cancer. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is an example of a cancer that presents late, with very poor outcomes, and for which the presence of the precursor lesion Barrett's oesophagus provides the opportunity to intervene at an early stage. In this review, I describe the challenges in the field and the work that we have done to devise a conceptually novel approach to early diagnosis, using a cell collection device (Cytosponge), coupled with molecular assays. This is a personal perspective in which I also describe the career pathway that led me into academic gastroenterology, and the rewards and challenges of translational research in molecular diagnostics. There are fantastic opportunities for clinicians wishing to pursue academic medicine, because it is a time when massive strides are being made in a whole number of areas; for example: imaging, sequencing technology and targeted therapies. Clinicians who can straddle the laboratory and the clinic are essential, to maximise the progress that can be made for the benefit of patients.

  14. Diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Sun, Xue-Hui; Liu, Feng-Li; Huang, Sheng-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis and management improve the outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study explored the application of high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of early RA. Thirty-nine patients (20 males and 19 females) diagnosed with early RA were enrolled in the study. A total of 1,248 positions, including 858 hand joints and 390 tendons, were examined by high-frequency US and MRI to evaluate the presence of bone erosion, bone marrow edema (BME), synovial proliferation, joint effusion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. The imaging results of the above abnormalities, detected by US, were compared with those identified using MRI. No statistically significant overall changes were observed between high-frequency US and MRI in detecting bone erosion [44 (5.1%) vs. 35 (4.1%), respectively; P>0.05], tendinitis [18 (4.6%) vs. 14 (1.5%), respectively; P>0.05] and tendon sheath edema [37 (9.5%) vs. 30 (7.7%), respectively; P>0.05]. Significant differences were observed between high-frequency US and MRI with regards to the detection of synovial proliferation [132 (15.4%) vs. 66 (7.7%), respectively; P<0.05] and joint effusion [89 (10.4%) vs. 52 (6.1%), respectively; P<0.05]. In addition, significant differences were identified between the detection of BME using MRI compared with high-frequency US (5.5 vs. 0%, respectively; P<0.05). MRI and high-frequency US of the dominant hand and wrist joints were comparably sensitive to bone erosion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. However, MRI was more sensitive in detecting bone marrow edema in early RA, while US was more sensitive in the evaluation of joint effusion and synovial proliferation. In conclusion, US and MRI are promising for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory activity in patients with RA. PMID:27882112

  15. Diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Sun, Xue-Hui; Liu, Feng-Li; Huang, Sheng-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Early diagnosis and management improve the outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study explored the application of high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of early RA. Thirty-nine patients (20 males and 19 females) diagnosed with early RA were enrolled in the study. A total of 1,248 positions, including 858 hand joints and 390 tendons, were examined by high-frequency US and MRI to evaluate the presence of bone erosion, bone marrow edema (BME), synovial proliferation, joint effusion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. The imaging results of the above abnormalities, detected by US, were compared with those identified using MRI. No statistically significant overall changes were observed between high-frequency US and MRI in detecting bone erosion [44 (5.1%) vs. 35 (4.1%), respectively; P>0.05], tendinitis [18 (4.6%) vs. 14 (1.5%), respectively; P>0.05] and tendon sheath edema [37 (9.5%) vs. 30 (7.7%), respectively; P>0.05]. Significant differences were observed between high-frequency US and MRI with regards to the detection of synovial proliferation [132 (15.4%) vs. 66 (7.7%), respectively; P<0.05] and joint effusion [89 (10.4%) vs. 52 (6.1%), respectively; P<0.05]. In addition, significant differences were identified between the detection of BME using MRI compared with high-frequency US (5.5 vs. 0%, respectively; P<0.05). MRI and high-frequency US of the dominant hand and wrist joints were comparably sensitive to bone erosion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. However, MRI was more sensitive in detecting bone marrow edema in early RA, while US was more sensitive in the evaluation of joint effusion and synovial proliferation. In conclusion, US and MRI are promising for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory activity in patients with RA.

  16. Diagnostic challenges of early Lyme disease: Lessons from a community case series

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne infection in North America, is increasingly reported. When the characteristic rash, erythema migrans, is not recognized and treated, delayed manifestations of disseminated infection may occur. The accuracy of diagnosis and treatment of early Lyme disease in the community is unknown. Methods A retrospective, consecutive case series of 165 patients presenting for possible early Lyme disease between August 1, 2002 and August 1, 2007 to a community-based Lyme referral practice in Maryland. All patients had acute symptoms of less than or equal to 12 weeks duration. Patients were categorized according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and data were collected on presenting history, physical findings, laboratory serology, prior diagnoses and prior treatments. Results The majority (61%) of patients in this case series were diagnosed with early Lyme disease. Of those diagnosed with early Lyme disease, 13% did not present with erythema migrans; of those not presenting with a rash, 54% had been previously misdiagnosed. Among those with a rash, the diagnosis of erythema migrans was initially missed in 23% of patients whose rash was subsequently confirmed. Of all patients previously misdiagnosed, 41% had received initial antibiotics likely to be ineffective against Lyme disease. Conclusion For community physicians practicing in high-risk geographic areas, the diagnosis of Lyme disease remains a challenge. Failure to recognize erythema migrans or alternatively, viral-like presentations without a rash, can lead to missed or delayed diagnosis of Lyme disease, ineffective antibiotic treatment, and the potential for late manifestations. PMID:19486523

  17. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Ability of Optical Enhancement System in Early Gastric Cancer Demarcation

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Misato; Ogawa, Ryo; Sasaki, Sho; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Goto, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Suenaga, Masato

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the utility of optical enhancement (OE) in early gastric cancer demarcation. Twenty lesions of early gastric cancer were examined by PENTAX endoscopy system with OE-1 and OE-2 functions. The areas of tumor demarcation identified by 12 evaluators (6 novice and 6 experienced) were compared to the corresponding correct areas determined by postoperative histopathology findings. The misdiagnosed scores that were the sums of false-positive and false-negative areas were compared. Color of one hundred pixels from the inside of the cancerous area and the outside of the cancerous area was expressed as three-dimensional RGB component vectors. The mean vectors and covariance matrixes were calculated and the Mahalanobis distance, indicative of color differences between two areas, was tested. Comparisons of the misdiagnosed score revealed that OE-1 was preferred over WL-1 for gastric cancer demarcation for all 12 evaluators (p = 0.008) and in novice evaluators (p = 0.026). OE-2 was not significantly different from WL-2 in all cases. OE-1 images gave significantly larger Mahalanobis distances, indicative of color differences, than WL-1 images (p = 0.002). It was demonstrated that the OE Mode 1 has a significant advantage over the white light mode in demarcation of early gastric cancer. PMID:27774101

  18. [Early lung disease in infants with cystic fibrosis. Diagnostic tools and possible therapeutic pathways].

    PubMed

    Reix, P; Matecki, S; Fayon, M

    2016-02-01

    The lungs of infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) have been considered to be normal at birth. However, recent data indicates that this is unlikely to be true in most cases. Animal CF-models developed in the early 2000s have shown that constitutional airway narrowing may be present at birth, and is associated with both functional and structural abnormalities. Longitudinal birth cohort studies have shown that 25 % of CF infants followed in specialized centers, while being asymptomatic, showed decreased lung function at 3months of age. Air trapping was present in 68 % and bronchiectasis in 28 % of patients at the same age. The presence of neutrophil elastase in the bronchoalveolar lavage at 3months of age tripled the risk of bronchiectasis at the age of 3years. Currently available tools such as infant pulmonary function tests (both the jacket and multiple breath washout) as well as high-resolution volume controlled chest-computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging will facilitate early intervention trials in the very near future. The role of such tools for the routine follow-up of patients, and the ability of early therapeutic interventions to alter the natural history of CF-lung disease should soon be established. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of the Plasma Metabolomics as Early Diagnostic Markers between Biliary Atresia and Neonatal Hepatitis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongying; Han, Lianshu; He, Zhengjuan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    Early detection is the most effective way to improve the clinical outcome of biliary atresia (BA). Emerging metabolomics provides a powerful platform for discovering novel biomarkers and biochemical pathways to improve early diagnosis. The aim of this study is to find the potential biomarkers to distinguish BA from neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) by using a metabolomics method. We comprehensively analyzed the serum metabolites in a total of 124 blood samples from patients with BA or neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) and from normal individuals using advanced metabolomic approaches, and found that the levels of glutarylcarnitine (C5DC) significantly increased in the BA group while the levels of threonine (Thr) significantly rose in the NHS group comparing with the other groups. The levels of glutamic acid (Glu) in the BA group were significantly elevated compared to those in the NHS group, but still lower than the hyperbilirubinemia and normal controls. The levels of propionyl carnitine (C3), isovaleryl carnitine (C5) and glutamine (Gln) were reduced in the BA group compared to those in the NHS group, but still higher than the hyperbilirubinemia and normal controls. This study demonstrates the possibility of metabolomics as non-invasive biomarkers for the early detection of BA and also provides new insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms for BA. PMID:24416443

  20. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  1. Different PS application methods for laserlight-induced fluorescence diagnostics (LIFD) of dysplasia and early cancer of the colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlen, Johannes; Pressmar, Jochen; Stern, Josef; Boehm, J.; Sinn, Hanns-joerg; Born, I. A.; Holle, R.; Herfarth, Christian

    1997-12-01

    Conventional diagnostics fail to trace dysplasias and early cancers of the colon. By means of Laserlight Induced Fluorescence Diagnostics (LIFD) macroscopically not visible malignant tumors and dysplasias of the colon can be detected. The main side effect of systemically applicated photosensitizers is a general photosensibilization of the organism which provokes an increased photosensitivity of the body. Local application of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) reduces systemic uptake without impairment of the quality of investigation. Colorectal cancer in male wistar rats was induced by weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 1,2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH) for 17 weeks. After s.c. DMH injection the wistar rats (n equals 25) developed in average 5.6 macroscopically visible colon carcinomas. 80% of these tumor were detected by LIFD after photosensibilization with Photofrin II intravenously (i.v.), 29% after application of mTHPC (i.v.), 13% after ALA (i.v.), 20% after intraperitoneal application of ALA (i.p.) and 57% after local application of ALA in the colon. LIFD is a capable method for the detection of macroscopically not visible dysplasias and colon carcinomas of the rat induced by DMH. The applied PS and the method of application influences the detection of carcinomas and dysplasias. Systemic photosensibilization of the whole organism can be avoided by the local application of ALA without limiting the quality of investigation.

  2. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir V.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Boulgakova, N. N.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci.

  3. Potential of advanced photoplethysmography sensing for noninvasive vascular diagnostics and early screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Kukulis, Indulis; Fridenberga, Eva; Venckus, Girts

    2002-06-01

    Advanced sensor device for shape analysis of the tissue- reflected mean single period photoplethysmography (SPPPG) signals has been designed and clinically tested. The SPPPG signal shape reveals individual features of the patient's cardio-vascular state. Clinical studies of several patient groups (e.g. diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis obliterans, Raynaud's syndrome) made possible to specify components of the SPPPG signal that are sensitive to the corresponding organic or functional pathologies. Comparison of the right and left arm finger SPPPG signal shapes, for instance, appears to be efficient tool for early screening of unilateral atherosclerosis obliterans.

  4. In their own words: early childhood asthma and parents' experiences of the diagnostic process.

    PubMed

    Finnvold, Jon Erik

    2010-06-01

    This paper explores the experiences of parents of asthmatic children in the period leading up to their child receiving a formal medical diagnosis. To what extent did the parents face difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis? How did they describe their encounters with the healthcare professionals? In particular, did parents portray themselves as passive and dominated or active and participating during the prediagnosis phase? In-depth interviews with individuals and participants in a focus group exposed the prediagnosis phase as a distinct and memorable phase of the disease, often recalled as a period of frustration and uncertainty. Results show that instead of accepting the authority of the professional, parents eventually acquire knowledge elsewhere about the diagnosis and the healthcare system, and act according to that knowledge. As a fundamental uncertainty appears involved in the diagnostic process, parents dealing with this uncertainty use a number of strategies to gain control of the process of alleviating their child's disease. The paper discusses the status of the information that the researcher obtained from parents. Lay narratives cannot be treated as simple reports of an external reality. As the parental role is rooted in normative conceptions about what constitutes 'responsible parenthood', information given to the observer may therefore be influenced by the informants' concern with their appearance as moral persons or adequate parents. Although a research strategy based on one-sided interviews has limitations, using parents as a source of information offers a rare glimpse into the realities of patient-physician encounters.

  5. Summary and early findings from a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Kinney, Kristopher L.; Shockman, Christine

    2003-04-02

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This paper discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The underlying principle of this project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform. Such data are an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. This project has demonstrated that the IMDS is valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. One objective of this project was to evaluate the costs and benefits of the IMDS. The system cost about $0.70 per square foot, which includes the design, hardware, software, and installation, which is about 30% less than the previous IMDS in San Francisco. A number of operational problems have been identified with the IMDS.

  6. Vaginal examination does not improve diagnostic accuracy in early pregnancy bleeding.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Chris

    2013-06-01

    The study aims to determine if a vaginal examination improves diagnostic accuracy when assessing women who present to the ED with vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. One hundred and thirty-five women with first trimester bleeding were randomised to have a vaginal examination (n = 61) or not (n = 74). They were given a provisional diagnosis, and then a final diagnosis after ultrasound, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and gynaecological follow up. The provisional diagnosis was considered accurate if it matched the final diagnosis. The provisional and final diagnoses matched in a little over half of the cases, and there was no statistical difference between the two groups (χ(2) = 0.005, P = 0.94). In a stable patient presenting to the ED with first trimester bleeding, clinical diagnosis is highly inaccurate and is not improved by vaginal examination. Routine vaginal examination is not necessary as part of the initial patient assessment. © 2013 The Author. EMA © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Laser diagnostic technology for early detection of pathogen infestation in orange fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Lai, Antonella; Piccinelli, Delinda; Puiu, Adriana

    2010-11-01

    Due to an increased expectation of food products that respect high quality and safety standards, there is a need for the growth of accurate, fast, objective and non-destructive technologies for quality determination of food and agricultural products. For this purpose, a diagnostic system based on laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was developed at ENEA Frascati Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory (Italy). In the design of the photoacoustic detector, particular emphasis was placed in attaining a high sensitivity in detecting ethylene (ET) down to sub-parts per billion level (minimum detectable concentration 0.2 ppb). This was required due to the necessity to monitor and follow up ET production at a single fruit scale. ET is normally synthesised in very low amounts by healthy citrus fruits; however stress conditions such as pathogen attack may induce a substantial increase in the synthesised ET. In the present paper, the comparison between the ET emitted by healthy oranges ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) cv Navel and by Phytophthora citrophthora infested Navel orange fruits are reported. The obtained results show a well evident increase in ET emission from the infested fruit with respect to the healthy one, even 24 h after the inoculation with the pathogen; at that time the tissue necrosis was not yet visible, and the fruit was also not yet damaged. The possibility to perform a real time non-destructive detection of ET traces makes the LPAS a powerful tool for monitoring the healthy state of the citrus fruits.

  8. Optimization of Low-Thrust Trajectories Using an Indirect Shooting Method without Guesses of Initial Costates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hou-yuan; Zhao, Chang-yin

    2012-10-01

    According to the optimal control theory, the optimal control problem of the low-thrust tra jectory can be converted into a solution of nonlinear two- point boundary-value problem (TPBVP). To solve the TPBVP, the repeated random guesses for the initial costate variables and iterative computations are needed. In order to enhance the convergence of the iterations, we select an appropriate performance index, and then linearize the equations of the TPBVP around a Keplerian orbit. For multi-revolution transfers, instead of the multi- revolution Lambert tra jectory, multiple segmented Keplerian arcs are used to ensure the effectiveness of the linearization. The method is totally automatic with multiple iterations. With this method, we can get the results within 3 ˜ 5 iterations, and the random guess of the initial costates is unnecessary. Finally by the iterative optimization of the performance index, a better control strategy approaching to the bang-bang control is obtained.

  9. The guessing of mine safety signs meaning: effects of user factors and cognitive sign features.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Ng, Annie W Y

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of user factors and cognitive sign features on the guessability of mine safety signs. Sixty naïve participants guessed the meanings and rated the cognitive sign features of 42 Mainland Chinese mine safety signs. The results showed that some user factors were significant predictors of guessing performance, while some were not. As expected, guessability scores varied significantly with the cognitive sign features of familiarity, concreteness, simplicity, meaningfulness and semantic closeness. The findings emphasize the need to create awareness of the importance of mine safety and promote understanding of mine safety sign meanings amongst people in their work environments. To design more user-friendly mine safety signs, industrial designers should develop and evaluate signs with consideration of the significant user factors and the 5 sign features tested here.

  10. Optical combo sensor for early diagnostics within the built and natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James

    2008-04-01

    Within the Built and Natural Environment early analysis of structural conditions, air quality monitoring, pollutant and irritant detection by optical sensor technology is advancing. Combining the two technologies, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Surface Enhance Raman Scattering (SERS) into a single instrument is the aim of the research, with a resulting fingerprint library of measurands being produced. The combo sensor will provide unique fingerprints of the measurands, monitoring conditions, such as the carbonation of concrete, microbial and chemical loading and ageing effects of structures, along with their severity. Analysed conditions will be crossed referenced with the library allowing smart feedback for timely maintenance. SPR and SERS work on the principle that specific surfaces, when excited by a light source passing through a glass prism, will change their rate and scale of vibration when their surface holds or is contaminated by particular a component, in this case the monitoring condition analyte. A ligand, which binds specifically to the monitoring analyte, is held in specialised surface coatings which are applied to the surface of the sensor glass or prism itself. The sensing takes place through detection of differences in the original laser light source and reflections/refractions of that light source from the glass prisms. The advances and obstacles of early research are discussed along with initial results and findings being examined in the development a new optical combo sensor.

  11. Procalcitonin as an early diagnostic and monitoring tool in urosepsis following percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji; Li, Qianwei; Fu, Weihua; Ren, Jing; Song, Siji; Deng, Guoxian; Yao, Jiwei; Wang, Yongquan; Li, Weibing; Yan, Junan

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker for diagnosis and differentiation of without urosepsis, urosepsis, severe urosepsis, and uroseptic shock following PCNL and the ability of PCT to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in patients with urosepsis. From June 2012 to August 2013, 267 patients undergoing PCNL for renal calculi, and who fulfilled selection criteria, were recruited into our study. The patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. One of selection criteria was the scores of PCT and WBC were collected at operative day, postoperative day one, day two, day three, day five and day seven. The area under the ROC curve for the prediction of urosepsis was 0.960 for PCT and 0.634 for WBC. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with uroseptic shock versus severe urosepsis versus urosepsis versus without urosepsis following PCNL. WBC values showed no significant difference between patients with urosepsis, severe urosepsis and uroseptic shock following PCNL. With time, in patients with successfully treated urosepsis following PCNL, the PCT concentrations significantly declined and kept decreasing from postoperative day two to postoperative day seven and the WBC scores showed no significant change over the first postoperative 2 days and were decreased only after postoperative day three. PCT appears to be a useful early marker to diagnosis and discriminate urosepsis, severe urosepsis and uroseptic shock following PCNL. Daily PCT measurements may be a valuable tool in monitoring the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in urosepsis following PCNL.

  12. Advantages, limitations, and diagnostic accuracy of photoscreeners in early detection of amblyopia: a review

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Irene; Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Martin, Raul; de Juan, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia detection is important to ensure proper visual development and avoid permanent decrease of visual acuity. This condition does not produce symptoms, so it is difficult to diagnose if a vision problem actually exists. However, because amblyopia treatment is limited by age, early diagnosis is of paramount relevance. Traditional vision screening (conducted in <3 years) is related with difficulty in getting cooperation from a subject to conduct the eye exam, so accurate objective methods to improve amblyopia detection are necessary. Handheld devices used for photoscreening or autorefraction could offer advantages to improve amblyopia screening because they reduce exploration time to just few seconds, no subject collaboration is needed, and they provide objective information. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main functions and clinical applicability of commercially available devices for early detection of amblyopia and to describe their differences, advantages, and limitations. Although the studies reviewed are heterogeneous (due to wide differences in referral criteria, use of different risk factors, different types of samples studied, etc), these devices provide objective measures in a quick and objective way with a simple outcome report: retest, pass, or refer. However, due to major limitations, these devices are not recommended, and their use in clinical practice is limited. PMID:27555744

  13. [Diagnostics and early rehabilitation of biomechanical gait abnormalities in the patients with cerebral hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    Dobrushina, O R; Snopkov, P S; Sidiakina, I V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various systems for the analysis of gait biomechanics during the early period of rehabilitation in the patients presenting with central hemiparesis. 30 patients with central hemiparesis were examined with the use of the "Raptor-12", motion capture system, "TRUST-M" gyroscopic system, "Balance Master platform, and "Diasled" tension registration system. The severity of paresis estimated based on the 6-score scale varied from 2 to 4.5 (mean 3.7 +/- 0.9), the Ashworth spasticity index was 1.1 +/- 1.2. The clinically significant phenomena (low goniogram amplitude, gate asymmetry etc.) responsible for the poor mobility (the Rivermead index below 13) were revealed during the analysis using "Raptor-12" and "TRUST-M". These abnormalities served as the targets for the rehabilitative treatment. The analysis of walking parameters on the "Balance Master" platform provided no clinically significant results. The "Diasled" data made it possible to evaluate the treatment-induced improvement in the patients' conditions but had no influence on decision-making as regards the choice of the rehabilitation strategy. The analysis of gait biomechanics with goniometry provides a basis for differential early rehabilitation of walking disorders in the patients suffering central hemoparesis.

  14. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  15. Guess Again (and Again and Again): Measuring Password Strength by Simulating Password-Cracking Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-31

    in the last 2-3 years to become about one third of Turkers [31]. American Turkers are about two-thirds women, while Indian Turkers are similarly... productiv - ity [1,20,36,37,40]. Further, Florêncio and Herley found that the strictest policies are often used not by organizations with high-value...guesses a modern computer could try in one day). How- ever, as the computational power of potential adversaries increases, it becomes important to

  16. Accuracy of nelson and best guess formulae in estimation of weights in nigerian children population.

    PubMed

    Omisanjo, A O; Orimadegun, A E; Akinbami, F O

    2014-12-01

    An alternative method of estimating children's weights, when direct weighing is impracticable is the use of age-based formulae but these formulae have not been validated in Nigeria. This study compares estimated weights from two commonly used formulae against actual weights of healthy children. Children aged 1 month to 11 years (n= 2754) were randomly selected in Ibadan, Nigeria using a two-stage sampling procedure. Weight of each child, measured using a standard calibrated scale and determined using Nelson and Best Guess formulae, were compared. Demographic characteristics were also obtained. Mean percentage error (MPE) was calculated and stratified by gender and age. Bland-Altman graphs were used for visual assessment of the agreement between estimated and measured weights. Clinically acceptable MPE was defined as ±5%. Descriptive statistics and paired t test were used to examine the data. Statistical level of significance was set at p = 0.05. There were 1349 males and 1405 females. Nelson and Best Guess formulae overestimated weight by 10.11% (95% CI: -20.44, 40.65) in infants. For 1-5 years group, Nelson formula marginally underestimated weight by -0.59% (95% CI: -5.16, 3.96) while it overestimated weight by 9.87% (95% CI: 24.89, 44.63) in 6-11 years. Best Guess formulae consistently overestimated weight in all age groups with the MPE ranging from 10.11 to 30.67%. Nelson and Best Guess formulae are inaccurate for weight estimations in infants and children aged 6-11 years. Development of new formulae or modifications should be considered for use in the Nigerian children population.

  17. The Development and Validation of the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS).

    PubMed

    Phan, Mikki H; Keebler, Joseph R; Chaparro, Barbara S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preferences. However, quality feedback is difficult to obtain from playtesting sessions without a quality gaming assessment tool. There is a need for a psychometrically validated and comprehensive gaming scale that is appropriate for playtesting and game evaluation purposes. The process of developing and validating this new scale followed current best practices of scale development and validation. As a result, a mixed-method design that consisted of item pool generation, expert review, questionnaire pilot study, exploratory factor analysis (N = 629), and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 729) was implemented. A new instrument measuring video game satisfaction, called the Game User Experience Satisfaction Scale (GUESS), with nine subscales emerged. The GUESS was demonstrated to have content validity, internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity. The GUESS was developed and validated based on the assessments of over 450 unique video game titles across many popular genres. Thus, it can be applied across many types of video games in the industry both as a way to assess what aspects of a game contribute to user satisfaction and as a tool to aid in debriefing users on their gaming experience. The GUESS can be administered to evaluate user satisfaction of different types of video games by a variety of users. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  18. An Early Diagnostics of the Geoeffectiveness of Solar Eruptions from Photospheric Magnetic Flux Observations: The Transition from SOHO to SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, I. M.; Grechnev, V. V.; Abunin, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In our previous articles (Chertok et al. in Solar Phys. 282, 175, 2013; Chertok et al. in Solar Phys. 290, 627, 2015), we presented a preliminary tool for the early diagnostics of the geoeffectiveness of solar eruptions based on the estimate of the total unsigned line-of-sight photospheric magnetic flux in accompanying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) arcades and dimmings. This tool was based on the analysis of eruptions observed during 1996 - 2005 with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Empirical relationships were obtained to estimate the probable importance of upcoming space weather disturbances caused by an eruption, which just occurred, without data on the associated coronal mass ejections. In particular, it was possible to estimate the intensity of a non-recurrent geomagnetic storm (GMS) and Forbush decrease (FD), as well as their onset and peak times. After 2010 - 2011, data on solar eruptions are obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We use relatively short intervals of overlapping EIT-AIA and MDI-HMI detailed observations, and additionally, a number of large eruptions over the next five years with the 12-hour cadence EIT images to adapt the SOHO diagnostic tool to SDO data. We show that the adopted brightness thresholds select practically the same areas of arcades and dimmings from the EIT 195 Å and AIA 193 Å image, with a cross-calibration factor of 3.6 - 5.8 (5.0 - 8.2) for the AIA exposure time of 2.0 s (2.9 s). We also find that for the same photospheric areas, the MDI line-of-sight magnetic flux systematically exceeds the HMI flux by a factor of 1.4. Based on these results, the empirical diagnostic relationships obtained from SOHO data are adjusted to SDO instruments. Examples of a post-diagnostics based on SDO data are presented. As before, the

  19. Early diagnostic of concurrent gear degradation processes progressing under time-varying loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilbault, Raynald; Lalonde, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    This study develops a gear diagnostic procedure for the detection of multi- and concurrent degradation processes evolving under time-varying loads. Instead of a conventional comparison between a descriptor and an alarm level, this procedure bases its detection strategy on a descriptor evolution tracking; a lasting descriptor increase denotes the presence of ongoing degradation mechanisms. The procedure works from time domain residual signals prepared in the frequency domain, and accepts any gear conditions as reference signature. To extract the load fluctuation repercussions, the procedure integrates a scaling factor. The investigation first examines a simplification assuming a linear connection between the load and the dynamic response amplitudes. However, while generally valuable, the precision losses associated with large load variations may mask the contribution of tiny flaws. To better reflect the real non-linear relation, the paper reformulates the scaling factor; a power law with an exponent value of 0.85 produces noticeable improvements of the load effect extraction. To reduce the consequences of remaining oscillations, the procedure also includes a filtering phase. During the validation program, a synthetic wear progression assuming a commensurate relation between the wear depth and friction assured controlled evolutions of the surface degradation influence, whereas the fillet crack growth remained entirely determined by the operation conditions. Globally, the tested conditions attest that the final strategy provides accurate monitoring of coexisting isolated damages and general surface deterioration, and that its tracking-detection capacities are unaffected by severe time variations of external loads. The procedure promptly detects the presence of evolving abnormal phenomena. The tests show that the descriptor curve shapes virtually describe the constant wear progression superimposed on the crack length evolution. At the tooth fracture, the mean values of

  20. The effect of diagnostic amniocentesis and its complications on early spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    Tara, Fatemeh; Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh; Moeindarbari, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The occurrence of early abortion after amniocentesis is a serious problem in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, and it is always important to discover the factors influencing this phenomenon. The incidence rate has been reported in different studies, even up to about 10%. So far, no studies have been conducted in Iran on the effect of amniocentesis and related complications on early abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amniocentesis and relevant complications on the incidence of early abortion in pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. Methods This cohort study was conducted between March 2014 and March 2016 on pregnant candidates for amniocentesis referred to the perinatology clinic at Ommol-Banin Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Amniocentesis was performed for all patients with about 20–30cc in the same manner by a perinatologist. Maternal blood group, causes of amniocentesis, amniotic fluid profile (liquid color), status of inserting the needle through the placenta during amniocentesis, amniotic fluid leakage, and bleeding after amniocentesis were considered as exposure factors, and spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis until the end of the 20th week of pregnancy was taken as a consequence. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 20 via t-test and chi-square. Relative risk (RR) was calculated to determine the causal relationship of exposure with the consequences of spontaneous abortion during the first week after amniocentesis. Results This study was performed on 1000 pregnant women with mean age of 33.4±6.0 years (minimum 16, maximum 48 years). The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion after amniocentesis was obtained 1%. There was no association among causes of amniocentesis, maternal blood group, maternal underlying diseases, history of diseases associated with pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Based on the chi-square test, a significant statistical relationship was found between amniotic fluid leakage and

  1. Circumscriptive Theorem Prover based on Integration of Guess and Check Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakaki, Toshiko; Tomita, Kazuo

    Recently we proposed a method of compiling prioritized circumscription into answer set programming. However, its encoding has the guess and check structure, where the candidates are generated by the guess program and the check is expressed by the inconsistency of the check program. In this paper, we present another method which compiles prioritized circumscription into a single general disjunctive program (GDP) by means of integration of the guess and check programs. The answer sets of the transformed GDP yield models of a given circumscription by emulating the inconsistency of the check program using integrity constraints. Thanks to our integration technique, the circumscriptive theorem prover to evaluate a query with respect to prioritized circumscription is easily established by expressing the inconsistency check in a single GDP. Our experimental results show that the performance of the tool we have implemented using our new method has not only improved remarkably, i.e. reduction of runtime as compared to our previous method, but has also exceeded that of the recently developed software tool, prio_circ2dlp, for prioritized circumscription as far as our experiments are concerned.

  2. Diagnostic Methods of Ectopic Pregnancy and Early Pregnancy Loss: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, A.; Meyberg-Solomayer, G.; Juhasz-Böss, I.; Joukhadar, R.; Takacs, Z.; Solomayer, E.-F.; Baum, S.; Radosa, J.; Mavrova, L.; Herr, D.

