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Sample records for early diastolic dysfunction

  1. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning. PMID:22770365

  2. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Voga, Gorazd

    2012-07-06

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning.

  3. Diastolic dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P

    Hypertension and coronary heart disease, often coexisting, are the most common risk factors for heart failure. The progression of hypertensive heart disease involves myocardial fibrosis and alterations in the left ventricular geometry that precede the functional change, initially asymptomatic. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is part of this continuum being defined by the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without signs or symptoms of heart failure or poor left ventricular systolic function. It is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite its growing importance in clinical practice it remains poorly understood. This review aims to present the epidemiological fundamentals and the latest developments in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Diastolic dysfunction characterizes cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Piyush O.; contractor, Qais; Chaurasia, Ajay S.; Rathi, Pravin M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Present study aims to study the occurrence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and its correlation to hepatorenal syndrome by assessing the cardiac status in patients with cirrhosis of liver and healthy controls. Methods Thirty alcoholic cirrhotic, thirty non-alcoholic cirrhotic and thirty controls were enrolled for the study. Cardiac parameters were assessed by color doppler echocardiography. Patients were followed up for twelve months period for development of hepatorenal syndrome. Results Mild diastolic dysfunction was present in 18 cirrhotic patients (30%): grade I in fifteen patients and grade II in three. Diastolic dysfunction was unrelated to age; sex and etiology of cirrhosis. Among all the echocardiographic parameters, only deceleration time was found to be statistically significant. Echocardiographic parameters in systolic and diastolic function were not different in compensated vs decompensated patients in different Child-Pugh classes or cirrhosis aetiologies. At one year follow-up, no significant differences were found in survival between patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Hepatorenal syndrome developed in only two patients and its correlation with diastolic dysfunction was not statistically significant. Conclusions Present study shows that although diastolic dysfunction is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There are no significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. HRS is not correlated to diastolic dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There is no difference in survival at one year between patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis is unrelated to circulatory dysfunction, ascites and HRS. PMID:25634400

  5. Cardiac macrophages promote diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Sager, Hendrik B; Roh, Jason D; Valero-Muñoz, María; Houstis, Nicholas E; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Sun, Yuan; Wilson, Richard M; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Tricot, Benoit; Osborne, Michael T; Hung, Judy; Vinegoni, Claudio; Naxerova, Kamila; Sosnovik, David E; Zile, Michael R; Bradshaw, Amy D; Liao, Ronglih; Tawakol, Ahmed; Weissleder, Ralph; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Swirski, Filip K; Sam, Flora; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2018-02-05

    Macrophages populate the healthy myocardium and, depending on their phenotype, may contribute to tissue homeostasis or disease. Their origin and role in diastolic dysfunction, a hallmark of cardiac aging and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, remain unclear. Here we show that cardiac macrophages expand in humans and mice with diastolic dysfunction, which in mice was induced by either hypertension or advanced age. A higher murine myocardial macrophage density results from monocyte recruitment and increased hematopoiesis in bone marrow and spleen. In humans, we observed a parallel constellation of hematopoietic activation: circulating myeloid cells are more frequent, and splenic 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging signal correlates with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction. While diastolic dysfunction develops, cardiac macrophages produce IL-10, activate fibroblasts, and stimulate collagen deposition, leading to impaired myocardial relaxation and increased myocardial stiffness. Deletion of IL-10 in macrophages improves diastolic function. These data imply expansion and phenotypic changes of cardiac macrophages as therapeutic targets for cardiac fibrosis leading to diastolic dysfunction. © 2018 Hulsmans et al.

  6. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction with Early Systolic Dysfunction Using Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Canine Heart Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Chun; Ma, Hong; Xie, Rong-Ai; Gao, Li-Jian; Tang, Yue; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) for predicting left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in pacing-induced canine heart failure. Pacing systems were implanted in 8 adult mongrel dogs, and continuous rapid right ventricular pacing (RVP, 240 beats/min) was maintained for 2 weeks. The obtained measurements from 2DSTE included global strain rate during early diastole (SRe) and during late diastole (SRa) in the longitudinal (L-SRe, L-SRa), circumferential (C-SRe, C-SRa), and radial directions (R-SRe, R-SRa). Changes in heart morphology were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy at 2 weeks. The onset of LV diastolic dysfunction with early systolic dysfunction occurred 3 days after RVP initiation. Most of the strain rate imaging indices were altered at 1 or 3 days after RVP onset and continued to worsen until heart failure developed. Light and transmission electron microscopy showed myocardial vacuolar degeneration and mitochondrial swelling in the left ventricular at 2 weeks after RVP onset. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that parameters of conventional echocardiography and 2DSTE showed moderate correlation with LV pressure parameters, including E/Esep' (r = 0.58, P < 0.01), L-SRe (r = -0.58, P < 0.01), E/L-SRe (r = 0.65, P < 0.01), and R-SRe (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). ROC curves analysis showed that these indices of conventional echocardiography and strain rate imaging could effectively predict LV diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve: E/Esep' 0.78; L-SRe 0.84; E/L-SRe 0.80; R-SRe 0.80). 2DSTE was a sensitive and accurate technique that could be used for predicting LV diastolic dysfunction in canine heart failure model. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diastolic dysfunction in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J C; López, P; Mancebo, J; Zapata, L

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients. It is characterized by a progressive deterioration of the relaxation and the compliance of the left ventricle. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is a cornerstone in its diagnosis. Acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertensive crisis is the most frequent presentation of diastolic dysfunction critically ill patients. Myocardial ischemia, sepsis and weaning failure from mechanical ventilation also may be associated with diastolic dysfunction. The treatment is based on the reduction of pulmonary congestion and left ventricular filling pressures. Some studies have found a prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in some diseases such as sepsis. The present review aims to analyze thoroughly the echocardiographic diagnosis and the most frequent scenarios in critically ill patients in whom diastolic dysfunction plays a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Importance of SERCA2a on early isolated diastolic dysfunction induced by supravalvular aortic stenosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, C.F.S.M.P.; Campos, D.H.S.; Freire, P.P.; Deus, A.F.; Okoshi, K.; Padovani, C.R.; Cicogna, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively. After 6 weeks, the animals were submitted to echocardiogram and functional analysis by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) in basal condition, hypoxia, and SERCA2a blockage with cyclopiazonic acid at calcium concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mM. Western-blot analyses were used for SERCA2a and phospholamban detection. Data analysis was carried out with Student's t-test and ANOVA. AoS enhanced left atrium and E and A wave ratio, with preserved ejection fraction. Basal condition in IPM showed similar increases in developed tension (DT) and resting tension (RT) in AoS, and hypoxia was similar between groups. After cyclopiazonic acid blockage, final DT was equally decreased and RT was similar between groups, but the speed of relaxation was decreased in the AoS group. Western-blot was uniform in all evaluations. The hypothesis was confirmed, since functional parameters regarding SERCA2a were changed in the AoS group. PMID:28423119

  9. Maternal left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide concentration in early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Borges, V T M; Zanati, S G; Peraçoli, M T S; Poiati, J R; Romão-Veiga, M; Peraçoli, J C; Thilaganathan, B

    2018-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with maternal cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess and compare maternal left ventricular structure and diastolic function and levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in women with early-onset (< 34 weeks' gestation) vs those with late-onset (≥ 34 weeks' gestation) PE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 30 women with early-onset PE, 32 with late-onset PE and 23 normotensive controls. Maternal cardiac structure and diastolic function were assessed by echocardiography and plasma levels of BNP were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Early- and late-onset PE were associated with increased left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness compared with normotensive controls. In women with early-onset PE, the prevalence of concentric hypertrophy (40%) and diastolic dysfunction (23%) was also significantly higher (both P < 0.05) compared with women with late-onset PE (16% for both). Maternal serum BNP levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women with early-onset PE and correlated with relative wall thickness and left ventricular mass index. Early-onset PE is associated with more severe cardiac impairment than is late-onset PE, as evidenced by an increased prevalence of concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and higher levels of BNP. These findings suggest that early-onset PE causes greater myocardial damage, increasing the risk of both peripartum and postpartum cardiovascular morbidity. Although these cardiovascular effects are easily identified by echocardiographic parameters and measuring BNP, further studies are needed to assess their clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Early-onset growth hormone deficiency results in diastolic dysfunction in adult-life and is prevented by growth hormone supplementation.

    PubMed

    Groban, L; Lin, M; Kassik, K A; Ingram, R L; Sonntag, W E

    2011-04-01

    The primary goal of growth hormone (GH) replacement is to promote linear growth in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are also known to have roles in cardiac development and as modulators of myocardial structure and function in the adult heart. However, little is known about cardiac diastolic function in young adults with childhood onset GH deficiency in which GH treatment was discontinued following puberty. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of long standing GHD and peri-pubertal or continuous GH replacement therapy on diastolic function in the adult dwarf rat. The dwarf rat, which possesses a mutation in a transcription factor necessary for development of the somatotroph, does not exhibit the normal peri-pubertal rise in GH around day 28 and was used to model childhood or early-onset GHD (EOGHD). In another group of male dwarfs, GH replacement therapy was initiated at 4 weeks of age when GH pulsatility normally begins. Ten weeks after initiation of injections, GH-treated dwarf rats were divided into 2 groups; continued treatment with GH for 12 weeks (GH-replete) or treatment with saline for 12 weeks. This latter group models GH supplementation during adolescence with GHD beginning in adulthood (adult-onset GHD; AOGHD). Saline-treated heterozygous (HZ) rats were used as age-matched controls. At 26 weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed using invasive or noninvasive (conventional and tissue Doppler) indices of myocardial contractility and lusitropy. Systolic function, as determined by echocardiography, was similar among groups. Compared with HZ rats and GH-replete dwarfs, the EOGHD group exhibited significant reductions in myocardial relaxation and increases in left ventricular filling pressure, indicative of moderate diastolic dysfunction. This was further associated with a decrease in the cardiac content of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2), one of the important cardiac calcium

  11. Ia diastolic dysfunction: an echocardiographic grade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Hakim, Fayaz A; Mulroy, Eoin; Saadiq, Rayya; Doherty, Mairead; Cha, Stephen; Seward, James; Wilansky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that a distinct group of patients with Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction who do not conform to present ASE/ESE diastolic grading exists. Echocardiographic and demographic data of the Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction were extracted and compared with that of Grades I and II in 515 patients. The mean of age of the cohort was 75 ± 9 years and body mass index did not differ significantly between the 3 groups (P = 0.45). Measurements of left atrial volume index (28.58 ± 7 mL/m(2) in I, 33 ± 10 mL/m(2) in Ia, and 39 ± 12 mL/m(2) in II P < 0.001), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) (100 ± 17 msec in I, 103 ± 21 msec in Ia, and 79 ± 15 msec in II P < 0.001), deceleration time (248 ± 52 msec in I, 263 ± 58 msec in Ia, and 217 ± 57 msec in II P < 0.001), medial E/e' (10 ± 3 in I, 18 ± 5.00 in Ia, and 22 ± 8 in II), and lateral E/e' (8 ± 3 in I, 15 ± 6 in Ia, and 18 ± 9 in II P < 0.001) were significantly different in grade Ia compared with I and II. These findings remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, and smoking. Patients with echocardiographic characteristics of relaxation abnormality (E/A ratio of <0.8) and elevated filling pressures (septal E/e' ≥15, lateral E/e' ≥12, average E/e' ≥13) should be graded as a separate Grade Ia group. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Right Heart Vortex Entrainment Volume and Right Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce

    2014-11-01

    Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this study, we investigate and quantify differences in the characteristics of coherent rotating flow structures (vortices) in the RA and RV between subjects with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) and normal controls. Fifteen RVDD subjects and 10 age-matched controls underwent same day 3D time resolved CMR and echocardiography. Echocardiography was used to determine RVDD stage as well as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). CMR data was used for RA and RV vortex quantification and visualization during early and late ventricular diastole. RA and RV vortex entrainment volume is quantified and visualized using the Lambda-2 criterion, and the results are compared between healthy subjects and those with RVDD. The resulting trends are discussed and hypotheses are presented regarding differences in vortex characteristics between healthy and RVDD subjects cohorts.

  13. Right Heart Vorticity and Right Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this study, we investigate and quantify differences in the characteristics of coherent rotating flow structures (vortices) in the RA and RV between subjects with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) and normal controls. Fifteen RVDD subjects and 10 age-matched controls underwent same day 3D time resolved CMR and echocardiography. Echocardiography was used to determine RVDD stage as well as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). CMR data was used for RA and RV vortex quantification and visualization during early ventricular diastole and the results are compared between healthy subjects and those with RVDD. The resulting trends are discussed and hypotheses are presented regarding differences in vortex characteristics between healthy and RVDD subjects cohorts.

  14. Histone deacetylase activity governs diastolic dysfunction through a nongenomic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mark Y.; Lin, Ying H.; Wennersten, Sara A.; Demos-Davies, Kimberly M.; Cavasin, Maria A.; Mahaffey, Jennifer H.; Monzani, Valmen; Saripalli, Chandrasekhar; Mascagni, Paolo; Reece, T. Brett; Ambardekar, Amrut V.; Granzier, Henk L.; Dinarello, Charles A.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2018-01-01

    There are no approved drugs for the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is characterized by left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. We demonstrate that ITF2357 (givinostat), a clinical-stage inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) catalytic activity, is efficacious in two distinct murine models of diastolic dysfunction with preserved EF. ITF2357 blocked LV diastolic dysfunction due to hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats and suppressed aging-induced diastolic dysfunction in normotensive mice. HDAC inhibitor–mediated efficacy was not due to lowering blood pressure or inhibiting cellular and molecular events commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction, including cardiac fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, or changes in cardiac titin and myosin isoform expression. Instead, ex vivo studies revealed impairment of cardiac myofibril relaxation as a previously unrecognized, myocyte-autonomous mechanism for diastolic dysfunction, which can be ameliorated by HDAC inhibition. Translating these findings to humans, cardiac myofibrils from patients with diastolic dysfunction and preserved EF also exhibited compromised relaxation. These data suggest that agents such as HDAC inhibitors, which potentiate cardiac myofibril relaxation, hold promise for the treatment of HFpEF in humans. PMID:29437146

  15. Elevated arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Mitsuru; Komamura, Kazuo; Goda, Akiko; Hirotani, Shinichi; Otsuka, Misato; Nakabo, Ayumi; Fukui, Miho; Fujiwara, Shohei; Sugahara, Masataka; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Koshiba, Masahiro; Masuyama, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is associated with arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in hypothyroid disease. The relationship of thyroid hormone level to cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and left ventricular diastolic function, however, remains unclear in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 83 patients with untreated subclinical hypothyroidism and compared them with 83 randomly selected controls from health check-ups. Log N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness were measured. In addition, we measured early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') in 43 participants with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 40 controls. When compared with the control group, patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had higher logNT-proBNP (1.9±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.3pg/ml, P<0.05), CRP (0.22±0.04 vs. 0.09±0.06mg/dl, P<0.05), and CAVI (8.8±1.7 vs. 7.8±1.4, P<0.001) and lower E' (5.8±1.7 vs. 7.5±2.1cm/s, P<0.001). CAVI was significantly associated with logNT-proBNP, CRP and E' in the subclinical hypothyroidism group. High logNT-proBNP was associated with a raised CAVI in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events related to arterial stiffening and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

  16. Left ventricular early diastolic inflow velocity and atrial ventricular plane downward velocity: useful parameters to test diastolic function in clinical practice? Diastolic parameters tested in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Winter, R; Gudmundsson, P; Ericsson, G; Willenheimer, R

    2001-06-01

    To study the clinical value of the colour-M-mode slope of the early diastolic left ventricular filling phase (Vp) and the early diastolic downward M-mode slope of the left atrioventricular plane displacement (EDS), compared with diastolic function assessed by traditional Doppler evaluation. In 65 consecutive patients EDS and Vp were compared with a four-degree traditional diastolic function classification, based on pulsed Doppler assessment of the early to atrial transmitral flow ratio (E/A), the E-wave deceleration time (Edt), and the systolic to diastolic (S/D) pulmonary venous inflow ratio. Vp (P=0.006) and EDS (P=0.045) were related to traditional diastolic function (Kruskal--Wallis analysis). EDS showed a trend brake between the moderate and severe diastolic dysfunction groups by traditional Doppler evaluation. Vp and EDS correlated weakly in simple linear regression analysis (r=0.33). Vp and EDS discriminated poorly between normal and highly abnormal diastolic function. Vp and EDS were significantly related to diastolic function by traditional Doppler evaluation. They were, however, not useful as single parameters of left ventricular diastolic function due to a small difference between normal and highly abnormal values, allowing for little between-measurement variability. Consequently, these methods for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function do not add significantly to traditional Doppler evaluation.

  17. Reducing RBM20 activity improves diastolic dysfunction and cardiac atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Florian; Dieterich, Christoph; Radke, Michael H; Granzier, Henk; Gotthardt, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Impaired diastolic filling is a main contributor to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a syndrome with increasing prevalence and no treatment. Both collagen and the giant sarcomeric protein titin determine diastolic function. Since titin's elastic properties can be adjusted physiologically, we evaluated titin-based stiffness as a therapeutic target. We adjusted RBM20-dependent cardiac isoform expression in the titin N2B knockout mouse with increased ventricular stiffness. A ~50 % reduction of RBM20 activity does not only maintain cardiac filling in diastole but also ameliorates cardiac atrophy and thus improves cardiac function in the N2B-deficient heart. Reduced RBM20 activity partially normalized gene expression related to muscle development and fatty acid metabolism. The adaptation of cardiac growth was related to hypertrophy signaling via four-and-a-half lim-domain proteins (FHLs) that translate mechanical input into hypertrophy signals. We provide a novel link between cardiac isoform expression and trophic signaling via FHLs and suggest cardiac splicing as a therapeutic target in diastolic dysfunction. Increasing the length of titin isoforms improves ventricular filling in heart disease. FHL proteins are regulated via RBM20 and adapt cardiac growth. RBM20 is a therapeutic target in diastolic dysfunction.

  18. Effects of ranolazine in a model of doxorubicin-induced left ventricle diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Coppini, Raffaele; Piegari, Elena; Russo, Rosa; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Rivellino, Alessia; Santini, Lorenzo; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Rossi, Francesco; Berrino, Liberato; Urbanek, Konrad; De Angelis, Antonella

    2017-11-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer drug, but its clinical application is hampered by cardiotoxicity. Asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction can be the earliest manifestation of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Therefore, a search for therapeutic intervention that can interfere with early manifestations and possibly prevent later development of cardiotoxicity is warranted. Increased doxorubicin-dependent ROS may explain, in part, Ca 2+ and Na + overload that contributes to diastolic dysfunction and development of heart failure. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of ranolazine, a selective blocker of late Na + current, immediately after completing doxorubicin therapy, could affect diastolic dysfunction and interfere with the progression of functional decline. Fischer 344 rats received a cumulative dose of doxorubicin of 15 mg·kg -1 over a period of 2 weeks. After the assessment of diastolic dysfunction, the animals were treated with ranolazine (80 mg·kg -1 , daily) for the following 4 weeks. While diastolic and systolic function progressively deteriorated in doxorubicin-treated animals, treatment with ranolazine relieved diastolic dysfunction and prevented worsening of systolic function, decreasing mortality. Ranolazine lowered myocardial NADPH oxidase 2 expression and oxidative/nitrative stress. Expression of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger 1 and Na v 1.5 channels was reduced and of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 2 protein was increased. In addition, ranolazine lowered doxorubicin-induced hyper-phosphorylation and oxidation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and decreased myocardial fibrosis. Ranolazine, by the increased Na + influx, induced by doxorubicin, altered cardiac Ca 2+ and Na + handling and attenuated diastolic dysfunction induced by doxorubicin, thus preventing the progression of cardiomyopathy. This article is part of a themed section on New Insights into Cardiotoxicity Caused by Chemotherapeutic Agents

  19. Experimental study of the intraventricular filling vortex in diastolic dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Samaee, Milad; Nelsen, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over half of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients typically show diastolic dysfunction, caused by a decrease in relaxation capability of the left ventricular (LV) muscle tissue and/or an increase in LV chamber stiffness. Numerous studies using non-invasive medical imaging have shown that an intraventricular filling vortex is formed in the LV during diastole. We conducted 2D particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements on a left heart simulator to investigate diastolic flow under increasing LV wall stiffness, LV wall thickness and heart rate (HR) conditions. Flexible-walled, optically clear LV physical models cast from silicone were fitted within a fluid-filled acrylic chamber. Pulsatile flow within the LV model was generated using a piston pump and 2-component Windkessel elements were used to tune the least stiff (baseline) LV model to physiological conditions. The results show that peak circulation of the intraventricular filling vortex is diminished in conditions of diastolic dysfunction as compared to the baseline case. Increasing HR exacerbated the circulation of the filling vortex across all cases.

  20. Increased passive stiffness promotes diastolic dysfunction despite improved Ca2+ handling during left ventricular concentric hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Åsmund T.; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Skårdal, Kristine; Hamdani, Nazha; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Danielsen, Håvard E.; Sejersted, Ole M.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Concentric hypertrophy following pressure-overload is linked to preserved systolic function but impaired diastolic function, and is an important substrate for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. While increased passive stiffness of the myocardium is a suggested mechanism underlying diastolic dysfunction in these hearts, the contribution of active diastolic Ca2+ cycling in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. In this study, we sought to dissect contributions of passive and active mechanisms to diastolic dysfunction in the concentrically hypertrophied heart following pressure-overload. Methods and results Rats were subjected to aortic banding (AB), and experiments were performed 6 weeks after surgery using sham-operated rats as controls. In vivo ejection fraction and fractional shortening were normal, confirming preservation of systolic function. Left ventricular concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction following AB were indicated by thickening of the ventricular wall, reduced peak early diastolic tissue velocity, and higher E/e’ values. Slowed relaxation was also observed in left ventricular muscle strips isolated from AB hearts, during both isometric and isotonic stimulation, and accompanied by increases in passive tension, viscosity, and extracellular collagen. An altered titin phosphorylation profile was observed with hypophosphorylation of the phosphosites S4080 and S3991 sites within the N2Bus, and S12884 within the PEVK region. Increased titin-based stiffness was confirmed by salt-extraction experiments. In contrast, isolated, unloaded cardiomyocytes exhibited accelerated relaxation in AB compared to sham, and less contracture at high pacing frequencies. Parallel enhancement of diastolic Ca2+ handling was observed, with augmented NCX and SERCA2 activity and lowered resting cytosolic [Ca2+]. Conclusion In the hypertrophied heart with preserved systolic function, in vivo diastolic dysfunction develops as cardiac fibrosis and

  1. Carotid atherosclerosis and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a sample of hypertensive Nigerian patients

    PubMed Central

    Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Adebayo, Philip B.; Aremu, Ademola A.; Opadijo, Oladimeji G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the association of carotid atherosclerosis and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) among treated hypertensive Nigerian patients. Methods This was a single center cross-sectional study performed at the Cardiology Clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and December 2012. The study included 122 hypertensive Nigerians (mean age, 57.3 ± 14.7 years, 36.9% women). Patients’ clinical, demographic, and echocardiographic parameters were obtained. Diastolic dysfunction was assessed with the trans-tricuspid Doppler flow. Results Patients with DD were significantly older than those with normal diastolic function. Mean and maximum carotid intima media thickness measurements were significantly higher among patients with right ventricular DD than in those with normal diastolic function. Mean systolic blood pressure (148.3 ± 31.9 vs 128.0 ± 2.8 mm Hg, P = 0.049) and interventricular septal thickness in diastole (12.8 ± 2.3 vs 11.6 ± 2.8mm, P = 0.048) were significantly higher and tricuspid annular pulmonary systolic excursion (33.6 ± 4.9 vs 23.0 ± 4.2 mm, P = 0.035) was significantly lower in patients with right ventricular DD than in those with normal diastolic function. Carotid intima media thickness measurements were correlated with early trans-tricuspid Doppler flow and early transtricuspid diastolic flow/late right atrial transtricupsid diastolic flow ratio. Conclusion Right ventricular DD in hypertensive patients was significantly correlated with increased carotid atherosclerosis. Carotid intima media thickness measurements may therefore be a surrogate marker for DD in hypertensive subjects. PMID:24382850

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism treats obesity-associated cardiac diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bender, Shawn B; DeMarco, Vincent G; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Habibi, Javad; Garro, Mona; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Aroor, Annayya R; Jaffe, Iris Z; Sowers, James R

    2015-05-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus exhibit a high prevalence of cardiac diastolic dysfunction (DD), an independent predictor of cardiovascular events for which no evidence-based treatment exists. In light of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation in obesity and the cardioprotective action of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists in systolic heart failure, we examined the hypothesis that MR blockade with a blood pressure-independent low-dose spironolactone (LSp) would treat obesity-associated DD in the Zucker obese (ZO) rat. Treatment of ZO rats exhibiting established DD with LSp normalized cardiac diastolic function, assessed by echocardiography. This was associated with reduced cardiac fibrosis, but not reduced hypertrophy, and restoration of endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated coronary arterioles via a nitric oxide-independent mechanism. Further mechanistic studies revealed that LSp reduced cardiac oxidative stress and improved endothelial insulin signaling, with no change in arteriolar stiffness. Infusion of Sprague-Dawley rats with the MR agonist aldosterone reproduced the DD noted in ZO rats. In addition, improved cardiac function in ZO-LSp rats was associated with attenuated systemic and adipose inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in cardiac immune cell mRNAs. Specifically, LSp increased cardiac markers of alternatively activated macrophages and regulatory T cells. ZO-LSp rats had unchanged blood pressure, serum potassium, systemic insulin sensitivity, or obesity-associated kidney injury, assessed by proteinuria. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MR antagonism effectively treats established obesity-related DD via blood pressure-independent mechanisms. These findings help identify a particular population with DD that might benefit from MR antagonist therapy, specifically patients with obesity and insulin resistance. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Implication of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cryptogenic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Jung-Gon; Kim, Ji-Sun; Roh, Hakjae; Ahn, Moo-Young; Park, Byoung Won; Hyon, Min Su

    2014-09-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was aimed to investigate whether LVDD in cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CS) could be a clue to stroke mechanism. The clinical and echocardiographic findings of 1589 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. LVDDs among stroke subtypes were graded by transthoracic echocardiography into 4 groups by severity: normal, abnormal relaxation (grade I), pseudonormal (grade II), and restrictive diastolic filling (grade III), whereas severe LVDD was defined as grade III. We classified the lesion pattern of CS into cardioembolism-mimic or non-cardioembolism-mimic and determined whether cardioembolism-mimic lesions were associated with severe LVDD. The fraction of severe LVDD in CS was not different from that of stroke with AF (27.3% versus 37.1%; P=0.173) but was significantly higher than that of stroke without AF (27.3% versus 13.4%; P=0.008). Cardioembolism-mimic CS had more severe LVDD than non-cardioembolism-mimic CS (41.4% versus 11.5%; P=0.013). LVDD of grade II (odds ratio, 4.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.99-6.41) and grade III (odds ratio, 5.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.42-9.17) were independently related to stroke with AF after adjusting covariates. The severe LVDD could be a predictor of stroke with AF, and its frequency was similar between CS and stroke with AF. Cardioembolism-mimic CS had significantly more severe LVDD than non-cardioembolism-mimic CS. LVDD could be helpful to discriminate the stroke mechanism in the patients with acute CS. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Determinants of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P; Marques Pocinho, R; Alves, M; Virella, D; Palma Dos Reis, R

    2018-02-02

    The progression of hypertensive heart disease leads to the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the determinants for LVDD in patients with hypertension. This is a secondary analysis of data of Impedance Cardiography in the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Arterial Hypertension (IMPEDDANS) Study. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for univariable analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to model for LVDD occurrence and discriminative capacity of the model assessed by the value of the area under the curve given by the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Older age (65 vs. 58 years, p<0.001), longer duration of hypertension (160 vs. 48 months, p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (59.8 vs. 15.9%, p<0.001), tobacco smoking (17.8 vs. 3.8%, p=0.016), higher systolic blood pressure (133 vs. 124mmHg, p=0.001) and slower heart rate (62 vs. 66bpm, p=0.023) were associated with LVDD. Multivariate model identified uncontrolled hypertension (AdjOR 36.90; 95% CI 7.94-171.58; p<0.001), smoking (AdjOR 6.66; 95% CI 1.63-27.26; p=0.008), eccentric hypertrophy (AdjOR 3.59; 95% CI 0.89-14.39; p=0.072), duration of hypertension (AdjOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.05; p<0.001) and concentric remodeling (AdjOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.93; p=0.041) as the more determinant for occurrence of LVDD. The discriminative capacity of the model was AUC=0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98). The occurrence of LVDD in hypertensive patients was strongly associated to long-lasting, uncontrolled hypertension, tobacco smoking, concentric remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of well-controlled gestational diabetes on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in neonates.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Yazdan; Habibi, Danial; Nasri, Khadijeh; Alinejad, Saeed; Taherahmad, Hassan; Arjmand Shabestari, Ali; Nematinejad, Ali

    2018-06-17

    There are some evidences supporting the relation between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of well-controlled GDM on morphological and functional myocardium. We designed a prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function of 60 neonates born from mothers with well-controlled GDM (case group) on days of 3-5 after birth. The infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) group were divided into two groups: diabetic mothers treated only with diet (class A) and group of mothers on medical therapy by insulin or metformin (class B). Traditional echocardiography and pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD), tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed for all the neonates. The study group consisted of 60 neonates as males (M) = 32, (0.53%) and females (F) = 28, (0.46%). Using M-mode echocardiography, interventricular septum thickness (IVS), and LV mass were significantly higher in IDM than control group (p = .0001). The PWD showed both a significantly more peak mitral flow at early diastolic wave (E) and an early filling deceleration time (E-DT) (p = .0001). Tissue Doppler echocardiography parameters A' (cm/s) (p = .0001), E' (cm/s) (p = .002), and E'/A' ratio (p = .0001), left ventricular myocardial performance index (LVMPI), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) were outstandingly different between the two groups (p = .0001, respectively). Evaluating the GDM group mothers of class A and class B, no significant difference was noted in PWD or TDI parameters compared with the healthy ones. It seems that neonates of mothers with well-controlled GDM are still at increased risk of cardiac hypertrophy, subclinical diastolic dysfunction, and impaired left ventricular relaxation. This can be interpreted that focusing only on glycemic control is not enough to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  6. [Diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects. Disease or a physiological manifestation of ageing?].

    PubMed

    Meluzín, J; Podroužková, H; Gregorová, Z; Panovský, R

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this summary paper is to discuss the current knowledge of the impact of age on diastolic function of the left ventricle. Data from the literature: Reports published till this time have convincingly demonstrated a significant relationship of age to diastolic function of the left ventricle. Ageing is a physiological process accompanied by structural changes in both myocardium and arterial bed resulting in worsening of parameters characterizing the left ventricular diastolic function. This "physiological" diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects can be explained by the deterioration of passive left ventricular filling properties and by worsening of left ventricular relaxation. The detailed analysis of published reports shows problems in distiguishing this "physiological" diastolic dysfunction resulting from physiological tissue ageing from "pathological" diastolic dysfunction reflecting a disease of cardiovascular system. To interprete correctly values of parameters quantifying diastolic function of the left ventricle, one should take into account the age of subjects under the examination. Further studies are necessary to distinguish exactly "physiological" deterioration of diastolic function associated with ageing from really "pathological" diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects.

  7. Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and incident type 2 diabetes risk: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Juri; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Sunwon; Lim, Sang Yup; Lim, Hong-Euy; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang-Young; Baik, Inkyung; Koh, Kwang Kon; Lee, Jung Bok; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol

    2017-03-14

    Subclinical left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common finding and represents an early sign of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between LV diastolic dysfunction and the incident T2D has not been previously studied. A total of 1817 non-diabetic participants (mean age, 54 years; 48% men) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study who were free of cardiovascular disease were studied. LV structure and function were assessed by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction was defined using age-specific cutoff limits for early diastolic (Em) velocity, mitral E/Em ratio, and left atrial volume index. During the 6-year follow-up period, 273 participants (15%) developed T2D. Participants with incident T2D had greater LV mass index (86.7 ± 16.4 vs. 91.2 ± 17.0 g/m 2 ), worse diastolic function, reflected by lower Em velocity (7.67 ± 1.80 vs. 7.47 ± 1.70) and higher E/Em ratio (9.19 ± 2.55 vs. 10.23 ± 3.00), and higher prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction (34.6 vs. 54.2%), compared with those who did not develop T2D (all P < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, lower Em velocity (odd ratio [OR], 0.867; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.786-0.957) and the presence of LV diastolic dysfunction (OR, 1.617; 95% CI 1.191-2.196) were associated with the development of T2D, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. In a community-based cohort, the presence of subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction was a predictor of the progression to T2D. These data suggest that the echocardiographic assessment of LV diastolic function may be helpful in identifying non-diabetic subjects at risk of incident T2D.

  8. Intravenous Milrinone Infusion Improves Congestive Heart Failure Caused by Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Carlos A.; Giesler, Gregory M.; Kar, Biswajit; Hariharan, Ramesh; Delgado, Reynolds M.

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been significant advances in the medical treatment of heart failure patients with impaired systolic function, very little is known about the diagnosis and treatment of diastolic dysfunction. We report the cases of 3 patients in New York Heart Association functional class IV who had echocardiographically documented diastolic dysfunction as the main cause of heart failure. All 3 patients received medical therapy with long-term milrinone infusion. PMID:16107121

  9. Application of updated guidelines on diastolic dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Clancy, David J; Scully, Timothy; Slama, Michel; Huang, Stephen; McLean, Anthony S; Orde, Sam R

    2017-12-19

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is suggested to be associated with higher mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock, yet the methods of diagnosis described in the literature are often inconsistent. The recently published 2016 American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASE/EACVI) guidelines offer the opportunity to apply a simple pragmatic diagnostic algorithm for the detection of diastolic dysfunction; however, it has not been tested in this cohort. We sought to assess the applicability in septic patients of recently published 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines on diastolic dysfunction compared with the 2009 ASE guidelines. Our hypothesis was that there would be poor agreement in classifying patients. Prospective observational study includes patients identified as having severe sepsis and septic shock. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography on day 1 and day 3 of their ICU admission. Patients with normal and abnormal (ejection fraction < 52%) systolic function had their diastolic function stratified according to both the 2009 ASE and 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines. On day 1 echocardiography, of the 62 patients analysed, 37 (60%) had diastolic dysfunction according to the 2016 ASE/EACVI guideline with a further 23% having indeterminate diastolic function, compared to the 2009 ASE guidelines where only 13 (21%) had confirmed diastolic dysfunction with 46 (74%) having indeterminate diastolic dysfunction. On day 3, of the 55 patients studied, 22 patients (40%) were defined as having diastolic dysfunction, with 6 (11%) having indeterminate diastolic dysfunction according to the 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines, compared to the 2009 guidelines where 11 (20%) were confirmed to have diastolic dysfunction and 41 (75%) had indeterminate diastolic function. Systolic dysfunction was identified in 18 of 62 patients (29%) on day 1 and 18 of 55 (33%) on day 3. These patients were classified as having abnormal diastolic function in 94

  10. High Serum Phosphorus Level Is Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Tian, Na; Liu, Yanqiu; Li, Wei; Lin, Hong; Fan, Rui; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Donghong; Yao, Fengjuan

    We initiated this study to explore the relationships of serum phosphorus level with left ventricular ultrasound features and diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. 174 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving PD were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Conventional echocardiography examination and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed in each patient. Clinical information and laboratory data were also collected. Analyses of echocardiographic features were performed according to phosphorus quartiles groups. And multivariate regression models were used to determine the association between serum phosphorus and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). With the increase of serum phosphorus levels, patients on PD showed an increased tissue Doppler-derived E/e' ratio of lateral wall (P < 0.001), indicating a deterioration of left ventricular diastolic function. Steady growths of left atrium and left ventricular diameters as well as increase of left ventricular muscle mass were also observed across the increasing quartiles of phosphorus, while left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal. In a multivariate analysis, the regression coefficient for E/e' ratio in the highest phosphorus quartile was almost threefold higher relative to those in the lowest quartile group. And compared with patients in the lowest phosphorus quartile (<1.34 mmol/L) those in the highest phosphorus quartile (>1.95 mmol/L) had a more than fivefold increased odds of E/e' ratio >15. Our study showed an early impairment of left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients. High serum phosphorus level was independently associated with greater risk of LVDD in these patients. Whether serum phosphorus will be a useful target for prevention or improvement of LVDD remains to be proved by further studies.

  11. Is preeclampsia an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, George F; Aziz, Michael M; Boccia Liang, Claire; Williams, Shauna F; Apuzzio, Joseph J; Bilinski, Robyn; Mornan, Adenieki J D; Shah, Leena P

    2015-10-01

    To determine if preeclampsia is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction and what factors among patients with preeclampsia are associated with diastolic dysfunction. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who delivered between 2008 and 2013 at a single institution who had a maternal echocardiogram during their pregnancy or within 5months of delivery. Patients with structural heart disease, ejection fraction less than 45%, pulmonary embolus, or age over 45years were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for medical and obstetric complications and echocardiogram findings. Demographic characteristics and rate of diastolic dysfunction were compared between patients with preeclampsia and without preeclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery, diabetes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate administration. Sixty-six patients were identified, of which 39 (59%) had preeclampsia. Past history of preeclampsia, IUGR in the current pregnancy, antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate use were higher in the preeclampsia group. Fifteen patients (39%) in the preeclampsia group were African-American compared to 2 (3%) in the control group (p<0.01). Seventeen (44%) of the patients with preeclampsia were found to have diastolic dysfunction compared to 3 (11%) controls (OR=6.18, 95% CI 1.59,24.02; p=0.006). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction. In the patients with preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia with severe features and IUGR were not associated with diastolic dysfunction. Our study supports previous findings that preeclampsia is associated with diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein Changes Contributing to Right Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Diastolic Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rain, Silvia; Bos, Denielli da Silva Goncalves; Handoko, M. Louis; Westerhof, Nico; Stienen, Ger; Ottenheijm, Coen; Goebel, Max; Dorfmüller, Peter; Guignabert, Christophe; Humbert, Marc; Bogaard, Harm‐Jan; dos Remedios, Cris; Saripalli, Chandra; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Granzier, Henk L.; Vonk‐Noordegraaf, Anton; van der Velden, Jolanda; de Man, Frances S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function is impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our previous study showed that elevated cardiomyocyte stiffness and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity underlie diastolic dysfunction in PAH. This study investigates protein modifications contributing to cellular diastolic dysfunction in PAH. Methods and Results RV samples from PAH patients undergoing heart‐lung transplantation were compared to non‐failing donors (Don). Titin stiffness contribution to RV diastolic dysfunction was determined by Western‐blot analyses using antibodies to protein‐kinase‐A (PKA), Cα (PKCα) and Ca2+/calmoduling‐dependent‐kinase (CamKIIδ) titin and phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation sites: N2B (Ser469), PEVK (Ser170 and Ser26), and PLN (Thr17), respectively. PKA and PKCα sites were significantly less phosphorylated in PAH compared with donors (P<0.0001). To test the functional relevance of PKA‐, PKCα‐, and CamKIIδ‐mediated titin phosphorylation, we measured the stiffness of single RV cardiomyocytes before and after kinase incubation. PKA significantly decreased PAH RV cardiomyocyte diastolic stiffness, PKCα further increased stiffness while CamKIIδ had no major effect. CamKIIδ activation was determined indirectly by measuring PLN Thr17phosphorylation level. No significant changes were found between the groups. Myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is mediated by sarcomeric troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation. We observed increased unphosphorylated cTnI in PAH compared with donors (P<0.05) and reduced PKA‐mediated cTnI phosphorylation (Ser22/23) (P<0.001). Finally, alterations in Ca2+‐handling proteins contribute to RV diastolic dysfunction due to insufficient diastolic Ca2+ clearance. PAH SERCA2a levels and PLN phosphorylation were significantly reduced compared with donors (P<0.05). Conclusions Increased titin stiffness, reduced cTnI phosphorylation, and altered levels of phosphorylation of Ca2

  13. The less familiar side of heart failure: symptomatic diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Morris, Spencer A; Van Swol, Mark; Udani, Bela

    2005-06-01

    Arrange for echocardiography or radionuclide angiography within 72 hours of a heart failure exacerbation. An ejection fraction >50% in the presence of signs and symptoms of heart failure makes the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure probable. To treat associated hypertension, use angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or diuretics to achieve a blood pressure goal of <130/80 mm Hg. When using beta-blockers to control heart rate, titrate doses more aggressively than would be done for systolic failure, to reach a goal of 60 to 70 bpm. Use ACE inhibitors/ARBs to decrease hospitalizations, decrease symptoms, and prevent left ventricular remodeling.

  14. Interstudy heterogeneity of definitions of diastolic dysfunction severely affects reported prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Selmeryd, Jonas; Henriksen, Egil; Leppert, Jerzy; Hedberg, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this article is to examine how the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) recommendations on the classification of diastolic dysfunction (DDF) are interpreted in the scientific community and to explore how variations in the DDF definition affect the reported prevalence. Methods and results A systematic review of studies citing the EACVI/ASE consensus document ‘Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography’ was performed. The definition of DDF used in each study was recorded. Subsequently, several possible interpretations of the EACVI/ASE classification scheme were used to obtain DDF prevalence in a community-based sample (n = 714). In the systematic review, 60 studies were included. In 13 studies, no specification of DDF definition was presented, a one-level classification tree was used in 13, a two-level classification tree in 18, and in the remaining 16 studies, a DDF definition was presented but no grading of DDF was performed. In 17 studies, the DDF definition relied solely on early diastolic tissue velocity and/or left atrial size. In eight of these studies, a single parameter was used, in two studies the logical operator AND was used to combine two or more parameters, and the remaining seven studies used the logical operator OR. The resulting prevalence of DDF in the community-based sample varied from 12 to 84%, depending on the DDF definition used. Conclusion A substantial heterogeneity of definitions of DDF was evident among the studies reviewed, and the different definitions had a substantial impact on the reported prevalence of DDF. PMID:26374880

  15. Galectin-3 Reflects the Echocardiographic Grades of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Uzair; Behnes, Michael; Hoffmann, Julia; Natale, Michele; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Rusnak, Jonas; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lang, Siegfried; Hoffmann, Ursula; Bertsch, Thomas; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2018-07-01

    The level of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein purportedly reflects an ongoing cardiac fibrotic process and has been associated with ventricular remodeling, which is instrumental in the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Gal-3 in improved characterization of the grades of diastolic dysfunction as defined by echocardiography. Seventy HFpEF patients undergoing routine echocardiography were prospectively enrolled in the present monocentric study. Blood samples for measurements of Gal-3 and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were collected within 24 hours pre- or post-echocardiographic examination. The classification of patients into subgroups based on diastolic dysfunction grade permitted detailed statistical analyses of the derived data. The Gal-3 serum levels of all patients corresponded to echocardiographic indices, suggesting HFpEF (E/A, P=0.03 and E/E', P=0.02). Gal-3 was also associated with progressive diastolic dysfunction, and increased levels corresponded to the course of disease (P=0.012). Detailed analyses of ROC curves suggested that Gal-3 levels could discriminate patients with grade III diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve [AUC]=0.770, P=0.005). Gal-3 demonstrates remarkable effectiveness in the diagnosis of patients suffering from severe grade diastolic dysfunction. Increasing levels of Gal-3 possibly reflect the progressive course of HFpEF, as classified by the echocardiographic grades of diastolic dysfunction. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  16. Diastolic dysfunction in prediabetic male rats: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koncsos, Gábor; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Boengler, Kerstin; Rohrbach, Susanne; Li, Ling; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Radovits, Tamás; Oláh, Attila; Mátyás, Csaba; Lux, Árpád; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Komlódi, Tímea; Bukosza, Nóra; Máthé, Domokos; Deres, László; Barteková, Monika; Rajtík, Tomáš; Adameová, Adriana; Szigeti, Krisztián; Hamar, Péter; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Tretter, László; Pacher, Pál; Merkely, Béla; Giricz, Zoltán; Schulz, Rainer; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2016-10-01

    Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4 High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Diastolic dysfunction in prediabetic male rats: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Koncsos, Gábor; Varga, Zoltán V.; Boengler, Kerstin; Rohrbach, Susanne; Li, Ling; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Radovits, Tamás; Oláh, Attila; Mátyás, Csaba; Lux, Árpád; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Komlódi, Tímea; Bukosza, Nóra; Máthé, Domokos; Deres, László; Barteková, Monika; Rajtík, Tomáš; Adameová, Adriana; Szigeti, Krisztián; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Tretter, László; Pacher, Pál; Merkely, Béla; Schulz, Rainer; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4. High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. PMID:27521417

  18. Presence and Implication of Temporal Nonuniformity of Early Diastolic Left Ventricular Wall Expansion in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Daisuke; Fox, Ervin R; Hall, Michael E; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C

    2016-12-01

    Early-diastolic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal expansion is delayed with diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of LV ejection fraction (EF), there is diastolic temporal nonuniformity with a delay of longitudinal relative to circumferential expansion. Echocardiography was performed in 143 HF patients-50 with preserved EF (HFpEF) and 93 with reduced EF (HFrEF)-as well as 31 normal control subjects. The delay of early-diastolic mitral annular velocity from the mitral Doppler E (T E-e' ) was measured as a parameter of the longitudinal expansion delay. The delay of the longitudinal early-diastolic global strain rate (SR E ) relative to circumferential SR E (Delay C-L ) was calculated as a parameter of temporal nonuniformity. Intra-LV pressure difference (IVPD) was estimated with the use of color M-mode Doppler data as a parameter of LV diastolic suction. Although normal control subjects had symmetric LV expansion in early diastole, T E-e' and Delay C-L were significantly prolonged in HF regardless of EF (P < .01 vs control for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that Delay C-L was the independent determinant of IVPD among the parameters of LV geometry and contraction (β = -0.21; P < .05). An abnormal temporal nonuniformity of early-diastolic expansion is present in HF regardless of EF, which was associated with reduced LV suction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS, AND CAROTID INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Yılmaz, Nusret; Yanıkoğlu, Atakan; Özdem, Sebahat; Yıldırım, Aytül Belgi; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Altunbaş, Hasan Ali

    2017-05-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly, may be an efficient approach to extending the lifespan of affected patients. Therefore, it is crucial to determine any cardiovascular diseases in the subclinical period. The study objectives were to determine markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and asses heart structure and function. This was a cross-sectional, single-center study of 53 patients with acromegaly and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and echocardiographic data were compared between these groups. CIMT and PWV were higher in the acromegaly group than in the healthy group (P = .008 and P = .002, respectively). Echocardiography showed that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was present in 11.3% of patients. Left ventricular mass index and left atrial volume index were higher in the patients (P = .016 and P<.001, respectively). No differences in the CIMT, PWV, or echocardiographic measurements were identified between the patients with biochemically controlled and uncontrolled acromegaly and the control group. Our results showed that subclinical atherosclerosis (i.e., CIMT and PWV markers) and heart structure and function were worse in patients with acromegaly than in healthy individuals. Because there were no differences in these parameters between patients with controlled and uncontrolled acromegaly, our results suggest that the structural and functional changes do not reverse with biochemical control. AA = active acromegaly BSA = body surface area CA = biochemically controlled acromegaly CH = concentric hypertrophy CIMT = carotid intima-media thickness DBP = diastolic blood pressure DM = diabetes mellitus ECHO = echocardiography EDV = enddiastolic volume EF = ejection fraction ESV = endsystolic volume GH = growth hormone HC = healthy control HL = hyperlipidemia HT = hypertension IGF-1 = insulin

  20. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X(2) test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max. interval was found in 33% of patients, indiabetic group

  1. Cardiac DPP-4 inhibition by saxagliptin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Junichi; Kimoto, Naoya; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Kunori, Shunji

    2016-09-01

    Saxagliptin, a potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor, is characterized by its slow dissociation from DPP-4 and its long half-life and is expected to have a potent tissue membrane-bound DPP-4-inhibitory effect in various tissues. In the present study, we examined the effects of saxagliptin on in situ cardiac DPP-4 activity. We also examined the effects of saxagliptin on isoproterenol-induced the changes in the early stage such as, myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Male SD rats treated with isoproterenol (1 mg/kg/day via osmotic pump) received vehicle or saxagliptin (17.5 mg/kg via drinking water) for 2 weeks. In situ cardiac DPP-4 activity was measured by a colorimetric assay. Cardiac gene expressions were examined and an echocardiographic analysis was performed. Saxagliptin treatment significantly inhibited in situ cardiac DPP-4 activity and suppressed isoproterenol-induced myocardial remodeling and the expression of related genes without altering the blood glucose levels. Saxagliptin also significantly ameliorated cardiac diastolic dysfunction in isoproterenol-treated rats. In conclusion, the inhibition of DPP-4 activity in cardiac tissue by saxagliptin was associated with suppression of myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic dysfunction independently of its glucose-lowering action in isoproterenol-treated rats. Cardiac DPP-4 activity may contribute to myocardial remodeling in the development of heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co.,Ltd. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Systemic inflammation is associated with myocardial fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and cardiac hypertrophy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lu; Ellims, Andris H; Beale, Anna L; Taylor, Andrew J; Murphy, Andrew; Dart, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Regional or diffuse fibrosis is an early feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is related to poor prognosis. Previous studies have documented low-grade inflammation in HCM. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between circulating inflammatory markers and myocardial fibrosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and the degree of cardiac hypertrophy in HCM patients. Methods and results: Fifty HCM patients were recruited while 20 healthy subjects served as the control group. Seventeen inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were measured in plasma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography were used to assess cardiac phenotypes. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and serum amyloid P (SAP) were significantly increased in HCM patients compared to controls. IL-6, IL-4, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were correlated with regional fibrosis while stromal cell-derived factor-1 and MCP-1 were correlated with diffuse fibrosis. Fractalkine and interferon-γ were associated with left ventricular wall thickness. The above associations remained significant in a linear regression model including age, gender, body mass index and family history. TNF-α, IL-6, SAP, MCP-1 and IL-10 were associated with parameters of diastolic dysfunction. White blood cells were also increased in HCM patients and correlated with diffuse fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. However the associations between parameters of systemic inflammation and diastolic dysfunction were weakened in the linear regression analysis. Conclusions: Systemic inflammation is associated with parameters of the disease severity of HCM patients, particularly regional and diffuse fibrosis. Modifying inflammation may reduce myocardial fibrosis in HCM patients. PMID:29218105

  3. Role of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Predicting Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Successful Electrical Cardioversion

    PubMed Central

    Melduni, Rowlens M.; Cullen, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after successful electrical cardioversion is largely unknown. Studies suggest that there may be a link between abnormal LV compliance and the initial development, and recurrence of AF after electrical cardioversion. Although direct-current cardioversion (DCCV) is a well-established and highly effective method to convert AF to sinus rhythm, it offers little else beyond immediate rate control because it does not address the underlying cause of AF. Preservation of sinus rhythm after successful cardioversion still remains a challenge for clinicians. Despite the use of antiarrhythmic drugs and serial cardioversions, the rate of AF recurrence remains high in the first year. Current evidence suggests that diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with atrial volume and pressure overload, may be a mechanism underlying the perpetuating cycle of AF recurrence following successful electrical cardioversion. Diastolic dysfunction is considered to be a defect in the ability of the myofibrils, which have shortened against a load in systole to eject blood into the high-pressure aorta, to rapidly or completely return to their resting length. Consequently, LV filling is impaired and the non-compliant left ventricle is unable to fill at low pressures. As a result, left atrial and pulmonary vein pressure rises, and electrical and structural remodeling of the atrial myocardium ensues, creating a vulnerable substrate for AF. In this article, we review the current evidence highlighting the association of LV diastolic dysfunction with AF recurrence after successful electrical cardioversion and provide an approach to the management of LV diastolic dysfunction to prevent AF recurrence. PMID:23525127

  4. New insights into the mechanisms of diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Al; Canpolat, Uğur; Demiri, Edis; Kunak, Ayşegül Ulgen; Ozer, Necla; Aksoyek, Serdar; Ovunc, Kenan; Ozkan, Adem; Yildiz, Okan Bülent; Atalar, Enver

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of serum soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Subjects with age ≥ 50 years old and any cardiovascular risk factors or conditions were excluded from the study. Serum sRAGE levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LV diastolic dysfunction were evaluated according to current American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups except body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and fasting glucose levels. Serum sRAGE level was significantly lower in diabetic group compared with control group (676 ± 128 vs. 1044 ± 344, p < 0.05). Diastolic dysfunction was observed in 50% of diabetic patients (40% grade I and 10% grade II). Correlation analysis showed that serum sRAGE was negatively correlated with duration of diabetes, septal E'/A', lateral E'/A', and average E/E'. In multivariate regression analysis, serum sRAGE level was strongly associated with diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study showed that serum sRAGE level was significantly lower in type 2 diabetic patients aged < 50 years old. Also, sRAGE has negative correlation with the duration of diabetes and it was significantly associated with the presence of diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Cats with diabetes mellitus have diastolic dysfunction in the absence of structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N J; Novo Matos, J; Baron Toaldo, M; Bartoszuk, U; Summerfield, N; Riederer, A; Reusch, C; Glaus, T M

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure characterized by diastolic dysfunction with or without the presence of systolic dysfunction in people and laboratory animals. The objective of this prospective study was to determine if cats with newly diagnosed DM had myocardial dysfunction and, if present, whether it would progress if appropriate antidiabetic therapy was commenced. Thirty-two diabetic cats were enrolled and received baseline echocardiographic examination; of these, 15 cats were re-examined after 6 months. Ten healthy age- and weight-matched cats served as controls. Diabetic cats at diagnosis showed decreased diastolic, but not systolic function, when compared to healthy controls, with lower mitral inflow E wave (E) and E/E' than controls. After 6 months, E and E/IVRT' decreased further in diabetic cats compared to the baseline evaluation. After excluding cats whose DM was in remission at 6 months, insulin-dependent diabetic cats had lower E, E/A and E' than controls. When classifying diastolic function according to E/A and E'/A', there was shift towards impaired relaxation patterns at 6 months. All insulin-dependent diabetic cats at 6 months had abnormal diastolic function. These results indicate that DM has similar effects on diastolic function in feline and human diabetics. The dysfunction seemed to progress rather than to normalize after 6 months, despite antidiabetic therapy. In cats with pre-existing heart disease, the development of DM could represent an important additional health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of diastolic dysfunction on postoperative outcomes after cardiovascular surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Roop; Hernandez, Adrian V; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nagarajan, Vijaiganesh; Bueno, Hector; Coleman, Craig I; Ioannidis, John P A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative diastolic dysfunction on postoperative mortality and morbidity after cardiovascular surgery. We systematically searched for articles that assessed the prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction on cardiovascular surgery in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus until February 2016. Twelve studies (n = 8224) met our inclusion criteria. Because of the scarcity of outcome events, fixed-effects meta-analysis was performed via the Mantel-Haenszel method. Preoperative diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction was associated with greater postoperative mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-3.71; P < .0001), major adverse cardiac events (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.55-2.78; P ≤ .0001), and prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.04-4.16; P = .04) compared with patients without diastolic dysfunction among patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery. The odds of postoperative myocardial infarction (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.82-2.05; P = .28) and atrial fibrillation (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.49-14.43; P = .25) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Severity of preoperative diastolic dysfunction was associated with increased postoperative mortality (OR, 21.22; 95% CI, 3.74-120.33; P = .0006) for Grade 3 diastolic dysfunction compared with patients with normal diastolic function. Inclusion of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% accompanying diastolic dysfunction did not further impact postoperative mortality (P = .27; I(2) = 18%) compared with patients with normal LVEF and diastolic dysfunction. Presence of preoperative diastolic dysfunction was associated with greater postoperative mortality and major adverse cardiac events, regardless of LVEF. Mortality was significantly greater in grade III diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Diastolic Dysfunction Following Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients: Incidence and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    González, Iria; Del Castillo, Silvia; Muñiz, Javier; Morales, Luis J.; Moreno, Fernando; Jiménez, Rosa; Cristóbal, Carmen; Graupner, Catherine; Talavera, Pedro; Curcio, Alejandro; Martínez, Paula; Guerra, Juan A.; Alonso, Joaquín J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiotoxicity represents a major limitation for the use of anthracyclines or trastuzumab in breast cancer patients. Data from longitudinal studies of diastolic dysfunction (DD) in this group of patients are scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence, evolution, and predictors of DD in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracyclines. Methods. This analytical, observational cohort study comprised 100 consecutive patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CHT) for breast cancer. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiogram, and measurement of cardiac biomarkers at baseline, end of anthracycline-based CHT, and at 3 months and 9 months after anthracycline-based CHT was completed. Fifteen patients receiving trastuzumab were followed with two additional visits at 6 and 12 months after the last dose of anthracycline-based CHT. A multivariate analysis was performed to find variables related to the development of DD. Fifteen of the 100 patients had baseline DD and were excluded from this analysis. Results. At the end of follow-up (median: 12 months, interquartile range: 11.1–12.8), 49 patients (57.6%) developed DD. DD was persistent in 36 (73%) but reversible in the remaining 13 patients (27%). Four patients developed cardiotoxicity (three patients had left ventricular systolic dysfunction and one suffered a sudden cardiac death). None of the patients with normal diastolic function developed systolic dysfunction during follow-up. In the logistic regression model, body mass index (BMI) and age were independently related to the development of DD, with the following odds ratio values: BMI: 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.36), and age: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03–1.19). Neither cardiac biomarkers nor remaining clinical variables were predictors of DD. Conclusion. Development of diastolic dysfunction after treatment with anthracycline or anthracycline- plus trastuzumab chemotherapy is common. BMI

  8. Diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction: Relevance in critical illness and anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, R.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that HF with a preserved ejection fraction will become the more common form of HF which clinicians will encounter. The spectrum of diastolic disease extends from the asymptomatic phase to fulminant cardiac failure. These patients are commonly encountered in operating rooms and critical care units. A clearer understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and clinical implications of HF with a preserved ejection fraction is fundamental to directing further research and to evaluate interventions. This review highlights the impact of diastolic dysfunction and HF with a preserved ejection fraction during the perioperative period and during critical illness. PMID:23960679

  9. Prevalence of arterial stiffness and the risk of myocardial diastolic dysfunction in women.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Ute; Brecht, Anna; Nauman, Ahmad T; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Ruecke, Mirjam; Knebel, Fabian; Stangl, Verena; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2016-10-01

    The present study determines the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and arterial stiffness (ASt) in a female urban population by measuring the brachial augmentation index (AIx) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). The study tests the hypothesis that the measurement of AIx and PWV is useful in addition to that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors when assessing the risk for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). This cross-sectional study recruited 965 women aged 25-75 years from 12 districts of Berlin. The ASt indices, brachial AIx, aortic PWV and the central blood pressure were measured by an oscillometric method. A randomly selected subgroup (n=343) was examined by echocardiography. Trans-mitral inflow E/A ratio and diastolic mitral annulus velocity (é) were assessed. Questionnaires, medical history and blood sampling were used for the evaluation of individual risk factors. Normal vascular function was found in 55% of the women included. The prevalence of women with pathological AIx only (AIx ⩾ -10%, PWV normal) was 21.5%, whereas 17.9% were affected by increased AIx and PWV (AIx ⩾ -10%, PWV ⩾9.7 m/s), and 6% with only pathological PWV values. The prevalence of LVDD was 31.7%. LVDD was significantly associated with pathological PWV ⩾ 9.7 m/s [OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.02-1.57], age [OR: 4.17, 95%CI: 2.87-6.07] and a waist circumference >80 cm [OR: 3.61, 95%CI: 1.85-7.04] in multiple regression analysis. The high prevalence of markers for vascular dysfunction and ASt in a general female population and their importance as a mediator of diastolic dysfunction should encourage implementation of aortic PWV measurement to improve cardiovascular-risk assessment in particular to identify subclinical myocardial diastolic dysfunction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Diastolic Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sinoatrial or SA node) sends out an electrical signal that causes the atria to contract. This ... when the ventricles are full of blood. The electrical signals cause the ventricles to contract and push ...

  11. Patients with a hypertensive response to exercise have impaired systolic function without diastolic dysfunction or left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Philip M; Haluska, Brian; Yuda, Satoshi; Leano, Rodel; Marwick, Thomas H

    2004-03-03

    We sought to determine if a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is associated with myocardial changes consistent with early hypertensive heart disease. An HRE predicts the development of chronic hypertension (HT) and may reflect a preclinical stage of HT. Patients with a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and a negative stress test were recruited into three matched groups: 41 patients (age 56 +/- 10 years) with HRE (>210/105 mm Hg in men; >190/105 in women), comprising 22 patients with (HT+) and 19 without resting hypertension (HT-); and 17 matched control subjects without HRE. Long-axis function was determined by measurement of the strain rate (SR), peak systolic strain, and cyclic variation (CV) of integrated backscatter in three apical views. An HRE was not associated with significant differences in LV mass index. Exercise performance and diastolic function were reduced in HRE(HT+) patients, but similar in HRE(HT-) patients and controls. Systolic dysfunction (peak systolic strain, SR, and CV) was significantly reduced in HRE patients (p < 0.001 for all). These reductions were equally apparent in patients with and without a history of resting HT (p = NS) and were independent of LV mass index and blood pressure (p < 0.01). An HRE is associated with subtle systolic dysfunction, even in the absence of resting HT. These changes occur before the development of LV hypertrophy or detectable diastolic dysfunction and likely represent early hypertensive heart disease.

