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Sample records for early diastolic velocities

  1. Left ventricular early diastolic inflow velocity and atrial ventricular plane downward velocity: useful parameters to test diastolic function in clinical practice? Diastolic parameters tested in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Winter, R; Gudmundsson, P; Ericsson, G; Willenheimer, R

    2001-06-01

    To study the clinical value of the colour-M-mode slope of the early diastolic left ventricular filling phase (Vp) and the early diastolic downward M-mode slope of the left atrioventricular plane displacement (EDS), compared with diastolic function assessed by traditional Doppler evaluation. In 65 consecutive patients EDS and Vp were compared with a four-degree traditional diastolic function classification, based on pulsed Doppler assessment of the early to atrial transmitral flow ratio (E/A), the E-wave deceleration time (Edt), and the systolic to diastolic (S/D) pulmonary venous inflow ratio. Vp (P=0.006) and EDS (P=0.045) were related to traditional diastolic function (Kruskal--Wallis analysis). EDS showed a trend brake between the moderate and severe diastolic dysfunction groups by traditional Doppler evaluation. Vp and EDS correlated weakly in simple linear regression analysis (r=0.33). Vp and EDS discriminated poorly between normal and highly abnormal diastolic function. Vp and EDS were significantly related to diastolic function by traditional Doppler evaluation. They were, however, not useful as single parameters of left ventricular diastolic function due to a small difference between normal and highly abnormal values, allowing for little between-measurement variability. Consequently, these methods for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function do not add significantly to traditional Doppler evaluation.

  2. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa

    2017-04-21

    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  3. Assessment of Early Diastolic Strain-Velocity Temporal Relationships Using SPAMM-PAV (SPAtial Modulation of Magnetization with Polarity Alternating Velocity encoding)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziheng; Dione, Donald P.; Brown, Peter B.; Shapiro, Erik M.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sampath, Smita

    2011-01-01

    A novel MR imaging technique, spatial modulation of magnetization with polarity alternating velocity encoding (SPAMM-PAV), is presented to simultaneously examine the left ventricular early diastolic temporal relationships between myocardial deformation and intra-cavity hemodynamics with a high temporal resolution of 14 ms. This approach is initially evaluated in a dynamic flow and tissue mimicking phantom. A comparison of regional longitudinal strains and intra-cavity pressure differences (integration of computed in-plane pressure gradients within a selected region) in relation to mitral valve inflow velocities is performed in eight normal volunteers. Our results demonstrate that apical regions have higher strain rates (0.145 ± 0.005 %/ms) during the acceleration period of rapid filling compared to mid-ventricular (0.114 ± 0.007 %/ms) and basal regions (0.088 ± 0.009 %/ms), and apical strain curves plateau at peak mitral inflow velocity. This pattern is reversed during the deceleration period, when the strain-rates in the basal regions are the highest (0.027 ± 0.003 %/ms) due to ongoing basal stretching. A positive base-to-apex gradient in peak pressure difference is observed during acceleration, followed by a negative base-to apex gradient during deceleration. These studies shed insight into the regional volumetric and pressure difference changes in the left ventricle during early diastolic filling. PMID:21630348

  4. Predictors of mitral annulus early diastolic velocity: impact of long-axis function, ventricular filling pattern, and relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Zoran B.; Desai, Milind Y.; Buakhamsri, Adisai; Puntawagkoon, Chirapa; Borowski, Allen; Levine, Benjamin D.; Tang, Wilson W.H.; Thomas, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Although left ventricular (LV) relaxation is well recognized as a predictor of mitral annulus (MA) early diastolic (E′) velocity, its significance relative to other predictors of E′ is less well understood. Methods and results We assessed 40 healthy volunteers, 43 patients with acutely decompensated chronic systolic heart failure (HF), and 36 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) using echocardiography and right or left heart catheterization. Data were obtained at baseline. In addition, in healthy volunteers haemodynamics were varied by graded saline infusion and low body negative pressure, while in HF patients it was varied by vasoactive drug treatment. E- and A-wave velocity (E/A) ratio of the mitral valve inflow, systolic MA velocity integral (s′ integral) and E′ and late velocity (A′) of lateral and septal MA pulsed wave velocities were assessed by echocardiography. Time constant of isovolumic pressure decay τ0) was calculated from isovolumic relaxation time/[ln(aortic dicrotic notch pressure) – ln(LV filling pressure)]. In all three groups, s′ integral was the strongest predictor of E′ (partial r= 0.53–0.79; 0.81 for three groups combined), followed by E/A ratio (partial r= 0.10–0.78; 0.26 for all groups combined) and τ0 (partial r= −0.1 to 0.023; −0.21 for all groups combined). Conclusion In healthy adults, patients with systolic HF, or patients with HOCM, E′ is related to LV long-axis function and E/A ratio, a global marker of LV filling. E′ appears less sensitive to LV relaxation. PMID:21865226

  5. Intermediate Diastolic Velocity as a Parameter of Cardiac Dysfunction in Growth-Restricted Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangna; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Garcia, Maynor; Saker, Homam; Korzeniewski, Steven J; Tarca, Adi L; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the intermediate intracardiac diastolic velocities in fetuses with growth restriction. Doppler waveforms of the two atrioventricular valves were obtained. Peak velocities of the E (early) and A (atrial) components, and the lowest intermediate velocity (IDV) between them, were measured in 400 normally grown and in 100 growth-restricted fetuses. The prevalence of abnormal IDV, E/IDV, and A/IDV ratios in fetuses presenting with perinatal death or acidemia at birth (pH ≤7.1) was estimated. IDV was significantly lower and E/IDV ratios significantly higher in the two ventricles of growth-restricted fetuses with reduced diastolic velocities in the umbilical artery (p < 0.05). In 13 fetuses presenting with perinatal death or acidemia at birth, 11 (85%) had either an E/IDV or A/IDV ratio >95th percentile, whereas 5 (38%) showed absent or reversed atrial velocities in the ductus venosus (DV-ARAV; p < 0.04). Fetuses without DV-ARAV but with elevated E/IDV ratios in either ventricle were nearly 7-fold more likely to have perinatal demise or acidemia at birth (OR 6.9, 95% CI 1.4-34) than those with E/IDV ratios <95th percentile. The E/IDV and A/IDV ratios in the two cardiac ventricles might provide information about the risk of perinatal demise or acidemia in growth-restricted fetuses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Prognostication of valvular aortic stenosis using tissue Doppler echocardiography: underappreciated importance of late diastolic mitral annular velocity.

    PubMed

    Poh, Kian-Keong; Chan, Mark Yan-Yee; Yang, Hong; Yong, Quek-Wei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Ling, Lieng H

    2008-05-01

    Intact left atrial booster pump function helps maintain cardiac compensation in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS). Because late diastolic mitral annular (A') velocity reflects left atrial systolic function, we hypothesized that A' velocity correlates with plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level and clinical outcome in AS. We prospectively enrolled 53 consecutive patients (median age 74 years) with variable degrees of AS, in sinus rhythm, and left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 50%. Indices of valvular stenosis, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and mitral annular motion were correlated with plasma NT-proBNP and a composite clinical end point comprising cardiac death and symptom-driven aortic valve replacement. Tissue Doppler echocardiographic parameters, including early diastolic (E') velocity and A' velocity and ratio of early diastolic transmitral (E) to E' velocity (E/E') at the annular septum correlated better with NT-proBNP levels than body surface area-indexed aortic valve area. Eighteen patients had the composite end point, which was univariately predicted by body surface area-indexed aortic valve area, NT-proBNP, and all tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices. This outcome was most strongly predicted by the combination of septal A' velocity and E/E' ratio in bivariate Cox modeling. Septal annular A' velocity less than 9.6 cm/s was associated with significantly reduced event-free survival (Kaplan Meier log rank = 27.3, P < .0001) and predicted the end point with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. In patients with AS and normal ejection fraction, annular tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices may better reflect the physiologic consequences of afterload burden on the left ventricle than body surface area-indexed aortic valve area. Lower A' velocity is a predictor of cardiac death and need for valve surgery, suggesting an important role for compensatory left atrial

  7. Diastolic coronary artery pressure-flow velocity relationships in conscious man.

    PubMed

    Dole, W P; Richards, K L; Hartley, C J; Alexander, G M; Campbell, A B; Bishop, V S

    1984-09-01

    We characterised the diastolic pressure-flow velocity relationship in the normal left coronary artery of conscious man before and after vasodilatation with angiographic contrast medium. Phasic coronary artery pressure and flow velocity were measured in ten patients during individual diastoles (0.5 to 1.0 s) using a 20 MHz catheter-tipped, pulsed Doppler transducer. All pressure-flow velocity curves were linear over the diastolic pressure range of 110 +/- 15 (SD) mmHg to 71 +/- 7 mmHg (r = 0.97 +/- 0.01). In the basal state, values for slope and extrapolated zero flow pressure intercept averaged 0.35 +/- 0.12 cm X s-1 X mmHg-1 and 51.7 +/- 8.6 mmHg, respectively. Vasodilatation resulted in a 2.5 +/- 0.5 fold increase in mean flow velocity. The diastolic pressure-flow velocity relationship obtained during peak vasodilatation compared to that during basal conditions was characterised by a steeper slope (0.80 +/- 0.48 cm X s-1 X mmHg-1, p less than 0.001) and lower extrapolated zero flow pressure intercept (37.9 +/- 9.8 mmHg, p less than 0.05). Mean right atrial pressure for the group averaged 4.4 +/- 1.7 mmHg, while left ventricular end-diastolic pressure averaged 8.7 +/- 2.8 mmHg. These observations in man are similar to data reported in the canine coronary circulation which are consistent with a vascular waterfall model of diastolic flow regulation. In this model, coronary blood flow may be regulated by changes in diastolic zero flow pressure as well as in coronary resistance.