    2016-01-01

    This review article presents recent evidence on early pregnancy loss and ectopic pregnancy. In the light of recent evidence, the β-hCG discriminatory zone may be extended in clinically stable cases without evidence of bleeding. A possible cut-off is 4300 mIU/ml, which corresponds to when a sonographer should detect an intrauterine pregnancy. Embryonic demise can be confirmed when a transvaginal ultrasound finding shows no heartbeat in an embryo of more than 7 mm CRL, no embryo in a gestational sac having a mean sac diameter of more than 25 mm, or no appearance of an embryo within 7–10 days after the primary examination. These are considered definitive signs of embryonic demise. Suggestive signs of embryonic demise require closer monitoring of the pregnancy. PMID:27134292

  3. Semaphorin 3A Is a New Early Diagnostic Biomarker of Experimental and Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Devarajan, Prasad; Krawczeski, Catherine D.; Looney, Stephen; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Background Semaphorin 3A is a secreted protein that regulates cell motility and attachment in axon guidance, vascular growth, immune cell regulation and tumor progression. However, nothing is known about its role in kidney pathophysiology. Here, we determined whether semaphorin3A is induced after acute kidney injury (AKI) and whether urinary semaphorin 3A can predict AKI in humans undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods and Principal Findings In animals, semaphorin 3A is localized in distal tubules of the kidney and excretion increased within 3 hr after reperfusion of the kidney whereas serum creatinine was significantly raised at 24 hr. In humans, using serum creatinine, AKI was detected on average only 48 hours after CPB. In contrast, urine semaphorin increased at 2 hours after CPB, peaked at 6 hours (2596±591 pg/mg creatinine), and was no longer significantly elevated 12 hours after CPB. The predictive power of semaphorin 3A as demonstrated by area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for diagnosis of AKI at 2, 6, and 12 hours after CPB was 0.88, 0.81, and 0.74, respectively. The 2-hour urine semaphorin measurement strongly correlated with duration and severity of AKI, as well as length of hospital stay. Adjusting for CPB time and gender, the 2-hour semaphorin remained an independent predictor of AKI, with an odds ratio of 2.19. Conclusion Our results suggest that semaphorin 3A is an early, predictive biomarker in experimental and pediatric AKI, and may allow for the reliable early diagnosis and prognosis of AKI after CPB, much before the rise in serum creatinine. PMID:23469280

  4. Case report of early aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty in monostotic paget disease, a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Crego-Vita, Diana; Aedo-Martín, Daniel; Sánchez-Pérez, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of bone is a localised chronic osteopathy which produces bone deformities, bone hypervascularity, structural weakness and altered joint biomechanics. Although radiological diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone is usually straightforward, monostotic cases may potentially raise specific problems which require invasive and expensive procedures such as bone biopsies. The pelvis and upper femur are frequently affected, resulting in disabling hip disease that may require total hip arthroplasty. We report a case of Paget disease of bone in an 84-year-old woman, which was initially identified as avascular necrosis of the hip, reason for which she underwent total hip arthroplasty. During follow up, the patient complained about hip pain and in a few months she was not able to walk because of an early loosening with bone destruction. Radiological and laboratory exams were carried out with normal results except for alkaline phosphatase (AP). After treatment with biphosphonates hip pain relieved but hip reconstruction was not possible. In this paper we present an early aseptic loosening of hip arthroplasty due to monostotic Paget's disease of bone, a rare ethiology of loosening which poses particular diagnostic difficulties prompting an excessive use of excisional biopsies.

  5. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%–15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP. PMID:28067818

  6. [Early diagnostics, prophylaxis, and non-pharmacological treatment of the preclinical stages of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Bykov, A T; Chernyshev, A V; Vartazaryan, M A; Lobastov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death in most countries, including Russia. Non-pharmacological-modalities intended for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease including hypertension and atherosclerosis currently acquire special significance. The objective of the present*study was to develop a system of methods for early diagnostics, prevention and treatment of the preclinical stages of atherosclerosis and hypertension Another objective was to estimate the effectiveness of these methods. A total of 310 patients at risk-of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis or with pre-clinical stages of these conditions were examined during a two year observation period. The system of early diagnosis and non-pharmacological primary prevention of cardiovascular disease was developed and evaluated using climatotherapeutic and physiotherapeutic methods in combination with and personalized dietary therapy, hypoxic-hypercapnic factors and educational programs. The study has demonstrated that the proposed system allowed to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce cardiovascular morbidity. The patients of the main group experienced the reduction of abdominal obesity and blood pressure along with the improvement of the blood lipid profile and other indicators. These parameters remained unaltered in the patients comprising the control group. In the main group, the incidence of coronary heart disease and hypertension was 62.5% and 81.25% lower respectively than in the control group.

  7. Clinical utility of microRNA-378 as early diagnostic biomarker of human cancers: a meta-analysis of diagnostic test

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhan-Zhan; Shen, Liang-Fang; Li, Yan-Yan; Chen, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of miR-378 for detecting human cancers. Systematic electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang from the inception to January 15, 2016. We used the bivariate mixed effects models to estimate the combined sensitivity, specificity, PLRs (positive likelihood ratios), NLR (negative likelihood ratios), DORs (diagnostic odds ratios) and their 95% CI (confidence intervals) for assessing the diagnostic performance of miR-378 for cancers. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total number of 1172 cancer patients and 809 health controls. The overall estimated sensitivity and specificity were 0.75 and 0.74. The pooled PLR was 2.91, NLR was 0.34, DOR was 8.50, and AUC (Area Under the Curve) was 0.81. The subgroup analyses suggested that AUC for plasma-based is higher than serum-based. The overall diagnostic values of miR-378 in the present meta-analyses are moderate accurate for human cancers; The source of specimen has an effect on the diagnostic accuracy. The diagnostic value of serum-based was higher than that of plasma-based. PMID:27448977

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the early years: diagnostic issues and educational relevance.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeler, Sandra; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    In this study we discuss implications of the dimensional versus categorical approach in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and focus on the educational relevance of an early assessment. In a longitudinal study in a German community sample we investigated the development of ADHD symptoms from kindergarten until the end of Grade 1 as well as the association to pre-academic skills and later academic performance. At three time points in kindergarten, children (original sample N = 793; Mn age 4 years 10 months) were assessed in regard to school-relevant precursors of reading, spelling and mathematical abilities; ADHD symptoms were rated by parents and preschool teachers. In elementary school academic performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was measured with standardized tests. Results show that stability of ADHD symptoms during preschool was high considering the dimensional approach, whereas in regard to the categorical classification many children crossing the cut-off point at one measurement point did not do so at the next assessment. Furthermore, preschool ADHD symptoms were negatively correlated with all school-relevant precursors. This was more pronounced for symptoms of inattention than for hyperactivity/impulsivity. Observing later development, preschool ADHD symptoms predicted academic achievement in mathematics and reading at the end of Grade 1 even after individual differences in nonverbal intelligence and specific precursors had been statistically controlled for.

  9. From myeloma precursor disease to multiple myeloma: new diagnostic concepts and opportunities for early intervention.

    PubMed

    Landgren, Ola; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-03-15

    Since monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was first described more than 30 years ago, the definition of the entity has evolved. Today, 3 distinct clinical MGUS subtypes have been defined: non-immunoglobulin M (IgM; IgG or IgA) MGUS, IgM MGUS, and light chain MGUS. Each clinical MGUS subtype is characterized by unique intermediate stages and progression events. Although we now have strong evidence that multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by a precursor state at the molecular level, there is urgent need to better understand mechanisms that regulate transformation from precursor to full-blown multiple myeloma. In the future, if such knowledge was available, it would allow clinicians to define high-risk and low-risk precursor patients for a more tailored clinical management. Also, it would provide insights on the individual patient's disease biology, which, in turn, can be used for targeted and more individualized treatment strategies. On the basis of current clinical guidelines, patients diagnosed with MGUS and smoldering myeloma should not be treated outside of clinical trials. In the near future, it seems reasonable to believe that high-risk precursor patients will likely become candidates for early treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss novel insights from recent studies and propose future directions of relevance for clinical management and research studies.

  10. In vivo diagnostics of early abiotic plant stress response via Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Narangerel; Ariunbold, Gombojav O; Gorman, Connor; Alkahtani, Masfer H; Borrego, Eli J; Bohlmeyer, Dwight; Hemmer, Philip; Kolomiets, Michael V; Yuan, Joshua S; Scully, Marlan O

    2017-03-28

    Development of a phenotyping platform capable of noninvasive biochemical sensing could offer researchers, breeders, and producers a tool for precise response detection. In particular, the ability to measure plant stress in vivo responses is becoming increasingly important. In this work, a Raman spectroscopic technique is developed for high-throughput stress phenotyping of plants. We show the early (within 48 h) in vivo detection of plant stress responses. Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) plants were subjected to four common abiotic stress conditions individually: high soil salinity, drought, chilling exposure, and light saturation. Plants were examined poststress induction in vivo, and changes in the concentration levels of the reactive oxygen-scavenging pigments were observed by Raman microscopic and remote spectroscopic systems. The molecular concentration changes were further validated by commonly accepted chemical extraction (destructive) methods. Raman spectroscopy also allows simultaneous interrogation of various pigments in plants. For example, we found a unique negative correlation in concentration levels of anthocyanins and carotenoids, which clearly indicates that plant stress response is fine-tuned to protect against stress-induced damages. This precision spectroscopic technique holds promise for the future development of high-throughput screening for plant phenotyping and the quantification of biologically or commercially relevant molecules, such as antioxidants and pigments.

  11. A five-year model to assess the early cost-effectiveness of new diagnostic tests in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Buisman, Leander R; Luime, Jolanda J; Oppe, Mark; Hazes, Johanna M W; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2016-06-10

    There is a lack of information about the sensitivity, specificity and costs new diagnostic tests should have to improve early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the early cost-effectiveness of various new diagnostic test strategies in the workup of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) at risk of having RA. A decision tree followed by a patient-level state transition model, using data from published literature, cohorts and trials, was used to evaluate diagnostic test strategies. Alternative tests were assessed as add-on to or replacement of the ACR/EULAR 2010 RA classification criteria for all patients and for intermediate-risk patients. Tests included B-cell gene expression (sensitivity 0.60, specificity 0.90, costs €150), MRI (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.60, costs €756), IL-6 serum level (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.53, costs €50) and genetic assay (sensitivity 0.40, specificity 0.85, costs €750). Patients with IA at risk of RA were followed for 5 years using a societal perspective. Guideline treatment was assumed using tight controlled treatment based on DAS28; if patients had a DAS28 >3.2 at 12 months or later patients could be eligible for starting biological drugs. The outcome was expressed in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (€2014 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) and headroom. The B-cell test was the least expensive strategy when used as an add-on and as replacement in intermediate-risk patients, making it the dominant strategy, as it has better health outcomes and lower costs. As add-on for all patients, the B-cell test was also the most cost-effective test strategy. When using a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000 per QALY gained, the IL-6 and MRI strategies were not cost-effective, except as replacement. A genetic assay was not cost-effective in any strategy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed that the B-cell test was consistently superior in all strategies. When

  12. The diagnostic approach to monogenic very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Holm H; Schwerd, Tobias; Koletzko, Sibylle; Shah, Neil; Kammermeier, Jochen; Elkadri, Abdul; Ouahed, Jodie; Wilson, David C; Travis, Simon P; Turner, Dan; Klein, Christoph; Snapper, Scott B; Muise, Aleixo M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with a diverse spectrum of rare genetic disorders can present with inflammatory bowel disease (monogenic IBD). Patients with these disorders often develop symptoms during infancy or early childhood, along with endoscopic or histological features of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or IBD unclassified. Defects in interleukin-10 signaling have a Mendelian inheritance pattern with complete penetrance of intestinal inflammation. Several genetic defects that disturb intestinal epithelial barrier function or affect innate and adaptive immune function have incomplete penetrance of the IBD-like phenotype. Several of these monogenic conditions do not respond to conventional therapy and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to the broad spectrum of these extremely rare diseases, a correct diagnosis is frequently a challenge and often delayed. In many cases, these diseases cannot be categorized based on standard histological and immunologic features of IBD. Genetic analysis is required to identify the cause of the disorder and offer the patient appropriate treatment options, which include medical therapy, surgery, or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, diagnosis based on genetic analysis can lead to genetic counseling for family members of patients. We describe key intestinal, extraintestinal, and laboratory features of 50 genetic variants associated with IBD-like intestinal inflammation. In addition, we provide approaches for identifying patients likely to have these disorders. We also discuss classic approaches to identify these variants in patients, starting with phenotypic and functional assessments that lead to analysis of candidate genes. As a complementary approach, we discuss parallel genetic screening using next-generation sequencing followed by functional confirmation of genetic defects.

  13. Optimization of illumination for a diffuse-spectroscopy-based early melanoma diagnostic imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawicz, Andrew H.; Melnyk, Ivan; Oldham, Bradley

    2004-10-01

    An optical system injecting light directly to the skin and collecting the backscattered portion of the light that has been spectrally modified within the skin has been designed and fabricated. This method reduces the noise generated by the specular component practically to zero. The initial device involved a single channel, optical-fibre-based illuminator and collector connected with a spectroscope. The single channel probing head scanned the skin using a mechanical shifting device. Seven clinical tests performed on patients with suspect skin lesions have been tested with our device, and later biopsy was taken as a "gold standard" procedure. Three cases proved to be melanoma and our spectra indicated differences from those collected from non-melanoma lesions. The process of collecting spectral data was time consuming (about 30 min) and thus not acceptable for a medical procedure. To accelerate the process of data collection from the skin, using the same principle of diffuse spectroscopy, an imaging device was conceived which is able to collect the skin spectral response at once from a relatively sizeable skin area. The requirement of negligible specular component was considered of paramount importance. Two possible approaches are feasible to satisfy this requirement: 1. Collection of backscattered light directly from the skin 2. Injection of illuminating light directly to the skin without creating reflections directly from skin. We decided to use the second approach and construct a circular, circumferential illuminator with angled light injection. Before fabricating this illuminator, a thorough analysis was performed to optimize its radius and angle of injection in order to receive the highest uniformity of diffuse light in the skin. Monte-Carlo simulation was applied to a three layer skin approximation. Only three layers were considered due to the assumption that the device must be able to diagnose early melanoma before reaching metastasis. The results of the

  14. The Diagnostic Approach to Monogenic Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uhlig, Holm H.; Schwerd, Tobias; Koletzko, Sibylle; Shah, Neil; Kammermeier, Jochen; Elkadri, Abdul; Ouahed, Jodie; Wilson, David C.; Travis, Simon P.; Turner, Dan; Klein, Christoph; Snapper, Scott B.; Muise, Aleixo M.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with a diverse spectrum of rare genetic disorders can present with inflammatory bowel diseases (monogenic IBD). Patients with these disorders often develop symptoms during infancy or early childhood, along with endoscopic or histologic features of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis or IBD unclassified. Defects in interleukin 10 signaling have a Mendelian inheritance pattern with complete penetrance of intestinal inflammation. Several genetic defects that disturb intestinal epithelial barrier function or affect innate and adaptive immune function have incomplete penetrance of the IBD-like phenotype. Several of these monogenic conditions do not respond to conventional therapy and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to the broad spectrum of these extremely rare diseases, a correct diagnosis is frequently a challenge and often delayed. In many cases, these diseases cannot be categorized based on standard histologic and immunologic features of IBD. Genetic analysis is required to identify the cause of the disorder and offer the patient appropriate treatment options, which include medical therapy, surgery, or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, diagnosis based on genetic analysis can lead to genetic counseling for family members of patients. We describe key intestinal, extra-intestinal, and laboratory features of 50 genetic variants associated with IBD-like intestinal inflammation. We provide approaches for identifying patients likely to have these disorders. We discuss classical approaches to identify these variants in patients, starting with phenotypic and functional assessments that lead to analysis of candidate genes. As a complementary approach, we discuss parallel genetic screening using next-generation sequencing followed by functional confirmation of genetic defects. PMID:25058236

  15. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: early diagnostics and effects of medication and brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brabenec, L; Mekyska, J; Galaz, Z; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) occurs in 90% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. It manifests specifically in the areas of articulation, phonation, prosody, speech fluency, and faciokinesis. We aimed to systematically review papers on HD in PD with a special focus on (1) early PD diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression using acoustic voice and speech analysis, and (2) functional imaging studies exploring neural correlates of HD in PD, and (3) clinical studies using acoustic analysis to evaluate effects of dopaminergic medication and brain stimulation. A systematic literature search of articles written in English before March 2016 was conducted in the Web of Science, PubMed, SpringerLink, and IEEE Xplore databases using and combining specific relevant keywords. Articles were categorized into three groups: (1) articles focused on neural correlates of HD in PD using functional imaging (n = 13); (2) articles dealing with the acoustic analysis of HD in PD (n = 52); and (3) articles concerning specifically dopaminergic and brain stimulation-related effects as assessed by acoustic analysis (n = 31); the groups were then reviewed. We identified 14 combinations of speech tasks and acoustic features that can be recommended for use in describing the main features of HD in PD. While only a few acoustic parameters correlate with limb motor symptoms and can be partially relieved by dopaminergic medication, HD in PD seems to be mainly related to non-dopaminergic deficits and associated particularly with non-motor symptoms. Future studies should combine non-invasive brain stimulation with voice behavior approaches to achieve the best treatment effects by enhancing auditory-motor integration.

  16. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  17. Implicit learning of sequential bias in a guessing task: failure to demonstrate effects of dopamine administration and paranormal belief.

    PubMed

    Palmer, John; Mohr, Christine; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Previous research suggests that implicit sequence learning (ISL) is superior for believers in the paranormal and individuals with increased cerebral dopamine. Thirty-five healthy participants performed feedback-guided anticipations of four arrow directions. A 100-trial random sequence preceded two 100-trial biased sequences in which visual targets (arrows) on trial t tended to be displaced 90 degrees clockwise (CW) or counter-clockwise (CCW) from those on t - 1. ISL was defined as a positive change during the course of the biased run in the difference between pro-bias and counter-bias responses. It was hypothesized that this difference would be greater for believers in the paranormal than for skeptics, for those who received dopamine than for those who received placebo, and for believers who received dopamine than for the other groups. None of the hypotheses were supported by the data. It is suggested that a simple binary guessing task with a focus on prediction accuracy during early trials should be considered for future explorations.

  18. [Specific features of the clinical picture and difficulties of diagnostics of laryngeal paresis and paralysis in the newborn babies, during breast feeding and early infancy].

    PubMed

    Vasina, A A; Radtsig, E Iu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare different methods for the endoscopic examination of the larynx in the newborn babies, during the period of breast feeding and early infancy. Special attention was given to differential diagnostics and the cases of the asymptomatic clinical curse of the disease. Case reports are presented, and the relevant literature data are analysed.

  19. Impact of new society of radiologists in ultrasound early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maowen; Poder, Liina; Filly, Roy A

    2014-09-01

    New early first-trimester diagnostic criteria for nonviable pregnancy recommended by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound via a multispecialty consensus panel extended the diagnostic size criteria of crown-rump length from 5 to 7 mm for embryos without a heartbeat and mean sac diameter from 16 to 25 mm for "empty" sacs. Our study assessed the potential impact of the new criteria on the number of additional follow-up sonograms these changes would engender. A retrospective study of all first-trimester sonograms in women with first trimester bleeding from 1999 to 2008 was conducted. Everyone included in the study had a visible gestational sac in the uterus. There were no pregnancies of unknown location or ectopic pregnancies included in this study cohort. Pregnancy of unknown location was used to describe cases in which there were no signs of pregnancy inside or outside the uterus on transvaginal sonography despite a positive pregnancy test result. A total of 1013 patients met the inclusion criteria. Seven hundred fifty-two patients (74%) had identifiable embryos, and 261 (26%) did not. Of those with an identifiable embryo, 286 (38%) had no detectable embryonic cardiac activity. The breakdown of crown-rump lengths in this group was as follows: 100 measuring less than 5 mm, 36 measuring 5 to 7 mm, and 150 measuring 7 mm or greater. The breakdown of mean sac diameters in those without a visible embryo was as follows: 120 measuring less than 16 mm, 90 measuring 16 to 25 mm, and 51 measuring 25 mm or greater. When diagnosing a failed pregnancy, there can be no room for error. Only 126 of 1013 early pregnancies threatening to abort (12%) fell into the more conservative zones defined by the new compared to the former size criteria (crown-rump length, 5-7 mm; mean sac diameter, 16-25 mm). Therefore, the potential impact of the new guidelines on follow-up sonograms does not appear inordinate. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. [Diagnostic and prognostic values of standard and dynamic ultrasound in early detection and treatment of developmental hip deformity].

    PubMed

    Pajić, Milos; Vukasinović, Zoran

    2007-01-01

    A clinical examination of a newborn infant is indispensable, but certainly insufficient for a diagnosis of developmental deformity of the hip (DDH) to be made. The use of the ultrasound in the diagnostics of DDH, beside the visualization and making the respective clinical findings objective, made possible verification (still without a distinction of the tissues) of the two basic categories of the primary condition of a newborn baby hips. The purpose of this study was to find out the optimal methodological procedure for the early detection of DDH in newborn infants and sucklings. During 2002 and 2003, at the Neonatal Department of the Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Novi Sad, as well as at the Institute for Orthopaedic Surgery "Banjica" Belgrade, there were 4016 newborn infants examined, i.e. 8032 hips clinically and by ultrasound. The standard Graf's methodological procedure was applied completely, supplemented by the dynamic examination by pushing back and streching femora along, that is by the techniques of Couture and Harcke. In order to categorize the condition of the hip of a newborn infant, the sonographic classification of R. Graaf, Th. Harcke and D. Pajidćwas used. The ultrasound analysis demonstrated a frequency of the sonotype lI in 552 (13.08%) of the newborn infants, the sonotype lI in 2934 (73.00%), the sonotype iII+ in 481 (11.97%) and the pathological cases with sonotypes IlIg+42 (1.04%), lIl 17 (0.42%), IlII 15 (0.37%) and IV5 (0.12%). The total number of unstable critical, discentering and discentered cases of DDH was 79 (1.95%). The incidence of DDH was three times more frequent in girls, mostly bilateral; when unilateral, it was more frequent in the left one.T he results of the early treatment were uniformly excellent, but in two cases there was established osteochondritis of the first degree (Pavlik's harness 1, Von Rosen's splint 1). iIt as been proven that the clinical examination was inevitable, but insufficient for diagnosis of DDH

  1. [Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries: Perfusion Imaging in the Early Arterial Phase].

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, T; Carl, H D; Swoboda, B; Engelhardt, M; Heinrich, M; Strobel, D; Wildner, D

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound is a standard procedure widely used in the diagnostic investigation of muscle injuries and widely described in the literature. Its advantages include rapid availability, cost effectiveness and the possibility to perform a real-time dynamic examination with the highest possible spatial resolution. In the diagnostic work-up of minor lesions (muscle stiffness, muscle strain), plain ultrasound has so far been inferior to MRI. The case presented by us is an example of the possibilities offered by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries compared with plain B-mode image ultrasound and MRI imaging of the affected region. This case report is about a high-performance football player who sustained a muscle injury. He underwent an ultrasound examination (S 2000, 9L4 Probe, Siemens, Germany), which was performed simultaneously in the conventional and contrast-enhanced mode at the level of the lesion. An intravenous bolus injection of 4.8 ml of intravascular contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Italy) was given via a cubital intravenous line. After that, the distribution of contrast agent was visualised in the early arterial phase. In addition, a plain magnetic resonance imaging scan of both thighs was performed for reference. On conventional ultrasound, the lesion was not clearly distinguishable from neighbouring tissue, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound demonstrated a well delineated, circumscribed area of impaired perfusion with hypoenhancement compared with the surrounding muscles at the clinical level of the lesion in the arterial wash-in phase (0-30 sec, after intravenous administration). The MRI scan revealed an edema signal with perifascial fluid accumulation in the corresponding site. The use of intravascular contrast agent enabled the sensitive detection of a minor injury by ultrasound for the first time. An intramuscular edema seen in the MRI scan showed a functional arterial perfusion impairment on ultrasound, which was

  2. Scattered atypical melanocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei in the nail matrix: diagnostic clue for early subungual melanoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Won; Jang, Kee-Taek; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Ji-Hye; Kwon, Ghee Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Jason B; Park, Kelly K

    2016-01-01

    The lack of highly specific clinical and histopathological criteria has contributed to the delay in diagnosis of subungual melanoma in situ in its early stages. Eighteen cases of subungual melanoma in situ, the largest series reported to date, were analyzed to characterize the clinical and histopathological findings of early stages of subungual melanoma in situ along with five cases of nail matrix nevus and five cases of subungual lentigo serving as histologic control. Clinically, longitudinal melanonychia was present in all 18 cases of subungual melanoma in situ, consisting of irregular dark brown to black streaks within a brown background with (11 cases) or without Hutchinson's sign. Histopathologically, variable shaped and sized, hyperchromatic nuclei surrounded by retraction artifact were present in all cases. Nine cases showed a significant increase in the number of atypical melanocytes with marked nuclear atypia, while the rest of the cases showed less noticeable changes in nail matrix including lower density of melanocytes and/or mild nuclear atypia. In 15 cases, the nuclear enlargement in some of the melanocytes was greater than two times that of the neighboring matrix cells. In the remaining three cases, the nuclei were enlarged to a much lesser degree. All cases displayed areas of haphazard and uneven distribution of solitary melanocytes and, although not observed in all cases, some degree of pagetoid spread was present in majority of the cases. In contrast, nail matrix nevi showed well-formed nests consisting of relatively monomorphous melanocytes with abundant cytoplasm and subungual lentigos consisted of subtle increase in the number of dendritic melanocytes in solitary units within the lower layers of the nail matrix. Increase in the number of scattered atypical melanocytes with large hyperchromatic nuclei in a partial nail matrix may provide a diagnostic clue to subungual melanoma in situ in concert with its clinical suspicion. © 2015 John Wiley

  3. [Diagnostic value of MR diffusion tensor imaging on radiation-induced early brain injury of nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiang-Ping; Zhao, Ji-Quan; Liang, Bi-Ling; Xie, Bang-Kun; Zhong, Jing-Lian; Ye, Rui-Xin

    2004-11-01

    MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a new MRI technique, can observe water molecule diffusion non-invasively at molecular level. This study was to assess diagnostic value of DTI on post-radiotherapy brain injury by quantitatively analyzing diffuse features of water in bilateral temporal lobes alba of those nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with normal conventional MRI performances. DTI was performed in 13 NPC patients with normal conventional MRI performances after radiotherapy, and 21 healthy controls. Isotropic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCiso) and anisotropic index (AI) were measured in bilateral temporal lobes alba. ADCiso of patient group was (631.30+/-27.83) x 10(-6) mm2/s, while that of control group was (651.76+/-39.10) x 10(-6) mm2/s (P>0.05). Temporal lobes diffusion AI decreased significantly in patient group, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was 0.405+/-0.042, mean relative anisotropy (RA) was 0.355+/-0.044, and mean 1 minus volume ratio (1-VR) was 0.192+/-0.042; while those in control group were 0.463+/-0.047, 0.418+/-0.052, and 0.257+/-0.055, respectively (P< 0.01). DTI can early detect subtle alba changes in NPC patients after radiotherapy, which conventional MRI failed to sense. AI is more sensitive than ADCiso, may better describe the diffuse features of water molecules, and evaluate the temporal lobes alba changes before and after NPC radiotherapy.

  4. Evaluating assumptions and parameterization underlying process-based ecosystem models: the case of LPJ-GUESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C.; Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models have been widely used for analyzing ecosystem dynamics and climate feedbacks. Their performance has been tested extensively against observations and by model intercomparison studies. In the present study, the LPJ-GUESS state-of-the-art ecosystem model was evaluated with respect to its structure, hypothesis, and parameterization by performing a global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The study aims at examining potential model limitations, particularly with regards to regional and watershed scale applications. A detailed GSA based on variance decomposition is presented to investigate the structural assumptions of the model and to highlight processes and parameters that cause the highest variability in the outputs. First order and total sensitivity indexes were calculated for each of the parameters using Sobol's methodology. In order to elucidate the role of climate on model sensitivity synthetic climate scenarios were generated based on climatic data from Switzerland. The results clearly indicate a very high sensitivity of LPJ-GUESS to photosynthetic parameters. Intrinsic quantum efficiency alone is able to explain about 60% of the variability in vegetation carbon fluxes and pools for most of the investigated climate conditions. Processes related to light were also found important together with parameters affecting plant structure (growth, establishment and mortality). The model shows minor sensitivity to hydrological and soil texture parameters, questioning its skills in representing spatial vegetation heterogeneity at regional or watershed scales. We conclude that LPJ-GUESS' structure and possibly the one of other, structurally similar, dynamic vegetation models may need to be reconsidered. Specifically, the oversensitivity of the photosynthetic component deserves a particular attention, as this seems to contradict an increasing number of observations suggesting that photosynthesis may be a consequence rather than the driver of plant growth.

  5. Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schneider, U.; Schröder, M.; Stender, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the new "First Guess Daily" product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The new product gives an estimate of the global daily precipitation gridded at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by longitude. It is based on rain gauge data reported in near real-time via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and available about three to five days after the end of each observation month. In addition to the gridded daily precipitation totals in mm day-1, the standard deviation in mm day-1, the Kriging interpolation error in % and the number of measurements per grid cell are also encoded into the monthly netCDF product file and provided for all months since January 2009. Prior to their interpolation the measured precipitation values undergo a preliminary automatic quality control. For the calculation of the areal mean of the grid, anomalies are interpolated with ordinary block Kriging. This approach allows for a near real-time release. However, the purely GTS-based data processing lacks an intensive quality control as well as a high data density. Therefore the product is denoted as "First Guess", and DOI referenced under doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_D_100. Besides the "First Guess Daily" product, two further products are under developement at GPCC ("Full Data Daily" and a merged satellite-gauge product), which will be based on all available daily data that have undergone a strict quality control. All GPCC products are available free of charge and provided via the GPCC webpage: ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html.