  12. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Gyu; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang-Young; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities (NSSTTA) on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and LV geometry on echocardiography. A cross-sectional study comprised of 74,976 Koreans who underwent ECG and echocardiography as part of a comprehensive health examination between March 2011 and December 2014. ECG was coded using Minnesota Code criteria. The frequencies of NSSTTA, impaired LV relaxation, and echocardiographic LVH were 1,139 (1.5%), 21,118 (28.2%), and 1,687 (2.3%) patients, respectively. The presence of NSSTTA was positively associated with the prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH on echocardiography. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% CIs) comparing patients with NSSTTA to control patients was 1.55 (1.33-1.80) for impaired LV relaxation and 3.15 (2.51-3.96) for echocardiographic LVH. The association between NSSTTA and impaired LV relaxation was stronger in the intermediate to high cardiovascular disease-risk group than in the low-risk group according to Framingham Risk Score stratification (P for interaction = 0.02). NSSTTA were associated with increased prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH, suggesting NSSTTA as an early indicator of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and geometric abnormalities.

  14. N-acetylcysteine reverses diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Tanganyika; Ryba, David M.; Wieczorek, David F.; Wolska, Beata M.

    2015-01-01

    S-glutathionylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) induces Ca2+ sensitization and a slowing of cross-bridge kinetics as a result of increased oxidative signaling. Although there is evidence for a role of oxidative stress in disorders associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), this mechanism is not well understood. We investigated whether oxidative myofilament modifications may be in part responsible for diastolic dysfunction in HCM. We administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 30 days to 1-mo-old wild-type mice and to transgenic mice expressing a mutant tropomyosin (Tm-E180G) and nontransgenic littermates. Tm-E180G hearts demonstrate a phenotype similar to human HCM. After NAC administration, the morphology and diastolic function of Tm-E180G mice was not significantly different from controls, indicating that NAC had reversed baseline diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in our model. NAC administration also increased sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase protein expression, reduced extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, and normalized phosphorylation of phospholamban, as assessed by Western blot. Detergent-extracted fiber bundles from NAC-administered Tm-E180G mice showed nearly nontransgenic (NTG) myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Additionally, we found that NAC increased tension cost and rate of cross-bridge reattachment. Tm-E180G myofilaments were found to have a significant increase in S-glutathionylation of cMyBP-C, which was returned to NTG levels upon NAC administration. Taken together, our results indicate that oxidative myofilament modifications are an important mediator in diastolic function, and by relieving this modification we were able to reverse established diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in HCM. PMID:26432840

  15. Ranolazine improves cardiac diastolic dysfunction through modulation of myofilament calcium sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Joshua D.; Monasky, Michelle M.; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Lardin, Harvey A.; Liu, Hong; Patel, Bindiya G.; Taglieri, Domenico M.; Gu, Lianzhi; Kumar, Praveen; Pokhrel, Narayan; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sorescu, Dan; Solaro, R. John; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Previously, we demonstrated that a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mouse model produces cardiac oxidative stress and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function. Oxidative stress has been shown to increase late inward sodium current (INa), reducing the net cytosolic Ca2+ efflux. Objective Oxidative stress in the DOCA-salt model may increase late INa resulting in diastolic dysfunction amenable to treatment with ranolazine. Methods and Results Echocardiography detected evidence of diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive mice that improved after treatment with ranolazine (E/E′, sham 31.9 ± 2.8, sham+ranolazine 30.2 ± 1.9, DOCA-salt 41.8 ± 2.6, and DOCA-salt+ranolazine 31.9 ± 2.6, p = 0.018). The end diastolic pressure volume relationship slope was elevated in DOCA-salt mice, improving to sham levels with treatment (sham 0.16 ± 0.01 vs. sham+ranolazine 0.18 ± 0.01 vs. DOCA-salt 0.23 ± 0.2 vs. DOCA-salt+ranolazine 0.17 ± 0.01 mm Hg/L, p < 0.005). DOCA-salt myocytes demonstrated impaired relaxation, τ, improving with ranolazine (DOCA-salt 0.18 ± 0.02, DOCA-salt + ranolazine 0.13 ± 0.01, Sham 0.11 ± 0.01, Sham + ranolazine 0.09 ± 0.02 s, p = 0.0004). Neither late INa nor the Ca2+ transients were different from sham myocytes. Detergent extracted fiber bundles from DOCA-salt hearts demonstrated increased myofilament response to Ca2+ with glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C. Treatment with ranolazine ameliorated the Ca2+ response and cross-bridge kinetics. Conclusions Therefore, diastolic dysfunction could be reversed by ranolazine, likely resulting from a direct effect on myofilaments, indicating that cardiac oxidative stress may mediate diastolic dysfunction through altering the contractile apparatus. PMID:22343711

  16. Ranolazine improves cardiac diastolic dysfunction through modulation of myofilament calcium sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Monasky, Michelle M; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Lardin, Harvey A; Liu, Hong; Patel, Bindiya G; Taglieri, Domenico M; Gu, Lianzhi; Kumar, Praveen; Pokhrel, Narayan; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sorescu, Dan; Solaro, R John; Dudley, Samuel C

    2012-03-16

    Previously, we demonstrated that a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mouse model produces cardiac oxidative stress and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function. Oxidative stress has been shown to increase late inward sodium current (I(Na)), reducing the net cytosolic Ca(2+) efflux. Oxidative stress in the DOCA-salt model may increase late I(Na), resulting in diastolic dysfunction amenable to treatment with ranolazine. Echocardiography detected evidence of diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive mice that improved after treatment with ranolazine (E/E':sham, 31.9 ± 2.8, sham+ranolazine, 30.2 ± 1.9, DOCA-salt, 41.8 ± 2.6, and DOCA-salt+ranolazine, 31.9 ± 2.6; P=0.018). The end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship slope was elevated in DOCA-salt mice, improving to sham levels with treatment (sham, 0.16 ± 0.01 versus sham+ranolazine, 0.18 ± 0.01 versus DOCA-salt, 0.23 ± 0.2 versus DOCA-salt+ranolazine, 0.17 ± 0.0 1 mm Hg/L; P<0.005). DOCA-salt myocytes demonstrated impaired relaxation, τ, improving with ranolazine (DOCA-salt, 0.18 ± 0.02, DOCA-salt+ranolazine, 0.13 ± 0.01, sham, 0.11 ± 0.01, sham+ranolazine, 0.09 ± 0.02 seconds; P=0.0004). Neither late I(Na) nor the Ca(2+) transients were different from sham myocytes. Detergent extracted fiber bundles from DOCA-salt hearts demonstrated increased myofilament response to Ca(2+) with glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C. Treatment with ranolazine ameliorated the Ca(2+) response and cross-bridge kinetics. Diastolic dysfunction could be reversed by ranolazine, probably resulting from a direct effect on myofilaments, indicating that cardiac oxidative stress may mediate diastolic dysfunction through altering the contractile apparatus.

  17. Overweight female rats selectively breed for low aerobic capacity exhibit increased myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Megan S.; Ma, Lixin; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Mugerfeld, Irina; Hayden, Melvin R.; Garro, Mona; Knight, William; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Sowers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The statistical association between endurance exercise capacity and cardiovascular disease suggests that impaired aerobic metabolism underlies the cardiovascular disease risk in men and women. To explore this connection, we applied divergent artificial selection in rats to develop low-capacity runner (LCR) and high-capacity runner (HCR) rats and found that disease risks segregated strongly with low running capacity. Here, we tested if inborn low aerobic capacity promotes differential sex-related cardiovascular effects. Compared with HCR males (HCR-M), LCR males (LCR-M) were overweight by 34% and had heavier retroperitoneal, epididymal, and omental fat pads; LCR females (LCR-F) were 20% heavier than HCR females (HCR-F), and their retroperitoneal, but not perireproductive or omental, fat pads were heavier as well. Unlike HCR-M, blood pressure was elevated in LCR-M, and this was accompanied by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Like HCR-F, LCR-F exhibited normal blood pressure and LV weight as well as increased spontaneous cage activity compared with males. Despite normal blood pressures, LCR-F exhibited increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, as indicated by increased LV stiffness, a decrease in the initial filling rate, and an increase in diastolic relaxation time. Although females exhibited increased arterial stiffness, ejection fraction was normal. Increased interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in LCR-F was accompanied by the lowest protein levels of phosphorylated AMP-actived protein kinase [phospho-AMPK (Thr172)] and silent information regulator 1. Thus, the combination of risk factors, including female sex, intrinsic low aerobic capacity, and overweightness, promote myocardial stiffness/fibrosis sufficient to induce diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and LV hypertrophy. PMID:22345570

  18. What is the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and 6-minute walk test in hypertensive patients?

    PubMed

    Farag, El-Sayed M; Al-Daydamony, Mohammad M; Gad, Marwa M

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem. Hypertension is an important cause of HF. Most hypertensive patients have some degree of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) provides objective data about the exercise tolerance. We aimed to find the association between the degree of LV diastolic dysfunction and the functional capacity assessed by 6MWT in hypertensive patients. The study included 200 asymptomatic hypertensive patients. All patients had undergone full history taking, complete clinical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography for assessment of LV dimensions, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and 6MWT. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of LV diastolic dysfunction. Clinical and echocardiographic data were comparable between the two groups. Regarding 6MWT, at the end of the test, patients with diastolic dysfunction had significantly higher systolic (P = .0088) and diastolic (P = .019) blood pressure and higher Borg score for dyspnea (P < .00001). The distant walked and percentage of the distance to predicted value were significantly lower in patients with diastolic dysfunction (P = .0322 and .0002, respectively). Incidence of abnormal 6MWT was significantly higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction (P = .00041). Compared to patients with grades I and II, patients with grade III diastolic dysfunction had significantly higher Borg score (P = .013), lower distance walked (P = .039), and lower percentage of distance to predicted vale (P = .009). Independent predictors for abnormal 6MWT were as follows: E/E' ≥15 (P = .0022), E'/A' <1 (P = .0081), and deceleration time of E-wave <160 (P = .013). The presence of LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients has a bad effect on 6MWT. The degree of LV diastolic dysfunction was correlated with 6MWT results. It may be important to investigate LV diastolic function in asymptomatic hypertensive

  19. Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with rapid deterioration of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and conduction disturbance.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jung Yeon; Yi, Jeong Eun; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a major cause of mortality. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old woman with eosinophilic endomyocarditis due to CSS. An electrocardiogram showed intraventricular conduction delay, and echocardiography showed an impaired relaxation pattern and biventricular apical thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed subendocardial delayed enhancement with biventricular apical thrombi. Endomyocardial biopsy showed perivascular eosinophilic infiltration. Despite resolution of the hypereosinophilia after steroid therapy, her left ventricular (LV) diastolic function worsened into a restrictive pattern and she died with a ventricular escape rhythm on her 14th day in the hospital. This case is unusual in that there was rapid progression of the LV diastolic dysfunction and conduction disturbance due to CSS. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased left ventricular mass and diastolic dysfunction are associated with endothelial dysfunction in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to investigate left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait - FT), and to determine the association between LV mass and determinants of LV diastolic function and endothelium-dependent (NO-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotonics with FT aged 28-39 (mean 33) years and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and LV diastolic function was measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). LV diastolic filling properties were assessed and reported as the peak E/A wave ratio, and peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) on TDI. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (flow-mediated dilation--FMD) were measured. In subjects with FT, the LV mass index was higher than in controls (92.14+/-24.02 vs 70.08+/-20.58); p<0.001). Offspring of hypertensive families had worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E/A ratio, lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p<0.001). In subjects with FT, FMD was decreased compared with the controls (6.11+/-3.28% vs 10.20+/-2.07%; p<0.001). LV mass index and E(m)/A(m) ratio were associated with FMD (p<0.001). In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional changes were found. We demonstrated that an increase in LV mass and alterations in LV diastolic function are related to endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  2. [Effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ping-xian; Ye, Ping-zhen; Zhu, Jian-hua; Chen, Wei; Gao, Dan-chen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study was performed. Sixty patients with diastolic dysfunction (mitral flow velocity E/A <1) and exercise-induced hypertension (SBP>200 mm Hg) treated with atorvastatin (20 mg q.d) or placebo for 1 year. Cardiopulmonary exercise test and exercise blood pressure measurement were performed. Plasma B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration at rest and at peak exercise, plasma high sensitive-C reaction protein (hs-CRP) and endothelin (ET) concentration were determined at baseline and after treatment. After treatment by atorvastatin, the resting SBP, pulse pressure, the peak exercise SBP and BNP were significantly decreased; and the exercise time, metabolic equivalent, maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold were increased. All of these parameters had significant differences with baseline levels (P<0.05) and the rest pulse pressure, the peak exercise SBP and BNP, and the exercise time had significant differences compared with placebo treatment (P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and ET were markedly reduced by atorvastatin treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P<0.05). No difference in above parameters was found before and after placebo treatment (P>0.05). In patients with diastolic dysfunction at rest and exercise-induced hypertension, atorvastatin can effectively reduce plasma hs-CRP and ET level, lower blood pressure and peak exercise SBP, decrease peak exercise plasma BNP concentration, and ultimately improve exercise tolerance.

  3. Left atrial volume is not an index of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi, Nadjib; Charbonnier, Magali; Levy, Pierre; Djebbar, Morad; Stankovic Stojanovic, Katia; Ederhy, Stéphane; Girot, Robert; Cohen, Ariel; Isnard, Richard; Lionnet, François

    2015-03-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is common in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Left atrial (LA) size is widely used as an index of LVDD; however, LA enlargement in SCA might also be due to chronic volume overload. To investigate whether LA size can be used to diagnose LVDD in SCA. One hundred and twenty-seven adults with stable SCA underwent echocardiographic assessment. LA volume was measured by the area-length method and indexed to body surface area (LAVi). Left ventricular (LV) filling pressures were assessed using the ratio of early peak diastolic velocities of mitral inflow and septal annular mitral plane (E/e'). Using mitral inflow profile and E/e', LV diastolic function was classified as normal or abnormal. LAVi>28mL/m(2) was used as the threshold to define LA enlargement. The mean age was 28.6±8.5years; there were 83 women. Mean LAVi was 48.3±11.1mL/m(2) and 124 (98%) patients had LA dilatation. In multivariable analysis, age, haemoglobin concentration and LV end-diastolic volume index were independent determinants of LAVi (R(2)=0.51; P<0.0001). E/e' was not linked to LAVi (P=0.43). Twenty patients had LVDD; when compared with patients without LVDD, they had a similar LAVi (52.2±14.7 and 47.5±10.2mL/m(2), respectively; P=0.29). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that LAVi could not be used to diagnose LVDD (area under curve=0.58; P=0.36). LA enlargement is common in SCA but appears not to be linked to LVDD. LAVi in this population is related to age, haemoglobin concentration and LV morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential systolic dysfunction with diastolic function in hypertension: a nonlinear analysis focused on the interplay with left ventricular geometry.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Nistri, Stefano; Cameli, Matteo; Papesso, Barbara; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Galderisi, Maurizio; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Mondillo, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    The relationships of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and circumferential systolic dysfunction with diastolic performance in hypertensive patients have never been compared. In 532 asymptomatic hypertensive patients, circumferential function was assessed with the use of midwall fractional shortening (mFS) and stress-corrected mFS (SCmFS), whereas longitudinal function was assessed with the use of left atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) and systolic mitral annulus velocity (s'). Early diastolic annular velocity (e') and the E/e' ratio were measured. Global longitudinal and circumferential strain were determined in a subset of 210 patients. e' was linearly related to all systolic indexes (AVPD: R = 0.40; s': R = 0.39; mFS: R = 0.16; SCmFS: R = 0.17; all P < .0001), but the correlations were stronger with longitudinal indexes than with circumferential ones (P < .0001). E/e' was nonlinearly related to AVPD (R = -0.49; P < .0001) and s' (R = -0.34; P < .0001) and showed no relationship with mFS and SCmFS. Longitudinal indexes were superior to circumferential ones in predicting e' <8 cm/s, E/e' <8, and E/e' ≥13. The effect of LV geometry on LV diastolic function was evident among patients with preserved systolic longitudinal function, but was blunted among patients with impaired longitudinal function. In multivariable analyses, only longitudinal indexes remained associated with e' and E/e'. Analyses using strains provided similar results. In asymptomatic hypertensive subjects, LV diastolic performance is independently associated with longitudinal systolic dysfunction, but not with circumferential systolic dysfunction. Subtle longitudinal systolic impairment plays a role in mediating the effect of LV geometry on diastolic performance. These findings may support the need of critically revising the concept of isolated diastolic dysfunction in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Common presentation of rare diseases: Left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Ales; Cecchi, Franco

    2018-04-15

    Left ventricular hypertrophy may be a consequence of a hemodynamic overload or a manifestation of several diseases affecting different structural and functional proteins of cardiomyocytes. Among these, sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents the most frequent cause. In addition, several metabolic diseases lead to myocardial thickening, either due to intracellular storage (glycogen storage and lysosomal diseases), extracellular deposition (TTR and AL amyloidosis) or due to abnormal energy metabolism (mitochondrial diseases). The recognition of these rare causes of myocardial hypertrophy is important for family screening strategies, risk assessment, and treatment. Moreover, as there are specific therapies for some forms of HCM including enzyme substitution and chaperone therapies and specific treatments for TTR amyloidosis, a differential diagnosis should be sought in all patients with unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. Diastolic dysfunction is a key feature of HCM and its phenocopies. Its assessment is complex and requires evaluation of several functional parameters and structural changes. Severe diastolic dysfunction carries a negative prognostic implication and its value in differential diagnosis is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Dalla Pozza, A; Sonino, N; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Federspil, G; Ermani, M; Catena, C; Soardo, G; Di Piazza, L; Bernardi, S; Bertolotto, M; Pinamonti, B; Fabris, B; Sechi, L A

    2009-11-01

    Insulin resistance is recognized as the pathophysiological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A relation between insulin sensitivity and left ventricular morphology and function has been reported in essential hypertension, where a high prevalence of NAFLD has been recently found. We investigated the inter-relationship between left ventricular morphology/function, metabolic parameters and NAFLD in 86 never-treated essential hypertensive patients subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n = 48) or absence (n = 38) of NAFLD at ultrasonography. The two groups were similar as to sex, age and blood pressure levels. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or other risk factors for liver disease. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD, and were associated with NAFLD at univariate analysis. Patients with NAFLD had similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without NAFLD, but a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (62.5 vs 21.1%, P < 0.001), as defined by E/A ratio <1 and E-wave deceleration time >220 ms. Diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.040) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.012) remained independently associated with NAFLD at backward multivariate analysis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with insulin resistance and abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function in a cohort of patients with essential hypertension, suggesting a concomitant increase of metabolic and cardiac risk in this condition.

  7. SIRT1 activation attenuates diastolic dysfunction by reducing cardiac fibrosis in a model of anthracycline cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Piegari, Elena; Russo, Rosa; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Rivellino, Alessia; Berrino, Liberato; Rossi, Francesco; De Angelis, Antonella; Urbanek, Konrad

    2016-02-15

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is an effective anti-neoplastic drug but its clinical benefits are hampered by cardiotoxicity. Oxidative stress, apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis mediate the anthracycline cardiomyopathy. ROS trigger TGF-β pathway that activates cardiac fibroblasts promoting fibrosis. Myocardial stiffness contributes to diastolic dysfunction, less studied aspect of anthracycline cardiomyopathy. Considering the role of SIRT1 in the inhibition of the TGF-β/SMAD3 pathway, resveratrol (RES), a SIRT1 activator, might improve cardiac function by interfering with the development of cardiac fibrosis in a model of DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy. F344 rats received a cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg of DOXO in 2 weeks or DOXO+RES (DOXO and RES, 2.5mg/kg/day, concomitantly for 2 weeks and then RES alone for 1 more week). The effects of RES on cardiac fibroblasts were also tested in vitro. Along with systolic dysfunction, DOXO was also responsible of diastolic abnormalities. Myocardial stiffness correlated with fibroblast activation and collagen deposition. DOXO+RES co-treatment significantly improved ± dP/dt and, more interestingly, ameliorated end-diastolic pressure/volume relationship. Treatment with RES resulted in reduced fibrosis and fibroblast activation and, most importantly, the mortality rate was significantly reduced in DOXO+RES group. Fibroblasts isolated from DOXO+RES-treated rats, in which SIRT1 was upregulated, showed decreased levels of TGF-β and pSMAD3/SMAD3 when compared to cells isolated from DOXO-exposed hearts. Our findings reveal a key role of SIRT1 in supporting animal survival and functional parameters of the heart. SIRT1 activation by interfering with fibrogenesis can improve relaxation properties of myocardium and attenuate myocardial remodeling related to chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac-Specific IGF-1 Receptor Transgenic Expression Protects Against Cardiac Fibrosis and Diastolic Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Karina; McMullen, Julie R.; Julius, Tracey L.; Tan, Joon Win; Love, Jane E.; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Ritchie, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compelling epidemiological and clinical evidence has identified a specific cardiomyopathy in diabetes, characterized by early diastolic dysfunction and adverse structural remodeling. Activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) promotes physiological cardiac growth and enhances contractile function. The aim of the present study was to examine whether cardiac-specific overexpression of IGF-1R prevents diabetes-induced myocardial remodeling and dysfunction associated with a murine model of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 1 diabetes was induced in 7-week-old male IGF-1R transgenic mice using streptozotocin and followed for 8 weeks. Diastolic and systolic function was assessed using Doppler and M-mode echocardiography, respectively, in addition to cardiac catheterization. Cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte width, heart weight index, gene expression, Akt activity, and IGF-1R protein content were also assessed. RESULTS Nontransgenic (Ntg) diabetic mice had reduced initial (E)-to-second (A) blood flow velocity ratio (E:A ratio) and prolonged deceleration times on Doppler echocardiography compared with nondiabetic counterparts, indicative markers of diastolic dysfunction. Diabetes also increased cardiomyocyte width, collagen deposition, and prohypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression compared with Ntg nondiabetic littermates. Overexpression of the IGF-1R transgene markedly reduced collagen deposition, accompanied by a reduction in the incidence of diastolic dysfunction. Akt phosphorylation was elevated ∼15-fold in IGF-1R nondiabetic mice compared with Ntg, and this was maintained in a setting of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The current study suggests that cardiac overexpression of IGF-1R prevented diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Targeting IGF-1R–Akt signaling may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic cardiac disease. PMID:20215428

  9. Cardiac-Specific Deletion of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Impairs Glucose Oxidation Rates and Induces Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Keshav; Almutairi, Malak; Al Batran, Rami; Eaton, Farah; Gandhi, Manoj; Ussher, John Reyes

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk for cardiomyopathy, which is the presence of ventricular dysfunction in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. As myocardial energy metabolism is altered during obesity/T2D (increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation), we hypothesized that restricting myocardial glucose oxidation in lean mice devoid of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity/T2D would produce a cardiomyopathy phenotype, characterized via diastolic dysfunction. We tested our hypothesis via producing mice with a cardiac-specific gene knockout for pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, gene name Pdha1 ), the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation. Cardiac-specific Pdha1 deficient ( Pdha1 Cardiac-/- ) mice were generated via crossing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre expressing mouse under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain (αMHC-MerCreMer) promoter with a floxed Pdha1 mouse. Energy metabolism and cardiac function were assessed via isolated working heart perfusions and ultrasound echocardiography, respectively. Tamoxifen administration produced an ~85% reduction in PDH protein expression in Pdha1 Cardiac-/- mice versus their control littermates, which resulted in a marked reduction in myocardial glucose oxidation and a corresponding increase in palmitate oxidation. This myocardial metabolism profile did not impair systolic function in Pdha1 Cardiac-/- mice, which had comparable left ventricular ejection fractions and fractional shortenings as their αMHC-MerCreMer control littermates, but did produce diastolic dysfunction as seen via the reduced mitral E/A ratio. Therefore, it does appear that forced restriction of glucose oxidation in the hearts of Pdha1 Cardiac-/- mice is sufficient to produce a cardiomyopathy-like phenotype, independent of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity and/or T2D.

  10. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, but not with aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of hypertensive families.

    PubMed

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel; Trojar, Andrej; Zeljko, Tadej

    2008-01-01

    We investigated left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in association with insulin level/insulin resistance (IR) and aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait, FT). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotensive with FT (aged 28-39 years) and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and function were measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. LV diastolic function was reported as peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) in tissue Doppler imaging. Fasting insulin and aldosterone were determined. In subjects with FT, the LV mass was higher than in controls (92.14 +/- 24.02 vs. 70.08 +/- 20.58 g; p < 0.001). The study group had a worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p < 0.001). In subjects with FT, the E(m)/A(m) ratio was independently associated with IR (partial p = 0.029 in multivariate model, R(2) = 0.51), but not with LV mass. The aldosterone level was comparable in both groups. In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional abnormalities were found. LV dysfunction but not an increase in LV mass is associated with IR. The aldosterone level is probably not responsible for the development of early hypertensive heart disease. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Truncation of titin's elastic PEVK region leads to cardiomyopathy with diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Henk L; Radke, Michael H; Peng, Jun; Westermann, Dirk; Nelson, O Lynne; Rost, Katharina; King, Nicholas M P; Yu, Qianli; Tschöpe, Carsten; McNabb, Mark; Larson, Douglas F; Labeit, Siegfried; Gotthardt, Michael

    2009-09-11

    The giant protein titin plays key roles in myofilament assembly and determines the passive mechanical properties of the sarcomere. The cardiac titin molecule has 2 mayor elastic elements, the N2B and the PEVK region. Both have been suggested to determine the elastic properties of the heart with loss of function data only available for the N2B region. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of titin's proline-glutamate-valine-lysine (PEVK) region to biomechanics and growth of the heart. We removed a portion of the PEVK segment (exons 219 to 225; 282 aa) that corresponds to the PEVK element of N2B titin, the main cardiac titin isoform. Adult homozygous PEVK knockout (KO) mice developed diastolic dysfunction, as determined by pressure-volume loops, echocardiography, isolated heart experiments, and muscle mechanics. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed increased strain of the N2B element, a spring region retained in the PEVK-KO. Interestingly, the PEVK-KO mice had hypertrophied hearts with an induction of the hypertrophy and fetal gene response that includes upregulation of FHL proteins. This contrasts the cardiac atrophy phenotype with decreased FHL2 levels that result from the deletion of the N2B element. Titin's PEVK region contributes to the elastic properties of the cardiac ventricle. Our findings are consistent with a model in which strain of the N2B spring element and expression of FHL proteins trigger cardiac hypertrophy. These novel findings provide a molecular basis for the future differential therapy of isolated diastolic dysfunction versus more complex cardiomyopathies.

  12. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. Background: QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. Material and methods: We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X2 test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max

  13. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, p<0.001, p<0.001; p<0.001). Statistically significant negative correlation was found between SEC in left atrium and left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, p<0.001, p=0.002). In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  14. Inadequate RAAS suppression is associated with excessive left ventricular mass and systo-diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Mario; Tocci, Giuliano; Marra, Andrea; Pignatelli, Giulia; Santolamazza, Caterina; Befani, Alberto; Ciavarella, Giuseppino Massimo; Ferrucci, Andrea; Paneni, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Inadequate suppression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) following postural maneuvers may have detrimental effects on cardiac structure and function. In this study, we aimed to appraise the clinical significance of this phenomenon by assessing its relation with inappropriate ventricular mass (ILVM), an adverse phenotype of LV remodeling and dysfunction. Both supine and upright plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone concentrations (PAC) were measured in 115 young newly diagnosed hypertensive subjects. 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiographic evaluation including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were also performed. Patients were divided as follows: (1) normal PRA and PAC (N) (n = 63); (2) suppressible RAAS (SR) in supine position (n = 27); (3) not suppressible RAAS (NSR) (n = 25). ILVM was expressed as the observed/predicted LV mass ratio ×100 (%PLVM), while LV dysfunction (LVD) was identified by TDI-derived myocardial performance index (MPI). NSR showed a higher prevalence of ILVM than SR and N. As compared with N and SR, NSR patients had reduced indices of systolic and diastolic function. MPI of the LV as well as prevalence of LVD was also significantly higher in the NSR group. Regression models showed that lack of RAAS suppression was independently associated with ILVM and LVD. Prevalence of ILVM and LVD is higher in patients without clinostatic RAAS suppression. Our findings encourage the assessment of RAAS deregulation to better estimate individual cardiovascular risk in patients with arterial hypertension.

  15. IGF-1 Prevents Diastolic and Systolic Dysfunction Associated with Cardiomyopathy and Preserves Adrenergic Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Steve R.; Boslett, James; Russell, Duncan; del Rio, Carlos; Alecusan, Joe; Zweier, Jay L.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Hamlin, Robert; Mohler, Peter J.; Curran, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Aims Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-dependent signaling promotes exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. However, the in vivo therapeutic potential of IGF-1 for heart disease is not well established. Here we test the potential therapeutic benefits of IGF-1 on cardiac function using an in vivo model of chronic catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods Rats were perfused with isoproterenol via osmotic pump (1 mg/kg/day) and treated with 2 mg/kg IGF-1 (2 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week) for 2 or 4 weeks. Echocardiography, ECG, and blood pressure were assessed. In vivo pressure-volume loop studies were conducted at 4 weeks. Heart sections were analyzed for fibrosis and apoptosis, and relevant biochemical signaling cascades were assessed. Results After 4 weeks, diastolic function (EDPVR, EDP, tau, E/A ratio), systolic function (PRSW, ESPVR, dP/dtmax), and structural remodeling (LV chamber diameter, wall thickness) were all adversely affected in isoproterenol-treated rats. All these detrimental effects were attenuated in rats treated with Iso+IGF-1. Isoproterenol-dependent effects on BP were attenuated by IGF-1 treatment. Adrenergic sensitivity was blunted in isoproterenol-treated rats but was preserved by IGF-1 treatment. Immunoblots indicate that cardioprotective p110α signaling and activated Akt are selectively upregulated in Iso+IGF-1 treated hearts. Expression of iNOS was significantly increased in both the Iso and Iso+IGF-1 groups, however tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels were decreased in the Iso group and maintained by IGF-1 treatment. Conclusion IGF-1 treatment attenuates diastolic and systolic dysfunction associated with chronic catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy while preserving adrenergic sensitivity and promoting BH4 production. These data support the potential use of IGF-1 therapy for clinical applications for cardiomyopathies. PMID:26399932

  16. Relationship between diastolic ventricular dysfunction and subclinical sleep-disordered breathing in atrial fibrillation ablation candidates.

    PubMed

    Kaitani, Kazuaki; Kondo, Hirokazu; Hanazawa, Koji; Onishi, Naoaki; Hayama, Yukiko; Tsujimura, Akira; Kuroda, Maiko; Nishimura, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Takahashi, Yusuke; Amano, Masashi; Imamura, Sari; Tamaki, Yodo; Enomoto, Soichiro; Miyake, Makoto; Tamura, Toshihiro; Motooka, Makoto; Izumi, Chisato; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is recognized as a primary factor or mediator of atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that the severity of SDB among AF ablation candidates would be associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) even for subclinical SDB. A total of 246 patients hospitalized for initial pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) were analyzed. Known SDB cases were excluded. We measured the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) by pulse oximetry overnight as an indicator of SDB, and classified SDB severity by 3 % ODI as normal (ODI < 5 events/h), mild (ODI ≤ 5 to <15 events/h), or moderate-to-severe (ODI ≥15 events/h). The LVDD was assessed by echocardiography using combined categories with tissue Doppler imaging and left atrial (LA) volume measurement. Among the participants, 42 patients (17.1 %) had LVDD. The prevalence of LVDD increased with the SDB severity from 8.6 % (normal) to 12.7 % (mild) to 40.0 % (moderate-to-severe SDB) (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of having LVDD in the moderate-to-severe SDB group (ODI ≥ 15) vs. normal group (ODI < 5) was 5.96 (95 % CI, 2.10-19.00, P = 0.006). The presence of moderate-to-severe SDB in AF ablation candidates adversely affected LV diastolic function even during a subclinical state of SDB.

  17. Exercise haemodynamics may unmask the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction among patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Maor, Elad; Grossman, Yoni; Balmor, Ronen Gingy; Segel, Michael; Fefer, Paul; Ben-Zekry, Sagit; Buber, Jonathan; DiSegni, Elio; Guetta, Victor; Ben-Dov, Issahar; Segev, Amit

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction can lead to pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of exercise during right heart catheterization in the unmasking of diastolic dysfunction. Between 2004 and 2012, 200 symptomatic patients with exertional dyspnoea, preserved left ventricular systolic function and suspected pulmonary hypertension, underwent right heart catheterization. Included in the study were 63 patients with resting pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤15 mmHg. Patients were divided to three tertiles based on their peak exercise PAWP. Mean age was 60 ± 20 years and 29% were males. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 31 ± 14 mmHg at rest and 42 ± 18 mmHg upon exercise. Mean change in PAWP between rest and exercise was 0.0 ± 4.3, 4.6 ± 2.4, and 16.6 ± 7.1 mmHg in the lower, middle, and upper tertiles, respectively (P < 0.001). Higher exercise PAWP tertiles were associated with reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (8.3 ± 6.7, 2.9 ± 2.7, and 5.8 ± 4.6 Woods units, respectively; P = 0.004). A multivariate linear regression model demonstrated that each 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was associated with 2.5 ± 1.0 mmHg increase in exercise PAWP (P = 0.017). A multivariate binary logistic model showed that subjects with borderline PAWP at rest (12-15 mmHg) were 4.5 times more likely to be in the upper tertile of exercise PAWP (P = 0.011). In symptomatic patients with pulmonary hypertension, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and PAWP ≤15 mmHg, exercise during right heart catheterization may unmask diastolic dysfunction. This is especially true for obese patients and patients with borderline resting PAWP. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Intermediate Diastolic Velocity as a Parameter of Cardiac Dysfunction in Growth-Restricted Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangna; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Garcia, Maynor; Saker, Homam; Korzeniewski, Steven J; Tarca, Adi L; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the intermediate intracardiac diastolic velocities in fetuses with growth restriction. Doppler waveforms of the two atrioventricular valves were obtained. Peak velocities of the E (early) and A (atrial) components, and the lowest intermediate velocity (IDV) between them, were measured in 400 normally grown and in 100 growth-restricted fetuses. The prevalence of abnormal IDV, E/IDV, and A/IDV ratios in fetuses presenting with perinatal death or acidemia at birth (pH ≤7.1) was estimated. IDV was significantly lower and E/IDV ratios significantly higher in the two ventricles of growth-restricted fetuses with reduced diastolic velocities in the umbilical artery (p < 0.05). In 13 fetuses presenting with perinatal death or acidemia at birth, 11 (85%) had either an E/IDV or A/IDV ratio >95th percentile, whereas 5 (38%) showed absent or reversed atrial velocities in the ductus venosus (DV-ARAV; p < 0.04). Fetuses without DV-ARAV but with elevated E/IDV ratios in either ventricle were nearly 7-fold more likely to have perinatal demise or acidemia at birth (OR 6.9, 95% CI 1.4-34) than those with E/IDV ratios <95th percentile. The E/IDV and A/IDV ratios in the two cardiac ventricles might provide information about the risk of perinatal demise or acidemia in growth-restricted fetuses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Asymptomatic cardiovascular manifestations in diabetes mellitus: left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and silent myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Seferović-Mitrović, Jelena P; Lalić, Nebojsa M; Vujisić-Tesić, Bosiljka; Lalić, Katarina; Jotić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Arsen D; Giga, Vojislav; Tesić, Milorad; Milić, Natasa; Lukić, Ljiljana; Milicić, Tanja; Singh, Sandra; Seferović, Petar M

    2011-01-01

    Several cardiovascular manifestations in patients with diabetes may be asymptomatic. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is considered to be the earliest metabolic myocardial lesion in these patients, and can be diagnosed with tissue Doppler echocardiography. Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is a characteristic and frequently described form of ischemic heart disease in patients with diabetes. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of LVDD and SMI in patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as to compare demographic, clinical, and metabolic data among defined groups (patients with LVDD, patients with SMI and patients with type 2 diabetes, without LVDD and SMI). We investigated 104 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 55.4 +/- 9.1 years, 64.4% males) with normal blood pressure, prehypertension and arterial hypertension stage I. Study design included basic laboratory assessment and cardiological workup (transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler, as well as the exercise stress echocardiography). LVDD was diagnosed in twelve patients (11.5%), while SMI was revealed in six patients (5.8%). Less patients with LVDD were using metformin, in comparison to other two groups (chi2 =12.152; p=0.002). Values of HDL cholesterol (F=4.515; p=0.013) and apolipoprotein A1 (F=5.128; p= 0.008) were significantly higher in patients with LVDD. The study confirmed asymptomatic cardiovascular complications in 17.3% patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Knockout of TRPV1 Exacerbates Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by A High-fat Diet in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Beihua; Rubinstein, Jack; Ma, Shuangtao; Wang, Donna H

    2018-05-03

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in sensory nerves have anti-oxidative properties and counteract obesity and diabetes that are associated with diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction. We tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 knockout exacerbates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and diastolic dysfunction. Trpv1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were fed chow diet or HFD for 20 weeks. Then, we performed the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, measured the heart function through transthoracic echocardiography and Langendorff heart perfusion system, analyzed cardiac histology, and measured the myocardial superoxide production and the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. HFD increased body weight, heart weight, and levels of fasting glucose, insulin, and leptin in both strains, with no differences between two strains. HFD impaired glucose tolerance in both strains with a more profound effect in Trpv1-/- than WT mice. HFD increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter in diastole in both strains, while increased LV posterior wall thickness in diastole in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. HFD increased LV end-diastolic pressure in both strains with a further increase in Trpv1-/- mice, while decreased -dP/dt in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. HFD-induced cardiac collagen deposition and superoxide production were enhanced in Trpv1-/- mice. HFD upregulated cardiac p22phox in both strains, while increased p47phox in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. In summary, TRPV1 knockout exacerbates HFD-induced glucose intolerance, cardiac oxidative stress and collagen deposition, leading to aggravated LV diastolic dysfunction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Firstenberg, M S; Smedira, N G; Greenberg, N L; Prior, D L; McCarthy, P M; Garcia, M J; Thomas, J D

    2001-09-18

    Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation and ESV.

  2. Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation

  3. HbA1c Identifies Subjects With Prediabetes and Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Antonino; Mangiafico, Sarah; Urbano, Francesca; Scicali, Roberto; Scandura, Salvatore; D'Agate, Veronica; Piro, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes is associated with subclinical cardiac changes associated with heart failure development. We investigated diastolic function and its association with markers of glycation and inflammation related to cardiovascular disease in patients with prediabetes. We focused on individuals with prediabetes identified only by glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c; 5.7% to 6.4% and normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. Cross-sectional study. Departments of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Cardiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. HbA1c, OGTT, Doppler echocardiography, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGEs), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were evaluated. We recruited 167 subjects with NFG/NGT who were stratified according to HbA1c level: controls (HbA1c <5.7%) and HbA1c prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%). Patients with HbA1c prediabetes (n = 106) showed a lower peak mitral inflow in early diastole (E wave) to late diastolic atrial filling velocity (A wave) ratio (E/A ratio) than controls (n = 61) (1.10 ± 0.24 vs 1.18 ± 0.23; P < 0.05). They showed a higher left atrium volume (LAV) (28.4 ± 5 vs 22.1 ± 3; P < 0.05) and sphericity index (SI) (0.6 ± 0.06 vs 0.5 ± 0.05; P < 0.05). After multiple regression analyses, HbA1c, sRAGE, and esRAGE were the major determinants of E/A ratio, LAV, and SI. Subjects with HbA1c prediabetes exhibited subclinical cardiac alterations associated with sRAGE, esRAGE, and HbA1c. These subjects would not have been classified as having prediabetes on the basis of fasting glycemia or post-OGTT values. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. Clinical Features Associated With Nascent Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in a Population Aged 40 to 55 Years.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Levinson, Rebecca T; Brittain, Evan L; Gupta, Deepak K; Farber-Eger, Eric; Shaffer, Christian M; Denny, Josh C; Roden, Dan M; Wells, Quinn S

    2018-06-15

    Diastolic dysfunction (DD), an abnormality in cardiac left ventricular (LV) chamber compliance, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although DD has been extensively studied in older populations, co-morbidity patterns are less well characterized in middle-aged subjects. We screened 156,434 subjects with transthoracic echocardiogram reports available through Vanderbilt's electronic heath record and identified 6,612 subjects 40 to 55 years old with an LV ejection fraction ≥50% and diastolic function staging. We tested 452 incident and prevalent clinical diagnoses for associations with early-stage DD (n = 1,676) versus normal function. There were 44 co-morbid diagnoses associated with grade 1 DD including hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78 to 2.28, p <5.3 × 10-29), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68 to 2.29, p = 2.1 × 10-17), tachycardia (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.19, p = 2.9 × 10-6), obesity (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.06, p = 1.7 × 10-12), and clinical end points, including end-stage renal disease (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.96, p = 1.2 × 10-8) and stroke (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.02, p = 6.9 × 10-3). Among the 60 incident diagnoses associated with DD, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (OR 4.63, 95% CI 3.39 to 6.32, p = 6.3 × 10-22) had the most significant association. Among subjects with normal diastolic function and blood pressure at baseline, a blood pressure measurement in the hypertensive range at the time of the second echocardiogram was associated with progression to stage 1 DD (p = 0.04). In conclusion, DD was common among subjects 40 to 55 years old and was associated with a heavy burden of co-morbid disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential associations between glomerular filtration rate and duration of obesity depending on the presence or absence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Juan; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Vilallonga, Ramon; Romeo, June H

    2016-07-01

    A robust and consistent association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in several observational studies. Obesity remains the main preventable risk factor for CKD because it largely mediates diabetes and hypertension, the 2 most common etiologies for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Obesity is associated weakly with early stages of kidney disease but strongly with kidney progression to ESKD, even after adjustment for hypertension and diabetes. To assess the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and trans-thoracic echocardiography left ventricular function parameters in a cohort of patients with obesity. Cross-sectional study involving 324 obese (BMI=44.0±2.2Kg/m(2)) apparently healthy asymptomatic patients with an eGFR >60ml/min/1.73m(2). Each patient underwent transthoracic echocardiography and a blood testing. The eGFR was addressed by the CKD-EPI formula. All patients had a normal systolic function whereas 24.5% disclosed diastolic dysfunction (DD). Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence were 34.5% and 4.5% (respectively). All patients disclosed an eGFR >60ml/min while none of them disclosed hyperfiltration (eGFR >120ml/min). eGFR correlated inversely with BMI and the duration of obesity and positively with diastolic function parameters (P<0.001 for all, respectively). Patients with diastolic dysfunction displayed lower eGFR (P<0.0005) and longer duration of obesity (P<0.0005). Obesity and its duration are likely to impose hemodynamic changes affecting simultaneously both heart (diastolic dysfunction) and kidney (decreased glomerular filtration rate). Larger prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of rosuvastatin in preventing the progression of diastolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis: A substudy of the aortic stenosis progression observation measuring effects of rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a noninvasive echocardiographic method for the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction in patients with varying degrees of aortic stenosis (AS). Little is known however, on the utility of TDI in the serial assessment of diastolic abnormalities in AS. Objective The aim of the current proposal was to examine whether treatment with rosuvastatin was successful in improving diastolic abnormalities in patients enrolled in the Aortic Stenosis Progression Observation Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) study. Methods Conventional Doppler indices including peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral velocities, and E/A ratio were measured from spectral Doppler. Tissue Doppler measurements including early (E') and late (A') velocities of the lateral annulus were determined, and E/E' was calculated. Results The study population included 168 patients (56 ± 13 years), whose AS severity was categorized based on peak velocity at baseline (Group I: 2.5-3.0 m/s; Group II: 3.1-3.5 m/s; Group III: 3.6-4.0 m/s). Baseline and follow-up hemodynamics, LV dimensions and diastolic functional parameters were evaluated in all three groups. There was increased diastolic dysfunction from baseline to follow-up in each of the placebo and rosuvastatin groups. In patients with increasing severity of AS in Groups I and II, the lateral E' was lower and the E/E' (as an estimate of increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) was higher at baseline (p < 0.05). However, treatment with rosuvastatin did not affect the progression of diastolic dysfunction from baseline to 3.5 year follow-up between patients in any of the three predefined groups. Conclusion In patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic AS, rosuvastatin did not attenuate the progression of diastolic dysfunction. PMID:21299902

  7. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (p<0.01). Exercise markedly reduced oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This

  8. Echocardiography-based hemodynamic management of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: a feasibility and safety study.

    PubMed

    Shillcutt, Sasha K; Montzingo, Candice R; Agrawal, Ankit; Khaleel, Maseeha S; Therrien, Stacey L; Thomas, Walker R; Porter, Thomas R; Brakke, Tara R

    2014-11-01

    Patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) are at increased risk of postoperative adverse events. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using echocardiography-guided hemodynamic management (EGHEM) during surgery in subjects with LVDD compared to conventional management. The feasibility of using echocardiography to direct a treatment algorithm and clinical outcomes were compared for safety between groups. Subjects were screened for LVDD by preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and randomized to the conventional or EGHEM group. Subjects in EGHEM received hemodynamic management based on left ventricular filling patterns on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Primary outcomes measured were the feasibility to obtain TEE images and follow a TEE-based treatment algorithm. Safety outcomes also compared the following clinical differences between groups: length of hospitalization, incidence of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure (CHF), myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack and renal failure measured 30 days postoperatively. Population consisted of 28 surgical subjects (14 in conventional group and 14 in EGHEM group). Mean subject age was 73.4 ± 6.7 years (36% male) in conventional group and 65.9 ± 14.4 years (36% male) in EGHEM group. Procedures included orthopedic (conventional = 29%, EGHEM 36%), general (conventional = 50%, EGHEM = 36%), vascular (conventional = 7%, EGHEM = 21%), and thoracic (conventional = 14%, EGHEM = 7%). There was no statistically significant difference in adverse clinical events between the 2 groups. The EGHEM group had less CHF, atrial fibrillation, and shorter length of stay. Echocardiography-guided hemodynamic management of patients with LVDD during surgery is feasible and may be a safe alternative to conventional management. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Usefulness of Electrocardiographic QT Interval to Predict Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Jane E.; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Vallakati, Ajay; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2013-01-01

    Whether a normal electrocardiogram excludes left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD) and whether electrocardiographic parameters are associated with DD is unknown. We therefore sought to investigate the relation between electrocardiographic parameters and DD. We first evaluated 75 consecutive patients referred for echocardiography for clinical suspicion of heart failure (phase 1). Electrocardiography and comprehensive echocardiography were performed on all patients and were analyzed separately in a blinded fashion. Receiver operating characteristic curves and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine which electrocardiographic parameters were most closely associated with DD. Next, we prospectively validated our results in 100 consecutive, unselected patients undergoing echocardiography (phase 2). In phase 1 of our study, the mean age was 59 ± 14 years, 41% were women, 31% had coronary disease, 53% had hypertension, and 25% had diabetes. The mean ejection fraction was 54 ± 15%, and 64% had DD. Of all the electrocardiographic parameters, the QTc interval was most closely associated with DD. QTc was inversely associated with E′ velocity (r = −0.54, p <0.0001), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for QTc as a predictor of DD was 0.82. QTc prolongation was independently associated with reduced E′ velocity (p = 0.021 after adjustment for age, gender, medications, QRS duration, and ejection fraction). In phase 2 of our study QTc was the electrocardiographic parameter most associated with reduced E′ velocity (435 ± 31 vs 419 ± 24 ms; p = 0.004), confirming our phase 1 study findings. In conclusion, QTc prolongation was the electrocardiographic marker most predictive of DD and was independently associated with DD. PMID:21907948

  10. Effects of exercise training on systo-diastolic ventricular dysfunction in patients with hypertension: an echocardiographic study with tissue velocity and strain imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Massimo; Mazza, Andrea; Cruciani, Giancarlo; Sgorbini, Luca; Pugliese, Marco; Bendini, Maria Grazia; Severi, Paolo; Jesi, Anna Patrizia

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of detailed data regarding the effect of exercise training in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on left and right ventricular morphologic and functional parameters by means of conventional echocardiography and sensitive new echocardiographic techniques including tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging, that were performed in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients at baseline and at the end of a specific exercise training protocol for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We selected 116 pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who completed the exercise training protocol. All patients underwent a clinical history and examination; transthoracic echocardiography and exercise testing were performed at baseline and at the end of the exercise training protocol. Conventional echocardiography revealed a mild degree of diastolic dysfunction without significant differences or variations from baseline to the end of the exercise training protocol. In contrast, tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging measurements demonstrated and highlighted the positive influence of exercise training: for both left and right ventricle myocardial early peak diastolic velocities (Em), the ratio of myocardial early-late peak diastolic velocity (Em/Am), myocardial peak systolic velocities (Sm) and peak strain and strain rate values significantly increased at the end of the exercise training protocol, suggesting a relationship between exercise capacity and both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function. Our study, by means of newer more sensitive echocardiographic techniques, clearly demonstrated the positive impact of exercise training on both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function, in terms of adjunctive subclinical improvement, in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients.

  11. Are levels of NT-proBNP and SDMA useful to determine diastolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease and renal transplant patients?

    PubMed

    Memon, Lidija; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Stanojevic, Natasa Bogavac; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Simic-Ogrizovic, Sanja; Giga, Vojislav; Dopsaj, Violeta; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana; Spasic, Slavica

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the clinical usefulness of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) for detection of renal and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and renal transplant (RT) recipients. We included 98 CKD and 44 RT patients. We assessed LV function using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound. Diastolic dysfunction was defined when the E:A ratio was <1. Independent predictors of NT-proBNP levels were age, creatinine, and albumin in CKD patients and age and urea in RT patients. Determinants of SDMA in CKD patients were glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and NT-proBNP and creatinine in RT patients. In RT patients with diastolic dysfunction, NT-proBNP and SDMA were significantly higher than in patients without diastolic dysfunction (F = 7.478, P < 0.011; F = 2.631, P < 0.017). After adjustment for GFR, the differences were not seen. In CKD patients adjusted NT-proBNP and SDMA values for GFR were not significantly higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction than in patients without diastolic dysfunction. NT-proBNP is useful for detection of LV diastolic dysfunction in RT recipients. When evaluating both NT-proBNP and SDMA it is necessary to consider GFR as a confounding factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Impact of Different Classification Criteria Sets on the Estimated Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Diastolic Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mokotedi, Lebogang; Gunter, Sulé; Robinson, Chanel; Norton, Gavin R.; Woodiwiss, Angela J.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the estimated prevalence and potential determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction upon applying different classification criteria in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). LV diastolic function was assessed echocardiographically by pulsed Doppler (E/A), tissue Doppler (E/e′, lateral and septal e′), and left atrial volume index in 176 RA patients. Relationships of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and RA characteristics with LV diastolic function and dysfunction according to previous and current criteria were determined in multivariate regression models. Waist-hip ratio was associated with E/A (standardised β (SE) = −0.28 ± 0.09, p = 0.0002) and lateral e′ (standardised β (SE) = 0.26 ± 0.09, p = 0.01); low diastolic blood pressure was related to E/e′ (standardised β (SE) = −0.16 ± 0.08, p = 0.04). Diastolic dysfunction prevalence differed upon applying previous (59%) compared to current (22%) criteria (p < 0.0001). One SD increase in waist-hip ratio was associated with diastolic dysfunction when applying current criteria (OR = 2.61 (95% CI = 1.51–4.52), p = 0.0006), whereas one SD increase in diastolic blood pressure was inversely related to diastolic dysfunction upon using previous criteria (OR = 0.57 (95% CI = 0.40–0.81), p = 0.002). In conclusion, application of current and previous diastolic dysfunction criteria markedly alters the prevalence and risk factors associated with diastolic dysfunction in RA. PMID:29348754

  13. Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Yuthika; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan; Kaushik, Reshma

    2017-08-01

    To study the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and the response of LVDD to L-thyroxine therapy. This cross-sectional case-control study with one longitudinal arm included 67 patients with SCH attending a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand, India, and 67 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. LVDD was assessed by 2D, pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD), continuous wave Doppler (CWD), and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Patients with LVDD received L-thyroxine therapy with reassessment for LVDD 6 months later. SCH patients had a higher prevalence of LVDD than controls (13.43% versus 1.49%; p = 0.017). LVDD showed a significant association with gender (p = 0.004) and serum FT4 (p = 0.001). E velocity, E' velocity, A' velocity, iso-volumetric relaxation time (IVRT), E/A, and E'/A' ratios were significantly lower, while A velocity, deceleration time (DT), E/E' ratio, left atrial (LA) volume index, and peak tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity were significantly higher in cases than controls (p < 0.05 each). The E/A ratio correlated significantly with age, serum very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p < 0.05 each). E' velocity correlated significantly with age, serum total cholesterol, VLDL, and TG (p < 0.05 each), DT with serum total cholesterol (p = 0.047), and LA volume index with age (p = 0.021). Age (p = 0.016) and serum HDL (p = 0.029) were independent predictors of E/A ratio. Gender was an independent predictor for LVDD (p = 0.003). Echocardiographic indices for LVDD showed significant improvement after 6 months of L-thyroxine therapy (p < 0.05 each). LVDD occurs commonly in SCH patients. It can be detected timely using echocardiography and may be reversed by L-thyroxine therapy.

  14. Spatial correlation of action potential duration and diastolic dysfunction in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Jung, Bernd A; Lang, Corinna N; Cabrera Lozoya, Rocio; Ziupa, David; Menza, Marius; Relan, Jatin; Franke, Gerlind; Perez Feliz, Stefanie; Koren, Gideon; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Brunner, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Föll, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced dispersion of action potential duration (APD) is a major contributor to long QT syndrome (LQTS)-related arrhythmias. To investigate spatial correlations of regional heterogeneities in cardiac repolarization and mechanical function in LQTS. Female transgenic LQTS type 2 (LQT2; n = 11) and wild-type littermate control (LMC) rabbits (n = 9 without E4031 and n = 10 with E4031) were subjected to phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to assess regional myocardial velocities. In the same rabbits' hearts, monophasic APDs were assessed in corresponding segments. In LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits, APD was longer in all left ventricular segments (P < .01) and APD dispersion was greater than that in LMC rabbits (P < .01). In diastole, peak radial velocities (Vr) were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated compared to LMC rabbits in LV base and mid (LQT2: -3.36 ± 0.4 cm/s, P < .01; E4031-treated: -3.24 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .0001; LMC: -4.42 ± 0.5 cm/s), indicating an impaired diastolic function. Regionally heterogeneous diastolic Vr correlated with APD (LQT2: correlation coefficient [CC] 0.38, P = .01; E4031-treated: CC 0.42, P < .05). Time-to-diastolic peak Vr were prolonged in LQT2 rabbits (LQT2: 196.8 ± 2.9 ms, P < .001; E4031-treated: 199.5 ± 2.2 ms, P < .0001, LMC 183.1 ± 1.5), indicating a prolonged contraction duration. Moreover, in transgenic LQT2 rabbits, diastolic time-to-diastolic peak Vr correlated with APD (CC 0.47, P = .001). In systole, peak Vr were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits (P < .01) but longitudinal velocities or ejection fraction did not differ. Finally, random forest machine learning algorithms enabled a differentiation between LQT2, E4031-treated, and LMC rabbits solely based on "mechanical" magnetic resonance imaging data. The prolongation of APD led to impaired diastolic and systolic function in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits. APD correlated with regional diastolic dysfunction, indicating that LQTS is not purely an

  15. Hyperinsulinemia and sulfonylurea use are independently associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal blood glucose control

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Maeda, Yasutaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Shuji; Kabemura, Teppei; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the underlying mechanisms leading to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) remain poorly understood. The study was designed to assess the risk factors for LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods The study cohort included 101 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without overt heart disease. Left ventricular diastolic function was estimated as the ratio of early diastolic velocity (E) from transmitral inflow to early diastolic velocity (e’) of tissue Doppler at mitral annulus (E/e’). Parameters of glycemic control, plasma insulin concentration, treatment with antidiabetic drugs, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were evaluated, and their association with E/e’ determined. Patients with New York Heart Association class >1, ejection fraction <50%, history of coronary artery disease, severe valvulopathy, chronic atrial fibrillation, or creatinine clearance <30 mL/min, as well as those receiving insulin treatment, were excluded. Results Univariate analysis showed that E/e’ was significantly correlated with age (p<0.001), sex (p<0.001), duration of diabetes (p=0.002), systolic blood pressure (p=0.017), pulse pressure (p=0.010), fasting insulin concentration (p=0.025), and sulfonylurea use (p<0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that log E/e’ was significantly and positively correlated with log age (p=0.034), female sex (p=0.019), log fasting insulin concentration (p=0.010), and sulfonylurea use (p=0.027). Conclusions Hyperinsulinemia and sulfonylurea use may be important in the development of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27648285

  16. Acute changes in pulmonary artery pressures due to exercise and exposure to high altitude do not cause left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain M; Kiencke, Stephanie; Fischler, Manuel; Dorschner, Lorenz; Debrunner, Johann; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Maggiorini, Marco; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans Peter

    2007-08-01

    Altitude-induced pulmonary hypertension has been suggested to cause left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction due to ventricular interaction. In this study, we evaluate the effects of exercise- and altitude-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressures on LV diastolic function in an interventional setting investigating high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) prophylaxis. Among 39 subjects, 29 were HAPE susceptible (HAPE-S) and 10 served as control subjects. HAPE-S subjects were randomly assigned to prophylactic tadalafil (10 mg), dexamethasone (8 mg), or placebo bid, starting 1 day before ascent. Doppler echocardiography at rest and during submaximal exercise was performed at low altitude (490 m) and high altitude (4,559 m). The ratio of early transmitral inflow peak velocity (E) to atrial transmitral inflow peak velocity (A), pulmonary venous flow parameters, and tissue velocity within the septal mitral annulus during early diastole (E') were used to assess LV diastolic properties. LV filling pressures were estimated by E/E'. Systolic right ventricular to atrial pressure gradients (RVPGs) were measured in order to estimate pulmonary artery pressures. At 490 m, E/A decreased similarly with exercise in HAPE-S and control subjects (HAPE-S, 1.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.3 +/- 0.3; control, 1.7 +/- 0.4 to 1.3 +/- 0.3; p = 0.12 between groups) [mean +/- SD], whereas RVPG increased significantly more in HAPE-S subjects (20 +/- 5 to 43 +/- 9 mm Hg vs 18 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 3 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Changes in RVPG levels during exercise did not correlate with changes in E/A (p > 0.1). From 490 to 4,559 m, no correlations between changes in RVPG and changes in E/A or atrial reversal (both p > 0.1) were observed. Neither of the groups showed an increase in E/E' from 490 to 4,559 m. Increased pulmonary artery pressure associated with exercise and acute exposure to 4,559 m appears not to cause LV diastolic dysfunction in healthy subjects. Therefore, ventricular interaction seems not to be of

  17. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa

    2017-04-21

    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  18. Uric acid predicts mortality and ischaemic stroke in subjects with diastolic dysfunction: the Tromsø Study 1994-2013.

    PubMed

    Norvik, Jon V; Schirmer, Henrik; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Storhaug, Hilde M; Jenssen, Trond G; Eriksen, Bjørn O; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Wilsgaard, Tom; Solbu, Marit D

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether serum uric acid predicts adverse outcomes in persons with indices of diastolic dysfunction in a general population. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1460 women and 1480 men from 1994 to 2013. Endpoints were all-cause mortality, incident myocardial infarction, and incident ischaemic stroke. We stratified the analyses by echocardiographic markers of diastolic dysfunction, and uric acid was the independent variable of interest. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated per 59 μmol/L increase in baseline uric acid. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models showed that uric acid predicted all-cause mortality in subjects with E/A ratio <0.75 (HR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.25) or E/A ratio >1.5 (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.09-2.09, P for interaction between E/A ratio category and uric acid = 0.02). Elevated uric acid increased mortality risk in persons with E-wave deceleration time <140 ms or >220 ms (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.12 and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26, respectively; P for interaction = 0.04). Furthermore, in participants with isovolumetric relaxation time ≤60 ms, mortality risk was higher with increasing uric acid (HR 4.98, 95% CI 2.02-12.26, P for interaction = 0.004). Finally, elevated uric acid predicted ischaemic stroke in subjects with severely enlarged left atria (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.03-2.53, P for interaction = 0.047). Increased uric acid was associated with higher all-cause mortality risk in subjects with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction, and with higher ischaemic stroke risk in persons with severely enlarged left atria.