  8. [Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function in canine acute myocardial ischemia using velocity vector imaging and quantitative tissue velocity imaging].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Zha, Dao-Gang; DU, Rong-Sheng; Hu, Feng; Li, Sheng-Hui; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Li

    2009-07-01

    To assess the value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) and quantitative tissue velocity imaging (QTVI) in assessing left ventricular diastolic function of the dogs with acute myocardial ischemia. Six healthy mongrel dogs were subjected to ligation of the left circumflex artery or left anterior descending artery to induce coronary artery stenosis of varying degrees. The mean peak diastolic velocity (Em) of the ventricular walls around the mitral annulus was recorded with VVI or QTVI in the coronary blood flow. The left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was measured with pigtail catheter in the left ventricle. As the coronary blood flow decreased, LVEDP was gradually increased, and Em measured by VVI or QTVI were also gradually decreased. A good linear correlation was shown between Em measured by VVI or QTVI and LVEDP (r=-0.834, P<0.001, and r=-0.68, P<0.001, respectively). A significant difference was observed in the correlation coefficient between VVI and QTVI (Z=2.625, P=0.0087). VVI and QTVI both provide good noninvasive means for measuring left ventricular diastolic function. VVI, a new echocardiographic modality without angular dependence, is better than QTVI in evaluating left ventricular diastolic function.

  9. Presence and Implication of Temporal Nonuniformity of Early Diastolic Left Ventricular Wall Expansion in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Daisuke; Fox, Ervin R; Hall, Michael E; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C

    2016-12-01

    Early-diastolic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal expansion is delayed with diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of LV ejection fraction (EF), there is diastolic temporal nonuniformity with a delay of longitudinal relative to circumferential expansion. Echocardiography was performed in 143 HF patients-50 with preserved EF (HFpEF) and 93 with reduced EF (HFrEF)-as well as 31 normal control subjects. The delay of early-diastolic mitral annular velocity from the mitral Doppler E (T E-e' ) was measured as a parameter of the longitudinal expansion delay. The delay of the longitudinal early-diastolic global strain rate (SR E ) relative to circumferential SR E (Delay C-L ) was calculated as a parameter of temporal nonuniformity. Intra-LV pressure difference (IVPD) was estimated with the use of color M-mode Doppler data as a parameter of LV diastolic suction. Although normal control subjects had symmetric LV expansion in early diastole, T E-e' and Delay C-L were significantly prolonged in HF regardless of EF (P < .01 vs control for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that Delay C-L was the independent determinant of IVPD among the parameters of LV geometry and contraction (β = -0.21; P < .05). An abnormal temporal nonuniformity of early-diastolic expansion is present in HF regardless of EF, which was associated with reduced LV suction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of diastolic myocardial tissue Doppler velocities: influences of relaxation and preload.

    PubMed

    Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Main, M L; Drinko, J K; Odabashian, J A; Thomas, J D; Garcia, M J

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) has been proposed as a tool for the assessment of diastolic function. Controversy exists regarding whether TDE measurements are influenced by preload. In this study, left ventricular volume and high-fidelity pressures were obtained in eight closed-chest dogs during intermittent caval occlusion. The time constant of isovolumic ventricular relaxation (tau) was altered with varying doses of dobutamine and esmolol. Peak early diastolic myocardial (E(m)) and transmitral (E) velocities were measured before and after preload reduction. The relative effects of changes in preload and relaxation were determined for E(m) and compared with their effects on E. The following results were observed: caval occlusion significantly decreased E (DeltaE = 16.4 +/- 3.3 cm/s, 36.6 +/- 13.7%, P < 0.01) and E(m) (DeltaE(m) = 1. 3 +/- 0.4 cm/s, 32.5 +/- 26.1%, P < 0.01) under baseline conditions. However, preload reduction was similar for E under all lusitropic conditions (P = not significant), but these effects on E(m) decreased with worsening relaxation. At tau < 50 ms, changes in E(m) with preload reduction were significantly greater (DeltaE(m) = 2.8 +/- 0.6 cm/s) than at tau = 50-65 ms (DeltaE(m) = 1.2 +/- 0.2 cm/s) and at tau >65 ms (DeltaE(m) = 0.5 +/- 0.1 cm/s, P < 0.05). We concluded that TDE E(m) is preload dependent. However, this effect decreases with worsening relaxation.

  11. Effects of exercise training on systo-diastolic ventricular dysfunction in patients with hypertension: an echocardiographic study with tissue velocity and strain imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Massimo; Mazza, Andrea; Cruciani, Giancarlo; Sgorbini, Luca; Pugliese, Marco; Bendini, Maria Grazia; Severi, Paolo; Jesi, Anna Patrizia

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of detailed data regarding the effect of exercise training in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on left and right ventricular morphologic and functional parameters by means of conventional echocardiography and sensitive new echocardiographic techniques including tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging, that were performed in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients at baseline and at the end of a specific exercise training protocol for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We selected 116 pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who completed the exercise training protocol. All patients underwent a clinical history and examination; transthoracic echocardiography and exercise testing were performed at baseline and at the end of the exercise training protocol. Conventional echocardiography revealed a mild degree of diastolic dysfunction without significant differences or variations from baseline to the end of the exercise training protocol. In contrast, tissue Doppler velocity and strain imaging measurements demonstrated and highlighted the positive influence of exercise training: for both left and right ventricle myocardial early peak diastolic velocities (Em), the ratio of myocardial early-late peak diastolic velocity (Em/Am), myocardial peak systolic velocities (Sm) and peak strain and strain rate values significantly increased at the end of the exercise training protocol, suggesting a relationship between exercise capacity and both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function. Our study, by means of newer more sensitive echocardiographic techniques, clearly demonstrated the positive impact of exercise training on both left and right ventricular systo-diastolic function, in terms of adjunctive subclinical improvement, in pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients.

  12. Is Doppler tissue velocity during early left ventricular filling preload independent?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Kaftan, A.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Korkmaz, M. E.; Flachskampf, F.; Garcia, M.; Thomas, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmitral Doppler flow indices are used to evaluate diastolic function. Recently, velocities measured by Doppler tissue imaging have been used as an index of left ventricular relaxation. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Doppler tissue velocities are influenced by alterations in preload. METHODS: Left ventricular preload was altered in 17 patients (all men, mean (SD) age, 49 (8) years) during echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular end diastolic volume, maximum left atrial area, peak early Doppler filling velocity, and left ventricular myocardial velocities during early filling. Preload altering manoeuvres included Trendelenberg (stage 1), reverse Trendelenberg (stage 2), and amyl nitrate (stage 3). Systolic blood pressure was measured at each stage. RESULTS: In comparison with baseline, left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.001), left atrial area (p = 0.003), peak early mitral Doppler filling velocity (p = 0.01), and systolic blood pressures (p = 0.001) were all changed by preload altering manoeuvres. Only left ventricular myocardial velocity during early filling remained unchanged by these manoeuvres. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to standard transmitral Doppler filling indices, Doppler tissue early diastolic velocities are not significantly affected by physiological manoeuvres that alter preload. Thus Doppler tissue velocities during early left ventricular diastole may provide a better index of diastolic function in cardiac patients by providing a preload independent assessment of left ventricular filling.

  13. Improved virtual cardiac phantom with variable diastolic filling rates and coronary artery velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Richards, Taylor W.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    To facilitate studies of measurement uncertainty in computed tomography angiography (CTA), we investigated the cardiac motion profile and resulting coronary artery motion utilizing innovative dynamic virtual and physical phantoms. The four-chamber cardiac finite element (FE) model developed in the Living Heart Project (LHP) served as the computational basis for our virtual cardiac phantom. This model provides deformation or strain information at high temporal and spatial resolution, exceeding that of speckle tracking echocardiography or tagged MRI. This model was extended by fitting its motion profile to left ventricular (LV) volume-time curves obtained from patient echocardiography data. By combining the dynamic patient variability from echo with the local strain information from the FE model, a series of virtual 4D cardiac phantoms were developed. Using the computational phantoms, we characterized the coronary motion and its effect on plaque imaging under a range of heart rates subject to variable diastolic function. The coronary artery motion was sampled at 248 spatial locations over 500 consecutive time frames. The coronary artery velocities were calculated as their average velocity during an acquisition window centered at each time frame, which minimized the discretization error. For the initial set of twelve patients, the diastatic coronary artery velocity ranged from 36.5 mm/s to 2.0 mm/s with a mean of 21.4 mm/s assuming an acquisition time of 75 ms. The developed phantoms have great potential in modeling cardiac imaging, providing a known truth and multiple realistic cardiac motion profiles to evaluate different image acquisition or reconstruction methods.

  14. Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Firstenberg, M S; Smedira, N G; Greenberg, N L; Prior, D L; McCarthy, P M; Garcia, M J; Thomas, J D

    2001-09-18

    Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation and ESV.

  15. Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation

  16. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning. PMID:22770365

  17. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Voga, Gorazd

    2012-07-06

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning.