  6. Want to Reduce Guessing and Cheating While Making Students Happier? Give More Exams!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverty, James T.; Bauer, Wolfgang; Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Gary

    2012-12-01

    It is almost universally agreed that more frequent formative assessment (homework, clicker questions, practice tests, etc.) leads to better student performance and generally better course evaluations. There is, however, only anecdotal evidence that the same would be true for more frequent summative assessment (exams). There maybe many arguments against giving more exams, including the general "pain" associated with examinations, as well as reduced teaching time, since classroom sessions are dedicated to exams rather than lecturing. We present evidence that increasing the number of exams in fact does lead to better learning success, less cheating and guessing on homework, and better student course evaluations.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF versus smear microscopy in the early diagnosis tuberculosis in the real life of "Umberto I" Hospital Rome.

    PubMed

    Sauzullo, Ilaria; Rodio, Donatella Maria; Facchinetti, Samantha; Puggioni, Gianluca; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Goldoni, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mengoni, Fabio; Trancassini, Maria; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is one of the primary challenges in curtailing the spread of TB. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for the identification of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens, and compare this to a microscopist's diagnostic performance. Xpert MTB/ RIF was positive in all specimens with culture-confirmed TB, giving a higher sensitivity than the smear microscopy (100% versus 63%). The use of the Xpert MTB/RIF, as part of routine assay, permits rapid diagnosis of TB and enables clinicians to start an effective treatment.

  8. Peer norm guesses and self-reported attitudes towards performance-related pay

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Efi; Kotzaivazoglou, Iordanis

    2017-01-01

    Due to a variety of reasons, people see themselves differently from how they see others. This basic asymmetry has broad consequences. It leads people to judge themselves and their own behavior differently from how they judge others and others’ behavior. This research, first, studies the perceptions and attitudes of Greek Public Sector employees towards the introduction of Performance-Related Pay (PRP) systems trying to reveal whether there is a divergence between individual attitudes and guesses on peers’ attitudes. Secondly, it is investigated whether divergence between own self-reported and peer norm guesses could mediate the acceptance of the aforementioned implementation once job status has been controlled for. This study uses a unique questionnaire of 520 observations which was designed to address the questions outlined in the preceding lines. Our econometric results indicate that workers have heterogeneous attitudes and hold heterogeneous beliefs on others’ expectations regarding a successful implementation of PRP. Specifically, individual perceptions are less skeptical towards PRP than are beliefs on others’ attitudes. Additionally, we found that managers are significantly more optimistic than lower rank employees regarding the expected success of PRP systems in their jobs. However, they both expect their peers to be more negative than they themselves are. PMID:28414737

  9. Improving the LPJ-GUESS modelled carbon balance with a particle filter data assimilation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRobert, Andrew; Scholze, Marko; Kemp, Sarah; Smith, Ben

    2015-04-01

    The recent increases in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions have disrupted the equilibrium in the global carbon cycle pools with the ocean and terrestrial pools increasing their respective storages to accommodate roughly half of the anthropogenic increase. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) have been developed to quantify the modern carbon cycle changes. In this study, a particle filter data assimilation technique has been used to calibrate the process parameters in the DGVM LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator). LPJ-GUESS simulates individual plant function types (pft) as a competitive balance within high resolution forest patches. Thirty process parameters have been optimized twice, using both a sequential and iterative method of particle filter. The iterative method runs the model for the full time period of thirteen years and then evaluates the cost function from the mismatch of observations and model results before adjusting the parameters and repeating the full time period. The sequential method runs the model and particle filter for each year of the time series in order, adjusting the parameters between each year, then loops back to beginning of the series to repeat. For each particle, the model output of NEP (Net Ecosystem Productivity) is compared to eddy flux measurements from ICOS flux towers to minimize the cost function. A high-resolution regional carbon balance has been simulated for central Sweden using a network of several ICOS flux towers.

  10. Modelling Holocene peatland and permafrost dynamics with the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Nitin; Miller, Paul A.; Smith, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are an important platform to study past, present and future vegetation patterns together with associated biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks (e.g. Sitch et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2001). However, very few attempts have been made to simulate peatlands using DGVMs (Kleinen et al. 2012, Tang et al. 2015, Wania et al. 2009a). In the present study, we have improved the peatland dynamics in the state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) in order to understand the long-term evolution of northern peatland ecosystems and to assess the effect of changing climate on peatland carbon balance. We combined a dynamic multi-layer approach (Frolking et al. 2010, Hilbert et al. 2000) with soil freezing-thawing functionality (Ekici et al. 2015, Wania et al. 2009a) in LPJ-GUESS. The new model is named LPJ-GUESS Peatland (LPJ-GUESS-P) (Chaudhary et al. in prep). The model was calibrated and tested at the sub-arctic mire in Stordalen, Sweden, and the model was able to capture the reported long-term vegetation dynamics and peat accumulation patterns in the mire (Kokfelt et al. 2010). For evaluation, the model was run at 13 grid points across a north to south transect in Europe. The modelled peat accumulation values were found to be consistent with the published data for each grid point (Loisel et al. 2014). Finally, a series of additional experiments were carried out to investigate the vulnerability of high-latitude peatlands to climate change. We find that the Stordalen mire will sequester more carbon in the future due to milder and wetter climate conditions, longer growing seasons, and the carbon fertilization effect. References: - Chaudhary et al. (in prep.). Modelling Holocene peatland and permafrost dynamics with the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model - Ekici A, et al. 2015. Site-level model intercomparison of high latitude and high altitude soil thermal dynamics in tundra and barren landscapes. The Cryosphere 9: 1343

  11. [FDG PET as an early nuclear medical diagnostic tool for aseptic wear-induced loosening of hip joint endoprostheses--a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Mumme, T; Cremerius, U; Hermanns, B; Neuss, M; Müller-Rath, R; Büll, U; Wirtz, D C

    2003-07-01

    To date, 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET (FDG PET) is used as a tool in oncology as well as myocardiological and cerebral functional diagnostics in the clinical routine. False positive results of tumor search imply new possibilities for use in diagnostics of inflammation. The two case reports presented here on aseptic loosening of endoprostheses caused by the rub of polyethylene with histological and immunohistological refurbishing call attention to the possible diagnostic valency of FDG PET as an early warning system regarding aseptic artificial limb loosening induced by the rub of polyethylene. By quantification of glucose metabolism with the "standard uptake value" (SUV) as well as specific storage samples from around the artificial limb, it is the aim of our study group in further examinations to develop an algorithm which permits to distinguish between septic and aseptic loosening.

  12. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  13. Event-related potential data from a guess the number brain-computer interface experiment on school children.

    PubMed

    Mouček, R; Vařeka, L; Prokop, T; Štěbeták, J; Brůha, P

    2017-03-28

    Guess the number is a simple P300-based brain-computer interface experiment. Its aim is to ask the measured participant to pick a number between 1 and 9. Then, he or she is exposed to corresponding visual stimuli and experimenters try to guess the number thought while they are observing event-related potential waveforms on-line. 250 school-age children participated in the experiments that were carried out in elementary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic. Electroencephalographic data from three EEG channels (Fz, Cz, Pz) and stimuli markers were stored. Additional metadata about the participants were collected (gender, age, laterality, the number thought by the participant, the guess of the experimenters, and various interesting additional information). Consequently, we offer the largest publicly available odd-ball paradigm collection of datasets to neuroscientific and brain-computer interface community.

  14. Event-related potential data from a guess the number brain-computer interface experiment on school children

    PubMed Central

    Mouček, R.; Vařeka, L.; Prokop, T.; Štěbeták, J.; Brůha, P.

    2017-01-01

    Guess the number is a simple P300-based brain-computer interface experiment. Its aim is to ask the measured participant to pick a number between 1 and 9. Then, he or she is exposed to corresponding visual stimuli and experimenters try to guess the number thought while they are observing event-related potential waveforms on-line. 250 school-age children participated in the experiments that were carried out in elementary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic. Electroencephalographic data from three EEG channels (Fz, Cz, Pz) and stimuli markers were stored. Additional metadata about the participants were collected (gender, age, laterality, the number thought by the participant, the guess of the experimenters, and various interesting additional information). Consequently, we offer the largest publicly available odd-ball paradigm collection of datasets to neuroscientific and brain-computer interface community. PMID:28350376

  15. A Systematic Review of Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Focused on Diagnostic Confirmation, Early Detection, and Prediction of Unfavorable Outcomes in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Timsit, Edouard; White, Brad J; Orsel, Karin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of newly arrived feedlot cattle are affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Economic losses could be reduced by accurate, early detection. This review evaluates the available literature regarding BRD confirmatory diagnostic tests, early detection methods, and modalities to estimate post-therapeutic prognosis or predict unfavorable or fatal outcomes. Scientific evidence promotes the use of haptoglobin to confirm BRD status. Feeding behavior, infrared thermography, and reticulorumen boluses are promising methods. Retrospective analyses of routinely collected treatment and cohort data can be used to identify cattle at risk of unfavorable outcome. Other methods have been reviewed but require further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic Performance of and Breast Tissue Changes at Early Breast MR Imaging Surveillance in Women after Breast Conservation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Youn, In Kyung; Baek, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Sil

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance and tissue changes in early (1 year or less) breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging surveillance in women who underwent breast conservation therapy for breast cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Between April 2014 and June 2016, 414 women (mean age, 51.5 years; range, 21-81 years) who underwent 422 early surveillance breast MR imaging examinations (median, 6.0 months; range, 2-12 months) after breast conservation therapy were studied. The cancer detection rate, positive predictive value of biopsy, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve of surveillance MR imaging, mammography, and ultrasonography (US) were assessed. Follow-up was also obtained in 95 women by using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) changes in the contralateral breast were assessed according to adjuvant therapy by using the McNemar test. Results Of 11 detected cancers, six were seen at MR imaging only, one was seen at MR imaging and mammography, two were seen at MR imaging and US, one was seen at mammography only, and one was seen at PET/CT only. Three MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed at the original tumor bed, and two MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed adjacent to the original tumor. Among two false-negative MR imaging diagnoses (two cases of ductal carcinoma in situ), one cancer had manifested as calcifications at mammography without differentiated enhancement at MR imaging, and the other cancer was detected at PET/CT, but MR imaging results were negative because of marked BPE, which resulted in focal lesion masking. The positive predictive value of biopsy and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve for MR imaging were 32.1% (nine of 28), 81.8% (nine of 11), 95.1% (391 of 411), 94.7% (400 of 422), and 0

  17. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of

  18. Experimental effects of receiving negative weight-related feedback: a weight guessing study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jennifer S; Miller, Jessie L

    2007-09-01

    The effects of receiving negative verbal weight-related feedback on the mood, self-esteem, and body image of restrained and unrestrained eaters were investigated. Female undergraduate students either reported their current weight (no feedback) or had their weight guessed as 15 lb higher than their actual weight (negative feedback) by an experimenter who presented herself as either an undergraduate (peer) or graduate student (non-peer). Participants overall had higher anxiety and felt "fatter" in the negative feedback condition. When this feedback came from a peer they felt fatter, more dissatisfied with their bodies, and, for restrained eaters, more depressed, as compared to when it came from a non-peer. These results provide empirical evidence that negative weight-related feedback produces adverse psychological consequences for young women, especially restrained eaters, and suggest the importance of peers' perceptions of weight.

  19. Brain mechanism of cognitive conflict in a guessing Chinese logogriph task.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jiang; Li, Hong; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Antao; Zhang, Fenghua; Zhang, Jinmei; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Qinglin

    2006-04-24

    To investigate the neural substrates of cognitive conflict in high-level thought processing, we recorded event-related potentials while participants thought about the logogriph answers. We identified three states after the answers were provided: (1) the answer given was just what the participants initially guessed (No-aha answer). (2) Participants could understand the answer given correctly although they had not got the answer themselves (Aha answer). (3) Participants could not understand the correct answer offered (Uncomprehended answer). Results showed that, relative to the No-aha answer, the Aha and Uncomprehended answers elicited more negative event-related potential deflections between 250 and 400 ms. The dipole analysis localized the generator of the difference waves (Aha minus No-aha answer) to the anterior cingulate cortex. Thus, it might reflect the cognitive conflict center between familiar and new ways of processing the logogriphs.

  20. A quantum algorithm for obtaining the energy spectrum of a physical system without guessing its eigenstates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hefeng

    2014-08-14

    We present a quantum algorithm that provides a general approach for obtaining the energy spectrum of a physical system without making a guess on its eigenstates. In this algorithm, a probe qubit is coupled to a quantum register R which consists of one ancilla qubit and an n-qubit register that represents the system. R is prepared in a general reference state, and a general excitation operator that acts on R is constructed. The probe exhibits a dynamical response only when it is resonant with a transition from the reference state to an excited state of R which contains the eigenstates of the system. By varying the probe's frequency, the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of the system can be obtained.

  1. Global gridded precipitation over land: a description of the new GPCC First Guess Daily product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, K.; Ziese, M.; Becker, A.; Finger, P.; Meyer-Christoffer, A.; Schneider, U.; Schröder, M.; Stender, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the new First Guess Daily product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). The new product gives an estimate of the global daily precipitation gridded at a spatial resolution of 1° latitude by 1° longitude. It is based on rain gauge data reported in near-real time via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and available about three to five days after the end of each observation month. In addition to the gridded daily precipitation totals in mm day-1, the standard deviation in mm day-1, the kriging interpolation error in % and the number of measurements per grid cell are also encoded into the monthly netCDF product file and provided for all months since January 2009. Prior to their interpolation, the measured precipitation values undergo a preliminary automatic quality control. For the calculation of the areal mean of the grid, anomalies are interpolated with ordinary block kriging. This approach allows for a near-real-time release. Therefore, the purely GTS-based data processing lacks an intensive quality control as well as a high data density and is denoted as First Guess. The daily data set is referenced under doi:10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FG_D_100. Two further products, the Full Data Daily and a merged satellite-gauge product, are currently under development at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). These additional products will not be available in near-real time, but based on significantly more and strictly quality controlled observations. All GPCC products are provided free of charge via the GPCC webpage: ftp://ftp-anon.dwd.de/pub/data/gpcc/html/download_gate.html.

  2. Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Awareness and Use of Morphology in Guessing the Meanings of Unknown Words from Content: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish as foreign language learners' awareness and use of Turkish derivational affixes as a knowledge source in guessing the meanings of unknown words in written contexts. In addition, this study also examined the type of knowledge sources used in guessing the meaning of the unknown words. The study was conducted with the…

  3. Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Awareness and Use of Morphology in Guessing the Meanings of Unknown Words from Content: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish as foreign language learners' awareness and use of Turkish derivational affixes as a knowledge source in guessing the meanings of unknown words in written contexts. In addition, this study also examined the type of knowledge sources used in guessing the meaning of the unknown words. The study was conducted with the…

  4. Controlling Guessing Bias in the Dichotomous Rasch Model Applied to a Large-Scale, Vertically Scaled Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown how the statistical bias in Rasch model difficulty estimates induced by guessing in multiple-choice items can be eliminated. Using vertical scaling of a high-profile national reading test, it is shown that the dominant effect of removing such bias is a nonlinear change in the unit of scale across the continuum. The…

  5. Quantifying the Effects of Chance in Multiple Choice and True/False Tests: Question Selection and Guessing of Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    Describes four measures of test unreliability that quantify effects of question selection and guessing, both separately and together--three chosen for immediacy and one for greater mathematical elegance. Quantifies their dependence on test length and number of answer options per question. Concludes that many multiple choice tests are unreliable…

  6. What Makes Recognition without Awareness Appear to Be Elusive? Strategic Factors that Influence the Accuracy of Guesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Joel L.; Paller, Ken A.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors could conceivably promote the accuracy of guesses during a recognition test. Two that we identified in previous studies are forced-choice testing format and high perceptual similarity between the repeat target and novel foil. In restricted circumstances, the relative perceptual fluency of the target can be compared with that of the…

  7. Controlling Guessing Bias in the Dichotomous Rasch Model Applied to a Large-Scale, Vertically Scaled Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown how the statistical bias in Rasch model difficulty estimates induced by guessing in multiple-choice items can be eliminated. Using vertical scaling of a high-profile national reading test, it is shown that the dominant effect of removing such bias is a nonlinear change in the unit of scale across the continuum. The…

  8. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    PubMed

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. The Characteristics of Early Diagnostic Hypotheses Generated by Physicians (Experts) and Students (Novices) at One Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, James C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated whether physicians (n=32) would generate less specific initial diagnoses than did medical students (n=39). Analysis of number, specificity, and breadth of diagnoses found students generated significantly more diagnostic hypotheses and more specific hypotheses, but breadth did not differ significantly. (Author/MSE)

  11. Self-reported functional status as predictor of observed functional capacity in subjects with early osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: a diagnostic study in the CHECK cohort.

    PubMed

    Bieleman, H J; Reneman, M F; van Ittersum, M W; van der Schans, C P; Groothoff, J W; Oosterveld, F G J

    2009-12-01

    Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) may experience functional limitations in work settings. In the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee study (CHECK) physical function was both self-reported and measured performance-based, using Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). Relations between self-reported scores on SF-36 and WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Arthritis Index, function scales) and FCE performance were studied, and their diagnostic value for clinicians in predicting observed physical work limitations was assessed. Ninety-two subjects scored physical function on SF-36 (scale 0-100, 100 indicating the best health level) and WOMAC (scale 0-68, 68 indicates maximum restriction) and performed the FCE. Correlations were calculated between all scores. Cross-tables were constructed using both questionnaires as diagnostic tests to identify work limitations. Subjects lifting <22.5 kg on the FCE-test 'lifting-low' were labeled as having physical work limitations. Diagnostic aspects at different cut-off scores for both questionnaires were analysed. Statistically significant correlations (Spearman's rho 0.34-0.49) were found between questionnaire scores and lifting and carrying tests. Results of a diagnostic cross-table with cut-off point <60 on SF-36 'physical functioning' were: sensitivity 0.34, specificity 0.97 and positive predictive value (PV+) 0.95. Cut-off point > or =21 on WOMAC 'function' resulted in sensitivity 0.51, specificity 0.88 and PV+ 0.88. Low self-reported function scores on SF-36 and WOMAC diagnosed subjects with limitations on the FCE. However, high scores did not guarantee performance without physical work limitations. These results are specific to the tested persons with early OA, in populations with a different prevalence of limitations, different diagnostic values will be found. FCE may be indicated to help clinicians to assess actual work capacity.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of NT-proBNP ratio (BNP-R) for early diagnosis of tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nia, Amir M; Gassanov, Natig; Dahlem, Kristina M; Caglayan, Evren; Hellmich, Martin; Erdmann, Erland; Er, Fikret

    2011-10-01

    When heart failure and tachycardia occur simultaneously, a useful diagnostic tool for early discrimination of patients with benign tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy (TMC) versus major structural heart disease (MSHD) is not available. Such a tool is required to prevent unnecessary and wearing diagnostics in patients with reversible TMC. Moreover, it could lead to early additional diagnostics and therapeutic approaches in patients with MSHD. A total of 387 consecutive patients with supraventricular arrhythmia underwent assessment at a single center. Of these patients, 40 fulfilled the inclusion criteria with a resting heart rate ≥100 bpm and an impaired left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. In all patients, successful electrical cardioversion was performed. At baseline, day 1 and weekly for 4 weeks, levels of NT-proBNP and echocardiographic parameters were evaluated. An NT-proBNP ratio (BNP-R) was calculated as a quotient of baseline NT-proBNP/follow-up NT-proBNP. After 4 weeks, cardiac catheterization was performed to identify patients with a final diagnosis of TMC versus MSHD. Initial NT-proBNP concentrations were elevated and consecutively decreased after cardioversion in all patients. Multivariate regression and ROC analysis revealed that BNP-R discriminated between patients with TMC versus MSHD independent and superior to all other variables. The area under the ROC curve for BNP-R to detect TMC was 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.00; p < 0.001) after 1 week and 0.995 (95% CI 0.99-1.00; p < 0.0001) after 4 weeks. One week after cardioversion already, a BNP-R cutoff ≥2.3 was useful for TMC diagnosis indicated by an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 95%. BNP-R was found to be highly accurate for the early diagnosis of TMC.

  13. Screening, early detection, education, and trends for melanoma: current status (2007-2013) and future directions: Part I. Epidemiology, high-risk groups, clinical strategies, and diagnostic technology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jonathan E; Swetter, Susan M; Fu, Teresa; Geller, Alan C

    2014-10-01

    While most cancers have shown both decreased incidence and mortality over the past several decades, the incidence of melanoma has continued to grow, and mortality has only recently stabilized in the United States and in many other countries. Certain populations, such as men >60 years of age and lower socioeconomic status groups, face a greater burden from disease. For any given stage and across all ages, men have shown worse melanoma survival than women, and low socioeconomic status groups have increased levels of mortality. Novel risk factors can help identify populations at greatest risk for melanoma and can aid in targeted early detection. Risk assessment tools have been created to identify high-risk patients based on various factors, and these tools can reduce the number of patients needed to screen for melanoma detection. Diagnostic techniques, such as dermatoscopy and total body photography, and new technologies, such as multispectral imaging, may increase the accuracy and reliability of early melanoma detection.

  14. Pathologic diagnosis of achondrogenesis type 2 in a fragmented fetus: case report and evidence-based differential diagnostic approach in the early midtrimester.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Paul S; Kashireddy, Papreddy V; Ernst, Linda M

    2014-01-01

    As a group, lethal genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) usually result in death within the perinatal period. Because lethal GSDs are often ultrasonographically detectible by early midtrimester, dilation and evacuation (D&E) is the method of choice for elective termination of pregnancy in many institutions. However, because the diagnosis of the lethal GSDs relies heavily upon radiologic examination of fetal remains, reaching an accurate diagnosis in this setting can be challenging. We report an autopsy case of a fetus delivered by D&E at 15 4/7 weeks gestation with radiologic, histologic, and genetic findings compatible with achondrogenesis type 2 and discuss an evidence-based differential diagnostic approach to lethal GSDs terminated by early midtrimester D&E.

  15. Double-balloon enteroscopy: Indications, approaches, diagnostic and therapeutic yield, and safety. Early experience at a single center.

    PubMed

    García-Correa, J J E; Ramírez-García, J J; García-Contreras, L F; Fuentes-Orozco, C; Irusteta-Jiménez, L; Michel-Espinoza, L R; Carballo Uribe, A S; Torres Chávez, J A; González-Ojeda, A

    2017-05-12

    Double-balloon enteroscopy has been improving the visualization of the entire intestine for more than a decade. It is a complementary method in the study of intestinal diseases that enables biopsies to be taken and treatments to be administered. Our aim was to describe its main indications, insertion routes, diagnostic/therapeutic yield, and complications. All patients referred to our unit with suspected small bowel pathology were included. The insertion route (oral/anal) was determined through diagnostic suspicion. The variables measured were: insertion route, small bowel examination extent, endoscopic diagnosis/treatment, biopsy/histopathology report, complications, and surgical findings. The study included 28 double-balloon enteroscopies performed on 23 patients, of which 10 were women and 13 were men (mean age of 52.95 years). The oral approach was the most widely used (n=21), the main indication was overt small bowel bleeding (n=16), and the general diagnostic yield was 65.21%. The therapeutic intervention rate was 39.1% and the procedure was effective in all the cases. The most widely used treatment was argon plasma therapy (n=7). The complication rate was 8.6%; one patient presented with low blood pressure due to active bleeding and another had deep mucosal laceration caused by the argon plasma. Double-balloon enteroscopy is a safe and efficacious method for the study and management of small bowel diseases, with an elevated diagnostic and therapeutic yield. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-02-15

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, "Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?" The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call 'reasoning') to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player's brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.

  17. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-02-01

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.

  18. Collective Intelligence: Aggregation of Information from Neighbors in a Guessing Game

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Toni; Zamora, Jordi; Eguíluz, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Bayesian description captures the behavior pattern the individuals follow in aggregating information from neighbors to make decisions. In comparison with other simple decision models, the strategy followed by the players reveals a suboptimal performance of the collective. Our contribution provides the basis for the micro-macro connection between individual based descriptions and collective phenomena. PMID:27093274

  19. Quantum-mechanical machinery for rational decision-making in classical guessing game

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Pawłowski, Marcin; Ham, Byoung S.; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2016-01-01

    In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, “Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?” The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call ‘reasoning’) to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player’s brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences. PMID:26875685

  20. Evaluation of Tumor-Derived Exosomal miRNA as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiance; Chen, Yanfan; Chen, Hanbin; Fei, Shaoran; Chen, Didi; Cai, Xiaona; Liu, Linger; Lin, Baochai; Su, Huafang; Zhao, Lihao; Su, Meng; Pan, Huanle; Shen, Lanxiao; Xie, Deyao; Xie, Congying

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: To identify tumor-derived exosomal biomarkers that are able to discriminate between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a noninvasive method in the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Experimental Design: Tumor-derived exosomes from the plasma of early-stage NSCLC patients were isolated. Exosomal miRNA profiling of 46 stage I NSCLC patients and 42 healthy individuals was performed using miRNA-seq to identify and validate adenocarcinoma- and SCC-specific miRNAs. The diagnostic accuracy of select miRNAs was tested further with an additional 60 individuals.Results: There were 11 and 6 miRNAs expressed at remarkably higher levels, 13 and 8 miRNAs expressed at lower levels in adenocarcinoma and SCC patients, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. Distinct adenocarcinoma- and SCC-specific exosomal miRNAs were validated. The reliability of miRNA-seq data was verified with several demonstrated diagnostic potential miRNAs for NSCLC and other carcinomas, as reported in previous studies, such as let-7, miR-21, miR-24, and miR-486. The results indicated that miR-181-5p, miR-30a-3p, miR-30e-3p, and miR-361-5p were adenocarcinoma-specific, and miR-10b-5p, miR-15b-5p, and miR-320b were SCC-specific. The diagnostic accuracy of three combination miRNA panels was evaluated using an AUC value of 0.899, 0.936, and 0.911 for detecting NSCLC, adenocarcinoma, and SCC, respectively.Conclusions: Tumor-derived exosomal miRNAs, adenocarcinoma-specific miR-181-5p, miR-30a-3p, miR-30e-3p and miR-361-5p, and SCC-specific miR-10b-5p, miR-15b-5p, and miR-320b were observed by next-generation sequencing, and their diagnostic accuracy were verified. These miRNAs may be promising and effective candidates in the development of highly sensitive, noninvasive biomarkers for early NSCLC diagnosis. Clin Cancer Res; 23(17); 5311-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  2. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a diagnostic tool for retinal degeneration reveals a much higher detection rate in early-onset disease

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Morag E; Downes, Susan M; Copley, Richard R; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Hudspith, Karl AZ; Kwasniewska, Alexandra; Davies, Wayne IL; Hankins, Mark W; Packham, Emily R; Clouston, Penny; Seller, Anneke; Wilkie, Andrew OM; Taylor, Jenny C; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Németh, Andrea H

    2013-01-01

    Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) is a common cause of visual impairment (prevalence ∼1/3500). There is considerable phenotype and genotype heterogeneity, making a specific diagnosis very difficult without molecular testing. We investigated targeted capture combined with next-generation sequencing using Nimblegen 12plex arrays and the Roche 454 sequencing platform to explore its potential for clinical diagnostics in two common types of IRD, retinitis pigmentosa and cone-rod dystrophy. 50 patients (36 unknowns and 14 positive controls) were screened, and pathogenic mutations were identified in 25% of patients in the unknown, with 53% in the early-onset cases. All patients with new mutations detected had an age of onset <21 years and 44% had a family history. Thirty-one percent of mutations detected were novel. A de novo mutation in rhodopsin was identified in one early-onset case without a family history. Bioinformatic pipelines were developed to identify likely pathogenic mutations and stringent criteria were used for assignment of pathogenicity. Analysis of sequencing metrics revealed significant variability in capture efficiency and depth of coverage. We conclude that targeted capture and next-generation sequencing are likely to be very useful in a diagnostic setting, but patients with earlier onset of disease are more likely to benefit from using this strategy. The mutation-detection rate suggests that many patients are likely to have mutations in novel genes. PMID:22968130

  3. Superior early diagnostic performance of a sensitive cardiac troponin assay as compared to a standard troponin test in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pracoń, Radosław; Kruk, Mariusz; Jakubczak, Barbara; Demkow, Marcin; Bilińska, Zofia T

    2012-01-01

    troponin test (82%, 81%, 78%, and 85% respectively). The newer generation sensitive cardiac troponin assay presented superior diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of AMI compared to the standard troponin test in a single reading at admission with improved sensitivity and specificity. The sensitive troponin assay has the potential to improve early detection and/or exclusion of AMI.

  4. Identification of a three-miRNA signature as a blood-borne diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background The subtypes of NSCLC have unique characteristics of pathogenic mechanism and responses to targeted therapies. Thus, non-invasive markers for diagnosis of different subtypes of NSCLC at early stage are needed. Results Based on the results from the screening and validation process, 3 miRNAs (miR-532, miR-628-3p and miR-425-3p) were found to display significantly different expression levels in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, as compared to those in healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that the miRNA–based biomarker could distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from healthy controls with high AUC (0.974), sensitivity (91.5%), and specificity (97.8%). Importantly, these three miRNAs could also distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from lung benigh diseases and other subtypes of lung cancer. Methods Two hundreds and one early-stage lung adenocarcinoma cases and one hundreds seventy eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited to this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. A risk score model was established to evaluate the diagnostic value of the plasma miRNA profiling system. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that the 3 miRNA–based biomarker might serve as a novel non-invasive approach for diagnosis of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27036025

  5. The Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method enables the rapid purification of methylpyridoxine regioisomers by countercurrent chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J. Brent; Klein, Larry L.; McAlpine, James B.; Lankin, David C.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The TLC-based Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method was employed for countercurrent chromatography solvent system selection, in order to separate the three synthetic isomers: 3-O-methylpyridoxine, 4′-O-methylpyridoxine (ginkgotoxin) and 5′-O-methylpyridoxine. The Rf values of the three isomers indicated that ChMWat +2 (chloroformmethanol-water 10:5:5, v/v/v) was appropriate for the countercurrent chromatography. The isomer separation was highly selective and demonstrated that the TLC-based GUESS method can accelerate solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography. Accordingly, the study re-emphasizes the practicality of TLC as a tool to facilitate the rapid development of new countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography methods for this solvent system. Purity and structure characterization of all samples was performed by quantitative 1H NMR. PMID:26680272

  6. The Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method enables the rapid purification of methylpyridoxine regioisomers by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J Brent; Klein, Larry L; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2015-12-24

    The TLC-based Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method was employed for countercurrent chromatography solvent system selection, in order to separate the three synthetic isomers: 3-O-methylpyridoxine, 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (ginkgotoxin), and 5'-O-methylpyridoxine. The Rf values of the three isomers indicated that ChMWat+2 (chloroform-methanol-water 10:5:5, v/v/v) was appropriate for the countercurrent separation. The isomer separation was highly selective and demonstrated that the TLC-based GUESS method can accelerate solvent system selection for countercurrent separation. Accordingly, the study re-emphasizes the practicality of TLC as a tool to facilitate the rapid development of new countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography methods for this solvent system. Purity and structure characterization of all samples was performed by quantitative (1)H NMR.