  19. Carbonylation Contributes to SERCA2a Activity Loss and Diastolic Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chun Hong; Capek, Haley L.; Patel, Kaushik P.; Wang, Mu; Tang, Kang; DeSouza, Cyrus; Nagai, Ryoji; Mayhan, William; Periasamy, Muthu; Bidasee, Keshore R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Approximately 25% of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes will develop diastolic dysfunction. This defect, which is characterized by an increase in time to cardiac relaxation, results in part from a reduction in the activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a), the ATP-driven pump that translocates Ca2+ from the cytoplasm to the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. To date, mechanisms responsible for SERCA2a activity loss remain incompletely characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced murine model of type 1 diabetes, in combination with echocardiography, high-speed video detection, confocal microscopy, ATPase and Ca2+ uptake assays, Western blots, mass spectrometry, and site-directed mutagenesis, were used to assess whether modification by reactive carbonyl species (RCS) contributes to SERCA2a activity loss. RESULTS After 6–7 weeks of diabetes, cardiac and myocyte relaxation times were prolonged. Total ventricular SERCA2a protein remained unchanged, but its ability to hydrolyze ATP and transport Ca2+ was significantly reduced. Western blots and mass spectroscopic analyses revealed carbonyl adducts on select basic residues of SERCA2a. Mutating affected residues to mimic physio-chemical changes induced on them by RCS reduced SERCA2a activity. Preincubating with the RCS, methylglyoxal (MGO) likewise reduced SERCA2a activity. Mutating an impacted residue to chemically inert glutamine did not alter SERCA2a activity, but it blunted MGO's effect. Treating STZ-induced diabetic animals with the RCS scavenger, pyridoxamine, blunted SERCA2a activity loss and minimized diastolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS These data identify carbonylation as a novel mechanism that contributes to SERCA2a activity loss and diastolic dysfunction during type 1 diabetes. PMID:21300842

  20. Chagas cardiomyopathy: The potential effect of benznidazole treatment on diastolic dysfunction and cardiac damage in dogs chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fabiane M; Mazzeti, Ana L; Caldas, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Karolina R; Lima, Wanderson G; Torres, Rosália M; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality among patients with Chagas disease, and the relevance of trypanocidal treatment to improving diastolic dysfunction is still doubtful. In the present study, we used a canine model infected with the benznidazole-sensitive Berenice-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strain to verify the efficacy of an etiologic treatment in reducing the parasite load and ameliorating cardiac muscle tissue damage and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in the chronic phase of the infection. The effect of the treatment on reducing the parasite load was monitored by blood PCR and blood culture assays, and the effect of the treatment on the outcome of heart tissue damage and on diastolic function was evaluated by histopathology and echo Doppler cardiogram. The benefit of the benznidazole-treatment in reducing the parasite burden was demonstrated by a marked decrease in positive blood culture and PCR assay results until 30days post-treatment. At this time, the PCR and blood culture assays yielded negative results for 82% of the treated animals, compared with only 36% of the untreated dogs. However, a progressive increase in the parasite load could be detected in the peripheral blood for one year post-treatment, as evidenced by a progressive increase in positive results for both the PCR and the blood culture assays at follow-up. The parasite load reduction induced by treatment was compatible with the lower degree of tissue damage among animals euthanized in the first month after treatment and with the increased cardiac damage after this period, reaching levels similar to those in untreated animals at the one-year follow-up. The two infected groups also presented similar, significantly smaller values for early tissue septal velocity (E' SIV) than the non-infected dogs did at this later time. Moreover, in the treated animals, an increase in the E/E' septal tissue filling pressure ratio was observed when compared with basal values as well as with

  1. A functional genetic variant (N521D) in natriuretic peptide receptor 3 is associated with diastolic dysfunction: the prevalence of asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Naveen L; Redfield, Margaret M; Scott, Christopher; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Olson, Timothy M; Bailey, Kent R; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Burnett, John C

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a functional genetic variant in the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor, NPR3, on circulating natriuretic peptides (NPs) and myocardial structure and function in the general community. NPR3 plays an important role in the clearance of NPs and through direct signaling mechanisms modulates smooth muscle cell function and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. A NPR3 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2270915, resulting in a N521D substitution in the intracellular catalytic domain that interacts with Gi could affect receptor function. Whether this SNP is associated with alterations in NPs levels and altered cardiac structure and function is unknown. DNA samples of 1931 randomly selected residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota were genotyped. Plasma NT-proANP1-98, ANP1-28, proBNP1-108, NT-proBNP1-76, BNP1-32 and BNP3-32 levels were measured. All subjects underwent comprehensive echocardiography. Genotype frequencies for rs2270915 were as follows: (A/A 60%, A/G 36%, G/G 4%). All analyses performed were for homozygotes G/G versus wild type A/A plus the heterozygotes A/G. Diastolic dysfunction was significantly more common (p = 0.007) in the homozygotes G/G (43%) than the A/A+A/G (28%) group. Multivariate regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and hypertension demonstrated rs2270915 to be independently associated with diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio 1.94, p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in NPs levels between the 2 groups suggesting that the clearance function of the receptor was not affected. A nonsynonymous NPR3 SNP is independently associated with diastolic dysfunction and this association does not appear to be related to alterations in circulating levels of natriuretic peptides.

  2. Differential effects of arginine methylation on diastolic dysfunction and disease progression in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wilson Tang, Wai Hong; Tong, Wilson; Shrestha, Kevin; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Delfraino, Brian; Hu, Bo; Troughton, Richard W.; Klein, Allan L.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association of arginine methylation with myocardial function and prognosis in chronic systolic heart failure patients. Methods and results Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), as well as N-mono-methylarginine (MMA) and methyl-lysine, were simultaneously measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 132 patients with chronic systolic heart failure with echocardiographic evaluation and follow-up. Increasing ADMA and SDMA levels were associated with elevated natriuretic peptide levels (both P < 0.001), and increasing SDMA levels were associated with worsening renal function (P < 0.001). Higher plasma levels of methylated arginine metabolites (but not methyl-lysine) were associated with the presence of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (E/septal E′, Spearman's r = 0.31–0.36, P < 0.001). Patients taking beta-blockers had lower ADMA levels than those not taking beta-blockers [0.42 (0.33, 0.50) vs. 0.51 (0.40, 0.58), P < 0.001]. Only increasing ADMA levels were associated with advanced right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction. Elevated ADMA levels remained a consistent independent predictor of adverse clinical events (hazard ratio = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.20–2.22, P = 0.002). Conclusion In chronic systolic heart failure, accumulation of methylated arginine metabolites is associated with the presence of LV diastolic dysfunction. Among the methylated derivatives of arginine, ADMA provides the strongest independent prediction of disease progression and adverse long-term outcomes. PMID:18687662

  3. Adiponectin through its biphasic serum level is a useful biomarker during transition from diastolic dysfunction to systolic dysfunction - an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mingqiang; Zhou, Jingmin; Qian, Juying; Jin, Xuejuan; Zhu, Hongmin; Zhong, Chunlin; Fu, Michael; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2012-08-30

    Adiponectin is reported to relate with cardiovascular diseases, we sought to examine whether adiponectin is associated with disease progression of heart failure from hypertension in rats in comparison with other known biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n = 35), aged 1 month, were used and followed up to 18 months. High frequency echocardiography was performed both at baseline and every 3 months thereafter. Moreover, serum levels of N-terminal pro-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as serum level and tissue expression of adiponectin were determined at the same time as echocardiography. The results clearly demonstrated time-dependent progression of hypertension and heart dysfunction as evidenced by gradually increased left ventricular mass index, NT-proBNP, IL-6 as well as gradually decreased cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography. Meanwhile, tissue and serum adiponectin decreased from 3 months and reached plateau until 12 months in parallel with decreasing of cardiac diastolic function. Thereafter, adiponectin levels increased prior to occurrence of systolic dysfunction. Adiponectin concentration is inversely related with NT-proBNP, IL-6 and E/E' (correlation coefficient (r) = -0.756 for NT-proBNP, p < 0.001, -0.635 for IL-6, p = 0.002, and -0.626 for E/E', p = 0.002, respectively) while positively correlated with E/A and E'/A' (r = 0.683 for E/A, p = 0.001, 0.671 for E'/A', p = 0.001, respectively). No difference for adiponectin distribution among visceral adipose tissues was found. Adiponectin through its biphasic serum level is a useful biomarker during transition from diastolic dysfunction to systolic dysfunction.

  4. Impact of the 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations on the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in the general population.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João G; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Ribeiro, José; Bettencourt, Paulo; Flachskampf, Frank A; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Azevedo, Ana

    2018-04-01

    Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is frequent in the general population; however, the assessment of diastolic function remains challenging. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the recent 2016 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) recommendations in the prevalence and grades of DD compared with the 2009 guidelines and the Canberra Study Criteria (CSC). Within a population-based cohort, a total of 1000 individuals, aged ≥45 years, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with previously known cardiac disease or ejection fraction <50% were excluded. Diastolic function was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. DD prevalence and grades were determined according to the three classifications. The mean age was 62.0 ± 10.5 years and 37% were men. The prevalence of DD was 1.4% (n = 14) with the 2016 recommendations, 38.1% (n = 381) with the 2009 recommendations, and 30.4% (n = 304) using the CSC. The concordance between the updated recommendations and the other two was poor (from k = 0.13 to k = 0.18, P < 0.001). Regarding the categorization in DD grades, none of the 14 individuals with DD by the 2016 guidelines were assigned to Grade 1 DD, 64% were classified as Grade 2, 7% had Grade 3, and 29% had indeterminate grade. The application of the new 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations resulted in a much lower prevalence of DD. The concordance between the classifications was poor. The updated algorithm seems to be able to diagnose only the most advanced cases.

  5. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in women with nonobstructive ischemic heart disease: insights from magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    Ischemic heart disease, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, is prevalent in women and constitutes a major risk factor for developing major adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. For decades, diagnosis was considered benign and often minimized; however, it is now known that this etiology carries much risk and is a significant burden to the health care system. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on nonobstructive ischemic heart disease (NOIHD), the association between NOIHD and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, potential links between NOIHD and the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and therapeutic options and knowledge gaps for patients living with NOIHD. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Acute and chronic hypothyroidism are associated with similar left ventricular diastolic dysfunction relative to the euthyroid state: results of doppler echocardiographic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gauna, A; Messuti, H; Papadopulos, G; Benchuga, G; Viale, F; Marlowe, R J; Silva Croome, M C

    2011-10-01

    How the duration of hypothyroidism affects left ventricular diastolic function is not well-characterized. We sought to compare left ventricular diastolic function in acutely vs chronically hypothyroid patients vs euthyroid controls, and within individuals while on vs off T4. We prospectively performed such comparisons measuring pulsed-wave and color M-mode Doppler echocardiographic variables: early or late mitral peak velocities (E wave or A wave, respectively), E wave/A wave ratio, E wave deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), mitral flow propagation velocity (Vp), E wave/Vp ratio. Subjects comprised the acute HYPO group, 10 patients undergoing T4 withdrawal ≥ 6 months post-primary treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); the chronic HYPO group, 23 treatment-naïve Hashimoto thyroiditis patients; and 21 healthy euthyroid controls. Subjects were adults aged ≤ 60 yr, predominantly female, with sinus rhythm; exclusion criteria were cardiovascular or thyroid disorder besides DTC (Hashimoto thyroiditis) in acute (chronic) HYPO patients or medication (besides thyroid hormone) affecting cardiac or thyroid function. Mean IVRT was significantly delayed and mean Vp, significantly slowed in both HYPO groups vs controls (p<0.0005), but did not differ between HYPO groups. These variables also were significantly impaired (p<0.05) within individuals when off vs on T4 (no.=8 acute, 10 chronic HYPO patients). Both HYPO groups had elevated mean E wave/Vp ratios vs controls, but the elevation reached significance (p<0.05) only in the larger chronic HYPO group. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is largely similar in acutely or chronically hypothyroid patients off T4 vs healthy controls or the same patients on T4.

  7. Troponin elevation in severe sepsis and septic shock: the role of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and right ventricular dilatation*.

    PubMed

    Landesberg, Giora; Jaffe, Allan S; Gilon, Dan; Levin, Phillip D; Goodman, Sergey; Abu-Baih, Abed; Beeri, Ronen; Weissman, Charles; Sprung, Charles L; Landesberg, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Serum troponin concentrations predict mortality in almost every clinical setting they have been examined, including sepsis. However, the causes for troponin elevations in sepsis are poorly understood. We hypothesized that detailed investigation of myocardial dysfunction by echocardiography can provide insight into the possible causes of troponin elevation and its association with mortality in sepsis. Prospective, analytic cohort study. Tertiary academic institute. A cohort of ICU patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Advanced echocardiography using global strain, strain-rate imaging and 3D left and right ventricular volume analyses in addition to the standard echocardiography, and concomitant high-sensitivity troponin-T measurement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Two hundred twenty-five echocardiograms and concomitant high-sensitivity troponin-T measurements were performed in a cohort of 106 patients within the first days of severe sepsis or septic shock (2.1 ± 1.4 measurements/patient). Combining echocardiographic and clinical variables, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction defined as increased mitral E-to-strain-rate e'-wave ratio, right ventricular dilatation (increased right ventricular end-systolic volume index), high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, and low glomerular filtration rate best correlated with elevated log-transformed concomitant high-sensitivity troponin-T concentrations (mixed linear model: t = 3.8, 3.3, 2.8, and -2.1 and p = 0.001, 0.0002, 0.006, and 0.007, respectively). Left ventricular systolic dysfunction determined by reduced strain-rate s'-wave or low ejection fraction did not significantly correlate with log(concomitant high-sensitivity troponin-T). Forty-one patients (39%) died in-hospital. Right ventricular end-systolic volume index and left ventricular strain-rate e'-wave predicted in-hospital mortality, independent of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score (logistic

  8. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  9. Association Between Sedentary Lifestyle and Diastolic Dysfunction Among Outpatients With Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function Presenting to a Tertiary Referral Center in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Matta, Stephanie; Chammas, Elie; Alraies, Chadi; Abchee, Antoine; AlJaroudi, Wael

    2016-05-01

    Sedentary lifestyle has become prevalent in our community. Recent data showed controversy on the effect of regular exercise on left ventricular compliance and myocardial relaxation. We sought to assess whether physical inactivity is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction in or community, after adjustment for several covariates. Consecutive outpatients presenting to the echocardiography laboratory between July 2013 and June 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Clinical variables were collected prospectively at enrollment. Patients were considered physically active if they exercised regularly ≥3× a week, ≥30 minutes each time. The primary endpoint was presence of diastolic dysfunction. The final cohort included 1356 patients (mean age [SD] 52.9 [17.4] years, 51.3% female). Compared with physically active patients, the 1009 (74.4%) physically inactive patients were older, more often female, and had more comorbidities and worse diastolic function (51.3% vs 38.3%; P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, physical inactivity was associated with 70% increased odds of having diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio: 1.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.18, P < 0.001). There was significant interaction between physical activity and left ventricular mass index (LVMI; P = 0.026). On multivariate analysis, patients who were physically inactive and had LVMI ≥ median had significantly higher odds of having diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio: 2.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.58-5.05, P < 0.001). In a large, prospectively enrolled cohort from a single tertiary center in the Middle East, physically inactive patients with increased LVMI had 2- to 3-fold increased odds of having diastolic dysfunction after multivariate adjustment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intestinal Microbiota-Dependent Phosphatidylcholine Metabolites, Diastolic Dysfunction and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wilson Tang, W. H.; Wang, Zeneng; Shrestha, Kevin; Borowski, Allen G; Wu, Yuping; Troughton, Richard W; Klein, Allan L; Hazen, Stanley L

    2014-01-01

    Background Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We aim to determine the prognostic value of TMAO and its dietary precursors, choline and betaine, in heart failure (HF). Methods and Results In 112 patients with chronic systolic HF with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, we measured plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine by mass spectrometry. Median TMAO levels, choline, and betaine levels were 5.8 [3.6, 12.1] μM, 10.9 [8.4, 14.0] μM, 43.8 [37.1, 53.0] μM, respectively, and were correlated with each other (all p<0.0001 for both). TMAO levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus (9.4 [4.9, 13.2] vs 4.8 [3.4, 9.8] μM, p=0.005) and in subjects with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or greater (7.0 [4.7, 14.8] vs 4.7 [3.4, 11.3] μM, p=0.02). Elevated TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were each associated with higher plasma NT-proBNP levels and more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not systolic dysfunction or inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers. Higher choline (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.64 [95% CI: 1.22 2.20], p=0.001), betaine (HR 1.51 [1.10–2.08], p=0.01), and TMAO (HR 1.48 [1.10–1.96], p=0.01) predicted increased risk for 5-year adverse clinical events (death/transplant). Only higher TMAO levels predicted incident adverse clinical events independent of age, eGFR, mitral E/septal Ea, and NT-proBNP levels (HR 1.46 [1.03 2.14], p=0.03). Conclusion Elevated plasma TMAO, choline and betaine levels are each associated with more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and portend poorer long-term adverse clinical outcomes in chronic systolic HF. However, only higher plasma TMAO levels was associated with poor prognosis after adjustment for cardio-renal indices. PMID:25459686

  11. Intestinal microbiota-dependent phosphatidylcholine metabolites, diastolic dysfunction, and adverse clinical outcomes in chronic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tang, W H Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Shrestha, Kevin; Borowski, Allen G; Wu, Yuping; Troughton, Richard W; Klein, Allan L; Hazen, Stanley L

    2015-02-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to determine the prognostic value of TMAO and its dietary precursors, choline and betaine, in heart failure (HF). In 112 patients with chronic systolic HF with comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation, we measured plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine by mass spectrometry. Median (interquartile range) TMAO levels, choline, and betaine levels were 5.8 (3.6-12.1) μmol/L, 10.9 (8.4-14.0) μmol/L, and 43.8 (37.1-53.0) μmol/L, respectively, and were correlated with each other (all P < .0001 for both). TMAO levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes mellitus (9.4 [4.9-13.2] vs 4.8 [3.4-9.8] μmol/L; P = .005) and in subjects with New York Heart Association functional class III or greater (7.0 [4.7-14.8] vs 4.7 [3.4-11.3] μmol/L; P = .02). Elevated TMAO, choline, and betaine levels were each associated with higher plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, but not systolic dysfunction or inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers. Higher choline (hazard ratio [HR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.22-2.20; P = .001), betaine (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.08; P = .01), and TMAO (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10-1.96; P = .01) predicted increased risk for 5-year adverse clinical events (death/transplantation). Only higher TMAO levels predicted incident adverse clinical events independently from age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, mitral E/septal Ea, and NT-proBNP levels (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.14; P = .03). Elevated plasma TMAO, choline, and betaine levels are each associated with more advanced left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and portend poorer long-term adverse clinical outcomes in chronic systolic HF. However, only higher plasma TMAO was associated with poor prognosis after adjustment for cardiorenal indices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiac diastolic and autonomic dysfunction are aggravated by central chemoreflex activation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction rats

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Camilo; Andrade, David C.; Lucero, Claudia; Arce‐Alvarez, Alexis; Díaz, Hugo S.; Aliaga, Valentín; Schultz, Harold D.; Marcus, Noah J.; Manríquez, Mónica; Faúndez, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Key points Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with disordered breathing patterns, and sympatho‐vagal imbalance.Although it is well accepted that altered peripheral chemoreflex control plays a role in the progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying deterioration of cardiac function in HFpEF are poorly understood.We found that central chemoreflex is enhanced in HFpEF and neuronal activation is increased in pre‐sympathetic regions of the brainstem.Our data showed that activation of the central chemoreflex pathway in HFpEF exacerbates diastolic dysfunction, worsens sympatho‐vagal imbalance and markedly increases the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in rats with HFpEF. Abstract Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) display irregular breathing, sympatho‐vagal imbalance, arrhythmias and diastolic dysfunction. It has been shown that tonic activation of the central and peripheral chemoreflex pathway plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of HF with reduced ejection fraction. In contrast, no studies to date have addressed chemoreflex function or its effect on cardiac function in HFpEF. Therefore, we tested whether peripheral and central chemoreflexes are hyperactive in HFpEF and if chemoreflex activation exacerbates cardiac dysfunction and autonomic imbalance. Sprague‐Dawley rats (n = 32) were subjected to sham or volume overload to induce HFpEF. Resting breathing variability, chemoreflex gain, cardiac function and sympatho‐vagal balance, and arrhythmia incidence were studied. HFpEF rats displayed [mean ± SD; chronic heart failure (CHF) vs. Sham, respectively] a marked increase in the incidence of apnoeas/hypopnoeas (20.2 ± 4.0 vs. 9.7 ± 2.6 events h−1), autonomic imbalance [0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 low/high frequency heart rate variability (LF/HFHRV)] and cardiac arrhythmias (196.0 ± 239.9 vs. 19.8

  13. Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Hsu; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lien, Yu-Chung; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Wu, Cho-Kai

    2013-08-30

    Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population. This was a cross-sectional study of 149 patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function who were undergoing PD. LVDD was diagnosed (according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines) and EpF thickness measured by echocardiography. The patients without LVDD were used as controls. The serum inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured. The location and amount of adipose tissue were assessed by computed tomography (CT) at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Subjects with LVDD had higher levels of hsCRP, more visceral and peritoneal fat, and thicker EpF (all p < 0.001) than controls. Visceral adipose tissue, hsCRP, and EpF all correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with LVDD. Multivariate regression analysis rendered the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and LVDD insignificant, whereas EpF was the most powerful determinant of LVDD (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.43-4.08, p < 0.01). EpF thickness also correlated significantly with the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e'; r = 0.27, p < 0.01). EpF thickness is significantly independently associated with LVDD in patients undergoing PD and may be involved in its pathogenesis.

  14. Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 149 patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function who were undergoing PD. LVDD was diagnosed (according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines) and EpF thickness measured by echocardiography. The patients without LVDD were used as controls. The serum inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured. The location and amount of adipose tissue were assessed by computed tomography (CT) at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Results Subjects with LVDD had higher levels of hsCRP, more visceral and peritoneal fat, and thicker EpF (all p < 0.001) than controls. Visceral adipose tissue, hsCRP, and EpF all correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with LVDD. Multivariate regression analysis rendered the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and LVDD insignificant, whereas EpF was the most powerful determinant of LVDD (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.43–4.08, p < 0.01). EpF thickness also correlated significantly with the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e’; r = 0.27, p < 0.01). Conclusion EpF thickness is significantly independently associated with LVDD in patients undergoing PD and may be involved in its pathogenesis. PMID:24001037

  15. Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Benjamin D.; Bungo, Michael W.; Platts, Steven H.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Johnston, Smith L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capability and Risk for Cardiac Arrhythmias (Integrated Cardiovascular) will quantify the extent of long-duration space flightassociated cardiac atrophy (deterioration) on the International Space Station crewmembers.

  16. Effects of auto-servo ventilation on patients with sleep-disordered breathing, stable systolic heart failure and concomitant diastolic dysfunction: subanalysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Birner, Christoph; Series, Frederic; Lewis, Keir; Benjamin, Amit; Wunderlich, Silke; Escourrou, Pierre; Zeman, Florian; Luigart, Ruth; Pfeifer, Michael; Arzt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Systolic heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by diastolic dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The objective of this subset analysis was to determine effect sizes of auto-servo ventilation (ASV and biphasic positive airway pressure ASV) on echocardiographic measures of diastolic function in patients with systolic HF and SDB. Thirty-two patients with stable systolic HF, concomitant diastolic dysfunction [age 66 ± 9 years old, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction: 30 ± 7% and New York Heart Association class II: 72%] and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI: 48 ± 19/h; 53% had predominantly obstructive sleep apnea) receiving either ASV (n = 19) or optimal medical treatment (control, n = 13) were analyzed in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Polysomnographic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. AHI significantly improved in the ASV group compared to the control group (-39 ± 18 vs. -0.2 ± 13.2/h, p < 0.001). At baseline, 24 (75%) patients had impaired LV relaxation, and 8 (25%) had a pseudo-normalized filling pattern. At the 12-week control visit, diastolic function assessed by the isovolumetric relaxation time (-10.3 ± 26.1 vs. 9.3 ± 49.1, p = 0.48) and deceleration time (-43.9 ± 88.8 vs. 12.4 ± 68.8, p = 0.40) tended to improve after ASV treatment, but did not reach statistical significance. Likewise, the proportion of patients whose diastolic dysfunction improved was nonsignificantly higher in the ASV than in the control group, respectively (37 vs. 15%, p = 0.25). ASV treatment efficiently abolishes SDB in patients with stable systolic HF and concomitant diastolic dysfunction, and was associated with a statistically nonsignificant improvement in measures of diastolic dysfunction. Thus, these data provide estimates of effect size and justify the evaluation of the effects of ASV on diastolic function in larger randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Abnormal early diastolic intraventricular flow 'kinetic energy index' assessed by vector flow mapping in patients with elevated filling pressure.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Yoshie; Ishizu, Tomoko; Atsumi, Akiko; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawamura, Ryo; Seo, Yoshihiro; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2013-03-01

    Recently developed vector flow mapping (VFM) enables evaluation of local flow dynamics without angle dependency. This study used VFM to evaluate quantitatively the index of intraventricular haemodynamic kinetic energy in patients with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and to compare those with normal subjects. We studied 25 patients with estimated high left atrial (LA) pressure (pseudonormal: PN group) and 36 normal subjects (control group). Left ventricle was divided into basal, mid, and apical segments. Intraventricular haemodynamic energy was evaluated in the dimension of speed, and it was defined as the kinetic energy index. We calculated this index and created time-energy index curves. The time interval from electrocardiogram (ECG) R wave to peak index was measured, and time differences of the peak index between basal and other segments were defined as ΔT-mid and ΔT-apex. In both groups, early diastolic peak kinetic energy index in mid and apical segments was significantly lower than that in the basal segment. Time to peak index did not differ in apex, mid, and basal segments in the control group but was significantly longer in the apex than that in the basal segment in the PN group. ΔT-mid and ΔT-apex were significantly larger in the PN group than the control group. Multiple regression analysis showed sphericity index, E/E' to be significant independent variables determining ΔT apex. Retarded apical kinetic energy fluid dynamics were detected using VFM and were closely associated with LV spherical remodelling in patients with high LA pressure.

  18. Effects of Combined Milrinone and Levosimendan Treatment on Systolic and Diastolic Function During Postischemic Myocardial Dysfunction in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Birger; Häggmark, Sören; Svenmarker, Staffan; Johansson, Göran; Gupta, Anil; Tydén, Hans; Wouters, Patrick; Haney, Michael

    2016-09-01

    It is not known whether there are positive or negative interactions on ventricular function when a calcium-sensitizing inotrope is added to a phosphodiesterase inhibitor in the clinical setting of acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that when levosimendan is added to milrinone treatment, there will be synergetic inotropic and lusitropic effects. This was tested in an anesthetized porcine postischemic global LV injury model, where ventricular pressures and volumes (conductance volumetry) were measured. A global ischemic injury was induced by repetitive left main stem coronary artery occlusions. Load-independent indices of LV function were assessed before and after ventricular injury, after milrinone treatment, and finally after addition of levosimendan to the milrinone treatment. Nonparametric, within-group comparisons were made. The protocol was completed in 12 pigs, 7 of which received the inotrope treatment and 5 of which served as controls. Milrinone led to positive lusitropic effects seen by improvement in tau after myocardial stunning. The addition of levosimendan to milrinone further increased lusitropic state. The latter effect could however not be attributed solely to levosimendan, since lusitropic state also improved spontaneously in time-matched controls at the same rate during the corresponding period. When levosimendan was added to milrinone infusion, there was no increase in systolic function (preload recruitable stroke work) compared to milrinone treatment alone. We conclude that in this model of postischemic LV dysfunction, there appears to be no clear improvement in systolic or diastolic function after addition of levosimendan to established milrinone treatment but also no negative effects of levosimendan in this context. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Quantification and significance of diffuse myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tarique; Dragulescu, Andreea; Benson, Lee; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Meng, Howard; Windram, Jonathan; Wong, Derek; Greiser, Andreas; Friedberg, Mark; Mertens, Luc; Seed, Michael; Redington, Andrew; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in children and adolescents with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and to assess associations with echocardiographic and clinical parameters of disease. While a common end point in adults with HCM, it is unclear whether diffuse myocardial fibrosis occurs early in the disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) estimation of myocardial post-contrast longitudinal relaxation time (T1) is an increasingly used method to estimate diffuse fibrosis. T1 measurements were taken using standard multi-breath-hold spoiled gradient echo phase-sensitive inversion-recovery CMR before and 15 min after the injection of gadolinium. The tissue-blood partition coefficient was calculated as a function of the ratio of T1 change of myocardium compared with blood. An echocardiogram and blood brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were obtained on the day of the CMR. Twelve controls (mean age 12.8 years; 7 male) and 28 patients with HCM (mean age 12.8 years; 21 male) participated. The partition coefficient for both septal (0.27 ± 0.17 vs. 0.13 ± 0.09; p = 0.03) and lateral walls (0.22 ± 0.09 vs. 0.07 ± 0.10; p < 0.001) was increased in patients compared with controls. Eight patients had overt areas of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). These patients did not show increased partition coefficient compared with those without LGE (0.27 ± 0.15 vs. 0.27 ± 0.19 and 0.22 ± 0.09 vs. 0.22 ± 0.09; p = 0.95 and 0.98, respectively). However, patients who were symptomatic (dyspnea, arrhythmia and/or chest pain) had higher lateral wall partition coefficient than asymptomatic HCM patients (0.27 ± 0.08 vs. 0.17 ± 0.08; p = 0.006). Similarly, patients with raised BNP (>100 pg/ml) had raised lateral wall coefficients (0.27 ± 0.07 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07; p = 0.03), as did those with traditional risk factors for sudden death (0.27 ± 0.06 vs. 0.18 ± 0.08; p = 0.007). Diffuse fibrosis, measured by the partition coefficient

  20. Burden of Systolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction among Hispanics in the United States: Insights from the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hardik; Armstrong, Anderson; Swett, Katrina; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Allison, Matthew A.; Hurwitz, Barry; Bangdiwala, Shrikant; Dadhania, Rupal; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Arguelles, William; Lima, Joao; Youngblood, Marston; Schneiderman, Neil; Daviglus, Martha L.; Spevack, Daniel; Talavera, Greg A.; Raisinghani, Ajit; Kaplan, Robert; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based estimates of cardiac dysfunction and clinical heart failure (HF) remain undefined among Hispanics/Latino adults. Methods and Results Participants of Hispanic/Latino origin across the US, aged 45–74 years were enrolled into the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL) and underwent a comprehensive echocardiography exam to define left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Clinical HF was defined according to self-report; and those with cardiac dysfunction but without clinical HF were characterized as having subclinical or unrecognized cardiac dysfunction. Of 1,818 ECHO-SOL participants (mean age 56.4 years; 42.6% male) , 49.7% had LVSD and/or LVDD. LVSD prevalence was 3.6%, while LVDD was detected in 50.3%. Participants with LVSD were more likely to be males and current smokers (all p<0.05). Female sex, hypertension, diabetes, higher body-mass index and renal dysfunction were more common among those with LVDD (all p<0.05). In age-sex adjusted models, individuals of Central American and Cuban backgrounds were almost two-fold more likely to have LVDD compared to those of Mexican backgrounds. Prevalence of clinical HF with LVSD (HF with reduced EF) was 7.3%; prevalence of clinical HF with LVDD (HF with preserved EF) was 3.6%. 96.1% of the cardiac dysfunction seen was subclinical or unrecognized. Compared to those with clinical cardiac dysfunction, prevalent coronary heart disease was the only factor independently associated with subclinical or unrecognized cardiac dysfunction (odds ratio: 0.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.1–0.4). Conclusions Among Hispanics/Latinos, most cardiac dysfunction is subclinical or unrecognized, with a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction. This identifies a high-risk population for the development of clinical HF. PMID:27048764

  1. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes patients: a novel 2D strain analysis based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Gan, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2016-09-01

    This study was to develop a strain analysis method to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in type 2 diabetic patients with an asymptomatic LV diastolic dysfunction. Two groups (10 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic subjects and 10 control ones) were considered. All of the subjects had normal ejection fraction values but impaired diastolic functions assessed by the transmitral blood flow velocity. For each subject, based on cardiac MRI, global indexes including LV volume, LV myocardial mass, cardiac index (CI), and transmitral peak velocity, were measured, and regional indexes (i.e., LV deformation, strain and strain rate) were calculated through an image-registration technology. Most of the global indexes did not differentiate between the two groups, except for the CI, LV myocardial mass and transmitral peak velocity. While for the regional indexes, the global LV diastolic dysfunction of the diabetic indicated an increased strain (0.08 ± 0.044 vs. -0.031 ± 0.077, p = 0.001) and a reduced strain rate (1.834 ± 0.909 vs. 3.791 ± 2.394, p = 0.033) compared to the controls, moreover, the local LV diastolic dysfunction reflected by the strain and strain rate varied, and the degree of dysfunction gradually decreased from the basal level to the apical level. The results showed that the strain and strain rates are effective to capture the subtle alterations of the LV functions, and the proposed method can be used to estimate the LV myocardial function based on cardiac MRI.

  2. Fenestrated Transcatheter ASD Closure in Adults with Diastolic Dysfunction and/or Pulmonary Hypertension: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Abdelkarim, Ayman; Levi, Daniel S; Tran, Bao; Ghobrial, Joanna; Aboulhosn, Jamil

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter fenestrated ASD closure and to summarize the literature regarding the published techniques and outcomes of transcatheter partial ASD closure. Patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) or right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and/or pulmonary hypertension (PHT) may suffer untoward consequences of complete closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Therefore, for patients that fall under these categories we suggest partial occlusion of the defect, which may be better tolerated than complete defect closure. After obtaining IRB approval, a search for patients that have undergone percutaneous ASD closure was performed in the Ahmanson/UCLA Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center database to identify which patients received a fenestrated ASD closure device. Eight consecutive patients ranging between 22 and 83 years of age (mean 48 years) with PHT and/or LVDD or RV dysfunction who underwent fenestrated transcatheter ASD closure at UCLA were identified. None of the subjects experienced complications related to the procedure. Postprocedure clinical evaluation showed improvement in symptoms and exercise capacity. Available follow-up transthoracic echocardiography data (mean 4 months, range 0-20 months) demonstrated patent fenestrations in four of eight patients. None of the patients had thromboembolic or infectious complications and there were no device migrations, erosions or embolizations. Partial ASD occlusion in patients with diastolic dysfunction or RV dysfunction and/or PHT is safe and may be better tolerated than complete ASD closure in selected patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Increased response of diastolic blood pressure to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: an index of latent ventricular dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevaidis, I A; Kremastinos, D T; Kassimatis, A S; Karavolias, G K; Kordosis, G D; Kyriakides, Z S; Toutouzas, P K

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an abnormal response of diastolic blood pressure during treadmill exercise stress testing correlated with the number of obstructed vessels and with left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease. DESIGN--Diastolic blood pressure was measured invasively during exercise stress testing and coronary angiograms and left ventriculograms were obtained at rest in patients with coronary artery disease. The abnormal (> or = 15 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure response was compared with the number of obstructed coronary arteries and with left ventricular systolic function. SETTING--Two tertiary referral centres. PATIENTS--50 consecutive patients (mean age 57 years) with coronary artery disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The increase in diastolic blood pressure during exercise and its correlation with the appearance and disappearance of ST segment deviation, resting left ventricular systolic function, and the number of obstructed coronary arteries. RESULTS--Group 1: 10 (20%) patients (three with one, four with two, and three with three vessel coronary artery disease) (mean (SD) age 54.7 (12) years) had an abnormal diastolic blood pressure response that appeared 1.2 (0.3) min before ST segment deviation and became normal 0.9 (0.3) min after the ST segment returned to normal. Group 2: 40 (80%) patients (12 with one, 16 with two, and 12 with three vessel coronary arteries disease) (aged 56.8 (8.2) years) had a normal diastolic blood pressure response to stress testing. The ejection fraction (46.3 (5)%) and cardiac index (2.6 (0.1) 1/min/m2) in group 1 were less than in group 2 (61.6 (4.2)% and 3.8 (0.3) 1/min/m2 respectively, p < or = 0.001). The end systolic volume was greater in group 1 than in group 2: 38.7 (0.7 ml/m2 v 28.2 (2.1) ml/m2, p < or = 0.001. CONCLUSION--In patients with coronary artery disease an abnormal increase in diastolic blood pressure during exercise stress testing correlated well with left ventricular

  4. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased left ventricular mass index related to pulmonary hypertension in patients with systemic autoimmune disease without pericardial effusion.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Atsushi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Ozawa, Koya; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the relationship of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and LV mass index (LVMI) against pulmonary hypertension (PH) in systemic autoimmune disease (SAD). A total of 84 SAD patients (68 females; 53±17years; systemic lupus erythematosus, 27%; scleroderma, 17%; vasculitis, 16%; mixed connective tissue disease, 13% and polymyositis/dermatomyositis complex, 10%) without significant pericardial effusion (PE) on TTE (Vivid E9, GE) were analyzed. On TTE, PH was defined as peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) of ≥2.9m/s based upon 2015 ESC guideline. Left atrial volume index (LAVI) and E/E' were measured as indicators of LV diastolic dysfunction. LVMI was also measured. Seven patients (8%) had PH. PH patients had greater LAVI (p<0.001), E/E' (p=0.004), LVMI (p=0.009) than non-PH patients. LAVI (R=0.458), E/E' (R=0.337), and LVMI (R=0.313) significantly and positively correlated with TRV (all p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore determinants of TRV. Age, female sex, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were included in all the models. Three multiple regression models were generated using 1) LAVI, 2) E/E', and 3) LVMI and included LAVI, E/E', LVMI, and BNP as significant variables influencing TRV. Multi logistic regression analysis for predicting TRV of ≥2.9m/s showed that LAVI, and E/E' were significant predictors (Odds ratio, 1.296, and 1.370, respectively). In SAD patients without PE, LV diastolic dysfunction and increment of LVMI was closely associated with PH based upon TRV. LAVI and E/E' were independent predictors for PH. Measuring LAVI and E/E' may be a key to determine the mechanism of PH in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without left ventricular hypertrophy in obese children and adolescents: a Tissue Doppler Imaging and Cardiac Troponin I Study.

    PubMed

    El Saiedi, Sonia A; Mira, Marwa F; Sharaf, Sahar A; Al Musaddar, Maysoun M; El Kaffas, Rania M H; AbdelMassih, Antoine F; Barsoum, Ihab H Y

    2018-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for various cardiovascular problems. Increase in body mass index is often an independent risk factor for the development of elevated blood pressure and clustering of various cardiovascular risk factors. To determine early markers of left ventricular affection in obese patients before the appearance of left ventricular hypertrophy. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 42 obese patients and 30 healthy controls. Their ages ranged from 6 to 19 years. Studied children were subjected to anthropometric, lipid profile, and serum Troponin I level measurements. Echocardiographic evaluation performed to assess the left ventricle included left ventricular dimension measurement using motion-mode echocardiography, based on which patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (10 patients) were eliminated, as well as conventional and tissue Doppler imaging. Tissue Doppler findings in the study groups showed that the ratio of transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to septal peak early diastolic myocardial velocity (E/e') was significantly higher in cases compared with controls [6.9±1.4 versus 9.0±1.6, p (Pearson's coefficient)=0.001, respectively]. The level of cardiac troponin I was significantly higher in cases compared with controls [0.14±0.39 ng/ml versus 0.01±0.01 ng/ml, p (Pearson's coefficient)=0.047, respectively] and there was a significant correlation between troponin I and transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to septal peak early diastolic myocardial velocity ratio (E/e') [R (correlation coefficient)=0.6]. Tissue Doppler Imaging and Troponin I evaluation proved useful tools to detect early affection of the left ventricle in obese patients even in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  6. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of effects of sitagliptin and voglibose on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the 3D trial.

    PubMed

    Oe, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kihara, Hajime; Shimada, Kenei; Fukuda, Shota; Takagi, Tsutomu; Miyoshi, Toru; Hirata, Kumiko; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2015-06-19

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) and may have cardio-protective effects. It remains unclear whether DPP-4i improves LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes, and, if so, it is attributable to the attenuation of PPH or to a direct cardiac effect of DPP-4i. We compared the effects of the DPP-4i, sitagliptin, and the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, on LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study of 100 diabetic patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. Patients received sitagliptin (50 mg/day) or voglibose (0.6 mg/day). The primary endpoints were changes in the e' velocity and E/e' ratio from baseline to 24 weeks later. The secondary efficacy measures included HbA1c, GLP-1, lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and inflammatory markers. The study was completed with 40 patients in the sitagliptin group and 40 patients in the voglibose group. There were no significant changes in the e' velocity and E/e' ratio from baseline to 24 weeks later in both groups. However, analysis of covariance demonstrated that pioglitazone use is an independent factor associated with changes in the e' and E/e' ratio. Among patients not using pioglitazone, e' increased and the E/e' ratio decreased in both the sitagliptin and voglibose groups. GLP-1 level increased from baseline to 24 weeks later only in the sitagliptin group (4.8 ± 4.7 vs. 7.3 ± 5.5 pmol/L, p < 0.05). The reductions in HbA1c and body weight were significantly greater in the sitagliptin group than in the voglibose group (-0.7 ± 0.6 % vs. -0.3 ± 0.4, p < 0.005; -1.3 ± 3.2 kg vs. 0.4 ± 2.8 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). There were no changes in lipid profiles and inflammatory markers in both groups. Our trial showed that sitagliptin reduces HbA1c levels more greatly than

  8. Predictive factor of secondary tricuspid regurgitation after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: the importance of myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takashi; Tanji, Masahiro; Takahashi, Koki; Ishida, Keiichi; Sasaki, Satomi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the predictors of secondary tricuspid regurgitation after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. Seventy-one patients, who underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis at our institute from January 2006 to July 2011, were divided into two groups: an STR group, which included 15 patients with moderate or greater than moderate secondary tricuspid regurgitation at a follow-up visit and a control group. Echocardiography was performed before surgery, at discharge, and at a late follow-up visit (mean follow-up 36 ± 19 months, range 0-77). Preoperatively, the number of women (p < .01), body surface area (p < .001), and relative wall thickness (0.60 ± 0.15 vs 0.71 ± 0.13, p = .022) showed significant differences between the two groups. At a follow-up visit, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (p = .0001) and severe diastolic dysfunction (p = .003) showed significant differences between the two groups. In the Cox regression analysis, moderate or severe mitral regurgitation at follow-up (p = .038, hazard ratio 4.394, 95% CI 1.085-17.791) was the only independent predictor of secondary tricuspid regurgitation. This study suggested that preoperative concentric myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction were associated with development of the secondary tricuspid regurgitation at late follow-up.

  9. Endothelial dysfunction: the early predictor of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mudau, Mashudu; Genis, Amanda; Lochner, Amanda; Strijdom, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Since the discovery in the 1980s that nitric oxide (NO) is in fact the elusive endothelium-derived relaxing factor, it has become evident that NO is not only a major cardiovascular signalling molecule, but that changes in its bioavailability are crucial in determining whether atherosclerosis will develop or not. Sustained high levels of harmful circulating stimuli associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus elicit responses in endothelial cells that appear sequentially, namely endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED, characterised by reduced NO bioavailability, is now recognised by many as an early, reversible precursor of atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of ED is multifactorial; however, oxidative stress appears to be the common underlying cellular mechanism in the ensuing loss of vaso-active, inflammatory, haemostatic and redox homeostasis in the body's vascular system. The role of ED as a pathophysiological link between early endothelial cell changes associated with cardiovascular risk factors and the development of ischaemic heart disease is of importance to basic scientists and clinicians alike.

  10. Early reduced myocardial diastolic function in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Brunvand, Leif; Fugelseth, Drude; Stensaeth, Knut Håkon; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Margeirsdottir, Hanna Dis

    2016-05-25

    Reduced diastolic myocardial function is an early sign of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), but without other known complications, have early reduced diastolic myocardial function diagnosed with echocardiographic color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI). cTDI examination was carried out in 173 T1D patients and 62 age-matched controls. The T1D-patients were 8-18 years old with (mean (SD)) diabetes duration of 5.6 (3.4) years and HbA1c of 8.4 (1.3). All were treated with either insulin pumps or 4-6 daily insulin injections. cTDI early (E') and late (A') peak diastolic velocities and systolic peak velocity were measured from the lateral, septal, anterior and posterior mitral annulus and from the lateral tricuspidal annulus. Myocardial diastolic function was reduced in the T1D-patients with higher peak A'-velocity and lower E'/A'-ratio in all registrations. Overall mean (SD) mitral E'/A'-ratio was 2.3 (0.5) in T1D and 2.7 (0.6) in the controls (p < 0001). The overall mitral E'/A'-ratio was negative associated with blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Stratifying all participants into three groups according to BMI (<25, 25-75, >75 centile, respectively), the T1D had lower E'/A'-values in all stratified groups, except for in the highest BMI-group where both T1D and controls had the lowest E'/A'-ratio. Systolic function did not differ in any of the measurements. There were no associations with sex, diabetes duration, carotid artery intima-media-thickness, vessel elasticity or HbA1c. Diabetic children and adolescents using modern intensive insulin treatment had echocardiographic signs of reduced diastolic myocardial function despite short duration of disease. The reduced function was associated with higher BP and higher BMI.

  11. Hyperglycemia and nocturnal systolic blood pressure are associatedwith left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Felício, João S; Pacheco, Juliana T; Ferreira, Sandra R; Plavnik, Frida; Moisés, Valdir A; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Ribeiro, Artur B; Zanella, Maria T

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, when compared to patients with essential hypertension have an increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and a worse diastolic function, and if this fact would be related to 24-h pressoric levels changes. Methods Ninety-one hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (group-1 [G1]), 59 essential hypertensive patients (group-2 [G2]) and 26 healthy controls (group-3 [G3]) were submitted to 24-h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) and echocardiography (ECHO) with Doppler. We calculated an average of fasting blood glucose (AFBG) values of G1 from the previous 4.2 years and a glycemic control index (GCI) (percentual of FBG above 200 mg/dl). Results G1 and G2 did not differ on average of diurnal systolic and diastolic BP. However, G1 presented worse diastolic function and a higher average of nocturnal systolic BP (NSBP) and LVMI (NSBP = 132 ± 18 vs 124 ± 14 mmHg; P < 0.05 and LVMI = 103 ± 27 vs 89 ± 17 g/m2; P < 0.05, respectively). In G1, LVMI correlated with NSBP (r = 0.37; P < 0.001) and GCI (r = 0.29; P < 0.05) while NSBP correlated with GCI (r = 0.27; P < 0.05) and AFBG (r = 0.30; P < 0.01). When G1 was divided in tertiles according to NSBP, the subgroup with NSBP≥140 mmHg showed a higher risk of LVH. Diabetics with NSBP≥140 mmHg and AFBG>165 mg/dl showed an additional risk of LVH (P < 0.05; odds ratio = 11). In multivariate regression, both GCI and NSBP were independent predictors of LVMI in G1. Conclusion This study suggests that hyperglycemia and higher NSBP levels should be responsible for an increased prevalence of LVH in hypertensive patients with Type 2 DM. PMID:16968545

  12. Comparative effects of valsartan in combination with cilnidipine or amlodipine on cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Kai; Takahashi, Keiji; Matsuura, Natsumi; Takatsu, Miwa; Hattori, Takuya; Watanabe, Shogo; Harada, Eri; Niinuma, Kazumi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are often supplemented with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) for treatment of hypertension. We recently showed that the L/N-type CCB cilnidipine has superior cardioprotective effects compared with the L-type CCB amlodipine in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. We have now compared the effects of the ARB valsartan combined with cilnidipine or amlodipine on cardiac pathophysiology in DS rats. DS rats fed a high-salt diet from 6 weeks of age were treated with vehicle, valsartan alone (10 mg kg(-1) per day), or valsartan combined with either cilnidipine (1 mg kg(-1) per day) or amlodipine (1 mg kg(-1) per day) from 7 to 11 weeks. The salt-induced increase in systolic blood pressure apparent in the vehicle group was attenuated similarly in the three drug treatment groups. Valsartan-cilnidipine attenuated left ventricular (LV) fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation to a greater extent than did valsartan alone or valsartan-amlodipine. In addition, the increases in urinary excretion of dopamine and epinephrine as well as in cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) gene expression apparent in vehicle-treated rats were attenuated to a greater extent by valsartan-cilnidipine than by the other two treatments. Valsartan-cilnidipine thus attenuated LV remodeling and diastolic dysfunction more effectively than did valsartan or valsartan-amlodipine in rats with salt-sensitive hypertension, and this superior cardioprotective action of valsartan-cilnidipine compared with valsartan-amlodipine is likely attributable, at least in part, to the greater antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects associated with both greater inhibition of cardiac RAAS gene expression and N-type calcium channel blockade.

  13. Symptom-limited exercise testing causes sustained diastolic dysfunction in patients with coronary disease and low effort tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fragasso, G; Benti, R; Sciammarella, M; Rossetti, E; Savi, A; Gerundini, P; Chierchia, S L

    1991-05-01

    Exercise stress testing is routinely used for the noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease and is considered a safe procedure. However, the provocation of severe ischemia might potentially cause delayed recovery of myocardial function. To investigate the possibility that maximal exercise testing could induce prolonged impairment of left ventricular function, 15 patients with angiographically proved coronary disease and 9 age-matched control subjects with atypical chest pain and normal coronary arteries were studied. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed at rest, at peak exercise, during recovery and 2 and 7 days after exercise. Ejection fraction, peak filling and peak emptying rates and left ventricular wall motion were analyzed. All control subjects had a normal exercise test at maximal work loads and improved left ventricular function on exercise. Patients developed 1 mm ST depression at 217 +/- 161 s at a work load of 70 +/- 30 W and a rate-pressure product of 18,530 +/- 4,465 mm Hg x beats/min. Although exercise was discontinued when angina or equivalent symptoms occurred, in all patients diagnostic ST depression (greater than or equal to 1 mm) developed much earlier than symptoms. Predictably, at peak exercise patients showed a decrease in ejection fraction and peak emptying and filling rates. Ejection fraction and peak emptying rate normalized within the recovery period, whereas peak filling rate remained depressed throughout recovery (p less than 0.002) and was still reduced 2 days after exercise (p less than 0.02). In conclusion, in patients with severe impairement of coronary flow reserve, maximal exercise may cause sustained impairement of diastolic function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Coronary microvascular dysfunction and diastolic load correlate with cardiac troponin T release measured by a highly sensitive assay in patients with nonischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Takashio, Seiji; Yamamuro, Megumi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Seigo; Kojima, Sunao; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Tayama, Shinji; Kaikita, Koichi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao

    2013-08-13

    This study investigated factors associated with cardiac troponin T (cTnT) release from failing myocardium. Persistent and modest elevation of serum cTnT is frequently observed in heart failure (HF) patients free of coronary artery disease, although the mechanisms underlying this finding remain unclear. We evaluated serum cTnT levels in the aortic root (Ao) and coronary sinus (CS) using a highly sensitive assay in 90 nonischemic HF patients and 47 non-HF patients. Transcardiac cTnT and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) release were described as the differences between CS and Ao cTnT levels [ΔcTnT (CS-Ao)] and BNP levels [ΔBNP (CS-Ao)], respectively. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was measured in 68 HF patients using an intracoronary Doppler guidewire. ΔcTnT (CS-Ao) levels were available in 76 HF patients and 28 non-HF patients (84% vs. 60%; p = 0.001), and higher in HF patients than non-HF patients (p < 0.001). Among HF patients, log[ΔcTnT (CS-Ao)] correlated with log[ΔBNP (CS-Ao)] (r = 0.368, p = 0.001), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (r = 0.253, p = 0.03) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (r = 0.321, p = 0.005). Multivariate regression analysis identified LVEDP as an independent parameter that correlated with ΔcTnT (CS-Ao). ΔcTnT (CS-Ao) levels were available in 58 HF patients who were evaluated for CFR. Coronary microvascular dysfunction, diagnosed by CFR <2.0, was observed in 18 HF patients. ΔcTnT (CS-Ao) was higher in patients with coronary microvascular dysfunction (4.8 [2.0 to 8.1] ng/l) than those without (2.0 [1.2 to 4.6] ng/l; p = 0.04). cTnT release from failing myocardium correlated with diastolic load and coronary microvascular dysfunction in nonischemic HF patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction are associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in young women but polycystic ovary syndrome does not confer additional risk.

    PubMed

    Rees, E; Coulson, R; Dunstan, F; Evans, W D; Blundell, H L; Luzio, S D; Dunseath, G; Halcox, J P; Fraser, A G; Rees, D A

    2014-09-01

    Are arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and diastolic dysfunction increased in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently of the effects of obesity? Insulin resistance and central obesity are associated with subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in young women, but a diagnosis of PCOS does not appear to confer additional risk at this age. Some studies have shown that young women with PCOS may have increased measures of cardiovascular risk, including arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and myocardial dysfunction. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS per se and how much is due to obesity and insulin resistance, which are common in PCOS and themselves associated with greater vascular risk. This cross-sectional study comprised 84 women with PCOS and 95 healthy volunteers, aged 16-45 years. The study was conducted in a university hospital. Subjects underwent a comprehensive assessment of body composition (including computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral fat; VF), measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), diastolic function (longitudinal tissue velocity; e':a') and endocrinological measures. A sample size of 80 in each group gave 80% power for detecting a difference of 0.45 m/s in aPWV or a difference of 0.25 in e':a'. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), PCOS subjects had a greater insulin response (insulin area under the curve-IAUC) following glucose challenge (adjusted difference [AD] 35 900 pmol min/l, P < 0.001) and higher testosterone (AD 0.57 nmol/l, P < 0.001) and high molecular weight adiponectin than controls (AD 3.01 µg/ml, P = 0.02), but no significant differences in aPWV (AD -0.13 m/s, P = 0.33), ccIMT (AD -0.01 mm, P = 0.13), or e':a' (AD -0.01, P = 0.86) were observed. After adjustment for age, height and central pulse pressure, e':a' and aPWV were associated with log

  16. Major influence of a 'smoke and mirrors' effect caused by wave reflection on early diastolic coronary arterial wave intensity.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Penny, Daniel J; Smolich, Joseph J

    2018-03-15

    Coronary wave intensity analysis (WIA) is an emerging technique for assessing upstream and downstream influences on myocardial perfusion. It is thought that a dominant backward decompression wave (BDW dia ) is generated by a distal suction effect, while early-diastolic forward decompression (FDW dia ) and compression (FCW dia ) waves originate in the aorta. We show that wave reflection also makes a substantial contribution to FDW dia , FCW dia and BDW dia , as quantified by a novel method. In 18 sheep, wave reflection accounted for ∼70% of BDW dia , whereas distal suction dominated in a computer model representing a hypertensive human. Non-linear addition/subtraction of mechanistically distinct waves (e.g. wave reflection and distal suction) obfuscates the true contribution of upstream and downstream forces on measured waves (the 'smoke and mirrors' effect). The mechanisms underlying coronary WIA are more complex than previously thought and the impact of wave reflection should be considered when interpreting clinical and experimental data. Coronary arterial wave intensity analysis (WIA) is thought to provide clear insight into upstream and downstream forces on coronary flow, with a large early-diastolic surge in coronary flow accompanied by a prominent backward decompression wave (BDW dia ), as well as a forward decompression wave (FDW dia ) and forward compression wave (FCW dia ). The BDW dia is believed to arise from distal suction due to release of extravascular compression by relaxing myocardium, while FDW dia and FCW dia are thought to be transmitted from the aorta into the coronary arteries. Based on an established multi-scale computational model and high-fidelity measurements from the proximal circumflex artery (Cx) of 18 anaesthetized sheep, we present evidence that wave reflection has a major impact on each of these three waves, with a non-linear addition/subtraction of reflected waves obscuring the true influence of upstream and downstream forces

  17. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is related with coronary flow velocity reserve and diastolic dysfunction in patients with asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tesic, Milorad; Seferovic, Jelena; Trifunovic, Danijela; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Giga, Vojislav; Jovanovic, Ivana; Petrovic, Olga; Marinkovic, Jelena; Stankovic, Sanja; Stepanovic, Jelena; Ristic, Arsen; Petrovic, Milan; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Vujisic-Tesic, Bosiljka; Beleslin, Branko; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stankovic, Goran; Seferovic, Petar

    2017-10-01

    The relations of elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is uncertain. Therefore we designed the study with the following aims: (1) to analyze plasma concentrations of NT-pro-BNP in various subsets of HCM patients; (2) to reveal the correlations of NT-pro-BNP, myocardial ischemia, and diastolic dysfunction; (3) to assess predictors of the elevated plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP. In 61 patients (mean age 48.9±16.3 years; 26 male) with asymmetric HCM plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were obtained. Standard transthoracic examination, tissue Doppler echocardiography with measurement of transthoracic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending artery (LAD) was done. Mean natural logarithm value of NT-pro-BNP was 7.11±0.95pg/ml [median value 1133 (interquartile range 561-2442)pg/ml]. NT-pro-BNP was significantly higher in patients with higher NYHA class, in obstructive HCM, more severe mitral regurgitation, increased left atrial volume index (LAVI), presence of calcified mitral annulus, elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and in decreased CFVR. Levels of NT-pro-BNP significantly correlated with the ratio of E/e' (r=0.534, p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (r=0.503, p=0.024), LAVI (r=0.443, p<0.001), while inversely correlated with CFVR LAD (r=-0.569, p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was done only CFVR LAD and E/e' emerged as independent predictors of NT-pro-BNP. Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were significantly higher in HCM patients with more advanced disease. Elevated NT-pro-BNP not only reflects the diastolic impairment of the LV, but it might also be the result of cardiac ischemia in patients with HCM. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside prevents the development of maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic heart dysfunction in 20-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; McCallum, Jason; Kirby, Chris; Louis, Xavier Lieben; Jahan, Fahmida; Yu, Liping; Hiebert, Brett; Duhamel, Todd A; Wigle, Jeffrey T; Blewett, Heather; Netticadan, Thomas

    2018-06-20

    The present study investigated the effects of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G) in cardiomyocytes (CM) and fibroblasts exposed to endothelin 1 (ET1), as well as in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). Adult rat CM and cardiac fibroblasts (CF) were pretreated with C3G and co-incubated with ET1 (10-7 M) for 24 hours. Five-week-old male SHR and their normotensive controls, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), received one of 4 treatments via oral gavage daily for 15 weeks: (1) water (control); (2) C3G (10 mg per kg per day); (3) HCT (10 mg per kg per day); (4) C3G + HCT (10 mg per kg per day each). Blood pressure (BP) was measured at 1, 8 and 15 weeks. Echocardiography measurements were performed at 15 weeks. C3G prevented ET1-induced CM death and hypertrophy. Stimulating CF with ET1 did not induce their phenoconversion; nevertheless, C3G inhibited un-stimulated CF differentiation. HCT slowed the rise of systolic BP (SBP) in the SHR over time (week 1: SHRs control = 161 ± 6.3 mmHg, SHRs HCT = 129 ± 6.3 mmHg; week 15: SHRs control = 201 ± 7.3 mmHg, SHRs HCT = 168 ± 7.3 mmHg), but C3G had no effect on SBP (week 1: SHRs control = 161 ± 6.3 mmHg, SHRs C3G = 126 ± 6.3 mmHg; week 15: SHRs control = 201 ± 7.3 mmHg, SHRs C3G = 186 ± 7.3 mmHg). SHRs treated with C3G, HCT, and C3G + HCT had lower left ventricular mass and shorter isovolumetric relaxation time compared to control SHRs. C3G ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in SHRs.