  18. Early reduced myocardial diastolic function in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Brunvand, Leif; Fugelseth, Drude; Stensaeth, Knut Håkon; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Margeirsdottir, Hanna Dis

    2016-05-25

    Reduced diastolic myocardial function is an early sign of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), but without other known complications, have early reduced diastolic myocardial function diagnosed with echocardiographic color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI). cTDI examination was carried out in 173 T1D patients and 62 age-matched controls. The T1D-patients were 8-18 years old with (mean (SD)) diabetes duration of 5.6 (3.4) years and HbA1c of 8.4 (1.3). All were treated with either insulin pumps or 4-6 daily insulin injections. cTDI early (E') and late (A') peak diastolic velocities and systolic peak velocity were measured from the lateral, septal, anterior and posterior mitral annulus and from the lateral tricuspidal annulus. Myocardial diastolic function was reduced in the T1D-patients with higher peak A'-velocity and lower E'/A'-ratio in all registrations. Overall mean (SD) mitral E'/A'-ratio was 2.3 (0.5) in T1D and 2.7 (0.6) in the controls (p < 0001). The overall mitral E'/A'-ratio was negative associated with blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Stratifying all participants into three groups according to BMI (<25, 25-75, >75 centile, respectively), the T1D had lower E'/A'-values in all stratified groups, except for in the highest BMI-group where both T1D and controls had the lowest E'/A'-ratio. Systolic function did not differ in any of the measurements. There were no associations with sex, diabetes duration, carotid artery intima-media-thickness, vessel elasticity or HbA1c. Diabetic children and adolescents using modern intensive insulin treatment had echocardiographic signs of reduced diastolic myocardial function despite short duration of disease. The reduced function was associated with higher BP and higher BMI.

  19. Carotid Artery End-Diastolic Velocity and Future Cerebro-Cardiovascular Events in Asymptomatic High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jung, Young Hak; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Min, Pil-Ki; Yoon, Young Won; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Hong, Bum-Kee; Rim, Se-Joong; Kwon, Hyuck Moon; Choi, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic value of additional carotid Doppler evaluations to carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque has not been completely evaluated. A total of 1119 patients with risk factors for, but without, overt coronary artery disease (CAD), who underwent both carotid ultrasound and Doppler examination were included in the present study. Parameters of interest included peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, resistive indices of the carotid arteries, IMT, and plaque measurements. The primary end-point was all-cause cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization therapy, heart failure admission, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Model 1 covariates comprised age and sex; Model 2 also included hypertension, diabetes and smoking; Model 3 also had use of aspirin and statin; and Model 4 also included IMT and plaque. The mean follow-up duration was 1386±461 days and the mean age of the study population was 60±12 years. Amongst 1119 participants, 43% were women, 57% had a history of hypertension, and 23% had diabetes. During follow-up, 6.6% of patients experienced CVEs. Among carotid Doppler parameters, average common carotid artery end-diastolic velocity was the independent predictor for future CVEs after adjustments for all models variables (HR 0.95 per cm/s, 95% confident interval 0.91-0.99, p=0.034 in Model 4) and significantly increased the predictive value of Model 4 (global χ(2)=59.0 vs. 62.8, p=0.029). Carotid Doppler measurements in addition to IMT and plaque evaluation are independently associated with future CVEs in asymptomatic patients at risk for CAD.

  20. Impact of a systolic parameter, defined as the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time, on the relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chao; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Chee-Siong; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2011-04-01

    Arterial stiffness is correlated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function as well as susceptibility to LV systolic function. Therefore, if LV systolic function is not known, the relationship between arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function is difficult to determine. A total of 260 patients were included in the study. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the ratio of right brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time (rbPEP/rbET) were measured using an ABI-form device. Patients were classified into four groups. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were patients with rbPEP/rbET and baPWV below the median, rbPEP/rbET above but baPWV below the median, rbPET/rbET below but baPWV above the median, and rbPET/rbET and baPWV above the median, respectively. The LV ejection fractions in groups 1 and 3 were higher than those in groups 2 and 4 (P<0.001 for all). Patients in group 1 had a lower left atrial volume index (LAVI) and higher early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Ea) than patients in the other groups (P≤0.002). Patients in group 2 had a LAVI and ratio of transmitral E wave velocity to Ea that were comparable to those in groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, rbPEP/rbET had an impact on the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function. In patients with high rbPEP/rbET but low baPWV, low baPWV may not indicate good LV diastolic function but implies that cardiac dysfunction may precede vascular dysfunction in such patients. When interpreting the relationship between baPWV and LV diastolic function, the rbPEP/rbET value obtained from the same examination should be considered.

  1. Risk of fetal death in growth-restricted fetuses with umbilical and/or ductus venosus absent or reversed end-diastolic velocities before 34 weeks of gestation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Caradeux, J; Martinez-Portilla, R J; Basuki, T R; Kiserud, T; Figueras, F

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to establish the risk of fetal death in early-onset growth-restricted fetuses with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocities in the umbilical artery or ductus venosus. A systematic search was performed to identify relevant studies published in English, Spanish, French, Italian, or German using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS, without publication time restrictions. The study criteria included observational cohort studies and randomized controlled trials of early-onset growth-restricted fetuses (diagnosed before 34 weeks of gestation), with information on the rate of fetal death occurring before 34 weeks of gestation and absent or reversed end-diastolic velocities in the umbilical artery and/or ductus venosus. For quality assessment, 2 reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for randomized trials. For the meta-analysis, odds ratio for both fixed and random-effects models (weighting by inverse of variance) were used. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using tau 2 , χ2 (Cochrane Q), and I 2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by a funnel plot for meta-analyses and quantified by the Egger method. A total of 31 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The odds ratios for fetal death (random-effects models) were 3.59 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-5.6), 7.27 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-11.4), and 11.6 (95% confidence interval, 6.3-19.7) for growth-restricted fetuses with umbilical artery absent end-diastolic velocities, umbilical artery reversed end-diastolic velocities, and ductus venosus absent or reversed end-diastolic velocities, respectively. There was no substantial heterogeneity among studies for any of the analyses. Early-onset growth-restricted fetuses with either umbilical artery or ductus venosus absent or reserved end-diastolic velocities are at a substantially increased risk for

  2. The End-Diastolic Velocity of Thyroid Arteries Is Strongly Correlated with the Peak Systolic Velocity and Gland Volume in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Marui, Suemi; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Background The end-diastolic velocity (EDV) of thyroid arteries reflects peripheral blood flow resistance. Objective The aim was to evaluate EDV correlations with other Doppler sonography parameters and with clinical and biochemical variables in a sample of patients with hypothyroidism caused by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT). Methods A sample of 48 CAT hypothyroid patients receiving treatment with stable doses of levothyroxine was selected. The participants underwent clinical evaluation and measurement of serum thyrotropin (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), free T4, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg) and Doppler sonography. Results The EDV of the inferior thyroid arteries (ITA-EDV) was strongly and positively correlated with the peak systolic velocity of the inferior thyroid arteries (ITA-PSV, r = 0.919), thyroid volume (r = 0.711), and thyroid visual vascularization pattern (TVP, r = 0.687). There was no correlation between ITA-EDV and the clinical variables, hormones, anti-TPO, or anti-Tg. Conclusion The strong correlation of ITA-EDV with ITA-PSV, TVP, and volume suggests that increased vascularization in CAT may be associated with a reduction in thyroid blood flow resistance, possibly due to an angiogenesis-induced increase in the total vascular cross-sectional area of the parenchyma. PMID:29062583

  3. Determination of early diastolic LV vortex formation time (T*) via the PDF formalism: a kinematic model of filling.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovacs, Sandor J

    2009-01-01

    The filling (diastolic) function of the human left ventricle is most commonly assessed by echocardiography, a non-invasive imaging modality. To quantify diastolic function (DF) empiric indices are obtained from the features (height, duration, area) of transmitral flow velocity contour, obtained by echocardiography. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism is a kinematic model developed by Kovács et. al. which incorporates the suction pump attribute of the left ventricle and facilitates DF quantitation by analysis of echocardiographic transmitral flow velocity contours in terms of stiffness (k), relaxation (c) and load (x(0)). A complementary approach developed by Gharib et. al., uses fluid mechanics and characterizes DF in terms of vortex formation time (T*) derived from streamline features formed by the jet of blood aspirated into the ventricle. Both of these methods characterize DF using a causality-based approach. In this paper, we derive T*'s kinematic analogue T*(kinematic) in terms of k, c and x(0). A comparison between T*(kinematic) and T*(fluid) (mechanic) obtained from averaged transmitral velocity and mitral annulus diameter, is presented. We found that T* calculated by the two methods were comparable and T*(kinematic) correlated with the peak LV recoil driving force kx(0).

  4. Association of Antegrade Pulmonary Artery Diastolic Velocity with Spontaneous Closure of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dawn M; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Swearingen, Christopher; Malik, Sadia; Sachdeva, Ritu

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to determine echocardiographic parameters associated with spontaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. Retrospective demographic review and analysis of echocardiograms from 189 ELBW infants with suspected and confirmed hemodynamically significant PDA identified on an initial echocardiogram was performed. Comparison of echocardiographic parameters was made between infants with spontaneous closure versus those who received treatment. The mean birth weight (787 ± 142 vs. 724 ± 141 g, p = 0.04) and gestational age (27.4 ± 2.8 vs. 26.2 ± 1.6 weeks, p = 0.03) were higher in the spontaneous closure versus the treatment group. Antegrade pulmonary artery (PA) diastolic velocity was lower in infants with spontaneous PDA closure versus those who received treatment (0.15 ± 0.06 vs. 0.22 ± 0.12 m/s, p = 0.009). Heavier and more mature ELBW infants with a lower antegrade PA diastolic velocity were likely to have spontaneous closure of the PDA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Major influence of a 'smoke and mirrors' effect caused by wave reflection on early diastolic coronary arterial wave intensity.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Penny, Daniel J; Smolich, Joseph J

    2018-03-15

    Coronary wave intensity analysis (WIA) is an emerging technique for assessing upstream and downstream influences on myocardial perfusion. It is thought that a dominant backward decompression wave (BDW dia ) is generated by a distal suction effect, while early-diastolic forward decompression (FDW dia ) and compression (FCW dia ) waves originate in the aorta. We show that wave reflection also makes a substantial contribution to FDW dia , FCW dia and BDW dia , as quantified by a novel method. In 18 sheep, wave reflection accounted for ∼70% of BDW dia , whereas distal suction dominated in a computer model representing a hypertensive human. Non-linear addition/subtraction of mechanistically distinct waves (e.g. wave reflection and distal suction) obfuscates the true contribution of upstream and downstream forces on measured waves (the 'smoke and mirrors' effect). The mechanisms underlying coronary WIA are more complex than previously thought and the impact of wave reflection should be considered when interpreting clinical and experimental data. Coronary arterial wave intensity analysis (WIA) is thought to provide clear insight into upstream and downstream forces on coronary flow, with a large early-diastolic surge in coronary flow accompanied by a prominent backward decompression wave (BDW dia ), as well as a forward decompression wave (FDW dia ) and forward compression wave (FCW dia ). The BDW dia is believed to arise from distal suction due to release of extravascular compression by relaxing myocardium, while FDW dia and FCW dia are thought to be transmitted from the aorta into the coronary arteries. Based on an established multi-scale computational model and high-fidelity measurements from the proximal circumflex artery (Cx) of 18 anaesthetized sheep, we present evidence that wave reflection has a major impact on each of these three waves, with a non-linear addition/subtraction of reflected waves obscuring the true influence of upstream and downstream forces

  6. Abnormal early diastolic intraventricular flow 'kinetic energy index' assessed by vector flow mapping in patients with elevated filling pressure.