  7. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA-950) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P < 0.0001) of tomosynthesis than radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA-950. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA-950. • Tomosynthesis showed significantly better diagnostic performance for pulmonary emphysema than radiography. • Interobserver agreement for tomosynthesis was significantly higher than that for radiography. • Sensitivity increased with increasing LAA -950 in both tomosynthesis and radiography. • Tomosynthesis imparts a similar radiation dose to two projection chest radiography. • Radiation dose and cost of tomosynthesis are lower than those of MDCT.

  8. Implantable device diagnostics on day of discharge identify heart failure patients at increased risk for early readmission for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Small, Roy S; Whellan, David J; Boyle, Andrew; Sarkar, Shantanu; Koehler, Jodi; Warman, Eduardo N; Abraham, William T

    2014-01-01

    Aims We hypothesized that diagnostic data in implantable devices evaluated on the day of discharge from a heart failure hospitalization (HFH) can identify patients at risk for HF readmission (HFR) within 30 days. Methods and results In this retrospective analysis of four studies enrolling patients with CRT devices, we identified patients with a HFH, device data on the day of discharge, and 30-day post-discharge clinical follow-up. Four diagnostic criteria were evaluated on the discharge day: (i) intrathoracic impedance >8 Ω below reference impedance; (ii) AF burden >6 h; (iii) CRT pacing <90%; and (iv) night heart rate >80 b.p.m. Patients were considered to have higher risk for HFR if ≥2 criteria were met, average risk if 1 criterion was met, and lower risk if no criteria were met. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the groups. The data cohort consisted of a total of 265 HFHs in 175 patients, of which 36 (14%) were followed by HFR. On the discharge day, ≥2 criteria were met in 43 (16% of 265 HFHs), only 1 criterion was met in 92 (35%), and none of the four criteria were met in 130 HFHs (49%); HFR rates were 28, 16, and 7%, respectively. HFH with ≥2 criteria met was five times more likely to have HFR compared with HFH with no criteria met (adjusted hazard ratio 5.0; 95% confidence interval 1.9–13.5, P = 0.001). Conclusion Device-derived diagnostic criteria evaluated on the day of discharge identified patients at significantly higher risk of HFR. PMID:24464745

  9. Implantable device diagnostics on day of discharge identify heart failure patients at increased risk for early readmission for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Small, Roy S; Whellan, David J; Boyle, Andrew; Sarkar, Shantanu; Koehler, Jodi; Warman, Eduardo N; Abraham, William T

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that diagnostic data in implantable devices evaluated on the day of discharge from a heart failure hospitalization (HFH) can identify patients at risk for HF readmission (HFR) within 30 days. In this retrospective analysis of four studies enrolling patients with CRT devices, we identified patients with a HFH, device data on the day of discharge, and 30-day post-discharge clinical follow-up. Four diagnostic criteria were evaluated on the discharge day: (i) intrathoracic impedance>8 Ω below reference impedance; (ii) AF burden>6 h; (iii) CRT pacing<90%; and (iv) night heart rate>80 b.p.m. Patients were considered to have higher risk for HFR if ≥2 criteria were met, average risk if 1 criterion was met, and lower risk if no criteria were met. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the groups. The data cohort consisted of a total of 265 HFHs in 175 patients, of which 36 (14%) were followed by HFR. On the discharge day, ≥2 criteria were met in 43 (16% of 265 HFHs), only 1 criterion was met in 92 (35%), and none of the four criteria were met in 130 HFHs (49%); HFR rates were 28, 16, and 7%, respectively. HFH with ≥2 criteria met was five times more likely to have HFR compared with HFH with no criteria met (adjusted hazard ratio 5.0; 95% confidence interval 1.9–13.5, P=0.001). Device-derived diagnostic criteria evaluated on the day of discharge identified patients at significantly higher risk of HFR. © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced Liver MR Imaging versus Multidetector CT in the Detection of Dysplastic Nodules and Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Ram; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Hur, Bo Yun; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kyung Boon; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of contrast material-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CT) in the detection of borderline hepatocellular nodules in patients with liver cirrhosis and to determine the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) categories of these detected nodules. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the informed consent requirement. Sixty-eight patients with pathologically proven dysplastic nodules (DNs) (low-grade DNs, n = 20; high-grade DNs, n = 17), early hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) (n = 42), or progressed HCCs (n = 33) underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and multidetector CT. An additional 57 patients without any DNs or HCCs in the explanted livers were included as control subjects. Three radiologists independently graded the presence of liver nodules on a five-point confidence scale and assigned LI-RADS categories by using imaging findings. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics (JAFROC) software was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of each modality in lesion detection. Results Reader-averaged figures of merit estimated with JAFROC software to detect hepatocellular nodules were 0.774 for multidetector CT and 0.842 for MR imaging (P = .002). Readers had significantly higher detection sensitivity for early HCCs with MR imaging than with multidetector CT (78.6% vs 52.4% [P = .001], 71.4% vs 50.0% [P = .011], and 73.8% vs 50.0% [P = .001], respectively). A high proportion of overall detected early HCCs at multidetector CT (59.4%) and MR imaging (72.3%) were categorized as LI-RADS category 4. Most early HCCs (76.2%) and high-grade DNs (82.4%) demonstrated hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images. In total, 30 more LI-RADS category 4 early HCCs were identified with MR imaging than with multidetector CT across all readers

  11. Initial guess by improved population-based intelligent algorithms for large inter-frame deformation measurement using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jia-qing; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Li-ping; Ma, Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has received a widespread research and application in experimental mechanics. In DIC, the performance of subpixel registration algorithm (e.g., Newton-Raphson method, quasi-Newton method) relies heavily on the initial guess of deformation. In the case of small inter-frame deformation, the initial guess could be found by simple search scheme, the coarse-fine search for instance. While for large inter-frame deformation, it is difficult for simple search scheme to robustly estimate displacement parameters and deformation parameters simultaneously with low computational cost. In this paper, we proposed three improving strategies, i.e. Q-stage evolutionary strategy (T), parameter control strategy (C) and space expanding strategy (E), and then combined them into three population-based intelligent algorithms (PIAs), i.e. genetic algorithm (GA), differential evolution (DE) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), and finally derived eighteen different algorithms to calculate the initial guess for qN. The eighteen algorithms were compared in three sets of experiments including large rigid body translation, finite uniaxial strain and large rigid body rotation, and the results showed the effectiveness of proposed improving strategies. Among all compared algorithms, DE-TCE is the best which is robust, convenient and efficient for large inter-frame deformation measurement.

  12. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  13. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  14. Diagnostic Prevalence Rates from Early to Mid-Adolescence among Indigenous Adolescents: First Results from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; Yu, Mansoo; Johnson, Kurt D.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Walls, Melissa L.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates change in occurrences for mental and substance abuse children between early and mid-adolescence among a group of indigenous adolescents. Findings show a dramatic increase in occurrence rates for substance abuse disorder and conduct disorder, and a mental health crisis on indigenous reservations and reserves indicating a need…

  15. Kappa Group: The initial guess. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Kappa Aerospace presents their Aeroworld Aircraft, the Initial Guess (IG). This aircraft is designed to generate profit in the market which is currently controlled by the train and boat industry. The main priority of the design team was to develop an extremely efficient aircraft that could be sold at a reasonable price. The IG offers a quick and safe alternative to the existing means of transportation at a competitive price. The cruise velocity of 28 ft/sec. allows all flights to be between 20 and 45 minutes, which is a remarkable savings in time compared to travel by boat or train. The IG is propelled by a single Astro-05 engine with a Zinger 10-6 propeller. The Astro-05 is not an extremely powerful engine; however, it provides enough thrust to meet the design and safety requirements. The major advantage of the Astro-05 is that it is the most efficient engine available. The fuel efficiency of the Astro-05 is what puts the aircraft ahead of the competition. The money saved on an efficient engine can be passed on as lower ticket prices or increased revenue. The IG has a payload of 56 passengers and a wingspan of 7 ft. The 7 ft. wingspan allows the aircraft to fit into the gates of all of the cities that are targeted. Future endeavors of Kappa Aerospace will include fitting a stretch version of the IG with a larger propulsion system. This derivative aircraft will be able to carry more passengers and will be placed on the routes which have the greatest demand for travel. The fuselage and empennage are made of a wooden truss configuration, while the wing is made of a rib/spare configuration. The stress carrying elements are made of spruce, the nonstress carrying elements are made of balsa. The wing is removable for easy access into the fuselage. The easy access to the batteries will keep maintenance costs down.

  16. Testing versus guessing blood glucose values: impact on self-care behaviors in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Jeremy; Stenger, Patricia; Schachner, Holly C; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee; Pardo, Scott; Edelman, Steven V

    2014-09-01

    To assess differences between estimated blood glucose values and those measured on a blood glucose meter and the impact on self-care behavior in type 2 diabetes. Subjects ≥18 years with type 2 diabetes (N = 297) attending a Taking Control of Your Diabetes conference were asked questions about diabetes management and to estimate their current blood glucose. Study staff tested subjects' blood glucose on a meter. After seeing the result, subjects were again asked questions on diabetes management. NCT01453413. The percentage of subject blood glucose estimations that were outside ISO 15197:2003 accuracy criteria (>±15 mg/dL or >±20% of meter glucose values). Nearly half (46%) of subjects estimated blood glucose values outside ISO 15197:2003 accuracy criteria. Time since last blood glucose test, time since last meal, testing frequency, and A1C did not have an effect on differences between estimated blood glucose values and meter results. In the questionnaire before blood glucose testing, most subjects strongly agreed, agreed, or neither agreed nor disagreed that 'I make decisions about my diabetes, such as my food intake or my insulin dose even when I do not test my blood sugar' (71%) and 'My body tells me without testing if my blood sugar is low or high' (77%). After blood glucose testing, 99% of subjects strongly agreed, agreed, or neither agreed nor disagreed that 'Knowing my blood sugar by checking could help me make different diabetes decisions'. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an important component of diabetes self-management. Testing rather than guessing blood glucose values is important to obtain accurate results and inform people with type 2 diabetes to make effective, appropriate diabetes management decisions. A potential limitation of this study is that the subject population may not be representative of the general population of people with diabetes; however, the conference setting may attract a more motivated population, which could

  17. Diagnostic yield of primary circulating tumor cells in women suspected of breast cancer: the BEST (Breast Early Screening Test) study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nigel P; Miranda, Roxana; Ruiz, Amparo; Droguett, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic yield of primary circulating tumor cells in women with suspicion of breast cancer, detected as a result of an abnormal mammography. Consecutive women presenting for breast biopsy as a result of a mammogram BiRADs of 3 or more, had an 8 ml blood sample taken for primary circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection. Mononuclear cells were obtained using differential gel centrifugation and CTCs identified using standard immunocytochemistry using anti-mammoglobin. A test was determined to be positive if 1 CTC was detected. A total of 144 women with a mean age of 54.7 ± 15.6 years participated, 78/144 (53.0%) had breast cancer on biopsy, 65/140 (46.3%) benign pathologies and 1(0.7%) non-Hogkins lymphoma. Increasing BiRADs scores were associated with increased cancer detection (p=0.004, RR 1.00, 4.24, 8.50). CTC mammoglobin positive had a sensitivity of 81.1% and specificity of 90.9%, with positive and negative predictive values of 90.9% and 81.1% respectively. Mammoglobin positive CTCs detected 87% of invasive cancers, while poorly differentiated cancers were negative for mammoglobin. Only 50% of in situ cancers and none of the intraductal cancers had CTCs detected. Menopausal status did not affect the diagnostic yield of the CTC test, which was higher in women with BiRADS 4 mammograms. There was a significant trend (p<0.0001 Chi squared for trends) in CTC detection frequency from intraductal, in situ and invasive (OR 1.00, 8.00, 472.00). The use of primary CTC detection in women suspected of breast cancer has potential uses, especially with invasive cancer, but it failed to detect intra-ductal cancer and 50% of in situ cancer. There was no difference in the diagnostic yield between pre and post menopausal women. To confirm its use in reducing biopsies in women with BIRADs 4a mammagrams and in the detection of interval invasive breast cancer, larger studies are needed.

  18. Plasma miR-324-3p and miR-1285 as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for early stage lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Hua; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background Specific biomarkers for early detection and outcome prediction of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are still lacking. This study assessed the differentially expressed miRNAs as potential biomarkers for early stage LSCC. Results Base on the results of multi-phase study, we found that miR-324-3p was significantly up-regulated, whereas mir-1285 was significantly down-regulated in plasma of stage I LSCC patients compared to healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that AUC of miR-324-3p and miR-1285 were 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. The combination of these two miRNAs could further improve the diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.89). The multivariate analysis revealed that plasma miR-324-3p level was an independent prognostic predictor for early stage LSCC. Methods 395 patients and 195 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. We also evaluated the association of candidate miRNAs with overall survival of early stage LSCC patients. Finally, the target genes of the candidate miRNAs were analyzed using public available databases and bioinformatics methods. Conclusions The current study suggests that plasma miR-324-3p and miR-1285 levels could serve as LSCC early detection markers while miR-324-3p may serve as a prognostic marker for LSCC patients. PMID:27517633

  19. Prospective implementation of correction for guessing in oral and maxillofacial pathology multiple-choice examinations: did student performance improve?

    PubMed

    Prihoda, Thomas J; Pinckard, R Neal; McMahan, C Alex; Littlefield, John H; Jones, Anne Cale

    2008-10-01

    A standard correction for random guessing on multiple-choice examinations was implemented prospectively in an Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology course for second-year dental students. The correction was a weighted scoring formula for points awarded for correct answers, incorrect answers, and unanswered questions such that the expected gain in the multiple-choice examination score due to random guessing was zero. An equally weighted combination of four examinations using equal numbers of short-answer questions and multiple-choice questions was used for student evaluation. Scores on both types of examinations, after implementation of the correction for guessing on the multiple-choice component (academic year 2005-06), were compared with the previous year (academic year 2004-05) when correction for guessing was not used for student evaluation but was investigated retrospectively. Academically, the two classes were comparable as indicated by the grade distributions in a General Pathology course taken immediately prior to the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology course. Agreement between scores on short-answer examinations and multiple-choice examinations was improved in the 2005-06 class compared with the 2004-05 class. Importantly, the test score means were higher on both the short-answer and multiple-choice examinations in the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology course, and the standard deviations were significantly smaller in 2005-06 compared to 2004-05; these differences reflected an upward shift in the lower part of the grade distributions to higher grades in 2005-06. Furthermore, when students were classified by their grade in the General Pathology course, students receiving a C (numerical grade of 70-79 percent) in General Pathology had significantly improved performance in the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology course in 2005-06, relative to 2004-05, on both short-answer and multiple-choice examinations representing an aptitude-treatment interaction. We interpret this

  20. Procalcitonin as the biomarker of inflammation in diagnostics of pediatric appendicular peritonitis and for the prognosis of early postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Chakhunashvili, L; Inasaridze, A; Svanidze, S; Samkharadze, J; Chkhaidze, I

    2005-12-01

    A total of 43 patients up to 15 years, who underwent appendectomy with preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis have been studied at M. Guramishvili Pediatric Clinic in 2004-2005 years. Procalcitonin concentration has been defined in patients' blood sera using the immunoluminometric method (LUMITest PCT, BRAHMS Diagnostika, Berlin, Germany). Analysis of procalcitonin in different groups of patients has shown that increase in procalcitonin correlates with disease severity, and maximally increases in case of peritonitis due to acute destructive appendicitis. The procalcitonin level can be used to confirm the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. It has been suggested that procalcitonin can be used not only as diagnostic marker for acute appendicitis but also as a prognostic marker of it's complications. Using of procalcitonin in case of acute appendicitis would help to carry out timely surgical interventions and predict disease complications.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C

    2017-03-01

    Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs' first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. There was an 8-9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, P<0.01). There was no associated increase of investigations ordered or consultation length. GPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C

    2017-01-01

    Background Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs’ first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. Aim To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Design and setting Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Method Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. Results There was an 8–9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, P<0.01). There was no associated increase of investigations ordered or consultation length. GPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. Conclusion The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. PMID:28137782

  3. Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Aziza, Faten A. M.; Hendawy, Seham H. M.; Namaky, Amira H. El; Ashry, Heba M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim:: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. Materials and Methods:: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS), crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC), and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC). Results:: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG) in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6%) and prevalence (95.40%) were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen. Conclusion:: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be done

  4. Diagnostic performance of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the detection of early respiratory changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Faria, A D; Lopes, A J; Jansen, J M; Pinheiro, G C; Melo, P L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical potential of the Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) in the detection of the early alterations in respiratory mechanics of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 36 individuals were analyzed, 18 healthy and 18 with RA. The clinical usefulness of the parameters was evaluated investigating sensibility (Se), specificity (Sp) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In the RA group, all the 3 studied parameters obtained high accuracy for clinical use (AUC>0.9), while in spirometric parameters, no parameter obtained appropriate accuracy for clinical use (AUC < 0.7). In conclusion, the parameters obtained by FOT presented adequate Se and Sp, indicating that this technique can be helpful in the evaluation of the early respiratory mechanical alterations in patients with RA.

  5. Left Ventricular Mass and Intrarenal Arterial Stiffness as Early Diagnostic Markers in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 due to Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Antonietta; Barilaro, Giuseppe; Barbano, Biagio; Romaniello, Antonella; Di Mario, Francesca; Quarta, Silvia; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Gianluca; Laviano, Alessandro; Amoroso, Antonio; Cianci, Rosario; Rosato, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes a group of conditions characterized by a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney in the course of a systemic disease. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is frequently involved in the etiology of acute and chronic CRS-5 among connective tissue diseases. In SSc patients, left ventricular mass (LVM) can be used as a marker of nutritional status and fibrosis, while altered intrarenal hemodynamic parameters are suggestive of early kidney involvement. Methods Forty-two consecutive patients with a diagnosis of SSc without cardiac and/or renal impairment were enrolled to assess whether cardiac muscle mass can be related to arterial stiffness. Thirty subjects matched for age and sex were also enrolled as healthy controls (HC). All patients performed echocardiography and renal ultrasound. Results Doppler indices of intrarenal stiffness and echocardiographic indices of LVM were significantly increased in SSc patients compared to HC. A positive correlation exists between LVM/body surface area and pulsatile index (p < 0.05, r = 0.36), resistive index (p < 0.05, r = 0.33) and systolic/diastolic ratio (p < 0.05, r = 0.38). Doppler indices of intrarenal stiffness and LVM indices were significantly higher in SSc patients with digital ulcers than in SSc patients without a digital ulcer history. Conclusions SSc is characterized by the presence of microvascular and multiorgan injury. An early cardiac and renal impairment is very common. LVM and intrarenal arterial stiffness can be considered as early markers of CRS onset. The clinical use of these markers permits a prompt identification of organ damage. An early diagnosis allows the appropriate setting of pharmacological management, by slowing disease progression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27022332

  6. The repeatability of three diagnostic methods (visual using ICDAS II, laser fluorescence, and radiographic) for early caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.

    2017-08-01

    Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (<0.7). Lecturer examiners showed the highest agreement followed by undergraduate students for inter-item correlation while the 2nd and 3rd reading of LF displays the best agreement. ICDAS II score favors more non-invasive treatment compared to LF. ICDAS II showed good repeatability except on buccal and lingual surfaces. In line with some of the previous study, ICDAS II is applicable for caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.

  7. [Efficacy of early invasive strategy of diagnostics and treatment of unstable angina at the background of preexisting ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Gazarian, G A; Zakharov, I V; Mikailova, N G; Prelovskaia, G Iu; Golikov, A P

    2012-01-01

    Study aim was assessment of efficacy of early invasive tactics of treatment of patients with various forms of unstable angina at the background of preexisting ischemic heart disease. We compared noninvasive and invasive estimation of risk in 354 patients admitted to the N.V.Sklifosofsky Institute of Urgent Aid in 2002 to 2008. Percutaneous coronary interventions on infarct related artery (IRA) during 1 procedure were carried out in 144 patients (41%), indications to coronary artery (CA) bypass surgery were found in 167 patients (47%), 43 patients (12%) were treated conservatively. Coronary angiography performed in the first 48 hours gives an opportunity to determine indications to myocardial revascularization, to avoid discrepancy between choice of treatment tactics and noninvasive assessment of risk. The latter can be used with the aim of optimization of timing of early invasive strategy. In high risk it is expedient to employ it immediately, in medium - without delay allowed in recommended time intervals. Rentgenoendovascular restoration of IRA conducted during one procedure is an optimal type of myocardial revascularization in many patients including those with multiple CA involvement. Method of choice in patients with stenoses of left CA trunk or its equivalents is surgical revascularization of the myocardium. Detection of indications for myocardial revascularization in patients with unstable angina including those at medium and low risk confirms necessity of application of early invasive strategy as conventional strategy ensuring timeliness of pathogenetic treatment. Absence of indications to myocardial revascularization in a limited group of patients gives an opportunity to clarify diagnosis, prescribe drug therapy and prevent unjustified hospitalizations.

  8. Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 as the early diagnostic biomarker for sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Panich, Tanaporn; Chancharoenthana, Wiwat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Issara-Amphorn, Jiraphorn; Hirankarn, Nattiya; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-07

    An early sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (sepsis-AKI) biomarker is currently in needed. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is a candidate of sepsis-AKI biomarker but with different cut-point values. Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 (uATF3) has been mentioned as an interesting biomarker. We conducted experiments in mice and a prospective, multicenter study in patients as a proof of concept that urine exosome is an interesting biomarker. An early expression of ATF3 in kidney of CD-1 mice at 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture implied the possibility of uATF3 as an early sepsis-AKI biomarker. Increase serum creatinine (Scr) ≥0.3 mg/dL from the baseline was used as an AKI diagnosis and urine was analyzed for uATF3 and uNGAL. Patients with baseline Scr at admission ≥1.5 mg/dL were excluded. The analysis showed higher Scr, uNGAL and uATF3 in patients with sepsis-AKI in comparison with patients with sepsis-non-AKI and healthy volunteers. A fair correlation, r(2) = 0.47, between uATF3 and uNGAL was showed in sepsis-AKI group with Scr ≥2 mg/dL. To see if uATF3 could be an early sepsis-AKI biomarker, urine sample was collected daily during the first week of the admission. In sepsis-AKI and sepsis-non-AKI groups, uNGAL were 367 ± 43 ng/mL and 183 ± 23 ng/mL, respectively; and uATF3 were 19 ± 4 ng/mL and 1.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. With the mean value of uNGAL and uATF3 in sepsis AKI as a cut-off level, AUROC of uNGAL and uATF3 were 64% (95% CI 0.54 to 0.74) and 84% (95% CI 0.77 to 0.91), respectively. Urine exosome is an interesting source of urine biomarker and uATF3 is an interesting sepsis-AKI biomarker.

  9. Comparison of Five Diagnostic Modalities for Direct Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in Patients with Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liveris, Dionysios; Schwartz, Ira; McKenna, Donna; Nowakowski, John; Nadelman, Robert; DeMarco, Joseph; Iyer, Radha; Bittker, Susan; Cooper, Denise; Holmgren, Diane; Wormser, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease, the most commonly reported tick-borne infection in North America, is caused by infection with the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Although an accurate clinical diagnosis can often be made based on the presence of erythema migrans, in research studies microbiologic or molecular microbiologic confirmation of the diagnosis may be required. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of five direct diagnostic methods (culture and nested PCR of a 2 mm skin biopsy specimen, nested PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) performed on the same 1 mL aliquot of plasma and a novel qPCR-blood culture method) in 66 untreated adult patients with erythema migrans. One or more these tests were positive in 93.9% of the patients. Culture was more sensitive than PCR for both skin and blood, but the difference was only statistically significant for blood samples (p< 0.005). Blood culture was significantly more likely to be positive in patients with multiple erythema migrans skin lesions compared to those with a single lesion (p=0.001). Positive test results among the 48 patients for whom all five assays were performed invariably included either a positive blood or skin culture. The results of this study demonstrate that direct detection methods such as PCR and culture are highly sensitive in untreated adult patients with erythema migrans. This enabled microbiologic or molecular microbiologic confirmation of the diagnosis of B. burgdorferi infection in all but four (6.1%) of the 66 patients evaluated. PMID:22571973

  10. Diagnostic Value of a Tablet-Based Drawing Task for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer's Disease from Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable delay in the diagnosis of dementia, which may reduce the effectiveness of available treatments. Thus, it is of great interest to develop fast and easy to perform, non-invasive and non-expensive diagnostic measures for the early detection of cognitive impairment and dementia. Here we investigate movement kinematics between 20 patients with early dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 20 cognitively healthy control (HC) individuals while copying a three-dimensional house using a digitizing tablet. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyzes have been conducted to explore whether alterations in movement kinematics could be used to discriminate patients with aMCI and eDAT from healthy individuals. Time-in-air (i.e., transitioning from one stroke to the next without touching the surface) differed significantly between patients with aMCI, eDAT, and HCs demonstrating an excellent sensitivity and a moderate specificity to discriminate aMCI subjects from normal elderly and an excellent sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients affected by mild Alzheimer's disease from healthy individuals. Time-on-surface (i.e., time while stylus is touching the surface) differed only between HCs and patients with eDAT but not between HCs and patients with aMCI. Furthermore, total-time (i.e., time-in-air plus time-on-surface) did not differ between patients with aMCI and early dementia due to AD. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity to measure a broad range of visuoconstructive abilities that may be used as a fast and easy to perform screening instrument for the early detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in primary care.

  11. Contribution of early SPECT/CT to (99m)Tc-MIBI double phase scintigraphy in primary hyperparathyroidism: Diagnostic value and correlation between uptake and biological parameters.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, P; Díaz-Soto, G; Montes, A A; Villanueva, J G; Cobo, A; Gamazo, C; Ruiz, M Á; González-Selma, M L

    To evaluate the value of (99m)Tc-MIBI double-phase scintigraphy (DPS) and early SPECT/CT in the pre-surgical assessment of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Also, to calculate the correlation between uptake and some biological parameters. Forty patients with PHPT were included: 37 solitary adenomas, 1 hyperplasia, and 2 double adenomas. Fifteen patients had ectopic glands. DPS and early SPECT/CT were acquired in all patients. Ultrasound was performed in 31/40. All patients underwent surgery, intra-operative iPTH measurements, and histopathological examinations. Qualitative DPS uptake was assessed and correlated to pre-surgical calcium, iPTH levels, gland weight, and maximum diameter. In the planar study, there were 23 positive cases, 8 doubtful, and 9 negatives. With the SPECT/CT, 8/9 negatives cases were located. All doubtful cases were confirmed as positives. Gland location improved in 16 cases (12 ectopic). DPS+SPECT/CT failed to detect a solitary adenoma and at least one gland in three cases of multiglandular disease (MGD). The sensitivity by patient was: DPS 72.5%, DPS+SPECT/CT 90%, and ultrasound 42%. Ultrasound and scintigraphy (DPS+SPECT/CT) were concordant in 16/31 patients. For the rest of them, scintigraphy proved correct in 14/15, and both techniques failed in one case. There was a significant correlation between level of uptake and iPTH level, gland weight, and maximum diameter. Early SPECT/CT improves sensitivity and the locating of parathyroid pathological glands and increases diagnostic confidence. iPTH level, glandular size, and weight are related to the qualitative assessment of (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake in early DPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy and Confidence in the Clinical Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Wyman-Chick, Kathryn A; Martin, Phillip K; Barrett, Matthew J; Manning, Carol A; Sperling, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is present in up to 34% of patients with early-stage Parkinson disease (PD); however, it is difficult to detect subtle impairment without objective cognitive testing. Data were obtained from the Parkinson Progression Marker Initiative. All 341 participants were administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a brief neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified as PD-MCI if MoCA was <26 or if they scored ≥1 standard deviation below the normative mean in 2 or more domains, based upon established criteria. The sensitivity/specificity for the clinical detection of PD-MCI was determined. Overall accuracy for clinical detection of PD-MCI was 67.4%. Although clinical determination was highly specific (96.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.98), sensitivity was poor (32.0%; 95% CI: 0.25-0.40). Identifying MCI in early-stage PD based on clinical interview alone appears to be insufficient. The inclusion of objective cognitive tests allowing for normative sample comparisons is needed to increase the detection of cognitive impairment in this population.

  13. Research on optical properties of dental enamel for early caries diagnostics using a He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Li; Li, Song-zhan

    2008-12-01

    A new and non-invasive method adapted for optical diagnosis of early caries is proposed by researching on the interaction mechanism of laser with dental tissue and relations of remitted light with optical properties of the tissue. This method is based on simultaneous analyses of the following parameters: probing radiation, backscattering and auto-fluorescence. Investigation was performed on 104 dental samples in vitro by using He-Ne laser (λ=632.8nm, 2.0+/-0.1mW) as the probing. Spectrums of all samples were obtained. Characteristic spectrums of dental caries in various stages (intact, initial, moderate and deep) were given. Using the back-reflected light to normalize the intensity of back-scattering and fluorescence, a quantitative diagnosis standard for different stages of caries is proposed. In order to verify the test, comparison research was conducted among artificial caries, morphological damaged enamel, dental calculus and intact tooth. Results show that variations in backscattering characteristic changes in bio-tissue morphological and the quantity of auto-fluorescence is correlated with concentration of anaerobic microflora in hearth of caries lesion. This method poses a high potential of diagnosing various stages of dental caries, and is more reliability to detect early caries, surface damage of health enamel and dental calculus.