  19. Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

  20. Predictors of mitral annulus early diastolic velocity: impact of long-axis function, ventricular filling pattern, and relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Zoran B.; Desai, Milind Y.; Buakhamsri, Adisai; Puntawagkoon, Chirapa; Borowski, Allen; Levine, Benjamin D.; Tang, Wilson W.H.; Thomas, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Although left ventricular (LV) relaxation is well recognized as a predictor of mitral annulus (MA) early diastolic (E′) velocity, its significance relative to other predictors of E′ is less well understood. Methods and results We assessed 40 healthy volunteers, 43 patients with acutely decompensated chronic systolic heart failure (HF), and 36 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) using echocardiography and right or left heart catheterization. Data were obtained at baseline. In addition, in healthy volunteers haemodynamics were varied by graded saline infusion and low body negative pressure, while in HF patients it was varied by vasoactive drug treatment. E- and A-wave velocity (E/A) ratio of the mitral valve inflow, systolic MA velocity integral (s′ integral) and E′ and late velocity (A′) of lateral and septal MA pulsed wave velocities were assessed by echocardiography. Time constant of isovolumic pressure decay τ0) was calculated from isovolumic relaxation time/[ln(aortic dicrotic notch pressure) – ln(LV filling pressure)]. In all three groups, s′ integral was the strongest predictor of E′ (partial r= 0.53–0.79; 0.81 for three groups combined), followed by E/A ratio (partial r= 0.10–0.78; 0.26 for all groups combined) and τ0 (partial r= −0.1 to 0.023; −0.21 for all groups combined). Conclusion In healthy adults, patients with systolic HF, or patients with HOCM, E′ is related to LV long-axis function and E/A ratio, a global marker of LV filling. E′ appears less sensitive to LV relaxation. PMID:21865226

  1. Evaluation of early cardiac dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with or without anticardiolipin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Barutcu, A; Aksu, F; Ozcelik, F; Barutcu, C A E; Umit, G E; Pamuk, O N; Altun, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction, an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in terms of cardiac effects. This study involved 80 patients: a study group (n = 50) and control group (n = 30). They were categorized into four subgroups: anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (+) (n = 14) and aCL (-) (n = 36); systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 6 (n = 15) and SLEDAI < 6 (n = 35); disease period ≥ 5 years (n = 21) and disease period < 5 years (n = 29); major organ involvement (+) (n = 19), major organ involvement (-) (n = 31). The ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') for the study group was found to be higher than the control (p < 0.01). Systolic septal motion velocity (Ssm) was lower in the study group compared with the control (p < 0.01). Left atrium (LA) dimension was greater in the study group than the control (p < 0.01). Ssm was found to be lower in the aCL (+) patients compared with the control and aCL (-) groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). LA dimension was greater in the aCL (+) and (-) groups compared with the control, (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively) and aCL groups compared with each other (p < 0.05). The E/E' ratio for the aCL (+) and (-) groups was found to be greater than the control (p < 0.05). In the study, both the Ssm and the late diastolic septal velocity (sA') was found to be lower in the SLEDAI ≥ 6 group compared with SLEDAI<6 group, (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). LA dimension was statistically greater in the SLEDAI ≥ 6 group compared with the SLEDAI <6 group (p < 0.001). E' and early diastolic septal velocity (sE') were statistically lower in the disease period >5 years group compared with the disease period <5 years group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Carrying out regular scans with TTE

  2. The effect of right ventricle pacemaker lead position on diastolic function in patients with preserved left ventricle ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Vladimir; Perisić, Zoran; Jolić, Aleksandar; Adamović, Dragana; Zastranović, Lale; Aleksić, Aleksandar; Kostić, Tomislav; Božinović, Nenad; Aleksić, Zeljka; Soldatović, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze any changes during diastole in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), after pacemaker stimulation from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and right ventricular apex (RVA) lead position. This was a prospective, randomized, follow up study, which lasted for 12 months. Our research included 132 consecutive patients who were implanted with a permanent antibradycardiac pacemaker. Regarding the right ventricle lead position the patients were divided into two groups: The RVOT group--71 patients, with right ventricle outflow tract lead position and the RVA group--61 patients, with right ventricle apex lead position. We measured LVEF and diastolic parameters: peak filling ratio and time to peak filling ratio obtained by radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). The LVEF and various diastolic parameters and left atrial diameter were obtained by echocardiography. Based on the values of deceleration time of early diastolic filling (DTE), and other diastolic parameters like left atrial diameter, all the patients were classified into three degrees of diastolic dysfunction. Our results showed that there was no group difference in distribution of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), VVI to DDD pacemakers implantation ratio, RNV parameters (LVEF, peak filling rate (PFR), time to PFR (TPFR)) and echocardiography parameters: LVEF and parameters of diastolic dysfunction. After 12 months of pacemaker stimulation, LVEF by RNV remained the same in the RVOT group 51.31±15.80% (P=0.75), and also in the RVA group 53.83±6.57%, (P=0.19). In the RVOT group the PFR was highly lower and this finding was significant (P=0.01), while TPFR was also significantly lower (P=0.03). By dividing the patients according to the degree of diastolic dysfunction we found that most patients in both groups at enrollment had a second degree diastolic dysfunction. In both groups diastolic dysfunction increased, the number of patients with third degree diastolic

  3. Urine Metabonomics Reveals Early Biomarkers in Diabetic Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lin, Mengya; Kang, Mingqin; Liu, Hongyue; Zhang, Yuping; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to diabetic encephalopathy, which is a frequent diabetic complication and affects nearly 30% of diabetics. Because cognitive dysfunction from diabetic encephalopathy might develop into irreversible dementia, early diagnosis and detection of this disease is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. This study is to investigate the early specific metabolites biomarkers in urine prior to the onset of diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD) by using metabolomics technology. An ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) platform was used to analyze the urine samples from diabetic mice that were associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and nonassociated with MCI in the stage of diabetes (prior to the onset of DCD). We then screened and validated the early biomarkers using OPLS-DA model and support vector machine (SVM) method. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, we found that seven metabolites could be accepted as early biomarkers of DCD, and the SVM results showed that the prediction accuracy is as high as 91.66%. The identities of four biomarkers were determined by mass spectrometry. The identified biomarkers were largely involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. The present study first revealed reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of DCD. It provides new insight and strategy for the early diagnosis and treatment of DCD.

  4. Early renal dysfunction after contrast media administration despite prophylactic hydration.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Pawel; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Tabaczewski, Piotr; Synowiec, Tomasz; Bogdan, Monika; Faner, Paula; Chmielarz-Sobocińska, Anna; Palasz, Anna

    2013-06-01

    The actual incidence of renal dysfunction after contrast media administration seems to be underestimated, especially in the context of epidemiological data. There are only few data concerning the monitoring of impaired kidney function within a few hours after iodine contrast medium application. Hence, the purpose of this study is to observe the incidence of early renal function deterioration within 12-18 h after administration of iodine contrast media in patients scheduled for elective coronary angiography, who were intravenously and orally hydrated. In addition, the project aims to reclassify the contrast induced nephropathy phenomenon, by identification of early markers of renal dysfunction. Morphology, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels were assessed with the use of typical laboratory techniques in 319 patients referred for coronary angiography. We demonstrated that early deterioration of renal function in patients 12-18 h after administration of contrast during imaging tests (even when appropriate prophylactic hydration was used), may occurred just as an increase (or no change) of serum creatinine level and BUN level and a decrease of creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate. Depending on the parameter, the phenomenon can be found in 13-28 % of all respondents. Early renal function impairment defined as above was almost 2 and 2.22 × 10(3) times (respectively) more frequently observed in our study than contrast induced nephropathy defined by current definitions.

  5. Determination of early diastolic LV vortex formation time (T*) via the PDF formalism: a kinematic model of filling.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovacs, Sandor J

    2009-01-01

    The filling (diastolic) function of the human left ventricle is most commonly assessed by echocardiography, a non-invasive imaging modality. To quantify diastolic function (DF) empiric indices are obtained from the features (height, duration, area) of transmitral flow velocity contour, obtained by echocardiography. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism is a kinematic model developed by Kovács et. al. which incorporates the suction pump attribute of the left ventricle and facilitates DF quantitation by analysis of echocardiographic transmitral flow velocity contours in terms of stiffness (k), relaxation (c) and load (x(0)). A complementary approach developed by Gharib et. al., uses fluid mechanics and characterizes DF in terms of vortex formation time (T*) derived from streamline features formed by the jet of blood aspirated into the ventricle. Both of these methods characterize DF using a causality-based approach. In this paper, we derive T*'s kinematic analogue T*(kinematic) in terms of k, c and x(0). A comparison between T*(kinematic) and T*(fluid) (mechanic) obtained from averaged transmitral velocity and mitral annulus diameter, is presented. We found that T* calculated by the two methods were comparable and T*(kinematic) correlated with the peak LV recoil driving force kx(0).

  6. Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Soma-Pillay, P; Louw, M C; Adeyemo, A O; Makin, J; Pattinson, R C

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk. This was a descriptive study performed at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Ninety-six women with severe preeclampsia and 45 normotensive women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited during the delivery admission. Seventy-four (77.1%) women in the pre-eclamptic group were classified as a maternal near miss. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed at delivery and one year post-partum. At one year post-partum, women with pre-eclampsia had a higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.02) than women in the normotensive control group. Women with early onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation had an increased risk of diastolic dysfunction at one year post-partum (RR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.11-10.5, p = 0.04) and this was irrespective of whether the patient had chronic hypertension or not. Women who develop early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks are at a significant risk of developing cardiac diastolic dysfunction one year after delivery compared to normotensive women with a history of a low-risk pregnancy.

  7. Cardiac Amyloidosis Shows Decreased Diastolic Function as Assessed by Echocardiographic Parameterized Diastolic Filling.

    PubMed

    Salman, Katrin; Cain, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Sundqvist, Martin G; Ugander, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare but serious condition with poor survival. One of the early findings by echocardiography is impaired diastolic function, even before the development of cardiac symptoms. Early diagnosis is important, permitting initiation of treatment aimed at improving survival. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism entails describing the left ventricular filling pattern during early diastole using the mathematical equation for the motion of a damped harmonic oscillator. We hypothesized that echocardiographic PDF analysis could detect differences in diastolic function between patients with amyloidosis and controls. Pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography of transmitral flow was measured in 13 patients with amyloid heart disease and 13 age- and gender matched controls. E- waves (2 to 3 per subject) were analyzed using in-house developed software. Nine PDF-derived parameters were obtained in addition to conventional echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function. Compared to controls, cardiac amyloidosis patients had a larger left atrial area (23.7 ± 7.5 cm 2 vs. 18.5 ± 4.8 cm 2 , p = 0.04), greater interventricular septum wall thickness (14.4 ± 2.6 mm vs. 9.3 ± 1.3 mm, p < 0.001), lower e' (0.06 ± 0.02 m/s vs. 0.09 ± 0.02 m/s, p < 0.001) and higher E/e' (18.0 ± 12.9 vs. 7.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.001). The PDF parameter peak resistive force was greater in cardiac amyloidosis patients compared to controls (17.9 ± 5.7 mN vs. 13.1 ± 3.1 mN, p = 0.03), and other PDF parameters did not differ. PDF analysis revealed that patients with cardiac amyloidosis had a greater peak resistive force compared to controls, consistent with a greater degree of diastolic dysfunction. PDF analysis may be useful in characterizing diastolic function in amyloid heart disease. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Value of preoperative pulmonary artery diastolic pressure on predicting primary graft dysfunction after bilateral lung transplantation for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongyang; Jiang, Shuyun; Li, Jiaqiong; Lu, Shunmei; Wang, Dapeng; Zang, Zhidong; Pan, Hong; Chen, Jingyu

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the value of the potential risk factors on predicting primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after bilateral lung transplantation for the patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A retrospective study was conducted. Fifty-eight patients with IPF who underwent the bilateral lung transplantation admitted to Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from June 2014 to March 2017 were enrolled. The grade 3 PGD happened within 72 hours after transplantation was taken as the outcome event, and these patients were divided into PGD and non-PGD groups. The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), underlying disease, and N-terminal-probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) before operation, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) before and after operation, duration of operation, the volume of blood transfusion during operation and postoperation, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during the operation, blood purification treatment after operation, and shock within 3 days after operation were recorded. The differences of parameters mentioned above between the two groups were compared. The predictive factors of PGD were searched by binary logistic regression analysis, and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted to analyze the predictive value of preoperative PADP for grade 3 PGD after transplantation. Among 58 patients who underwent the bilateral lung transplantation, 52 patients were enrolled. The rest patients were excluded because of incomplete clinical data. There were 17 patients in the PGD group, with a mortality rate of 47.06%. The non-PGD group included 35 patients with a mortality rate of 8.57%. PADP and mPAP ahead of operation, the dosage of red cells suspension after the operation, and the total amount of blood transfusion during and after the operation in PGD group were significantly higher than those in non

  9. Biventricular and atrial diastolic function assessment using conventional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging in adults with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Moggridge, James C; Bijnens, Bart H; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Alpendurada, Francisco; Mullen, Michael J; Saha, Samir; Nassiri, Dariush K; Camm, John; Sutherland, George R; Child, Anne H

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies provided evidence about left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, in the literature, data on right ventricular and bi-atrial diastolic function are limited. We aimed to investigate whether, in the absence of significant valvular disease, diastolic dysfunction is present not only in both ventricles but also in the atrial cavities. Seventy-two adult unoperated MFS patients and 73 controls without significant differences in age, sex, and body surface area from the patient group were studied using two-dimensional, pulsed, and colour-Doppler and tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI). Biventricular early filling measurements were significantly decreased in MFS patients when compared with controls (P < 0.001). Pulsed TDI early filling measurements obtained from five mitral annular regions and over the lateral tricuspid valve corner were significantly reduced in the patient group (P < 0.001). Indices reflecting atrial function at the reservoir, conduit and contractile phases were also significantly decreased in MFS patients (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated significant biventricular diastolic and biatrial systolic and diastolic dysfunction in MFS patients. Our findings suggest that MFS affects diastolic function independently. Diastolic abnormalities could be attributed to fibrillin-1 deficiency and dysregulation of transforming growth factor-beta activity in the cardiac extracellular matrix.

  10. Assessment of Early Diastolic Strain-Velocity Temporal Relationships Using SPAMM-PAV (SPAtial Modulation of Magnetization with Polarity Alternating Velocity encoding)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziheng; Dione, Donald P.; Brown, Peter B.; Shapiro, Erik M.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sampath, Smita

    2011-01-01

    A novel MR imaging technique, spatial modulation of magnetization with polarity alternating velocity encoding (SPAMM-PAV), is presented to simultaneously examine the left ventricular early diastolic temporal relationships between myocardial deformation and intra-cavity hemodynamics with a high temporal resolution of 14 ms. This approach is initially evaluated in a dynamic flow and tissue mimicking phantom. A comparison of regional longitudinal strains and intra-cavity pressure differences (integration of computed in-plane pressure gradients within a selected region) in relation to mitral valve inflow velocities is performed in eight normal volunteers. Our results demonstrate that apical regions have higher strain rates (0.145 ± 0.005 %/ms) during the acceleration period of rapid filling compared to mid-ventricular (0.114 ± 0.007 %/ms) and basal regions (0.088 ± 0.009 %/ms), and apical strain curves plateau at peak mitral inflow velocity. This pattern is reversed during the deceleration period, when the strain-rates in the basal regions are the highest (0.027 ± 0.003 %/ms) due to ongoing basal stretching. A positive base-to-apex gradient in peak pressure difference is observed during acceleration, followed by a negative base-to apex gradient during deceleration. These studies shed insight into the regional volumetric and pressure difference changes in the left ventricle during early diastolic filling. PMID:21630348

  11. Erectile dysfunction and target organ damage in the early stages of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kakkavas, Apostolos; Tsioufis, Costas; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Thomopoulos, Costas; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Milkas, Anastasios; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated whether erectile dysfunction (ED) in the early stages of hypertension is associated with heightened end-organ damage. A total of 174 consecutive men with untreated, newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 50.3 years, office blood pressure [BP] 150/98 mm Hg) were studied. All participants underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, blood examination, albumin-creatinine ratio, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity assessment, and echocardiography for estimation of left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. Hypertensive men with ED (n=43, 24.7%) compared with those without ED were older (by 6.4 years, P<.05), had greater 24-hour pulse pressure (by 4.3 mm Hg, P=.011) and a greater prevalence of nondipping status (72.2% vs 46.7%, P=.008), while the two groups did not differ in plasma glucose, lipid, creatinine, and albumin/creatinine ratio levels. Regarding cardiac adaptations, hypertensive men with ED exhibited only significantly lower tissue Doppler imaging-derived Em (by 1.6 cm/s, adjusted P=.035), while no difference in left ventricular mass index or pulse wave velocity were detected. ED in the setting of untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension does not have an unfavorable impact on traditional markers of target organ damage. This finding suggests that ED assessment might not refine the traditional risk stratification procedure at least in the early stages of hypertensive disease. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Metabolomics discloses donor liver biomarkers associated with early allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Miriam; Pareja, Eugenia; García-Cañaveras, Juan C; Donato, M Teresa; Montero, Sandra; Mir, Jose; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) dramatically influences graft and patient outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation and its incidence is strongly determined by donor liver quality. Nevertheless, objective biomarkers, which can assess graft quality and anticipate organ function, are still lacking. This study aims to investigate whether there is a preoperative donor liver metabolomic biosignature associated with EAD. A comprehensive metabolomic profiling of 124 donor liver biopsies collected before transplantation was performed by mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. Donor liver grafts were classified into two groups: showing EAD and immediate graft function (IGF). Multivariate data analysis was used to search for the relationship between the metabolomic profiles present in donor livers before transplantation and their function in recipients. A set of liver graft dysfunction-associated biomarkers was identified. Key changes include significantly increased levels of bile acids, lysophospholipids, phospholipids, sphingomyelins and histidine metabolism products, all suggestive of disrupted lipid homeostasis and altered histidine pathway. Based on these biomarkers, a predictive EAD model was built and further evaluated by assessing 24 independent donor livers, yielding 91% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The model was also successfully challenged by evaluating donor livers showing primary non-function (n=4). A metabolomic biosignature that accurately differentiates donor livers, which later showed EAD or IGF, has been deciphered. The remarkable metabolomic differences between donor livers before transplant can relate to their different quality. The proposed metabolomic approach may become a clinical tool for donor liver quality assessment and for anticipating graft function before transplant. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early detection of myocardial dysfunction using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a young cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Yohei; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Niina, Ayaka; Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2018-01-01

    Case summary A 5-month-old intact female Scottish Fold cat was presented for cardiac evaluation. Careful auscultation detected a slight systolic murmur (Levine I/VI). The findings of electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, non-invasive blood pressure measurements and conventional echocardiographic studies were unremarkable. However, two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography revealed abnormalities in myocardial deformations, including decreased early-to-late diastolic strain rate ratios in longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions, and deteriorated segmental systolic longitudinal strain. At the follow-up examinations, the cat exhibited echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using conventional echocardiography. Relevance and novel information This is the first report on the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction in a cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the myocardial dysfunction was detected before the development of hypertrophy. The findings from this case suggest that two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography can be useful for myocardial assessment when conventional echocardiographic and Doppler findings are ambiguous. PMID:29449957

  14. Serum proteomics of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Shi-Zhong; Feng, Chun-Sheng; Qu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xue-Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yun; Wu, An-Shi; Yue, Yun

    2012-07-01

    Studies on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) have attracted extensive attention and achieved significant progress. However, the diagnosis of POCD is not very satisfactory as no specific biomarkers have been classified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in serum protein composition between POCD and Non-POCD patients, identify potential biomarkers associated with early POCD, and study the mechanism underlying POCD. Sixty-eight elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) received isoflurane inhalation anesthesia for arthroplasty surgeries. One day before and seven days after the surgery, these patients were subjected to a neuropsychological test and venous blood sample collection. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was determined using Z test scores. Based on the results, the patients were divided into POCD and non-POCD groups. Twenty-five randomly chosen blood samples obtained seven days after the surgery from each group were analyzed on a Bruker ultraFlex(TM) time of flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrophotometer. The resulting peptide fingerprints were compared with those from the pre-surgery samples to identify differences in serum protein composition. The model designed to distinguish between a non-POCD group and a POCD group were established and validated. Three proteins with the most significant changes were selected for further characterization. Thirty-three cases were diagnosed as POCD. Using the Clinprotools software, 58 polypeptides were found to display differential expression (P < 0.05). Using a support vector algorithm method, seven differential peaks were isolated to establish a diagnostic model to distinguish POCD patients from normal individuals. The prediction rate and recognition rate were 96.89% and 100%, respectively. Validation of this model showed that the accuracy rates were 100% and 85% using samples from the POCD and non-POCD groups, respectively. Protein analysis also led to the identification of fibrinopeptide A (FPA) as a

  15. Effect of exercise on diastolic function in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M J; Mungovan, S F; Smart, N A

    2017-03-01

    Diastolic dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of heart failure. Conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging are widely utilised in clinical research providing a number of indices of diastolic function valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effect of exercise training on diastolic function in patients with heart failure. Exercise training studies that investigate different indices of diastolic function in patients with heart failure have reported that exercise training improves diastolic function in these patients. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying, where possible, the effect of exercise training on diastolic function. We conducted database searches (PubMed, EBSCO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Trials Register to 31 July 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using the search terms 'exercise training, diastolic function and diastolic dysfunction'. Data from six studies, with a total of 266 heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) participants, 144 in intervention groups and 122 in control groups, indicated a significant reduction in the ratio of early diastolic transmitral velocity (E) to early diastolic tissue velocity (E') (E/E' ratio) with exercise training, exercise vs. control mean difference (MD) of -2.85 (95% CI -3.66 to -2.04, p < 0.00001). Data from five studies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients, with a total of 204 participants, 115 in intervention groups and 89 in control groups, also demonstrated a significant improvement in E/E' in exercise vs. control MD of -2.38 (95% CI -3.47 to -1.28, p < 0.0001).

  16. Significance of left ventricular diastolic function on outcomes after surgical ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Nishina, Takeshi; Saji, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2010-05-01

    Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) has been introduced to restore the dilated left ventricular (LV) chamber and improve LV systolic function; however, SVR has also been reported to detrimentally affect LV diastolic properties. We sought to investigate the impact of preoperative LV diastolic function on outcomes after SVR in patients with heart failure. Sixty-seven patients (60 +/- 14 years) with LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction, 0.27 +/- 0.10) underwent SVR. They were evaluated by echocardiography preoperatively, and early (diastolic filling patterns of transmitral flow (impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive filling patterns). Patients in the restrictive group showed far greater cardiovascular mortality than the other two groups (p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis showed that preoperative restrictive filling pattern was a predominant predictor for adjusted cardiovascular death (p = 0.023; hazard ratio = 3.0). Left ventricular ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume, and grade of mitral regurgitation improved in all groups early after surgery; however, these variables in the restrictive group significantly deteriorated late after surgery (from 29 +/- 8 to 25 +/- 6 for LV ejection fraction; from 183 +/- 59 to 226 +/- 53 for left ventricular end-diastolic volume; and from 0.7 +/- 0.6 to 1.7 +/- 0.9 for mitral regurgitation grade; p < 0.05 for all). In patients with LV systolic dysfunction undergoing SVR, preoperative restrictive LV diastolic filling pattern strongly related to higher mortality with aggravation of LV systolic function, mitral regurgitation grade, or LV remodeling. This might be attributable to deterioration of diastolic function induced by SVR. Copyright (c) 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Right ventricular diastolic performance in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: correlation of echocardiographic parameters with invasive reference standards by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kenichi; Slorach, Cameron; Mroczek, Dariusz; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K

    2014-05-01

    Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction influences outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but echocardiographic parameters have not been investigated in relation to invasive reference standards in pediatric PAH. We investigated echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH in relation to simultaneously measured invasive reference measures. We prospectively recruited children undergoing a clinically indicated cardiac catheterization for evaluation of PAH and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing. Echocardiography was performed simultaneously with invasive reference measurements by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. For analysis, patients were divided into shunt and nonshunt groups. Sixteen children were studied. In the group as a whole, significant correlations were found among τ and tricuspid deceleration time, E', E/E', TimeE-E', A wave velocity, and global early and late diastolic strain rate. dp/dt minimum correlated significantly with late diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (A'), tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio, and global late diastolic strain rate. End-diastolic pressure correlated significantly with tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio. On multivariate analysis, tricuspid deceleration time, TimeE-E', and global early diastolic strain rate were independent predictors of τ, whereas tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio was an independent predictor of dp/dt minimum. In general, correlations between echocardiographic and invasive parameters were better in the shunt group than in the nonshunt group. Echocardiography correlates with invasive reference measures of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH, although it does not differentiate between early versus late diastolic abnormalities. Newer echocardiographic techniques may have added value to assess right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in this

  18. New diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities for diastolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Dudley, Samuel C

    2014-02-03

    Despite the fact that up to half of all heart failure occurs in patients without evidence of systolic cardiac dysfunction, there are no universally accepted diagnostic markers and no approved therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF, otherwise known as diastolic heart failure, has nearly the same grim prognosis as systolic heart failure, and diastolic heart failure is increasing in incidence and prevalence. Major trials have shown that many of the treatments that are salutary in systolic heart failure have no beneficial effects in diastolic heart failure, suggesting different underlying mechanisms for these two disorders. Even criteria for diagnosis of HFpEF are still debated, and there is still no gold standard marker to detect diastolic dysfunction. Here, we will review some promising new insights into the pathogenesis of diastolic dysfunction that may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

  19. Endothelial function is associated with myocardial diastolic function in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chin, Calvin W L; Chin, Chee-Yang; Ng, Marie X R; Le, Thu-Thao; Huang, Fei-Qiong; Fong, Kok-Yong; Thumboo, Julian; Tan, Ru-San

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific risk factors, and early data suggest reversibility of endothelial dysfunction with therapy. The clinical relevance of endothelial function assessment has been limited by the lack of studies, demonstrating its prognostic significance and impact on early myocardial function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between endothelial and myocardial diastolic function in SLE women. Women with SLE and no coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited and underwent radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) (Jetstream, Philips, the Netherlands) to exclude subclinical myocardial ischemia. Cardiac and vascular functions were assessed in all patients (Alpha 10, Aloka, Tokyo). Diastolic function was assessed using pulse wave early (E) and late mitral blood inflow and myocardial tissue Doppler (mean of medial and lateral annulus e') velocities. Endothelial function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD%). Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to assess the association between FMD% and myocardial diastolic function, adjusting for potential confounders. Thirty-eight patients without detectable myocardial ischemia on MPI were studied (mean age 44 ± 10 years; mean disease duration 14 ± 6 years). About 61 % of patients had normal diastolic function (E/e' ≤ 8), and 5 % of patients had definite diastolic dysfunction with E/e' > 13 (mean 7.1 ± 2.9). FMD% was associated with E/e' (regression coefficient β = -0.35; 95 % CI -0.62 to -0.08; p = 0.01) independent of systolic blood pressure, age, and SLICC/ACR Damage Index.

  20. Assessment of structural cardiac abnormalities and diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandra P; Calderon, Iracema M P; Costa, Roberto A A; Roscani, Meliza G; Magalhães, Claudia G; Borges, Vera T M

    2015-05-01

    The main manifestation of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus. It can herald diabetes mellitus type 2 and its deleterious long-term effects, such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, one of the first signs of future cardiovascular disease. A total of 21 women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy pregnant women (control group) between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation underwent echocardiographic assessment. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was made in agreement with the American Diabetes Association criteria. Echocardiographic images obtained were analysed according to the criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus had higher posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, increased left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index, lower early diastolic annular velocity and early diastolic annular velocity/late diastolic annular velocity ratio. There was a positive correlation between left ventricular mass index and fasting glucose and pregnancy body mass index. Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus seem to have a different diastolic profile as well as a mildly dysfunctional pattern on echocardiogram, which may show a need for greater glycaemic control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. This was a case-control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e': 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function.

  2. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods This was a case–control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Results Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e′: 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Conclusion Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function. PMID:25565790

  3. Gamma-scintigraphy and early hepatocellular dysfunction during posttraumatic sepsis.

    PubMed

    McGinty, M P; Stewart, R M; Fabian, M J; Fabian, T C; Proctor, K G

    1994-09-01

    /min/kg, p < 0.05) at 90 +/- 13 minutes, decreased systemic vascular resistance (0.48 +/- 0.04 mm Hg per ml/min/kg, p < 0.05 relative to 1.08 +/- 0.07 for control or 0.88 +/- 0.08 for pre-LPS) at 81 +/- 8 minutes, and increased systemic O2 consumption (6.96 +/- 0.93 vs 4.16 +/- 0.23 ml O2/min/kg, p < 0.05 relative to pre-LPS) at 96 +/- 12 minutes. (1) A prior episode of resuscitated traumatic shock exhausts hepatic reserve and this occult dysfunction in the conjugation-detoxification system or bilirubin metabolism is unmasked by LPS; (2) hepatic dysfunction could have a role in the pathogenesis of the hyperdynamic circulatory response evoked by LPS because HIDA clearance was reduced before CI increased or systemic vascular resistance decreased; (3) HIDA clearance is a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive estimate of bilirubin metabolism that may have a practical application in patients with septic trauma or others with occult liver dysfunction.

  4. Vorticity is a marker of diastolic ventricular interdependency in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Browning, James; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Shandas, Robin; Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Buckner, J. Kern; Hunter, Kendall S.; Hertzberg, Jean R.; Fenster, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine whether left ventricular (LV) vorticity (ω), the local spinning motion of a fluid element, correlated with markers of ventricular interdependency in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Maladaptive ventricular interdependency is associated with interventricular septal shift, impaired LV performance, and poor outcomes in PH patients, yet the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying fluid-structure interactions in ventricular interdependency are incompletely understood. Because conformational changes in chamber geometry affect blood flow formations and dynamics, LV ω may be a marker of LV-RV (right ventricular) interactions in PH. Echocardiography was performed for 13 PH patients and 10 controls for assessment of interdependency markers, including eccentricity index (EI), and biventricular diastolic dysfunction, including mitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) early and late velocities (E and A, respectively) as well as MV septal and lateral early tissue Doppler velocities (e′). Same-day 4-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance was performed for LV E (early)-wave ω measurement. LV E-wave ω was significantly decreased in PH patients (P = 0.008) and correlated with diastolic EI (Rho = −0.53, P = 0.009) as well as with markers of LV diastolic dysfunction, including MV E(Rho = 0.53, P = 0.011), E/A (Rho = 0.56, P = 0.007), septal e′ (Rho = 0.63, P = 0.001), and lateral e′ (Rho = 0.57, P = 0.007). Furthermore, LV E-wave ω was associated with indices of RV diastolic dysfunction, including TV e′ (Rho = 0.52, P = 0.012) and TV E/A (Rho = 0.53, P = 0.009). LV E-wave ω is decreased in PH and correlated with multiple echocardiographic markers of ventricular interdependency. LV ω may be a novel marker for fluid-tissue biomechanical interactions in LV-RV interdependency. PMID:27162613

  5. Autonomic dysfunction with early respiratory syncytial virus-related infection.

    PubMed

    Stock, Claire; Teyssier, Georges; Pichot, Vincent; Goffaux, Philippe; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Patural, Hugues

    2010-08-25

    Apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) and/or prolonged apnoea have been well-documented during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infants less than 2 months of age but fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. The possibility of a central origin for the development of severe cardiac and respiratory events encouraged us, to explore the autonomic nervous system (ANS) profile of infected infants, since ANS activity may contribute to the constellation of symptoms observed during severe forms of RSV bronchiolitis. Eight infants (2 preterm and 6 full-term) less than 2 months of age and presenting with severe and apnoeic forms of RSV infection were evaluated using non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring obtained simultaneously for approximately 2 consecutive hours, including a quiet sleep period. Eight control subjects, paired for gestational and postnatal age, were also evaluated. ANS status was monitored using electrocardiogram recordings and quantified through a frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). This included sympathetic (VLF and LF) and parasympathetic (HF) indices as well as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) obtained using non-invasive continuous arterial pressure. Regardless of gestational and postnatal age, heart rate variability components (Ptot, VLF, LF, and HF) and baroreflex components (alpha LF, alpha HF and sBR) were found to be significantly lower in the RSV-infected group than in the control group (p<0.05). RSV infection in neonates is associated with profound central autonomic dysfunction. The potentially fatal consequence stresses the importance of maintaining prolonged cardiopulmonary monitoring. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomarkers and echocardiography for evaluating the improvement of the ventricular diastolic function after surgical relief of hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Huei-Ming; Lin, Ting-Tse; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Jou-Wei; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lai, Ling-Ping; Huang, Yi-You

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is complex. Hydronephrosis caused by urolithiasis may cause cytokine release and lead to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac function changes observed in patients who received double J placement using feasible biomarkers and echocardiography. This was a prospective, single-center study. Eighty-seven patients who presented with acute unilateral hydronephrosis and received ureteroscope stone manipulation were enrolled. Echocardiography and cytokines were measured on the day of the operation and 24 hours after the procedure. Changes before and after surgery were assessed by the paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Correlation analyses between echocardiographic diastolic indices and cytokine levels were performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Patients with hydronephrosis showed a higher left atrium volume index (LAVI), decreased E', and increased E/ E' ratio, which indicated diastolic dysfunction. Patients with hydronephrosis also exhibited decreased global strain rates during isovolumetric relaxation (SRIVR) and E/ SRIVR, which confirmed the diastolic dysfunction. Significant reductions in LAVI, increases in SRIVR and decreases in E/ SRIVR were observed after the operation. Biomarkers, such as TGF-β and serum NT-proBNP, were significantly decreased after surgery. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the post-surgical decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in SRIVR. Unilateral hydronephrosis causes cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and relieving hydronephrosis could improve diastolic function. Improvements in cardiac dysfunction can be evaluated by echocardiography and measuring cytokine levels. The results of this study will inform efforts to improve the early diagnosis of CRS and prevent further deterioration of cardiac function when treating patients with hydronephrosis. PMID:29161313

  7. Biomarkers and echocardiography for evaluating the improvement of the ventricular diastolic function after surgical relief of hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Huei-Ming; Lin, Ting-Tse; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Jou-Wei; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lai, Ling-Ping; Huang, Yi-You; Chu, Chun-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is complex. Hydronephrosis caused by urolithiasis may cause cytokine release and lead to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac function changes observed in patients who received double J placement using feasible biomarkers and echocardiography. This was a prospective, single-center study. Eighty-seven patients who presented with acute unilateral hydronephrosis and received ureteroscope stone manipulation were enrolled. Echocardiography and cytokines were measured on the day of the operation and 24 hours after the procedure. Changes before and after surgery were assessed by the paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Correlation analyses between echocardiographic diastolic indices and cytokine levels were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Patients with hydronephrosis showed a higher left atrium volume index (LAVI), decreased E', and increased E/ E' ratio, which indicated diastolic dysfunction. Patients with hydronephrosis also exhibited decreased global strain rates during isovolumetric relaxation (SRIVR) and E/ SRIVR, which confirmed the diastolic dysfunction. Significant reductions in LAVI, increases in SRIVR and decreases in E/ SRIVR were observed after the operation. Biomarkers, such as TGF-β and serum NT-proBNP, were significantly decreased after surgery. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the post-surgical decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in SRIVR. Unilateral hydronephrosis causes cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and relieving hydronephrosis could improve diastolic function. Improvements in cardiac dysfunction can be evaluated by echocardiography and measuring cytokine levels. The results of this study will inform efforts to improve the early diagnosis of CRS and prevent further deterioration of cardiac function when treating patients with hydronephrosis.

  8. Early Immune Function and Duration of Organ Dysfunction in Critically Ill Septic Children.

    PubMed

    Muszynski, Jennifer A; Nofziger, Ryan; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Greathouse, Kristin; Anglim, Larissa; Steele, Lisa; Hensley, Josey; Hanson-Huber, Lisa; Nateri, Jyotsna; Ramilo, Octavio; Hall, Mark W

    2018-02-22

    Late immune suppression is associated with nosocomial infection and mortality in septic adults and children. Relationships between early immune suppression and outcomes in septic children remain unclear. Prospective observational study to test the hypothesis that early innate and adaptive immune suppression are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction in children with severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods, Measurements and Main Results: Children aged < 18 years meeting consensus criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were sampled within 48 hours of sepsis onset. Healthy controls were sampled once. Innate immune function was quantified by whole blood ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production capacity. Adaptive immune function was quantified by ex vivo phytohemagglutinin-induced IFNγ production capacity. 102 septic children and 35 healthy children were enrolled. Compared to healthy children, septic children demonstrated lower LPS-induced TNFα production (p < 0.0001) and lower PHA-induced IFNγ production (p<0.0001). Among septic children, early innate and adaptive immune suppression were associated with greater number of days with multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) and greater number of days with any organ dysfunction. On multivariable analyses, early innate immune suppression remained independently associated with increased MODS days [aRR 1.2 (1.03, 1.5)] and organ dysfunction days [aRR 1.2 (1.1, 1.3)]. Critically ill children with severe sepsis or septic shock demonstrate early innate and adaptive immune suppression. Early suppression of both innate and adaptive immunity are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction and may be useful markers to guide investigations of immunomodulatory therapies in septic children.

  9. Echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic parameters in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Garncarz, M A

    2007-01-01

    Echocardiography is a valuable tool for the evaluation of systolic and diastolic cardiac function. A high correlation between measurements of diastolic mitral inflow parameters analyzed with Doppler echocardiography and invasive methods makes the former valuable. The aim of this study was to ascertain if significant differences occur in diastolic myocardial parameters between dogs with no heart disease and dogs with subclinical or clinical dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore the aim of the study was to determine whether heart failure in dilated cardiomypathy is a result of systolic dysfunction alone or both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Eleven parameters were analyzed: E wave, E-AT, E-DT, E time, A wave, A-AT, A-DT, A time, E+A time, E/A ratio, and IVRT. The study confirmed the value of noninvasive echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant differences were found in E wave, E-AT, E time, E/A ratio and IVRT between healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. All are characterized by a significant decrease compared to healthy dogs after taking into account age and body weight except for the E/A ratio, which significantly increased in value. There were no significant changes in any of the Doppler parameters for diastolic evaluation in subclinical cases of DCM. Advanced heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy entails systolic and diastolic dysfunction.

  10. Alpha-Synuclein: From Early Synaptic Dysfunction to Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ghiglieri, Veronica; Calabrese, Valeria; Calabresi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, many experimental and clinical studies have provided solid evidence that alpha-synuclein (α-syn), a small, natively unfolded protein, is closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. To provide an overview on the different roles of this protein, here we propose a synopsis of seminal and recent studies that explored the many aspects of α-syn. Ranging from the physiological functions to its neurodegenerative potential, the relationship with the possible pathogenesis of PD will be discussed. Close attention will be paid on early cellular and molecular alterations associated with the presence of α-syn aggregates.

  11. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  12. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xichun; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Towner, Rheal A; Abbott, Andrew; Patterson, Eugene; Huang, Shijun; Garrett, Marion W; Chandrasekaran, Suresh; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Luke I; Gordon, Brian E; Kem, David C

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks) in diabetic mice and age-matched controls. Results After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17309798

  13. Effects of cardiac energy efficiency in diastolic heart failure: assessment with positron emission tomography with 11C-acetate.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Yasushi; Takeda, Yasuharu; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hori, Masatsugu; Hatazawa, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Diastolic heart failure (DHF) has become a high social burden, and its major underlying cardiovascular disease is hypertensive heart disease. However, the pathogenesis of DHF remains to be clarified. This study aimed to assess the effects of cardiac energy efficiency in DHF patients. (11)C-Acetate positron emission tomography and echocardiography were conducted in 11 DHF Japanese patients and 10 normal volunteers. The myocardial clearance rate of radiolabeled (11)C-acetate was measured to calculate the work metabolic index (WMI), an index of cardiac efficiency. The ratio of peak mitral E wave velocity to peak early diastolic septal myocardial velocity (E/e') was calculated to assess left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. The LV mass index was greater and the mean age was higher in the DHF patients than in the normal volunteers. There was no difference in WMI between the two groups. However, WMI varied widely among the DHF patients and was inversely correlated with E/e' (r=-0.699, p=0.017). In contrast, there was no correlation in the normal volunteers. In conclusion, the inefficiency of energy utilization is not a primary cause of diastolic dysfunction or DHF, and cardiac efficiency may not affect diastolic function in normal hearts. However, the energy-wasting state may induce the elevation of LV filling pressure in DHF patients, which was considered to principally result from the progressive diastolic dysfunction.

  14. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-29

    There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits uveal melanoma tumor growth via early mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, Paul R; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati R; Sareen, Dhruv; Subramanian, Lalita; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Lindstrom, Mary J; Albert, Daniel M; Polans, Arthur S

    2008-04-01

    To test the efficacy of resveratrol, a nontoxic plant product, in the treatment of uveal melanoma. The effect of oral administration and peritumor injection of resveratrol was tested on tumor growth in two animal models of uveal melanoma. The mechanism of resveratrol action on uveal melanoma cells was studied in vitro in a cell-viability assay: with JC-1 dye, to measure mitochondrial membrane potential; by Western blot analysis, to analyze the cellular redistribution of cytochrome c and Smac/diablo; and in a fluorescence assay with specific substrates, to measure activation of different caspases. Resveratrol treatment inhibited tumor growth in animal models of uveal melanoma. Since oral administration resulted in relatively low bioavailability of resveratrol, the effect of increased local levels was tested by peritumor injection of the drug. This method resulted in tumor cell death and tumor regression. In vitro experiments with multiple uveal melanoma cell lines demonstrate that resveratrol causes a decrease in cell viability, resulting at least in part from an increase in apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway. An early event in drug action is the direct targeting of mitochondria by resveratrol, which leads to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the eventual activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that resveratrol can inhibit tumor growth and can induce apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and that by further increasing bioavailability of resveratrol the potency of the drug can be increased, leading to tumor regression. The nontoxic nature of the drug at levels needed for therapy make resveratrol an attractive candidate for the treatment of uveal melanoma.

  16. Maximal blood flow acceleration analysis in the early diastolic phase for aortocoronary artery bypass grafts: a new transit-time flow measurement predictor of graft failure following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined using transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a potential predictor of graft failure for aortocoronary artery (AC) bypass grafts in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 114 aortocoronary artery bypass grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 9-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve, to measure max df/dt (9-polynomial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of <15 ml/min, a pulsatility index of >5 or a diastolic filling ratio of <50 %. Postoperative assessments were routinely performed by coronary artery angiography (CAG) at 1 year after surgery. Using TTFM, 68 grafts were normal, 4 of which were failing on CAG, and 46 grafts were abnormal, 21 of which were failing on CAG. 9-polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in abnormal TTFM/failing by the CAG group compared with abnormal TTFM/patent by the CAG group (1.08 ± 0.89 vs. 2.05 ± 1.51 ml/s(2), respectively; P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test, Holm adjustment). TTFM 9-polynomial max df/dt in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure for AC bypass grafts, particularly in abnormal TTFM grafts.

  17. 5-Fluorouracil cardiotoxicity: reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction with early detection.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Muhammad Zaid; Quasem, Wahid; El-Omar, Magdi

    2015-05-02

    A 33-year-old man presented to hospital with acute shortness of breath and evolving ST segment changes on ECG 3 days following a cycle of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer. Despite no cardiac history, subsequent echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient was initially treated with heart failure medications and his coronary angiogram was normal. Chemotherapy was stopped and he was started on nitrates and calcium channel blockers. A repeat echocardiogram and cardiac MRI a week later showed complete resolution of his left ventricular dysfunction and he was discharged home. This case report summarises 5-FU cardiotoxicity, and emphasises the importance of early recognition and correct treatment, as left ventricular systolic dysfunction in this context is potentially reversible. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. 5-Fluorouracil cardiotoxicity: reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction with early detection

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Muhammad Zaid; Quasem, Wahid; El-Omar, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old man presented to hospital with acute shortness of breath and evolving ST segment changes on ECG 3 days following a cycle of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for colon cancer. Despite no cardiac history, subsequent echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient was initially treated with heart failure medications and his coronary angiogram was normal. Chemotherapy was stopped and he was started on nitrates and calcium channel blockers. A repeat echocardiogram and cardiac MRI a week later showed complete resolution of his left ventricular dysfunction and he was discharged home. This case report summarises 5-FU cardiotoxicity, and emphasises the importance of early recognition and correct treatment, as left ventricular systolic dysfunction in this context is potentially reversible. PMID:25935919

  19. Patients with a hypertensive response to exercise have impaired left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Takeshi; Onishi, Katsuya; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Kurita, Tairo; Fujimoto, Naoki; Dohi, Kaoru; Tanigawa, Takashi; Isaka, Naoki; Nobori, Tsutomu; Ito, Masaaki

    2008-02-01

    An exaggerated increase in systolic blood pressure prolongs myocardial relaxation and increases left ventricular (LV) chamber stiffness, resulting in an increase in LV filling pressure. We hypothesize that patients with a marked hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) have LV diastolic dysfunction leading to exercise intolerance, even in the absence of resting hypertension. We recruited 129 subjects (age 63+/-9 years, 64% male) with a preserved ejection fraction and a negative stress test. HRE was evaluated at the end of a 6-min exercise test using the modified Bruce protocol. Patients were categorized into three groups: a group without HRE and without resting hypertension (control group; n=30), a group with HRE but without resting hypertension (HRE group; n=25), and a group with both HRE and resting hypertension (HTN group; n=74). Conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging were performed at rest. After 6-min exercise tests, systolic blood pressure increased in the HRE and HTN groups, compared with the control group (226+/-17 mmHg, 226+/-17 mmHg, and 180+/-15 mmHg, respectively, p<0.001). There were no significant differences in LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic diameter, and early mitral inflow velocity among the three groups. However, early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') was significantly lower and the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity (E) to E' (E/E') was significantly higher in patients of the HRE and HTN groups compared to controls (E': 5.9+/-1.6 cm/s, 5.9+/-1.7 cm/s, 8.0+/-1.9 cm/s, respectively, p<0.05). In conclusion, irrespective of the presence of resting hypertension, patients with hypertensive response to exercise had impaired LV longitudinal diastolic function and exercise intolerance.

  20. Beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in pediatric patients with tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Han, Chuanlai; Fu, Rong; Lei, Weifu

    2018-07-01

    According to clinical investigations, early postoperative cognitive dysfunction is the most common adverse event in pediatric patients after tonsillectomy. A previous study has indicated that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an efficient drug for the treatment of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. However, the efficacy of DEX in alleviating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in pediatric patients following tonsillectomy has remained elusive, which was therefore assessed in the present study. A total of 186 children presenting with cognitive dysfunction subsequent to tonsillectomy were recruited to analyze the efficacy of DEX. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and received intravenous treatment with DEX (n=112) or placebo (n=74). Duration of treatment, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DEX were evaluated in a preliminary experiment. The improvement of postoperative cognitive function in children with tonsillectomy was analyzed with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) following treatment with DEX. A 40-item quality of life (MONEX-40) questionnaire was used to assess the efficacy of DEX. The plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, superoxide dismutase (SOD), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol and melatonin were also analyzed. The preliminary experiment determined that the DLT was 10 mg/kg and the MTD was 15 mg/kg. In the major clinical trial, it was revealed that MMSE scores in the DEX treatment group were markedly improved, indicating that DEX had a beneficial effect in pediatric patients with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after tonsillectomy. In addition, IL-1and TNF-α were downregulated, while IL-6 and SOD were upregulated in patients with cognitive dysfunction after treatment with DEX compared with those in the placebo group. Furthermore, DEX treatment markedly decreased the serum levels of CRP, NSE cortisol and melatonin, which are

  1. Long Term Ablation of Protein Kinase A (PKA)-mediated Cardiac Troponin I Phosphorylation Leads to Excitation-Contraction Uncoupling and Diastolic Dysfunction in a Knock-in Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, David; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A.; Chang, Audrey N.; Dulce, Raul A.; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Ruiz, Edda L.; Griffin, Brittany; Liang, Jingsheng; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Fincham, Frank D.; Hare, Joshua M.; Overton, J. Michael; Pinto, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac troponin I (cTnI) R21C (cTnI-R21C) mutation has been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and renders cTnI incapable of phosphorylation by PKA in vivo. Echocardiographic imaging of homozygous knock-in mice expressing the cTnI-R21C mutation shows that they develop hypertrophy after 12 months of age and have abnormal diastolic function that is characterized by longer filling times and impaired relaxation. Electrocardiographic analyses show that older R21C mice have elevated heart rates and reduced cardiovagal tone. Cardiac myocytes isolated from older R21C mice demonstrate that in the presence of isoproterenol, significant delays in Ca2+ decay and sarcomere relaxation occur that are not present at 6 months of age. Although isoproterenol and stepwise increases in stimulation frequency accelerate Ca2+-transient and sarcomere shortening kinetics in R21C myocytes from older mice, they are unable to attain the corresponding WT values. When R21C myocytes from older mice are treated with isoproterenol, evidence of excitation-contraction uncoupling is indicated by an elevation in diastolic calcium that is frequency-dissociated and not coupled to shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths. Myocytes from older mice have smaller Ca2+ transient amplitudes (2.3-fold) that are associated with reductions (2.9-fold) in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content. This abnormal Ca2+ handling within the cell may be attributed to a reduction (2.4-fold) in calsequestrin expression in conjunction with an up-regulation (1.5-fold) of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger. Incubation of permeabilized cardiac fibers from R21C mice with PKA confirmed that the mutation prevents facilitation of mechanical relaxation. Altogether, these results indicate that the inability to enhance myofilament relaxation through cTnI phosphorylation predisposes the heart to abnormal diastolic function, reduced accessibility of cardiac reserves, dysautonomia, and hypertrophy. PMID:24973218

  2. Does oxidative stress modulate left ventricular diastolic function in asymptomatic subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis?

    PubMed

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Bolan, Charles D; Tripodi, Dorothy J; Sachdev, Vandana; Nguyen, Tammy T; Botello, Gilberto; Yau, Yu-Ying; Sidenko, Stanislav; Inez, Ernst; Ali, Mir I; Waclawiw, Myron A; Leitman, Susan F; Rosing, Douglas R

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about the early mechanisms mediating left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, the increased oxidative stress related to iron overload may be involved in this process, and strain rate (SR), a sensitive echocardiography-derived measure of diastolic function, may detect such changes. we evaluated the relationship between left ventricular diastolic function measured with tissue Doppler SR and oxidative stress in asymptomatic HH subjects and control normal subjects. Ninety-four consecutive visits of 43 HH subjects, age 30-74 (50 +/- 10, mean +/- SD), and 37 consecutive visits of 21 normal volunteers, age 30-63 (48 +/- 8), were evaluated over a 3-year period. SR was obtained from the basal septum in apical four-chamber views. All patients had confirmed C282Y homozygosity, a documented history of iron overload, and were New York Heart Association functional class I. Normal volunteers lacked HFE gene mutations causing HH. In the HH subjects, the SR demonstrated moderate but significant correlations with biomarkers of oxidative stress; however, no correlations were noted in normal subjects. The biomarkers of iron overload per se did not show significant correlations with the SR. Although our study was limited by the relatively small subject number, these results suggest that a possible role of oxidative stress to affect LV diastolic function in asymptomatic HH subjects and SR imaging may be a sensitive measure to detect that effect.

  3. Wall Thickness, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Diastolic Filling Abnormalities Predict Response to Postoperative Biventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Brusen, Robin M.; Hahn, Rebecca; Cabreriza, Santos E.; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Daniel Y.; Truong, Wanda; Spotnitz, Henry M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Post-cardiopulmonary bypass biventricular pacing improves hemodynamics but without clearly defined predictors of response. Based on preclinical studies and prior observations, it was suspected that diastolic dysfunction or pulmonary hypertension is predictive of hemodynamic benefit. Design Randomized controlled study of temporary biventricular pacing after cardiopulmonary bypass. Setting Single-center study at university-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Interventions Patients who underwent bypass with pre-operative ejection fraction ≤40% and QRS duration ≥100 ms or double-valve surgery were enrolled. At 3 time points between separation from bypass and postoperative day 1, pacing delays were varied to optimize hemodynamics. Participants Data from 43 patients were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results Cardiac output and arterial pressure were measured under no pacing, atrial pacing, and biventricular pacing. Preoperative echocardiograms and pulmonary artery catheterizations were reviewed, and measures of both systolic and diastolic function were compared to hemodynamic response. Early after separation, improvement in cardiac output was positively correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001), ventricle wall thickness (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.002)), and E/e′, a measure of abnormal diastolic ventricular filling velocity (R2 = 0.56, p = 0.04). Similar trends were seen with mean arterial pressure. QRS duration and ejection fraction did not correlate significantly with improvements in hemodynamics. Conclusions There may be an effect of biventricular pacing related to amelioration of abnormal diastolic filling patterns rather than electrical resynchronization in the postoperative state. PMID:25998068

  4. Association between markers of endothelial dysfunction and early signs of renal dysfunction in pediatric obesity and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, M L; de Giorgis, T; Di Giovanni, I; Chiavaroli, V; Chiarelli, F; Mohn, A

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), are increased in youth with obesity and in those with type 1 diabetes (T1D) at similar levels, and whether their levels are associated with markers of renal function. A total of 60 obese youth [M/F: 30/30, age: 12.5 ± 2.8 yr; body mass index (BMI) z-score: 2.26 ± 0.46], 30 with T1D (M/F: 15/15; age: 12.9 ± 2.4 yr; BMI z-score: 0.45 ± 0.77), and 30 healthy controls (M/F: 15/15, age: 12.4 ± 3.3 yr, BMI z-score: -0.25 ± 0.56) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were assessed and a blood sample was collected to measure ICAM-1, MPO, creatinine, cystatin C and lipid levels. A 24-h urine collection was obtained for assessing albumin excretion rate (AER). Levels of ICAM-1 and MPO were significantly higher in obese [ICAM-1: 0.606 (0.460-1.033) µg/mL; MPO: 136.6 (69.7-220.8) ng/mL] and T1D children [ICAM-1: 0.729 (0.507-0.990) µg/mL; MPO: 139.5 (51.0-321.3) ng/mL] compared with control children [ICAM-1: 0.395 (0.272-0.596) µg/mL MPO: 41.3 (39.7-106.9) ng/mL], whereas no significant difference was found between T1D and obese children. BMI z-score was significantly associated with ICAM-1 (β = 0.21, p = 0.02) and MPO (β = 0.41, p < 0.001). A statistically significant association was also found between ICAM-1 and markers of renal function (AER: β = 0.21, p = 0.03; e-GFR: β = 0.19, p = 0.04), after adjusting for BMI. Obese children have increased markers of endothelial dysfunction and early signs of renal damage, similarly to children with T1D, confirming obesity to be a cardiovascular risk factor as T1D. The association between ICAM-1 with e-GFR and AER confirm the known the association between general endothelial and renal dysfunction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates mitochondrial dysfunction in early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Magerkurth, Jörg; Pilatus, Ulrich; Mozer, Anne; Seifried, Carola; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Zanella, Friedhelm; Hilker, Rüdiger

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction hypothetically contributes to neuronal degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease. While several in vitro data exist, the measurement of cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction in living patients with Parkinson's disease is challenging. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging combined with phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging provides information about the functional integrity of mitochondria in specific brain areas. We measured partial volume corrected concentrations of low-energy metabolites and high-energy phosphates with sufficient resolution to focus on pathology related target areas in Parkinson's disease. Combined phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the mesostriatal region was performed in 16 early and 13 advanced patients with Parkinson's disease and compared to 19 age-matched controls at 3 Tesla. In the putamen and midbrain of both Parkinson's disease groups, we found a bilateral reduction of high-energy phosphates such as adenosine triphophosphate and phosphocreatine as final acceptors of energy from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, low-energy metabolites such as adenosine diphophosphate and inorganic phosphate were within normal ranges. These results provide strong in vivo evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction of mesostriatal neurons is a central and persistent phenomenon in the pathogenesis cascade of Parkinson's disease which occurs early in the course of the disease.

  6. Early neurovascular dysfunction in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Illsung L.; Lai, Aaron Y.; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Koletar, Margaret M.; Dorr, Adrienne; Brown, Mary E.; Thomason, Lynsie A. M.; Sled, John G.; McLaurin, JoAnne; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques. Concomitant to widespread amyloid deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation, cerebrovascular reactivity was strongly attenuated in cortical penetrating arterioles and venules of TgF344-AD rats in comparison to those in non-transgenic littermates. Blood flow elevation to hypercapnia was abolished in TgF344-AD rats. Concomitantly, the phase-amplitude coupling of the neuronal network was impaired, evidenced by decreased modulation of theta band phase on gamma band amplitude. These results demonstrate significant neurovascular network dysfunction at an early stage of AD-like pathology. Our study identifies early markers of pathology progression and call for development of combinatorial treatment plans. PMID:28401931

  7. Early neurovascular dysfunction in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joo, Illsung L; Lai, Aaron Y; Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Koletar, Margaret M; Dorr, Adrienne; Brown, Mary E; Thomason, Lynsie A M; Sled, John G; McLaurin, JoAnne; Stefanovic, Bojana

    2017-04-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration, is thought to involve early-onset neurovascular abnormalities. Hitherto studies on AD-associated neurovascular injury have used animal models that exhibit only a subset of AD-like pathologies and demonstrated some Aβ-dependent vascular dysfunction and destabilization of neuronal network. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broader repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the cerebrovascular and neuronal network functioning using in situ two-photon fluorescence microscopy and laminar array recordings of local field potentials, followed by pathological analyses of vascular wall morphology, tau hyperphosphorylation, and amyloid plaques. Concomitant to widespread amyloid deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation, cerebrovascular reactivity was strongly attenuated in cortical penetrating arterioles and venules of TgF344-AD rats in comparison to those in non-transgenic littermates. Blood flow elevation to hypercapnia was abolished in TgF344-AD rats. Concomitantly, the phase-amplitude coupling of the neuronal network was impaired, evidenced by decreased modulation of theta band phase on gamma band amplitude. These results demonstrate significant neurovascular network dysfunction at an early stage of AD-like pathology. Our study identifies early markers of pathology progression and call for development of combinatorial treatment plans.

  8. Donor information based prediction of early allograft dysfunction and outcome in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Dieter P; Paul, Andreas; Gallinat, Anja; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Reinhardt, Renate; Minor, Thomas; Saner, Fuat H; Canbay, Ali; Treckmann, Jürgen W; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Mathé, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    Poor initial graft function was recently newly defined as early allograft dysfunction (EAD) [Olthoff KM, Kulik L, Samstein B, et al. Validation of a current definition of early allograft dysfunction in liver transplant recipients and analysis of risk factors. Liver Transpl 2010; 16: 943]. Aim of this analysis was to evaluate predictive donor information for development of EAD. Six hundred and seventy-eight consecutive adult patients (mean age 51.6 years; 60.3% men) who received a primary liver transplantation (LT) (09/2003-12/2011) were included. Standard donor data were correlated with EAD and outcome by univariable/multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards to identify prognostic donor factors after adjustment for recipient confounders. Estimates of relevant factors were utilized for construction of a new continuous risk index to develop EAD. 38.7% patients developed EAD. 30-day survival of grafts with and without EAD was 59.8% and 89.7% (P < 0.0001). 30-day survival of patients with and without EAD was 68.5% and 93.1% (P < 0.0001) respectively. Donor body mass index (P = 0.0112), gGT (P = 0.0471), macrosteatosis (P = 0.0006) and cold ischaemia time (CIT) (P = 0.0031) were predictors of EAD. Internal cross validation showed a high predictive value (c-index = 0.622). Early allograft dysfunction correlates with early results of LT and can be predicted by donor data only. The newly introduced risk index potentially optimizes individual decisions to accept/decline high risk organs. Outcome of these organs might be improved by shortening CIT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Krebs cycle and mitochondrial mass are early victims of endothelial dysfunction: proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Addabbo, Francesco; Ratliff, Brian; Park, Hyeong-Cheon; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Ciszar, Anna; Krasnikov, Boris; Krasnikof, Boris; Sodhi, Komal; Zhang, Fung; Nasjletti, Alberto; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial cell dysfunction is associated with bioavailable nitric oxide deficiency and an excessive generation of reactive oxygen species. We modeled this condition by chronically inhibiting nitric oxide generation with subpressor doses of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in C57B6 and Tie-2/green fluorescent protein mouse strains. L-NMMA-treated mice exhibited a slight reduction in vasorelaxation ability, as well as detectable abnormalities in soluble adhesion molecules (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and matrix metalloproteinase 9), which represent surrogate indicators of endothelial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis of the isolated microvasculature using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy revealed abnormal expression of a cluster of mitochondrial enzymes, which was confirmed using immunodetection. Aconitase-2 and enoyl-CoA-hydratase-1 expression levels were decreased in L-NMMA-treated animals; this phenotype was absent in nitric oxide synthase-1 and -3 knockout mice. Depletion of aconitase-2 and enoyl-CoA-hydratase-1 resulted in the inhibition of the Krebs cycle and enhanced pyruvate shunting toward the glycolytic pathway. To assess mitochondrial mass in vivo, co-localization of green fluorescent protein and MitoTracker fluorescence was detected by intravital microscopy. Quantitative analysis of fluorescence intensity showed that L-NMMA-treated animals exhibited lower fluorescence of MitoTracker in microvascular endothelia as a result of reduced mitochondrial mass. These findings provide conclusive and unbiased evidence that mitochondriopathy represents an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction, shifting cell metabolism toward "metabolic hypoxia" through the selective depletion of both aconitase-2 and enoyl-CoA-hydratase-1. These findings may contribute to an early preclinical diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction.