    PubMed

    Nogami, Yoshie; Ishizu, Tomoko; Atsumi, Akiko; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawamura, Ryo; Seo, Yoshihiro; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2013-03-01

    Recently developed vector flow mapping (VFM) enables evaluation of local flow dynamics without angle dependency. This study used VFM to evaluate quantitatively the index of intraventricular haemodynamic kinetic energy in patients with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and to compare those with normal subjects. We studied 25 patients with estimated high left atrial (LA) pressure (pseudonormal: PN group) and 36 normal subjects (control group). Left ventricle was divided into basal, mid, and apical segments. Intraventricular haemodynamic energy was evaluated in the dimension of speed, and it was defined as the kinetic energy index. We calculated this index and created time-energy index curves. The time interval from electrocardiogram (ECG) R wave to peak index was measured, and time differences of the peak index between basal and other segments were defined as ΔT-mid and ΔT-apex. In both groups, early diastolic peak kinetic energy index in mid and apical segments was significantly lower than that in the basal segment. Time to peak index did not differ in apex, mid, and basal segments in the control group but was significantly longer in the apex than that in the basal segment in the PN group. ΔT-mid and ΔT-apex were significantly larger in the PN group than the control group. Multiple regression analysis showed sphericity index, E/E' to be significant independent variables determining ΔT apex. Retarded apical kinetic energy fluid dynamics were detected using VFM and were closely associated with LV spherical remodelling in patients with high LA pressure.

  7. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is related with coronary flow velocity reserve and diastolic dysfunction in patients with asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tesic, Milorad; Seferovic, Jelena; Trifunovic, Danijela; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Giga, Vojislav; Jovanovic, Ivana; Petrovic, Olga; Marinkovic, Jelena; Stankovic, Sanja; Stepanovic, Jelena; Ristic, Arsen; Petrovic, Milan; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Vujisic-Tesic, Bosiljka; Beleslin, Branko; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stankovic, Goran; Seferovic, Petar

    2017-10-01

    The relations of elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is uncertain. Therefore we designed the study with the following aims: (1) to analyze plasma concentrations of NT-pro-BNP in various subsets of HCM patients; (2) to reveal the correlations of NT-pro-BNP, myocardial ischemia, and diastolic dysfunction; (3) to assess predictors of the elevated plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP. In 61 patients (mean age 48.9±16.3 years; 26 male) with asymmetric HCM plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were obtained. Standard transthoracic examination, tissue Doppler echocardiography with measurement of transthoracic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending artery (LAD) was done. Mean natural logarithm value of NT-pro-BNP was 7.11±0.95pg/ml [median value 1133 (interquartile range 561-2442)pg/ml]. NT-pro-BNP was significantly higher in patients with higher NYHA class, in obstructive HCM, more severe mitral regurgitation, increased left atrial volume index (LAVI), presence of calcified mitral annulus, elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and in decreased CFVR. Levels of NT-pro-BNP significantly correlated with the ratio of E/e' (r=0.534, p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (r=0.503, p=0.024), LAVI (r=0.443, p<0.001), while inversely correlated with CFVR LAD (r=-0.569, p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was done only CFVR LAD and E/e' emerged as independent predictors of NT-pro-BNP. Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were significantly higher in HCM patients with more advanced disease. Elevated NT-pro-BNP not only reflects the diastolic impairment of the LV, but it might also be the result of cardiac ischemia in patients with HCM. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide concentration in early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Borges, V T M; Zanati, S G; Peraçoli, M T S; Poiati, J R; Romão-Veiga, M; Peraçoli, J C; Thilaganathan, B

    2018-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with maternal cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess and compare maternal left ventricular structure and diastolic function and levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in women with early-onset (< 34 weeks' gestation) vs those with late-onset (≥ 34 weeks' gestation) PE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 30 women with early-onset PE, 32 with late-onset PE and 23 normotensive controls. Maternal cardiac structure and diastolic function were assessed by echocardiography and plasma levels of BNP were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Early- and late-onset PE were associated with increased left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness compared with normotensive controls. In women with early-onset PE, the prevalence of concentric hypertrophy (40%) and diastolic dysfunction (23%) was also significantly higher (both P < 0.05) compared with women with late-onset PE (16% for both). Maternal serum BNP levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women with early-onset PE and correlated with relative wall thickness and left ventricular mass index. Early-onset PE is associated with more severe cardiac impairment than is late-onset PE, as evidenced by an increased prevalence of concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and higher levels of BNP. These findings suggest that early-onset PE causes greater myocardial damage, increasing the risk of both peripartum and postpartum cardiovascular morbidity. Although these cardiovascular effects are easily identified by echocardiographic parameters and measuring BNP, further studies are needed to assess their clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Low-dose mannitol (0.3 g kg(-1)) improves the pulsatility index and minimum diastolic blood flow velocity in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nincevic, Zeljko; Mestrovic, Julije; Nincevic, Jasna; Sundov, Zeljko; Kuscevic, Dorjan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using low-dose mannitol (0.3 g kg(-1)) on the pulsatility index (PI) and minimum diastolic blood flow velocity (FV-min) of the middle cerebral artery in a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Low-dose mannitol (0.3 g kg(-1)) was administered to a group of 20 patients with a TBI. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography was used to monitor the PI and FV-min. The study included patients with a diffuse traumatic brain injury and Glasgow coma score < 8. The initial TCD ultrasonography values were pathological (PI > 1.4 and FV-min < 20 cm s(-1)). TCD ultrasonography examinations were carried out before mannitol administration, immediately after administration and 1, 2 and 3 hours after the administration of mannitol. A one-way analysis of variance revealed significant changes in the PI (F = 8.392; p < 0.001) and FV-min (F = 8.291; p = 0.001) after the use of mannitol. Low-dose mannitol administration appears to be efficacious for improving the indicators of disturbed circulation in a TBI (FV-min increase, PI decrease). The maximum decrease in the PI was recorded 1 hour after the administration of mannitol and was 10.9% of the initial value. The maximum increase in the FV-min was recorded 1 hour after administration and was 29.7% of the initial value. These changes were significant ∼ 2 hours later.

  10. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction with Early Systolic Dysfunction Using Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Canine Heart Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Chun; Ma, Hong; Xie, Rong-Ai; Gao, Li-Jian; Tang, Yue; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) for predicting left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in pacing-induced canine heart failure. Pacing systems were implanted in 8 adult mongrel dogs, and continuous rapid right ventricular pacing (RVP, 240 beats/min) was maintained for 2 weeks. The obtained measurements from 2DSTE included global strain rate during early diastole (SRe) and during late diastole (SRa) in the longitudinal (L-SRe, L-SRa), circumferential (C-SRe, C-SRa), and radial directions (R-SRe, R-SRa). Changes in heart morphology were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy at 2 weeks. The onset of LV diastolic dysfunction with early systolic dysfunction occurred 3 days after RVP initiation. Most of the strain rate imaging indices were altered at 1 or 3 days after RVP onset and continued to worsen until heart failure developed. Light and transmission electron microscopy showed myocardial vacuolar degeneration and mitochondrial swelling in the left ventricular at 2 weeks after RVP onset. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that parameters of conventional echocardiography and 2DSTE showed moderate correlation with LV pressure parameters, including E/Esep' (r = 0.58, P < 0.01), L-SRe (r = -0.58, P < 0.01), E/L-SRe (r = 0.65, P < 0.01), and R-SRe (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). ROC curves analysis showed that these indices of conventional echocardiography and strain rate imaging could effectively predict LV diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve: E/Esep' 0.78; L-SRe 0.84; E/L-SRe 0.80; R-SRe 0.80). 2DSTE was a sensitive and accurate technique that could be used for predicting LV diastolic dysfunction in canine heart failure model. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Importance of SERCA2a on early isolated diastolic dysfunction induced by supravalvular aortic stenosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, C.F.S.M.P.; Campos, D.H.S.; Freire, P.P.; Deus, A.F.; Okoshi, K.; Padovani, C.R.; Cicogna, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively. After 6 weeks, the animals were submitted to echocardiogram and functional analysis by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) in basal condition, hypoxia, and SERCA2a blockage with cyclopiazonic acid at calcium concentrations of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mM. Western-blot analyses were used for SERCA2a and phospholamban detection. Data analysis was carried out with Student's t-test and ANOVA. AoS enhanced left atrium and E and A wave ratio, with preserved ejection fraction. Basal condition in IPM showed similar increases in developed tension (DT) and resting tension (RT) in AoS, and hypoxia was similar between groups. After cyclopiazonic acid blockage, final DT was equally decreased and RT was similar between groups, but the speed of relaxation was decreased in the AoS group. Western-blot was uniform in all evaluations. The hypothesis was confirmed, since functional parameters regarding SERCA2a were changed in the AoS group. PMID:28423119

  12. Assessment of diastolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: comparison with standard transmitral and pulmonary venous flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farias, C. A.; Rodriguez, L.; Garcia, M. J.; Sun, J. P.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of Doppler tissue echocardiography in the evaluation of diastolic filling and in discriminating between normal subjects and those with various stages of diastolic dysfunction. We measured myocardial velocities in 51 patients with various stages of diastolic dysfunction and in 27 normal volunteers. The discriminating power of each of the standard Doppler indexes of left ventricular filling, pulmonary venous flow, and myocardial velocities was determined with the use of Spearman rank correlation and analysis of variance F statistics. Early diastolic myocardial velocity (E(m)) was higher in normal subjects (16.0 +/- 3.8 cm/s) than in patients with either delayed relaxation (n = 15, 7.5 +/- 2.2 cm/s), pseudonormal filling (n = 26, 7.6 +/- 2.3 cm/s), or restrictive filling (n = 10, 7.4 +/- 2.4 cm/s, P <.0001). E(m ) was the best single discriminator between control subjects and patients with diastolic dysfunction (P =.7, F = 64.5). Myocardial velocities assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography are useful in differentiating patients with normal from those with abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial velocity remains reduced even in those stages of diastolic dysfunction characterized by increased preload compensation.