  14. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Stephan; Preische, Oliver; Heymann, Petra; Elbing, Ulrich; Laske, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated and logistic regression analyses have been conducted for statistical analysis. Using dCDT, time-in-air was significantly increased in eDAT (70965.8 ms) compared to aMCI (54073.7 ms; p = 0.027) and HC (32315.6 ms; p < 0.001). In addition, time-in-air was significantly longer in patients with aMCI compared to HC (p = 0.003), even in the aMCI group with normal cCDT score (54141.8 ms; p < 0.001). Time-in-air using dCDT allowed discrimination of patients with aMCI from HCs with a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 72.2% while cCDT scoring revealed a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 83.3%. Most interestingly, time-in-air allowed even discrimination of aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores (80% from all aMCI patients) from HCs with a clinically relevant sensitivity of 80.8% and a specificity of 77.8%. A combination of dCDT variables and cCDT scores did not improve the discrimination of patients with aMCI from HC. In conclusion, assessment of time-in-air using dCDT yielded a higher diagnostic accuracy for discrimination of aMCI patients from HCs than the use of cCDT even in those aMCI patients with normal cCDT scores. Modern digitizing devices offer the opportunity

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of General Movements Assessment for diagnostic accuracy of detecting cerebral palsy early in an Australian context.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Catherine; Crowle, Cathryn; Goyen, Traci-Anne; Hardman, Caroline; Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Badawi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the General Movements Assessment (GMA) for estimating diagnostic accuracy in detecting cerebral palsy (CP) in an Australian context by a newly established NSW rater network. A prospective longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted. The GMA was blind-rated from conventional video by two independent certified raters, blinded to medical history. A third rater resolved disagreements. High-risk population screening for CP using the GMA during the fidgety period (12-20 weeks) was carried out in four neonatal intensive care units and one CP service over a 30-month period (2012-2013). Participants were 259 high-risk infants. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated with true positives defined as a confirmed diagnosis of CP from a medical doctor. Of the 259 infants assessed, 1-year follow-up data were available for 187. Of these, n = 48 had absent fidgety (high risk for CP), n = 138 had normal fidgety (low risk for CP), and n = 1 had abnormal fidgety (high risk for a neurological disorder). Of the 48 with absent fidgety movements, 39 had received a diagnosis of CP by 18 months and another 6 had an abnormal outcome. Of the n = 138 normal fidgety cases, n = 99 cases had a normal outcome, n = 38 had an abnormal outcome but not CP, and n = 1 had CP. For detecting CP, we had a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 94%. GMA was feasible in an Australian context and accurately identified CP with a sensitivity and specificity comparable with European standards and published neuroimaging data. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. [Antinuclear antibodies as early diagnostic criteria of developing collagen disease in quartz dust exposure--a case report].

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, J; Conrad, K; Frank, K H; Ziegler, H; Harzbecker, K; Ullmann, L; Lüthke, K

    1990-03-01

    One and a half years antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) against Scl-70 and U1-RNP were found in the serum of a quartz dust exposed worker before the clinical manifestation of the progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Only a discrete lung fibrosis and an enlargement of the heart was seen at the time of the first autoantibody detection. Because workers with an intensive and long-lasting quartz dust exposition take a high risk to develop PSS a sensitive ANA-screening is indicated at minimum suspicion of chronic collagen disease. The detection of a high ANA-titer in a clinical healthy person may give a hint for the possible future development of such a disease and requires the observation of the clinical course and the paraclinical and immunological parameters. A lung fibrosis and/or an enlargement of the heart in X-ray photographs would indicate visceral early manifestations of the PSS before skin symptoms appear.

  17. Early intervention in Alzheimer’s disease: a health economic study of the effects of diagnostic timing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intervention and treatment in Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD-dementia) can be cost effective but the majority of patients are not diagnosed in a timely manner. Technology is now available that can enable the earlier detection of cognitive loss associated with incipient dementia, offering the potential for earlier intervention in the UK health care system. This study aimed to determine to what extent the timing of an intervention affects its cost-effectiveness. Methods Using published data describing cognitive decline in the years prior to an AD diagnosis, we modelled the effects on healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life years of hypothetical symptomatic and disease-modifying interventions. Early and standard interventions were assumed to have equal clinical effects, but the early intervention could be applied up to eight years prior to standard diagnosis. Results A symptomatic treatment which immediately improved cognition by one MMSE point and reduced in efficacy over three years, would produce a maximum net benefit when applied at the earliest timepoint considered, i.e. eight years prior to standard diagnosis. In this scenario, the net benefit was reduced by around 17% for every year that intervention was delayed. In contrast, for a disease-modifying intervention which halted cognitive decline for one year, economic benefits would peak when treatment effects were applied two years prior to standard diagnosis. In these models, the maximum net benefit of the disease modifying intervention was fifteen times larger than that of the symptomatic treatment. Conclusion Timeliness of intervention is likely to have an important impact on the cost-effectiveness of both current and future treatments. Healthcare policy should aim to optimise the timing of AD-dementia diagnosis, which is likely to necessitate detecting and treating patients several years prior to current clinical practice. PMID:24885474

  18. Early Diagnosis of Neuropathy in Leprosy—Comparing Diagnostic Tests in a Large Prospective Study (the INFIR Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    van Brakel, Wim H.; Nicholls, Peter G.; Wilder-Smith, Einar P.; Das, Loretta; Barkataki, Pramila; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Leprosy is the most frequent treatable neuromuscular disease. Yet, every year, thousands of patients develop permanent peripheral nerve damage as a result of leprosy. Since early detection and treatment of neuropathy in leprosy has strong preventive potential, we conducted a cohort study to determine which test detects this neuropathy earliest. Methods and Findings One hundred and eighty-eight multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients were selected from a cohort of 303 and followed for 2 years after diagnosis. Nerve function was evaluated at each visit using nerve conduction (NC), quantitative thermal sensory testing and vibrometry, dynamometry, monofilament testing (MFT), and voluntary muscle testing (VMT). Study outcomes were sensory and motor impairment detected by MFT or VMT. Seventy-four of 188 patients (39%) had a reaction, neuritis, or new nerve function impairment (NFI) event during a 2-year follow-up. Sub-clinical neuropathy was extensive (20%–50%), even in patients who did not develop an outcome event. Sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes, compound motor action potential (CMAP) velocities, and warm detection thresholds (WDT) were most frequently affected, with SNAP impairment frequencies ranging from 30% (median) to 69% (sural). Velocity was impaired in up to 43% of motor nerves. WDTs were more frequently affected than cold detection thresholds (29% versus 13%, ulnar nerve). Impairment of SNC and warm perception often preceded deterioration in MF or VMT scores by 12 weeks or more. Conclusions A large proportion of leprosy patients have subclinical neuropathy that was not evident when only MFT and VMT were used. SNC was the most frequently and earliest affected test, closely followed by WDT. They are promising tests for improving early detection of neuropathy, as they often became abnormal 12 weeks or more before an abnormal monofilament test. Changes in MFT and VMT score mirrored changes in neurophysiology, confirming their validity as

  19. A circulating miRNA signature as a diagnostic biomarker for non-invasive early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Ye; Jin, Xingyu; Wang, Zengwu; Wu, Yidi; Zhao, Deyao; Chen, Gang; Li, Deyu; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Huiqing; Xie, Yuntao; Liang, Zicai

    2015-11-01

    Novel, non-invasive biomarkers to diagnose breast cancer with high sensitivity and specificity are greatly desired. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) show potential for breast cancer detection, but the existing results appear to be mixed. Using microscale serum, we established a novel serum-direct multiplex detection assay based on RT-PCR (SdM-RT-PCR). Ninety-three miRNAs dysregulated or with functions in breast cancer were selected as candidates, and additional 3 miRNAs were chosen as endogenous controls. We first conducted miRNA profiling of these 96 miRNAs by SdM-RT-PCR using the sera of 25 breast cancer patients at diagnosis prior to treatment and 20 age-matched healthy controls. miRNAs showing significantly different expression levels between patients and controls were further analyzed using a logistic regression model. A miRNA signature was validated in an independent set of 128 serum samples composed of 76 breast cancer patients and 52 healthy controls. In the discovery stage, we identified 23 miRNAs as significantly dysregulated in breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Of these, 10 miRNAs were previously identified as dysregulated in breast cancer; 14 miRNAs remained significant after P-values were adjusted by both correction methods. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of these miRNAs separated patients from controls. Furthermore, the 3-miRNA signature (miR-199a, miR-29c, and miR-424) with the highest diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing breast cancer patients from controls by ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.888) was successfully confirmed in the validation set (AUC = 0.901). Our data demonstrate that the SdM-RT-PCR assay is an effective breast cancer profiling method that utilizes very small volumes and is compatible with Biobank. Furthermore, the identified 3-miRNA signature is a promising circulating biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis.

  20. Early sponges and toxic protists: possible sources of cryostane, an age diagnostic biomarker antedating Sturtian Snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Brocks, J J; Jarrett, A J M; Sirantoine, E; Kenig, F; Moczydłowska, M; Porter, S; Hope, J

    2016-03-01

    The period 800-717 million years (Ma) ago, in the lead-up to the Sturtian Snowball glaciation, saw an increase in the diversity of eukaryotic microfossils. To afford an independent and complementary view of this evolutionary period, this study presents the distribution of eukaryotic biomarkers from three pre-Sturtian successions across the supercontinent Rodinia: the ca. 780 Ma Kanpa Formation of the Western Australian Officer Basin, the ca. 800-740 Ma Visingsö Group of Sweden, and the 740 Ma Chuar Group in Arizona, USA. The distribution of eukaryotic steranes is remarkably similar in the three successions but distinct from all other known younger and older sterane assemblages. Cholestane was the only conventional structure, while indigenous steranes alkylated in position C-24, such as ergostane, stigmastane, dinosterane and isopropylcholestane, and n-propylcholestane, were not observed. This sterane distribution appears to be age diagnostic for the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. It attests to the distinct evolutionary state of pre-Snowball eukaryotes, pointing to a taxonomic disparity that was still lower than in the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma). All three basins also show the presence of a new C28 sterane that was tentatively identified as 26-methylcholestane, here named cryostane. The only known extant organisms that can methylate sterols in the 26-position are demosponges. This assignment is plausible as molecular clocks place the appearance of the earliest animals into the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. The unusual 26-methylsterol may have protected sponges, but also other eukaryotes, against their own membranolytic toxins. Some protists release lytic toxins to deter predators and kill eukaryotic prey. As conventional membrane sterols can be the site of attack for these toxins, sterols with unusual side-chain modification protect the cell. This interpretation of cryostane supports fossil evidence of predation in the Chuar Group and promotes hypotheses about the

  1. Modified obstetric early warning scoring systems (MOEWS): validating the diagnostic performance for severe sepsis in women with chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sian E; Grobman, William A; Lappen, Justin R; Winter, Cathy; Fox, Robert; Lenguerrand, Erik; Draycott, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    We sought to compare the predictive power of published modified obstetric early warning scoring systems (MOEWS) for the development of severe sepsis in women with chorioamnionitis. This was a retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical observations at a single tertiary unit (Chicago, IL). Hospital databases and patient records were searched to identify and verify cases with clinically diagnosed chorioamnionitis during the study period (June 2006 through November 2007). Vital sign data (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, mental state) for these cases were extracted from an electronic database and the single worst composite recording was identified for analysis. Global literature databases were searched (2014) to identify examples of MOEWS. Scores for each identified MOEWS were derived from each set of vital sign recordings during the presentation with chorioamnionitis. The performance of these MOEWS (the primary outcome) was then analyzed and compared using their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and receiver-operating characteristic curve for severe sepsis. Six MOEWS were identified. There was wide variation in design and pathophysiological thresholds used for clinical alerts. In all, 913 women with chorioamnionitis were identified from the clinical database. In all, 364 cases with complete data for all physiological indicators were included in analysis. Five women developed severe sepsis, including 1 woman who died. The sensitivities of the MOEWS in predicting the severe deterioration ranged from 40-100% and the specificities varied even more ranging from 4-97%. The positive predictive values were low for all MOEWS ranging from <2-15%. The MOEWS with simpler designs tended to be more sensitive, whereas the more complex MOEWS were more specific, but failed to identify some of the women who developed severe sepsis. Currently used MOEWS vary widely in terms of alert thresholds, format

  2. Urinary kidney injury molecule‑1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule‑1 (KIM‑1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy‑induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM‑1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro‑ and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM‑1 levels were measured using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM‑1, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM‑1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM‑1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM‑1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time‑dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM‑1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α‑SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold‑based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM‑1 could be completed within 5‑10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM‑1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM‑1.

  3. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingli; Shao, Xiaona; Sun, Bo; Miao, Chunsheng; Li, Zhengqiang; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) presents a suitable early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive nephropathy-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), and to develop a rapid detection method for urinary KIM-1. Obstructive AKI was induced in an experimental rat model by a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) operation. Macro- and micromorphological kidney alterations were determined by visual observation and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, respectively. Kidney functions were evaluated by detecting urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in rat urine and blood. Urinary KIM-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of KIM-1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin in kidney tissues were detected using immunohistochemical assays. In order to measure KIM-1 levels, colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips were developed based on the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay. The results indicated that KIM-1 levels were significantly higher in the UUO group when compared with the Sham group. KIM-1 levels in the urine and kidney tissues exhibited a time-dependent increase, together with increasing obstructive AKI in the UUO group. In addition, KIM-1 levels were demonstrated to be a more sensitive biomarker of early obstructive AKI, when compared with α-SMA and vimentin. A colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip was developed, whereby the detection of urinary KIM-1 could be completed within 5–10 min. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrated that urinary KIM-1 may be a valuable biomarker for the early diagnosis of obstructive AKI, and the use of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip may be a promising method for the rapid detection of urinary KIM-1. PMID:28075469

  4. Early warning smartphone diagnostics for water security and analysis using real-time pH mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Early detection of environmental disruption, unintentional or otherwise, is increasingly desired to ensure hazard minimization in many settings. Here, using a field-portable, smartphone fluorimeter to assess water quality based on the pH response of a designer probe, a map of pH of public tap water sites has been obtained. A custom designed Android application digitally processed and mapped the results utilizing the global positioning system (GPS) service of the smartphone. The map generated indicates no disruption in pH for all sites measured, and all the data are assessed to fall inside the upper limit of local government regulations, consistent with authority reported measurements. This implementation demonstrates a new security concept: network environmental forensics utilizing the potential of novel smartgrid analysis with wireless sensors for the detection of potential disruption to water quality at any point in the city. This concept is applicable across all smartgrid strategies within the next generation of the Internet of Things and can be extended on national and global scales to address a range of target analytes, both chemical and biological.

  5. Detecting of p16 Autoantibody as a Potential Early Diagnostic Serum Biomarker in Patients with Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Mingmei; Liu, Linlin; Xu, Shuang; Li, Siyao; Jiang, Kuo; Sun, Baosheng; Lee, Kuang-Hui; Sun, Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Over-expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) may trigger secretion of their auto-antibodies. The present work was designed to test whether circulating antibody to P16 protein-derived antigens was altered in cervical cancer. 141 cases of cervical cancer patients, 133 cases of cervical benign tumor patients, and 153 healthy volunteers matched in age were recruited. The level of circulating P16 auto-antibody was tested using an ELISA developed in-house with linear peptide antigens derived from the P16 protein. The P16 auto-antibody in the malignant tumor group had a significantly higher level than the healthy control group and the benign tumor group (t = 4.016, p < 0.001; t = 3.879, p < 0.001). Patients with stage I cervical cancer have the highest level of P16 autoantibody and the sensitivity against > 90% specificity was 20.3%. The circulating auto-antibody to P16 may be one of a series of potential biomarkers with early prognostic values for cervical cancer.

  6. Examination of the Early Diagnostic Applicability of Active Dynamic Thermography for Burn Wound Depth Assessment and Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prindeze, Nicholas J; Fathi, Payam; Mino, Matthew J; Mauskar, Neil A; Travis, Taryn E; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in perfusion imaging, burn wound imaging technology continues to lag behind that of other fields. Quantification of blood flow is able to predict time for healing, but clear assessment of burn depth is still questionable. Active dynamic thermography (ADT) is a noncontact imaging modality capable of distinguishing tissue of different thermal conductivities. Utilizing the abnormal heat transfer properties of the burn zones, we examined whether ADT was useful in the determination of burn depth in a model of early burn wound evaluation. Duroc pigs (castrated male; n = 3) were anesthetized, and two burns were created with an aluminum billet at 3 and 12 seconds. These contact times resulted in superficial partial and deep partial thickness burn wounds, respectively. ADT and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) imaging were performed every 30 minutes postburn for a total of five imaging sessions ending 150 minutes postburn. For ADT, imaging excitation was performed for 42-120 seconds with dual quartz-infrared lamps, and subsequent infrared image capture was performed for 300 seconds. MATLAB-assisted image analysis was performed to determine burn zone region of interest thermal relaxation and characteristic patterns. LDI was performed with a moorLDI system, and biopsies were captured for histology following the 150-minute imaging session. Both ADT and LDI imaging modalities are able to detect different physical properties at 30, 60, 90 120, and 150 minutes postburn with statistical significance (P < 0.05). Resultant ADT cooling curves characterize greater differences with greater stimulation and a potentially more identifiable differential cooling characteristic. Histological analysis confirmed burn depth. This preliminary work confirms that ADT can measure burn depth and is deserving of further research either as a stand-alone imaging technology or in combination with a device to assess perfusion.

  7. Caregivers' perspectives on the pre-diagnostic period in early onset dementia: a long and winding road.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Deliane; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Bakker, Christian; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Verhey, Frans R J

    2011-11-01

    Recognizing and diagnosing early onset dementia (EOD) can be complex and often takes longer than for late onset dementia. The objectives of this study are to investigate the barriers to diagnosis and to develop a typology of the diagnosis pathway for EOD caregivers. Semi-structured interviews with 92 EOD caregivers were analyzed using constant comparative analysis and grounded theory. A conceptual model was formed based on 21 interviews and tested in 29 additional transcripts. The identified categories were quantified in the whole sample. Seven themes emerged: (1) changes in the family member, (2) disrupted family life, (3) misattribution, (4) denial and refusal to seek advice, (5) lack of confirmation from social context, (6) non-responsiveness of a general practitioner (GP), and (7) misdiagnosis. Cognitive and behavioral changes in the person with EOD were common and difficult to understand for caregivers. Marital difficulties, problems with children and work/financial issues were important topics. Confirmation of family members and being aware of problems at work were important for caregivers to notice deficits and/or seek help. Other main issues were a patient's refusal to seek help resulting from denial and inadequate help resulting from misdiagnosis. EOD caregivers experience a long and difficult period before diagnosis. We hypothesize that denial, refusal to seek help, misattribution of symptoms, lack of confirmation from the social context, professionals' inadequate help and faulty diagnoses prolong the time before diagnosis. These findings underline the need for faster and more adequate help from health-care professionals and provide issues to focus on when supporting caregivers of people with EOD.

  8. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Crawford, Devan M; Walls, Melissa L; Gentzler, Kari C; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families.

  9. [Early diagnostics of bladder cancer recurrence with fluorescence in situ hybridization method in the first 24 months after a transurethral resection of a bladder in old and elderly persons].

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A S; Ryzhak, G A

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of experience of application of a technique fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in early diagnostics of relapses of a superficial bladder cancer in 103 middle-aged, old and senile persons who had transurethral resection of the bladder.

  10. Glyph guessing for 'oo' and 'ee': spatial frequency information in sound symbolic matching for ancient and unfamiliar scripts.

    PubMed

    Turoman, Nora; Styles, Suzy J

    2017-09-01

    In three experiments, we asked whether diverse scripts contain interpretable information about the speech sounds they represent. When presented with a pair of unfamiliar letters, adult readers correctly guess which is /i/ (the 'ee' sound in 'feet'), and which is /u/ (the 'oo' sound in 'shoe') at rates higher than expected by chance, as shown in a large sample of Singaporean university students (Experiment 1) and replicated in a larger sample of international Internet users (Experiment 2). To uncover what properties of the letters contribute to different scripts' 'guessability,' we analysed the visual spatial frequencies in each letter (Experiment 3). We predicted that the lower spectral frequencies in the formants of the vowel /u/ would pattern with lower spatial frequencies in the corresponding letters. Instead, we found that across all spatial frequencies, the letter with more black/white cycles (i.e. more ink) was more likely to be guessed as /u/, and the larger the difference between the glyphs in a pair, the higher the script's guessability. We propose that diverse groups of humans across historical time and geographical space tend to employ similar iconic strategies for representing speech in visual form, and provide norms for letter pairs from 56 diverse scripts.

  11. Insights into the Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Signature from Liquid Biopsy as Early Biomarkers of Diabetic Micro/Macrovascular Complications.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2017-09-14

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. Almost all cell types release EVs, thus they are naturally present in all body fluids. Among the several potential applications, EVs could be used as drug delivery vehicles in disease treatment, in immune therapy because of their immunomodulatory properties and in regenerative medicine. In addition to general markers, EVs are characterized by the presence of specific biomarkers (proteins and miRNAs) that allow the identification of their cell or tissue origin. For these features, they represent a potential powerful diagnostic tool to monitor state and progression of specific diseases. A large body of studies supports the idea that endothelial derived (EMPs) together with platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by micro- and macrovascular damages, including diabetes. Existing literature suggests that the detection of circulating EMPs and PMPs and their specific miRNA profile may represent a very useful non-invasive signature to achieve information on the onset of peculiar disease manifestations. In this review, we discuss the possible utility of EVs in the early diagnosis of diabetes-associated microvascular complications, specifically related to kidney.

  12. Simultaneous Retrieval of Temperature, Water Vapor and Ozone Atmospheric Profiles from IASI: Compression, De-noising, First Guess Retrieval and Inversion Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, F.; Rossow, W. B.; Scott, N. A.; Chedin, A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A fast temperature water vapor and ozone atmospheric profile retrieval algorithm is developed for the high spectral resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. Compression and de-noising of IASI observations are performed using Principal Component Analysis. This preprocessing methodology also allows, for a fast pattern recognition in a climatological data set to obtain a first guess. Then, a neural network using first guess information is developed to retrieve simultaneously temperature, water vapor and ozone atmospheric profiles. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse model is evaluated with a large diversified data set of radiosondes atmospheres including rare events.

  13. Treatment assignment guesses by study participants in a double-blind dose escalation clinical trial of saw palmetto.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320 mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320 mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320 mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto.

  14. Early detection of severe sepsis in the emergency room: diagnostic value of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Koskinen, Pertti; Leino, Aila; Peuravuori, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Rintala, Esa M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic values of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) to identify severe sepsis in an emergency room (ER) setting. This was a single-centre prospective follow-up study of 539 consecutive adult patients admitted to the ER with suspected infection. Blood samples were taken concurrently with blood cultures at admission. Patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, documentation of bacterial infection, and organ dysfunction. Fifty-nine patients with no SIRS or bacterial infection, 68 patients with bacterial infection but no SIRS, 54 patients with SIRS but no bacterial infection, 309 patients with sepsis (SIRS and bacterial infection), and 49 patients with severe sepsis (sepsis and organ failure) were evaluated. In a logistic regression model, the odds ratio (OR) for PCT was 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-1.82, p < 0.0001), for IL-6 was 1.54 (95% CI 1.32-1.80, p < 0.0001), and for CRP was 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, p = 0.045). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.77 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) for PCT, 0.72 (95% CI 0.64-0.80) for IL-6, and 0.60 (95% CI 0.51-0.69) for CRP. PCT emerged as the best marker for severe sepsis, but the difference in AUC was not significant between PCT and IL-6. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounders, PCT and IL-6 remained significant independent predictors of severe sepsis. PCT and IL-6 proved superior to CRP in detecting patients with severe sepsis. The findings thus support the use of either PCT or IL-6 as an early tool to diagnose severe sepsis. The automatic ECLIA method allows even night-shift measurements.

  15. Genetic sensitivity to bitter taste of 6-n Propylthiouracil: A useful diagnostic aid to detect early childhood caries in pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Pidamale, Raghavendra; Sowmya, B.; Thomas, Ann; Jose, Tony

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Genetic factor to bitter taste perception appears to be largely mediated by the TAS2R38 gene. The insensitivity to bitter compounds like 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is mediated by this gene. PROP, a pharmacological drug used in treatment of Graves’ disease, proved to be useful tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels to bitter and sweet taste. The purpose of this study is to show much simpler PROP sensitivity technique for the clinical examiner and its application as a diagnostic aid in Early Childhood Caries (ECC) detection among preschool children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 119 children belonging to the age group of 36 to 71 months of both sexes, were recruited from A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore (Karnataka). PROP sensitivity test was carried out to determine the inherent genetic ability to taste a bitter or sweet substance. This study used simpler scaling method to find out genetic sensitivity to bitter taste; one who tasted bitter as taster and one who was not able to differentiate/tasted like paper as non-taster. A questionnaire was provided to evaluate their dietary habits and caries experience was recorded. Collected data were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the total of 119 children the mean dmfs was definitely higher in non-taster children compared to tasters. The tasters had a mean dmfs value of 9.5120 (S.D. 7.0543) and non-tasters had a value of 7.7250 (S.D. 8.33147), which was statistically significant. The results suggested that there was increase in caries experience among the group of non-tasters as compared to tasters. Tasters tended to be sweet dislikers and non-tasters tended to be sweet likers. On the whole, tasters had a bad dentition as compared to non tasters. CONCLUSION: The PROP sensitivity test (filter paper test) proved to be a useful diagnostic tool in determining the genetic sensitivity levels of bitter taste. The knowledge of a child's taste perception can help us

  16. Students' Ways of Reasoning about Nonlinear Functions in Guess-My-Rule Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, John M.; Hahkioniemi, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing movement toward the introduction of algebra in early grades. This is supported by an increasing number of research studies that have reported success in getting young students to "do" mathematics considered beyond their reach. Yet, the consensus is that more research is needed to provide insights into the processes by which…

  17. Students' Ways of Reasoning about Nonlinear Functions in Guess-My-Rule Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, John M.; Hahkioniemi, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing movement toward the introduction of algebra in early grades. This is supported by an increasing number of research studies that have reported success in getting young students to "do" mathematics considered beyond their reach. Yet, the consensus is that more research is needed to provide insights into the processes by which…

  18. Introducing litter quality to the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS: Effects on short- and long-term soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portner, Hanspeter; Wolf, Annett; Rühr, Nadine; Bugmann, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Many biogeochemical models have been applied to study the response of the carbon cycle to changes in climate, whereby the process of carbon uptake (photosynthesis) has usually gained more attention than the equally important process of carbon release by respiration. The decomposition of soil organic matter is driven by a combination of factors like soil temperature, soil moisture and litter quality. We have introduced dependence on litter substrate quality to heterotrophic soil respiration in the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS [Smith et al.(2001)]. We were interested in differences in model projections before and after the inclusion of the dependency both in respect to short- and long-term soil carbon dynamics. The standard implementation of heterotrophic soil respiration in LPJ-GUESS is a simple carbon three-pool model whose decay rates are dependent on soil temperature and soil moisture. We have added dependence on litter quality by coupling LPJ-GUESS to the soil carbon model Yasso07 [Tuomi et al.(2008)]. The Yasso07 model is based on an extensive number of measurements of litter decomposition of forest soils. Apart from the dependence on soil temperature and soil moisture, the Yasso07 model uses carbon soil pools representing different substrate qualities: acid hydrolyzable, water soluble, ethanol soluble, lignin compounds and humus. Additionally Yasso07 differentiates between woody and non-woody litter. In contrary to the reference implementation of LPJ-GUESS, in the new model implementation, the litter now is divided according to its specific quality and added to the corresponding soil carbon pool. The litter quality thereby differs between litter source (leaves, roots, stems) and plant functional type (broadleaved, needleleaved, grass). The two contrasting model implementations were compared and validated at one specific CarboEuropeIP site (Lägern, Switzerland) and on a broader scale all over Switzerland. Our focus lay on the soil respiration for the years 2006

  19. Laser fluorescence diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. K.; Krasilnikov, D. M.; Turkin, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper descsribes the development of an apparatus, method, and practical recommendation on using fluorescence diagnostics in alimentary-intestinal tract surgery and analyses of blood serum and plasma for investigating influence of various drug preparations on a human organism. The report of the firm Israel Aircraft Industries on the high efficiency of using fluorescent analysis in early diagnostics of rectum, lung, and breast cancer has stimulated our publication.

  20. Value of the ViziLite Plus System as a diagnostic aid in the early detection of oral cancer/premalignant epithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Mojsa, Izabela; Kaczmarzyk, Tomasz; Zaleska, Malgorzata; Stypulkowska, Jadwiga; Zapala-Pospiech, Agnieszka; Sadecki, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the value of the chemiluminescent light and 1% tolonium chloride as a diagnostic aid in the early detection of oral cancer/premalignant epithelial lesions. Thirty consecutive patients with 41 visually identified oral lesions suggestive of being premalignant underwent chemiluminescence and tolonium chloride examination followed by incisional biopsy with histopathologic evaluation. The biopsies of 34 lesions (82.92%) revealed no dysplasia, 3 lesions (7.32%) revealed mild dysplasia, 3 lesions (7.32%) demonstrated severe dysplasia, and 1 lesion (2.44%) was malignant (squamous cell carcinoma). The chemiluminescent examination improved the brightness (58.54% of the cases), sharpness (56.1% of the cases), texture (60.98% of the cases), and size of the lesion (53.66% of the cases). With references to serious pathologies, 7 cases (100.0%) were brighter, and size was more visualized in 6 cases (85.71%) when using chemiluminescence examination than under incandescent light. Twenty-five (73.53%) of nonserious pathology and 7 (100.0%) of serious pathology (6 dysplasias, 1 squamous cell carcinoma) were positively stained by toluidine blue. Three (8.82%) of nonserious pathology and 0 (0.0%) of serious pathology lesions were identified as true negatives when toluidine blue staining was used. The overall toluidine blue sensitivity and specificity were 81.8% and 37.5%, respectively. Chemiluminescent light demonstrates better visualization (brightness, size) of serious pathology lesions in comparison with conventional clinical oral examination under incandescent light. Toluidine blue demonstrates 100% sensitivity in staining serious pathology. The ViziLite Plus system may help the practitioner to visualize oral pathologies that are not readily detectable with conventional incandescent lighting.

  1. The suitability of some blood gas and biochemical parameters as diagnostic tools or early indicators of ascites syndrome in broiler sire lines.