  10. Altered Plasma Profile of Antioxidant Proteins as an Early Correlate of Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Taiyi; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; McGraw, Timothy E.; Accili, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Unlike insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction remains difficult to predict and monitor, because of the inaccessibility of the endocrine pancreas, the integrated relationship with insulin sensitivity, and the paracrine effects of incretins. The goal of our study was to survey the plasma response to a metabolic challenge in order to identify factors predictive of β cell dysfunction. To this end, we combined (i) the power of unbiased iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) mass spectrometry with (ii) direct sampling of the portal vein following an intravenous glucose/arginine challenge (IVGATT) in (iii) mice with a genetic β cell defect. By so doing, we excluded the effects of peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as those of incretins on β cells, and focused on the first phase of insulin secretion to capture the early pathophysiology of β cell dysfunction. We compared plasma protein profiles with ex vivo islet secretome and transcriptome analyses. We detected changes to 418 plasma proteins in vivo, and detected changes to 262 proteins ex vivo. The impairment of insulin secretion was associated with greater overall changes in the plasma response to IVGATT, possibly reflecting metabolic instability. Reduced levels of proteins regulating redox state and neuronal stress markers, as well as increased levels of coagulation factors, antedated the loss of insulin secretion in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a reduced complement of antioxidants in response to a mixed secretagogue challenge is an early correlate of future β cell failure. PMID:26917725

  11. Cognitive structures in women with sexual dysfunction: the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cátia; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive schemas are often related to psychological problems. However, the role of these structures within sexual problems is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and importance of early maladaptive schemas on women's sexual functioning and cognitive schemas activated in response to negative sexual events. A total of 228 women participated in the study: a control sample of 167 women without sexual problems, a subclinical sample of 37 women with low sexual functioning, and a clinical sample of 24 women with sexual dysfunction. Participants completed several self-reported measures: the Schema Questionnaire, the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings indicated that women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly more early maladaptive schemas from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain, particularly failure (P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.08), dependence/incompetence (P < 0.05, η(2) = 0.03), and vulnerability to danger (P < 0.05, η(2) = 0.04). Additionally, in response to negative sexual events, women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly higher scores on incompetence (P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.16), self-depreciation (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05), and difference/loneliness (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05) schemas. Results supported differences between women with and without sexual problems regarding cognitive factors. This may have implications for the knowledge, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunction in women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  13. Urinary type IV collagen is related to left ventricular diastolic function and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertensive patients with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Iida, Masato; Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Ishiguro, Yuko S; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Ueda, Norihiro; Honjo, Haruo; Kamiya, Kaichirou

    2014-01-01

    Urinary type IV collagen is an early biomarker of diabetic nephropathy. Concomitant prediabetes (the early stage of diabetes) was associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in hypertensive patients. We hypothesized that urinary type IV collagen may be related to these cardiac dysfunctions. We studied hypertensive patients with early prediabetes (HbA1c <5.7% and fasting glucose >110, n=18), those with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4, n=98), and those with diabetes (HbA1c>6.5 or on diabetes medications, n=92). The participants underwent echocardiography to assess left atrial volume/body surface area (BSA) and the ratio of early mitral flow velocity to mitral annular velocity (E/e'). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was defined if patients had E/e'≥15, or E/e'=9-14 accompanied by left atrial volume/BSA≥32ml/mm(2). Urinary samples were collected for type IV collagen and albumin, and blood samples were taken for BNP and HbA1c. Urinary type IV collagen and albumin increased in parallel with the deterioration of glycemic status. In hypertensive patients with prediabetes, subjects with LVDD had higher levels of BNP and urinary type IV collagen than those without LVDD. In contrast, in hypertensive patients with diabetes, subjects with LVDD had higher urinary albumin and BNP than those without LVDD. Urinary type IV collagen correlated positively with BNP in hypertensive patients with prediabetes, whereas it correlated with HbA1c in those with diabetes. In hypertensive patients with prediabetes, urinary type IV collagen was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction and BNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of canagliflozin on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masaya; Kayama, Yosuke; Takeda, Norihiko; Horiuchi, Ryuzo; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2018-05-22

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) greatly increases the risks of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. In particular, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction that develops from the early stages of T2DM is an important factor in the onset and exacerbation of heart failure. The effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on left ventricular diastolic function has not been elucidated. We have performed the first prospective study on the effects of canagliflozin on left ventricular diastolic function in T2DM. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of additional treatment with canagliflozin for 3 months on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with T2DM. A total of 38 patients with T2DM were consecutively recruited for this study. Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography. The primary study outcome was a change in the septal E/e' as a parameter of left ventricular diastolic function. A total of 37 patients (25 males and 12 females) were included in the analysis. Mean age of participants was 64.2 ± 8.1 years (mean ± SD), mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 ± 8.1 years, and mean HbA1c was 7.9 ± 0.7%. Of the participants, 86.5% had hypertension, 100% had dyslipidemia, and 32.4% had cardiovascular disease. Canagliflozin significantly improved left ventricular diastolic function (septal E/e' ratio 13.7 ± 3.5-12.1 ± 2.8, p = 0.001). Furthermore, among the various parameters that changed through the administration of canagliflozin, only changes in hemoglobin significantly correlated with changes in the septal E/e' ratio (p = 0.002). In multiple regression analysis, changes in hemoglobin were also revealed to be an independent predictive factor for changes in the septal E/e' ratio. This study showed for the first time that canagliflozin could improve left ventricular diastolic function within 3 months in patients with T2DM. The benefit was especially apparent in patients with

  15. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  16. Urinary aminopeptidase activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Andrés; Vargas, Félix; Montoro-Molina, Sebastián; O'Valle, Francisco; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Osuna, Antonio; Prieto, Isabel; Ramírez, Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the fluorimetric determination of alanyl- (Ala), glutamyl- (Glu), leucyl-cystinyl- (Cys) and aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAp) urinary enzymatic activities as early and predictive biomarkers of renal dysfunction in cisplatin-treated rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 8 each group) received a single subcutaneous injection of either saline or cisplatin 3.5 or 7 mg/kg, and urine samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 14 days after treatment. In urine samples we determined Ala, Glu, Cys and AspAp activities, proteinuria, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), albumin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and renal morphological variables were measured at the end of the experiment. CysAp, NAG and albumin were increased 48 hours after treatment in the cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg treated group. At 24 hours, all urinary aminopeptidase activities and albuminuria were significantly increased in the cisplatin 7 mg/kg treated group. Aminopeptidase urinary activities correlated (p<0.011; r(2)>0.259) with plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance and/or kidney weight/body weight ratio at the end of the experiment and they could be considered as predictive biomarkers of renal injury severity. ROC-AUC analysis was made to study their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between treated and untreated rats at day 1. All aminopeptidase activities showed an AUC>0.633. We conclude that Ala, Cys, Glu and AspAp enzymatic activities are early and predictive urinary biomarkers of the renal dysfunction induced by cisplatin. These determinations can be very useful in the prognostic and diagnostic of renal dysfunction in preclinical research and clinical practice.

  17. Creating a Biomarker Panel for Early Detection of Chemotherapy Related Cardiac Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Klug, Rebecca; Tirona, Maria; Thompson, Ellen; Visweshwar, Haresh; Puri, Nitin; Shapiro, Joseph; Sodhi, Komal

    2017-03-01

    Cardiotoxicity is an important issue for breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-trastuzumab therapy in the adjuvant setting. Studies show that 3-36% of patients receiving anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab experience chemotherapy related cardiac dysfunction (CRCD) and approximately 17% of patients must stop chemotherapy due to the consequences of CRCD. There is currently no standardized, clinically verified way to detect CRCD early, but common practices include serial echocardiography and troponin measurements, which can be timely, costly, and not always available in areas where health care resources are scarce. Furthermore, detection of CRCD, before there is any echocardiographic evidence of dysfunction or clinical symptoms present, would allow maximal benefit of chemotherapy and minimize cardiac complications. Creating a panel of serum biomarkers would allow for more specificity and sensitivity in the early detection of CRCD, which would be easy to implement and cost effective in places with limited health care. Based on a review of the literature, we propose creating a biomarker panel consisting of topoisomerase 2β, serum troponin T/I, myeloperoxidase, NT-proBNP, miR-208b, miR-34a, and miR-150 in breast cancer patients receiving anthracyclines and/or trastuzumab to detect CRCD before any signs of overt cardiotoxicity are apparent.

  18. Tissue Doppler-derived E/e' ratio as a parameter for assessing diastolic heart failure and as a predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Biro; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Jae Seok; Han, Byoung-Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with heart failure (HF) or mortality. We investigated whether the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/e' ratio), estimated using tissue Doppler imaging, has prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD. For 186 patients with CKD of stages III to V, we obtained echocardiograms with tissue Doppler imaging. A 5-year follow-up of 136 patients was performed based on hospital records and telephone interviews. The enrolled patients (79 males and 57 females) were categorized into the following CKD subgroups: stage III (n = 25); stage IV (n = 22); and stage V (n = 89). The average follow-up period was 30.45 months and the mean age of the patients was 61.13 years. The mortality rate after 5 years was 60.0%. The causes of death were: sepsis, 21.9%; HF, 16.2%; and sudden death, 15.2%. Age (p = 0.000), increased C-reactive protein level (p = 0.018), and increased E/e' ratio (p = 0.048) were found to correlate with mortality. Age (p = 0.000), decreased ejection fraction (p = 0.003), and increased E/e' ratio (p = 0.045) correlated with cardiovascular event. The E/e' ratio can predict mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD who have diastolic dysfunction.

  19. Hydraulic forces contribute to left ventricular diastolic filling

    PubMed Central

    Maksuti, Elira; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Kovács, Sándor J.; Broomé, Michael; Ugander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial active relaxation and restoring forces are known determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We hypothesize the existence of an additional mechanism involved in LV filling, namely, a hydraulic force contributing to the longitudinal motion of the atrioventricular (AV) plane. A prerequisite for the presence of a net hydraulic force during diastole is that the atrial short-axis area (ASA) is smaller than the ventricular short-axis area (VSA). We aimed (a) to illustrate this mechanism in an analogous physical model, (b) to measure the ASA and VSA throughout the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and (c) to calculate the magnitude of the hydraulic force. The physical model illustrated that the anatomical difference between ASA and VSA provides the basis for generating a hydraulic force during diastole. In volunteers, VSA was greater than ASA during 75–100% of diastole. The hydraulic force was estimated to be 10–60% of the peak driving force of LV filling (1–3 N vs 5–10 N). Hydraulic forces are a consequence of left heart anatomy and aid LV diastolic filling. These findings suggest that the relationship between ASA and VSA, and the associated hydraulic force, should be considered when characterizing diastolic function and dysfunction. PMID:28256604

  20. Synergistic role of ADP and Ca2+ in diastolic myocardial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; McConnell, Mark; Fowler, Ewan D; Bollen, Ilse A E; Wüst, Rob C I; dos Remedios, Cris; Helmes, Michiel; White, Ed; Stienen, Ger J M; Tardiff, Jil; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure (HF) with diastolic dysfunction has been attributed to increased myocardial stiffness that limits proper filling of the ventricle. Altered cross-bridge interaction may significantly contribute to high diastolic stiffness, but this has not been shown thus far. Cross-bridge interactions are dependent on cytosolic [Ca2+] and the regeneration of ATP from ADP. Depletion of myocardial energy reserve is a hallmark of HF leading to ADP accumulation and disturbed Ca2+ handling. Here, we investigated if ADP elevation in concert with increased diastolic [Ca2+] promotes diastolic cross-bridge formation and force generation and thereby increases diastolic stiffness. ADP dose-dependently increased force production in the absence of Ca2+ in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes from human hearts. Moreover, physiological levels of ADP increased actomyosin force generation in the presence of Ca2+ both in human and rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Diastolic stress measured at physiological lattice spacing and 37°C in the presence of pathological levels of ADP and diastolic [Ca2+] revealed a 76 ± 1% contribution of cross-bridge interaction to total diastolic stress in rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of creatine kinase (CK), which increases cytosolic ADP, in enzyme-isolated intact rat cardiomyocytes impaired diastolic re-lengthening associated with diastolic Ca2+ overload. In isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, CK inhibition increased ventricular stiffness only in the presence of diastolic [Ca2+]. We propose that elevations of intracellular ADP in specific types of cardiac disease, including those where myocardial energy reserve is limited, contribute to diastolic dysfunction by recruiting cross-bridges, even at low Ca2+, and thereby increase myocardial stiffness. Key points Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure patients is evident from stiffening of the passive properties of the ventricular wall. Increased actomyosin

  1. Evaluation of Trastuzumab-induced early cardiac dysfunction using two-dimensional Strain Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Emren, Sadik Volkan; Tuluce, Selcen Yakar; Levent, Fatih; Tuluce, Kamil; Kalkan, Toygar; Yildiz, Yasar; Alacacioğlu, Ahmet; Kucukzeybek, Yüksel; Akyol, Murat; Salman, Tarık

    2015-12-01

    Trastuzumab, a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of breast cancer. has been shown to induce subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction during a three to six month period as evidenced by strain echocardiographic examination without any change occurring in the ejection fraction of LV. The present study evaluated the presence of subclinical LV dysfunction using strain echocardiography 1 day and 7 days after the initiation of trastuzumab therapy. The patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant trastuzumab therapy underwent 2-dimensional, tissue Doppler, and strain echocardiographic examination at baseline and 1 day and 7 days after therapy. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS) values, and other echocardiographic parameters were calculated. A total of 40 females, mean age 50+/-10 years, were evaluated. Of these patients, 97% received anthracycline and 73% received radiotherapy before the initiation of trastuzumab therapy. No change was observed in any of the echocardiographic parameters 1 day after the initiation of trastuzumab therapy (p>0.05). The LV ejection fraction, tissue Doppler parameters, and GCS values did not show any changes 7 days after the initiation of therapy, whereas significant decreases were observed in GLS value (19.2+/-4.0% vs. 17.2+/-3.4, p=0.001) and systolic annular velocity of the lateral LV wall (S' velocity) (10.5+/-3.2 vs. 8.6+/-2.2, p=0.002). Trastuzumab therapy is associated with subclinical LV dysfunction as early as 7 days after initiation of the therapy as evidenced by the decreases in GLS value of LV and systolic annular velocity of the lateral LV wall.

  2. Neuropsychiatric subsyndromes and brain metabolic network dysfunctions in early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ballarini, Tommaso; Iaccarino, Leonardo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Ayakta, Nagehan; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Rabinovici, Gil D; Perani, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) often occur in early-age-of-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and cluster into sub-syndromes (SSy). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 18 F-FDG-PET regional and connectivity-based brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychiatric SSy. NPSs were assessed in 27 EOAD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and further clustered into four SSy (apathetic, hyperactivity, affective, and psychotic SSy). Eighty-five percent of EOAD showed at least one NPS. Voxel-wise correlations between SSy scores and brain glucose metabolism (assessed with 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography) were studied. Interregional correlation analysis was used to explore metabolic connectivity in the salience (aSN) and default mode networks (DMN) in a larger sample of EOAD (N = 51) and Healthy Controls (N = 57). The apathetic, hyperactivity, and affective SSy were highly prevalent (>60%) as compared to the psychotic SSy (33%). The hyperactivity SSy scores were associated with increase of glucose metabolism in frontal and limbic structures, implicated in behavioral control. A comparable positive correlation with part of the same network was found for the affective SSy scores. On the other hand, the apathetic SSy scores were negatively correlated with metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal and dorsolateral frontal cortex known to be involved in motivation and decision-making processes. Consistent with these SSy regional correlations with brain metabolic dysfunction, the connectivity analysis showed increases in the aSN and decreases in the DMN. Behavioral abnormalities in EOAD are associated with specific dysfunctional changes in brain metabolic activity, in particular in the aSN that seems to play a crucial role in NPSs in EOAD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4234-4247, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neuropsychiatric Subsyndromes and Brain Metabolic Network Dysfunctions in Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tommaso, Ballarini; Leonardo, Iaccarino; Giuseppe, Magnani; Nagehan, Ayakta; Bruce L, Miller; William J, Jagust; Luisa, Gorno-Tempini Maria; Gil D, Rabinovici; Daniela, Perani

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) often occur in early-age-of-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) and cluster into sub-syndromes (SSy). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 18F-FDG-PET regional and connectivity-based brain metabolic dysfunctions and neuropsychiatric SSy. NPSs were assessed in 27 EOAD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and further clustered into four SSy (apathetic, hyperactivity, affective and psychotic SSy). 85% of EOAD showed at least one NPS. Voxel-wise correlations between SSy scores and brain glucose metabolism (assessed with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography) were studied. Interregional correlation analysis was used to explore metabolic connectivity in the salience (aSN) and default mode networks (DMN) in a larger sample of EOAD (N=51) and Healthy Controls (N=57). The apathetic, hyperactivity and affective SSy were highly prevalent (>60%) as compared to the psychotic SSy (33%). The hyperactivity SSy scores were associated with increase of glucose metabolism in frontal and limbic structures, implicated in behavioral control. A comparable positive correlation with part of the same network was found for the affective SSy scores. On the other hand, the apathetic SSy scores were negatively correlated with metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal and dorsolateral frontal cortex known to be involved in motivation and decision-making processes. Consistent with these SSy regional correlations with brain metabolic dysfunction, the connectivity analysis showed increases in the aSN and decreases in the DMN. Behavioral abnormalities in EOAD are associated with specific dysfunctional changes in brain metabolic activity, in particular in the aSN that seems to play a crucial role in NPSs in EOAD. PMID:27412866

  4. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciT

    Poręba, Rafał, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlationsmore » analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear

  5. Early organ-specific mitochondrial dysfunction of jejunum and lung found in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Anubhav; Hickey, Anthony JR; Chai, Chau C; Loveday, Benjamin PT; Thompson, Nichola; Dare, Anna; Delahunt, Brett; Cooper, Garth JS; Windsor, John A; Phillips, Anthony RJ

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Multiple organ dysfunction is the main cause of death in severe acute pancreatitis. Primary mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the development and progression of organ failure in critical illness. The present study investigated mitochondrial function in seven tissues during early experimental acute pancreatitis. Methods Twenty-eight male Wistar rats (463 ± 2 g; mean ± SEM) were studied. Group 1 (n = 8), saline control; Group 2 (n = 6), caerulein-induced mild acute pancreatitis; Group 3 (n = 7) sham surgical controls; and Group 4 (n = 7), taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis. Animals were euthanased at 6 h from the induction of acute pancreatitis and mitochondrial function was assessed in the heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, duodenum and jejunum by mitochondrial respirometry. Results Significant early mitochondrial dysfunction was present in the pancreas, lung and jejunum in both models of acute pancreatitis, however, the Heart, liver, kidney and duodenal mitochondria were unaffected. Conclusions The present study provides the first description of early organ-selective mitochondrial dysfunction in the lung and jejunum during acute pancreatitis. Research is now needed to identify the underlying pathophysiology behind the organ selective mitochondrial dysfunction, and the potential benefits of early mitochondrial-specific therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:21492333

  6. Early etiology of Alzheimer's disease: tipping the balance toward autophagy or endosomal dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Peric, Aleksandar; Annaert, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. This brain neuropathology is characterized by a progressive synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss, which lead to decline in memory and other cognitive functions. Histopathologically, AD manifests via synaptic abnormalities, neuronal degeneration as well as the deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. While the exact pathogenic contribution of these two AD hallmarks and their abundant constituents [aggregation-prone amyloid β (Aβ) peptide species and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively] remain debated, a growing body of evidence suggests that their development may be paralleled or even preceded by the alterations/dysfunctions in the endolysosomal and the autophagic system. In AD-affected neurons, abnormalities in these cellular pathways are readily observed already at early stages of disease development, and even though many studies agree that defective lysosomal degradation may relate to or even underlie some of these deficits, specific upstream molecular defects are still deliberated. In this review we summarize various pathogenic events that may lead to these cellular abnormalities, in light of our current understanding of molecular mechanisms that govern AD progression. In addition, we also highlight the increasing evidence supporting mutual functional dependence of the endolysosomal trafficking and autophagy, in particular focusing on those molecules and processes which may be of significance to AD.

  7. Insulin resistance-associated decreases in left ventricular diastolic function are strongly modified by the extent of concentric remodeling in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Vernice; Norton, Gavin R; Raymond, Andrew; Libhaber, Carlos D; Millen, Aletta M E; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Maseko, Muzi J; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-10-01

    Whether excess adiposity, associated metabolic abnormalities or alternative risk factors for left ventricular (LV) diastolic function are modified rather than mediated by geometric LV remodeling, is uncertain. Echocardiographic LV mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT) and diastolic function (lateral and septal wall myocardial tissue lengthening at the level of the mitral annulus [e'] [n=430], ratio of early-to-late transmitral blood flow velocity (E/A), and E/e' [n=430]) were determined in 737 randomly recruited participants of a community-based study (43% obese). Independent of LVMI and confounders, indexes of adiposity and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were independently associated with LV diastolic function (p<0.05). In addition, RWT was independently associated with LV diastolic function (p<0.002). Importantly, an independent interaction between HOMA-IR and RWT, but not between blood pressure or age and RWT, was related to LV diastolic function (p<0.05). This translated into an independent relationship between HOMA-IR and lateral e' (partial r=-0.17, p<0.02), septal e' (partial r=-0.14, p=0.05), E/A (partial r=-0.17, p<0.005) and E/e' (partial r=0.19, p<0.01) in those with RWT above, but a lack of relationship between HOMA-IR and LV diastolic function (p>0.59) in those with RWT below the median for the sample. Similarly, HOMA-IR was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in those with RWT above (p<0.05) but not below (p>0.19) the median for the sample. The relationship between insulin resistance, but not alternative risk factors and LV diastolic function is markedly modified by the presence of a more concentrically remodeled LV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Study on early intervention of compound nutrition for cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dang, Rui; Wang, Decai

    2014-01-01

    To observe the early prevention effect of the compound nutrients recipe for cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer' s disease model-APP-PSN transgenic mouse. 36 APP-PSN transgenic mice aged two months randomly were divided into the intervention group supplied with compound recipe in the diet and the control group fed based feed, the former had high dose and low dose, 12 APP-PSN transgenic negative mice aged two months as the negative control were fed based feed. After 3 months' intervention, four groups' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, active avoidance experiment and jumping stair experiment. There was not statistically different between all the four groups for the weight and food intake. Compared with the control group, Morris water maze's incubation period of the intervention group was lower obviously, and jumping stair experiment's incubation period of the intervention group was higher obviously. In the active avoidance experiment, the high and low dose intervention group' s conditioned response accounted about 46.67% and 45.00% respectively, and the control group's conditioned response accounted about 20.83%. The differences of the three behavioral experiments between control group and intervention group had the statistical significance (P < 0.05), so the same as between control group and negative control group (P < 0.05). And there was no difference between intervention group and negative control group for the three behavioral experiments. The early supplementation with compound nutrition could postpone the occurrence and development of Alzheimer' s disease mice model's cognitive dysfunction.

  9. Brain metabolite alterations and cognitive dysfunction in early Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Unschuld, Paul G.; Edden, Richard A. E.; Carass, Aaron; Liu, Xinyang; Shanahan, Megan; Wang, Xin; Oishi, Kenichi; Brandt, Jason; Bassett, Susan S.; Redgrave, Graham W.; Margolis, Russell L.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Barker, Peter B.; Ross, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early cognitive decline, which progresses at later stages to dementia and severe movement disorder. HD is caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet-repeat expansion mutation in the Huntingtin gene, allowing early diagnosis by genetic testing. This study aims to identify the relationship of N-acetylaspartate and other brain metabolites to cognitive function in HD-mutation carriers by using high field strength magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy at 7-Tesla. Methods Twelve individuals with the HD-mutation in premanifest or early stage of disease versus twelve healthy controls underwent 1H magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy (7.2ml voxel in the posterior cingulate cortex) at 7-Tesla, and also T1-weighted structural magnetic-resonance-imaging. All participants received standardized tests of cognitive functioning including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and standardized quantified neurological examination within an hour before scanning. Results Individuals with the HD mutation had significantly lower posterior cingulate cortex N-acetylaspartate (−9.6%, p=0.02) and glutamate levels (−10.1%, p=0.02) than controls. By contrast, in this small group, measures of brain morphology including striatal and ventricle volumes did not differ significantly. Linear regression with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores revealed significant correlations with N-acetylaspartate (r2=0.50, p=0.01) and glutamate (r2=0.64, p=0.002) in HD subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest a relationship between reduced N-acetylaspartate and glutamate levels in the posterior cingulate cortex with cognitive decline in early stages of HD. N-acetylaspartate and glutamate magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy signals of the posterior cingulate cortex region may serve as potential biomarkers of disease progression or treatment outcome in HD and other neurodegenerative disorders with early cognitive dysfunction, when structural

  10. Systolic and diastolic assessment by 3D-ASM segmentation of gated-SPECT Studies: a comparison with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Gomez, C.; Bijnens, B. H.; Huguet, M.; Sukno, F.; Moragas, G.; Frangi, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    Gated single photon emission tomography (gSPECT) is a well-established technique used routinely in clinical practice. It can be employed to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) function of a patient. The purpose of this study is to assess LV systolic and diastolic function from gSPECT datasets in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) measurements. This is achieved by applying our recently implemented 3D active shape model (3D-ASM) segmentation approach for gSPECT studies. This methodology allows for generation of 3D LV meshes for all cardiac phases, providing volume time curves and filling rate curves. Both systolic and diastolic functional parameters can be derived from these curves for an assessment of patient condition even at early stages of LV dysfunction. Agreement of functional parameters, with respect to CMR measurements, were analyzed by means of Bland-Altman plots. The analysis included subjects presenting either LV hypertrophy, dilation or myocardial infarction.

  11. Association between urine aldosterone and diastolic function in patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Yao; Lee, Hsiu-Hao; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Wu, Xue-Ming; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Liao, Min-Tsun; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lin, Yen-Hung

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between aldosterone and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) and 22 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, and 24-h urine aldosterone level were measured. Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler image recordings, was performed. PA patients had a significantly higher left ventricular (LV) mass index and worse LV diastolic function than those in EH patients. Among various measures of aldosterone, log-transformed 24-h urine aldosterone level had the most consistent correlation with diastolic function. Aldosterone is strongly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Twenty-four hour urine aldosterone is a good indicator to evaluate the impact of aldosterone on LV diastolic function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A score model for the continuous grading of early allograft dysfunction severity.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortes, Miriam; Hervás, David; Mir, José; Valdivieso, Andrés; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) dramatically influences graft and patient outcomes. A lack of consensus on an EAD definition hinders comparisons of liver transplant outcomes and management of recipients among and within centers. We sought to develop a model for the quantitative assessment of early allograft function [Model for Early Allograft Function Scoring (MEAF)] after transplantation. A retrospective study including 1026 consecutive liver transplants was performed for MEAF score development. Multivariate data analysis was used to select a small number of postoperative variables that adequately describe EAD. Then, the distribution of these variables was mathematically modeled to assign a score for each actual variable value. A model, based on easily obtainable clinical parameters (ie, alanine aminotransferase, international normalized ratio, and bilirubin) and scoring liver function from 0 to 10, was built. The MEAF score showed a significant association with patient and graft survival at 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Hepatic steatosis and age for donors; cold/warm ischemia times and postreperfusion syndrome for surgery; and intensive care unit and hospital stays, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh scores, body mass index, and fresh frozen plasma transfusions for recipients were factors associated significantly with EAD. The model was satisfactorily validated by its application to an independent set of 200 patients who underwent liver transplantation at a different center. In conclusion, a model for the quantitative assessment of EAD severity has been developed and validated for the first time. The MEAF provides a more accurate graft function assessment than current categorical classifications and may help clinicians to make early enough decisions on retransplantation benefits. Furthermore, the MEAF score is a predictor of recipient and graft survival. The standardization of the criteria used to define EAD may allow reliable comparisons of

  13. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser⁴⁷³-AKT, phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1) were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis

  14. Antiangiogenic Treatment Diminishes Renal Injury and Dysfunction via Regulation of Local AKT in Early Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser473-AKT, phosphorylated Thr308-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1) were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr308-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr308-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr308-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr308-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr308-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis, urine albumin excretion rate

  15. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding as an early sign of polycystic ovary syndrome during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Deligeoroglou, E K; Creatsas, G K

    2015-08-01

    Excessive uterine bleeding during the early years after menarche can be worrisome to the girl and her parents. The most prevalent diagnosis set is Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), after thorough examination and exclusion of other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding. The aim of this article was to review our knowledge and share our experience as tertiary reference center of pediatric-adolescent gynecology in Greece. We conducted a review of current literature using Pubmed and MedLine as our primary databases, as well as providing commentary considering work up, treatment and follow-up of our DUB patients. Insufficient progesterone production and subsequent abnormal shedding of the endometrium appears to orchestrate the pathophysiology of DUB in adolescence. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis immaturity right after menarche, is usually the most plausible cause. Nevertheless, it is necessary to exclude other, possibly even life-threatening causes. Complete work up including physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies (complete blood count, b-HCG, hormonal levels and ultrasonography) is needed, and appropriate treatment with combined oral contraceptives is administered accordingly. Although menstrual disorders are very common in early adolescence, a severe episode of DUB should always be thoroughly attended by any physician. Follow-up should be offered in all young patients due to high incidence of recurrence or subsequent development of endocrine disorders such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

  16. Advances in the mechanisms and early warning indicators of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction after the extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Han, Jian-ge

    2015-02-01

    The high incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after extracorporeal circulation has seriously affected the prognosis and quality of life. Its mechanism may involve the inflammatory response and oxidative stress,the excessive phosphorylation of tau protein, the decreased blood volume and oxygen in the cerebral cortex. Appropriate early warning indicators of POCD after the extracorporeal circulation should be chosen to facilitate the cross validation of the results obtained different technical approaches and thus promote the early diagnosis and treatment of POCD.

  17. Does neuroanatomy account for superior temporal dysfunction in early psychosis? A multimodal MRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Frisciata, Silvia; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C.R.; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of ultra-high risk (UHR) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) have revealed widespread alterations in brain structure and function. Recent evidence suggests there is an intrinsic relationship between these 2 types of alterations; however, there is very little research linking these 2 modalities in the early stages of psychosis. Methods To test the hypothesis that functional alteration in UHR and FEP participants would be associated with corresponding structural alteration, we examined brain function and structure in these participants as well as in a group of healthy controls using multimodal MRI. The data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Results We included 24 participants in the FEP group, 18 in the UHR group and 21 in the control group. Patients in the FEP group showed a reduction in functional activation in the left superior temporal gyrus relative to controls, and the UHR group showed intermediate values. The same region showed a corresponding reduction in grey matter volume in the FEP group relative to controls. However, while the difference in grey matter volume remained significant after including functional activation as a covariate of no interest, the reduction in functional activation was no longer evident after including grey matter volume as a covariate of no interest. Limitations Our sample size was relatively small. All participants in the FEP group and 2 in the UHR group had received antipsychotic medication, which may have impacted neurofunction and/or neuroanatomy. Conclusion Our results suggest that superior temporal dysfunction in early psychosis is accounted for by a corresponding alteration in grey matter volume. This finding has important implications for the interpretation of functional alteration in early psychosis. PMID:25338016

  18. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Jeffrey M.; Braine, Catherine E.; Williams, Pete A.; Zhu, Xianjun; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Sousa, Gregory L.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Smith, Richard S.; Howell, Gareth R.; John, Simon W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wlds allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J.Wlds mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma. Despite this, immune pathways are still altered in DBA/2J.Wlds mice. This suggests that immune changes are not secondary to RGC dysfunction or altered neuroglial interactions, but may be directly induced by the increased strain imposed by high IOP. One early immune response following IOP elevation is up-regulation of complement C3 in astrocytes of DBA/2J and DBA/2J.Wlds mice. Unexpectedly, because the disruption of other complement components, such as C1Q, is protective in glaucoma, C3 deficiency significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with nerve damage and RGC loss at an early time point after IOP elevation. Transcriptional profiling of C3-deficient cultured astrocytes implicated EGFR signaling as a hub in C3-dependent responses. Treatment with AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, also significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with glaucoma at the same early time point. These findings suggest that C3 protects from early glaucomatous damage, a process that may involve EGFR signaling and other immune responses in the optic nerve head. Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma. PMID:28446616

  20. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective.

    PubMed

    Harder, Jeffrey M; Braine, Catherine E; Williams, Pete A; Zhu, Xianjun; MacNicoll, Katharine H; Sousa, Gregory L; Buchanan, Rebecca A; Smith, Richard S; Libby, Richard T; Howell, Gareth R; John, Simon W M

    2017-05-09

    Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wld s allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J .Wld s mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma. Despite this, immune pathways are still altered in DBA/2J .Wld s mice. This suggests that immune changes are not secondary to RGC dysfunction or altered neuroglial interactions, but may be directly induced by the increased strain imposed by high IOP. One early immune response following IOP elevation is up-regulation of complement C3 in astrocytes of DBA/2J and DBA/2J. Wld s mice. Unexpectedly, because the disruption of other complement components, such as C1Q, is protective in glaucoma, C3 deficiency significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with nerve damage and RGC loss at an early time point after IOP elevation. Transcriptional profiling of C3-deficient cultured astrocytes implicated EGFR signaling as a hub in C3-dependent responses. Treatment with AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, also significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with glaucoma at the same early time point. These findings suggest that C3 protects from early glaucomatous damage, a process that may involve EGFR signaling and other immune responses in the optic nerve head. Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma.

  1. Extracellular truncated tau causes early presynaptic dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies

    PubMed Central

    Florenzano, Fulvio; Veronica, Corsetti; Ciasca, Gabriele; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Pittaluga, Anna; Olivero, Gunedalina; Feligioni, Marco; Iannuzzi, Filomena; Latina, Valentina; Maria Sciacca, Michele Francesco; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Milardi, Danilo; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Marco, De Spirito; Papi, Massimiliano; Atlante, Anna; Bobba, Antonella; Borreca, Antonella; Calissano, Pietro; Amadoro, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    The largest part of tau secreted from AD nerve terminals and released in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is C-terminally truncated, soluble and unaggregated supporting potential extracellular role(s) of NH2 -derived fragments of protein on synaptic dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative tauopathies, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we show that sub-toxic doses of extracellular-applied human NH2 tau 26-44 (aka NH 2 htau) -which is the minimal active moiety of neurotoxic 20-22kDa peptide accumulating in vivo at AD synapses and secreted into parenchyma- acutely provokes presynaptic deficit in K+ -evoked glutamate release on hippocampal synaptosomes along with alteration in local Ca2+ dynamics. Neuritic dystrophy, microtubules breakdown, deregulation in presynaptic proteins and loss of mitochondria located at nerve endings are detected in hippocampal cultures only after prolonged exposure to NH 2 htau. The specificity of these biological effects is supported by the lack of any significant change, either on neuronal activity or on cellular integrity, shown by administration of its reverse sequence counterpart which behaves as an inactive control, likely due to a poor conformational flexibility which makes it unable to dynamically perturb biomembrane-like environments. Our results demonstrate that one of the AD-relevant, soluble and secreted N-terminally truncated tau forms can early contribute to pathology outside of neurons causing alterations in synaptic activity at presynaptic level, independently of overt neurodegeneration. PMID:29029390

  2. Lipidomics comparing DCD and DBD liver allografts uncovers lysophospholipids elevated in recipients undergoing early allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Casas-Ferreira, Ana M; Ma, Yun; Sen, Arundhuti; Kim, Min; Proitsi, Petroula; Shkodra, Maltina; Tena, Maria; Srinivasan, Parthi; Heaton, Nigel; Jassem, Wayel; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2015-12-04

    Finding specific biomarkers of liver damage in clinical evaluations could increase the pool of available organs for transplantation. Lipids are key regulators in cell necrosis and hence this study hypothesised that lipid levels could be altered in organs suffering severe ischemia. Matched pre- and post-transplant biopsies from donation after circulatory death (DCD, n = 36, mean warm ischemia time = 2 min) and donation after brain death (DBD, n = 76, warm ischemia time = none) were collected. Lipidomic discovery and multivariate analysis (MVA) were applied. Afterwards, univariate analysis and clinical associations were conducted for selected lipids differentiating between these two groups. MVA grouped DCD vs. DBD (p = 6.20 × 10(-12)) and 12 phospholipids were selected for intact lipid measurements. Two lysophosphatidylcholines, LysoPC (16:0) and LysoPC (18:0), showed higher levels in DCD at pre-transplantation (q < 0.01). Lysophosphatidylcholines were associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 14-day post-transplantation (q < 0.05) and were more abundant in recipients undergoing early allograft dysfunction (EAD) (p < 0.05). A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve combining both lipid levels predicted EAD with 82% accuracy. These findings suggest that LysoPC (16:0) and LysoPC (18:0) might have a role in signalling liver tissue damage due to warm ischemia before transplantation.

  3. Early graft dysfunction and mortality rate in marginal donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pmar; Gülcü, Bariş; Işçimen, Remzi; Kiyici, Murat; Türker, Gürkan; Topal, Naile Bolca; Ozen, Yilmaz; Kaya, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of marginal donor livers on mortality and graft survival in liver transplantation (LT) recipients. Donors with any 1 of following were considered marginal donors: age ≥65 years, sodium level ≥ 165 mmol/L and cold ischemia time ≥ 12 h. Donors were classified according to the donor risk index (DRI) < 1.7 and ≥ 1.7. The transplant recipients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were considered low if < 20 and high if ≥ 20. Early graft dysfunction (EGD) and mortality rate were evaluated. During the study period 47 patients underwent cadaveric LT. The mean age of the donors and recipients was 45 years (range: 5-72 years) and 46 years (range: 4-66 years), respectively. In all, there were 15 marginal donors and 18 donors with a DRI > 1.7. In total, 4 LT patients that received livers from marginal donors and 5 that received livers from donors with a DRI ≥ 1.7 had EGD. Among the recipients of marginal livers, 5 died, versus 4 of the recipients of standard livers. There was no significant difference in EGD or mortality rate between the patients that received livers from marginal donors or those with a DRI ≥ 1.7 and patients that received standard donor livers. Marginal and DRI ≥ 1.7 donors negatively affected LT outcomes, but not significantly.

  4. Early presymptomatic cholinergic dysfunction in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Caty; Herrando-Grabulosa, Mireia; Manzano, Raquel; Mancuso, Renzo; Osta, Rosario; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic and familiar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases presented lower cholinergic activity than in healthy individuals in their still preserved spinal motoneurons (MNs) suggesting that cholinergic reduction might occur before MN death. To unravel how and when cholinergic function is compromised, we have analyzed the spatiotemporal expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) from early presymptomatic stages of the SOD1G93A ALS mouse model by confocal immunohistochemistry. The analysis showed an early reduction in ChAT content in soma and presynaptic boutons apposed onto MNs (to 76%) as well as in cholinergic interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of the 30-day-old SOD1G93A mice. Cholinergic synaptic stripping occurred simultaneously to the presence of abundant surrounding major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II)-positive microglia and the accumulation of nuclear Tdp-43 and the appearance of mild oxidative stress within MNs. Besides, there was a loss of neuronal MHC-I expression, which is necessary for balanced synaptic stripping after axotomy. These events occurred before the selective raise of markers of denervation such as ATF3. By the same time, alterations in postsynaptic cholinergic-related structures were also revealed with a loss of the presence of sigma-1 receptor, a Ca2+ buffering chaperone in the postsynaptic cisternae. By 2 months of age, ChAT seemed to accumulate in the soma of MNs, and thus efferences toward Renshaw interneurons were drastically diminished. In conclusion, cholinergic dysfunction in the local circuitry of the spinal cord may be one of the earliest events in ALS etiopathogenesis. PMID:23531559

  5. Early Iron Deficiency Has Brain and Behavior Effects Consistent with Dopaminergic Dysfunction123

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    To honor the late John Beard’s many contributions regarding iron and dopamine biology, this review focuses on recent human studies that test specific hypotheses about effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine system functioning. Short- and long-term alterations associated with iron deficiency in infancy can be related to major dopamine pathways (mesocortical, mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, tuberohypophyseal). Children and young adults who had iron deficiency anemia in infancy show poorer inhibitory control and executive functioning as assessed by neurocognitive tasks where pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies implicate frontal-striatal circuits and the mesocortical dopamine pathway. Alterations in the mesolimbic pathway, where dopamine plays a major role in behavioral activation and inhibition, positive affect, and inherent reward, may help explain altered social-emotional behavior in iron-deficient infants, specifically wariness and hesitance, lack of positive affect, diminished social engagement, etc. Poorer motor sequencing and bimanual coordination and lower spontaneous eye blink rate in iron-deficient anemic infants are consistent with impaired function in the nigrostriatal pathway. Short- and long-term changes in serum prolactin point to dopamine dysfunction in the tuberohypophyseal pathway. These hypothesis-driven findings support the adverse effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine biology. Iron deficiency also has other effects, specifically on other neurotransmitters, myelination, dendritogenesis, neurometabolism in hippocampus and striatum, gene and protein profiles, and associated behaviors. The persistence of poorer cognitive, motor, affective, and sensory system functioning highlights the need to prevent iron deficiency in infancy and to find interventions that lessen the long-term effects of this widespread nutrient disorder. PMID:21346104

  6. Evaluation of P-Wave Dispersion, Diastolic Function, and Atrial Electromechanical Conduction in Pediatric Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Irdem, Ahmet; Aydın Sahin, Derya; Kervancioglu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Osman; Sucu, Murat; Keskin, Mehmet; Kilinc, Metin

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate ventricular diastolic dysfunction, inter- and intraatrial conduction delay, and P-wave dispersion in pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The study comprised a total of 30 pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (mean age 7.8 ± 3.2 years) and 30 healthy children (mean age 8.4 ± 3.6 years) as the control group. A SH diagnosis was made in the event of increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased serum free triiodothyronine (T3 ) and free thyroxine (T4 ) concentrations. Conventional Doppler imaging (TDI) showed low mitral early diastolic E-wave velocity and E/A ratio (P < 0.001) and significantly higher mitral late diastolic A-wave velocity (P = 0.001) in hypothyroidism patients. Moreover, patients with hypothyroidism had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) septal Em velocity and Em /Am ratios compared with the control group (P < 0.001), whereas Am velocity was higher in hypothyroidism patients (P = 0.018). LV lateral Em velocity and Em /Am ratio were significantly lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared with the control group (P < 0.001). With regard to atrial electromechanical conduction, atrial electromechanical delay (PA) lateral, PA septum, PA tricuspid, and each of interatrial and intraatrial conduction delay were significantly prolonged in hypothyroidism patients as compared with the control group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.023, P = 0.002, and P = 0.003, respectively). P-wave dispersion was significantly different in the pediatric patients with hypothyroidism (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated atrial electromechanical conduction delay, abnormal P-wave dispersion, and ventricle diastolic dysfunction in pediatric patients with hypothyroidism. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impaired Ca2+ cycling of nonischemic myocytes contributes to sarcomere dysfunction early after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kronenbitter, Annette; Funk, Florian; Hackert, Katarzyna; Gorreßen, Simone; Glaser, Dennis; Boknik, Peter; Poschmann, Gereon; Stühler, Kai; Isić, Malgorzata; Krüger, Martina; Schmitt, Joachim P

    2018-06-01

    Changes in the nonischemic remote myocardium of the heart contribute to left ventricular dysfunction after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Understanding the underlying mechanisms early after I/R is crucial to improve the adaptation of the viable myocardium to increased mechanical demands. Here, we investigated the role of myocyte Ca 2+ handling in the remote myocardium 24 h after 60 min LAD occlusion. Cardiomyocytes isolated from the basal noninfarct-related parts of wild type mouse hearts demonstrated depressed beat-to-beat Ca 2+ handling. The amplitude of the Ca 2+ transients as well as the kinetics of Ca 2+ transport were reduced by up to 25%. These changes were associated with impaired sarcomere contraction. While expression levels of Ca 2+ regulatory proteins were unchanged in remote myocardium compared to the corresponding regions of sham-operated hearts, mobility shift analyses of phosphorylated protein showed 2.9 ± 0.4-fold more unphosphorylated phospholamban (PLN) monomers, the PLN species that inhibits the Ca 2+ ATPase SERCA2a (P ≤ 0.001). Phospho-specific antibodies revealed normal phosphorylation of PLN at T17 in remote myocardium, but markedly reduced phosphorylation at its PKA-dependent phosphorylation site, S16 (P ≤ 0.01). The underlying cause involved enhanced activity of protein phosphatases, particularly PP2A (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, overall PKA activity was normal. The PLN interactome, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, and the phosphorylation state of PKA targets other than PLN were also unchanged. Isoproterenol enhanced cellular Ca 2+ cycling much stronger in remote myocytes than in healthy controls and improved sarcomere function. We conclude that the reduced phosphorylation state of PLN at S16 impairs myocyte Ca 2+ cycling in the remote myocardium 24 h after I/R and contributes to contractile dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of diastolic function indices in the risk stratification of patients with mixed aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Egbe, Alexander C; Khan, Arooj R; Boler, Amber; Said, Sameh M; Geske, Jeffrey B; Miranda, William R; Akintoye, Emmanuel; Connolly, Heidi M; Warnes, Carole A; Oh, Jae K

    2018-06-01

    Determine the role of diastolic function indices in pre-operative and post-operative risk stratification in patients with moderate mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD). A retrospective study was conducted of asymptomatic patients with moderate MAVD (a combination of moderate aortic stenosis and moderate aortic regurgitation) and an ejection fraction of 50% or more who were followed up at Mayo Clinic from 1 January 2004, to 31 December 2013. A pre-requisite for inclusion in the study was assessment of diastolic function involving at least three of the following indices: tissue Doppler early diastolic velocity (e'), mitral inflow early velocity (E), tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index. Primary endpoints were aortic valve replacement (AVR) or cardiac death while secondary endpoints were cardiovascular adverse events (CAEs) after AVR. We defined CAEs as stroke, heart failure hospitalization, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiac death. There were 214 patients (age 61 ± 8 years, men 146 [68%]) followed for 6.1 ± 2.3 years during which 162 (76%) AVRs and 11 (5%) cardiac deaths occurred. The multivariable risk factors for cardiac death or AVR were relative wall thickness (RWT) > 0.42 [hazard ratio (HR), 1.88 [95% CI, 1.28-2.59]; P = 0.001] and average E/e' >14 (HR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.29-3.01]; P = 0.02). Freedom from CAE after AVR was significantly lower in the patients with baseline RWT >0.42 or mean E/e' >14 than the other patients: 79% (95% CI 74-83%) vs. 94% (95% CI 89-98%) at 3 years (P = 0.03). The presence of RWT >0.42 or E/e' >14 identifies a high-risk patient subset whose risk for cardiovascular morbidities persists even after AVR.

  9. Coronary flow reserve/diastolic function relationship in angina-suffering patients with normal coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Anchisi, Chiara; Marti, Giuliano; Bellacosa, Ilaria; Mary, David; Vacca, Giovanni; Marino, Paolo; Grossini, Elena

    2017-05-01

    Coronary blood flow and diastolic function are well known to interfere with each other through mechanical and metabolic mechanisms. We aimed to assess the relationship between coronary flow reserve (CFR) and diastolic dysfunction in patients suffering from angina but with normal coronary angiography. In 16 patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries, CFR was measured using transthoracic echo-Doppler by inducing hyperemia through dipyridamole infusion. Diastolic function (E/A, deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time [IVRT], propagation velocity [Vp]) and left ventricular mass were evaluated by means of two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. The patients were initially divided into two groups on the grounds of CFR only (ACFR: altered CFR, n = 9; NACFR: unaltered CFR, n = 7). Thereafter they were divided into four groups on the grounds of CFR and diastolic function (NN: normal; AA: altered CFR/diastole; AN: altered CFR/normal diastole; NA: normal CFR/altered diastole). Most of the subjects were scheduled in AA (n = 8) or NA (n = 5) groups, which were taken into consideration for further analysis. Patients were not different regarding various risk factors. ACFR and AA patients were older with normal body weight in comparison with NACFR and NA patients (P < 0.05). In the AA group, CFR and diastolic variables were found to be related to each other. Diastolic dysfunction and reduced CFR were correlated in patients with concomitant alterations of those variables only. Because most risk factors were shared with patients with altered diastolic properties only, our findings could represent a direct relationship between altered CFR and diastole.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Sarcoidosis and Its Association with Outcome.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Emer; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Ninaber, Maarten K; Katsanos, Spyridon; Debonnaire, Philippe; Schalij, Martin J; Taube, Christian; Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria; Ajmone Marsan, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function has not been systematically assessed in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associates of RV dysfunction in sarcoidosis using global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLS). Furthermore, whether RV dysfunction was associated with clinical outcomes was investigated. A total of 88 patients with sarcoidosis (mean age, 54 ± 13 years; 51% men) without known sarcoid-related or other structural heart disease or alternative etiologies of pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively included. RV GLS was measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, and patients were stratified (using a previously defined cutoff value) as having preserved (RV GLS < -19%) or impaired (RV GLS ≥ -19%) RV function. An age- and gender-matched control group (n = 50) was included. The main outcome was all-cause mortality or clinical heart failure (hospitalization or New York Heart Association functional class ≥ III and/or deterioration by one or more classes). RV GLS was significantly reduced (-20.1 ± 4.6 vs -24.6 ± 1.8%, P = .001) in patients compared with control subjects. Patients with impaired RV function (n = 41) were older and had worse pulmonary function, worse left ventricular diastolic function, and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion compared with patients with preserved RV function (n = 47). Lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and diabetes were independent correlates of RV GLS. Over a median follow-up period of 37 months, 19 clinical end points occurred. Patients with impaired RV function were more likely to experience the clinical end point (log-rank P = .003). RV contractile dysfunction, identified using RV GLS, is common in patients with sarcoidosis without manifest cardiac involvement or pulmonary hypertension and is associated with adverse outcome. RV GLS may therefore be useful to detect sarcoidosis-related RV dysfunction at an earlier and

  11. Early pancreatic dysfunction after resection in trauma: An 18-year report from a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Nicole; Inaba, Kenji; Berg, Regan; Beale, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Lam, Lydia; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-03-01

    Early pancreatic dysfunction after resection in trauma has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence and clinical impact of new-onset endocrine and exocrine dysfunction after pancreatic resection for trauma. All patients sustaining a pancreatic injury from 1996 to 2013 were identified. Patients with preinjury diabetes were excluded. Survivors were divided into three groups according to the extent of anatomic resection-distal, proximal, or total pancreatectomy. Clinical demographics and outcome data were abstracted. Blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin requirements were used to assess endocrine pancreatic function. Reported steatorrhea, diarrhea, or supplemental pancreatic enzyme requirements were used to assess exocrine pancreatic function. During the study period, 331 pancreatic injuries were identified, of which 109 (33%) required resection and 84 survived to hospital discharge. Four were excluded. Of 80 cases analyzed, 73 (91%) underwent distal pancreatectomy, 7 (9%) proximal pancreatectomy, and none a total pancreatectomy. The distal resection group was predominantly male (88%), median age 24 years, and mean BMI 27 (kg/m). Thirty-eight (52%) required insulin postoperatively, with the greatest proportion (47%) requiring insulin for ≤1 day; no patients were discharged on insulin. The proximal resection group was predominantly male (86%), median age 31 years, and mean BMI 32 (kg/m). Six of seven required insulin postoperatively and two of seven were insulin dependent at time of hospital discharge. For both distal and proximal resections, none had evidence of exocrine dysfunction or received pancreatic enzyme supplementation at discharge. Exocrine dysfunction after distal or proximal pancreatectomy for trauma is rare. The incidence of early onset endocrine dysfunction after traumatic distal pancreatectomy is also rare; however, it can be seen after proximal resection. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  12. Prognostication of valvular aortic stenosis using tissue Doppler echocardiography: underappreciated importance of late diastolic mitral annular velocity.

    PubMed

    Poh, Kian-Keong; Chan, Mark Yan-Yee; Yang, Hong; Yong, Quek-Wei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Ling, Lieng H

    2008-05-01

    Intact left atrial booster pump function helps maintain cardiac compensation in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Because late diastolic mitral annular (A') velocity reflects left atrial systolic function, we hypothesized that A' velocity correlates with plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level and clinical outcome in AS. We prospectively enrolled 53 consecutive patients (median age 74 years) with variable degrees of AS, in sinus rhythm, and left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 50%. Indices of valvular stenosis, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and mitral annular motion were correlated with plasma NT-proBNP and a composite clinical end point comprising cardiac death and symptom-driven aortic valve replacement. Tissue Doppler echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic (E') velocity and A' velocity and ratio of early diastolic transmitral (E) to E' velocity (E/E') at the annular septum correlated better with NT-proBNP levels than body surface area-indexed aortic valve area. Eighteen patients had the composite end point, which was univariately predicted by body surface area-indexed aortic valve area, NT-proBNP, and all tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices. This outcome was most strongly predicted by the combination of septal A' velocity and E/E' ratio in bivariate Cox modeling. Septal annular A' velocity less than 9.6 cm/s was associated with significantly reduced event-free survival (Kaplan Meier log rank = 27.3, P < .0001) and predicted the end point with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. In patients with AS and normal ejection fraction, annular tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices may better reflect the physiologic consequences of afterload burden on the left ventricle than body surface area-indexed aortic valve area. Lower A' velocity is a predictor of cardiac death and need for valve surgery, suggesting an important role for compensatory left atrial

  13. Usherin defects lead to early-onset retinal dysfunction in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dona, Margo; Slijkerman, Ralph; Lerner, Kimberly; Broekman, Sanne; Wegner, Jeremy; Howat, Taylor; Peters, Theo; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Boon, Nanda; de Vrieze, Erik; Sorusch, Nasrin; Wolfrum, Uwe; Kremer, Hannie; Neuhauss, Stephan; Zang, Jingjing; Kamermans, Maarten; Westerfield, Monte; Phillips, Jennifer; van Wijk, Erwin

    2018-05-16

    Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2a rmc1 : c.2337_2342delinsAC; p.Cys780GlnfsTer32 and ush2a b1245 : c.15520_15523delinsTG; p.Ala5174fsTer). Homozygous mutants were viable and displayed no obvious morphological or developmental defects. Immunohistochemical analyses with antibodies recognizing the N- or C-terminal region of the ush2a-encoded protein, usherin, demonstrated complete absence of usherin in photoreceptors of ush2a rmc1 , but presence of the ectodomain of usherin at the periciliary membrane of ush2a b1245 -derived photoreceptors. Furthermore, defects of usherin led to a reduction in localization of USH2 complex members, whirlin and Adgrv1, at the photoreceptor periciliary membrane of both mutants. Significantly elevated levels of apoptotic photoreceptors could be observed in both mutants when kept under constant bright illumination for three days. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings revealed a significant and similar decrease in both a- and b-wave amplitudes in ush2a rmc1 as well as ush2a b1245 larvae as compared to strain- and age-matched wild-type larvae. In conclusion, this study shows that mutant ush2a zebrafish models present with early-onset retinal dysfunction that is exacerbated by light exposure. These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying USH2A-associated RP and a unique opportunity to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. Copyright

  14. Liver Dysfunction and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signalling in Early Sepsis: Experimental Studies in Rodent Models of Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Martin; Lambeck, Sandro; Lupp, Amelie; Rudiger, Alain; Dyson, Alex; Carré, Jane E.; Kortgen, Andreas; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen; Sponholz, Christoph; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Hilger, Ingrid; Claus, Ralf A.; Riedemann, Niels C.; Wetzker, Reinhard; Singer, Mervyn; Trauner, Michael; Bauer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatic dysfunction and jaundice are traditionally viewed as late features of sepsis and portend poor outcomes. We hypothesized that changes in liver function occur early in the onset of sepsis, yet pass undetected by standard laboratory tests. Methods and Findings In a long-term rat model of faecal peritonitis, biotransformation and hepatobiliary transport were impaired, depending on subsequent disease severity, as early as 6 h after peritoneal contamination. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling was simultaneously induced at this time point. At 15 h there was hepatocellular accumulation of bilirubin, bile acids, and xenobiotics, with disturbed bile acid conjugation and drug metabolism. Cholestasis was preceded by disruption of the bile acid and organic anion transport machinery at the canalicular pole. Inhibitors of PI3K partially prevented cytokine-induced loss of villi in cultured HepG2 cells. Notably, mice lacking the PI3Kγ gene were protected against cholestasis and impaired bile acid conjugation. This was partially confirmed by an increase in plasma bile acids (e.g., chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA] and taurodeoxycholic acid [TDCA]) observed in 48 patients on the day severe sepsis was diagnosed; unlike bilirubin (area under the receiver-operating curve: 0.59), these bile acids predicted 28-d mortality with high sensitivity and specificity (area under the receiver-operating curve: CDCA: 0.77; TDCA: 0.72; CDCA+TDCA: 0.87). Conclusions Liver dysfunction is an early and commonplace event in the rat model of sepsis studied here; PI3K signalling seems to play a crucial role. All aspects of hepatic biotransformation are affected, with severity relating to subsequent prognosis. Detected changes significantly precede conventional markers and are reflected by early alterations in plasma bile acids. These observations carry important implications for the diagnosis of liver dysfunction and pharmacotherapy in the critically ill. Further clinical work is

  15. Early mitochondrial dysfunction in glycolytic muscle, but not oxidative muscle, of the fructose-fed insulin-resistant rat

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Blair E.; Lou, Phing-How; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Zhang, Liyan; Clanachan, Alexander S.; Affolter, Andreas; Hersberger, Martin; Zaugg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle has been accumulating, a causal link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. Our study focuses on an early stage of the disease to determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the development of T2DM. The fructose-fed (FF) rat was used as an animal model of early T2DM. Mitochondrial respiration and acylcarnitine species were measured in oxidative (soleus) and glycolytic [extensor digitorum longus (EDL)] muscle. Although FF rats displayed characteristic signs of T2DM, including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, mitochondrial content was preserved in both muscles from FF rats. The EDL muscle had reduced complex I and complex I and II respiration in the presence of pyruvate but not glutamate. The decrease in pyruvate-supported respiration was due to a decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Accumulation of C14:1 and C14:2 acylcarnitine species and a decrease in respiration supported by long-chain acylcarnitines but not acetylcarnitine indicated dysfunctional β-oxidation in the EDL muscle. In contrast, the soleus muscle showed preserved mitochondrial respiration, pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and increased fatty acid oxidation, as evidenced by overall reduced acylcarnitine levels. Aconitase activity, a sensitive index of reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria, was reduced exclusively in EDL muscle, which showed lower levels of the antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Here, we show that the glycolytic EDL muscle is more prone to an imbalance between energy supply and oxidation caused by insulin resistance than the oxidative soleus muscle. PMID:24425766

  16. Dealing with Sensory Integrative Dysfunction in the Classroom: A Guide for Early Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Christina

    This paper offers teachers basic information about sensory integration and suggests strategies for managing classrooms which include children with sensory integrative dysfunction. The first section looks at what sensory integration is, noting especially the roles of the three "near senses": the vestibular system, the proprioceptive system, and the…

  17. TABS Manual for the Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale: Early Childhood Indicators of Developmental Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisworth, John T.; Bagnato, Stephen J.; Salvia, John; Hunt, Frances M.

    This manual describes the rationale, use, and validity of the Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS), a norm-referenced measure of dysfunctional behavior appropriately used with infants and young children between the ages of 11 and 71 months. TABS is intended to identify children who are developing atypically or are at risk for atypical…

  18. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A.; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A.; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract See Postuma (doi:10.1093/aww131) for a scientific commentary on this article. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson’s disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson’s disease and 10 control subjects received 123I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye

  19. Angiogenic dysfunction in bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells from diabetic animals is attenuated by SIRT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Darren A; Zhang, Yanling; Thai, Kerri; Spring, Christopher; Chan, Lauren; Guo, Xiaoxin; Advani, Andrew; Sivak, Jeremy M; Gilbert, Richard E

    2012-12-01

    Impaired endothelial repair is a key contributor to microvascular rarefaction and consequent end-organ dysfunction in diabetes. Recent studies suggest an important role for bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) in mediating endothelial repair, but the function of these cells is impaired in diabetes, as in advanced age. We sought to determine whether diabetes-associated EOC dysfunction might be attenuated by pharmacological activation of silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1), a lysine deacetylase implicated in nutrient-dependent life span extension in mammals. Despite being cultured in normal (5.5 mM) glucose for 7 days, EOCs from diabetic rats expressed less SIRT1 mRNA, induced less endothelial tube formation in vitro and neovascularization in vivo, and secreted less of the proangiogenic ELR(+) CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL3, and CXCL5. Ex vivo SIRT1 activation restored EOC chemokine secretion and increased the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic activity of EOC conditioned medium derived from diabetic animals to levels similar to that derived from control animals. These findings suggest a pivotal role for SIRT1 in diabetes-induced EOC dysfunction and that its pharmacologic activation may provide a new strategy for the restoration of EOC-mediated repair mechanisms.