  13. Early-onset growth hormone deficiency results in diastolic dysfunction in adult-life and is prevented by growth hormone supplementation.

    PubMed

    Groban, L; Lin, M; Kassik, K A; Ingram, R L; Sonntag, W E

    2011-04-01

    The primary goal of growth hormone (GH) replacement is to promote linear growth in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are also known to have roles in cardiac development and as modulators of myocardial structure and function in the adult heart. However, little is known about cardiac diastolic function in young adults with childhood onset GH deficiency in which GH treatment was discontinued following puberty. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of long standing GHD and peri-pubertal or continuous GH replacement therapy on diastolic function in the adult dwarf rat. The dwarf rat, which possesses a mutation in a transcription factor necessary for development of the somatotroph, does not exhibit the normal peri-pubertal rise in GH around day 28 and was used to model childhood or early-onset GHD (EOGHD). In another group of male dwarfs, GH replacement therapy was initiated at 4 weeks of age when GH pulsatility normally begins. Ten weeks after initiation of injections, GH-treated dwarf rats were divided into 2 groups; continued treatment with GH for 12 weeks (GH-replete) or treatment with saline for 12 weeks. This latter group models GH supplementation during adolescence with GHD beginning in adulthood (adult-onset GHD; AOGHD). Saline-treated heterozygous (HZ) rats were used as age-matched controls. At 26 weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed using invasive or noninvasive (conventional and tissue Doppler) indices of myocardial contractility and lusitropy. Systolic function, as determined by echocardiography, was similar among groups. Compared with HZ rats and GH-replete dwarfs, the EOGHD group exhibited significant reductions in myocardial relaxation and increases in left ventricular filling pressure, indicative of moderate diastolic dysfunction. This was further associated with a decrease in the cardiac content of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2), one of the important cardiac calcium

  14. Ventricular Diastolic Function in Normal Fetuses and Fetuses with Hb Bart's Disease Assessed by Color M-Mode Propagation Velocity using Cardio-STIC-M (Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation M-Mode).

    PubMed

    Tongsong, T; Tongprasert, F; Srisupundit, K; Luewan, S; Traisrisilp, K

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether ventricular diastolic dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of fetal cardiac failure due to fetal anemia using fetal Hb Bart's disease as a live model and cardio-STIC-M as a diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: Color cardio-STIC volume datasets were acquired from fetuses at risk for Hb Bart's disease during 18 - 22 weeks of gestation and normal pregnancies and pregnancies with hydrops fetalis caused by Hb Bart's disease at 28 - 32 weeks. The volumes were analyzed off-line for velocity propagation (Vp) of the right and left ventricles to assess ventricular diastolic function using color cardio-STIC-M. Results: The Vp for the right and left ventricles was studied in fetuses at 18 - 22 weeks, including 64 normal fetuses (group 1) and 22 fetuses with Hb Bart's disease (group 2), and in fetuses at 28 - 32 weeks, including 22 normal fetuses (group 3) and 16 fetuses with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis (group 4). The Vp of the fetuses in group 1 and group 2 was not significantly different. However, the Vp for the right and left ventricles in group 4 was significantly lower than in group 3 (19.02 vs. 9.78, p < 0.001; and 20.24 vs. 13.40, p < 0.001, respectively). The inter-observer variability had fair agreement with the intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.531 (95 % CI 0.393 - 0.646, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Hydrops fetalis secondary to fetal anemia is initially caused by hypervolemia rather than ventricular diastolic dysfunction while ventricular diastolic compromise is a late occurring consequence of persistent hypervolemia, different from the mechanism of hydropic changes caused by cardiac causes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Left ventricular diastolic function in patients with treated haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Einar Skulstad; Omvik, Per; Hervig, Tor; Gerdts, Eva

    2009-02-01

    We recently demonstrated reduced exercise capacity in phlebotomy treated genetic haemochromatosis in spite of normal systolic function. The present objective was to investigate diastolic function at rest. Diastolic function was echocardiographically assessed in 132 phlebotomy treated genetic haemochromatosis patients and 50 controls. Patients had higher body mass index and heart rate, higher transmitral early (E) (11.2+/-2.6 versus 10.4+/-2.2 cm) and atrial (A) (5.7+/-1.6 versus 5.0+/-1.6) velocity time integrals, pulmonary venous systolic peak velocity (0.58+/-0.12 versus 0.54+/-0.13 m/s) and ratio of E to spectral tissue Doppler E' velocity (6.3+/-1.6 versus 5.6+/-1.4, all p <0.05). Independently of age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and body weight, having haemochromatosis remained statistically significantly associated with higher E (beta=0.27) and A (beta =0.18) velocity time integrals, pulmonary venous systolic peak velocity (beta =0.21), and E/E'-ratio (beta=0.25) in separate multivariate analyses (all p <0.05). In the youngest age tertile, patients had longer isovolumic relaxation time and lower E' than controls. Our findings are compatible with mildly impaired diastolic function in treated haemochromatosis, with delayed relaxation in the younger tertile, and an elevated filling pressure and pseudonormalisation with increasing age.

  16. Doppler Assessment of Diastolic Function Reflect the Severity of Injury in Rats With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Pablo; Lancaster, Jordan J; Weigand, Kyle; Mohran, Saffie-Alrahman Ezz-Eldin; Goldman, Steven; Juneman, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    For chronic heart failure (CHF), more emphasis has been placed on evaluation of systolic as opposed to diastolic function. Within the study of diastology, measurements of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal myocardial relaxation have the most validation. Anterior wall radial myocardial tissue relaxation velocities along with mitral valve inflow (MVI) patterns are applicable diastolic parameters in the differentiation between moderate and severe disease in the ischemic rat model of CHF. Myocardial tissue relaxation velocities correlate with traditional measurements of diastolic function (ie, hemodynamics, Tau, and diastolic pressure-volume relationships). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Echocardiography was performed at 3 and 6 weeks after coronary ligation to evaluate LV ejection fraction (EF) and LV diastolic function through MVI patterns (E, A, and E/A) and Doppler imaging of the anterior wall (e' and a'). The rats were categorized into moderate or severe CHF according to their LV EF at 3 weeks postligation. Invasive hemodynamic measurements with solid-state pressure catheters were obtained at the 6-week endpoint. Moderate (N = 20) and severe CHF (N = 22) rats had significantly (P < .05) different EFs, hemodynamics, and diastolic pressure-volume relationships. Early diastolic anterior wall radial relaxation velocities as well as E/e' ratios separated moderate from severe CHF and both diastolic parameters had strong correlations with invasive hemodynamic measurements of diastolic function. Radial anterior wall e' and E/e' can be used for serial assessment of diastolic function in rats with moderate and severe CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transmitral flow velocity-contour variation after premature ventricular contractions: a novel test of the load-independent index of diastolic filling.

    PubMed

    Boskovski, Marko T; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2008-12-01

    The new echocardiography-based, load-independent index of diastolic filling (LIIDF) M was assessed using load-/shape-varying E-waves after premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Twenty-six PVCs in 15 subjects from a preexisting simultaneous echocardiography-catheterization database were selected. Perturbed load-state beats, defined as the first two post-PVC E-waves, and steady-state E-waves, were subjected to conventional and model-based analysis. M, a dimensionless index, defined by the slope of the peak driving-force vs. peak (filling-opposing) resistive-force regression, was determined from steady-state E-waves alone, and from load-perturbed E-waves combined with a matched number of subsequent beats. Despite high degrees of E-wave shape variation, M derived from load-varying, perturbed beats and M derived from steady-state beats alone were indistinguishable. Because the peak driving-force vs. peak resistive-force relation determining M remains highly linear in the extended E-wave shape and load variation regime observed, we conclude that M is a robust LIIDF.