    PubMed

    Hasanpur, K; Nassiri, M R; Hosseini Salekdeh, G; Vaez Torshizi, R; Pakdel, A; Kermanshahi, H; Naghous, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent few years, there have been some attempts to find a reliable indicator trait as a selection criterion against susceptibility to ascites syndrome (AS). Blood parameters were of great interest as they could be measured in live animals without implementing an ascites-inducing challenge (AIC). In this work, the suitability of some blood parameters was evaluated for diagnosing AS-susceptible chicks in later steps of the disease in trial 1 as well as their early predictive ability in trial 2. In the first trial, one hundred 1-day-old chicks from two pure broiler lines namely S1 and S2 and, in the second trial, 226 1-day-old chicks from line S2 were subjected to AIC. Saline drinking water (1200 mg/l) and lower-than-standard ambient temperatures were the implemented AICs in trials 1 and 2 respectively. The blood parameters including pH, partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ), bicarbonate ion concentration (BIC), percentage of haematocrit (HCT) and saturated haemoglobin (SaO2 ) were measured twice per each bird at days 28 and 35 in trial 1 and once in trial 2 at day 21. The results of the first trial revealed that in line S2 some of the blood parameters differed significantly between the ascitic and non-ascitic groups following exposure to AIC. In this line, the incidence of AS was accompanied by a lower pO2 , SaO2 and BIC, while with higher pCO2 and HCT values. In the second trial, however, although almost all of the parameters showed meaningful differences between the ascitic and non-ascitic broilers, only mean difference of BIC parameter was statistically significant. The general conclusion of this study is that the blood parameters can somewhat have diagnostic ability in the condition in which the AIC is already present, whereas the results did not approve their usefulness as early predictors of AS. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Using a Theorem by Andersen and the Dichotomous Rasch Model to Assess the Presence of Random Guessing in Multiple Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Andersen (1995, 2002) proves a theorem relating variances of parameter estimates from samples and subsamples and shows its use as an adjunct to standard statistical analyses. The authors show an application where the theorem is central to the hypothesis tested, namely, whether random guessing to multiple choice items affects their estimates in the…

  3. Statistical Modelling of Multiple-Choice and True/False Tests: Ways of Considering, and of Reducing, the Uncertainties Attributable To Guessing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard F.; Miller, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses statistical procedures for increasing test unreliability due to guessing in multiple choice and true/false tests. Proposes two new measures of test unreliability: one concerned with resolution of defined levels of knowledge and the other with the probability of examinees being incorrectly ranked. Both models are based on the binomial…

  4. Using a Theorem by Andersen and the Dichotomous Rasch Model to Assess the Presence of Random Guessing in Multiple Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Andersen (1995, 2002) proves a theorem relating variances of parameter estimates from samples and subsamples and shows its use as an adjunct to standard statistical analyses. The authors show an application where the theorem is central to the hypothesis tested, namely, whether random guessing to multiple choice items affects their estimates in the…

  5. A Study on the Relationship between English Vocabulary Threshold and Word Guessing Strategy for Pre-University Chinese Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Wu Xiao; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol; Eng, Lin Siew

    2013-01-01

    This survey aims at studying the relationship between English vocabulary threshold and word guessing strategy that is used in reading comprehension learning among 80 pre-university Chinese students in Malaysia. T-test is the main statistical test for this research, and the collected data is analysed using SPSS. From the standard deviation test…

  6. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  7. First-guess dependence of a physically based set of temperature-humidity retrievals from HIRS2/MSU data. [High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 2/Microwave Sounding Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, D.; Susskind, Joel; Pursch, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The first-guess dependence of temperature and humidity fields retrieved from HIRS2/MSU data using the GLA (Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres) physically based retrieval scheme is examined. Retrievals were performed over the ALPEX region for two successive synoptic periods, 1200 UTC March 4 and 00000 UTC March 5, 1982, using three different initial guesses for each period. Results show rather low first-guess dependence for the thickness fields and larger first-guess dependence for the precipitable water fields, especially close to the surface. The humidity retrieval algorithm used is described. The processing system has the property of maintaining the accuracy of a good guess and improving a poor one for both thickness and precipitable water at all levels.

  8. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  9. Development of companion diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; ...

    2015-12-12

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods asmore » companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. Lastly, the review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.« less

  10. Development of companion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2015-12-12

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. Lastly, the review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  11. Implementation of a pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial to evaluate impact of Botswana's Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic algorithm on TB diagnostic sensitivity and early antiretroviral therapy mortality.

    PubMed

    Auld, Andrew F; Agizew, Tefera; Pals, Sherri; Finlay, Alyssa; Ndwapi, Ndwapi; Boyd, Rosanna; Alexander, Heather; Mathoma, Anikie; Basotli, Joyce; Gwebe-Nyirenda, Sambayawo; Shepherd, James; Ellerbrock, Tedd V; Date, Anand

    2016-10-26

    In 2012, as a pilot for Botswana's national Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) rollout plans, intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) activities were strengthened at 22 HIV treatment clinics prior to phased activation of 13 Xpert instruments. Together, the strengthened ICF intervention and Xpert activation are referred to as the "Xpert package". The evaluation, called the Xpert Package Rollout Evaluation using a Stepped-wedge design (XPRES), has two key objectives: (1) to compare sensitivity of microscopy-based and Xpert-based pulmonary TB diagnostic algorithms in diagnosing sputum culture-positive TB; and (2) to evaluate impact of the "Xpert package" on all-cause, 6-month, adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality. A pragmatic, stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial design was chosen. The design involves enrollment of three cohorts: (1) cohort R, a retrospective cohort of all study clinic ART enrollees in the 24 months before study initiation (July 31, 2012); (2) cohort A, a prospective cohort of all consenting patients presenting to study clinics after study initiation, who received the ICF intervention and the microscopy-based TB diagnostic algorithm; and (3) cohort B, a prospective cohort of all consenting patients presenting to study clinics after Xpert activation, who received the ICF intervention and the Xpert-based TB diagnostic algorithm. TB diagnostic sensitivity will be compared between TB culture-positive enrollees in cohorts A and B. All-cause, 6-month ART-mortality will be compared between cohorts R and B. With anticipated cohort R, A, and B sample sizes of about 10,131, 1,878, and 4,258, respectively, the study is estimated to have >80 % power to detect differences in pre-versus post-Xpert TB diagnostic sensitivity if pre-Xpert sensitivity is ≤52.5 % and post-Xpert sensitivity ≥82.5 %, and >80 % power to detect a 40 % reduction in all-cause, 6-month, ART mortality between cohorts R and B if cohort R mortality is ≥13/100 person-years. Only

  12. An Efficient Searchable Encryption Against Keyword Guessing Attacks for Sharable Electronic Medical Records in Cloud-based System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yilun; Lu, Xicheng; Su, Jinshu; Chen, Peixin

    2016-12-01

    Preserving the privacy of electronic medical records (EMRs) is extremely important especially when medical systems adopt cloud services to store patients' electronic medical records. Considering both the privacy and the utilization of EMRs, some medical systems apply searchable encryption to encrypt EMRs and enable authorized users to search over these encrypted records. Since individuals would like to share their EMRs with multiple persons, how to design an efficient searchable encryption for sharable EMRs is still a very challenge work. In this paper, we propose a cost-efficient secure channel free searchable encryption (SCF-PEKS) scheme for sharable EMRs. Comparing with existing SCF-PEKS solutions, our scheme reduces the storage overhead and achieves better computation performance. Moreover, our scheme can guard against keyword guessing attack, which is neglected by most of the existing schemes. Finally, we implement both our scheme and a latest medical-based scheme to evaluate the performance. The evaluation results show that our scheme performs much better performance than the latest one for sharable EMRs.

  13. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go “up” or “down” in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops. PMID:27532219

  14. Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift Strategies Emerge as Unintended Patterns in Market Direction Guesses.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Segura, Carlota; Duch, Jordi; Perelló, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation. From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies, with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies, while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision. The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down. Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops.

  15. A computational neural model of orientation detection based on multiple guesses: comparison of geometrical and algebraic models.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Ren, Yuan; Wang, Zi Yan

    2013-10-01

    The implementation of Hubel-Wiesel hypothesis that orientation selectivity of a simple cell is based on ordered arrangement of its afferent cells has some difficulties. It requires the receptive fields (RFs) of those ganglion cells (GCs) and LGN cells to be similar in size and sub-structure and highly arranged in a perfect order. It also requires an adequate number of regularly distributed simple cells to match ubiquitous edges. However, the anatomical and electrophysiological evidence is not strong enough to support this geometry-based model. These strict regularities also make the model very uneconomical in both evolution and neural computation. We propose a new neural model based on an algebraic method to estimate orientations. This approach synthesizes the guesses made by multiple GCs or LGN cells and calculates local orientation information subject to a group of constraints. This algebraic model need not obey the constraints of Hubel-Wiesel hypothesis, and is easily implemented with a neural network. By using the idea of a satisfiability problem with constraints, we also prove that the precision and efficiency of this model are mathematically practicable. The proposed model makes clear several major questions which Hubel-Wiesel model does not account for. Image-rebuilding experiments are conducted to check whether this model misses any important boundary in the visual field because of the estimation strategy. This study is significant in terms of explaining the neural mechanism of orientation detection, and finding the circuit structure and computational route in neural networks. For engineering applications, our model can be used in orientation detection and as a simulation platform for cell-to-cell communications to develop bio-inspired eye chips.

  16. The Impact of 3-Option Responses to Multiple-Choice Questions on Guessing Strategies and Cut Score Determinations

    PubMed Central

    ROYAL, KENNETH D.; STOCKDALE, MYRAH R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research has asserted MCQ items using three response options (one correct answer with two distractors) is comparable to, and possibly preferable over, traditional MCQ item formats consisting of four response options (e.g., one correct answer with three distractors), or five response options (e.g., one correct answer with four distractors). Some medical educators have also adopted the practice of using 3-option responses on MCQ exams as a response to the difficulty experienced in generating additional plausible distractors. To date, however, little work has explored how 3-option responses might impact validity threats stemming from random guessing strategies, and what impact 3-option responses might have on cut-score determinations, particularly in the context of medical education classroom assessments. The purpose of this work is to further explore these critically important considerations that largely have gone ignored in the medical education literature to this point. Methods: A cumulative binomial distribution formula was used to calculate the probability that an examinee will answer at random a given number of items correctly on any exam (of any length). By way of a demonstration, a variety of scenarios were presented to illustrate how examination length and the number of response options impact examinees’ chances of passing a given examination, and how subsequent cut-score decisions may be impacted by these factors. Results: As a general rule, classroom assessments containing fewer items should utilize traditional 4-option or 5-option responses, whereas assessments of greater length are afforded greater flexibility in potentially utilizing 3-option responses. Conclusions: More research on items with 3-option responses is needed to better understand what value, if any, 3-option responses truly add to classroom assessments, and in what contexts potential benefits might be discernible. PMID:28367465

  17. Early recognition of heart failure in patients with diabetes type 2 in primary care. A prospective diagnostic efficiency study. (UHFO-DM2)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that the prevalence of unknown heart failure in diabetic patients aged 60 years and over is relatively high (15% or more) and that a cost-effective strategy can be developed to detect heart failure in these patients. The strategy is expected to include some signs and symptoms (such as dyspnoea, orthopnoea, pulmonary crepitations and laterally displaced apical beat), natriuretic peptide measurements (Amino-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide) and possibly electrocardiography. In a subset of patients straightforward echocardiography may show to be cost-effective. With information from our study the detection of previously unknown heart failure in diabetic patients could be improved and enable the physician to initiate beneficial morbidity and mortality reducing heart failure treatment more timely. Primary objectives - To assess the prevalence of (previously unrecognised) heart failure in primary care patients with diabetes type 2. - To establish the most cost-effective diagnostic strategy to detect unrecognised heart failure in these patients. Secondary objectives - To assess the impact of heart failure, and the combination of a new diagnosis with accordingly treatment in patients with diabetes type 2 on health status. Methods/Design Design: A prospective diagnostic efficiency study. Patient population: Patients aged 60 years and older with diabetes type 2 from primary care, enlisted with the diabetes service of the Diagnostic Center in Etten-Leur (SHL) All participants will be investigated at the cardiology out-patient department of the regional hospital (Oosterschelde Hospital in Goes, Zeeland, the Netherlands) during a single 1.5 hour standardised diagnostic assessment, including history taking, physical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography, blood tests, and Health status questionnaires. Patients will be asked if we can contact them afterwards for follow-up and for repeating the questionnaires after three and 12 months. Main

  18. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  19. Diagnostic Laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is Diagnostic Laparoscopy? A laparoscope is a telescope designed for medical use. It is connected to ... just below the ribs. A laparoscope (a tiny telescope) connected to a special camera is inserted through ...

  20. Beamlet diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Theys, M.

    1994-05-06

    Beamlet is a high power laser currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Lab as a proof of concept for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Beamlet is testing several areas of laser advancements, such as a 37cm Pockels cell, square amplifier, and propagation of a square beam. The diagnostics on beamlet tell the operators how much energy the beam has in different locations, the pulse shape, the energy distribution, and other important information regarding the beam. This information is being used to evaluate new amplifier designs, and extrapolate performance to the NIF laser. In my term at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory I have designed and built a diagnostic, calibrated instruments used on diagnostics, setup instruments, hooked up communication lines to the instruments, and setup computers to control specific diagnostics.

  1. Evaluation of the diagnostic value of a Modified Liquid-Based Cytology using OralCDx Brush in early detection of oral potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Delavarian, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Mosannen-Mozafari, Pegah; Pakfetrat, Atessa; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi; Ghafoorian-Maddah, Rasoul

    2010-09-01

    To determine diagnostic value of modified Liquid Based Brush Biopsy technique. 26 oral premalignant and malignant lesions in 25 patients (12 females; 54.23+/-19.77 years and 13 males; 53.77+/-15.43 years) underwent Modified (Liquid Based) Brush Biopsy and scalpel biopsy simultaneously from the same area. There were 16 positive and 10 negative brush biopsy results, with no inadequate readings. Histological findings were compatible with oral leukoplakia (n=5) with dysplasia, Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reaction (n=7) (with or without dysplasia) oral squamous cell carcinoma (n=11),verrucous carcinoma (n=1) and granular cell tumors (n=2). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR+) and negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (LR-) were 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 80%, infinity and 0.11 respectively (no false positive results). It is the first attempt to do LBC with a specialized oral brush. Our results show that modified technique is a useful tool for screening of oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

  2. Keep Them Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riendeay, Diane, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepant events are surprising occurrences that challenge learners' preconceptions. These events puzzle students because the results are contrary to what they believe should happen. Due to the unexpected outcome, students experience cognitive disequilibrium, and this often leads to a desire to solve the problem. Discrepant events are great…

  3. Keep Them Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riendeay, Diane, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepant events are surprising occurrences that challenge learners' preconceptions. These events puzzle students because the results are contrary to what they believe should happen. Due to the unexpected outcome, students experience cognitive disequilibrium, and this often leads to a desire to solve the problem. Discrepant events are great…

  4. Getting beyond the Guess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Amanda; Terrizzi, Marissa; Cormas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    "Probability is a difficult concept to teach, because children and adults find it counterintuitive." This is impetus to consider the detailed planning of a set of lessons with a "mixed", in many senses, group of fourth graders. Can the use of prior experience, and the knowledge associated with that experience, make probability a concept that is…

  5. Getting beyond the Guess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Amanda; Terrizzi, Marissa; Cormas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    "Probability is a difficult concept to teach, because children and adults find it counterintuitive." This is impetus to consider the detailed planning of a set of lessons with a "mixed", in many senses, group of fourth graders. Can the use of prior experience, and the knowledge associated with that experience, make probability a concept that is…

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of the Revised Westmead PTA Scale as an adjunct to the Glasgow Coma Scale in the early identification of cognitive impairment in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shores, E A; Lammél, A; Hullick, C; Sheedy, J; Flynn, M; Levick, W; Batchelor, J

    2008-10-01

    Assessment of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is predominantly done using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). While the GCS is universally accepted for assessment of severity of traumatic brain injury, it may not be appropriate to rely on the GCS alone when assessing patients with mTBI in prehospital settings and emergency departments. To determine whether administering the Revised Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia (PTA) Scale (R-WPTAS) in addition to the GCS would increase diagnostic accuracy in the early identification of cognitive impairment in patients with mTBI. Data were collected from 82 consecutive participants with mTBI who presented to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma centre in Australia. A matched sample of 88 control participants who attended the emergency department for reasons other than head trauma was also assessed. All patients were assessed using the GCS, R-WPTAS and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients with mTBI scored poorly compared with control patients on all measures. The R-WPTAS showed greater concurrent validity with the neuropsychological measures than the GCS and significantly increased prediction of group membership of patients with mTBI with cognitive impairment. The R-WPTAS significantly improves diagnostic accuracy in identifying patients with mTBI who may be in PTA. Administration takes less than 1 min, and since early identification of a patient's cognitive status facilitates management decisions, it is recommended for routine use whenever the GCS is used.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Semiquantitative Analysis of 99mTechnetium-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI Imaging in Predicting Early-Stage Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Kai; Xu, Shi-Qing; Ma, Yu-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of semiquantitative analysis (SQA) of 99mTc-MIBI imaging in predicting early-stage cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in thyroid carcinoma (TC). Material/Methods TC patients (n=106) undergoing surgical resection and histopathological examination were enrolled. All patients received 99mTc-MIBI imaging prior to surgery. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was detected by PT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. With pathological results as the criterion standard, the diagnostic efficiency of 99mTc-MIBI imaging in predicting early-stage CLNM was evaluated. The correlation of P-gp with 99mTc-MIBI imaging was investigated. Logistic regression analysis was applied for analyzing the factors affecting early-stage CLNM. Results The detection rate and misdiagnosis rate of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for early-stage CLNM diagnosis were 87.3% and 12.7%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI imaging of 85.85%. Preoperative 99mTc-MIBI scan showed statistical differences between metastasis and non-metastasis groups in early and delayed T/NT and washout rate (all P<0.05). The percentage of P-gp-expressing cells and the expression rate of P-gp gene both exhibited statistical differences between metastasis and no-metastasis groups (both P<0.05). Tumor diameter, lesion distribution, the percentage of P-gp-expressing cells, and the expression rate of P-gp gene were risk factors for CLNM (all P<0.05). Conclusions 99mTc-MIBI imaging has value in qualitative diagnosis of early-stage CLNM in TC. Tumor diameter, lesion distribution, the percentage of P-gp-expressing cells, and the expression rate of P-gp gene were risk factors for CLNM. PMID:28362720

  8. Early experiences on the feasibility, acceptability, and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests at peripheral health centres in Uganda-insights into some barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe, Caroline; Kyabayinze, Daniel J; Kyalisiima, Zephaniah; Nabakooza, Jane; Bajabaite, Moses; Counihan, Helen; Tibenderana, James K

    2012-01-23

    While feasibility of new health technologies in well-resourced healthcare settings is extensively documented, it is largely unknown in low-resourced settings. Uganda's decision to deploy and scale up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) in public health facilities and at the community level provides a useful entry point for documenting field experience, acceptance, and predictive variables for technology acceptance and use. These findings are important in informing implementation of new health technologies, plans, and budgets in low-resourced national disease control programmes. A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive study at 21 health centres in Uganda was undertaken in 2007 to elucidate the barriers and facilitators in the introduction of mRDTs as a new diagnostic technology at lower-level health facilities. Pre-tested interview questionnaires were administered through pre-structured patient exit interviews and semi-structured health worker interviews to gain an understanding of the response to this implementation. A conceptual framework on technology acceptance and use was adapted for this study and used to prepare the questionnaires. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the data. A total of 52 of 57 health workers (92%) reported a belief that a positive mRDT result was true, although only 41 of 57 (64%) believed that treatment with anti-malarials was justified for every positive mRDT case. Of the same health workers, only 49% believed that a negative mRDT result was truly negative. Factors linked to these findings were related to mRDT acceptance and use, including the design and characteristics of the device, availability and quality of mRDT ancillary supplies, health worker capacity to investigate febrile cases testing negative with the device and provide appropriate treatment, availability of effective malaria treatments, reliability of the health commodity supply chain, existing national policy recommendations, individual health worker

  9. Diagnostic thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T C

    1999-11-01

    Thoracoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that provides access to the thoracic cavity for evaluation of intrathoracic pathology without surgical intervention. Intrathoracic structures can be visualized better with thoracoscopy than with an open thoracotomy. Indications for thoracoscopy include pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, intrathoracic masses, pneumothorax, primary pulmonary disease, and trauma. Thoracoscopy is technically similar to laparoscopy, using the same basic instrumentation and principles, but is easier to perform than laparoscopy. Patient preparation, anesthesia, and patient positioning are essentially the same for thoracoscopy as for a standard open thoracotomy. Thoracoscopy provides minimally invasive access to important diagnostic information with a very low incidence of complications.

  10. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  11. J. E. W. Wallin's Diagnostic Theory for Classifying the Feeble-Minded and Backward in Early Twentieth-Century Public Schools in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshii, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, American psychologists began addressing problems related to the intellectual capacity of students enrolled in public schools. This paper focuses on the role and influence of psychologists in addressing these problems, specifically the difficulty of classifying students deemed feeble-minded and…

  12. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  13. LPJ-GUESS Simulated North America Vegetation for 21-0 ka Using the TraCE-21ka Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Transient climate simulations that span multiple millennia (e.g., TraCE-21ka) have become more common as computing power has increased, allowing climate models to complete long simulations in relatively short periods of time (i.e., months). These climate simulations provide information on the potential rate, variability, and spatial expression of past climate changes. They also can be used as input data for other environmental models to simulate transient changes for different components of paleoenvironmental systems, such as vegetation. Long, transient paleovegetation simulations can provide information on a range of ecological processes, describe the spatial and temporal patterns of changes in species distributions, and identify the potential locations of past species refugia. Paleovegetation simulations also can be used to fill in spatial and temporal gaps in observed paleovegetation data (e.g., pollen records from lake sediments) and to test hypotheses of past vegetation change. We used the TraCE-21ka transient climate simulation for 21-0 ka from CCSM3, a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The TraCE-21ka simulated temperature, precipitation, and cloud data were regridded onto a 10-minute grid of North America. These regridded climate data, along with soil data and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, were used as input to LPJ-GUESS, a general ecosystem model, to simulate North America vegetation from 21-0 ka. LPJ-GUESS simulates many of the processes controlling the distribution of vegetation (e.g., competition), although some important processes (e.g., dispersal) are not simulated. We evaluate the LPJ-GUESS-simulated vegetation (in the form of plant functional types and biomes) for key time periods and compare the simulated vegetation with observed paleovegetation data, such as data archived in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database. In general, vegetation simulated by LPJ-GUESS reproduces the major North America vegetation patterns (e

  14. Payoff Information Biases a Fast Guess Process in Perceptual Decision Making under Deadline Pressure: Evidence from Behavior, Evoked Potentials, and Quantitative Model Comparison.

    PubMed

    Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Sharon, Dahlia; McClelland, James L

    2015-08-05

    We used electroencephalography (EEG) and behavior to examine the role of payoff bias in a difficult two-alternative perceptual decision under deadline pressure in humans. The findings suggest that a fast guess process, biased by payoff and triggered by stimulus onset, occurred on a subset of trials and raced with an evidence accumulation process informed by stimulus information. On each trial, the participant judged whether a rectangle was shifted to the right or left and responded by squeezing a right- or left-hand dynamometer. The payoff for each alternative (which could be biased or unbiased) was signaled 1.5 s before stimulus onset. The choice response was assigned to the first hand reaching a squeeze force criterion and reaction time was defined as time to criterion. Consistent with a fast guess account, fast responses were strongly biased toward the higher-paying alternative and the EEG exhibited an abrupt rise in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) on a subset of biased payoff trials contralateral to the higher-paying alternative ∼ 150 ms after stimulus onset and 50 ms before stimulus information influenced the LRP. This rise was associated with poststimulus dynamometer activity favoring the higher-paying alternative and predicted choice and response time. Quantitative modeling supported the fast guess account over accounts of payoff effects supported in other studies. Our findings, taken with previous studies, support the idea that payoff and prior probability manipulations produce flexible adaptations to task structure and do not reflect a fixed policy for the integration of payoff and stimulus information. Humans and other animals often face situations in which they must make choices based on uncertain sensory information together with information about expected outcomes (gains or losses) about each choice. We investigated how differences in payoffs between available alternatives affect neural activity, overt choice, and the timing of choice

  15. Good diagnostic performance of early migration as a predictor of late aseptic loosening of acetabular cups: results from ten years of follow-up with Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Valstar, Edward R; Kaptein, Bart L; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2012-05-16

    Excessive early migration of femoral stems following total hip arthroplasty and tibial components following total knee arthroplasty is associated with their long-term survival and allows reliable early evaluation of implant performance. However, a similar relationship involving acetabular components following hip arthroplasty has not been evaluated. This prospective, long-term study with clinical and Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) follow-up establishes the existence of this relationship and its associated diagnostic performance. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (forty-one hips) who underwent total hip arthroplasty with a cemented Exeter stem and a cemented Exeter all-polyethylene cup had prospective clinical and RSA follow-up. Patients were evaluated postoperatively at six weeks, at three, six, and twelve months, and annually thereafter. Conventional anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were made at six weeks and at two, five, and ten years postoperatively as well as when indicated. The mean duration of follow-up (and standard deviation) was 9.4 ± 3.2 years. No patients were lost to follow-up; fifteen patients died during the follow-up period. Eleven acetabular components were observed to be loose on conventional radiographs after a mean of seventy-six months (range, twelve to 140 months). During the first two postoperative years, the failed acetabular components showed markedly greater and more rapid cranial translation and sagittal rotation. Both cranial translation (hazard ratio = 19.9 [95% confidence interval, 4.94 to 80.0], p < 0.001) and sagittal rotation (hazard ratio = 11.1 [95% confidence interval, 2.83 to 43.9], p = 0.001) were strong risk factors for late aseptic loosening. Eight of the eleven failed components showed a distinctive pattern of excessive cranial translation combined with excessive sagittal rotation. The associated diagnostic performance of two-year cranial translation and/or sagittal rotation for predicting late aseptic

  16. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  17. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of diffuse reflectance imaging for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant changes in the oral cavity: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffusely reflected light is influenced by cytologic and morphologic changes that take place during tissue transformation, such as, nuclear changes, extracellular matrix structure and composition as well as blood flow. Albeit with varying degree of sensitivity and specificity, the properties of diffusely reflected light in discriminating a variety of oral lesions have been demonstrated by our group in multiple studies using point monitoring systems. However, the point monitoring system could not identify the region with the most malignant potential in a single sitting. Methods In order to scan the entire lesion, we developed a multi-spectral imaging camera system that records diffuse reflectance (DR) images of the oral lesion at 545 and 575 nm with white light illumination. The diagnostic accuracy of the system for 2-dimensional DR imaging of pre-malignant and malignant changes in the oral cavity was evaluated through a clinical study in 55 patients and 23 healthy volunteers. The DR imaging data were compared with gold standard tissue biopsy and histopathology results. Results In total 106- normal/clinically healthy sites, 20- pre-malignant and 29- malignant (SCC) sites were compared. While the median pixel value of the R545/R575 image ratio for normal/clinically healthy tissue was 0.87 (IQR = 0.82-0.94), they were 1.35 (IQR = 1.13-1.67) and 2.44 (IQR = 1.78-3.80) for pre-malignant and malignant lesions, respectively. Area under the ROC curve to differentiate malignant from normal/clinically healthy [AUC = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00)], pre-malignant from normal/clinically healthy [AUC = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00)], malignant from pre-malignant [AUC = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73-0.95)] and pre-malignant and malignant from normal/clinically healthy [AUC = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00)] lesions were desirable. Conclusion We find DR imaging to be very effective as a screening tool in locating the potentially malignant areas of oral lesions with

  19. Diagnostic immunofluorescence*

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, William B.; Reimer, Charles B.

    1973-01-01

    The standardization of diagnostic immunofluorescence is a complex problem because diagnostic results are greatly influenced by interacting factors, such as the equipment, materials, and techniques for expressing and recording fluorescence. Furthermore, the characteristics of immunofluorescence reagents depend on how they are manufactured and used. The adoption of stable reference preparations of such reagents appears to be the only practicable way of standardizing laboratory test results. Several professional and regulatory organizations are actively promoting this objective. Consensus evaluation may be the best method of introducing proposed standards. Basic and applied research must provide the information needed to improve reagents and tests. Material fluorescent standards are proving helpful in standardizing fluorescence emission, but the most promising development is the use of insolubilized antigens to provide standards for more relevant immunological-fluorescence comparisons. Several important direct and indirect diagnostic immunofluorescence tests and reagents currently used in microbiological, histological, and pathological examinations require standardization. The medical profession should insist that commercial reagents be adequately characterized and that manufacturers supply the data necessary for their safe and informed use. PMID:4594319

  20. Expression of P53 and HSP70 in Chronic Hepatitis, Liver Cirrhosis, and Early and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues and Their Diagnostic Value in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Gou, Wenbin; Liu, Ming; Sang, Wei; Chu, Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Tumor protein (P53) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) play key roles in chronic liver diseases. This study aimed to characterize P53 and HSP70 expression in chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), early and advanced HCC, and to analyze their diagnostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material/Methods Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to evaluate the expression of P53 and HSP70 in 200 human liver tissue specimens, with advanced HCC (n=80), early HCC (n=30), CH (n=30), LC (n=30), and Controls (n=30). Results P53 expression levels were lower in LC than those of HCC, but remained on par with those of CH and Controls. HSP70 expression levels were higher in HCC than those of LC, CH, and Controls. The sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis were: 50.9% and 98.9% for P53, and 78.2 and 77.8% for HSP70, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of different combinations were: 95.5% and 85.5% with either P53 or HSP70 being positive, and 33.6% and 98.9% if both were positive. Among the differentiation stages marked low, intermediate, and high in HCC, the P53 positive rate was higher in the low than in the intermediate, which was higher than that in the high. HSP70 positive rate was higher in the low and the intermediate than in the high, but no obvious changes were found between the low and the intermediate. Conclusions P53 and HSP70 could be potential biomarkers for HCC diagnosis, and proper combinations of these 2 markers could improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26494212

  1. TPX diagnostics for tokamak operation, plasma control and machine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, P.H.; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The diagnostics for TPX are at an early design phase, with emphasis on the diagnostic access interface with the major tokamak components. Account has to be taken of the very severe environment for diagnostic components located inside the vacuum vessel. The placement of subcontracts for the design and fabrication of the diagnostic systems is in process.