  20. From the liver to the heart: Cardiac dysfunction in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia del Giudice, Emanuele; Santoro, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction. PMID:28144387

  1. From the liver to the heart: Cardiac dysfunction in obese children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Santoro, Nicola

    2017-01-18

    In the last decades the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased as a consequence of the childhood obesity world epidemic. The liver damage occurring in NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Recent findings reported that fatty liver disease is related to early atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction even in the pediatric population. Moreover, some authors have shown an association between liver steatosis and cardiac abnormalities, including rise in left ventricular mass, systolic and diastolic dysfunction and epicardial adipose tissue thickness. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the current knowledge concerning the association between NAFLD and cardiac dysfunction.

  2. Impaired left ventricular diastolic function is related to the formation of left ventricular apical thrombus in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung Lim; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Sun, Byung Joo; Oh, Jin Kyung; Seong, Seok Woo; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kwon, In Sun; Seong, In-Whan

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular (LV) apical thrombus is a clinically important complication which can cause systemic embolization in patients with anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Systolic dysfunction has been a risk factor for developing LV apical thrombus in AMI patients. However, the role of diastolic dysfunction in the development of LV apical thrombus in these patients is still unknown. We performed this study to evaluate whether diastolic dysfunction can influence the development of LV apical thrombus in anterior AMI patients. We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive anterior AMI patients with available echocardiographic images within 1 month from January 2005 to April 2016. After gathering clinical characteristics from their medical records, systolic and diastolic functions were analyzed from digitally stored echocardiographic images. We included a total of 1045 patients (748 males, mean age 64 ± 12 years) with anterior AMI, and 494 (47%) were diagnosed as STEMI. The incidence of LV apical thrombus was 3.3% (34/1045). The LV apical thrombus group had larger LV diastolic dimension, larger LV diastolic and systolic volumes, and lower LVEF than the no LV thrombus group. The LV apical thrombus group showed higher mitral E velocity over mitral annular E' velocity ratio, an indicator of LV end-diastolic pressure (P < 0.001). In the LV apical thrombus group, the incidence of grade 2 diastolic dysfunction (32 vs 12%, P = 0.001) and grade 3 diastolic dysfunction (26 vs 2%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher than in the no LV apical thrombus group. The presence of more than grade 2 diastolic dysfunction, LVEF and presence of LV apical aneurysm were statistically significant factors associated with LV apical thrombus after the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, along with LV systolic dysfunction and LV apical aneurysm, LV diastolic dysfunction was also related with the presence of LV apical thrombus in patients with anterior AMI.

  3. Impact of a systolic parameter, defined as the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time, on the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chao; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Chee-Siong; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2011-04-01

    Arterial stiffness is correlated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function as well as susceptibility to LV systolic function. Therefore, if LV systolic function is not known, the relationship between arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function is difficult to determine. A total of 260 patients were included in the study. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time (rbPEP/rbET) were measured using an ABI-form device. Patients were classified into four groups. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were patients with rbPEP/rbET and baPWV below the median, rbPEP/rbET above but baPWV below the median, rbPET/rbET below but baPWV above the median, and rbPET/rbET and baPWV above the median, respectively. The LV ejection fractions in groups 1 and 3 were higher than those in groups 2 and 4 (P<0.001 for all). Patients in group 1 had a lower left atrial volume index (LAVI) and higher early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Ea) than patients in the other groups (P≤0.002). Patients in group 2 had a LAVI and ratio of transmitral E wave velocity to Ea that were comparable to those in groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, rbPEP/rbET had an impact on the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function. In patients with high rbPEP/rbET but low baPWV, low baPWV may not indicate good LV diastolic function but implies that cardiac dysfunction may precede vascular dysfunction in such patients. When interpreting the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function, the rbPEP/rbET value obtained from the same examination should be considered.

  4. Early detection of right ventricular dysfunction using transthoracic echocardiography in ARDS: a more objective approach.

    PubMed

    Wadia, Subeer Kanwar; Shah, Trushil G; Hedstrom, Grady; Kovach, Julie A; Tandon, Rajive

    2016-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our goal was to describe morphologic changes in the RV using objective measures on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) that occur following ARDS. We retrospectively measured changes in the following RV parameters from a pre-ARDS TTE to an ARDS TTE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), myocardial performance index (MPI), fractional area change (FAC), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP), peak tricuspid regurgitant (TR) velocity, and septal shift. Over 24 months, 14 patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Mean TAPSE decreased from 22.4 mm pre-ARDS to 16.3 mm during ARDS, P<.001. Mean MPI increased from 0.19 to 0.38, P=.001. Mean FAC decreased from 60.8% to 41.2%, P=.003. Peak TR velocity increased from 2.67 m/s pre-ARDS to 3.31 m/s during ARDS, P=.02. SPAP and septal shift demonstrated trends but not statistically different between pre-ARDS and ARDS states. TAPSE correlated with ARDS severity (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios), P=.004, and was lower among 30-day nonsurvivors compared with survivors, P=.002. Mild RV dysfunction is common after ARDS onset. RV morphologic changes coupled with dysfunction can be detected noninvasively through TTE changes with TAPSE, MPI, and FAC. Mild RV dysfunction by TAPSE is associated with ARDS severity and mortality. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

  6. Nonhuman primate model of polytraumatic hemorrhagic shock recapitulates early platelet dysfunction observed following severe injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Leasha J; Moore, Hunter B; Cap, Andrew P; Glaser, Jacob J; Moore, Ernest E; Sheppard, Forest R

    2017-03-01

    Platelet dysfunction has been described as an early component of trauma-induced coagulopathy. The platelet component of trauma-induced coagulopathy remains to be fully elucidated and translatable animal models are required to facilitate mechanistic investigations. We sought to determine if the early platelet dysfunction described in trauma patients could be recapitulated in a nonhuman primate model of polytraumatic hemorrhagic shock. Twenty-four male rhesus macaques weighting 7 to 14 kg were subjected to 60 minutes (min) of severe pressure-targeted controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS) with and without other injuries. After 60 min, resuscitation with 0.9% NaCl and whole blood was initiated. Platelet counts and platelet aggregation assays were performed at baseline (BSLN), end of shock (EOS; T = 60 min), end of resuscitation (EOR; T = 180 min), and T = 360 min on overall cohort. Results are reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median (interquartile range). Statistical analysis was conducted using Spearmen correlation, one-way analysis of variance, two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-test or Wilcoxon nonparametric test, with p < 0.05 considered significant. Platelet count in all injury cohorts decreased over time, but no animals developed thrombocytopenia. Correlations were observed between platelet aggregation and platelet count for all agonists: adenosine diphosphate, thrombin recognition-activating peptide-6, collagen, and arachidonic acid. Overall, compared to BSLN, platelet aggregation decreased for all agonist at EOS, EOR, and T = 360 min. When normalized to platelet count, platelet aggregation in response to agonist thrombin recognition-activating peptide-6 demonstrated no change from BSLN at subsequent time points. Aggregation to adenosine diphosphate was significantly less at EOR but not EOS or T = 360 min compared to BSLN. Platelet aggregation to collagen and arachidonic acid was not significantly different at EOS compared to BSLN

  7. Acceleration rate of mitral inflow E wave: a novel transmitral doppler index for assessing diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Badkoubeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Tavoosi, Anahita; Jabbari, Mostafa; Parsa, Amir Farhang Zand; Geraeli, Babak; Saadat, Mohammad; Larti, Farnoosh; Meysamie, Ali Pasha; Salehi, Mehrdad

    2016-06-10

    We performed comprehensive transmitral and pulmonary venous Doppler echocardiographic studies to devise a novel index of diastolic function. This is the first study to assess the utility of the acceleration rate (AR) of the E wave of mitral inflow as a primary diagnostic modality for assessing diastolic function. Study group consisted of 84 patients (53 + 11 years) with left ventricle (LV) diastolic dysfunction and 34 healthy people (35 ± 9 years) as control group, who were referred for clinically indicated two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) during 2012 and 2013 to Imam Hospital. Normal controls were defined as patients without clinical evidence of cardiac disease and had normal TTE. LV diastolic function was determined according to standardized protocol of American Society of Echocardiography (ASE). As our new parameter, AR of E wave of mitral inflow was also measured in all patients. It was represented by the slope of the line between onset of E wave and peak of it. Correlation between AR of E wave and LV diastolic function grade was measured using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of AR of E wave in diagnosing LV diastolic dysfunction in randomly selected two-thirds of population then its derived cutoff was evaluated in rest of the population. The institutional review board of the hospital approved the study protocol. All participants gave written informed consent. This investigation was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The mean value of AR was 1010 ± 420 cm/s(2) in patients whereas the mean value for the normal controls was 701 ± 210 cm/s(2). There was a strong and graded relation between AR of E wave of mitral inflow and LV diastolic function grade (Spearman P ≤0.0001, rs =0.69). ROC curve analysis revealed that AR of E wave of mitral inflow =750 cm/s(2) predicted moderate or severe LV diastolic

  8. Left ventricular morphology and diastolic function in uraemia: echocardiographic evidence of a specific cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, L.; Vescovo, G.; Levedianos, G.; Zannini, L.; Nordio, M.; Lorenzi, S.; Caturelli, G.; Ambrosio, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities in uraemic patients are determined by high blood pressure or if they are an expression of a specific cardiomyopathy. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--City general hospital in Italy. SUBJECTS--35 uraemic patients receiving haemodialysis (17 men, 18 women; mean age 60.3 (11.2); mean duration of dialysis 52 months) were selected from the 64 patients in Venice who were receiving dialysis; subjects with diabetes, haemochromatosis, valvar dysfunction, regional dyskinesias, and pericarditis were excluded. 19 control normotensive subjects (6 men and 13 women), matched for age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Echocardiographic measurements of left atrium, left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volume, aortic root diameter, posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, left ventricle mass index, and ejection fraction in controls and in patients according to whether they were normotensive (five men, eight women) or hypertensive (12 men, 10 women) on 48 hour ambulatory monitoring; left ventricular diastolic function by Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS--Mean systolic and diastolic pressures, daytime systolic and diastolic pressures, and night time systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than in the normotensive patients. The normotensive patients had similar blood pressures to the controls. Left ventricular mass correlated significantly with the mean diastolic pressure and mean night time systolic and diastolic pressures. Parathyroid hormone concentrations were similar in the two groups of patients. Diastolic relaxation was impaired to the same degree in the two groups of patients. Parameters of diastolic function showed no relation to left ventricular mass, which was significantly higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive patients. CONCLUSIONS--Uraemia is likely to induce specific changes in the relaxation properties of the

  9. Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Erik

    2018-06-01

    To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health. These midstream risk factors, particularly stress and emotional turmoil, create a more or less perfect foil for calorie-dense junk food self-medication and subtle addiction, to alleviate uncomfortable psychological and emotional states. Disturbances in the social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity, through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food self-medication and subtle addiction.

  10. Effects of atorvastatin treatment on left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients-The ALEVENT clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cho-Kai; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Chiang, Jiun-Yang; Lin, Ting-Tse; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Kao, Tze-Wah; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, predict the development of LVDD. We hypothesized that PD patients with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels might benefit from statin treatment for LVDD and designed a randomized clinical trial to prove the hypothesis. We screened 213 PD patients and randomly assigned 32 men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <130 mg/dL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of ≥1.5 mg/L, and LVDD, diagnosed by conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography, to treatment with atorvastatin, 40 mg daily, or without. The primary end points were changes in TDI diastolic parameters or global strain imaging diastolic parameters. Atorvastatin reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 43% and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels by 45% (both P < .001). Follow-up TDI showed significant improvement of early mitral flow velocities divided by early diastolic peak velocities of the mitral annulus at the medial and lateral site (Nominal change for E/E medial : -5.01 ± 6.36 vs 1.80 ± 6.59 for atorvastatin and control, respectively, P = .02). There was also a significant improvement in global strain imaging after atorvastatin treatment (global strain rate, -17.12 ± 1.42 vs -14.61 ± 1.78 for atorvastatin and control, respectively, P = .002 and E/SR IVR , 462.35 ± 110.54 vs 634.09 ± 116.81, P = .003). In this trial of PD patients without hyperlipidemia but with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and LVDD, atorvastatin significantly improved cardiac diastolic function (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01503671). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Diastolic function of the nonfilling human left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Paulus, W J; Vantrimpont, P J; Rousseau, M F

    1992-12-01

    To investigate an early-diastolic left ventricular suction effect in humans, tip-micromanometer left ventricular pressure recordings were obtained in patients with mitral stenosis at the time of balloon inflations during percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty performed with a self-positioning Inoue balloon, which fits tightly in the mitral orifice. When mitral inflow was impeded in anesthetized dogs, left ventricular pressure decayed to a negative asymptote value. This negative asymptote value was consistent with an early diastolic suction effect. Tip-micromanometer left ventricular pressure recordings were obtained in 23 patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis at the time of balloon inflations during percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty performed with a self-positioning Inoue balloon. The left ventricular diastolic asymptote pressure (P(asy)) was determined in 47 nonfilling beats with a sufficiently long (greater than 200 ms) diastolic time interval (that is, the interval from minimal first derivative of left ventricular pressure to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) and equaled 2 +/- 3 mm Hg for beats with normal intraventricular conduction and 3 +/- 2 mm Hg for beats with aberrant intraventricular conduction. Left ventricular angiography was performed in five patients during the first inflation of the Inoue balloon at the time of complete balloon expansion. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume of the nonfilling beats averaged 38 +/- 14 ml and was comparable to the left ventricular end-systolic volume (39 +/- 19 ml) measured during baseline angiography before mitral valvuloplasty. Time constants of left ventricular pressure decay were calculated on 21 nonfilling beats with a diastolic time interval greater than 200 ms, normal intraventricular conduction and peak left ventricular pressure greater than 50 mm Hg. Time constants (T0 and TBF) derived from an exponential curve fit with zero asymptote pressure and with a best-fit asymptote pressure were compared with a

  12. Triglycerides as an early pathophysiological marker of endothelial dysfunction in nondiabetic women with a previous history of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sokup, Alina; Góralczyk, Barbara; Góralczyk, Krzysztof; Rość, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether baseline triglyceride levels are associated with early glucose dysregulation and/or cardiovascular risk in women with a previous history of gestational diabetes. Prospective postpregnancy cohort study. Polish university hospitals. Participants included 125 women with previous gestational diabetes and 40 women with normal glucose regulation during pregnancy. All women were studied 2-24 months (mean 12 ± 10 months) after the index pregnancy. Women with previous gestational diabetes were divided into tertiles in accordance with baseline triglyceride levels. We assessed glucose regulation (oral glucose tolerance test), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble: intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen), fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen), inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and lipid levels. Women with previous gestational diabetes (78% normal glucose regulation, 22% impaired glucose tolerance) had a high cardiometabolic risk profile compared with control women (100% normal glucose regulation). Baseline triglycerides >0.83 mmol/l were associated with a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Triglycerides >1.22 mmol/l were associated with higher body fat indexes, higher insulin resistance, higher levels of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, higher plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen and dyslipidemia. Only E-selectin was independently associated with triglyceride levels. Baseline triglyceride levels are a cardiovascular risk marker as well as a pathophysiological parameter independently associated with endothelial dysfunction in nondiabetic women with previous gestational diabetes at 2-24 months after an index pregnancy. Normalization of

  13. Early Allograft Dysfunction After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Short- and Long-Term Kidney Function Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wadei, H M; Lee, D D; Croome, K P; Mai, M L; Golan, E; Brotman, R; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-03-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation (LT) is related to ischemia-reperfusion injury and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response and extrahepatic organ dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of EAD on new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy within the first month and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within the first year post-LT in 1325 primary LT recipients. EAD developed in 358 (27%) of recipients. Seventy-one (5.6%) recipients developed AKI and 38 (2.9%) developed ESRD. Compared with those without EAD, recipients with EAD had a higher risk of AKI and ESRD (4% vs. 9% and 2% vs. 6%, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent relationship between EAD and AKI as well as ESRD (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.9-6.4, and odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 11.9-91.2, respectively). Patients who experienced both EAD and AKI had inferior 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year patient and graft survival compared with those with either EAD or AKI alone, while those who had neither AKI nor EAD had the best outcomes (p < 0.001). Post-LT EAD is a risk factor for both AKI and ESRD and should be considered a target for future intervention to reduce post-LT short- and long-term renal dysfunction. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Prognostic Importance of Early Worsening Renal Function Following Initiation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy in Patients with Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Dries, Daniel L.; Coca, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Worsening renal function (WRF) in the setting of heart failure has been associated with increased mortality. However, it is unclear if this decreased survival is a direct result of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or if the mechanism underlying the deterioration in GFR is driving prognosis. Given that WRF in the setting of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) initiation is likely mechanistically distinct from spontaneously occurring WRF, we sought to investigate the relative early WRF associated mortality rates in subjects randomized to ACE-I or placebo. Methods and Results Subjects in the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction limited data set were studied (6,377 patients). The interaction between early WRF (decrease in estimated GFR ≥20% at 14 days), randomization to enalapril, and mortality was the primary endpoint. In the overall population, early WRF was associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR=1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.4, p=0.037). When analysis was restricted to the placebo group, this association strengthened (adjusted HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8, p=0.004). However, in the enalapril group, early WRF had no adverse prognostic significance (adjusted HR=1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.3, p=1.0, p interaction=0.09). In patients that continued study drug despite early WRF, a survival advantage remained with enalapril therapy (adjusted HR=0.66, 95% CI 0.5–0.9, p=0.018). Conclusions These data support the notion that the mechanism underlying WRF is important in determining its prognostic significance. Specifically, early WRF in the setting of ACE-I initiation appears to represent a benign event which is not associated with a loss of benefit from continued ACE-I therapy. PMID:21903907

  15. Early visual analysis tool using magnetoencephalography for treatment and recovery of neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Waqas; Neoh, Yee Yik; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham; Reza, Faruque; Idris, Zamzuri; Tang, Tong Boon

    2017-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging modalities play an important role in deciding the diagnosis and course of treatment of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. This article presents an analytical tool with visualization by exploiting the strengths of the MEG (magnetoencephalographic) neuroimaging technique. The tool automates MEG data import (in tSSS format), channel information extraction, time/frequency decomposition, and circular graph visualization (connectogram) for simple result inspection. For advanced users, the tool also provides magnitude squared coherence (MSC) values allowing personalized threshold levels, and the computation of default model from MEG data of control population. Default model obtained from healthy population data serves as a useful benchmark to diagnose and monitor neuronal recovery during treatment. The proposed tool further provides optional labels with international 10-10 system nomenclature in order to facilitate comparison studies with EEG (electroencephalography) sensor space. Potential applications in epilepsy and traumatic brain injury studies are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac dysfunction and ferritin as early markers of severity in pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tonial, Cristian T; Garcia, Pedro Celiny R; Schweitzer, Louise Cardoso; Costa, Caroline A D; Bruno, Francisco; Fiori, Humberto H; Einloft, Paulo R; Garcia, Ricardo Branco; Piva, Jefferson Pedro

    The aim of this study was to verify the association of echocardiogram, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte count with unfavorable outcomes in pediatric sepsis. A prospective cohort study was carried out from March to December 2014, with pediatric critical care patients aged between 28 days and 18 years. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation for more than 48h, and vasoactive drugs. Serum levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, and leukocyte count were collected on the first day (D0), 24h (D1), and 72h (D3) after recruitment. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography to determine the ejection fraction of the left ventricle on D1 and D3. The outcomes measured were length of hospital stay and in the pediatric intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation duration, free hours of VM, duration of use of inotropic agents, maximum inotropic score, and mortality. Twenty patients completed the study. Patients with elevated ferritin levels on D0 had also fewer ventilator-free hours (p=0.046) and higher maximum inotropic score (p=0.009). Patients with cardiac dysfunction by echocardiogram on D1 had longer hospital stay (p=0.047), pediatric intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), duration of mechanical ventilation (p=0.011), maximum inotropic score (p=0.001), and fewer ventilator-free hours (p=0.020). Cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography and serum ferritin value was significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes in pediatric patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Early treatment improves urodynamic prognosis in neurogenic voiding dysfunction: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G

    To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Abdominal adipose tissue: early metabolic dysfunction associated to insulin resistance and oxidative stress induced by an unbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, O R; Marra, C A; Raschia, A; Rodriguez, S; Gagliardino, J J

    2008-11-01

    The possible contribution of early changes in lipid composition, function, and antioxidant status of abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) induced by a fructose-rich diet (FRD) to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress (OS) was studied. Wistar rats were fed with a commercial diet with (FRD) or without 10% fructose in the drinking water for 3 weeks. The glucose (G), triglyceride (TG), and insulin (I) plasma levels, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, lyposoluble antioxidants, total glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation as TBARS, fatty acid (FA) composition of AAT-TG as well as their release by incubated pieces of AAT were measured. Rats fed with a FRD have significantly higher plasma levels of G, TG, and I. Their AAT showed a marked increase in content and ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, TBARS, and catalase, GSH-transferase and GSH-reductase, together with a decrease in superoxide dismutase and GSH-peroxidase activity, and total GSH, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene content. Incubated AAT from FRD released in vitro higher amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) with higher ratios of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs. Our data suggest that FRD induced an early prooxidative state and metabolic dysfunction in AAT that would favor the overall development of IR and OS and further development of pancreatic beta-cell failure; therefore, its early control would represent an appropriate strategy to prevent alterations such as the development of type 2 diabetes.

  19. The importance of speckle tracking echocardiography in the early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demirelli, Selami; Degirmenci, Husnu; Ermis, Emrah; Inci, Sinan; Nar, Gokay; Ayhan, Mehmet Emin; Fırtına, Serdar; Hamur, Hikmet; Durmaz, Senay Arikan

    2015-10-19

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hormonal and metabolic abnormalities and is thought to increase a risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study we use speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in the early period of the disease. We enrolled 31 patients with PCOS and 32 healthy volunteers as a control group. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 40 years. PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. LV strain (LS) and strain rate (SR) were evaluated using apical two-chamber (2C), three-chamber (3C), and four-chamber (4C) imaging. Global LS and SR were calculated as average of three apical views. The waist-to-hip ratio, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting insulin and triglyceride levels were higher in the PCOS group than in the controls (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.005, respectively). In the PCOS group, the mitral A wave, deceleration time (DT), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) were significantly higher than in the controls (all p<0.05). The LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global longitudinal SR systolic (GLSRS) were significantly lower in the PCOS patient group (both p= 0.001). There were strong negative correlations between GLS and both fasting insulin (r=-0.64) and DT (r=-0.62) (both p<0.05). The study demonstrated that PCOS patients had decreased LV function using STE. Therefore, STE imaging appears to be useful for the early detection of subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with PCOS.

  20. High fat diet-induced metabolically obese and normal weight rabbit model shows early vascular dysfunction: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Mirta; Medina, Analia; Peral, Maria; Jerez, Susana

    2018-01-30

    Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks. Body weight, TBARS and gluthathione serum levels were similar between the groups; fasting glucose, triglycerides, C reactive protein (CRP), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) were higher in the HFD group. Compared to CD, the HFD rabbits had glucose intolerance and lower HDL-cholesterol and plasma nitrites levels. Thoracic aortic rings from HFD rabbits exhibited: (a) a reduced acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation; (b) a greater contractile response to norepinephrine and KCl; (c) an improved angiotensin II-sensibility. The HFD-effect on acetylcholine-response was reversed by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (NS398) and the cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor (SC560), and the HFD-effect on angiotensin II was reversed by NS398 and the TP receptor blocker (SQ29538). Immunohistochemistry and western blot studies showed COX-2 expression only in arteries from HFD rabbits. Our study shows a positive pro-inflammatory status of HFD-induced MONW characterized by raised COX-2 expression, increase of the CRP levels, reduction of NO release and oxidative stress-controlled conditions in an early stage of metabolic alterations characteristic of metabolic syndrome. Endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular reactivity in MONW individuals may be biomarkers of early vascular injury. Therefore, the metabolic changes induced by HFD even in normal

  1. Path length entropy analysis of diastolic heart sounds.

    PubMed

    Griffel, Benjamin; Zia, Mohammad K; Fridman, Vladamir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multiscale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%-81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Path Length Entropy Analysis of Diastolic Heart Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Griffel, B.; Zia, M. K.; Fridman, V.; Saponieri, C.; Semmlow, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multi-scale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%–81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. PMID:23930808

  3. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children: Immediate and short-term changes in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Km; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Sivasankaran, S; Sanjay, G; Bijulal, S; Anees, T

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in children. Limited studies are available on alteration in LV hemodynamics, especially diastolic function, after PDA closure. Thirty-two consecutive children with isolated PDA treated by trans-catheter closure were studied. The LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging 1 day before the PDA closure, on day 1, and on follow-up. At baseline, none of the patients had LV systolic dysfunction. On day 1 post-PDA closure, 8 (25%) children developed LV systolic dysfunction. The baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-systolic dimension (LVESD), and PDA diastolic gradient predicted the post-closure LVEF. Patients who developed post-closure LV systolic dysfunction had poorer LV diastolic function than those who did not. LV diastolic properties improved after PDA closure; however, the improvement in LV diastolic properties lagged behind the improvement in the LV systolic function. All children were asymptomatic and had normal LVEF on follow up of >3 months. Percutaneous closure of PDA is associated with the reversible LV systolic dysfunction. Improvement in the LV diastolic function lags behind that in the LV systolic function.

  4. Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Childhood: 1. Outcome in Late Adolescence and Early Adult Years. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.

    Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…

  5. Release of targeted p53 from the mitochondrion as an early signal during mitochondrial dysfunction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein is an early response to low-level stressors. To investigate the fate of mitochondrial-sequestered p53, mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) on a p53-deficient genetic background were transfected with p53-EGFP fusion protei...

  6. Two-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging detects myocardial dysfunction before occurrence of hypertrophy in a young Maine Coon cat.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valerie; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Gouni, Vassiliki; Nicolle, Audrey P; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    A 20-month-old healthy male Maine Coon cat was referred for a cardiovascular evaluation. Physical examination and electrocardiogram were normal. The end-diastolic subaortic interventricular septal thickness (6 mm; reference range: < or = 6mm) and the mitral flow late diastolic velocity (0.89 m/s; reference range: 0.2-0.8m/s) were within the upper ranges. However, M-mode echocardiography did not reveal any sign of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) identified a marked left ventricular free wall dysfunction characterized by decreased myocardial velocities in early diastole, increased myocardial velocities in late diastole and the presence of postsystolic contractions both at the base and the apex for the longitudinal motion. One year later, the diagnosis of HCM was confirmed by conventional echocardiography and the cat died suddenly 2 months later. This report demonstrates for the first time in spontaneous HCM the sensitivity of TDI for early diagnosis of myocardial dysfunction and suggests that TDI should form part of the screening techniques for early diagnosis of feline HCM.

  7. Neurological Dysfunction in Early Maturity of a Model for Niemann-Pick C1 Carrier Status.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ya Hui; Walterfang, Mark; Churilov, Leonid; Bray, Lisa; Jacobson, Laura H; Barnham, Kevin J; Jones, Nigel C; O'Brien, Terence J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Bush, Ashley I

    2016-07-01

    Autosomal recessive inheritance of NPC1 with loss-of-function mutations underlies Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NP-C1), a lysosomal storage disorder with progressive neurodegeneration. It is uncertain from limited biochemical studies and patient case reports whether NPC1 haploinsufficiency can cause a partial NP-C1 phenotype in carriers. In the present study, we examined this possibility in heterozygotes of a natural loss-of-function mutant Npc1 mouse model. We found partial motor dysfunction and increased anxiety-like behavior in Npc1 (+/-) mice by 9 weeks of age. Relative to Npc1 (+/+) mice, Npc1 (+/-) mice failed to show neurodevelopmental improvements in motor coordination and balance on an accelerating Rotarod. In the open-field test, Npc1 (+/-) mice showed an intermediate phenotype in spontaneous locomotor activity compared with Npc1 (+/+) and Npc1 (-/-) mice, as well as decreased center tendency. Together with increased stride length under anxiogenic conditions on the DigiGait treadmill, these findings are consistent with heightened anxiety. Our findings indicate that pathogenic NPC1 allele carriers, who represent about 0.66 % of humans, could be vulnerable to motor and anxiety disorders.

  8. Application of a simplified definition of diastolic function in severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Lanspa, Michael J; Gutsche, Andrea R; Wilson, Emily L; Olsen, Troy D; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Knox, Daniel B; Brown, Samuel M; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-08-04

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is common in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, but the best approach to categorization is unknown. We assessed the association of common measures of diastolic function with clinical outcomes and tested the utility of a simplified definition of diastolic dysfunction against the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) 2009 definition. In this prospective observational study, patients with severe sepsis or septic shock underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24 h of onset of sepsis (median 4.3 h). We measured echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function and used random forest analysis to assess their association with clinical outcomes (28-day mortality and ICU-free days to day 28) and thereby suggest a simplified definition. We then compared patients categorized by the ASE 2009 definition and our simplified definition. We studied 167 patients. The ASE 2009 definition categorized only 35 % of patients. Random forest analysis demonstrated that the left atrial volume index and deceleration time, central to the ASE 2009 definition, were not associated with clinical outcomes. Our simplified definition used only e' and E/e', omitting the other measurements. The simplified definition categorized 87 % of patients. Patients categorized by either ASE 2009 or our novel definition had similar clinical outcomes. In both definitions, worsened diastolic function was associated with increased prevalence of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. A novel, simplified definition of diastolic dysfunction categorized more patients with sepsis than ASE 2009 definition. Patients categorized according to the simplified definition did not differ from patients categorized according to the ASE 2009 definition in respect to clinical outcome or comorbidities.

  9. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection: sex differences and relationship with left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-08-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic function. We investigated, in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship among arterial stiffness, wave reflection, and LV diastolic function. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study using applanation tonometry. The central pulse pressure/stroke volume index, total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification, and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. LV diastolic function was evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were greater in women compared with men, independent of body size and heart rate (all P<0.01), and showed inverse relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, a higher central pulse pressure/stroke volume index predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 2.30) and men (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.39), independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic function in men and women. Women's higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF.

  10. Anorectal Manometric Dysfunctions in Newly Diagnosed, Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hye Young; Kim, Yeong-In; Lee, Kwang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Anorectal dysmotility is common in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), but there have been few evaluations in newly diagnosed PD patients. Methods We conducted anorectal manometric evaluations in 19 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve, early-stage PD patients. All of the PD patients were questioned regarding the presence of anorectal symptoms. Results Anorectal manometry was abnormal in 12 of the 19 patients. These abnormalities were more common in patients with more severe anorectal symptoms, as measured using a self-reported scale. However, more than 40% of patients with no or minimal symptoms also exhibited manometric abnormalities. Conclusions These results suggest that anorectal dysmotility manifests in many early-stage PD patients, which this represent evidence for the involvement of neuronal structures in such nonmotor manifestations in PD. PMID:23091527

  11. Short-term and long-term memory in early temporal lobe dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hershey, T; Craft, S; Glauser, T A; Hale, S

    1998-01-01

    Following medial temporal damage, mature humans are impaired in retaining new information over long delays but not short delays. The question of whether a similar dissociation occurs in children was addressed by testing children (ages 7-16) with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and controls on short- and long-term memory tasks, including a spatial delayed response task (SDR). Early-onset TLE did not affect performance on short delays on SDR, but it did impair performance at the longest delay (60 s), similar to adults with unilateral medial temporal damage. In addition, early-onset TLE affected performance on pattern recall, spatial span, and verbal span with rehearsal interference. No differences were found on story recall or on a response inhibition task.

  12. Role for Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) and Platelet Aggregation in Early Sepsis-induced Hepatic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kentaro; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takahisa; Ohbatake, Yoshinao; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Okamoto, Koichi; Sakai, Seisho; Kinoshita, Jun; Makino, Isamu; Nakamura, Keishi; Hayashi, Hironori; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Kenichi; Harmon, John W; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Inflammation and coagulation play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of sepsis leading to multiple organ failure, especially in the liver. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanism from sepsis to liver damage in a mouse model. We created a sepsis model by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally in mice. At 0, 6, 12, and 24 h following intraperitoneal injection of LPS, mice were euthanised and analyzed. Primary antibodies against myeloperoxidase (MPO), hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SE-1), and P-selectin (CD62p) were used. Expression and localization in neutrophil, sinusoidal endothelial, and platelet cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed a positive staining for MPO, most abundantly in neutrophil granulocytes, within the hepatic sinusoids immediately after injection. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-like structures stained for MPO, indicating the presence of neutrophils undergoing NETosis, were confirmed at 6 h after LPS administration. SE-1 staining for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells was significantly reduced at 12 h post-LPS administration through sinusoidal endothelial injury or detachment. Furthermore, the presence of extravasated platelets was confirmed in the space of Disse at 24 h after LPS administration. Blood sample analyses showed that white blood cell counts and platelet counts decreased gradually, while MPO amounts increased until 12 h after LPS administration. We conclude that NET formation and intravasated platelet aggregation are the first steps from sepsis to liver damage, and that extravasated platelet aggregation promoted by NET-facilitated detachment of sinusoidal endothelial cells is the origin of sepsis-induced liver dysfunction. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Guan, Jian; Plovie, Eva; Seldin, David C; Connors, Lawreen H; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H; MacRae, Calum A; Liao, Ronglih

    2013-07-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. Early Low Protein Diet Aggravates Unbalance between Antioxidant Enzymes Leading to Islet Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Theys, Nicolas; Clippe, André; Bouckenooghe, Thomas; Reusens, Brigitte; Remacle, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background Islets from adult rat possess weak antioxidant defense leading to unbalance between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hydrogen peroxide-inactivating enzymatic activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) rending them susceptible to oxidative stress. We have shown that this vulnerability is influenced by maternal diet during gestation and lactation. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study investigated if low antioxidant activity in islets is already observed at birth and if maternal protein restriction influences the development of islet antioxidant defenses. Rats were fed a control diet (C group) or a low protein diet during gestation (LP) or until weaning (LPT), after which offspring received the control diet. We found that antioxidant enzymatic activities varied with age. At birth and after weaning, normal islets possessed an efficient GPX activity. However, the antioxidant capacity decreased thereafter increasing the potential vulnerability to oxidative stress. Maternal protein malnutrition changed the antioxidant enzymatic activities in islets of the progeny. At 3 months, SOD activity was increased in LP and LPT islets with no concomitant activation of CAT and GPX. This unbalance could lead to higher hydrogen peroxide production, which may concur to oxidative stress causing defective insulin gene expression due to modification of critical factors that modulate the insulin promoter. We found indeed that insulin mRNA level was reduced in both groups of malnourished offspring compared to controls. Analyzing the expression of such critical factors, we found that c-Myc expression was strongly increased in islets from both protein-restricted groups compared to controls. Conclusion and Significance Modification in antioxidant activity by maternal low protein diet could predispose to pancreatic islet dysfunction later in life and provide new insights to define a molecular mechanism responsible for intrauterine programming of endocrine

  15. Parecoxib prevents early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang-Zi; Yao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Hui; Wang, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively. Perioperative plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) 1evels were measured. Postoperative pain was assessed following surgery. Neuropsychological tests were performed before surgery, and 1 week and 3 months postoperation. Results: POCD incidence in group P was significantly lower compared with that of group C at 1 week after surgery (16.7% vs 33.9%; P < 0.05); no significant difference was found between groups C and P at 3-month follow-up (9.7% vs 6.7%). Compared with group C values, visual analog pain scale (VAS) scores at 3, 6, and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in group P(P < 0.05). Plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were lower in group P than in group C after the operation (P < 0.05). No significant difference in the plasma CRP level was found between groups P and C. Conclusions: Parecoxib sodium decreases POCD incidence after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients and may explain how this drug suppresses inflammation and acute postoperative pain caused by surgical trauma. PMID:27428192

  16. Early markers of reperfusion injury after liver transplantation: association with primary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Helge; Heil, Jan; Schultze, Daniel; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; Schemmer, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In patients with end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation is the only available curative treatment. Although the outcome and quality of life in the patients have improved over the past decades, primary dys- or nonfunction (PDF/PNF) can occur. Early detection of PDF and PNF is crucial and could lead to individual therapies. This study was designed to identify early markers of reperfusion injury and PDF in liver biopsies taken during the first hour after reperfusion. Biopsies from donor livers were prospectively taken as a routine during the first hour after reperfusion. Recipient data, transaminases and outcome were routinely monitored. In total, 10 biopsy specimens taken from patients with 90-day mortality and PDF, and patients with long-term survival but without PDF were used for DNA microarrays. Markers that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the microarray were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. Age, indications and labMELD score were similar in both groups. Peak-transaminases during the first week after transplantation were significantly different in the two groups. In total, 20 differentially regulated markers that correlated to PDF were identified using microarray analysis and verified with quantitative real-time PCR. The markers identified in this study could predict PDF at a very early time point and might point to interventions that ameliorate reperfusion injury and thus prevent PDF. Identification of patients and organs at risk might lead to individualized therapies and could ultimately improve outcome.

  17. Sensorimotor and Neurocognitive Dysfunctions Parallel Early Telencephalic Neuropathology in Fucosidosis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stroobants, Stijn; Wolf, Heike; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Dierks, Thomas; Lübke, Torben; D’Hooge, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    Fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by lysosomal α-L-fucosidase deficiency. Insufficient α-L-fucosidase activity triggers accumulation of undegraded, fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in various tissues. The human phenotype is heterogeneous, but progressive motor and cognitive impairments represent the most characteristic symptoms. Recently, Fuca1-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting techniques, constituting a novel animal model for human fucosidosis. These mice display widespread LSD pathology, accumulation of secondary storage material and neuroinflammation throughout the brain, as well as progressive loss of Purkinje cells. Fuca1-deficient mice and control littermates were subjected to a battery of tests detailing different aspects of motor, emotional and cognitive function. At an early stage of disease, we observed reduced exploratory activity, sensorimotor disintegration as well as impaired spatial learning and fear memory. These early markers of neurological deterioration were related to the respective stage of neuropathology using molecular genetic and immunochemical procedures. Increased expression of the lysosomal marker Lamp1 and neuroinflammation markers was observed throughout the brain, but appeared more prominent in cerebral areas in comparison to cerebellum of Fuca1-deficient mice. This is consistent with impaired behaviors putatively related to early disruptions of motor and cognitive circuits particularly involving cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and hippocampus. Thus, Fuca1-deficient mice represent a practical and promising fucosidosis model, which can be utilized for pathogenetic and therapeutic studies. PMID:29706874

  18. Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine as an Early Marker of Excretory Dysfunction in Canine Leishmaniosis (L. infantum) Induced Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Esther; Planellas, Marta; Ordeix, Laura; Pastor, Josep; Rodon, Jaume; Solano-Gallego, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine whether symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) was increased in dogs with leishmaniosis and to assess its relationship with creatinine concentration and urinary protein : creatinine ratio (UPC) to determine its utility as a marker of early excretory dysfunction. Fifty-three dogs with leishmaniosis classified according to the LeishVet clinical staging (stage I, n = 5, stage II, n = 30; stage III, n = 12; stage IV, n = 6) were selected and compared with 41 clinically healthy dogs. Thirty-nine dogs with leishmaniosis were also followed up for six months. SDMA concentrations on the day of diagnosis were significantly higher in dogs with leishmaniosis with respect to control dogs and in dogs from LeishVet stage IV when compared with the other stages. Increased UPC (>0.5), SDMA (>19  μ g/dL), and creatinine concentrations (≥1.4 mg/dL) were found in 47.1%, 15.1%, and 9.4% of dogs with leishmaniosis, respectively. SDMA concentration was increased in 24% of proteinuric dogs, in 7% of nonproteinuric dogs, and in four of five dogs with increased creatinine. SDMA concentration ≥ 25  μ g/dL was associated with clinical chronic kidney disease (CKD) after six months. Our results did not demonstrate advantages in using SDMA concentration as an early marker of CKD when compared to creatinine and UPC in canine leishmaniosis.

  19. Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine as an Early Marker of Excretory Dysfunction in Canine Leishmaniosis (L. infantum) Induced Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Torrent, Esther; Planellas, Marta; Ordeix, Laura; Pastor, Josep; Rodon, Jaume

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine whether symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) was increased in dogs with leishmaniosis and to assess its relationship with creatinine concentration and urinary protein : creatinine ratio (UPC) to determine its utility as a marker of early excretory dysfunction. Fifty-three dogs with leishmaniosis classified according to the LeishVet clinical staging (stage I, n = 5, stage II, n = 30; stage III, n = 12; stage IV, n = 6) were selected and compared with 41 clinically healthy dogs. Thirty-nine dogs with leishmaniosis were also followed up for six months. SDMA concentrations on the day of diagnosis were significantly higher in dogs with leishmaniosis with respect to control dogs and in dogs from LeishVet stage IV when compared with the other stages. Increased UPC (>0.5), SDMA (>19 μg/dL), and creatinine concentrations (≥1.4 mg/dL) were found in 47.1%, 15.1%, and 9.4% of dogs with leishmaniosis, respectively. SDMA concentration was increased in 24% of proteinuric dogs, in 7% of nonproteinuric dogs, and in four of five dogs with increased creatinine. SDMA concentration ≥ 25 μg/dL was associated with clinical chronic kidney disease (CKD) after six months. Our results did not demonstrate advantages in using SDMA concentration as an early marker of CKD when compared to creatinine and UPC in canine leishmaniosis.

  20. H2S Regulates Hypobaric Hypoxia-Induced Early Glio-Vascular Dysfunction and Neuro-Pathophysiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Chhabra, Aastha; Mishra, Shalini; Kalam, Haroon; Kumar, Dhiraj; Meena, Ramniwas; Ahmad, Yasmin; Bhargava, Kalpana; Prasad, Dipti N.; Sharma, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Hypobaric Hypoxia (HH) is an established risk factor for various neuro-physiological perturbations including cognitive impairment. The origin and mechanistic basis of such responses however remain elusive. We here combined systems level analysis with classical neuro-physiological approaches, in a rat model system, to understand pathological responses of brain to HH. Unbiased ‘statistical co-expression networks’ generated utilizing temporal, differential transcriptome signatures of hippocampus—centrally involved in regulating cognition—implicated perturbation of Glio-Vascular homeostasis during early responses to HH, with concurrent modulation of vasomodulatory, hemostatic and proteolytic processes. Further, multiple lines of experimental evidence from ultra-structural, immuno-histological, substrate-zymography and barrier function studies unambiguously supported this proposition. Interestingly, we show a significant lowering of H2S levels in the brain, under chronic HH conditions. This phenomenon functionally impacted hypoxia-induced modulation of cerebral blood flow (hypoxic autoregulation) besides perturbing the strength of functional hyperemia responses. The augmentation of H2S levels, during HH conditions, remarkably preserved Glio-Vascular homeostasis and key neuro-physiological functions (cerebral blood flow, functional hyperemia and spatial memory) besides curtailing HH-induced neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Our data thus revealed causal role of H2S during HH-induced early Glio-Vascular dysfunction and consequent cognitive impairment. PMID:27211559

  1. Doppler Assessment of Diastolic Function Reflect the Severity of Injury in Rats With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Pablo; Lancaster, Jordan J; Weigand, Kyle; Mohran, Saffie-Alrahman Ezz-Eldin; Goldman, Steven; Juneman, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    For chronic heart failure (CHF), more emphasis has been placed on evaluation of systolic as opposed to diastolic function. Within the study of diastology, measurements of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal myocardial relaxation have the most validation. Anterior wall radial myocardial tissue relaxation velocities along with mitral valve inflow (MVI) patterns are applicable diastolic parameters in the differentiation between moderate and severe disease in the ischemic rat model of CHF. Myocardial tissue relaxation velocities correlate with traditional measurements of diastolic function (ie, hemodynamics, Tau, and diastolic pressure-volume relationships). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Echocardiography was performed at 3 and 6 weeks after coronary ligation to evaluate LV ejection fraction (EF) and LV diastolic function through MVI patterns (E, A, and E/A) and Doppler imaging of the anterior wall (e' and a'). The rats were categorized into moderate or severe CHF according to their LV EF at 3 weeks postligation. Invasive hemodynamic measurements with solid-state pressure catheters were obtained at the 6-week endpoint. Moderate (N = 20) and severe CHF (N = 22) rats had significantly (P < .05) different EFs, hemodynamics, and diastolic pressure-volume relationships. Early diastolic anterior wall radial relaxation velocities as well as E/e' ratios separated moderate from severe CHF and both diastolic parameters had strong correlations with invasive hemodynamic measurements of diastolic function. Radial anterior wall e' and E/e' can be used for serial assessment of diastolic function in rats with moderate and severe CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific attentional dysfunction in adults following early start of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, H; Rinn, T; Kunert, H J; Moeller, M R; Poser, W; Schilling, L; Gigerenzer, G; Hoehe, M R

    1999-03-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic interference by cannabis with endogenous cannabinoid systems during peripubertal development causes specific and persistent brain alterations in humans. As an index of cannabinoid action, visual scanning, along with other attentional functions, was chosen. Visual scanning undergoes a major maturation process around age 12-15 years and, in addition, the visual system is known to react specifically and sensitively to cannabinoids. From 250 individuals consuming cannabis regularly, 99 healthy pure cannabis users were selected. They were free of any other past or present drug abuse, or history of neuropsychiatric disease. After an interview, physical examination, analysis of routine laboratory parameters, plasma/urine analyses for drugs, and MMPI testing, users and respective controls were subjected to a computer-assisted attention test battery comprising visual scanning, alertness, divided attention, flexibility, and working memory. Of the potential predictors of test performance within the user group, including present age, age of onset of cannabis use, degree of acute intoxication (THC+THCOH plasma levels), and cumulative toxicity (estimated total life dose), an early age of onset turned out to be the only predictor, predicting impaired reaction times exclusively in visual scanning. Early-onset users (onset before age 16; n = 48) showed a significant impairment in reaction times in this function, whereas late-onset users (onset after age 16; n = 51) did not differ from controls (n = 49). These data suggest that beginning cannabis use during early adolescence may lead to enduring effects on specific attentional functions in adulthood. Apparently, vulnerable periods during brain development exist that are subject to persistent alterations by interfering exogenous cannabinoids.

  3. Time course for memory dysfunction in early-life and late-life major depression: a longitudinal study from the Juntendo University Mood Disorder Project.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Hitoshi; Baba, Hajime; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Namekawa, Yuki; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Mimura, Masaru; Arai, Heii

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with depression also have memory dysfunctions during depressive episodes. These dysfunctions partially remain immediately after remission from a depressive state; however, it is unclear whether these residual memory dysfunctions may disappear through long-term remission from depression. The present study compared patients during early-life (age<60) and late-life (age ≥ 60) depression while in their remitted stage with healthy controls to elucidate the impact of a long-term course on memory. Logical memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was administered to 67 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (47 patients with early-life depression and residual 20 patients with late-life depression) and 50 healthy controls. MDD patients received memory assessments at the time of their initial remission and at a follow-up three years after remission. At the time of initial remission, scores for logical memory were significantly lower in both patient groups compared to matched controls. At follow-up, memory dysfunction for early-life MDD patients disappeared, whereas scores in the late-life MDD group remained significantly lower than those of matched controls. All patients in the present study were on antidepressant medications. Our findings suggested that the progress of memory performance in late-life MDD patients may be different from early-life MDD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Got worms? Perinatal exposure to helminths prevents persistent immune sensitization and cognitive dysfunction induced by early-life infection.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lauren L; McKenney, Erin A; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Belliveau, Christine; Rawls, John F; Poulton, Susan; Parker, William; Bilbo, Staci D

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has risen dramatically in post-industrial societies. "Biome depletion" - loss of commensal microbial and multicellular organisms such as helminths (intestinal worms) that profoundly modulate the immune system - may contribute to these increases. Hyperimmune-associated disorders also affect the brain, especially neurodevelopment, and increasing evidence links early-life infection to cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders. We have demonstrated previously that rats infected with bacteria as newborns display life-long vulnerabilities to cognitive dysfunction, a vulnerability that is specifically linked to long-term hypersensitivity of microglial cell function, the resident immune cells of the brain. Here, we demonstrate that helminth colonization of pregnant dams attenuated the exaggerated brain cytokine response of their offspring to bacterial infection, and that combined with post-weaning colonization of offspring with helminths (consistent with their mothers treatment) completely prevented enduring microglial sensitization and cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Importantly, helminths had no overt impact on adaptive immune cell subsets, whereas exaggerated innate inflammatory responses in splenic macrophages were prevented. Finally, helminths altered the effect of neonatal infection on the gut microbiome; neonatal infection with Escherichia coli caused a shift from genera within the Actinobacteria and Tenericutes phyla to genera in the Bacteroidetes phylum in rats not colonized with helminths, but helminths attenuated this effect. In sum, these data point toward an inter-relatedness of various components of the biome, and suggest potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic benefits in the treatment of neuroinflammatory and cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive Remediation for the Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunction in the Early Course of Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E

    2016-01-01

    The development of cognitive remediation programs has been a key step toward the creation of a treatment approach to address the cognitive-symptom domain in psychosis. Studies support the efficacy of cognitive remediation in producing moderate effects on cognition at the group level in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation may harness neuroplasticity in relevant systems that underpin the cognitive functions being addressed. Since neuroplasticity may be greater in people who (1) are younger and (2) have not yet experienced the consequences of long-term psychosis, cognitive remediation may be particularly effective in people in the early course of illness or in the prodrome, prior to the onset of frank symptoms. The present article reviews the evidence for implementing cognitive remediation in patients with recent-onset psychosis and people identified as being at high risk for developing schizophrenia, and also the evidence for cognitive remediation to modify neural targets. Promising findings suggest that cognitive remediation may be useful in addressing cognitive deficits in early-course and prodromal participants. Additionally, a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques demonstrates the ability of cognitive remediation paradigms to engage neural targets.

  6. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with treated haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Einar Skulstad; Omvik, Per; Hervig, Tor; Gerdts, Eva

    2009-02-01

    We recently demonstrated reduced exercise capacity in phlebotomy treated genetic haemochromatosis in spite of normal systolic function. The present objective was to investigate diastolic function at rest. Diastolic function was echocardiographically assessed in 132 phlebotomy treated genetic haemochromatosis patients and 50 controls. Patients had higher body mass index and heart rate, higher transmitral early (E) (11.2+/-2.6 versus 10.4+/-2.2 cm) and atrial (A) (5.7+/-1.6 versus 5.0+/-1.6) velocity time integrals, pulmonary venous systolic peak velocity (0.58+/-0.12 versus 0.54+/-0.13 m/s) and ratio of E to spectral tissue Doppler E' velocity (6.3+/-1.6 versus 5.6+/-1.4, all p <0.05). Independently of age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and body weight, having haemochromatosis remained statistically significantly associated with higher E (beta=0.27) and A (beta =0.18) velocity time integrals, pulmonary venous systolic peak velocity (beta =0.21), and E/E'-ratio (beta=0.25) in separate multivariate analyses (all p <0.05). In the youngest age tertile, patients had longer isovolumic relaxation time and lower E' than controls. Our findings are compatible with mildly impaired diastolic function in treated haemochromatosis, with delayed relaxation in the younger tertile, and an elevated filling pressure and pseudonormalisation with increasing age.

  7. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Zoghbi, William A

    2007-09-01

    Assessment of diastolic function and left ventricular filling pressures in the setting of both normal and reduced systolic function is of major importance particularly in patients with dyspnea. Since multiple echocardiography parameters are used to assess diastolic function each with some limitations, a comprehensive approach should be applied. Transmitral Doppler flow should be evaluated in combination with newer, less load dependent Doppler techniques. Tissue Doppler imaging provides accurate, well validated data regarding diastolic properties and filling pressures of the left ventricle. Tissue Doppler imaging should be the part of a routine echocardiography study due to its ease of use and high reproducibility. Pulmonary vein Doppler and flow propagation velocity should be incorporated into the evaluation when needed.

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Parnell, Scott E; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indocyanine green. Its use as an early indicator of hepatic dysfunction following injury in man.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, M E; Stratton, H H; Newell, J C; Shah, D M

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate hepatic function, the kinetics of indocyanine green clearance were studied in seven injured patients with hepatic venous catheters. Indocyanine green clearance after a bolus injection of 20 mg was relatively monoexponential on the first day after injury. Following this, a second slower compartment of indocyanine green clearance was uniformly evident, becoming most prominent around the fourth day after injury. Indocyanine green clearance again became more uniform as recovery continued. Fractional indocyanine green extraction ten minutes after injection decreased from 0.9 on the first day after injury to 0.2 three days later, and then returned to 0.7 on the seventh day after injury. These decreases in indocyanine green clearance preceded an increase in total serum bilirubin concentration to a mean value of 1.9 mg/dL. Indocyanine green clearance was thus found to be an early and sensitive indicator of impaired hepatic function.

  10. Predictors of early postoperative voiding dysfunction and other complications following a midurethral sling.

    PubMed

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Kowalski, Joseph T; Chaudhry, Zaid Q; Mahal, Aman S; Lanzer, Jennifer; Noor, Nabila; Good, Meadow M; Hynan, Linda S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rahn, David D

    2016-11-01

    The rates reported for postoperative urinary retention following midurethral sling procedures are highly variable. Determining which patients have a higher likelihood of failing a voiding trial will help with preoperative counseling prior to a midurethral sling. The objective of the study was to identify preoperative predictors for failed voiding trial following an isolated midurethral sling. A retrospective, multicenter, case-control study was performed by including all isolated midurethral sling procedures performed between Jan. 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015, at 6 academic centers. We collected demographics, medical and surgical histories, voiding symptoms, urodynamic evaluation, and intraoperative data from the medical record. We excluded patients not eligible for attempted voiding trial after surgery (eg, bladder perforation requiring catheterization). Cases failed a postoperative voiding trial and were discharged with an indwelling catheter or taught intermittent self-catheterization; controls passed a voiding trial. We also recorded any adverse events such as urinary tract infection or voiding dysfunction up to 6 weeks after surgery. Bivariate analyses were completed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson χ 2 tests as appropriate. Multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine predictors of failing a voiding trial. A total of 464 patients had an isolated sling (70.9% retropubic, 28.4% transobturator, 0.6% single incision); 101 (21.8%) failed the initial voiding trial. At follow-up visits, 90.4% passed a second voiding trial, and 38.5% of the remainder passed on the third attempt. For the bivariate analyses, prior prolapse or incontinence surgery was similar in cases vs controls (31% vs 28%, P = .610) as were age, race, body mass index, and operative time. Significantly more of the cases (32%) than controls (22%) had a Charlson comorbidity index score of 1 or greater (P = .039). Overactive bladder symptoms of urgency, frequency, and urgency

  11. Non-invasive assessment determine the swallowing and respiration dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Man; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is common among patients with Parkinson's disease. Swallowing and its coordination with respiration is extremely important to achieve safety swallowing. Different tools have been used to assess this coordination, however the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate this coordination in patients with Parkinson's disease using a non-invasive method. Signals of submental muscle activity, thyroid cartilage excursion, and nasal airflow during swallowing were recorded simultaneously. Five different water boluses were swallowed three times, and the data were recorded and analyzed. Thirty-seven controls and 42 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease were included. The rates of non-expiratory/expiratory pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns were higher in the patients than in the controls (P < 0.001). The rates of piecemeal deglutition when swallowing 10-ml and 20-ml water boluses and overall were also significantly higher in the patients (all P < 0.001). There were differences in oropharyngeal swallowing parameters between the patients and controls, including a pharyngeal phase delay with longer total excursion duration and excursion time in the patients swallowing small water boluses (1 ml, 3 ml and 5 ml), but no difference in the length of swallowing respiratory pause. Oropharyngeal swallowing and its coordination with respiration are affected in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease, and safety compensation mechanisms were used more than efficiency during swallowing. The results of this study may serve as a baseline for further research into new treatment regimens and to improve the management of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  13. Hyposensitivity of C-fiber Afferents at the Distal Extremities as an Indicator of Early Stages Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Han-Ching; Huang, Kuo-How; Wu, Huey-Peir; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy and early stages of autonomic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women. Materials and Methods A total of 137 diabetic women with minimal coexisting confounders of voiding dysfunction followed at a diabetes clinic were subject to the following evaluations: current perception threshold (CPT) tests on myelinated and unmyelinated nerves at the big toe for peroneal nerve and middle finger for median nerve, uroflowmetry, post-void residual urine volume, and overactive bladder (OAB) symptom score questionnaire. Patients presenting with voiding difficulty also underwent urodynamic studies and intravesical CPT tests. Results Based on the OAB symptom score and urodynamic studies, 19% of diabetic women had the OAB syndrome while 24.8% had unrecognized urodynamic bladder dysfunction (UBD). The OAB group had a significantly greater mean 5 Hz CPT test value at the big toe by comparison to those without OAB. When compared to diabetic women without UBD, those with UBD showed greater mean 5 Hz CPT test values at the middle finger and big toe. The diabetic women categorized as C-fiber hyposensitivity at the middle finger or big toe by using CPT test also had higher odds ratios of UBD. Among diabetic women with UBD, the 5 Hz CPT test values at the big toe and middle finger were significantly associated with intravesical 5 Hz CPT test values. Conclusions Using electrophysiological evidence, our study revealed that hyposensitivity of unmyelinated C fiber afferents at the distal extremities is an indicator of early stages diabetic bladder dysfunction in type 2 diabetic women. The C fiber dysfunction at the distal extremities seems concurrent with vesical C-fiber neuropathy and may be a sentinel for developing early diabetic bladder dysfunction among female patients. PMID:24466107

  14. Electrophysiological assessment for early detection of retinal dysfunction in β-thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Dettoraki, Maria; Kattamis, Antonis; Ladas, Ioannis; Maragkos, Konstantinos; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Chatzistefanou, Klio; Laios, Konstantinos; Brouzas, Dimitrios; Moschos, Marilita M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of various diagnostic tests in early detection of retinal changes in β-thalassemia major patients. Thirty-eight visually asymptomatic β-thalassemia major patients receiving regular blood transfusions and iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine (group A, n = 13), deferasirox (group B, n = 11) or deferoxamine with deferiprone (group C, n = 14) and fourteen age- and sex- matched healthy individuals were included in the study. All participants underwent ophthalmoscopy, full-field electroretinography (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. Retinal pigment epithelium changes were present in two cases. Scotopic ERG demonstrated decreased a-wave amplitude in groups A, B and C (p = 0.03, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively) and decreased b-wave amplitude in groups B and C (p = 0.002 and p = 0.01, respectively) compared to controls. Photopic ERG showed delayed b-wave latency in groups A and C (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively) ERG maximal combined response and VEP response did not differ between groups. MfERG showed reduced retinal response density in ring 1 in groups A, B, C (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively) and ring 2 in group B (p = 0.02) and delayed latency in ring 5 in groups A and B (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). Abnormal FAF images appeared in three cases and OCT abnormalities in one case, whereas no changes were observed in controls (p = 0.55 and p = 1.00, respectively). Full-field ERG and mfERG are more sensitive tools for detecting early retinal changes in β-thalassemia patients compared with ophthalmoscopy, VEP, FAF imaging and OCT scans.

  15. Suicide attempts in children and adolescents: The place of clock genes and early rhythm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Olliac, Bertrand; Ouss, Lisa; Charrier, Annaëlle

    2016-11-01

    Suicide remains one of the leading causes of death among young people, and suicidal ideation and behavior are relatively common in healthy and clinical populations. Suicide risk in childhood and adolescence is often approached from the perspective of nosographic categories to which predictive variables for suicidal acts are often linked. The cascading effects resulting from altered clock genes in a pediatric population could participate in biological rhythm abnormalities and the emergence of suicide attempts through impaired regulation of circadian rhythms and emotional states with neurodevelopmental effects. Also, early trauma and stressful life events can alter the expression of clock genes and contribute to the emergence of suicide attempts. Alteration of clock genes might lead to desynchronized and abnormal circadian rhythms impairing in turn the synchronization between external and internal rhythms and therefore the adaptation of the individual to his/her internal and external environment with the development of psychiatric disorders associated with increased risk for suicide attempts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  17. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Results Participants’ mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. Conclusion This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA. PMID:22554167

  18. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  19. Deficiency of aldose reductase exacerbates early pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and autophagy in mice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Shahid P; Zhang, Deqing; Singh, Mahavir; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Xie, Zhengzhi; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Zhao, Jingjing; Schmidtke, Virginia K; Brittian, Kenneth R; Merchant, Michael L; Conklin, Daniel J; Jones, Steven P; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2018-05-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) and acrolein in the heart. These aldehydes are metabolized via several pathways, of which aldose reductase (AR) represents a broad-specificity route for their elimination. We tested the hypothesis that by preventing aldehyde removal, AR deficiency accentuates the pathological effects of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). We found that the levels of AR in the heart were increased in mice subjected to TAC for 2 weeks. In comparison with wild-type (WT), AR-null mice showed lower ejection fraction, which was exacerbated 2 weeks after TAC. Levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and myosin heavy chain were higher in AR-null than in WT TAC hearts. Deficiency of AR decreased urinary levels of the acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid. Deletion of AR did not affect the levels of the other aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme - aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in the heart, or its urinary product - (N-Acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-l-cystiene). AR-null hearts subjected to TAC showed increased accumulation of HNE- and acrolein-modified proteins, as well as increased AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy. Superfusion with HNE led to a greater increase in p62, LC3II formation, and GFP-LC3-II punctae formation in AR-null than WT cardiac myocytes. Pharmacological inactivation of JNK decreased HNE-induced autophagy in AR-null cardiac myocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that during hypertrophy the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes promotes pathological remodeling via excessive autophagy, and that metabolic detoxification of these aldehydes by AR may be essential for maintaining cardiac function during early stages of pressure overload. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Computational modelling of left-ventricular diastolic mechanics: effect of fibre orientation and right-ventricle topology.