  18. Assessment of structural cardiac abnormalities and diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandra P; Calderon, Iracema M P; Costa, Roberto A A; Roscani, Meliza G; Magalhães, Claudia G; Borges, Vera T M

    2015-05-01

    The main manifestation of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus. It can herald diabetes mellitus type 2 and its deleterious long-term effects, such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, one of the first signs of future cardiovascular disease. A total of 21 women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy pregnant women (control group) between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation underwent echocardiographic assessment. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was made in agreement with the American Diabetes Association criteria. Echocardiographic images obtained were analysed according to the criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus had higher posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, increased left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index, lower early diastolic annular velocity and early diastolic annular velocity/late diastolic annular velocity ratio. There was a positive correlation between left ventricular mass index and fasting glucose and pregnancy body mass index. Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus seem to have a different diastolic profile as well as a mildly dysfunctional pattern on echocardiogram, which may show a need for greater glycaemic control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Effect of exercise on diastolic function in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M J; Mungovan, S F; Smart, N A

    2017-03-01

    Diastolic dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of heart failure. Conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging are widely utilised in clinical research providing a number of indices of diastolic function valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effect of exercise training on diastolic function in patients with heart failure. Exercise training studies that investigate different indices of diastolic function in patients with heart failure have reported that exercise training improves diastolic function in these patients. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying, where possible, the effect of exercise training on diastolic function. We conducted database searches (PubMed, EBSCO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Trials Register to 31 July 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using the search terms 'exercise training, diastolic function and diastolic dysfunction'. Data from six studies, with a total of 266 heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) participants, 144 in intervention groups and 122 in control groups, indicated a significant reduction in the ratio of early diastolic transmitral velocity (E) to early diastolic tissue velocity (E') (E/E' ratio) with exercise training, exercise vs. control mean difference (MD) of -2.85 (95% CI -3.66 to -2.04, p < 0.00001). Data from five studies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients, with a total of 204 participants, 115 in intervention groups and 89 in control groups, also demonstrated a significant improvement in E/E' in exercise vs. control MD of -2.38 (95% CI -3.47 to -1.28, p < 0.0001).

  20. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of left ventricular diastolic function in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients undergoing percutaneous septal alcohol ablation versus surgical myotomy/myectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, Marta; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Qin, Jian Xin; Bauer, Fabrice; Drinko, Jeannie K.; Agler, Deborah A.; Martin, Maureen G.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; hide

    2003-01-01

    Both percutaneous transcoronary alcohol septal reduction (ASR) and surgical myectomy are effective treatments to relieve left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in 57 patients with obstructive HC at baseline and 5 +/- 4 months after ASR (n = 37) or surgical myectomy (n = 20). LV outflow tract pressure gradient decreased from 65 +/- 40 to 23 +/- 21 mm Hg (p <0.01) after treatment. The ratio of the early-to-late peak diastolic LV inflow velocities, and the ratio of the early peak diastolic LV inflow velocity to the lateral mitral annulus early diastolic velocity determined by tissue Doppler imaging significantly decreased after the procedures (1.6 +/- 1.7 vs 1.0 +/- 0.7 and 15 +/- 8 vs 11 +/- 5, respectively), whereas LV inflow propagation velocity significantly increased (60 +/- 24 vs 71 +/- 36 cm/s). Left atrial size decreased from 29 +/- 7 to 25 +/- 6 cm(2) (p <0.05). Patients had a significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional class and in exercise performance. When comparing ASR with myectomy, no difference was found in the degree of change in any parameter of diastolic function. Thus, diastolic function indexes obtained by echocardiography changed after septal reduction interventions in patients with obstructive HC; this change was similar to that after surgical myectomy and ASR.

  2. Diastolic dysfunction in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P

    Hypertension and coronary heart disease, often coexisting, are the most common risk factors for heart failure. The progression of hypertensive heart disease involves myocardial fibrosis and alterations in the left ventricular geometry that precede the functional change, initially asymptomatic. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is part of this continuum being defined by the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without signs or symptoms of heart failure or poor left ventricular systolic function. It is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite its growing importance in clinical practice it remains poorly understood. This review aims to present the epidemiological fundamentals and the latest developments in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Right ventricular diastolic performance in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: correlation of echocardiographic parameters with invasive reference standards by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kenichi; Slorach, Cameron; Mroczek, Dariusz; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K

    2014-05-01

    Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction influences outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but echocardiographic parameters have not been investigated in relation to invasive reference standards in pediatric PAH. We investigated echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH in relation to simultaneously measured invasive reference measures. We prospectively recruited children undergoing a clinically indicated cardiac catheterization for evaluation of PAH and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing. Echocardiography was performed simultaneously with invasive reference measurements by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. For analysis, patients were divided into shunt and nonshunt groups. Sixteen children were studied. In the group as a whole, significant correlations were found among τ and tricuspid deceleration time, E', E/E', TimeE-E', A wave velocity, and global early and late diastolic strain rate. dp/dt minimum correlated significantly with late diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (A'), tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio, and global late diastolic strain rate. End-diastolic pressure correlated significantly with tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio. On multivariate analysis, tricuspid deceleration time, TimeE-E', and global early diastolic strain rate were independent predictors of τ, whereas tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio was an independent predictor of dp/dt minimum. In general, correlations between echocardiographic and invasive parameters were better in the shunt group than in the nonshunt group. Echocardiography correlates with invasive reference measures of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH, although it does not differentiate between early versus late diastolic abnormalities. Newer echocardiographic techniques may have added value to assess right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in this

  4. Feasibility of Using Elastic Wave Velocity Monitoring for Early Warning of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Irfan, Muhammad; Uchimura, Taro; Zhang, Ke

    2018-03-27

    Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the slope in monitoring, prediction and early warning of landslide. The small-scale fixed and varied, and large-scale slope model tests were conducted. Analysis of the results has established that the elastic wave velocity continuously decreases in response of moisture content and deformation and there was a distinct surge in the decrease rate of wave velocity when failure was initiated. Based on the preliminary results of this analysis, the method using the change in elastic wave velocity proves superior for landslide early warning and suggests that a warning be issued at switch of wave velocity decrease rate.

  5. Feasibility of Using Elastic Wave Velocity Monitoring for Early Warning of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Irfan, Muhammad; Uchimura, Taro; Zhang, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the slope in monitoring, prediction and early warning of landslide. The small-scale fixed and varied, and large-scale slope model tests were conducted. Analysis of the results has established that the elastic wave velocity continuously decreases in response of moisture content and deformation and there was a distinct surge in the decrease rate of wave velocity when failure was initiated. Based on the preliminary results of this analysis, the method using the change in elastic wave velocity proves superior for landslide early warning and suggests that a warning be issued at switch of wave velocity decrease rate. PMID:29584699

  6. Patients with a hypertensive response to exercise have impaired left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Takeshi; Onishi, Katsuya; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Kurita, Tairo; Fujimoto, Naoki; Dohi, Kaoru; Tanigawa, Takashi; Isaka, Naoki; Nobori, Tsutomu; Ito, Masaaki

    2008-02-01

    An exaggerated increase in systolic blood pressure prolongs myocardial relaxation and increases left ventricular (LV) chamber stiffness, resulting in an increase in LV filling pressure. We hypothesize that patients with a marked hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) have LV diastolic dysfunction leading to exercise intolerance, even in the absence of resting hypertension. We recruited 129 subjects (age 63+/-9 years, 64% male) with a preserved ejection fraction and a negative stress test. HRE was evaluated at the end of a 6-min exercise test using the modified Bruce protocol. Patients were categorized into three groups: a group without HRE and without resting hypertension (control group; n=30), a group with HRE but without resting hypertension (HRE group; n=25), and a group with both HRE and resting hypertension (HTN group; n=74). Conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging were performed at rest. After 6-min exercise tests, systolic blood pressure increased in the HRE and HTN groups, compared with the control group (226+/-17 mmHg, 226+/-17 mmHg, and 180+/-15 mmHg, respectively, p<0.001). There were no significant differences in LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic diameter, and early mitral inflow velocity among the three groups. However, early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') was significantly lower and the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity (E) to E' (E/E') was significantly higher in patients of the HRE and HTN groups compared to controls (E': 5.9+/-1.6 cm/s, 5.9+/-1.7 cm/s, 8.0+/-1.9 cm/s, respectively, p<0.05). In conclusion, irrespective of the presence of resting hypertension, patients with hypertensive response to exercise had impaired LV longitudinal diastolic function and exercise intolerance.

  7. Increased passive stiffness promotes diastolic dysfunction despite improved Ca2+ handling during left ventricular concentric hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Åsmund T.; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Skårdal, Kristine; Hamdani, Nazha; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Danielsen, Håvard E.; Sejersted, Ole M.; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Concentric hypertrophy following pressure-overload is linked to preserved systolic function but impaired diastolic function, and is an important substrate for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. While increased passive stiffness of the myocardium is a suggested mechanism underlying diastolic dysfunction in these hearts, the contribution of active diastolic Ca2+ cycling in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. In this study, we sought to dissect contributions of passive and active mechanisms to diastolic dysfunction in the concentrically hypertrophied heart following pressure-overload. Methods and results Rats were subjected to aortic banding (AB), and experiments were performed 6 weeks after surgery using sham-operated rats as controls. In vivo ejection fraction and fractional shortening were normal, confirming preservation of systolic function. Left ventricular concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction following AB were indicated by thickening of the ventricular wall, reduced peak early diastolic tissue velocity, and higher E/e’ values. Slowed relaxation was also observed in left ventricular muscle strips isolated from AB hearts, during both isometric and isotonic stimulation, and accompanied by increases in passive tension, viscosity, and extracellular collagen. An altered titin phosphorylation profile was observed with hypophosphorylation of the phosphosites S4080 and S3991 sites within the N2Bus, and S12884 within the PEVK region. Increased titin-based stiffness was confirmed by salt-extraction experiments. In contrast, isolated, unloaded cardiomyocytes exhibited accelerated relaxation in AB compared to sham, and less contracture at high pacing frequencies. Parallel enhancement of diastolic Ca2+ handling was observed, with augmented NCX and SERCA2 activity and lowered resting cytosolic [Ca2+]. Conclusion In the hypertrophied heart with preserved systolic function, in vivo diastolic dysfunction develops as cardiac fibrosis and

  8. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Zoghbi, William A

    2007-09-01

    Assessment of diastolic function and left ventricular filling pressures in the setting of both normal and reduced systolic function is of major importance particularly in patients with dyspnea. Since multiple echocardiography parameters are used to assess diastolic function each with some limitations, a comprehensive approach should be applied. Transmitral Doppler flow should be evaluated in combination with newer, less load dependent Doppler techniques. Tissue Doppler imaging provides accurate, well validated data regarding diastolic properties and filling pressures of the left ventricle. Tissue Doppler imaging should be the part of a routine echocardiography study due to its ease of use and high reproducibility. Pulmonary vein Doppler and flow propagation velocity should be incorporated into the evaluation when needed.