  2. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals: an assessment of the early diagnostic value of serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in equine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, F; Vardi, D M; Stefanetti, V; Marenzoni, M L; Prato, S; Cévese, P; Coletti, M; Pepe, M; Casagrande Proietti, P; Olea-Popelka, F

    2015-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals represent important goals for equine clinicians. Recent protocols for diagnosis and treatment of Rhodococcosis in foals typically rely on a multimodal approach based on sonographic evidence suggestive of pyogranulomas, sonographic abscess scores and laboratory findings including plasma fibrinogen concentrations, blood biochemistry testing and platelet and leukocyte counts. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of weekly testing of serum amyloid A (SAA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals to achieve early diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia prior to the onset of clinical signs. This testing was used to simulate a clinically practical screening procedure and compared with thoracic ultrasonography performed in parallel. The present study suggests that SAA does not represent a reliable early marker of Rhodococcosis when plasma concentrations are tested weekly. However, when clinical signs of R. equi pneumonia are present, SAA concentrations may allow clinicians to obtain 'real-time' indications concerning both the progress of infection and the effectiveness of therapy. This study raises the possibility that plasma fibrinogen monitoring starting at 1 week of age and repeated on a weekly basis, could serve as a screening test allowing clinicians to identify foals as suspected of R. equi infection. Future investigations regarding both physiological plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals as well as fibrinogen kinetics in foals affected with R. equi pneumonia, including the establishment of appropriate reference intervals for the test method employed in this study, will be necessary in order to clarify this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief Report: Power Doppler Ultrasonography for Detection of Increased Vascularity in the Fascia: A Potential Early Diagnostic Tool in Fasciitis of Dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ken; Nishioka, Makiko; Matsushima, Satoshi; Joh, Kensuke; Oto, Yosuke; Yoshiga, Masayuki; Otani, Kazuhiro; Ito, Haruyasu; Hirai, Kenichiro; Furuya, Kazuhiro; Ukichi, Taro; Noda, Kentaro; Kingetsu, Isamu; Kurosaka, Daitaro

    2016-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that fasciitis is a common lesion of dermatomyositis (DM) that is detectable early after disease onset by en bloc muscle biopsy combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) is a useful method for detection of inflammation and vascularity in rheumatic diseases. We undertook this study to determine whether fasciitis was detectable by PDUS in patients with DM. We prospectively evaluated 7 patients with DM and 7 patients with polymyositis (PM) for the detection of fasciitis with PDUS. MRI and PDUS were both performed in all patients. Fasciitis was histologically confirmed by en bloc biopsy. Among all patients with DM, 4 showed signs of fasciitis on MRI, while increased blood flow signals were observed along the fascia by PDUS in 6 DM patients, including 4 patients with early disease (<2 months after the onset of muscle symptoms). Histologically, significant fasciitis was confirmed in 4 patients with DM. In the remaining 3 patients with DM, significant fasciitis was not evident histologically, but mild proliferation of capillaries and mild inflammation were notable in the area of the fascia. Immunohistochemical staining for CD31 indicated abnormal neovascular proliferation in the fascia in patients with DM. None of the PM patients showed signs of fasciitis or increased vascularity by MRI, PDUS, or en bloc biopsy. In our limited population, PDUS was useful for the detection of fasciitis associated with DM, especially in the early stage of disease. The increased blood flow signal as detected by PDUS is involved in angiogenesis accompanying fasciitis in patients with DM. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Glyph guessing for ‘oo’ and ‘ee’: spatial frequency information in sound symbolic matching for ancient and unfamiliar scripts

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In three experiments, we asked whether diverse scripts contain interpretable information about the speech sounds they represent. When presented with a pair of unfamiliar letters, adult readers correctly guess which is /i/ (the ‘ee’ sound in ‘feet’), and which is /u/ (the ‘oo’ sound in ‘shoe’) at rates higher than expected by chance, as shown in a large sample of Singaporean university students (Experiment 1) and replicated in a larger sample of international Internet users (Experiment 2). To uncover what properties of the letters contribute to different scripts' ‘guessability,’ we analysed the visual spatial frequencies in each letter (Experiment 3). We predicted that the lower spectral frequencies in the formants of the vowel /u/ would pattern with lower spatial frequencies in the corresponding letters. Instead, we found that across all spatial frequencies, the letter with more black/white cycles (i.e. more ink) was more likely to be guessed as /u/, and the larger the difference between the glyphs in a pair, the higher the script's guessability. We propose that diverse groups of humans across historical time and geographical space tend to employ similar iconic strategies for representing speech in visual form, and provide norms for letter pairs from 56 diverse scripts.

  5. [Genetic diagnostics for cardiomyopathies].

    PubMed

    Czepluch, Frauke; Wollnik, Bernd; Hasenfuß, Gerd

    2017-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies often have a genetic etiology. New genetic diagnostic strategies based on next generation sequencing (NGS)-approaches will continuously increase our knowledge about the genetic basis of cardiomyopathies within the following years. Diagnostics and therapy of rare, genetically-induced cardiac diseases increasingly require special cardiac and genetic knowledge. Interestingly, mutations in the same gene or even identical gene mutations can be associated with different cardiomyopathy phenotypes and can exhibit incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In the future, the correct interpretation and classification of novel gene variants identified in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy forms will represent a great challenge. Genetic counselling and - if appropriate - subsequent genetic testing for cardiomyopathy patients and their asymptomatic relatives is essential for an early diagnosis of the disease, a prognostic evaluation and possibly for the start of preventive or therapeutic measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Sensitivity of Symptomatology Versus Diagnostic Procedures and Concentration of CEA and CA19–9 in the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Mujkic, Admir; Sofic, Amela; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Glavas, Sanjin; Djuran, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. The number of patients in the world has increased recently. In our country it is detected late and patients visit doctor in the advanced stage of the disease with already developed metastases. Material and methods: A clinical study was conducted at the Clinic of gastroenterohepatologists, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University on 164 patients. Special attention was given to the symptoms, which are considered to be a macroscopically visible as bleeding, anemia pain, weight loss and disturbance of defecation. Smoking had no effect because a small number of observed patients smoked. Endoscopic examination revealed localization of the tumor in the colon and then underwent targeted biopsy, histological analysis by pathologist, and we determined the concentration of CEA and CA19-9 in the serum. Results: In order to get the most relevant results we used larger data set. The program used to prepare the data was Microsoft Excel 2013, and for the creation of decision trees is a used software RapidMiner version 5. Our research has shown that patients older than 55 years with significant stenosis, metastasis and diarrhea that lasted longer than 3.5 months and bleeding that lasted up to 10 months had cancer of the rectum. Bleeding that lasts longer than 10 months indicated that it was the case of cancer that was localized in the rectum in men and sigma in women. Patients older than 82.5 years and had diarrhea up to 3.5 months developed cancer in the sigma part of the colon. Analyzing pain as a symptom of an alarm, the study found that pain that lasts longer than a few days, is caused by rectal cancer, and occurs after the age of 70.5 years, and in patients younger than 63 years anemia as a alarm symptom, which lasted more than two months in men was caused by cancer of the rectum and in women cancer in other localizations within colon. In patients without stenosis developed bleeding as the most

  7. A field trial of infrared thermography as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Dietrich, J; Doherr, M G; Gujan, T; Steiner, A

    2014-02-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to detect digital dermatitis (DD) prior to routine claw trimming. A total of 1192 IRT observations were collected from 149 cows on eight farms. All cows were housed in tie-stalls. The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band (CB) region and skin (S) of the fore and rear feet (mean value of the maximal surface temperatures of both digits for each foot separately, CBmax and Smax) were assessed. Grouping was performed at the foot level (presence of DD, n=99; absence, n=304), or at the cow level (all four feet healthy, n=24) or where there was at least one DD lesion on the rear feet, n=37). For individual cows (n=61), IRT temperature difference was determined by subtracting the mean sum of CBmax and Smax of the rear feet from that of the fore feet. Feet with DD had higher CBmax and Smax (P<0.001) than healthy feet. Smax was significantly higher in feet with infectious DD lesions (M-stage: M2+M4; n=15) than in those with non-infectious M-lesions (M1+M3; n=84) (P=0.03), but this was not the case for CBmax (P=0.12). At the cow level, an optimal cut-off value for detecting DD of 0.99°C (IRT temperature difference between rear and front feet) yielded a sensitivity of 89.1% and a specificity of 66.6%. The results indicate that IRT may be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool to screen for the presence of DD in dairy cows by measuring CBmax and Smax.

  8. Diagnostic specificity and familiality of early versus late evoked potentials to auditory paired stimuli across the schizophrenia-bipolar psychosis spectrum.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jordan P; Ethridge, Lauren E; Boutros, Nashaat N; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Clementz, Brett A

    2014-04-01

    Disrupted sensory processing is a core feature of psychotic disorders. Auditory paired stimuli (PS) evoke a complex neural response, but it is uncertain which aspects reflect shared and/or distinct liability for the most common severe psychoses, schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP). Evoked time-voltage/time-frequency domain responses quantified with EEG during a typical PS paradigm (S1-S2) were compared among proband groups (SZ [n = 232], BDP [181]), their relatives (SZrel [259], BDPrel [220]), and healthy participants (H [228]). Early S1-evoked responses were reduced in SZ and BDP, while later/S2 abnormalities showed SZ/SZrel and BDP/BDPrel specificity. Relatives' effects were absent/small despite significant familiality of the entire auditorineural response. This pattern suggests general and divergent biological pathways associated with psychosis, yet may reflect complications with conditioning solely on clinical phenomenology.

  9. Diagnostic specificity and familiality of early versus late evoked potentials to auditory paired stimuli across the schizophrenia-bipolar psychosis spectrum

    PubMed Central

    HAMM, JORDAN P.; ETHRIDGE, LAUREN E.; BOUTROS, NASHAAT N.; KESHAVAN, MATCHERI S.; SWEENEY, JOHN A.; PEARLSON, GODFREY D.; TAMMINGA, CAROL A.; CLEMENTZ, BRETT A.

    2017-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing is a core feature of psychotic disorders. Auditory paired stimuli (PS) evoke a complex neural response, but it is uncertain which aspects reflect shared and/or distinct liability for the most common severe psychoses, schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP). Evoked time-voltage/time-frequency domain responses quantified with EEG during a typical PS paradigm (S1-S2) were compared among proband groups (SZ [n = 232], BDP [181]), their relatives (SZrel [259], BDPrel [220]), and healthy participants (H [228]). Early S1-evoked responses were reduced in SZ and BDP, while later/S2 abnormalities showed SZ/SZrel and BDP/BDPrel specificity. Relatives’ effects were absent/small despite significant familiality of the entire auditorineural response. This pattern suggests general and divergent biological pathways associated with psychosis, yet may reflect complications with conditioning solely on clinical phenomenology. PMID:24660885

  10. Serum Procalcitonin as a Valuable Diagnostic Tool in the Early Detection of Infectious Complications after Open Abdominal Aortic Repair.

    PubMed

    Varetto, Gianfranco; Castagno, Claudio; Trucco, Andrea; Frola, Edoardo; Bert, Fabrizio; Scozzari, Gitana; Rispoli, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Aortic aneurysm repair is a resolutive and effective surgical operation, which can be associated with severe postoperative complications. Procalcitonin (PCT) in clinical practice could play a role in early diagnosis and monitoring of therapy for complications, especially infections, making for timely and more effective interventions. Our aim was to investigate whether PCT could be a predictive marker in early diagnosis of infectious complications after open abdominal aortic surgery. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective open aortic repair at our institution were enrolled. Blood samples were taken before surgery, and each day over the 7-day postoperative period, and measurement of serum PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes levels were carried out. Data regarding clinical progress, instrumental examinations, and blood chemistry were prospectively collected. Postoperative infectious complications occurred in 24 patients. Within 30 days, 1 death occurred. In the study sample, we found a significant difference in PCT curves of patients with and without infectious complications, especially on third postoperative day (POD; P = 0.004). On analysis of the area under the curve (AUC curve), PCT was shown to be a fair predictor in distinguishing cases with infectious complications (AUC, 0.765 on third POD; CI, 0.638-0.877). Conversely, other inflammatory markers commonly used (leucocytes and CRP) had similar trends in patients with and without postoperative infections. On the basis of the results collected in this pilot study, despite some limitations, PCT could be considered a better marker of infectious complications after open abdominal aortic repair, when compared with other routinely used parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.M.

    1981-07-28

    The invention discloses diagnostic compositions for use in obtaining images of a patient's lungs. The basic components of the composition of the invention are sodium pertechnetate which is radioactive and ethanol. This composition may be combusted and the resulting products cooled or alternatively the composition may be inserted into a pressure vessel with an aerosol. In both cases a gas like mixture results. A particular advantage is that a patient is able to breath the mixture of the invention in a normal way and does not need to undergo any training in inhalation.

  12. Pulmonary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Donn, Steven M; Sinha, Sunil K

    2017-08-01

    Term infants with respiratory distress may have extremely varied etiologies of their illnesses. These range from anatomical malformations to infectious or inflammatory conditions to genetic, metabolic, or neurological abnormalities. This article reviews the present array of diagnostic studies available to the clinician, including the physical examination, imaging (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and nuclear scanning techniques), lung mechanics and function testing, evaluation of gas exchange (blood gases, pulse oximetry, transcutaneous monitoring, and end-tidal carbon monoxide measurements), and anatomical studies (bronchoscopy and lung biopsy). These tests and procedures are reviewed and a stepwise approach recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  14. A mathematical theory of shape and neuro-fuzzy methodology-based diagnostic analysis: a comparative study on early detection and treatment planning of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Kar, Subrata; Majumder, D Dutta

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of brain cancer can detect the abnormal growth of tissue in the brain using computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients. The proposed method classifies brain cancer on shape-based feature extraction as either benign or malignant. The authors used input variables such as shape distance (SD) and shape similarity measure (SSM) in fuzzy tools, and used fuzzy rules to evaluate the risk status as an output variable. We presented a classifier neural network system (NNS), namely Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), which is a feed-forward back-propagation learning algorithm used to train the NN for the status of brain cancer, if any, and which achieved satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases. First, we find the region of interest (ROI) in the brain to detect the tumors using CT and MR images. Second, we extract the shape-based features, like SD and SSM, and grade the brain tumors as benign or malignant with the concept of SD function and SSM as shape-based parameters. Third, we classify the brain cancers using neuro-fuzzy tools. In this experiment, we used a 16-sample database with SSM (μ) values and classified the benignancy or malignancy of the brain tumor lesions using the neuro-fuzzy system (NFS). We have developed a fuzzy expert system (FES) and NFS for early detection of brain cancer from CT and MR images. In this experiment, shape-based features, such as SD and SSM, were extracted from the ROI of brain tumor lesions. These shape-based features were considered as input variables and, using fuzzy rules, we were able to evaluate brain cancer risk values for each case. We used an NNS with LM, a feed-forward back-propagation learning algorithm, as a classifier for the diagnosis of brain cancer and achieved satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy. The proposed network was trained with MR image datasets of 16 cases. The 16 cases were fed to the ANN with 2 input neurons, one

  15. Diagnostic of Horndeski theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Piazza, Federico

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into Late dark energy, Early dark energy and Early modified gravity scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant μ, the gravitational slip parameter η, the light deflection parameter Σ and the growth function fσ8 and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the μ(z) ‑ Σ(z) and the fσ8(z) ‑ Σ(z) planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at redshift zero or μ ‑ 1 < 0 with Σ ‑ 1 > 0 at high redshifts or μ ‑ 1 > 0 with Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at high redshifts, Horndeski theories are effectively ruled out. If fσ8 is measured to be larger than expected in a ΛCDM model at z > 1.5 then Early dark energy models are definitely ruled out. On the opposite case, Late dark energy models are rejected by data if Σ < 1, while, if Σ > 1, only Early modifications of gravity provide a viable framework to interpret data.

  16. The diagnostic value of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 for early prediction of bacteremia and sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia and cancer.

    PubMed

    Urbonas, Vincas; Eidukaitė, Audronė; Tamulienė, Indrė

    2012-03-01

    Early diagnosis of sepsis in children with febrile neutropenia and cancer still remains a challenge for modern medicine because of lack of specific laboratory markers and clinical signs especially at the beginning of the infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 to predict bacteremia and sepsis during the first 2 days in oncohematologic patients with febrile neutropenia. A total of 61 febrile neutropenic episodes in 37 children were studied. Serum samples were collected on day 1 and day 2 from the onset of fever and analyzed using an automated random access analyzer. Neutropenic children with febrile episodes were classified into the following 2 groups: (1) fever of unknown origin group--patients with a negative blood culture--and (2) bacteremia/sepsis group--patients with a positive blood culture or clinical sepsis. High negative predictive values were found on day 1 for interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 (89% and 82%, respectively) for exclusion of bacteremia/sepsis. These interleukins could be used as a screening tool for the rejection of sepsis or bacteremia on the first day of fever in neutropenic children with cancer.

  17. What is happening? The evolving role of the blood bank in the management of the bleeding patient: The impact of TEG as an early diagnostic predictor for bleeding.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Aurora; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of coagulopathy, the management of the bleeding patient remains as a major challenge. Traditionally, the main task of the blood bank has been to guarantee the supply of high quality blood and blood components/products to the hospital. Decisions regarding the use of blood components have always been the clinicians' responsibility, with little active involvement of the transfusion service. In the last years, many hospitals have implemented the use of "acute transfusion packages" for massively bleeding patients and point-of-care (POC) instruments such as TEG and RoTEM for monitoring coagulation status in this patient group. This, in addition to the implementation of patient blood management programs in the hospitals, has led to an increasing involvement of transfusion medicine specialists in transfusion decision making, especially regarding strategies for monitoring and treatment of the massively bleeding patient. This new trend may contribute to a more optimal management and monitoring of the bleeding patient, as POC testing may be used as an early predictor for blood usage. The blood bank should optimise the use of POC testing to provide accurate information in a cost-effective way.

  18. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging versus positron emission tomography/computed tomography for early response assessment of liver metastases to Y90-radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Barabasch, Alexandra; Kraemer, Nils A; Ciritsis, Alexander; Hansen, Nienke L; Lierfeld, Marco; Heinzel, Alexander; Trautwein, Christian; Neumann, Ulf; Kuhl, Christiane K

    2015-06-01

    Patients with hepatic metastases who are candidates for Y90-radioembolization (Y90-RE) usually have advanced tumor stages with involvement of both liver lobes. Per current guidelines, these patients have usually undergone several cycles of potentially hepatotoxic systemic chemotherapy before Y90-RE is at all considered, requiring split (lobar) treatment sessions to reduce hepatic toxicity. Assessing response to Y90-RE early, that is, already after the first lobar session, would be helpful to avoid an ineffective and potentially hepatotoxic second lobar treatment. We investigated the accuracy with which diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can provide this information. An institutional review board-approved prospective intraindividual comparison trial on 35 patients who underwent fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and DWI-MRI within 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after Y90-RE to treat secondary-progressive liver metastases from solid cancers (20 colorectal, 13 breast, 2 other) was performed. An increase of minimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCmin) or decrease of maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) by at least 30% was regarded as positive response. Long-term clinical and imaging follow-up was used to distinguish true- from false-response classifications. On the basis of long-term follow-up, 23 (66%) of 35 patients responded to the Y90 treatment. No significant changes of metastases size or contrast enhancement were observable on pretreatment versus posttreatment CT or magnetic resonance images.However, overall SUVmax decreased from 8.0 ± 3.9 to 5.5 ± 2.2 (P < 0.0001), and ADCmin increased from 0.53 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm2/s to 0.77 ± 0.26 × 10(-3) mm2/s (P < 0.0001). Pretherapeutic versus posttherapeutic changes of ADCmin and SUVmax correlated moderately (r = -0.53). In 4 of the 35 patients (11%), metastases were fluorodeoxyglucose-negative such that no response assessment was possible by

  20. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Early Detection of Schistosoma mansoni in Stool Samples: A Diagnostic Approach in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Gandasegui Arahuetes, Javier; Sánchez Hernández, Alicia; López Abán, Julio; Vicente Santiago, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries. Methodology/Principal findings A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP) was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection. Conclusions/Significance We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and

  1. Central-peripheral temperature gradient: an early diagnostic sign of late-onset neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Leante-Castellanos, José Luis; Lloreda-García, José M; García-González, Ana; Llopis-Baño, Caridad; Fuentes-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Alonso-Gallego, José Ángel; Martínez-Gimeno, Antonio

    2012-04-22

    We assessed central-peripheral temperature gradient alteration for the diagnosis of late-onset neonatal sepsis and compared earliness detection of this sign with altered blood cell count and C-reactive protein. Thirty-one preterm babies (<1500 g or <32 weeks) participated in an observational prospective study. Axillary (central) and sole (peripheral) temperatures were continuously monitored with a thermal probe (ThermoTracer; Dräger Medical AGF & Co. KgaA, Lübeck, Germany) adjusting incubator air temperature for a thermal gradient <1.5°C. Central-peripheral temperature alteration was defined as a thermal gradient >2°C that could not be corrected with protocolized air temperature modifications. Proven (positive blood culture) sepsis and probable late-onset sepsis were recorded. Late-onset sepsis was diagnosed in 11 neonates (proven, 9; probable, 2). Thermal gradient alteration was present in 12 cases, in association with the onset of sepsis in 10 and concomitantly with a ductus arteriosus and stage 1 necrotizing enterocolitis in 2. Thermal gradient alteration had a sensitivity of 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 62.3-98.4] and specificity of 90% (95% CI, 69.9-97.2%), and in 80% of cases, it occurred before abnormal laboratory findings. Central-peripheral temperature gradient monitoring is a feasible, non-invasive, and simple tool easily applicable in daily practice. An increase of >2°C showed a high-sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of late-onset sepsis.

  2. [Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Wiltfang, J

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies.

  3. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  4. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  5. Current state of HIV/AIDS in Taiwan and reappraisal of early diagnostic value of serial and comparative analyses of western blot patterns of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Yuan; Chuang, Che-Yen

    2002-02-01

    Since Taiwan is not a member of the World Health Organization (WHO), the problems of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Taiwan are not well known to the world. In this report we summarize the trend and current status of HIV/AIDS in Taiwan and also analyze Western blot (WB) patterns. The application of serial and comparative WB analyses is important in establishing an early diagnosis of neonatal HIV infection. These analyses will be useful as well in evaluating the clinical status of adults infected with HIV in developing countries. When there are "indeterminate" WBs in adults with recent HIV infection, it is imperative to perform a WB weekly to attain the earliest possible diagnosis and treatment. Usually anti-gag antibodies, most frequently the anti-p24, are followed by anti-env and anti-pol antibodies. When the set point is attained, WB studies may also be repeated if the clinical status changes or if the patients are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the advanced stages of HIV infection, usually the anti-gag antibodies will fade first and then disappear, this occurs next in the anti-pol and in the anti-env antibodies. During HAART, viral replication is usually controlled and there will thus be a partial restoration of the immunological function that will induce changes in the antigen-antibody ratio and, in the end, this will result in changes in the WB patterns. In the mid 1980s all the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) used in Taiwan was anti-HIV positive. However, follow-up ELISA and WB studies of the HBIG injected newborns proved that HBIG was anti-HIV positive but that there was no replicable HIV in HBIG. Monthly WB tests of newborns and anti-HIV positive mothers were used to differentiate HIV infection from the passive placental transference by comparing their WB patterns. Comparative WB analyses was also done between blood donors and recipients, and also between husbands and wives

  6. Glaucoma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Geimer, Sabina Andersson

    2013-02-01

    This thesis addresses several aspects of glaucoma diagnostics from both a clinical and a screening perspective. New instruments for diagnosing glaucoma have been developed over the past years, but little information is available regarding their performance as screening methods and their usefulness in ordinary clinical practice. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH UNDERLYING THIS THESIS:  The objectives of this research were as follows: to compare the accuracy of results of analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) achieved by computerized imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) and by subjective assessment performed by physicians with different degrees of experience of glaucoma (paper III); to evaluate the effect of a continuous medical education (CME) lecture on subjective assessment of the ONH for diagnosis of glaucoma (paper II); to investigate subjective assessment of perimetric test results by physicians with varying knowledge of glaucoma with a trained artificial neural network (ANN) and to compare the certainty of the classifications (paper IV); and to compare the diagnostic performance of time-domain Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) with that of spectral-domain Cirrus OCT (paper I), frequency doubling technology (FDT) screening perimetry and scanning laser polarimetry with the GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) in a random population-based sample and in patients with glaucoma of varying disease severity.   In evaluation of the ONH, use of the HRT statistical tools, Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS) was compared with subjective assessment performed by 45 physicians. Optic nerve head images and photographs from 138 healthy and 97 glaucoma subjects were included. The sensitivity of MRA was higher (87-94%) than that of the average physician (62-82%), considerably greater than that of ophthalmologists with subspecialties other than glaucoma (53-77%) and non-significantly better than that of glaucoma

  7. Lucky Guess or Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Bland and Altman Analysis to Compare Confidence-Based Testing of Pharmacological Knowledge in 3rd and 5th Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT…

  8. Lucky Guess or Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Bland and Altman Analysis to Compare Confidence-Based Testing of Pharmacological Knowledge in 3rd and 5th Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT…

  9. Effect of Mobile Phone-Induced Electromagnetic Field on Brain Hemodynamics and Human Stem Cell Functioning: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk and Early Diagnostic Value of Electronphotonic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; Srinivasan, T M; Varambally, S; Gangadhar, B N; Koka, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The mobile phones (MP) are low power radio devices which work on electromagnetic fields (EMFs), in the frequency range of 900-1800 MHz. Exposure to MPEMFs may affect brain physiology and lead to various health hazards including brain tumors. Earlier studies with positron emission tomography (PET) have found alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute exposure to MPEMFs. It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemia and tumors, including brain tumors such as gliomas. Both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response have been triggered by MPEMFs and EMFs from cell towers. It has been shown that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells. This may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicates that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals. Recently developed technology for recording the human bio-electromagnetic (BEM) field using Electron photonic Imaging (EPI) or Gas Discharge Visualisation (GDV) technique provides useful information about the human BEM. Studies have recorded acute effects of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Fields (MPEMFs) using EPI and found quantifiable effects on human BEM field. Present manuscript reviews evidences of altered brain physiology and stem cell functioning due to mobile phone/cell tower radiations, its association with increased cancer risk and explores early diagnostic value of EPI imaging in detecting EMF induced changes on human BEM.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of a 16S ribosomal DNA gene-based molecular technique (RT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing) for bacterial meningitis, early-onset neonatal sepsis, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Esparcia, Oscar; Montemayor, Michel; Ginovart, Gemma; Pomar, Virginia; Soriano, Germán; Pericas, Roser; Gurgui, Mercedes; Sulleiro, Elena; Prats, Guillem; Navarro, Ferran; Coll, Pere

    2011-02-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of a 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene-based molecular technique for bacterial meningitis (BM), early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is evaluated. The molecular approach gave better results for BM diagnosis: sensitivity (S) was 90.6% compared to 78.1% for the bacterial culture. Percentages of cases correctly diagnosed (CCD) were 91.7% and 80.6%, respectively. For EONS diagnosis, S was 60.0% for the molecular approach and 70.0% for the bacterial culture; and CCD was 95.2% and 96.4%, respectively. For SPB diagnosis, the molecular approach gave notably poorer results than the bacterial cultures. S and CCD were 48.4% and 56.4% for the molecular approach and 80.6% and 89.1% for bacterial cultures. Nevertheless, bacterial DNA was detected in 53.3% of culture-negative samples. Accuracy of the 16S rDNA PCR approach differs depending on the sample, the microorganisms involved, the expected bacterial load, and the presence of bacterial DNA other than that from the pathogen implied in the infectious disease.

  11. [Diagnostic criteria. Benefits of early diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Gil Gregorio, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Almost 36 million persons live with dementia worldwide. This figure is set to double by 2030, with 66 million patients, and by 2050 there will be 116 million affected persons. Dementia has an economic impact on individuals and health services and affects the global economy. It is important to evaluate costs to plan social services and healthcare and to provide information on the cost-effectiveness of treatments. The economic cost of dementia was around 604 billion dollars in 2010 and estimates are obviously set to rise.

  12. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Proteomics, nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Zhukovsky, Nikolay; Cass, Anthony E G; Nagy, Judit M

    2008-02-01

    Sequencing of the human genome opened the way to the exploration of the proteome and this has lead to the identification of large numbers of proteins in complex biological samples. The identification of diagnostic patterns in samples taken from patients to aid diagnosis is in the early stages of development. The solution to many of the technical challenges in proteomics and protein based molecular diagnostics will be found in new applications of nanomaterials. This review describes some of the physical and chemical principles underlying nanomaterials and devices and outlines how they can be used in proteomics; developments which are establishing nanoproteomics as a new field. Nanoproteomics will provide the platform for the discovery of next generation biomarkers. The field of molecular diagnostics will then come of age.

  14. Paediatric diagnostic audiology testing in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani

    2016-03-01

    With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A One-Versus-All Class Binarization Strategy for Bearing Diagnostics of Concurrent Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Selina S. Y.; Tse, Peter W.; Tsui, Kwok L.

    2014-01-01

    In bearing diagnostics using a data-driven modeling approach, a concern is the need for data from all possible scenarios to build a practical model for all operating conditions. This paper is a study on bearing diagnostics with the concurrent occurrence of multiple defect types. The authors are not aware of any work in the literature that studies this practical problem. A strategy based on one-versus-all (OVA) class binarization is proposed to improve fault diagnostics accuracy while reducing the number of scenarios for data collection, by predicting concurrent defects from training data of normal and single defects. The proposed OVA diagnostic approach is evaluated with empirical analysis using support vector machine (SVM) and C4.5 decision tree, two popular classification algorithms frequently applied to system health diagnostics and prognostics. Statistical features are extracted from the time domain and the frequency domain. Prediction performance of the proposed strategy is compared with that of a simple multi-class classification, as well as that of random guess and worst-case classification. We have verified the potential of the proposed OVA diagnostic strategy in performance improvements for single-defect diagnosis and predictions of BPFO plus BPFI concurrent defects using two laboratory-collected vibration data sets. PMID:24419162

  16. A one-versus-all class binarization strategy for bearing diagnostics of concurrent defects.

    PubMed

    Ng, Selina S Y; Tse, Peter W; Tsui, Kwok L

    2014-01-13

    In bearing diagnostics using a data-driven modeling approach, a concern is the need for data from all possible scenarios to build a practical model for all operating conditions. This paper is a study on bearing diagnostics with the concurrent occurrence of multiple defect types. The authors are not aware of any work in the literature that studies this practical problem. A strategy based on one-versus-all (OVA) class binarization is proposed to improve fault diagnostics accuracy while reducing the number of scenarios for data collection, by predicting concurrent defects from training data of normal and single defects. The proposed OVA diagnostic approach is evaluated with empirical analysis using support vector machine (SVM) and C4.5 decision tree, two popular classification algorithms frequently applied to system health diagnostics and prognostics. Statistical features are extracted from the time domain and the frequency domain. Prediction performance of the proposed strategy is compared with that of a simple multi-class classification, as well as that of random guess and worst-case classification. We have verified the potential of the proposed OVA diagnostic strategy in performance improvements for single-defect diagnosis and predictions of BPFO plus BPFI concurrent defects using two laboratory-collected vibration data sets.