    PubMed

    Palit, Arnab; Bhudia, Sunil K; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Turley, Glen A; Williams, Mark A

    2015-02-26

    Majority of heart failure patients who suffer from diastolic dysfunction retain normal systolic pump action. The dysfunction remodels the myocardial fibre structure of left-ventricle (LV), changing its regular diastolic behaviour. Existing LV diastolic models ignored the effects of right-ventricular (RV) deformation, resulting in inaccurate strain analysis of LV wall during diastole. This paper, for the first time, proposes a numerical approach to investigate the effect of fibre-angle distribution and RV deformation on LV diastolic mechanics. A finite element modelling of LV passive inflation was carried out, using structure-based orthotropic constitutive law. Rule-based fibre architecture was assigned on a bi-ventricular (BV) geometry constructed from non-invasive imaging of human heart. The effect of RV deformation on LV diastolic mechanics was investigated by comparing the results predicted by BV and single LV model constructed from the same image data. Results indicated an important influence of RV deformation which led to additional LV passive inflation and increase of average fibre and sheet stress-strain in LV wall during diastole. Sensitivity of LV passive mechanics to the changes in the fibre distribution was also examined. The study revealed that LV diastolic volume increased when fibres were aligned more towards LV longitudinal axis. Changes in fibre angle distribution significantly altered fibre stress-strain distribution of LV wall. The simulation results strongly suggest that patient-specific fibre structure and RV deformation play very important roles in LV diastolic mechanics and should be accounted for in computational modelling for improved understanding of the LV mechanics under normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interplay between arterial stiffness and diastolic function: a marker of ventricular-vascular coupling.

    PubMed

    Zito, Concetta; Mohammed, Moemen; Todaro, Maria Chiara; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Cusmà-Piccione, Maurizio; Oreto, Giuseppe; Pugliatti, Pietro; Abusalima, Mohamed; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Vriz, Olga; Carerj, Scipione

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the interplay between left ventricular diastolic function and large-artery stiffness in asymptomatic patients at increased risk of heart failure and no structural heart disease (Stage A). We divided 127 consecutive patients (mean age 49 ± 17 years) with risk factors for heart failure who were referred to our laboratory to rule out structural heart disease into two groups according to presence (Group 1, n = 35) or absence (Group 2, n = 92) of grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Doppler imaging with high-resolution echo-tracking software was used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness of carotid arteries. Group 1 had significantly higher mean age, blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, carotid IMT and arterial stiffness than Group 2 (P < 0.05). Overall, carotid stiffness indices (β-stiffness index, augmentation index and elastic modulus) and 'one-point' pulse wave velocity each showed inverse correlation with E-wave velocity, E' velocity and E/A ratio, and direct correlation with A-wave velocity, E-wave deceleration time and E/E' ratio (P < 0.05). Arterial compliance showed negative correlations with the echocardiographic indices of left ventricular diastolic function (P < 0.05). On logistic regression analysis, age, hypertension, SBP, pulse pressure, left ventricular mass index, carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were associated with grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.05 for each). However, on multivariate logistic analysis, only 'one-point' pulse wave velocity and age were independent predictors (P = 0.038 and P = 0.016, respectively). An independent association between grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness is demonstrated at the earliest stage of heart failure. Hence, assessment of vascular function, beyond cardiac function, should be included in a comprehensive clinical evaluation of these patients.

  2. Gestational methylazoxymethanol exposure leads to NMDAR dysfunction in hippocampus during early development and lasting deficits in learning.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Melissa A; Adelman, Alicia E; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has long been associated with learning and memory processes as well as diseased states, particularly in schizophrenia (SZ). Additionally, SZ is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with cognitive impairments often preceding the onset of psychosis. However, the cause of these cognitive deficits and what initiates the pathological process is unknown. Growing evidence has implicated the glutamate system and, in particular, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of SZ. Yet, the vast majority of SZ-related research has focused on NMDAR function in adults leaving the role of NMDARs during development uncharacterized. We used the prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM, E17) exposure model to determine the alterations of NMDAR protein levels and function, as well as associated cognitive deficits during development. We found that MAM-exposed animals have significantly altered NMDAR protein levels and function in the juvenile and adolescent hippocampus. Furthermore, these changes are associated with learning and memory deficits in the Morris Water Maze. Thus, in the prenatal MAM-exposure SZ model, NMDAR expression and function is altered during the critical period of hippocampal development. These changes may be involved in disease initiation and cognitive impairment in the early stage of SZ.

  3. Impact of HIV Infection on Diastolic Function and Left Ventricular Mass

    PubMed Central

    Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Hunt, Peter W.; Ho, Jennifer E.; Farah, Husam H.; Schnell, Amanda; Hoh, Rebecca; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Bolger, Ann F.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV patients have increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities among asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Methods/Results We performed echocardiography in 196 HIV-infected adults and 52 controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass indexed to the body surface area (LVMI), and diastolic function were assessed according to American Society of Echocardiography standards. LVMI was higher in HIV-infected patients (77.2g/m2 in HIV patients vs. 66.5g/m2 in controls, p<0.0001). LVEF was similar in both groups. Eight(4%) of the HIV patients had evidence of LV systolic dysfunction (defined as an EF<50%) versus none of the controls; 97(50%) had mild diastolic dysfunction compared to 29% of the HIV-uninfected subjects (p=0.008). After adjustment for hypertension and race, HIV-infected participants had a mean 8g/m2 larger LVMI compared to controls (p=0.001). Higher LVMI was independently associated with lower nadir CD4 T cell count, suggesting that immunodeficiency may play a role in this process. After adjustment for age and traditional risk factors, HIV patients had a 2.4 greater odds of having diastolic dysfunction as compared to controls (p=0.019). Conclusions HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and higher LVMI compared to controls. These differences were not readily explained by differences in traditional risk factors and were independently associated with HIV infection. These results suggest that contemporary asymptomatic HIV patients manifest mild functional and morphological cardiac abnormalities which are independently associated with HIV infection. PMID:19933410

  4. Early lactate clearance is associated with biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, apoptosis, organ dysfunction and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lactate clearance, a surrogate for the magnitude and duration of global tissue hypoxia, is used diagnostically, therapeutically and prognostically. This study examined the association of early lactate clearance with selected inflammatory, coagulation, apoptosis response biomarkers and organ dysfunction scores in severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods Measurements of serum arterial lactate, biomarkers (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, high mobility group box-1, D-Dimer and caspase-3), and organ dysfunction scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) were obtained in conjunction with a prospective, randomized study examining early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Lactate clearance was defined as the percent change in lactate levels after six hours from a baseline measurement in the ED. Results Two-hundred and twenty patients, age 65.0 +/- 17.1 years, were examined, with an overall lactate clearance of 35.5 +/- 43.1% and in-hospital mortality rate of 35.0%. Patients were divided into four quartiles of lactate clearance, -24.3 +/- 42.3, 30.1 +/- 7.5, 53.4 +/- 6.6, and 75.1 +/- 7.1%, respectively (p < 0.01). The mean levels of all biomarkers and organ dysfunction scores over 72 hours were significantly lower with higher lactate clearance quartiles (p < 0.01). There was a significant decreased in-hospital, 28-day, and 60-day mortality in the higher lactate clearance quartiles (p < 0.01). Conclusions Early lactate clearance as a surrogate for the resolution of global tissue hypoxia is significantly associated with decreased levels of biomarkers, improvement in organ dysfunction and outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:20181046

  5. The relationship between arterial wall stiffness and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Li, L; Shen, L; Gao, H

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and arterial wall stiffening. A total of 218 patients over the age of 45 diagnosed with hypertension in Jinan City and hospitalised between 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. LV function was evaluated using echocardiography (ECHO). Blood pressure was monitored with an automated tonometric device, and the parameters of arterial wall stiffness were measured. In addition, the metabolic parameters of blood samples, such as glucose and lipids, were also determined using the Cobas E601 analyser. Stiffness parameter beta positively correlated with LV diastolic function (E/Em ratio) (r = 0.255, p < 0.001). LV end-diastolic diameter not only related to the E/Em ratio (r = 0.196, p = 0.009) but also with beta (r = 0.220, p = 0.002). The stiffness parameter beta was an early indicator of E/Em ratio as determined by multiple regression analysis (R (2) = 0.381, p < 0.01). Age, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose contributed to stiffness parameter beta (p < 0.05), as well as the E/Em ratio (p < 0.01). Our findings suggested that LV dysfunction may have a direct relationship to arterial stiffening, independently of having similar risk factors. In addition, arterial stiffness can be an independent predictor of LV diastolic function, suggesting that the severity of arterial stiffness directly correlates with the severity of LV dysfunction.

  6. Quantification of Global Diastolic Function by Kinematic Modeling-based Analysis of Transmitral Flow via the Parametrized Diastolic Filling Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Mossahebi, Sina; Zhu, Simeng; Chen, Howard; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative cardiac function assessment remains a challenge for physiologists and clinicians. Although historically invasive methods have comprised the only means available, the development of noninvasive imaging modalities (echocardiography, MRI, CT) having high temporal and spatial resolution provide a new window for quantitative diastolic function assessment. Echocardiography is the agreed upon standard for diastolic function assessment, but indexes in current clinical use merely utilize selected features of chamber dimension (M-mode) or blood/tissue motion (Doppler) waveforms without incorporating the physiologic causal determinants of the motion itself. The recognition that all left ventricles (LV) initiate filling by serving as mechanical suction pumps allows global diastolic function to be assessed based on laws of motion that apply to all chambers. What differentiates one heart from another are the parameters of the equation of motion that governs filling. Accordingly, development of the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism has shown that the entire range of clinically observed early transmitral flow (Doppler E-wave) patterns are extremely well fit by the laws of damped oscillatory motion. This permits analysis of individual E-waves in accordance with a causal mechanism (recoil-initiated suction) that yields three (numerically) unique lumped parameters whose physiologic analogues are chamber stiffness (k), viscoelasticity/relaxation (c), and load (xo). The recording of transmitral flow (Doppler E-waves) is standard practice in clinical cardiology and, therefore, the echocardiographic recording method is only briefly reviewed. Our focus is on determination of the PDF parameters from routinely recorded E-wave data. As the highlighted results indicate, once the PDF parameters have been obtained from a suitable number of load varying E-waves, the investigator is free to use the parameters or construct indexes from the parameters (such as stored

  7. Quantification of global diastolic function by kinematic modeling-based analysis of transmitral flow via the parametrized diastolic filling formalism.

    PubMed

    Mossahebi, Sina; Zhu, Simeng; Chen, Howard; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative cardiac function assessment remains a challenge for physiologists and clinicians. Although historically invasive methods have comprised the only means available, the development of noninvasive imaging modalities (echocardiography, MRI, CT) having high temporal and spatial resolution provide a new window for quantitative diastolic function assessment. Echocardiography is the agreed upon standard for diastolic function assessment, but indexes in current clinical use merely utilize selected features of chamber dimension (M-mode) or blood/tissue motion (Doppler) waveforms without incorporating the physiologic causal determinants of the motion itself. The recognition that all left ventricles (LV) initiate filling by serving as mechanical suction pumps allows global diastolic function to be assessed based on laws of motion that apply to all chambers. What differentiates one heart from another are the parameters of the equation of motion that governs filling. Accordingly, development of the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism has shown that the entire range of clinically observed early transmitral flow (Doppler E-wave) patterns are extremely well fit by the laws of damped oscillatory motion. This permits analysis of individual E-waves in accordance with a causal mechanism (recoil-initiated suction) that yields three (numerically) unique lumped parameters whose physiologic analogues are chamber stiffness (k), viscoelasticity/relaxation (c), and load (xo). The recording of transmitral flow (Doppler E-waves) is standard practice in clinical cardiology and, therefore, the echocardiographic recording method is only briefly reviewed. Our focus is on determination of the PDF parameters from routinely recorded E-wave data. As the highlighted results indicate, once the PDF parameters have been obtained from a suitable number of load varying E-waves, the investigator is free to use the parameters or construct indexes from the parameters (such as stored

  8. Early-onset, slow progression of cone photoreceptor dysfunction and degeneration in CNG channel subunit CNGB3 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua; Morris, Lynsie; Fliesler, Steven J; Sherry, David M; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the progression of cone dysfunction and degeneration in CNG channel subunit CNGB3 deficiency. Retinal structure and function in CNGB3(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), lectin cytochemistry, and correlative Western blot analysis of cone-specific proteins. Cone and rod terminal integrity was assessed by electron microscopy and synaptic protein immunohistochemical distribution. Cone ERG amplitudes (photopic b-wave) in CNGB3(-/-) mice were reduced to approximately 50% of WT levels by postnatal day 15, decreasing further to approximately 30% of WT levels by 1 month and to approximately 20% by 12 months of age. Rod ERG responses (scotopic a-wave) were not affected in CNGB3(-/-) mice. Average CNGB3(-/-) cone densities were approximately 80% of WT levels at 1 month and declined slowly thereafter to only approximately 50% of WT levels by 12 months. Expression levels of M-opsin, cone transducin α-subunit, and cone arrestin in CNGB3(-/-) mice were reduced by 50% to 60% by 1 month and declined to 35% to 45% of WT levels by 9 months. In addition, cone opsin mislocalized to the outer nuclear layer and the outer plexiform layer in the CNGB3(-/-) retina. Cone and rod synaptic marker expression and terminal ultrastructure were normal in the CNGB3(-/-) retina. These findings are consistent with an early-onset, slow progression of cone functional defects and cone loss in CNGB3(-/-) mice, with the cone signaling deficits arising from disrupted phototransduction and cone loss rather than from synaptic defects.

  9. Early-Onset, Slow Progression of Cone Photoreceptor Dysfunction and Degeneration in CNG Channel Subunit CNGB3 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianhua; Morris, Lynsie; Fliesler, Steven J.; Sherry, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the progression of cone dysfunction and degeneration in CNG channel subunit CNGB3 deficiency. Methods. Retinal structure and function in CNGB3−/− and wild-type (WT) mice were evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), lectin cytochemistry, and correlative Western blot analysis of cone-specific proteins. Cone and rod terminal integrity was assessed by electron microscopy and synaptic protein immunohistochemical distribution. Results. Cone ERG amplitudes (photopic b-wave) in CNGB3−/− mice were reduced to approximately 50% of WT levels by postnatal day 15, decreasing further to approximately 30% of WT levels by 1 month and to approximately 20% by 12 months of age. Rod ERG responses (scotopic a-wave) were not affected in CNGB3−/− mice. Average CNGB3−/− cone densities were approximately 80% of WT levels at 1 month and declined slowly thereafter to only approximately 50% of WT levels by 12 months. Expression levels of M-opsin, cone transducin α-subunit, and cone arrestin in CNGB3−/− mice were reduced by 50% to 60% by 1 month and declined to 35% to 45% of WT levels by 9 months. In addition, cone opsin mislocalized to the outer nuclear layer and the outer plexiform layer in the CNGB3−/− retina. Cone and rod synaptic marker expression and terminal ultrastructure were normal in the CNGB3−/− retina. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with an early-onset, slow progression of cone functional defects and cone loss in CNGB3−/− mice, with the cone signaling deficits arising from disrupted phototransduction and cone loss rather than from synaptic defects. PMID:21273547

  10. Echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic functions in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A comperative study of diastolic functions in sub-phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Erkan; Karabulut, Onur; Yuksel, Uygar Cagdas; Celik, Murat; Bugan, Baris; Gokoglan, Yalcin; Ulubay, Mustafa; Gungor, Mutlu; Koklu, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women. It is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the echocardiographic data of patients according to the phenotypes of PCOS. This study included 113 patients with PCOS and 52 controls. Patients were classified into four potential PCOS phenotypes. Laboratory analyses and echocardiographic measurements were performed. Left ventricular mass was calculated by using Devereux formula and was indexed to body surface area. Phenotype-1 PCOS patients had significantly higher homeostasis model assessment - insu-lin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.023), free testosterone (p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.001) and free androgen index (p < 0.001) compared with the control group. There were significant differences between groups regarding the septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, Left ventricular ejection frac-tion, E/A ratio and left ventricular mass index (for all, p < 0.05). PCOS patients with phenotype 1 and 2 had significantly higher left ventricular mass index than the control group (p < 0.001). In univariate and multivariate analyses, PCOS phenotype, modified Ferriman-Gallwey Score and estradiol were found as variables, which independently could affect the left ventricular mass index. This study showed that women in their twenties who specifically fulfilled criteria for PCOS phenotype-1 according to the Rotterdam criteria, had higher left ventricular mass index and decreased E/A ratio, which might be suggestive of early stage diastolic dysfunction. (Cariol J 2017; 24, 4: 364-373).

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis Identifies IL-18 and FUCA2 as Novel Genes Associated with Diastolic Function in African Americans with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sysol, Justin R.; Abbasi, Taimur; Patel, Amit R.; Lang, Roberto M.; Gupta, Akash; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Machado, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction is common in sickle cell disease (SCD), and is associated with an increased risk of mortality. However, the molecular pathogenesis underlying this development is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify a gene expression profile that is associated with diastolic function in SCD, potentially elucidating molecular mechanisms behind diastolic dysfunction development. Methods Diastolic function was measured via echocardiography in 65 patients with SCD from two independent study populations. Gene expression microarray data was compared with diastolic function in both study cohorts. Candidate genes that associated in both analyses were tested for validation in a murine SCD model. Lastly, genotyping array data from the replication cohort was used to derive cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) and genetic associations within the candidate gene regions. Results Transcriptome data from both patient cohorts implicated 7 genes associated with diastolic function, and mouse SCD myocardial expression validated 3 of these genes. Genetic associations and eQTLs were detected in 2 of the 3 genes, FUCA2 and IL18. Conclusions FUCA2 and IL18 are associated with diastolic function in SCD patients, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Genetic polymorphisms within the FUCA2 and IL18 gene regions are also associated with diastolic function in SCD, likely by affecting expression levels of the genes. PMID:27636371

  12. A new comprehensive 12-segment approach to right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rimbaş, Roxana C; Mihăilă, Sorina; Enescu, Oana A; Vinereanu, Dragoş

    2016-12-01

    2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) was proved to be accurate for the assessment of the RV function. However, normal values for RV strain refer mostly to 3- or 6-segment models, excluding the contribution of other RV walls to RV function. We analyze RV function by 2DSTE in a normal population, using parasternal two-(2C) and apical four-chamber (4C) RV views, and creating a new 12-segment model for a potential better definition of RV function. We prospectively evaluated 100 normals using 2DE and STE. We assessed the RV systolic function from regional strain (basal, mid, and apical), and at the level of each wall: lateral (LS), septal (SS), inferior (IS), and anterior (AS), and also global strain for 4C (4CGS), and 2C (2CGS). Global systolic strain rate (SRs) was measured from 2C and 4C views. Diastolic function was assessed from early (SRe) and late global strain rate (SRl), for both views. A total of 70 healthy individuals (48±15 years, 34 men) were suitable for concomitant 4C and 2CRV analysis. Feasibility of the STE analysis was 87.8%. We found significantly lower SS by comparison with LS, AS, and IS (P<.001). All S/SR parameters (GS, SRs, and SRe) were higher in 2C view than in 4C view (P<.001). All systolic S/SR parameters did not change with age. The early diastolic SR decreased, while the late diastolic SR increased with age. Our 12-segment RV strain model is feasible. Moreover, 2DSTE analysis using 2C and 4C views of the RV does not provide similar information. Rather, they offer complementary data. This might be of particularly clinical interest in diseases with regional RV dysfunction. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Caregiver Ratings of Long-term Executive Dysfunction and Attention Problems After Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: Family Functioning Is Important

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad G.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C.; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. Design A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Setting Three tertiary academic children’s hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Participants Children, ages 3–7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Methods and Outcome Measurements Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children’s executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25–63 months). Analysis Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ2 analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Results Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Conclusions Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better

  14. Caregiver ratings of long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury: family functioning is important.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Brad G; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay C; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship of family and parenting factors to long-term executive dysfunction and attention problems after early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that the magnitude of executive dysfunction and attention problems would be moderated by family and parenting factors. A multicenter, prospective cohort study that included an orthopedic injury (OI) reference group. Three tertiary academic children's hospital medical centers and one general medical center. Children, ages 3-7 years, hospitalized for OI, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Parental ratings of family functioning and parenting styles were obtained 18 months after the injury occurred. The main outcome measurements, which were parental ratings of children's executive function and attention, were performed at least 24 months after the injury occurred (mean, 39 months; range, 25-63 months). Group comparisons were conducted with use of t-tests, χ(2) analysis, analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlations. Regression analysis was used to examine associations of the outcomes with family functioning and parenting styles and to test moderating effects of these factors on group differences. Participants with severe TBI demonstrated increased executive dysfunction and attention problems compared with those who sustained moderate TBI or OI. Lower levels of family dysfunction were associated with better executive function and attention across groups but did not moderate group differences. However, attention deficits after severe TBI were exacerbated under conditions of more permissive parenting relative to attention deficits after OIs. Executive function and attention problems persisted on a long-term basis (>24 months) after early childhood TBI, and positive global family functioning and nonpermissive parenting were associated with better outcomes. Better characterization of the optimal family environment for recovery from early childhood

  15. Relationship between the abnormal diastolic vortex structure and impaired left ventricle filling in patients with hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin-Yu; Xie, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin-Fang; Lv, Qing; Liu, Man-Wei; Kong, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Liu, Jin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraventricular hydrodynamics plays an important role in evaluating cardiac function. Relationship between diastolic vortex and left ventricular (LV) filling is still rarely elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of vortex during diastole in hyperthyroidism (HT) and explore the alteration of hydromechanics characteristics with sensitive indexes. Forty-three patients diagnosed with HT were classified into 2 groups according to whether myocardial damage existed: simple hyperthyroid group (HT1, n = 21) and thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy (HT2, n = 22). Twenty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. Offline vector flow mapping (VFM model) was used to analyze the LV diastolic blood flow patterns and fluid dynamics. Hemodynamic parameters, vortex area (A), circulation (C), and intraventricular pressure gradient (ΔP), in different diastolic phases (early, mid, and late) were calculated and analyzed. HT2, with a lower E/A ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), had a larger left atrium diameter (LAD) compared with those of the control group and HT1 (P < .05). Compared with the control group, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient during early and mid-diastole were higher in HT1 and lower in HT2 (P < .05). And in late diastole, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient of HT2 became higher than those of the control group (P < .05). Good correlation could be found between CE and E/A (P < .05), CM and ΔPM (P < .01), CL and FT3 (P < .05). VFM is proven practical for detecting the relationship between the changes of left ventricular diastolic vortex and the abnormal left ventricular filling. PMID:28445281

  16. Relationship between the abnormal diastolic vortex structure and impaired left ventricle filling in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin-Yu; Xie, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin-Fang; Lv, Qing; Liu, Man-Wei; Kong, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Liu, Jin-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Intraventricular hydrodynamics plays an important role in evaluating cardiac function. Relationship between diastolic vortex and left ventricular (LV) filling is still rarely elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of vortex during diastole in hyperthyroidism (HT) and explore the alteration of hydromechanics characteristics with sensitive indexes.Forty-three patients diagnosed with HT were classified into 2 groups according to whether myocardial damage existed: simple hyperthyroid group (HT1, n = 21) and thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy (HT2, n = 22). Twenty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. Offline vector flow mapping (VFM model) was used to analyze the LV diastolic blood flow patterns and fluid dynamics. Hemodynamic parameters, vortex area (A), circulation (C), and intraventricular pressure gradient (ΔP), in different diastolic phases (early, mid, and late) were calculated and analyzed.HT2, with a lower E/A ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), had a larger left atrium diameter (LAD) compared with those of the control group and HT1 (P < .05). Compared with the control group, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient during early and mid-diastole were higher in HT1 and lower in HT2 (P < .05). And in late diastole, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient of HT2 became higher than those of the control group (P < .05). Good correlation could be found between CE and E/A (P < .05), CM and ΔPM (P < .01), CL and FT3 (P < .05).VFM is proven practical for detecting the relationship between the changes of left ventricular diastolic vortex and the abnormal left ventricular filling.

  17. Loneliness and Sexual Dysfunctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1987-01-01

    Argues that sexual dysfunctions result from early childhood experiences which were originally nonsexual in nature. Contends that psychological difficulties centered around problems of loneliness tend to generate certain sexual dysfunctions. Extends and explores suggestion that genesis of sexual conflicts is in nonsexual infant separation anxiety…

  18. Weaker masturbatory erection may be a sign of early cardiovascular risk associated with erectile dysfunction in young men without sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Yao, Feng-Juan; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Ouyang, Bin; Deng, Chun-Hua; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing evidences emphasize the importance of early cardiovascular evaluation in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) of unexplained aetiology, impaired masturbation-induced erections in young men are usually overlooked and habitually presumed to be psychological origin. To evaluate the young men presenting weaker masturbatory erection with no sexual intercourse (WME-NS) and verify if this cohort have early cardiovascular risks associated with ED. Male subjects aged 18-40 years with WME-NS were screened by analyzing detailed sexual intercourse and masturbatory history. The age-matched ED and non-ED population were identified by using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). All subjects with acute and/or chronic diseases (including diagnosed hypertension and diabetes) and long-term pharmacotherapy were excluded. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR), systemic vascular parameters and biochemical indicators related to metabolism were assessed. Comparison analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted among WME-NS, ED and non-ED population. In total, 78 WME-NS cases (mean 28.99 ± 5.92 years), 179 ED cases (mean 30.69 ± 5.21 years) and 43 non-ED cases (mean 28.65 ± 4.30 years) were screened for analysis. Compared with non-ED group, WME-NS group had higher prevalence of early ED risk factors including endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, high level of glycosylated serum protein and abnormal NPTR. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed endothelia dysfunction (odds ratio: 8.83 vs. 17.11, both P < 0.001) was the independent risk factor for both WME-NS and ED. Weaker masturbatory erection may be a sign of early cardiovascular risk associated with ED in young men without sexual intercourse. More studies are warranted to elucidate the clinical benefits by targeting these formulated strategies. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. A high-sugar and high-fat diet impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Salvatore; Mauro, Adolfo G; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Marchetti, Carlo; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Abbate, Antonio; Toldo, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, exercise intolerance and cardiac dysfunction. Unhealthy diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and heart disease, but whether it directly affects cardiac function, and promotes the development and progression of HF is unknown. We fed 8-week old male or female CD-1 mice with a standard diet (SD) or a diet rich in saturated fat and sugar, resembling a "Western" diet (WD). Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was measured at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks by Doppler echocardiography, and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by cardiac catheterization prior to sacrifice. An additional group of mice received WD for 4 weeks followed by SD (wash-out) for 8 weeks. WD-fed mice experienced a significant decreased in LV ejection fraction (LVEF), reflecting impaired systolic function, and a significant increase in isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), myocardial performance index (MPI), and LVEDP, showing impaired diastolic function, without any sex-related differences. Switching to a SD after 4 weeks of WD partially reversed the cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction. A diet rich in saturated fat and sugars (WD) impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in the mouse. Further studies are required to define the mechanism through which diet affects cardiac function, and whether dietary interventions can be used in patients with, or at risk for, HF. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. [Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function using gated SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI].

    PubMed

    Toba, M; Kumita, S I; Mizumura, S; Cho, K; Kijima, T; Takahama, K; Kumazaki, T

    1996-04-01

    Development of 3 head SPECT system and 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals enable us to evaluate left ventricular systolic function on the basis of once gated SPECT routine. This study was focused on assessment of left ventricular diastolic function using 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT data. Twenty nine patients with ischemic heart diseases underwent 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT and 99mTc-HSAD ventriculographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function within 1 month. Region of interests (ROI), simultaneously calculating counts per pixel within ROI, were placed over whole myocardium of 16 serial phasic images reconstructed from gated SPECT data, following selection of the central slice within short axial images. Then, 29 patients were classified into 3 patterns of phase count curve (normal, mixed, and delayed relaxation = diastolic dysfunction). Moreover, 1/3 Count Decreasing Fraction (1/3 CDF) was calculated on the same concept as 1/3 FF. The curve pattern showed significant differences between normal and abnormal group divided on the basis of established indices such as 1/3 FF and PFR, and 1/3 CDF has correlations with 1/3 FF (r = 0.61) and PFR (r = 0.58). We concluded that the new parameters drawn from 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT data might be feasible for evaluation of diastolic function.

  1. Efficacies of Papaverine and Sildenafil in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction in Early-Stage Paraplegic Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Necmettin; Gokkaya, Nilufer Kutay Ordu; Koseoglu, Fusun; Gokkaya, Serkan; Comert, Didem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which vasoactive agent was more efficacious for erectile dysfunction (ED), intracavernosal papaverine or oral sildenafil, in paraplegic men within the first year after injury by using a penile color Doppler ultrasound as a quantitative imaging method and to determine the association between responses to these…

  2. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein Exhibit Early Metabolic Deficits and a Pathologically Low Leptin State Associated with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Arcuate Neuropeptide Y Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Makoto; Wang, Gang; Racchumi, Gianfranco; Dyke, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is a prominent early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that often precedes the cognitive decline and clinical diagnosis. While the exact pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain is thought to lead to the neuronal dysfunction and death underlying the dementia. In this study, we examined whether transgenic mice overexpressing the Swedish mutation of APP (Tg2576), recapitulating selected features of AD, have hypothalamic leptin signaling dysfunction leading to early body weight deficits. We found that 3-month-old Tg2576 mice, before amyloid plaque formation, exhibit decreased weight with markedly decreased adiposity, low plasma leptin levels, and increased energy expenditure without alterations in feeding behavior. The expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus to the low leptin state was abnormal at basal and fasting conditions. In addition, arcuate NPY neurons exhibited abnormal electrophysiological responses to leptin in Tg2576 hypothalamic slices or wild-type slices treated with Aβ. Finally, the metabolic deficits worsened as Tg2576 mice aged and amyloid burden increased in the brain. These results indicate that excess Aβ can potentially disrupt hypothalamic arcuate NPY neurons leading to weight loss and a pathologically low leptin state early in the disease process that progressively worsens as the amyloid burden increases. Collectively, these findings suggest that weight loss is an intrinsic pathological feature of Aβ accumulation and identify hypothalamic leptin signaling as a previously unrecognized pathogenic site of action for Aβ. PMID:24990930

  3. [The prognostic value of cardio-pulmonary exercise test parameters in patients with asymptomatic ischemic heart dysfunction during 2-years observation].

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Agnieszka; Nessler, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen uptake at the maximal exercise (VO2max) in the cardio-pulmonary exercise test provides the most reliable information about exertion tolerance. Establishment of VO2peak, VE/CO2 and AT value in the early diagnosis of asymptomatic heart dysfunction in patients with coronary disease (CAD) and prognosis during 2-years observation. The study population: 57 patients (35 M) with CAD, without any signs or symptoms of heart dysfunction, without any features of myocardial infarction, in the age 51.08 +/- 4.01. The analysis was performed twice: in the beginning and after 2-years observation. Physical examinations, echocardiographic parameters [(assessment of systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV)] and spiroergometric parameters (VO2peak, VE/CO2 at AT). On the basis of echocardiographic examination, there were created groups of patients: Group A--the patients with normal LV function (n=32; 56.2%; 23 M); Group B--the patients with diastolic heart dysfunction (n=22; 38.6%; 10 M); Group A--32 patients in the age of 50.9 +/- 4, 23 men. Values of VO2pe ak :28.8 +/- 6 ml/kg/min, VE/CO2 28.8 +/- 4.9 and AT 18 +/- 2.5. Group B--the patients with diastolic heart dysfunction: 22 (39%) patients; 10 men, in the age of 51.2 +/- 4.3. Values of VO2peak: 26 +/- 3.4 mi/ kg/min, VE/CO2 31.2 +/- 5.1 and AT 16 +/- 2.5. In the beginning of the study was established significantly differences between anaerobic threshold and degree of heart dysfunction (p=0.039). (1) There was observed that VO2 A and VE/CO2 depended on filling LV profile LV and also of systolic LV function. Anaerobic threshold significantly depended on LV filling pattern. (2) In asymptomatic patients with LV diastolic dysfunction and VO2peak < or = 18.4 ml/kg/min was observed progression of LV diastolic dysfunction during two years.

  4. Treatment of hypertension with perindopril reduces plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels, left ventricular mass, and improves echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Aksoy, F. G.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Sabah, I.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiac deaths, and diastolic dysfunction is a usual finding during the course of this disease. HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic therapy with perindopril on left ventricular (LV) mass, left atrial size, diastolic function, and plasma level of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with hypertension. METHODS: Twenty four patients who had not been previously taking any antihypertensive medication and without prior history of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, dysrhythmias, valvular heart disease, or systemic illnesses received 4-8 mg/day of perindopril orally. Echocardiographic studies were acquired at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of therapy. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 174 +/- 19.7 and 107.5 +/- 7.8 mmHg to 134 +/- 10.6 and 82 +/- 6.7 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001). Left ventricular mass decreased from 252.4 +/- 8.3 to 205.7 +/- 7.08 g and left atrial volume from 20.4 +/- 5.1 to 17.6 +/- 5.2 ml, respectively (p < 0.001). Transmitral Doppler early and atrial filling velocity ratio (E/A) increased from 0.69 +/- 0.06 to 0.92 +/- 0.05 m/s and plasma ANP level decreased from 71.9 +/- 11.7 to 35.3 +/- 7.8 pg/ml (p < 0.001). Reduction of LV mass correlated positively with a reduction in ANP levels (r = 0.66, p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Perindopril caused a significant reduction of LV mass, left atrial volume, and plasma ANP levels, as well as improvement in Doppler parameters of LV filling in this group of patients with hypertension.

  5. [Successful continuous renal replacement therapy in a neonate with early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome].

    PubMed

    von Schnakenburg, C; Hufnagel, M; Superti-Furga, A; Rieger-Fackeldey, E; Berner, R

    2009-01-01

    Group B streptococcal early-onset sepsis (GBS EOS) in neonates has a mortality rate of approximately 5%, particularly in the presence of multi-organ dysfunction. Fluid management is crucial in these patients, and continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) should be considered a therapeutic option even in newborn babies. After an uneventful pregnancy within hours after birth, a female term infant presented with dyspnoea, irritability and cyanosis. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) progressed to multi-organ dysfunction with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), impaired myocardial contractility, pulmonary hypertension and fluid overload. The maximum PRISM score was 51. The child required maximal respiratory and inotropic support with high volume intravenous fluid administration. However, only by using of CVVH from day 5 to 14, we successfully resolved progressive pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction. The child improved directly after initiation of fluid removal, was extubated on day 17 and discharged without obvious sequelae on day 57. All microbiology studies revealed GBS. Perinatal GBS-infections remain a major life-threatening event for newborn babies. CVVH should be considered an option for reversing fluid overload even in neonates with overwhelming SIRS. Alternatively, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is discussed.

  6. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciT

    Poreba, Rafal, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently inmore » group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  7. Brain Natriuretic Hormone Predicts Stress Induced Alterations in Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Choksy, Pratik; Davis, Harry C.; Januzzi, James; Thayer, Julian; Harshfield, Gregory; Robinson, Vincent JB; Kapuku, Gaston K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental stress (MS) reduces diastolic function (DF) and may lead to congestive heart failure with preserved systolic function. Whether brain natriuretic hormone (BNP) mediates the relationship of MS with DF is unknown. Method and Results 160 individuals aged 30 to 50 years underwent 2 hour protocol of 40 minutes rest, videogame stressor and recovery. Hemodynamics, pro-BNP samples and DF indices were obtained throughout the protocol. Separate regression analyses were conducted using rest and stress E/A, E’ and E/E’ as dependent variables. Predictor variables were entered into the stepwise regression models in a hierarchical fashion. At the first level age, sex, race, height, BMI, pro-BNP, and LVM were permitted to enter the models. The second level consisted of SBP, DBP and HR. The final level contained cross-product terms of race by SBP, DBP and HR. E/A ratio was lower during stress compared to rest, and recovery (p<0.01). Resting E/A ratio was predicted by a regression model of age (−.31), pro-BNP (.16), HR (−.40) and DBP (−.23) with an R2 = .33. Stress E/A ratio was predicted by age (−.24), pro-BNP (.08), HR (−.38), and SBP (−.21), total R2 = .22. Resting E’ model consisted of age (−.22), pro-BNP (.26), DBP (−.27) and LVM (−.15) with an R2 = .29. Stress E’ was predicted by age (−.18), pro-BNP (.35) and LVM (−.18) with an R2 = .18. Resting E/E’ was predicted by race (.17, B>W) and DBP (.24) with an R2 = .10. Stress E/E’ consisted of pro-BNP (−.36), height (−.26) and HR (−.21) with R2 = .15. Conclusion pro-BNP predicts both resting and stress DF suggesting that lower BNP during MS may be a maker of diastolic dysfunction in apparently healthy individuals. PMID:24841419

  8. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    PubMed

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Vortex-ring mixing as a measure of diastolic function of the human heart: Phantom validation and initial observations in healthy volunteers and patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Töger, Johannes; Kanski, Mikael; Arvidsson, Per M; Carlsson, Marcus; Kovács, Sándor J; Borgquist, Rasmus; Revstedt, Johan; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2016-06-01

    To present and validate a new method for 4D flow quantification of vortex-ring mixing during early, rapid filling of the left ventricle (LV) as a potential index of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure. 4D flow mixing measurements were validated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a phantom setup. Controls (n = 23) and heart failure patients (n = 23) were studied using 4D flow at 1.5T (26 subjects) or 3T (20 subjects) to determine vortex volume (VV) and inflowing volume (VVinflow ). The volume mixed into the vortex-ring was quantified as VVmix-in = VV-VVinflow . The mixing ratio was defined as MXR = VVmix-in /VV. Furthermore, we quantified the fraction of the end-systolic volume (ESV) mixed into the vortex-ring (VVmix-in /ESV) and the fraction of the LV volume at diastasis (DV) occupied by the vortex-ring (VV/DV). PLIF validation of MXR showed fair agreement (R(2) = 0.45, mean ± SD 1 ± 6%). MXR was higher in patients compared to controls (28 ± 11% vs. 16 ± 10%, P < 0.001), while VVmix-in /ESV and VV/DV were lower in patients (10 ± 6% vs. 18 ± 12%, P < 0.01 and 25 ± 8% vs. 50 ± 6%, P < 0.0001). Vortex-ring mixing can be quantified using 4D flow. The differences in mixing parameters observed between controls and patients motivate further investigation as indices of diastolic dysfunction. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1386-1397. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction and the 20-year cumulative incidence of early age-related macular degeneration: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Gangnon, Ronald E; Danforth, Lorraine G; Sivakumaran, Theru A; Iyengar, Sudha K; Tsai, Michael Y; Klein, Barbara E K

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Modifying levels of factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may decrease the risk for visual impairment in older persons. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationships of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This longitudinal population-based cohort study involved a random sample of 975 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study without signs of AMD who participated in the baseline examination in 1988-1990 and up to 4 follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2008-2010. EXPOSURES Serum markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2, interleukin-6, and white blood cell count), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and total carbonyl content), and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were measured. Interactions with complement factor H (rs1061170), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (rs10490924), complement component 3 (rs2230199), and complement component 2/complement factor B (rs4151667) were examined using multiplicative models. Age-related macular degeneration was assessed from fundus photographs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Early AMD defined by the presence of any size drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities or by the presence of large-sized drusen (≥125-μm diameter) in the absence of late AMD. RESULTS The 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 23.0%. Adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.18; P = .005), tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (odds ratio, 1.78; P = .04), and interleukin-6 (odds ratio, 1.78; P = .03) were associated with the incidence of early AMD. Increased incidence of early AMD was associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule

  11. Use of milrinone to treat cardiac dysfunction in infants with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a review of six patients.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and secondary cardiac dysfunction are important contributors of morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor, may be useful in this setting for its combined actions as a pulmonary vasodilator and to improve systolic and diastolic function. This study aimed to assess the effects of milrinone on cardiac function and pulmonary artery pressure in infants with CDH. A retrospective review of echocardiograms performed on infants with CDH who received milrinone was performed. Tissue Doppler imaging velocities were used to assess systolic and diastolic function. Pulmonary artery pressure was assessed from the pattern and velocity of ductal shunting. Six infants with CDH and severe pulmonary hypertension were identified. Systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities were reduced in the right ventricle (RV) and interventricular septum (IVS) at baseline. In the 72 h after commencement of milrinone, there was a significant increase in early diastolic myocardial velocities in the RV, accompanied by increasing systolic velocities in the RV and IVS. Oxygenation index was significantly reduced, blood pressure unchanged, and ductal shunt velocity minimally altered over the same time period. Milrinone use was associated with an improvement in systolic and diastolic function in the RV, corresponding to an improvement in clinical status. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Subject-specific left ventricular dysfunction modeling using composite material mechanics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Karami, Elham; Samani, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Diverse cardiac conditions such as myocardial infarction and hypertension can lead to diastolic dysfunction as a prevalent cardiac condition. Diastolic dysfunctions can be diagnosed through different adverse mechanisms such as abnormal left ventricle (LV) relaxation, filling, and diastolic stiffness. This paper is geared towards evaluating diastolic stiffness and measuring the LV blood pressure non-invasively. Diastolic stiffness is an important parameter which can be exploited for more accurate diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction. For this purpose, a finite element (FE) LV mechanical model, which works based on a novel composite material model of the cardiac tissue, was utilized. Here, this model was tested for inversion-based applications where it was applied for estimating the cardiac tissue passive stiffness mechanical properties as well as diastolic LV blood pressure. To this end, the model was applied to simulate diastolic inflation of the human LV. The start-diastolic LV geometry was obtained from MR image data segmentation of a healthy human volunteer. The obtained LV geometry was discretized into a FE mesh before FE simulation was conducted. The LV tissue stiffness and diastolic LV blood pressure were adjusted through optimization to achieve the best match between the calculated LV geometry and the one obtained from imaging data. The performance of the LV mechanical simulations using the optimal values of tissue stiffness and blood pressure was validated by comparing the geometrical parameters of the dilated LV model as well as the stress and strain distributions through the LV model with available measurements reported on the LV dilation.

  13. Skin-autofluorescence, a measure of tissue advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), is related to diastolic function in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Jasper W L; Hummel, Yoran M; Voors, Adriaan A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Miyata, Toshio; Huisman, Roel M; Smit, Andries J; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2008-09-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is a frequent cause of heart failure, particularly in dialysis patients. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are increased in dialysis patients and are suggested to play a role in the development of diastolic dysfunction. The aim of our study was to assess whether AGE accumulation in dialysis patients is related to the presence of diastolic dysfunction. Data were analyzed from 43 dialysis patients, age 58 +/- 15 years, of whom 65% were male. Diastolic function was assessed using tissue velocity imaging (TVI) on echocardiography. Tissue AGE accumulation was measured using a validated skin-autofluorescence (skin-AF) reader. Plasma N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were measured by stable-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma pentosidine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Skin-AF correlated with mean E' (r = -0.51, P < .001), E/A ratio (r = -0.39, P = .014), and E/E' (r = 0.38, P = .019). Plasma AGEs were not significantly associated with diastolic function. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that 54% of the variance of average E' was explained by age (P = .007), dialysis type (P = 0.016), and skin-AF (P = .013). Tissue AGEs measured as skin-AF, but not plasma AGE levels, were related to diastolic function in dialysis patients. Although this may support the concept that tissue AGEs explain part of the increased prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in these patients, the ambiguous relation between plasma and tissue AGEs needs further exploring.

  14. Second diastolic pulmonary venous flow and isolated late diastolic mitral valve regurgitation in first-degree atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Leibundgut, Gregor; Bernheim, Alain M

    2010-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 77-year-old male patient with sinus rhythm and a first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block who was referred for echocardiographic follow-up 18 years after aortic valve replacement. Left ventricular systolic function as well as the function of the aortic prosthesis was normal. Systolic mitral regurgitation (MR) was virtually absent, but isolated late diastolic MR was detected by colour Doppler imaging. Coincidental to the occurrence of diastolic MR, a second late diastolic forward flow in the pulmonary veins was observed. Therefore, during the prolonged left atrial relaxation caused by first-degree AV block, the left atrial pressure drops below the pressure in both adjacent chambers in late diastole, resulting in both late diastolic MR and a second diastolic pulmonary venous forward flow.

  15. Orgasmic dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Inhibited sexual excitement; Sex - orgasmic dysfunction; Anorgasmia; Sexual dysfunction - orgasmic; Sexual problem - orgasmic ... of knowledge about sexual function Negative feelings about sex (often learned in childhood or teen years) Shyness ...

  16. Sensory Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: ageusia, anosmia, chemosensory disorders, decreased appetite, dysgeusia, flavor, olfactory dysfunction, overseasoning food, senses, sensory dysfunction, sensory impairment, smell, taste September ...

  17. Left atrial volume index as a predictor for persistent left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: the role of early postoperative echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Heo, Ran; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore whether echocardiographic measurements during the early postoperative period can predict persistent left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We prospectively recruited 54 patients (59 ± 12 years) with isolated chronic severe AR who subsequently underwent aortic valve surgery. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed before the operation, during the early postoperative period (≤2 weeks), and then 1 year after the surgery. Twelve patients with preoperative LVSD demonstrated LVSD at early after the surgery. Of the 42 patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography, 15 patients (36%) developed early postoperative LVSD after surgical correction. All 27 patients without LVSD at early postoperative echocardiography maintained LV function at 1 year after surgery. In the other 27 patients with postoperative LVSD, 17 patients recovered from LVSD and 10 patients did not at 1 year after surgery. Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that postoperative left atrial volume index (LAVI) was the only independent predictor for persistent LVSD at 1 year after surgery in patients with postoperative LVSD (OR 1.180, 95% CI, 1.003-1.390, P = 0.046). The optimal LAVI cutoff value (>34.9 mL/m(2) ) had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88% for the prediction of persistent LVSD. Prevalence of early postoperative LVSD was relatively high, even in the patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography. Postoperative LAVI could be useful to predict persistent LVSD after aortic valve surgery in patients with early postoperative LVSD. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Can Valeriana officinalis root extract prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after CABG surgery? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Soghra; Alipour, Abbas; Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Wali-Allah; Tahmasebi, Homeyra; Alipour, Fatemeh; Ebrahim Zadeh, Pooneh

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that valerian root might prevent cognitive dysfunction in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients through stimulating serotonin receptors and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis root extract on prevention of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 61 patients, aged between 30 and 70 years, scheduled for elective CABG surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were recruited into the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups who received either one valerian capsule containing 530 mg of valerian root extract (1,060 mg/daily) or placebo capsule each 12 h for 8 weeks, respectively. For all patients, cognitive brain function was evaluated before the surgery and at 10-day and 2-month follow-up by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. Mean MMSE score decreased from 27.03 ± 2.02 in the preoperative period to 26.52 ± 1.82 at the 10th day and then increased to 27.45 ± 1.36 at the 60th day in the valerian group. Conversely, its variation was reduced significantly after 60 days in the placebo group, 27.37 ± 1.87 at the baseline to 24 ± 1.91 at the 10th day, and consequently slightly increased to 24.83 ± 1.66 at the 60th day. Valerian prophylaxis reduced odds of cognitive dysfunction compared to placebo group (OR = 0.108, 95 % CI 0.022-0.545). We concluded that, based on this study, the cognitive state of patients in the valerian group was better than that in the placebo group after CABG; therefore, it seems that the use of V. officinalis root extract may prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery.

  19. Temporomandibular dysfunction

    PubMed

    Lomas, Jonathan; Gurgenci, Taylan; Jackson, Christopher; Campbell, Duncan

    2018-04-01

    Orofacial pain is a common presentation in the primary healthcare setting and temporomandibular dysfunction represents one of the major causes. Its aetiology is multifactorial, caused by both masticatory muscle dysfunction and derangement within the temporomandibular joint. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of temporomandibular dysfunction, its management and referral considerations for general practioners. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction affects a large number of adults. Conservative management involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies is effective in the majority of cases.

  20. PAR-2-mediated control of barrier function and motility differs between early and late phases of postinfectious gut dysfunction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Blanco, Joan Antoni; Fernández-Blanco, Juan A; Hollenberg, Morley D; Martínez, Vicente; Vergara, Patri

    2013-02-15

    Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and mast cell (MC) mediators contribute to inflammatory and functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to characterize jejunal PAR-2-mediated responses and the potential MC involvement in the early and late phases of a rat model of postinfectious gut dysfunction. Jejunal tissues of control and Trichinella spiralis-infected (14 and 30 days postinfection) rats, treated or not with the MC stabilizer, ketotifen, were used. Histopathology and immunostaining were used to characterize inflammation, PAR-2 expression, and mucosal and connective tissue MCs. Epithelial barrier function (hydroelectrolytic transport and permeability) and motility were assessed in vitro in basal conditions and after PAR-2 activation. Intestinal inflammation on day 14 postinfection (early phase) was significantly resolved by day 30 (late phase) although MC counts and epithelial permeability remained increased. PAR-2-mediated ion transport (Ussing chambers, in vitro) and epithelial surface PAR-2 expression were reduced in the early phase, with a trend toward normalization during the late phase. In control conditions, PAR-2 activation (organ bath) induced biphasic motor responses (relaxation followed by excitation). At 14 days postinfection, spontaneous contractility and PAR-2-mediated relaxations were enhanced; motor responses were normalized on day 30. Postinfectious changes in PAR-2 functions were not affected by ketotifen treatment. We concluded that, in the rat model of Trichinella spiralis infection, alterations of intestinal PAR-2 function and expression depend on the inflammatory phase considered. A lack of a ketotifen effect suggests no interplay between MCs and PAR-2-mediated motility and ion transport alterations. These observations question the role of MC mediators in PAR-2-modulating postinfectious gut dysfunction.

  1. Concomitant alteration in number and affinity of P2X and muscarinic receptors are associated with bladder dysfunction in early stage of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Yoshida, Akira; Yoshida, Shohei; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamaguchi, Kenya; Yamada, Shizuo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2018-03-01

    To investigate time course of bladder dysfunction and concurrent changes in number and affinity of the muscarinic and P 2 X receptor in the early stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of STZ to 7-week-old female Wistar rats. We performed recording of 24-h voiding behavior and cystometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes. A muscle strip experiments with electrical field stimulation (EFS), carbachol, and α,β-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (α,β-MeATP) were also performed at the same time-points. Additionally, concurrent changes in number and affinity of bladder muscarinic and P 2 X receptor were measured by a radioreceptor assay using [N-methyl- 3 H] scopolamine methyl chloride ([ 3 H]NMS) and α,β-methylene-ATP (2,8- 3 H) tetrasodium salt ([ 3 H]α,β-MeATP). In STZ-induced diabetic rats, polydipsic polyuric pollakiuria were noted on recording of 24-h voiding behavior from early stage. Also, the residual urine volume markedly increased in diabetic rats on cystometry. In the muscle strip experiment, the detrusor contractions induced by EFS, carbachol, and α,β-MeATP were enhanced in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Based on the radioreceptor assay, the maximum number of sites (Bmax) for the specific binding of [ 3 H]NMS and [ 3 H]α,β-MeATP was concurrently increased in the bladder from diabetic rats. Increased bladder contractility is found in early stage of diabetic rats. Then, bladder dysfunction is associated with increased number of muscarinic and P 2 X receptors in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of CPAP on diastolic function in coronary artery disease patients with nonsleepy obstructive sleep apnea: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Helena; Johansson, Magnus C; Thunström, Erik; Guron, Cecilia Wallentin; Uzel, Harun; Saygin, Mustafa; Herlitz, Johan; Peker, Yüksel

    2017-08-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with worse diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This analysis determined whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment would improve diastolic function in CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA. Between December 2005 and November 2010, 244 revascularized CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] score<10) were randomly assigned to CPAP or no-CPAP. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained at baseline, and after 3 and 12months. A total of 171 patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%), no atrial fibrillation or severe valve abnormalities, and technically adequate echocardiograms at baseline and follow-up visits were included (CPAP, n=87; no-CPAP, n=84). In the intention-to-treat analysis, CPAP had no significant effect on echocardiographic parameters of mild (enlarged left atrium or decreased diastolic relaxation velocity) or worse (increased E/é filling index [presumed elevated left ventricular filling pressure]) diastolic function. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant association between CPAP usage for ≥4h/night and an increase in diastolic relaxation velocity at 12months' follow-up (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0-4.9; p=0.039) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and left atrium diameter at baseline. CPAP did not improve diastolic dysfunction in CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA. However, good CPAP adherence was significantly associated with an increase in diastolic relaxation velocity after one year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary podocyte-associated mRNA levels correlate with proximal tubule dysfunction in early diabetic nephropathy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Petrica, Ligia; Ursoniu, Sorin; Gadalean, Florica; Vlad, Adrian; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Dumitrascu, Victor; Vlad, Daliborca; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Velciov, Silvia; Bob, Flaviu; Matusz, Petru; Milas, Oana; Secara, Alina; Simulescu, Anca; Popescu, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The study assessed mRNA expression of podocyte-associated molecules in urinary sediments of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in relation to urinary podocytes, biomarkers of podocyte injury and of proximal tubule (PT) dysfunction. A total of 76 patients with type 2 DM and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, and assessed concerning urinary podocytes, urinary mRNA of podocyte-associated genes, urinary biomarkers of podocyte damage and of PT dysfunction. We found significant differences between urinary mRNA of podocyte-associated molecules in relation with albuminuria stage. In multivariable regression analysis, urinary mRNA of nephrin, podocin, alpha-actinin-4, CD2-associated protein, glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP1), ADAM 10, and NFκB correlated directly with urinary podocytes, albuminuria, urinary alpha 1 -microglobulin, urinary kidney-injury molecule-1, nephrinuria, urinary vascular endothelial growth factor, urinary advanced glycation end-products (AGE), and indirectly with eGFR (p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.808; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.825; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.805; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.663; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.726; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.720; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.724). In patients with type 2 DM there is an association between urinary mRNA of podocyte-associated molecules, biomarkers of podocyte damage, and of PT dysfunction. GLEPP1, ADAM10, and NFκB may be considered additional candidate molecules indicative of early diabetic nephropathy. AGE could be involved in this association.

  4. Prognostic importance of early worsening renal function after initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Testani, Jeffrey M; Kimmel, Stephen E; Dries, Daniel L; Coca, Steven G

    2011-11-01

    Worsening renal function (WRF) in the setting of heart failure has been associated with increased mortality. However, it is unclear if this decreased survival is a direct result of the reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or if the mechanism underlying the deterioration in GFR is driving prognosis. Given that WRF in the setting of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) initiation is likely mechanistically distinct from spontaneously occurring WRF, we investigated the relative early WRF-associated mortality rates in subjects randomized to ACE-I or placebo. Subjects in the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) limited data set (n=6337) were studied. The interaction between early WRF (decrease in estimated GFR ≥20% at 14 days), randomization to enalapril, and mortality was the primary end point. In the overall population, early WRF was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4; P=0.037). When analysis was restricted to the placebo group, this association strengthened (adjusted HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8; P=0.004). However, in the enalapril group, early WRF had no adverse prognostic significance (adjusted HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3; P=1.0; P=0.09 for the interaction). In patients who continued to receive study drug despite early WRF, a survival advantage remained with enalapril therapy (adjusted HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9; P=0.018). These data support the notion that the mechanism underlying WRF is important in determining its prognostic significance. Specifically, early WRF in the setting of ACE-I initiation appears to represent a benign event that is not associated with a loss of benefit from continued ACE-I therapy.

  5. Functional Uncoupling NMDAR NR2A Subunit from PSD-95 in the Prefrontal Cortex: Effects on Behavioral Dysfunction and Parvalbumin Loss after Early-Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Holland, Freedom H; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to early-life stress increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety. Growing evidence implicates aberrant development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the effects of early-life stress, which often emerge in adolescence or young adulthood. Specifically, early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) in rodents has been shown to decrease parvalbumin (PVB)-positive interneurons in the adolescent PFC; however, the mechanism underpinning behavioral dysfunction and PVB loss is not yet known. We recently reported that MS causes overexpression of the NMDA subunit NR2A in the PFC of adolescent rats. Elevated PFC NR2A is also found in developmental models of schizophrenia and is correlated with behavioral deficits, acting largely through its association with the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. In addition, adolescent maturation of PVB-positive interneurons relies on NR2A-driven NMDA activity. Therefore, it is possible that the NR2A/PSD-95 signaling complex has a role in adolescent MS effects. Here, we aimed to determine whether a discrete manipulation of PFC NR2A could prevent MS effects on PFC-controlled behaviors, including cognition, anxiety, and novelty-induced hyperlocomotion, as well as PVB loss in adolescence. We intracranially infused the NR2A-specific blocking peptide TAT2A in order to uncouple NR2A from PSD-95 in the early-adolescent PFC, without antagonizing the NMDA receptor. We demonstrated that MS rats treated with TAT2A during early adolescence were protected from MS-induced PVB loss and exhibited less anxious behavior than those infused with control peptide. These data implicate NR2A-related N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor development in adolescent behavioral and neural consequences of early-life stress. PMID:25953359

  6. Modelling passive diastolic mechanics with quantitative MRI of cardiac structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Vicky Y; Lam, H I; Ennis, Daniel B; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A; Nash, Martyn P

    2009-10-01

    The majority of patients with clinically diagnosed heart failure have normal systolic pump function and are commonly categorized as suffering from diastolic heart failure. The left ventricle (LV) remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions, which in turn can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element (FE) model was customized to geometric data segmented from in vivo tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI) data and myofibre orientation derived from ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion in each voxel of a DTMRI directly corresponds to the local myocardial fibre orientation. Due to differences in myocardial geometry between in vivo and ex vivo imaging, myofibre orientations were mapped into the geometric FE model using host mesh fitting (a free form deformation technique). Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tagging data, were used as the loading constraints to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. Integrated physiological modelling of this kind will allow more insight into mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction under pathological conditions.

  7. Assessment of Diastolic Function in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Dilveer Kaur; Burch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Diastolic function is an important component of left ventricular (LV) function which is often overlooked. It can cause symptoms of heart failure in patients even in the presence of normal systolic function. The parameters used to assess diastolic function often measure flow and are affected by the loading conditions of the heart. The interpretation of diastolic function in the context of congenital heart disease requires some understanding of the effects of the lesions themselves on these parameters. Individual congenital lesions will be discussed in this paper. Recently, load-independent techniques have led to more accurate measurements of ventricular compliance and remodeling in heart disease. The combination of inflow velocities and tissue Doppler measurements can be used to estimate diastolic function and LV filling pressures. This review focuses on diastolic function and assessment in congenital heart disease. PMID:28261582

  8. Evolution of echocardiography in subclinical detection of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Rohit; Hassan, Saamir; Palaskas, Nicolas; Lopez-Mattei, Juan; Banchs, Jose; Yusuf, Syed Wamique

    2018-05-11

    Cancer therapies have resulted in increased survivorship in oncological patients. However, the benefits have been marred by the development of premature cardiovascular disease. The current definition outlines measurement of ejection fraction as a mean to diagnose cancer therapeutic-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD); however, up to 58% of the patients do not regain their cardiac function after the CTRCD diagnosis, despite therapeutic interventions. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the markers for early myocardial changes (ie, changes with normal left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]) that may predict the development of subsequent left ventricular ejection fraction reduction or progression to heart failure. This review will highlight the use of diastolic parameters, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiogram (STE) as emerging technologies which can potentially detect cardiac dysfunction thereby stratifying patients for cardioprotective therapies. The goal of this manuscript was to highlight the concepts and discuss the current controversies surrounding these echocardiographic imaging modalities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Air pollution and diastolic function in elderly women - Results from the SALIA study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ohlwein, Simone; Klümper, Claudia; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Sugiri, Dorothea; Stolz, Sabine; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Kara, Kaffer; Germing, Alfried; Quass, Ulrich; Krämer, Ursula; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Studies linking particulate matter (PM) with heart failure (HF) show inconsistent results. However, the association of air pollution with diastolic function, an important determinant of heart failure, has not been studied yet and is addressed in the presented study. 402 women (69-79 years) of the clinical follow-up (2007-2010) of the ongoing population-based prospective SALIA (Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and Ageing) cohort were examined using Doppler echocardiography: Of the 291 women with preserved ejection fraction, the ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity and peak early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/E') was collected in 264 and left atrial volume index (LAVI) in 262 women. Residential long-term air pollution exposure (nitrogen oxides, size-fractioned PM) was modeled at baseline and at follow-up, applying land use regression models. We used linear regression to model the cross-sectional associations of air pollutants per interquartile range (IQR) with different measures of diastolic function, adjusting for personal risk factors. Median concentrations of annual NOx, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 at follow-up were 37.7, 25.9, 17.4 and 26.4μg/m(3), respectively. In the fully adjusted models, LAVI was associated with an IQR increase in PM2.5 (1.05 [0.99; 1.12]) and NOx (1.04 [1.00; 1.09]) at follow-up, and with NOx and NO2 (both 1.05 [1.00; 1.11]) at baseline. None of the pollutants were clearly associated with E/E'. In this analysis of elderly women, we found suggestive evidence for an association of air pollution with impaired diastolic function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Doppler echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in 74 boxer dogs with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in boxer dogs with aortic stenosis (AS). LV relaxation, elastic recoil, filling and stiffness have been found to be abnormal in people with AS and were related to disease severity, clinical signs and prognosis. 2-D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was done in 74 boxers with AS (55 with mild AS, 7 with moderate AS and 12 with severe AS) and compared with reference values from 66 normal boxers. Measurements included isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral filling velocities, mitral E wave deceleration time, peak systolic, and early and late (AR) diastolic pulmonary wenous flow velocities and related variables. In addition, left atrial (LA) function, LV dimensions and hypertrophy and LV systolic performance were assessed. Eight dogs (15%) with mild AS had abnormal LV diastolic function, compared with 16 dogs (84%) with moderate or severe AS. Two dogs (3%) had also systolic abnormalities. The flow pattern of delayed relaxation, pseudonormal mitral inflow and restrictive flow were found in 10, 11 and 3 dogs, respectively. IVRT and E:A were heterogeneous in dogs with moderate or severe AS, being either high, normal, or low. Peak AR velocity was significantly higher (p diastolic pressure, and normal or increased LA systolic function. Bivariate linear regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the severity of AS based on Doppler and LV hypertrophy (IVSd: r = 0.61, p diastolic function is abnormal even in the presence of normal systolic performance.