  9. Elevated arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Mitsuru; Komamura, Kazuo; Goda, Akiko; Hirotani, Shinichi; Otsuka, Misato; Nakabo, Ayumi; Fukui, Miho; Fujiwara, Shohei; Sugahara, Masataka; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Koshiba, Masahiro; Masuyama, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is associated with arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in hypothyroid disease. The relationship of thyroid hormone level to cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and left ventricular diastolic function, however, remains unclear in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 83 patients with untreated subclinical hypothyroidism and compared them with 83 randomly selected controls from health check-ups. Log N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness were measured. In addition, we measured early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') in 43 participants with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 40 controls. When compared with the control group, patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had higher logNT-proBNP (1.9±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.3pg/ml, P<0.05), CRP (0.22±0.04 vs. 0.09±0.06mg/dl, P<0.05), and CAVI (8.8±1.7 vs. 7.8±1.4, P<0.001) and lower E' (5.8±1.7 vs. 7.5±2.1cm/s, P<0.001). CAVI was significantly associated with logNT-proBNP, CRP and E' in the subclinical hypothyroidism group. High logNT-proBNP was associated with a raised CAVI in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events related to arterial stiffening and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

  10. Doppler echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in 74 boxer dogs with aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis

    2002-05-01

    To evaluate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in boxer dogs with aortic stenosis (AS). LV relaxation, elastic recoil, filling and stiffness have been found to be abnormal in people with AS and were related to disease severity, clinical signs and prognosis. 2-D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was done in 74 boxers with AS (55 with mild AS, 7 with moderate AS and 12 with severe AS) and compared with reference values from 66 normal boxers. Measurements included isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral filling velocities, mitral E wave deceleration time, peak systolic, and early and late (AR) diastolic pulmonary wenous flow velocities and related variables. In addition, left atrial (LA) function, LV dimensions and hypertrophy and LV systolic performance were assessed. Eight dogs (15%) with mild AS had abnormal LV diastolic function, compared with 16 dogs (84%) with moderate or severe AS. Two dogs (3%) had also systolic abnormalities. The flow pattern of delayed relaxation, pseudonormal mitral inflow and restrictive flow were found in 10, 11 and 3 dogs, respectively. IVRT and E:A were heterogeneous in dogs with moderate or severe AS, being either high, normal, or low. Peak AR velocity was significantly higher (p diastolic pressure, and normal or increased LA systolic function. Bivariate linear regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the severity of AS based on Doppler and LV hypertrophy (IVSd: r = 0.61, p diastolic function is abnormal even in the presence of normal systolic performance.

  11. Maximal blood flow acceleration analysis in the early diastolic phase for aortocoronary artery bypass grafts: a new transit-time flow measurement predictor of graft failure following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined using transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a potential predictor of graft failure for aortocoronary artery (AC) bypass grafts in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 114 aortocoronary artery bypass grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 9-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve, to measure max df/dt (9-polynomial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of <15 ml/min, a pulsatility index of >5 or a diastolic filling ratio of <50 %. Postoperative assessments were routinely performed by coronary artery angiography (CAG) at 1 year after surgery. Using TTFM, 68 grafts were normal, 4 of which were failing on CAG, and 46 grafts were abnormal, 21 of which were failing on CAG. 9-polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in abnormal TTFM/failing by the CAG group compared with abnormal TTFM/patent by the CAG group (1.08 ± 0.89 vs. 2.05 ± 1.51 ml/s(2), respectively; P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test, Holm adjustment). TTFM 9-polynomial max df/dt in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure for AC bypass grafts, particularly in abnormal TTFM grafts.

  12. Phloem transport velocity varies over time and among vascular bundles during early cucumber seedling development.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica A; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2013-11-01

    We use a novel dye-tracing technique to measure in vivo phloem transport velocity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants during early seedling development. We focus on seedlings because of their importance in plant establishment and because they provide a simple source and sink model of phloem transport. The dye-tracing method uses a photodiode to track the movement of a bleach front of fluorescent dye traveling in the phloem from the cotyledons (source) to the roots (sink). During early seedling development, phloem transport velocity in this direction can change 2-fold depending on vascular connectivity and the number of actively growing sinks. Prior to leaf expansion, vascular bundles attached to the first developing leaf demonstrate a decline in basipetal phloem transport that can be alleviated by the leaf's removal. At this stage, seedlings appear carbon limited and phloem transport velocity is correlated with cotyledon area, a pattern that is apparent both during cotyledon expansion and after source area manipulation. When the first leaf transitions to a carbon source, seedling growth rate increases and basipetal phloem transport velocity becomes more stable. Because bundles appear to operate autonomously, transport velocity can differ among vascular bundles. Together, these results demonstrate the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of phloem transport and underline the need for a better understanding of how changes in phloem physiology impact growth and allocation at this critical stage of development.

  13. Air pollution and diastolic function in elderly women - Results from the SALIA study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ohlwein, Simone; Klümper, Claudia; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Sugiri, Dorothea; Stolz, Sabine; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara; Kara, Kaffer; Germing, Alfried; Quass, Ulrich; Krämer, Ursula; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Studies linking particulate matter (PM) with heart failure (HF) show inconsistent results. However, the association of air pollution with diastolic function, an important determinant of heart failure, has not been studied yet and is addressed in the presented study. 402 women (69-79 years) of the clinical follow-up (2007-2010) of the ongoing population-based prospective SALIA (Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and Ageing) cohort were examined using Doppler echocardiography: Of the 291 women with preserved ejection fraction, the ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity and peak early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/E') was collected in 264 and left atrial volume index (LAVI) in 262 women. Residential long-term air pollution exposure (nitrogen oxides, size-fractioned PM) was modeled at baseline and at follow-up, applying land use regression models. We used linear regression to model the cross-sectional associations of air pollutants per interquartile range (IQR) with different measures of diastolic function, adjusting for personal risk factors. Median concentrations of annual NOx, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 at follow-up were 37.7, 25.9, 17.4 and 26.4μg/m(3), respectively. In the fully adjusted models, LAVI was associated with an IQR increase in PM2.5 (1.05 [0.99; 1.12]) and NOx (1.04 [1.00; 1.09]) at follow-up, and with NOx and NO2 (both 1.05 [1.00; 1.11]) at baseline. None of the pollutants were clearly associated with E/E'. In this analysis of elderly women, we found suggestive evidence for an association of air pollution with impaired diastolic function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Poręba, Rafał, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlationsmore » analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear

  15. High Pulse Wave Velocity Has a Strong Impact on Early Carotid Atherosclerosis in a Japanese General Male Population.

    PubMed

    Kubozono, Takuro; Miyata, Masaaki; Kawasoe, Shin; Ojima, Satoko; Yoshifuku, Shiro; Miyahara, Hironori; Maenohara, Shigeho; Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2017-02-24

    Although there have been several reports on the risk factors associated with intima-media thickness (IMT), many questions remain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between IMT and cardiovascular risk factors in a Japanese general population.Methods and Results:The study group consisted of 1,583 male subjects undergoing routine health checkups. IMT of the common carotid artery was measured by high-resolution ultrasonography. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using an automated device. Univariate analysis demonstrated that carotid IMT significantly associated with age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), baPWV, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Multiple logistic regression analysis for carotid atherosclerosis (carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm) was performed using obesity (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m 2 ), high BP (SBP ≥130 mmHg or DBP ≥85 mmHg), dyslipidemia (LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL, TG ≥150 mg/dL, or HDL-C <40 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting glucose ≥110 g/dL), and high baPWV (≥1,400 cm/s). Carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with only high baPWV (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.24-4.17, P<0.01). High baPWV was a stronger predictor of early carotid atherosclerosis than high BP, dyslipidemia, or IFG in a Japanese general male population.

  16. Effects of cardiac energy efficiency in diastolic heart failure: assessment with positron emission tomography with 11C-acetate.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Yasushi; Takeda, Yasuharu; Kajimoto, Katsufumi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hori, Masatsugu; Hatazawa, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Diastolic heart failure (DHF) has become a high social burden, and its major underlying cardiovascular disease is hypertensive heart disease. However, the pathogenesis of DHF remains to be clarified. This study aimed to assess the effects of cardiac energy efficiency in DHF patients. (11)C-Acetate positron emission tomography and echocardiography were conducted in 11 DHF Japanese patients and 10 normal volunteers. The myocardial clearance rate of radiolabeled (11)C-acetate was measured to calculate the work metabolic index (WMI), an index of cardiac efficiency. The ratio of peak mitral E wave velocity to peak early diastolic septal myocardial velocity (E/e') was calculated to assess left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. The LV mass index was greater and the mean age was higher in the DHF patients than in the normal volunteers. There was no difference in WMI between the two groups. However, WMI varied widely among the DHF patients and was inversely correlated with E/e' (r=-0.699, p=0.017). In contrast, there was no correlation in the normal volunteers. In conclusion, the inefficiency of energy utilization is not a primary cause of diastolic dysfunction or DHF, and cardiac efficiency may not affect diastolic function in normal hearts. However, the energy-wasting state may induce the elevation of LV filling pressure in DHF patients, which was considered to principally result from the progressive diastolic dysfunction.