  17. A comparison of actual to estimated weights in Australian children attending a tertiary children's' hospital, using the original and updated APLS, Luscombe and Owens, Best Guess formulae and the Broselow tape.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lara; Chayen, Gilad; Peat, Jennifer; O'Leary, Fenton

    2014-03-01

    During paediatric resuscitation it is essential to be able to estimate the child's weight as it determines drug doses and equipment sizes. Age and length-based estimations exist, with age-based estimations being especially useful in the preparation phase and the length-based Broselow tape having weight-based drug doses and equipment already assigned via a colour code system. The aim of this study was to compare the actual recorded weights of Australian children to the predicted weights using the original and updated APLS, Luscombe and Owens and Best Guess formulae and the Broselow tape. A retrospective observational study of children attending an Australian tertiary children's hospital. From 49,565 patients extracted from the database, 37,114 children with age and weight and 37,091 children with age and height recorded were included in the analysis. Best Guess was the most accurate, with the smallest overall mean difference 0.86 kg. For <1 year old, Broselow tape was the most accurate (mean difference -0.43 kg), Best Guess was the most accurate for ages 1-5 years and 11-14 years (mean difference 0.27 and 0.20 kg respectively), and the updated APLS formula was the most accurate for 6-10 year-old (mean difference 0.42 kg). The Broselow tape was able to only classify 48.9% of children into the correct weight colour band. For an age-based weight estimation, in infants less than one year the new APLS formula is the most accurate and over one year the Best Guess formulae should be used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The National Facility physics and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A

    1999-08-06

    This paper presents a description of the National Ignition Facility, some of the physics experiments that will be performed on it, and a description of some of the diagnostics needed to complete these experiments. Experiments are presented under the headings of: ignition physics, weapons physics or high-energy-density experimental science, weapons effects, and basic science and inertial fusion energy. The diagnostics discussed are primarily those that will be provided for early operation.

  19. The national facility physics and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A

    1999-08-06

    This paper presents a description of the National Ignition Facility, some of the physics experiments that will be performed on it and a description of some of the diagnostics needed to complete these experiments. Experiments are presented under the headings of: ignition physics, weapons physics or high-energy-density experimental science, weapons effects, and basic science and inertial fusion energy. The diagnostics discussed are primarily those that will be provided for early operation.

  20. The National Facility physics and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Wooton, A

    1999-08-06

    This paper presents a description of the National Ignition Facility, some of the physics experiments that will be performed on it and a description of some of the diagnostics needed to complete these experiments. Experiments are presented under the headings of: ignition physics, weapons physics or high-energy-density experimental science, weapons effects, and basic science and inertial fusion energy. The diagnostics discussed are primarily those that will be provided for early operation.

  1. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  2. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  3. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders and mutations. Only embryos that do not test positive for the disorders are transferred. How are the cells analyzed in prenatal diagnostic testing? A number of technologies are used in prenatal diagnostic testing. Your obstetrician ...

  4. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  5. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  6. Can You Guess My Number?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Paula J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a game used in precalculus that builds interest and confidence in the uses of inverse functions. The game is preceded by a worksheet that enables students to discover that f(x) and f-1(x) are mirror images of the line y=x. (DDR)

  7. Guess Who's Coming to Graduation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in assisting seniors and two teachers at Kalamazoo (Michigan) Central High School when they joined a national contest to have the President of the United States deliver the commencement address to the class of 2010. One of the author's favorite memories surrounds the distribution of commencement…

  8. Guess Who's Coming to Graduation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in assisting seniors and two teachers at Kalamazoo (Michigan) Central High School when they joined a national contest to have the President of the United States deliver the commencement address to the class of 2010. One of the author's favorite memories surrounds the distribution of commencement…

  9. Guess Who's Pregnant? Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, George H.; And Others

    Statistics on teenage pregnancy, the rate of venereal disease, and media representations of sexual mores are offered as rationale for the inclusion of sex education in the elementary-secondary school curriculum. The program of the George Mason Junior-Senior High School (Falls Church, Virginia) is described and used as a model for the discussion of…

  10. National NIF Diagnostic Program Fiscal Year 2002 Second Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B

    2002-04-01

    Since October 2001 the development of the facility diagnostics for NIF has been funded by the NIF Director through the National NIF Diagnostic Program (NNDP). The current emphasis of the NNDP is on diagnostics for the early NIF quad scheduled to be available for experiment commissioning in FY03. During the past six months the NNDP has set in place processes for funding diagnostics, developing requirements for diagnostics, design reviews and monthly status reporting. Those processes are described in an interim management plan for diagnostics (''National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Plan'', NIF-0081315, April 2002) and a draft Program Execution Plan (''Program Execution Plan for the National NlF Diagnostic Program'', NIF-0072083, October 2001) and documents cited therein. Work has been funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bechtel Nevada at Los Alamos and Santa Barbara. There are no major technical risks with the early diagnostics. The main concerns relate to integration of the diagnostics into the facility, all such issues are being worked. This report is organized to show the schedule and budget status and a summary of Change Control Board actions for the past six months. The following sections then provide short descriptions of the status of each diagnostic. Where design reviews or requirements documents are cited, the documents are available on the Diagnostics file server or on request.

  11. Integrated diagnostics during design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, H.; Clothier, R. H.; Ferrell, B. L.

    1985-05-01

    Progress made in a continuing study effort seeking to develop management tools to support diagnostic design decision making is discussed. The development of diagnostic mix guidelines for use during initial design is addressed, including the selection of factors associated with the diagnostic mixing decision, the methods of measurement, and the development of a cost model. Inputs and outputs of this model are given, and a sample analysis using the model to establish the significance of avionics diagnostics errors from a cost impact standpoint is presented. The development of a Practical Guide incorporating cost effective diagnostic mix criteria and full-scale development monitoring methodology is briefly discussed.

  12. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  13. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  14. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Study Design: retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Results: the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion’s site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. Conclusions: diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease. Key words:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, criteria, diagnose, early. PMID:24608210

  15. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    PubMed

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of early visual cortex suppresses conscious representations in a dichotomous manner without gradually decreasing their precision.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Mika; Harjuniemi, Inari; Railo, Henry; Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Revonsuo, Antti

    2017-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of early visual cortex can suppresses visual perception at early stages of processing. The suppression can be measured both with objective forced-choice tasks and with subjective ratings of visual awareness, but there is lack of objective evidence on how and whether the TMS influences the quality of representations. Does TMS decrease the precision of representations in graded manner, or does it lead to dichotomous, "all-or-nothing" suppression. We resolved this question by using a continuous measure of the perceptual error: the observers had to perceive the orientation of a target (Landort-C) and to adjust the orientation of a probe to match that of the target. Mixture modeling was applied to estimate the probability of guess trials and the standard deviation of the non-guess trials. TMS delivered 60-150 ms after stimulus-onset influenced only the guessing rate, whereas the standard deviation (i.e., precision) was not affected. This suggests that TMS suppressed representations dichotomously without affecting their precision. The guessing probability correlated with subjective visibility ratings, suggesting that it measured visual awareness. In a control experiment, manipulation of the stimulus contrast affected the standard deviation of the errors, indicating that contrast has a gradual influence on the precision of representations. The findings suggest that TMS of early visual cortex suppresses perception in dichotomous manner by decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the noise level, whereas reduction of the signal level (i.e., contrast) decreases the precision of representations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  18. Evolution of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Przybek, Joanna; Gniatkowska, Inga; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that occurs primarily in young adults. There is no single diagnostic test to recognize the disease. The diagnostic criteria, based on clinical examination and laboratory tests, have changed considerably over time. The first guidelines involved only the results of the patient's neurological examination. The diagnostic criteria developed by Poser in 1983 were based largely on the results of additional tests, including visual evoked potentials and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. The McDonald criteria, developed in 2001 and updated in 2005 and 2010, reflected the diagnostic breakthrough caused by widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, the diagnosis depends largely on the results of the MRI examination. An early diagnosis is particularly important for starting disease-modifying treatments.

  19. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  20. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  1. [Modern diagnostics of tracheal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Müller, A

    2004-06-01

    Numerous new modalities in computertomography (CT), in particular Multislice-Spiral-CT and Virtual Endoscopy, and novel developments in endoscopy and spirometry gave us reason to review the current state of the art in diagnostics of tracheal stenosis (TS). This review evaluates the literature of the last decade regarding new trends and methods in diagnostics of tracheal stenosis. Pros and cons are discussed, and the future trends are highlighted. Spiral-CT scans at collimated slices of < or = 3 mm, PITCH < or = 1.5 and a segmentation level of - 350 HE permit a valid measurement of tracheal lumina. The flow-volume-plot is still the most important investigation to evaluate respiratory function in TS. Peak-Flow-Meters are suitable for patient self monitoring. The selective estimation of the TS related airway resistance using in situ measurements and numerical flow simulation studies are likely to reach importance in future. The ability to obtain exact measures from endoscopic recordings using EndoScan serves quality control in endoscopy. An objective comparison of different treatments becomes possible. Endosonography and methods for in-vitro tissue analysis (Optical Coherence Tomography) are more focused on the early diagnosis of malignant lesions. The Synopsis of endoscopy, CT-scan and spirometry provides the highest diagnostic accuracy today.

  2. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications.

  3. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  4. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  5. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: evaluation.

    PubMed

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán-Carlos; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío

    2014-07-01

    to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion's site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease.

  6. Assessment of building diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    The building diagnostics requirements for in-situ or field measurements on energy consumption in conditioned spaces and on heat gain and loss in residential and nonresidential buildings are evaluated. Energy audit programs, energy performance monitoring, energy flow in buildings, and use of computer technology are considered. A diagnostics program is outlined.

  7. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  8. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  9. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  10. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.; Hurst, M.; Jobe, D.; Torres, J.; Seaman, J.; Struve, K.; Lazier, S.; Gilliland, T.; Ruggles, L. A.; Simpson, W. A.; Adams, R.; Seaman, J. A.; Wenger, D.; Nielsen, D.; Riley, P.; French, R.; Stygar, B.; Wagoner, T.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R.; Asay, J.; Hall, C.; Knudson, M.; Armijo, J.; McKenney, J.; Hawn, R.; Schroen-Carey, D.; Hebron, D.; Cutler, T.; Dropinski, S.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Douglas, M.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A.; Wakefield, C.; Mills, J.; Slopek, J.; Dinwoodie, T.; Idzorek, G.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12° above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them.

  11. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  12. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  13. National NIF Diagnostic Program Fiscal Year 2002 Third Quarter Report

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B

    2002-07-01

    Since October 2001, the development of the facility diagnostics for NIF has been funded by the NIF Director through the National NIF Diagnostic Program (NNDP). The current emphasis of the NNDP is on diagnostics for the early NIF quad scheduled to be available for experiment commissioning in FY03. During the past nine months, the NNDP has set in place processes for funding diagnostics, developing requirements for diagnostics, design reviews, and monthly status reporting. Work has been funded at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Bechtel Nevada at Los Alamos and Santa Barbara. There are no major technical risks with the early diagnostics. The main concerns relate to integration of the diagnostics into the facility; all such issues are being worked. This report is organized to show the schedule and budget status and a summary of Change Control Board actions for the past three months. The following sections then provide short descriptions of the status of each diagnostic. Where design reviews or requirements documents are cited, the documents are available on the Diagnostics file server or on request.

  14. Fermilab recycler diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

  15. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  16. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  17. Manual of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, G.; Baker, S.; Davis, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book is on ordering and understanding the results of radiologic studies. Main sections are (I) Diagnostic Radiology serves as a basic introduction; (II) Diagnostic Modalities dedicates a chapter to each imaging modality in a clinical context, with a brief technical description and patient preparation guidelines; and (III) Organ System Imaging contains a chapter on each major organ system, covering the abilities and limitations of each modality to image a specific organ system and the significance of anatomic, physiologic, and general pathologic information.

  18. Diagnostic Test Requirements for Reading in the Elementary Grades. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Robert M.

    Analysis of the requirements for diagnostic testing of the early stages of reading competence shows that diagnostic testing needs to focus on decoding, word knowledge, and sentence processing. Reading diagnostic tests also need to assess "entry" skills for the assignment of pupils to instruction, and "exit" skills at each grade…

  19. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics*

    PubMed Central

    Sebag, J.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. Methods This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Results Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. Conclusions This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further

  20. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  1. Selected Preschool Screening and Diagnostic Instruments: A Technical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Maurine

    This report, one of several prepared for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education in Illinois, provides a technical review of the following twelve instruments for screening, assessing, and diagnosing young children's readiness for school: Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development; Brigance K & 1 Screen for Kindergarten…

  2. Infrared spectroscopy in biomedical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyeva, Natalia I.; Kolyakov, Sergei F.; Letokhov, Vladilen S.; Artioushenko, Vjacheslav G.; Golovkina, Viktoriya N.

    1998-01-01

    Fiberoptic evanescent wave Fourier transform infrared (FEW- FTIR) spectroscopy using fiberoptic sensors operated in the attenuated total reflection (ATR) regime in the middle infrared (IR) region of the spectrum (850 - 1850 cm-1) has recently found application in the diagnostics of tissues. The method is suitable for noninvasive and rapid (seconds) direct measurements of the spectra of normal and pathological tissues in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The aim of our studies is the express testing of various tumor tissues at the early stages of their development. The method is expected to be further developed for endoscopic and biopsy applications. We measured in vivo the skin normal and malignant tissues on surface (directly on patients) in various cases of basaloma, melanoma and nevus. The experiments were performed in the operating room for measurements of skin in the depth (under/in the layers of epidermis), human breast, stomach, lung, kidney tissues. The breast and skin tissues at different stages of tumor or cancer were distinguished very clearly in spectra of amide, side cyclic and noncyclic hydrogen bonded fragments of amino acid residuals, phosphate groups and sugars. Computer monitoring is being developed for diagnostics.

  3. Obturator hernia: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Punamiya, Aditya R.; Naniwadekar, Ramchandra G.; Janugade, Hemant B.; Chotai, Tejas D.; Vimal Singh, T.; Natchair, Arafath

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obturator hernia is an extremely rare type of hernia with relatively high mortality and morbidity. Its early diagnosis is challenging since the signs and symptoms are non specific. PRESENTATION OF CASE Here in we present a case of 70 years old women who presented with complaints of intermittent colicky abdominal pain and vomiting. Plain radiograph of abdomen showed acute dilatation of stomach. Ultrasonography showed small bowel obstruction at the mid ileal level with evidence of coiled loops of ileum in pelvis. On exploration, Right Obstructed Obturator hernia was found. The obstructed Intestine was reduced and resected and the obturator foramen was closed with simple sutures. Postoperative period was uneventful. DISCUSSION Obturator hernia is a rare pelvic hernia and poses a diagnostic challenge. Obturator hernia occurs when there is protrusion of intra-abdominal contents through the obturator foramen in the pelvis. The signs and symptoms are non specific and generally the diagnosis is made during exploration for the intestinal obstruction, one of the four cardinal features. Others are pain on the medial aspect of thigh called as Howship Rombergs sign, repeated attacks of Intestinal Obstruction and palpable mass on the medial aspect of thigh. CONCLUSION Obturator hernia is a rare but significant cause of intestinal obstruction especially in emaciated elderly woman and a diagnostic challenge for the Doctors. CT scan is valuable to establish preoperative diagnosis. Surgery either open or laproscopic, is the only treatment. The need for the awareness is stressed and CT scan can be helpful. PMID:23708307

  4. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Advances in the diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, U; Wiltfang, J; Peters, N; Benninghoff, J

    2012-05-01

    Due to the demographic developments, diagnosis and treatment, dementia constitutes an increasing medical challenge and is likely to have an increasing socioeconomic impact. Dementia does not reflect a single disease but encompasses a variety of underlying conditions, heterogeneous clinical courses and therapeutic approaches, among which Alzheimer's disease represents the most common cause. Therefore, a thorough differential diagnosis of dementia is of major importance. To date the current diagnosis of dementia according to ICD-10/DMS-IV is based on clinical criteria. In addition, the concept of mild cognitive impairment comprises early cognitive dysfunction without clinically apparent dementia. Alzheimer's disease is more and more conceptualized as a disease continuum with mild cognitive impairment as an early and manifest dementia as the later stage of the disease. This review gives an overview on the current diagnostic approaches and the proposed revisions of diagnostic and research criteria for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  7. The Diagnostic Challenge of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seland, T. Peter

    1984-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a common cause of many neurological complaints and disabilities among young, adult Canadians. In the absence of a reliable and specific laboratory test for the disease, the diagnosis is established primarily by clinical criteria, which are outlined in this article. Recent advances in immunology, neurophysiology and neuroimaging have provided techniques to improve diagnostic confidence, particularly in early or atypical cases. PMID:21278960

  8. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  9. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

    2013-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  10. Plant disease diagnostic capabilities and networks.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally A; Beed, Fen D; Harmon, Carrie Lapaire

    2009-01-01

    Emerging, re-emerging and endemic plant pathogens continue to challege our ability to safeguard plant health worldwide. Further, globalization, climate change, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution have combined to increase the spread of invasive plant pathogens. Early and accurate diagnoses and pathogen surveillance on local, regional, and global scales are necessary to predict outbreaks and allow time for development and application of mitigation strategies. Plant disease diagnostic networks have developed worldwide to address the problems of efficient and effective disease diagnosis and pathogen detection, engendering cooperation of institutions and experts within countries and across national borders. Networking maximizes impact in the face of shrinking government investments in agriculture and diminishing human resource capacity in diagnostics and applied pathology. New technologies promise to improve the speed and accuracy of disease diagnostics and pathogen detection. Widespread adoption of standard operating procedures and diagnostic laboratory accreditation serve to build trust and confidence among institutions. Case studies of national, regional, and international diagnostic networks are presented.

  11. Ataxia telangiectasia: presentation and diagnostic delay.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Rebecca; Pasalodos, Sara; Suri, Mohnish; Bush, Andy; Bhatt, Jayesh M

    2017-04-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare progressive, multisystem genetic disease. Families of children with ultra-rare diseases often experience significant diagnostic delays. We reviewed the diagnostic process for A-T in order to identify causes of delay in an attempt to facilitate earlier identification of A-T in the future. A retrospective case note review of 79 children at the National Paediatric A-T clinic seen since May 2009. Data were collected on the nature and age of initial symptoms, the age at first presentation, measurement of alpha feto-protein (AFP) and age of genetic diagnostic confirmation. At presentation, 71 children (90%) had ataxia. The median presentation delay (from first parental concern to presentation) was 8 months (range 0-118 months), and the median diagnostic delay (genetic confirmation of diagnosis) was 12 months (range 1-109 months). There are significant delays in presentation and diagnostic confirmation of A-T. A greater awareness of A-T and early measurement of AFP may help to improve this. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2015-09-10

    Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  14. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  15. [Molecular diagnostics in pathology].

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, A; Penzel, R; Endris, V; Weichert, W

    2013-05-01

    Tissue-based molecular diagnostics is a fast growing diagnostic field, which already complements morphologic classifications in many cases. Pathology based molecular diagnosis is performed almost exclusively on paraffin embedded material and always in conjunction with histopathology. Besides the classic field of tissue based detection of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, molecular diagnostics of tumor tissue is one of the current hot topics in oncology. In this context the detection of predictive molecular biomarkers, such as specific mutations, allows patient stratification for individually tailored treatment strategies and thereby is one of the key components of individualized patient care in oncology. The rapidly growing number of clinically relevant predictive biomarkers together with impressive technical advances, specifically the development of massive parallel sequencing, will modify the care of patients with malignant diseases. Pathology, therefore, has returned in the very center of interdisciplinary patient care.

  16. [Peripheral neuropathies: Diagnostic strategy].

    PubMed

    Magy, L

    2017-02-28

    Diagnosing a peripheral neuropathy is sometimes challenging, as the causes are diverse and the clinical pictures heterogeneous. Overall, diagnosing a patient with peripheral neuropathy will require some knowledge in almost every field of medicine. Therefore, it appears crucial to adopt a diagnostic strategy that is based on solid clinical and neurophysiological grounds. The present paper describes a three-step diagnostic strategy: (1) to delineate a clinico-pathologic entity from clinical and electrodiagnostic findings; (2) to propose a list of plausible causes based on step one, history and clinical context; (3) to use appropriate workup in order to determine the cause or mechanism of the neuropathy. The three steps of this diagnostic strategy necessitate a high level of expertise and interaction between physicians is highly desirable. Finally, an aggressive course and a severe impairment should lead to relentlessly look for a curable cause.

  17. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  18. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  19. [Complex diagnostics of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Muradov, Kh K; Sadykhova, G G

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the examination results of 156 patients with osteosarcoma. The data show that definition of histogenetic source, diagnostics and prognosis of treatment results are possible and expedient in case of analysis of signs reflecting tumor cells specificity. These signs may be determined by using of clinical parameters, X-ray imaging and light microscopy in case of moderately and highly differentiated sarcomas. Ample opportunities of flow citometry and immunohistochemistry allow to perform histogenetic identification, differential diagnostics and prognosis for low-grade sarcomas.

  20. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  1. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  2. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  3. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indication URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100159.htm Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - series—Indication To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  4. Zika virus and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gabaglia, Claudia Raja

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to present what is known about the Zika virus (ZIKV) at the time of writing this review. The viral structure and its phylogeny, as well as the limitations of current available techniques used for diagnosis, are discussed. Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy of the whole ZIKV, or a few of its proteins, are confirming its overall antigenic relatedness to other flaviviruses. Sequencing has revealed its dynamic genetic variation and has placed the Western cluster of Zika isolates within the Asian phylogenic tree. Genetic codon mutations, although highly prevalent, do not usually translate into modifications at amino acid or proteomic levels, revealing conserved enzymatic functions that could potentially be addressed therapeutically. Clinical characterization of ZIKV infection is complicated because of symptoms similar to dengue and chikungunya. Diagnosis requires specialized laboratories with costly reagents and highly trained personnel. Although commercial labs are now offering ZIKV diagnostic tests, most of them are not fully tested in comparison with standard molecular techniques standardized at CDC and local health departments. We are still in desperate need of simpler diagnostic tests that better discriminate ZIKV from coendemic arboviruses. The area of better Zika diagnostic assays is a rapidly developing field with the public attention directed to this epidemic. Academic interest in this topic is driving fast disclosure of information in peer-reviewed journals and grey papers via web-based forums. We expect in the near future that new promising strategies for improved Zika diagnostics will translate into preventive and therapeutic tools.

  5. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  6. Tele diagnostic by web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2006-03-01

    Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

  7. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  8. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  9. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  10. Can paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) be used to guide the need for hospital admission and predict significant illness in children presenting to the emergency department? An assessment of PEWS diagnostic accuracy using sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Lillitos, Peter J; Hadley, Graeme; Maconochie, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Designed to detect early deterioration of the hospitalised child, paediatric early warning scores (PEWS) validity in the emergency department (ED) is less validated. We aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of two commonly used PEWS (Brighton and COAST) in predicting hospital admission and, for the first time, significant illness. Retrospective analysis of PEWS data for paediatric ED attendances at St Mary's Hospital, London, UK, in November 2012. Patients with missing data were excluded. Diagnoses were grouped: medical and surgical. To classify diagnoses as significant, established guidelines were used and, where not available, common agreement between three acute paediatricians. 1921 patients were analysed. There were 211 admissions (11%). 1630 attendances were medical (86%) and 273 (14%) surgical. Brighton and COAST PEWS performed similarly. hospital admission: PEWS of ≥3 was specific (93%) but poorly sensitive (32%). The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was low at 0.690. Significant illness: for medical illness, PEWS ≥3 was highly specific (96%) but poorly sensitive (44%). The AUC was 0.754 and 0.755 for Brighton and COAST PEWS, respectively. Both scores performed poorly for predicting significant surgical illness (AUC 0.642). PEWS ≥3 performed well in predicting significant respiratory illness: sensitivity 75%, specificity 91%. Both Brighton and COAST PEWS scores performed similarly. A score of ≥3 has good specificity but poor sensitivity for predicting hospital admission and significant illness. Therefore, a high PEWS should be taken seriously but a low score is poor at ruling out the requirement for admission or serious underlying illness. PEWS was better at detecting significant medical illness compared with detecting the need for admission. PEWS performed poorly in detecting significant surgical illness. PEWS may be particularly useful in evaluating respiratory illness in a paediatric ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  11. [The epidemiological analysis of monitoring of the immune status in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident for early identification of risk groups and diagnostics of oncological diseases. Report 1].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaia, I V; Pashchenkova, Iu G; Feoktistov, V V; Nikonova, M F; Vikulov, G Kh; Bozheskaia, N V; Smirnova, N N

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of major factors of risk of oncological diseases. A question about the frequency of malignant neoplasms (MN) and their early identification in the liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident remains opened. In the present work, the results of long-term immunological monitoring of the liquidators of consequences of the failure at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChN PP) living in the Northwest region of Russia are analyzed; we also heve made an attempt to reveal the predictors of oncological diseases in this group of individuals. The frequency of the newly revealed MN cases in a cohort of the persons who took part in liquidation of consequences of the ChNPP failure and were followed-up in 1999-2009, has made up 89 cases per 1005 persons (8.856%), which somewhat exceeds general population indicators. Regarding the frequency of separate MN localizations, lung cancer, cancer of stomach and cancer of prostate gland predominated, which corresponds to the world's tendency of MN prevalence. It has been established that as early as 1-3 years before diagnosis of MN is confirmed in liquidators, a number of changes in the immune status comes to light: drop in percentage of CD3+ and CD4(+)-T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes to a lesser extent, decrease in the CD4+/CD8+ index, increase of the relative and absolute content of CD16(+)-lymphocytes, increase of absolute content of CD8(+)-T-lymphocytes, prevalence of CD3+16/56+(NK-T) cell over CD3-16/56+(NK) cells, rise of the activity of phagocytes. Patients with the presence of one or several of the above-mentioned signs should be attributed to the MN risk group for determination of tumor markers, thorough examination and dynamic observation.

  12. Current advances in diagnostic methods of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuehua; Feng, Xianmin; Jiang, Linzhe

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the current advances in diagnostic methods for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Data used in this review were retrieved from PubMed (1970-2013). The terms "Acanthamoeba keratitis" and "diagnosis" were used for the literature search. Data from published articles regarding AK and diagnosis in clinical trials were identified and reviewed. The diagnostic methods for the eight species implicated in AK were reviewed. Among all diagnostic procedures, corneal scraping and smear examination was an essential diagnostic method. Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive and accurate detection method. Culturing of Acanthamoeba was a reliable method for final diagnosis of AK. Confocal microscopy to detect Acanthamoeba was also effective, without any invasive procedure, and was helpful in the early diagnosis of AK. Clinically, conjunction of various diagnostic methods to diagnose AK was necessary.

  13. Screening and Early Detection - Cancer Currents Blog

    Cancer.gov

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer screening and early detection. Includes posts on diagnostic biomarkers and advances or trends in screening practices.

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  15. BEAM SIMULATIONS USING VIRTUAL DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE DRIVER LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. York; X. Wu; Q. Zhao

    2011-12-21

    End-to-end beam simulations for the driver linac have shown that the design meets the necessary performance requirements including having adequate transverse and longitudinal acceptances. However, to achieve reliable operational performance, the development of appropriate beam diagnostic systems and control room procedures are crucial. With limited R&D funding, beam simulations provide a cost effective tool to evaluate candidate beam diagnostic systems and to provide a critical basis for developing early commissioning and later operational activities. We propose to perform beam dynamic studies and engineering analyses to define the requisite diagnostic systems of the driver linac and through simulation to develop and test commissioning and operational procedures.

  16. Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Vivek; Anil, Rahul; Aristy, Sary

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with complaints of rapid cognitive decline and new onset leukopenia. The patient had a 17-year history of refractory seizures. Detailed review of symptoms and investigations revealed the patient met American College of Rheumatology (ACR) diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The patient had high titer ANA with a strongly positive dsDNA. Immunosuppressive therapy with hydroxychloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil led to significant improvement in cognition and seizures. Neuropsychiatric SLE should be considered a potential differential diagnosis for patients presenting with seizures or cognitive decline. Moreover, neuropsychiatric manifestations especially seizures are an early event in the disease course of SLE. Hence, we believe that early diagnosis of SLE by neuropsychiatric manifestations will not only lead to better control of CNS symptoms but early immunosuppressive therapy could control the progression of the underlying autoimmune disease. PMID:27635183

  17. [Optimisation of diagnostics and differential diagnostics disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Demikhova, O V; Karpina, N L; Lepekha, L N; Bagirov, M A; Amansakhedov, R B

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons of dramatic situation with tuberculosis in Russia is untimely diagnostics of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to identify the causes of diagnostic mistakes when we deal with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis at current stage and to modernize the diagnostic process. The analysis of the diagnostic activity of the consultative diagnostic center of Central Tuberculosis Research Institute of Russian Academy Medical Sciences for 2011 was performed with special attention on the results of the survey of 505 patients with pulmonary dissemination. The frequency of discrepancies of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostics was 96.1%. Based on the studies carried out the main causes diagnostic mistakes in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis were determined. New directions of improving of tuberculosis diagnostics were developed: overall high-technology examination of patient, adherence to the diagnostic procedure, developed by consultative diagnostic center of Central Tuberculosis Research Institute (CTRI), timely performing fiber-optic bronchoscopy with complex biopsy and diagnostic surgery procedures, further training of primary health care doctors. Implementation of proposed activities will significantly (by 3-5 times) reduce the time for diagnostics of respiratory system disease.

  18. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  19. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  20. Diagnostics and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vial, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of prominences and the diagnostic techniques used to evaluate their physical parameters are discussed. These include electron temperature, various densities (n sub p, n sub e, n sub l), ionization degree, velocities, and magnetic field vector. UV and radio measurements have already evidenced the existence of different temperature regions, corresponding to different geometrical locations, e.g., the so called Prominence-Corona (P-C) interface. Velocity measurements are important for considering formation and mass balance of prominences but there are conflicting velocity measurements which have led to the basic question: what structure is actually observed at a given wavelength; what averaging is performed within the projected slit area during the exposure time? In optically thick lines, the question of the formation region of the radiation along the line of sight is also not a trivial one. The same is true for low resolution measurements of the magnetic field. Coupling diagnostics with structure is now a general preoccupation.