  11. Transesophageal Echocardiography, 3-Dimensional and Speckle Tracking Together as Sensitive Markers for Early Outcome in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Puri, Goverdhan Dutt; Bahl, Ajay

    2017-10-01

    Speckle tracking, when combined with 3-dimensional (3D) left ventricular ejection fraction, might prove to be a more sensitive marker for postoperative ventricular dysfunction. This study investigated early outcomes in a cohort of patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing cardiac surgery. Prospective, blinded, observational study. University hospital; single institution. The study comprised 73 adult patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Routine transesophageal echocardiography before and after bypass. Global longitudinal strain using speckle tracking and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction were computed using transesophageal echocardiography. Mean prebypass global longitudinal strain and 3D left ventricle ejection fraction were significantly lower in patients with postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome compared with patients who did not develop low cardiac output (global longitudinal strain -7.5% v -10.7% and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction 29% v 39%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The cut-off value of global longitudinal strain predicting postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome was -6%, with 95% sensitivity and 68% specificity; and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction was 19% with 98% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Preoperative left ventricular global longitudinal strain (-6%) and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction (19%) together could act as predictor of postoperative low-cardiac-output states with high sensitivity (99.9%) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Abnormal Electron Transport and Excessive Oxidative Stress Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Placental Tissues of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongwei; Jin, Xiaohan; Cai, Wei; Zhou, Maobin; Shao, Ping; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Rong; Cao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Yu, Fang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Shuang; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ning; Chen, Xu; Li, Yuming

    2018-04-20

    Early-onset preeclampsia (EOS-PE) refers to preeclampsia that occurred before 34 gestation weeks. This study is conducted to explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of EOS-PE using proteomic strategy. To identify altering expressed mitochondrial proteins between severe EOS-PE and healthy pregnancies, enrichment of mitochondria coupled with iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic method is performed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot are performed to detect the alteration of changing expression proteins, and confirmed the accuracy of proteomic results. A total of 1372 proteins were quantified and 132 altering expressed proteins were screened, including 86 downregulated expression proteins and 46 upregulated expression proteins (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins participated in numerous biological processes, including oxidation-reduction process, respiratory electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. Especially, mitochondria-related molecules, PRDX2, PARK7, BNIP3, BCL2, PDHA1, SUCLG1, ACADM, and NDUFV1, are involved in energy-production process in the matrix and membrane of mitochondria. Results of the experiment show that abnormal electron transport, excessive oxidative stress, and mitochondrion disassembly might be the main cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, and is related to the pathogenesis of EOS-PE. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Diastolic stress echocardiography in the young: a study in nonathletic and endurance-trained healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Studer Bruengger, Annina A; Kaufmann, Beat A; Buser, Marc; Hoffmann, Mario; Bader, Franziska; Bernheim, Alain M

    2014-10-01

    The response of diastolic Doppler indices to exercise is not well defined for young subjects. The aims of this study were to evaluate this in nonathletic and endurance-trained probands and to correlate echocardiographic data with maximal oxygen consumption. In this prospective study, Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest and after exercise in 40 nonathletes (NAs) and 20 endurance-trained athletes (ETs) aged < 40 years, matched for age and gender. Diastolic function was assessed by mitral inflow and early diastolic velocities of the septal (e' septal) and lateral (e' lateral) mitral annulus. Maximal oxygen consumption quantification was performed simultaneously. All cardiac chambers were larger in ETs than NAs. ETs had higher e' lateral at rest (18.1 ± 2.7 vs 16.3 ± 3.3 cm/sec, P = .02) and higher mitral E (141 ± 15 vs 132 ± 15 cm/sec, P = .02) and e' lateral (23.5 ± 2.5 vs 21.4 ± 3.0 cm/sec, P = .01) with exercise than NAs. There was a slight increase in E/e' septal (overall, from 6.8 ± 1.3 to 7.2 ± 1.2; P = .02) and E/e' lateral (overall, from 5.0 ± 0.8 to 6.2 ± 0.9; P < .0001) with exercise. Changes in diastolic parameters with exercise were similar in ETs and NAs. Percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption was correlated with exertional E (r = 0.28, P = .03) and e' lateral (r = 0.32, P = .01), but the strongest predictor was indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r = 0.66, P < .0001). During exercise, E/e' increases but remains within normal ranges in healthy young subjects, and the response to exercise does not differ between ETs and NAs. These data help define the normal diastolic stress echocardiographic response in the young. Exercise capacity shows a correlation with enhanced exertional early diastolic velocities but is more closely related to cardiac structural adaption to endurance training. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early detection of endothelial injury and dysfunction in conjunction with correction of hemodynamic maladjustment can effectively restore renal function in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Futrakul, Narisa; Butthep, Punnee; Vongthavarawat, Varaphon; Futrakul, Prasit; Sirisalipoch, Sasitorn; Chaivatanarat, Tawatchai; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse

    2006-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate (1) the early marker of endothelial injury in type 2 diabetes, (2) the intrarenal hemodynamics and renal function, and (3) the therapeutic strategy aiming to restore renal function. Fifty patients (35 normoalbuminuric and 15 albuminuric type 2 diabetes) were examined. Blood was collected for determination of circulating vascular endothelial cells (CEC) and the serum was prepared for determination of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), ratio of CEC/TGFbeta, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule. Intrarenal hemodynamics and renal function were also assessed. The results showed that increased number of circulating EC, elevated TGFbeta and depleted ratio of CEC/TGFbeta were significantly observed. Intrarenal hemodynamic study revealed a hemodynamic maladjustment characterized by preferential constriction of the efferent arteriole, intraglomerular hypertension and reduction in peritubular capillary flow. It was concluded that early marker of endothelial injury is reflected by increasing number of CEC. Such markers correlate with the glomerular endothelial dysfunction associated with hemodynamic maladjustment. Early detection of endothelial injury and appropriate correction of hemodynamic maladjustment by multidrug vasodilators can effectively restore renal function in type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Intensive Evening Outpatient Treatment for Patients With Personality Dysfunction: Early Group Process, Change in Interpersonal Distress, and Longer-Term Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Anthony S; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Kealy, David

    2017-01-01

    Entrenched interpersonal difficulties are a defining feature of those with personality dysfunction. Evening treatment-a comprehensive and intensive group-oriented outpatient therapy program-offers a unique approach to delivering mental health services to patients with chronic personality dysfunction. This study assessed change in interpersonal problems as a key outcome, the relevance of such change to future social functioning, and the influence of early group processes on this change. Consecutively admitted patients (N = 75) to a group-oriented evening treatment program were recruited; the majority were diagnosed with personality disorder. Therapy outcome was represented by scores on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Follow-up outcome was represented by the global score of the Social Adjustment Scale. Group climate, group cohesion, and the therapeutic alliance were examined as process variables. Patients experienced substantial reduction in distress associated with interpersonal problems; early process factors that reflected a cohesive and engaged group climate and stronger therapeutic alliance were predictive of this outcome. Improvement in interpersonal distress was predictive of global social functioning six months later. The therapeutic alliance most strongly accounted for change in interpersonal problems at posttreatment and social functioning at follow-up. A comprehensive and integrated outpatient group therapy program, offered in the evening to accommodate patients' real-life demands, can facilitate considerable improvement in interpersonal problems, which in turn influences later social functioning. The intensity and intimacy of peer interactions in the therapy groups, and a strong alliance with the program therapists, are likely interacting factors that are particularly important to facilitate such change.

  16. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Assessment of Diastolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Nacif, Marcelo S; Almeida, Andre L C; Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Armstrong, Anderson C; Yang, Eunice; Sibley, Christopher T; Hundley, W Gregory; Liu, Songtao; Lima, Joao Ac; Bluemke, David A

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance is in need of a simple and robust method for diastolic function assessment that can be done with routine protocol sequences. To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) model-based volumetric assessment of diastolic function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and compare the results obtained with the model with those obtained by echocardiography. The study participants provided written informed consent and were included if having undergone both echocardiography and cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) CMR on the same day. Guide points at the septal and lateral mitral annulus were used to define the early longitudinal relaxation rate (E'), while a time-volume curve from the 3D model was used to assess diastolic filling parameters. We determined the correlation between 3D CMR and echocardiography and the accuracy of CMR in classifying the diastolic function grade. The study included 102 subjects. The E/A ratio by CMR was positively associated with the E/A ratio by echocardiography (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001). The early diastolic relaxation velocity by tissue Doppler and longitudinal relaxation rate for the lateral mitral annulus displacement were positively associated (p = 0.007), as were the ratio between Doppler E/e' and CMR E/E' (p = 0.01). CMR-determined normalized peak E (NE) and deceleration time (DT) were able to predict diastolic dysfunction (areas under the curve [AUCs] = 0.70 and 0.72, respectively). In addition, the lateral E/E' ratio showed good utility in identifying diastolic dysfunction (AUC = 0.80). Overall, echocardiography and CMR interobserver and intraobserver agreements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient range 0.72 - 0.97). 3D modeling of standard cine CMR images was able to identify study subjects with reduced diastolic function and showed good reproducibility, suggesting a potential for a routine diastolic function assessment by CMR. A ressonância magnética cardíaca necessita de um m

  17. Effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy: A randomized double blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Hongmei; Zhou, Qinghe; Zhu, Zhipeng; Wu, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy. Randomized, double-blind study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. One hundred and fifty-two elderly patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy. At 15min before the induction of anesthesia, 152 patients received intravenously parecoxib sodium 40mg and dexmedetomidine at a dose of 0.5μg/kg over 15min, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 0.5μg/kg/h until the end of surgery. Then all patients who received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia were divided 2 groups: sufentanil(0.04μg/kg/h, S group), sufentanil (0.04μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine(0.06μg/kg/h) (SD group). The mini-mental status examination score in SD group was significantly higher than S group at 1, 2 and 7days after surgery. The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction during 7days after surgery in S and SD groups was respectively 17.1% and 6.7%. Compared with the S group, the visual analogue scale scores at rest and upon movement were significantly lower at 6, 14, 24, 36 and 48h after surgery in SD group; analgesia pump liquid amount during 24h after surgery and number of rescue analgesia during 48h after surgery were significantly lower in SD group. Jugular venous oxygen partial pressure and jugular venous oxygen saturation values in SD group were significantly higher than S group at postoperative 24h. The occurrence of nausea and vomiting within 48h after surgery in SD group were significantly lower than S group. We found no complications including respiratory depression and sinus bradycardia within 48h after surgery in all patients. Parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients. This might be related to the improvement of postoperative analgesia effect and cerebral oxygen

  18. Non-invasive method of determining diastolic intracranial pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining diastolic intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. A first change in the length of a path across the skull of the patient caused by a known change in ICP is measured and used to determine an elasticity constant for the patient. Next, a second change in the length of the path across the patient's skull occurring between systolic and diastolic portions of the patient's heartbeat is measured. The patient's diastolic ICP is a function of the elasticity constant and the second change.

  19. Early risk of mortality after coronary artery revascularization in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and potential role of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Zishiri, Edwin T; Williams, Sarah; Cronin, Edmond M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Ellis, Stephen G; Roselli, Eric E; Smedira, Nicholas G; Gillinov, A Marc; Glad, Jo Ann; Tchou, Patrick J; Szymkiewicz, Steven J; Chung, Mina K

    2013-02-01

    Implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator for prevention of sudden cardiac death is deferred for 90 days after coronary revascularization, but mortality may be highest early after cardiac procedures in patients with ventricular dysfunction. We determined mortality risk in postrevascularization patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and compared survival with those discharged with a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD). Hospital survivors after surgical (coronary artery bypass graft surgery) or percutaneous (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) revascularization with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% were included from Cleveland Clinic and national WCD registries. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards, propensity score-matched survival, and hazard function analyses were performed. Early mortality hazard was higher among 4149 patients discharged without a defibrillator compared with 809 with WCDs (90-day mortality post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery 7% versus 3%, P=0.03; post-PCI 10% versus 2%, P<0.0001). WCD use was associated with adjusted lower risks of long-term mortality in the total cohort (39%, P<0.0001) and both post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (38%, P=0.048) and post-PCI (57%, P<0.0001) cohorts (mean follow-up, 3.2 years). In propensity-matched analyses, WCD use remained associated with lower mortality (58% post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery, P=0.002; 67% post-PCI, P<0.0001). Mortality differences were not attributable solely to therapies for ventricular arrhythmia. Only 1.3% of the WCD group had a documented appropriate therapy. Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% have higher early compared to late mortality after coronary revascularization, particularly after PCI. As early hazard seemed less marked in WCD users, prospective studies in this high-risk population are indicated to confirm whether WCD use as a bridge to left ventricular ejection fraction improvement or

  20. Presystolic tricuspid valve closure: an alternative mechanism of diastolic sound genesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Xiao, H B; Gibson, D G

    1990-01-01

    We describe a previously unrecognised cause of an added diastolic heart sound. The patient had first-degree heart block and diastolic tricuspid regurgitation, leading to presystolic closure of the tricuspid valve and the production of a loud diastolic sound. Unlike previously described mechanisms for diastolic sounds, this sound was generated by the sudden acceleration of retrograde AV flow in late diastole.

  1. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    SciT

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans weremore » performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal

  2. Alpha-Synuclein Produces Early Behavioral Alterations via Striatal Cholinergic Synaptic Dysfunction by Interacting With GluN2D N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Bagetta, Vincenza; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Decressac, Mickael; Giampà, Carmela; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Xia, Jing; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Mellone, Manuela; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar; Ardah, Mustafa Taleb; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Björklund, Anders; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by massive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, dramatic motor and cognitive alterations, and presence of nigral Lewy bodies, whose main constituent is α-synuclein (α-syn). However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral and motor effects induced by early selective overexpression of nigral α-syn are still a matter of debate. We performed behavioral, molecular, and immunohistochemical analyses in two transgenic models of PD, mice transgenic for truncated human α-synuclein 1-120 and rats injected with the adeno-associated viral vector carrying wild-type human α-synuclein. We also investigated striatal synaptic plasticity by electrophysiological recordings from spiny projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons. We found that overexpression of truncated or wild-type human α-syn causes partial reduction of striatal dopamine levels and selectively blocks the induction of long-term potentiation in striatal cholinergic interneurons, producing early memory and motor alterations. These effects were dependent on α-syn modulation of the GluN2D-expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cholinergic interneurons. Acute in vitro application of human α-syn oligomers mimicked the synaptic effects observed ex vivo in PD models. We suggest that striatal cholinergic dysfunction, induced by a direct interaction between α-syn and GluN2D-expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, represents a precocious biological marker of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geographic origin as a determinant of left ventricular mass and diastolic function - the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Vähämurto, L; Juonala, M; Ruohonen, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Kähönen, M; Laitinen, T; Tossavainen, P; Jokinen, E; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T; Pahkala, K

    2018-03-01

    Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function. The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years. Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139±1.0 vs. 135±1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e'-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86±0.03 vs. 4.74±0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: p<0.0001; E/e'-ratio: p=0.01). LV end-diastolic volume was higher among subjects with eastern baseline origin (135±0.9 vs. 131±0.9 ml, p=0.0011) but left atrial end-systolic volume, also indicating LV diastolic function, was not different between eastern and western subjects (43.4±0.5 vs. 44.0±0.5 ml, p=0.45). Most of the subjects were well within the normal limits of these echocardiographic measurements. In our healthy middle-aged population, geographic origin in eastern Finland associated with higher LV mass compared to western Finland. Higher E/e'-ratio suggests that subjects with eastern baseline origin might have higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in the future than western subjects.

  4. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairments provoked by chronic early-life stress involve excessive activation of CRH receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Autumn S.; Rex, Christopher S.; Chen, Yuncai; Dubé, Céline; Maras, Pamela M.; Grigoriadis, Dimitri E.; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress impairs learning and memory in humans and rodents and disrupts long-term potentiation (LTP) in animal models. These effects are associated with structural changes in hippocampal neurons, including reduced dendritic arborization. Unlike the generally reversible effects of chronic stress on adult rat hippocampus, we have previously found that the effects of early-life stress endure and worsen during adulthood, yet the mechanisms for these clinically important sequelae are poorly understood. Stress promotes secretion of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hippocampal interneurons, activating receptors (CRF1) located on pyramidal cell dendrites. Additionally, chronic CRF1 occupancy negatively affects dendritic arborization in mouse organotypic slice cultures, similar to the pattern observed in middle-aged, early-stressed (CES) rats. Here we found that CRH-expression is augmented in hippocampus of middle-aged CES rats, and then tested if the morphological defects and poor memory performance in these animals involve excessive activation of CRF1 receptors. Central or peripheral administration of a CRF1 blocker following the stress period improved memory performance of CES rats in novel object recognition tests and in the Morris water maze. Consonant with these effects, the antagonist also prevented dendritic atrophy and LTP attenuation in CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. Together, these data suggest that persistently elevated hippocampal CRH-CRF1 interaction contributes importantly to the structural and cognitive impairments associated with early-life stress. Reducing CRF1 occupancy post-hoc normalized hippocampal function during middle-age, thus offering potential mechanism-based therapeutic interventions for children affected by chronic stress. PMID:20881118

  5. Serum levels of NGAL and cystatin C as markers of early kidney dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, Athanasios; Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Nena, Evangelia; Tsigalou, Christina; Xanthoudaki, Maria; Kouratzi, Maria; Tripsianis, Grigorios; Froudarakis, Marios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

    2018-06-26

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been recently proposed as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are novel biomarkers for the earlier detection of latent kidney disease. The aim of the study was to assess serum Cyst C and NGAL levels in otherwise healthy OSAS patients and to explore possible associations with sleep parameters. Consecutive subjects (n = 96, 79.2% males), without known comorbidities, with symptoms suggestive of OSAS were included. All of them underwent polysomnography (PSG) and blood examination for the measurement of serum Cyst C and NGAL levels. Based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), subjects were classified into two groups: 32 controls and 64 OSAS patients, with no significant differences in terms of age (50.1 ± 11.7 vs 51 ± 12.2 years, p = 0.747) and BMI (33.9 ± 8.8 vs 35.9 ± 13.1 kg/m 2 , p = 0.449). Serum Cyst C and NGAL mean levels were higher in OSAS patients compared to those in controls (1155.2 ± 319.3 vs 966.8 ± 173 ng/ml, p = 0.001, and 43.7 ± 23.2 vs 35.6 ± 13.8 ng/ml, p = 0.035, respectively). After adjustment for age and BMI in OSAS patients, serum NGAL levels were associated with AHI (β = 0.341, p = 0.015) and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep (β = - 0.275, p = 0.032), while serum Cyst C levels were associated with percentage of time with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90% (β = 0.270, p = 0.043), average (β = - 0.308, p = 0.018), and minimum (β = - 0.410, p = 0.001) oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep. Higher risk for latent kidney disease in otherwise healthy OSAS patients is indicated. Sleep hypoxia seems to be a significant contributor in the pathogenetic process of renal dysfunction in OSAS.

  6. Inflammation, coagulation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in prediabetes--Biomarkers as a possible tool for early disease detection for rural screening.

    PubMed

    Maschirow, L; Khalaf, K; Al-Aubaidy, H A; Jelinek, H F

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to increase understanding of the connection between oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes disease progression to provide a basis for investigating improved diagnostic possibilities, treatment and prevention of prediabetes. Differences in the level of biochemical markers of oxidative stress (erythrocyte GSH/GSSG and urinary 8-isoprostane), inflammation (CRP, IL-6), endothelial dysfunction (plasma homocysteine, urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine) and coagulation/fibrinolysis (C5a, D-Dimer) were determined in prediabetes and control subjects. While no difference was found in the 8-isoprostane levels between the two groups, the erythrocyte GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced in the prediabetes group compared to control, indicating increased oxidative stress in the prediabetic state. Both urinary 8-OHdG and surprisingly also plasma homocysteine were significantly elevated in the prediabetes group, indicating endothelial dysfunction. The inflammation markers were slightly elevated in the prediabetic subjects and the same trend was found for the coagulation/fibrinolysis markers C5a and D-Dimer. These results were however not significant. The small elevation of blood glucose levels in the prediabetic state may have a detectable influence on endothelial function as indicated by changes to 8-OHdG, indicating an increased DNA-damage and homocysteine release from endothelial cells. Increased oxidative stress as indicated by the reduced GSH/GSSG ratio is likely to be the link between the moderate hyperglycaemia in prediabetes and pathological changes in endothelial function, which in the long-term may promote atherogenesis and result in the development of cardiovascular disease. Early detection of prediabetes is essential to avoid diabetes development and the associated complications like cardiovascular disease. The GSH/GSSG ratio and biomarkers like urinary 8-OHdG and plasma homocysteine offer a possible tool for the assessment of prediabetes in

  7. Early Impairment of Cardiac Function and Asynchronization of Systemic Amyloidosis with Preserved Ejection Fraction Using Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Jing, Xian-chao; Hu, Zhang-xue; Chen, Xi; Liu, Xiao-qin

    2015-12-01

    To observe the ventricular global and regional function of the patients with systemic amyloidosis using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. The study enrolled 31 consecutive biopsy-proved patients with systemic amyloidosis who underwent echocardiographic examination and EF ≥ 55% and 37 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We compared systolic strain and strain rate, diastolic strain rate, time to peak strain, peak delay time in longitudinal, radial, circumferential directions in 16 left ventricular segments. The global peak systolic longitudinal and radial strain of left ventricle, peak systolic longitudinal strain and strain rate, diastolic strain rate of right ventricular free wall were also compared. (1) Global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GPSLS), peak systolic longitudinal strain (PSLS) and strain rate (PSLSR), peak early diastolic longitudinal strain rate (PELSR) in 16 segments were decreased in case (P < 0.05). (2) Peak systolic radial strain and strain rate of inferoseptum and inferolateral at the level of papillary muscle were lower (P < 0.05), and peak early diastolic radial strain rate (PERSR) was reduced (P < 0.05). (3) Peak early diastolic circumferential strain rate was lower (P < 0.05). (4) Time to peak systolic longitudinal, radial, circumferential strain was longer, and peak delay time at the same level retarded (P < 0.05). (5) Into right ventricular wall, PSLS and PSLSR at mid-segment, and PSLSR, PELSR, peak atrial systolic longitudinal strain rate (PALSR) at basal were reduced (P < 0.05). (6) Inverse correlation between interventricular septum (IVS) thickness and GPSLS and GPSRS was found (P < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic dysfunction existed in systemic amyloidosis with preserved EF. Mechanical contraction disorder may be one reason for systolic dysfunction. GPLSR and GPRSR were negatively related to IVS thickness. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Failure to unmask pseudonormal diastolic function by a valsalva maneuver: tricuspid insufficiency is a major factor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Liu, Dan; Niemann, Markus; Hatle, Liv; Herrmann, Sebastian; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Bijnens, Bart; Weidemann, Frank

    2011-11-01

    For the clinical assessment of patients with dyspnea, the inversion of the early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow during Valsalva maneuver (VM) frequently helps to distinguish pseudonormal from normal filling pattern. However, in an important number of patients, VM fails to reveal the change from dominant early mitral flow velocity toward larger late velocity. From December 2009 to October 2010, we selected consecutive patients with abnormal filling with (n=25) and without E/A inversion (n=25) during VM. Transmitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary Doppler traces were recorded and the degree of insufficiency was estimated. After evaluating all standard echocardiographic morphological, functional, and flow-related parameters, it became evident that the failure to unmask the pseudonormal filling pattern by VM was related to the degree of the tricuspid insufficiency (TI). TI was graded as mild in 24 of 25 patients in the group with E/A inversion during VM, whereas TI was graded as moderate to severe in 24 of the 25 patients with pseudonormal diastolic function without E/A inversion during VM. Our data suggest that TI is a major factor to prevent E/A inversion during a VM in patients with pseudonormal diastolic function. This probably is due to a decrease in TI resulting in an increase in forward flow rather than the expected decrease during the VM. Thus, whenever a pseudonormal diastolic filling pattern is suspected, the use of a VM is not an informative discriminator in the presence of moderate or severe TI.

  9. Intrafamilial aggregation and heritability of tissue Doppler indexes of left ventricular diastolic function in a group of African descent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Vernice R; Norton, Gavin R; Libhaber, Carlos D; Maseko, Muzi J; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-06-01

    Although several indexes of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function show heritability, the genetic influence on the tissue Doppler index, E/e' (early transmitral velocity/velocity of myocardial tissue lengthening), an index of LV filling pressures in those of black African descent is currently unknown. Furthermore, whether any genetic influences on E/e' are through an impact of LV remodeling or aortic function is unknown. Intrafamilial aggregation and heritability (SAGE software) of E/e' (echocardiography) were assessed in 129 nuclear families (29 spouse pairs, 216 parent-child pairs, and 113 sibling-sibling pairs) from an urban developing community of black Africans, independent of LV mass index (LVMI), LV relative wall thickness (RWT), central aortic systolic pressure (SBPc), and backward wave pressures (Pb) (applanation tonometry, SphygmoCor software). Independent of confounders including LVMI and RWT, E/e' was correlated in parent-child (r = 0.23; P < .001) and sibling-sibling (r = 0.29; P < .005), but not in spouse (r = 0.13; P = .51) pairs. The relationships between parent-child (r = 0.22; P < .001) and sibling-sibling (r = 0.29; P < .005) pairs persisted with adjustments for SBPc. The relationships between parent-child (r = 0.22; P < .001) and sibling-sibling (r = 0.26; P < .01) pairs also persisted with adjustments for Pb. Independent of confounders including LVMI and RWT, E/e' showed significant heritability (h(2) ± standard error of the mean [SEM] = 0.51 ± 0.11; P < .0001) which similarly persisted with adjustments for SBPc (h(2) ± SEM = 0.50 ± 0.11; P < .0001) and Pb (h(2) ± SEM = 0.49 ± 0.11; P < .0001). In conclusion, in a group of African ancestry, independent of LV remodeling and aortic function, E/e' shows significant intrafamilial aggregation and robust heritability. Hence, genetic factors may play an important role in determining moderate-to-severe LV diastolic dysfunction independent of

  10. Trehalose rescues glial cell dysfunction in striatal cultures from HD R6/1 mice at early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Perucho, Juan; Gómez, Ana; Muñoz, María Paz; de Yébenes, Justo García; Mena, María Ángeles; Casarejos, María José

    2016-07-01

    The pathological hallmark of Huntington disease (HD) is the intracellular aggregation of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) in striatal neurons and glia associated with the selective loss of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons. Up to the present, the role of glia in HD is poorly understood and has been classically considered secondary to neuronal disorder. Trehalose is a disaccharide known to possess many pharmacological properties, acting as an antioxidant, a chemical chaperone, and an inducer of autophagy. In this study, we analyzed at an early postnatal development stage the abnormalities observed in striatal glial cell cultures of postnatal R6/1 mice (HD glia), under baseline and stressing conditions and the protective effects of trehalose. Our data demonstrate that glial HD alterations already occur at early stages of postnatal development. After 20 postnatal days in vitro, striatal HD glia cultures showed more reactive astrocytes with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) but with less replication capacity, less A2B5(+) glial progenitors and more microglia than wild-type (WT) cultures. HD glia had lower levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and was more susceptible to H2O2 and epoxomicin insults. The amount of expressed GDNF and secreted mature-BDNF by HD astrocytes were much lower than by WT astrocytes. In addition, HD glial cultures showed a deregulation of the major proteolytic systems, the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS), and the autophagic pathway. This produces a defective protein quality control, indicated by the elevated levels of ubiquitination and p62 protein. Interestingly, we show that trehalose, through its capacity to induce autophagy, inhibited p62/SQSTM1 accumulation and facilitated the degradation of cytoplasmic aggregates from mHTT and α-synuclein proteins. Trehalose also reduced microglia activation and reversed the disrupted cytoskeleton of astrocytes accompanied with an increase in the replication capacity. In

  11. Standard and Strain Measurements by Echocardiography Detect Early Overloaded Right Ventricular Dysfunction: Validation against Hemodynamic and Myocyte Contractility Changes in a Large Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, Amir; Bobin, Pierre; Mika, Delphine; Ly, Mohamed; Lefebvre, Florence; Lechêne, Patrick; Le Bret, Emmanuel; Gouadon, Elodie; Coblence, Mathieu; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Capderou, André; Leroy, Jérôme; Rucker-Martin, Catherine; Lambert, Virginie

    2017-11-01

    Early detection of right ventricular (RV) failure is required to improve the management of patients with congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to validate echocardiography for the early detection of overloaded RV dysfunction, compared with hemodynamic and myocyte contractility assessment. Using a porcine model reproducing repaired tetralogy of Fallot, RV function was evaluated over 4 months using standard echocardiography and speckle-tracking compared with hemodynamic parameters (conductance catheter). Sarcomere shortening and calcium transients were recorded in RV isolated myocytes. Contractile reserve (ΔE max ) was assessed by β-adrenergic stimulation in vivo (dobutamine 5 μg/kg) and ex vivo (isoproterenol 100 nM). Six operated animals were compared with four age- and sex-matched controls. In the operated group, hemodynamic RV efficient ejection fraction was significantly decreased (29.7% [26.2%-34%] vs 42.9% [40.7%-48.6%], P < .01), and inotropic responses to dobutamine were attenuated (ΔE max was 51% vs 193%, P < .05). Echocardiographic measurements of fraction of area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (S') and RV free wall longitudinal systolic strain and strain rate were significantly decreased. Strain rate, S', and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were correlated with ΔE max (r = 0.75, r = 0.78, and r = 0.65, respectively, P < .05). These alterations were associated in RV isolated myocytes with the decrease of sarcomere shortening in response to isoproterenol and perturbations of calcium homeostasis assessed by the increase of spontaneous calcium waves. In this porcine model, both standard and strain echocardiographic parameters detected early impairments of RV function and cardiac reserve, which were associated with cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling alterations. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier

  12. Customized laboratory TLR4 and TLR2 detection method from peripheral human blood for early detection of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pop-Moldovan, A L; Trofenciuc, N-M; Dărăbanţiu, D A; Precup, C; Branea, H; Christodorescu, R; Puşchiţă, M

    2017-05-01

    Cancer treatments can have significant cardiovascular adverse effects that can cause cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced survival benefit and considerable decrease in the use of antineoplastic therapy. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression as an early marker for the risk of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in correlation with early diastolic dysfunction in patients treated with doxorubicin. Our study included 25 consecutive patients who received treatment with doxorubicin for hematological malignancies (leukemia, lymphomas or multiple myeloma), aged 18-65 years, with a survival probability>6 months and with left ventricular ejection fraction>50%. Exclusion criteria consisted of the following: previous anthracycline therapy, previous radiotherapy, history of heart failure or chronic renal failure, atrial fibrillation, and pregnancy. In all patients, in fasting state, a blood sample was drawn for the assessment of TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) using blood collection, RNA isolation, cDNA reverse transcription, qRT-PCR and quantification of the relative expression. At enrollment, all patients were evaluated clinically; an ECG and an echocardiography were performed. The average amount of gene expression units was 0.113 for TLR4 (range 0.059-0.753) and 0.218 for TLR2 (range 0.046-0.269). The mean mRNA extracted quantity was 113 571 ng/μl. As for the diastolic function parameters, criteria for diastolic dysfunction were present after 6 months in 16 patients (64%). In these patients, the mean values for TLR4 were 0.1198625 and for TLR2 were 0.16454 gene expression units. As for the diastolic function parameters, criteria for diastolic dysfunction were present after 6 months in 16 patients (64%). In these patients, the mean value for TLR2 was 0.30±0.19 and for TLR4 was 0.15±0.04. The corresponding values for the patients who did not

  13. E-wave generated intraventricular diastolic vortex to L-wave relation: model-based prediction with in vivo validation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Caruthers, Shelton D; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-08-01

    The Doppler echocardiographic E-wave is generated when the left ventricle's suction pump attribute initiates transmitral flow. In some subjects E-waves are accompanied by L-waves, the occurrence of which has been correlated with diastolic dysfunction. The mechanisms for L-wave generation have not been fully elucidated. We propose that the recirculating diastolic intraventricular vortex ring generates L-waves and based on this mechanism, we predict the presence of L-waves in the right ventricle (RV). We imaged intraventricular flow using Doppler echocardiography and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) in 10 healthy volunteers. L-waves were recorded in all subjects, with highest velocities measured typically 2 cm below the annulus. Fifty-five percent of cardiac cycles (189 of 345) had L-waves. Color M-mode images eliminated mid-diastolic transmitral flow as the cause of the observed L-waves. Three-dimensional intraventricular flow patterns were imaged via PC-MRI and independently validated our hypothesis. Additionally as predicted, L-waves were observed in the RV, by both echocardiography and PC-MRI. The re-entry of the E-wave-generated vortex ring flow through a suitably located echo sample volume can be imaged as the L-wave. These waves are a general feature and a direct consequence of LV and RV diastolic fluid mechanics. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Echocardiographic features of impaired left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Combellas, I; Puigbo, J J; Acquatella, H; Tortoledo, F; Gomez, J R

    1985-01-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's disease, simultaneous echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and apexcardiograms were recorded in 20 asymptomatic patients with positive Chagas's serology and no signs of heart disease (group 1), 12 with Chagas's heart disease and symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia but no heart failure (group 2), 20 normal subjects (group 3), and 12 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (group 4). The recordings were digitised to determine left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and the rate and duration of left ventricular cavity dimension increase and wall thinning. In groups 1 and 2 (a) aortic valve closure (A2) and mitral valve opening were significantly delayed relative to minimum dimension and were associated with prolonged isovolumic relaxation, (b) left ventricular cavity size was abnormally increased during isovolumic relaxation and abnormally reduced during isovolumic contraction, and (c) peak rate of posterior wall thinning and dimension increase were significantly reduced and duration of posterior wall thinning was significantly prolonged; both of these abnormalities occurred at the onset of diastolic filling. These abnormalities were more pronounced in group 2 and were accompanied by an increase in the height of the apexcardiogram "a" wave, an indication of pronounced atrial systole secondary to end diastolic filling impairment due to reduced left ventricular distensibility. Group 4, which had an established pattern of diastolic abnormalities, showed changes similar to those in group 2; however, the delay in aortic valve closure (A2) and in mitral valve opening and the degree of dimension change were greater in the latter group. Thus early isovolumic relaxation and left ventricular abnormalities were pronounced in the patients with Chagas's heart disease and may precede systolic compromise, which may become apparent in later stages of the disease. The digitised method is valuable in the early detection of

  15. Long-term obesity promotes alterations in diastolic function induced by reduction of phospholamban phosphorylation at serine-16 without affecting calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André S; da Silva, Danielle C T; do Nascimento, André F; de Campos, Dijon H S; Luvizotto, Renata A M; de Deus, Adriana F; Freire, Paula P; Medeiros, Alessandra; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antonio C

    2014-09-15

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between the duration of obesity, cardiac function, and the proteins involved in myocardial calcium (Ca(2+)) handling. We hypothesized that long-term obesity promotes cardiac dysfunction due to a reduction of expression and/or phosphorylation of myocardial Ca(2+)-handling proteins. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups (n = 10 each): control (C; standard diet) and obese (Ob; high-fat diet) for 30 wk. Morphological and histological analyses were assessed. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiographic evaluation and in vitro by papillary muscle. Cardiac protein expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a), calsequestrin, L-type Ca(2+) channel, and phospholamban (PLB), as well as PLB serine-16 phosphorylation (pPLB Ser(16)) and PLB threonine-17 phosphorylation (pPLB Thr(17)) were determined by Western blot. The adiposity index was higher (82%) in Ob rats than in C rats. Obesity promoted cardiac hypertrophy without alterations in interstitial collagen levels. Ob rats had increased endocardial and midwall fractional shortening, posterior wall shortening velocity, and A-wave compared with C rats. Cardiac index, early-to-late diastolic mitral inflow ratio, and isovolumetric relaxation time were lower in Ob than in C. The Ob muscles developed similar baseline data and myocardial responsiveness to increased extracellular Ca(2+). Obesity caused a reduction in cardiac pPLB Ser(16) and the pPLB Ser(16)/PLB ratio in Ob rats. Long-term obesity promotes alterations in diastolic function, most likely due to the reduction of pPLB Ser(16), but does not impair the myocardial Ca(2+) entry and recapture to SR. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McCord, Kelly W; Webb, Craig B

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the common pathophysiology that constitutes hepatic dysfunction, regardless of the inciting cause. The systemic consequences of liver failure and the impact of this condition on other organ systems are highlighted. The diagnostic tests available for determining the cause and extent of liver dysfunction are outlined, treatment strategies aimed at supporting hepatic health and recovery are discussed, and prognosis is briefly covered. The article emphasizes the fact that because of the central role of the liver in maintaining normal systemic homeostasis, hepatic dysfunction cannot be effectively addressed as an isolated entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia is related to parathyroid dysfunction even in patients with normal parathyroid hormone concentrations early after surgery.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Moscato, Umberto; Bellantone, Chiara; Carrozza, Cinzia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia may develop even in the presence of normal postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. We aimed to identify risk factors of hypocalcemia in patients with normal PTH concentration early after total thyroidectomy (TT). We included 1,504 consecutive patients who underwent TT between January 2012 and December 2013. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium concentrations of <8.0 mg/dL. Overall, 333 patients had subnormal PTH 4 hours after surgery (4-hour PTH; <10 pg/mL) and received oral calcium (OC) and calcitriol supplementation. Among the 1,171 patients with normal 4-hour PTH (≥ 10 pg/mL; euparathyroid), 211 experienced hypocalcemia and required OC administration. Among the euparathyroid patients, no difference was found between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic patients in terms of age, hormonal status, preoperative PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OH-VD), magnesium, and phosphate concentrations. On univariate analysis, euparathyroid hypocalcemic patients were more frequently females, had significantly lower preoperative serum calcium and 4-hour PTH concentrations, and greater decreases in PTH. Independent risk factors for hypocalcemia with normal 4-hour PTH were preoperative serum calcium concentration and PTH decline of ≥ 50%. Female sex, toxic goiter, and 25OH-VD deficiency are not risk factors for post-TT hypocalcemia. Relative parathyroid insufficiency seems to be the principal mechanism of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, even in patients with normal postoperative PTH concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of electrocardiographic parameters for early diagnosis of autonomic dysfunction in children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Fahrettin; Ozboyaci, Evren; Bostan, Ozlem; Saglam, Halil; Semizel, Evren; Cil, Ergun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sensitivity of electrocardiogram (ECG) in early diagnosis of cardiac autonomic function disorder in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A total of 150 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus were enrolled between June 2009 and June 2010, as well as 100 age- and sex-matched healthy control children. Twelve-lead ECG was done in all cases and heart rate, QT and QTc interval, dispersion of P wave (Pd), and of QT (QTd) and QTc interval (QTcd) were measured. The clinical and demographic features such as age, gender, duration of follow up and level of HbA1c and fasting glucose were obtained and the effects of these parameters on ECG measurements were investigated. The mean age of the patients and controls was 11.61 ± 3.72 years and 10.92 ± 3.2 years, respectively. QT and QTc interval and QTcd interval were significantly higher in diabetic children compared to healthy controls but these ECG findings were not associated with the duration of diabetes or glycemic state. Pd was significantly higher in the diabetic patients with HbA1c >7.5% compared to control, and this was also found in patients that were followed up >1 year. Cardiac autonomic function disorder, which is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality, may emerge in the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It can be diagnosed on ECG even when the patients are asymptomatic. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yafi, Faysal A.; Jenkins, Lawrence; Albersen, Maarten; Corona, Giovanni; Isidori, Andrea M.; Goldfarb, Shari; Maggi, Mario; Nelson, Christian J.; Parish, Sharon; Salonia, Andrea; Tan, Ronny; Mulhall, John P.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a multidimensional but common male sexual dysfunction that involves an alteration in any of the components of the erectile response, including organic, relational and psychological. Roles for nonendocrine (neurogenic, vasculogenic and iatrogenic) and endocrine pathways have been proposed. Owing to its strong association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment may be warranted in men with symptoms of erectile dysfunction. Minimally invasive interventions to relieve the symptoms of erectile dysfunction include lifestyle modifications, oral drugs, injected vasodilator agents and vacuum erection devices. Surgical therapies are reserved for the subset of patients who have contraindications to these nonsurgical interventions, those who experience adverse effects from (or are refractory to) medical therapy and those who also have penile fibrosis or penile vascular insufficiency. Erectile dysfunction can have deleterious effects on a man’s quality of life; most patients have symptoms of depression and anxiety related to sexual performance. These symptoms, in turn, affect his partner’s sexual experience and the couple’s quality of life. This Primer highlights numerous aspects of erectile dysfunction, summarizes new treatment targets and ongoing preclinical studies that evaluate new pharmacotherapies, and covers the topic of regenerative medicine, which represents the future of sexual medicine. PMID:27188339

  20. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol

    PubMed Central

    Neghab, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Kiamars; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Background Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. Results The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m−3, 1.4 mg m−3, and 2.8 mg m−3, respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. Conclusion The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals. PMID:26929843

  1. The impact of endocrine therapy on sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer: encouraging results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Frechette, Dominique; Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Clemons, Mark; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Gertler, Stan Z; Song, Xinni; Graham, Nadine; Dent, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the contentious issue of a possible effect of endocrine therapy (ET) on sexual dysfunction (SD) in postmenopausal early stage breast cancer survivors. To date, few studies have assessed sexual functioning prior to initiating ET and none have taken sexual distress into account when reporting the prevalence of ET-induced SD. We report the findings of a study on the change in SD (defined as experiencing sexual problems causing distress) during the first 6 months of ET usage. Between January 2009 and May 2011, 118 patients entered the study and 66 completed questionnaires prior to initiation of ET and after 6 months of use. Sexual functioning (SF) was evaluated with the female sexual function index while sexual distress was assessed with the female sexual distress scale (FSDS-R). Gynecological symptoms were measured with the FACT-B ES subscale. Over time, the level of gynecological symptoms increased (p < 0.001), whereas no decline in SF was observed. The percentage of women who reported experiencing at least one sexual problem (85 %) and the percentage who were sexually distressed (30 %) remained the same across time. Importantly, the change in the prevalence of SD between baseline (24 %) and 6 months (29 %) was not statistically significant. Women experiencing SD at baseline were more likely to experience SD after 6 months of ET usage (OR = 7.4, 95 % CI = 1.5-36.9) than women who had no SD prior to initiating ET. The observation that SF remained stable across time is encouraging news. However, longer follow-up and the inclusion of women who were premenopausal at diagnosis are needed to determine the potential influence of extended duration of ET (e.g., at least 5 years) on SD. Further studies, including assessing the impact of early identification of patients at risk of developing SD and timely intervention, are warranted.

  2. Sexual dysfunction and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Maggi, Mario

    2018-05-01

    Infertility affects up to 12% of all men, and sexual dysfunction occurs frequently in men of reproductive age, causing infertility in some instances. In infertile men, hypoactive sexual desire and lack of sexual satisfaction are the most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction, ranging from 8.9% to 68.7%. Erectile dysfunction and/or premature ejaculation, evaluated with validated tools, have a prevalence of one in six infertile men, and orgasmic dysfunction has a prevalence of one in ten infertile men. In addition, infertile men can experience a heavy psychological burden. Infertility and its associated psychological concerns can underlie sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, general health perturbations can lead to male infertility and/or sexual dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction and male infertility are considered proxies for general health, the former underlying cardiovascular disorders and the latter cancerous and noncancerous conditions. The concept that erectile dysfunction in infertile men might be an early marker of poor general health is emerging. Finally, medications used for general health problems can cause sperm abnormalities and sexual dysfunction. The treatment of some causes of male infertility might improve semen quality and reverse infertility-related sexual dysfunction. In infertile men, an investigation of sexual, general, and psychological health status is advisable to improve reproductive problems and general health.

  3. Atrial electromechanical delay and diastolic dysfunction in primary Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akyel, Ahmet; Tavil, Yusuf; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Yayla, Cagri; Kaya, Arif; Tezcan, Mehme Engin; Ozturk, Mehmet Akif; Boyaci, Bulent

    2012-10-06

    In this study we aimed to investigate myocardial function and atrial electromechanical properties by conventional and tissue doppler echocardiography in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Forty patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Using transthoracic echocardiography, myocardial performance index and atrial electromechanical properties were measured. Basal characteristics were similar between two groups. Myocardial performance index values were disturbed in patients with Sjögren syndrome (0.41 vs. 0.32, p < 0.01). There was significant intraatrial (16.4±6.4, 5.0±4.5, p < 0.01) and interatrial (30.6±10.1, 15.4±5.9, p < 0.01) electromechanical delay in this patient group. Myocardial function is disturbed and there is significant atrial electromechanical delay in patients with primary SS. This study is the first to show altered myocardial function and atrial electromechanical properties in primary SS.

  4. Interleukin-6 Mediates Myocardial Fibrosis, Concentric Hypertrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meléndez, Giselle C.; McLarty, Jennifer L.; Levick, Scott P.; Du, Yan; Janicki, Joseph S.; Brower, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    While there is a correlation between hypertension and levels of IL-6, the exact role of this cytokine in myocardial remodeling is unknown. This is complicated by the variable tissue and circulating levels of IL-6 reported in numerous experimental models of hypertension. Accordingly, we explored the hypothesis that elevated levels of IL-6 mediate adverse myocardial remodeling. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with IL-6 (2.5 μg·kg-1·hr-1, IP) for 7 days via osmotic minipump and compared to vehicle infused aged-matched controls. Left ventricular function was evaluated using a blood-perfused isolated heart preparation. In addition, myocardial interstitial collagen volume fraction and isolated cardiomyocyte size were also assessed. Isolated adult cardiac fibroblast experiments were performed to determine the importance of the soluble IL-6 receptor in mediating cardiac fibrosis. IL-6 infusions in vivo resulted in concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, increased ventricular stiffness, a marked increase in collagen volume fraction (6.2 vs. 1.7%; p < 0.001), and proportional increases in cardiomyocyte width and length; all independent of blood pressure. The soluble IL-6 receptor in combination with IL-6 was found to be essential in increasing collagen content regulated by isolated cardiac fibroblasts, and also played a role in mediating a phenotypic conversion to myofibroblasts. These novel observations demonstrate that IL-6 induces a myocardial phenotype almost identical to that of the hypertensive heart, identifying IL-6 as potentially important in this remodeling process. PMID:20606113

  5. Natural history of severe aortic stenosis: Diastolic wall strain as a novel prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Obasare, Edinrin; Bhalla, Vikas; Gajanana, Deepakraj; Rodriguez Ziccardi, Mary; Codolosa, Jose N; Figueredo, Vincent M; Morris, Dennis Lynn; Pressman, Gregg S

    2017-04-01

    Diastolic wall strain (DWS) has been proposed as a simple noninvasive measure of left ventricular (LV) stiffness. This study investigated DWS as a possible predictor of mortality in severe aortic stenosis (AS). 138 patients with severe AS (indexed aortic valve area [AVA]<0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ) and normal ejection fraction (>55%) were included. 52 patients (38%) had aortic valve interventions or poor image quality (n=5) and were excluded leaving 86 in the study group (84±8 years, 70% female, 69% African American). DWS was defined as (LVPWs-LVPWd)/LVPWs where LVPWs=left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole and LVPWd=left ventricular wall thickness in diastole. Follow-up extended 2.0±1.9 years (median 1.6 years). Mean DWS for the group was 0.21±0.11 (normal=0.4±0.07). In patients who died, DWS was significantly lower than in survivors (0.18±0.09 vs 0.24±0.11, P=.02). By contrast, traditional measures of diastolic dysfunction did not predict death. Regression analysis showed DWS predicted death even after adjusting for age, sex, race, indexed AVA, symptoms (angina, shortness of breath, dizziness, syncope), and clinical factors (creatinine, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia) (HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.02-5.90], P<.05). The best cutoff value for DWS of 0.25 had a sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 83% for predicting death. DWS is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with severe AS, even after accounting for traditional clinical and echocardiographic parameters. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Troglitazone, an antidiabetic drug, improves left ventricular mass and diastolic function in normotensive diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, H; Sugano, M; Abe, N; Yonemoch, H; Makino, N

    2001-01-01

    Patients with NIDDM have excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in the absence of hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which is an ominous prognostic sign and an independent risk factor for cardiac events, is often present in NIDDM patients. NIDDM male patients with (n=10) and without (n=12) hypertension, all of whom had been diagnosed over 10 years ago, were examined in the present study. Normotensive NIDDM patients had not received any anti-hypertensive drugs. All patients were classified according to the left ventricular mass (LVM) index by using M-mode echocardiography and were assessed regarding their systolic (fractional shortening) and diastolic function, which included the maximal early flow velocity (MFV), the mitral valve deceleration time (DT), and the isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) as determined by Doppler indices. Troglitazone (TRO), an antidiabetic drug, was administered to both groups at a dose of 400 mg/day for 6 months. After TRO treatment, a reduction in the LVM index and an improvement in the diastolic function were observed in the normotensive but not in the hypertensive patients. The TRO treatment was sensitive for cardiac regression in those normotensive patients. These results suggest that LVH and the diastolic function in NIDDM patients without hypertension may be associated with elevated insulin resistance because TRO has a pharmacological function to increase the insulin sensitivity and to decrease insulin resistance.

  7. Coronary microvascular function in patients with isolated systolic and combined systolic/diastolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bozbas, Huseyin; Pirat, Bahar; Yildirir, Aylin; Eroglu, Serpil; Simsek, Vahide; Sade, Elif; Atar, Ilyas; Aydinalp, Alp; Ozin, Bulent; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2012-12-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a common condition in the elderly that is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Concerning the effect of type of hypertension on coronary microvascular function, coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with ISH was evaluated and the results were compared with patients with combined systolic/diastolic hypertension (SDH). Seventy-six elderly patients (older than 60 years) who were free of coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study (38 with ISH and 38 with combined SDH). Using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, CFR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline diastolic peak flow velocities. A CFR value of >2 was accepted as normal. The mean age was 68.6±6.3 years and the groups had similar features with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients with ISH had significantly lower CFR values compared with those with combined SDH (2.22±0.51 vs 2.49±0.56, respectively; P=.03). On multivariate regression analysis, ISH (β=-0.40, P=.004) and dyslipidemia (β=-0.29, P=.04) were the independent predictors of CFR. These findings indicate that CFR, an indicator of coronary microvascular/endothelial function, is impaired more profoundly in patients with ISH than in patients with combined SDH. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. New approaches to the Doppler echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function: from research laboratory to clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquet, A.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, Doppler echocardiography has become a well-established tool for the diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Unfortunately, in many clinical situations traditional Doppler indices of transmittal and pulmonary venous flow are inconclusive, primarily due to their dependence on left atrial pressure. Recently, new Doppler indices that are much less dependent on preload have been developed, based on intraventricular flow propagation and intrinsic myocardial velocity. These methodologies provide direct assessment of ventricular relaxation and the small intraventricular pressure gradients essential to efficient filling of the ventricle. We review in this article the theoretical and experiment background of these new echo techniques as well as how they can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  9. Effect of Mitral Annular Calcium on Left Ventricular Diastolic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Codolosa, Jose N; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Alnabelsi, Talal; Goykhman, Igor; Romero-Corral, Abel; Pressman, Gregg S

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function by Doppler flow imaging and tissue Doppler is an integral part of the echocardiographic examination. Mitral annular calcium (MAC) is frequently encountered on echocardiography. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MAC, quantitatively measured by computed tomography scan, on echocardiographic LV diastolic parameters. We included 155 patients aged ≥65 years. Computed tomography reconstructions of the mitral annulus were created, and calcium identified and quantified by Agatston technique. Calcium locations were assigned using an overlaid template depicting the annular segments in relation to surrounding anatomic structures. Echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function was performed in standard fashion. Mean age was 77 years; 49% were men; and 43% were black. Patients with MAC had lower septal e' (p = 0.003), lateral e' (p = 0.04), and average e' (p = 0.01) compared with those without MAC. They also had a higher E-wave velocity (p = 0.01) and E/e' ratio (p <0.001). When evaluated by severity of MAC, and after adjustment for multiple clinical factors, there was a graded (inverse) relation between MAC severity and septal e' (p = 0.01), lateral e' (p = 0.01), and average e' (p = 0.01). In conclusion, LV diastolic parameters, as measured by Doppler echocardiography, are altered in the presence of MAC. This could be due to direct effects of MAC on annular function or might reflect truly reduced diastolic function. Interpretation of diastolic parameters in patients with MAC should be performed with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of left ventricular diastolic function in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients undergoing percutaneous septal alcohol ablation versus surgical myotomy/myectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, Marta; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Qin, Jian Xin; Bauer, Fabrice; Drinko, Jeannie K.; Agler, Deborah A.; Martin, Maureen G.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; hide

    2003-01-01

    Both percutaneous transcoronary alcohol septal reduction (ASR) and surgical myectomy are effective treatments to relieve left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in 57 patients with obstructive HC at baseline and 5 +/- 4 months after ASR (n = 37) or surgical myectomy (n = 20). LV outflow tract pressure gradient decreased from 65 +/- 40 to 23 +/- 21 mm Hg (p <0.01) after treatment. The ratio of the early-to-late peak diastolic LV inflow velocities, and the ratio of the early peak diastolic LV inflow velocity to the lateral mitral annulus early diastolic velocity determined by tissue Doppler imaging significantly decreased after the procedures (1.6 +/- 1.7 vs 1.0 +/- 0.7 and 15 +/- 8 vs 11 +/- 5, respectively), whereas LV inflow propagation velocity significantly increased (60 +/- 24 vs 71 +/- 36 cm/s). Left atrial size decreased from 29 +/- 7 to 25 +/- 6 cm(2) (p <0.05). Patients had a significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional class and in exercise performance. When comparing ASR with myectomy, no difference was found in the degree of change in any parameter of diastolic function. Thus, diastolic function indexes obtained by echocardiography changed after septal reduction interventions in patients with obstructive HC; this change was similar to that after surgical myectomy and ASR.

  11. Combined circumferential and longitudinal left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Giovanni; Mazzone, Carmine; Barbati, Giulia; Rossi, Andrea; Nistri, Stefano; Ognibeni, Federica; Tarantini, Luigi; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Faggiano, Pompilio; Pulignano, Giovanni; Stefenelli, Carlo; de Simone, Giovanni; Devereux, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    Early detection of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is pivotal in the management of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). LV circumferential and/or longitudinal shortening may be impaired in these patients despite LV ejection fraction is preserved. We focused on prevalence and factors associated with combined impairment of circumferential and longitudinal shortening (C&L) in asymptomatic AS patients. Echocardiographic and clinical data from 200 patients with asymptomatic AS of any degree without history of heart failure and normal LV ejection fraction were analyzed. C&L were evaluated by mid-wall shortening (MS) and tissue Doppler mitral annular peak systolic velocity (S'), and classified low if <16.5% and if <8.5 cm/sec, respectively (10th percentiles of controls). Combined C&L dysfunction was detected in 72 patients (36%). The variables associated with this condition were higher LV mass (OR 1.02 [CI 1.01-1.04], P = 0.03), concentric LV geometry (OR 4.30 [CI 1.79-10.34], P = 0.001), increasing pulmonary artery wedge pressure (by E/e' ratio; OR 1.11 [CI 1.04-1.19], P = 0.001). The relation of MS and peak S' was linear and slightly significant in the whole population (r = 0.23; F statistic=0.001), absent in patients with C&L dysfunction (r = 0.04; F = ns), negative (linear model) in the subgroup of patients without C&L dysfunction (r = -0.22; F = 0.02). C&L dysfunction is present in more than one-third of patients with asymptomatic AS and is associated with concentric LV geometry and higher degree of diastolic dysfunction. The relation between MS and peak S' largely varies in the subgroups with different C&L function. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MicroRNA-146b-5p Identified in Porcine Liver Donation Model is Associated with Early Allograft Dysfunction in Human Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheukfai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Maogen; Ju, Weiqiang; Wu, Linwei; Han, Ming; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongping; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor transplant outcome was observed in donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD), since the donor organs suffered both cytokine storm of brain death and warm ischemia injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising disease biomarkers, so we sought to establish a miRNA signature of porcine DBCD and verify the findings in human liver transplantation. Material/Methods MiRNA expression was determined with miRNA sequencing in 3 types of the porcine model of organ donation, including donation after brain death (DBD) group, donation after circulatory death (DCD) group, and DBCD group. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal the potential regulatory behavior of target miRNA. Human liver graft biopsy samples after reperfusion detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to verify the expression of target miRNA. Results We compared miRNA expression profiles of the 3 donation types. The porcine liver graft miR-146b was significantly increased and selected in the DBCD group versus in the DBD and DCD groups. The donor liver expression of human miR-146b-5p, which is homologous to porcine miR-146b, was further examined in 42 cases of human liver transplantations. High expression of miR-146b-5p successfully predicted the post-transplant early allograft dysfunction (EAD) with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.759 (P=0.004). Conclusions Our results revealed the miRNA signature of DBCD liver grafts for the first time. The miR-146b-5p may have important clinical implications for monitoring liver graft function and predicating transplant outcomes. PMID:29227984

  13. Intraoperative Portal Flow of Less Than 1 Liter per Minute After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation Is Not Associated Per Se With an Increased Rate of Early Graft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gastaca, M; Prieto, M; Valdivieso, A; Ruiz, P; Ventoso, A; Palomares, I; Matarranz, A; Martinez-Indart, L; Ortiz de Urbina, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a portal flow of <1,000 mL/min in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is associated with a higher incidence of early graft dysfunction (EGD) and graft loss. A retrospective study was performed of 540 OLTs carried out consecutively from December 2004 to December 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, portal flow <1,000 mL/min; and group B, portal flow >1,000 mL/min. We studied the incidence of EGD and graft survival. A subanalysis was performed to define the minimum acceptable portal flow/100 g of liver weight to reduce the development EGD and graft loss. Group A included 29 patients and group B, 511 patients. Group A had significantly lower-weight donors and recipients, female recipients with cholestatic disease, lower MELD scores, and lower hepatic artery flow. EGD occurred in 7 patients in group A (24.1%) versus 101 patients in group B (19.8%; P = .43). No significant differences were found in 1- and 5-year graft survival. A portal flow of <80 mL/min/100 g of liver weight was related to a significantly higher risk of developing EGD (odds ratio, 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-12.91; P = .008) and graft loss (hazard ratio, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.32-12.42; P = .014). Intraoperative portal flow of <1,000 mL/min in OLT was not related per se with a higher incidence of EGD or graft loss. Significantly higher risk of developing EGD and graft loss was associated with a portal flow of <80 mL/min/100 g of liver weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Circulating AST, H-FABP, and NGAL are early and accurate biomarkers of graft injury and dysfunction in a preclinical model of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, Ina; Lerut, Evelyne; van Pelt, Jos; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    To investigate circulating biomarkers of initial graft injury in a porcine kidney autotransplant model. Injury endured by kidney grafts early posttransplant determines their outcome. However, creatinine (clearance) is a poor surrogate of tissue injury and urinary biomarkers are limited by graft anuria or persistent native kidney diuresis. No validated circulating biomarkers quantifying initial g