  17. Assessment of Diastolic Function in Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Dilveer Kaur; Burch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Diastolic function is an important component of left ventricular (LV) function which is often overlooked. It can cause symptoms of heart failure in patients even in the presence of normal systolic function. The parameters used to assess diastolic function often measure flow and are affected by the loading conditions of the heart. The interpretation of diastolic function in the context of congenital heart disease requires some understanding of the effects of the lesions themselves on these parameters. Individual congenital lesions will be discussed in this paper. Recently, load-independent techniques have led to more accurate measurements of ventricular compliance and remodeling in heart disease. The combination of inflow velocities and tissue Doppler measurements can be used to estimate diastolic function and LV filling pressures. This review focuses on diastolic function and assessment in congenital heart disease. PMID:28261582

  18. Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and incident type 2 diabetes risk: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Juri; Kim, Jin-Seok; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Sunwon; Lim, Sang Yup; Lim, Hong-Euy; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang-Young; Baik, Inkyung; Koh, Kwang Kon; Lee, Jung Bok; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol

    2017-03-14

    Subclinical left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common finding and represents an early sign of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the relationship between LV diastolic dysfunction and the incident T2D has not been previously studied. A total of 1817 non-diabetic participants (mean age, 54 years; 48% men) from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study who were free of cardiovascular disease were studied. LV structure and function were assessed by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction was defined using age-specific cutoff limits for early diastolic (Em) velocity, mitral E/Em ratio, and left atrial volume index. During the 6-year follow-up period, 273 participants (15%) developed T2D. Participants with incident T2D had greater LV mass index (86.7 ± 16.4 vs. 91.2 ± 17.0 g/m 2 ), worse diastolic function, reflected by lower Em velocity (7.67 ± 1.80 vs. 7.47 ± 1.70) and higher E/Em ratio (9.19 ± 2.55 vs. 10.23 ± 3.00), and higher prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction (34.6 vs. 54.2%), compared with those who did not develop T2D (all P < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, lower Em velocity (odd ratio [OR], 0.867; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.786-0.957) and the presence of LV diastolic dysfunction (OR, 1.617; 95% CI 1.191-2.196) were associated with the development of T2D, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. In a community-based cohort, the presence of subclinical LV diastolic dysfunction was a predictor of the progression to T2D. These data suggest that the echocardiographic assessment of LV diastolic function may be helpful in identifying non-diabetic subjects at risk of incident T2D.

  19. Towards accurate radial velocities from early type spectra in the framework of an ESO key programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschueren, Werner; David, M.; Hensberge, Herman

    In order to elucidate the internal kinematics in very young stellar groups, a dedicated machinery was set up, which made it possible to proceed from actual observations to reductions and correlation analysis to the ultimate derivation of early-type stellar radial velocities (RVs) with the requisite precision. The following ingredients are found to be essential to obtain RVs of early-type stars at the 1-km/s level of precision: high-resolution, high-S/N spectra covering a large wavelength range; maximal reduction of observational errors and the use of optimal reduction procedures; the intelligent use of a versatile cross-correlation package; and comparison of velocities derived from different regions of the spectrum in order to detect systematic mismatches between object and template spectrum in some of the lines.

  20. Failure to unmask pseudonormal diastolic function by a valsalva maneuver: tricuspid insufficiency is a major factor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Liu, Dan; Niemann, Markus; Hatle, Liv; Herrmann, Sebastian; Voelker, Wolfram; Ertl, Georg; Bijnens, Bart; Weidemann, Frank

    2011-11-01

    For the clinical assessment of patients with dyspnea, the inversion of the early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow during Valsalva maneuver (VM) frequently helps to distinguish pseudonormal from normal filling pattern. However, in an important number of patients, VM fails to reveal the change from dominant early mitral flow velocity toward larger late velocity. From December 2009 to October 2010, we selected consecutive patients with abnormal filling with (n=25) and without E/A inversion (n=25) during VM. Transmitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary Doppler traces were recorded and the degree of insufficiency was estimated. After evaluating all standard echocardiographic morphological, functional, and flow-related parameters, it became evident that the failure to unmask the pseudonormal filling pattern by VM was related to the degree of the tricuspid insufficiency (TI). TI was graded as mild in 24 of 25 patients in the group with E/A inversion during VM, whereas TI was graded as moderate to severe in 24 of the 25 patients with pseudonormal diastolic function without E/A inversion during VM. Our data suggest that TI is a major factor to prevent E/A inversion during a VM in patients with pseudonormal diastolic function. This probably is due to a decrease in TI resulting in an increase in forward flow rather than the expected decrease during the VM. Thus, whenever a pseudonormal diastolic filling pattern is suspected, the use of a VM is not an informative discriminator in the presence of moderate or severe TI.

  1. Endothelial function is associated with myocardial diastolic function in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Chin, Calvin W L; Chin, Chee-Yang; Ng, Marie X R; Le, Thu-Thao; Huang, Fei-Qiong; Fong, Kok-Yong; Thumboo, Julian; Tan, Ru-San

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific risk factors, and early data suggest reversibility of endothelial dysfunction with therapy. The clinical relevance of endothelial function assessment has been limited by the lack of studies, demonstrating its prognostic significance and impact on early myocardial function. Therefore, we aimed to determine the association between endothelial and myocardial diastolic function in SLE women. Women with SLE and no coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited and underwent radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) (Jetstream, Philips, the Netherlands) to exclude subclinical myocardial ischemia. Cardiac and vascular functions were assessed in all patients (Alpha 10, Aloka, Tokyo). Diastolic function was assessed using pulse wave early (E) and late mitral blood inflow and myocardial tissue Doppler (mean of medial and lateral annulus e') velocities. Endothelial function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD%). Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to assess the association between FMD% and myocardial diastolic function, adjusting for potential confounders. Thirty-eight patients without detectable myocardial ischemia on MPI were studied (mean age 44 ± 10 years; mean disease duration 14 ± 6 years). About 61 % of patients had normal diastolic function (E/e' ≤ 8), and 5 % of patients had definite diastolic dysfunction with E/e' > 13 (mean 7.1 ± 2.9). FMD% was associated with E/e' (regression coefficient β = -0.35; 95 % CI -0.62 to -0.08; p = 0.01) independent of systolic blood pressure, age, and SLICC/ACR Damage Index.

  2. Diastolic stress echocardiography in the young: a study in nonathletic and endurance-trained healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Studer Bruengger, Annina A; Kaufmann, Beat A; Buser, Marc; Hoffmann, Mario; Bader, Franziska; Bernheim, Alain M

    2014-10-01

    The response of diastolic Doppler indices to exercise is not well defined for young subjects. The aims of this study were to evaluate this in nonathletic and endurance-trained probands and to correlate echocardiographic data with maximal oxygen consumption. In this prospective study, Doppler echocardiography was performed at rest and after exercise in 40 nonathletes (NAs) and 20 endurance-trained athletes (ETs) aged < 40 years, matched for age and gender. Diastolic function was assessed by mitral inflow and early diastolic velocities of the septal (e' septal) and lateral (e' lateral) mitral annulus. Maximal oxygen consumption quantification was performed simultaneously. All cardiac chambers were larger in ETs than NAs. ETs had higher e' lateral at rest (18.1 ± 2.7 vs 16.3 ± 3.3 cm/sec, P = .02) and higher mitral E (141 ± 15 vs 132 ± 15 cm/sec, P = .02) and e' lateral (23.5 ± 2.5 vs 21.4 ± 3.0 cm/sec, P = .01) with exercise than NAs. There was a slight increase in E/e' septal (overall, from 6.8 ± 1.3 to 7.2 ± 1.2; P = .02) and E/e' lateral (overall, from 5.0 ± 0.8 to 6.2 ± 0.9; P < .0001) with exercise. Changes in diastolic parameters with exercise were similar in ETs and NAs. Percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption was correlated with exertional E (r = 0.28, P = .03) and e' lateral (r = 0.32, P = .01), but the strongest predictor was indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r = 0.66, P < .0001). During exercise, E/e' increases but remains within normal ranges in healthy young subjects, and the response to exercise does not differ between ETs and NAs. These data help define the normal diastolic stress echocardiographic response in the young. Exercise capacity shows a correlation with enhanced exertional early diastolic velocities but is more closely related to cardiac structural adaption to endurance training. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vorticity is a marker of diastolic ventricular interdependency in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Browning, James; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Shandas, Robin; Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Buckner, J. Kern; Hunter, Kendall S.; Hertzberg, Jean R.; Fenster, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our objective was to determine whether left ventricular (LV) vorticity (ω), the local spinning motion of a fluid element, correlated with markers of ventricular interdependency in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Maladaptive ventricular interdependency is associated with interventricular septal shift, impaired LV performance, and poor outcomes in PH patients, yet the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying fluid-structure interactions in ventricular interdependency are incompletely understood. Because conformational changes in chamber geometry affect blood flow formations and dynamics, LV ω may be a marker of LV-RV (right ventricular) interactions in PH. Echocardiography was performed for 13 PH patients and 10 controls for assessment of interdependency markers, including eccentricity index (EI), and biventricular diastolic dysfunction, including mitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) early and late velocities (E and A, respectively) as well as MV septal and lateral early tissue Doppler velocities (e′). Same-day 4-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance was performed for LV E (early)-wave ω measurement. LV E-wave ω was significantly decreased in PH patients (P = 0.008) and correlated with diastolic EI (Rho = −0.53, P = 0.009) as well as with markers of LV diastolic dysfunction, including MV E(Rho = 0.53, P = 0.011), E/A (Rho = 0.56, P = 0.007), septal e′ (Rho = 0.63, P = 0.001), and lateral e′ (Rho = 0.57, P = 0.007). Furthermore, LV E-wave ω was associated with indices of RV diastolic dysfunction, including TV e′ (Rho = 0.52, P = 0.012) and TV E/A (Rho = 0.53, P = 0.009). LV E-wave ω is decreased in PH and correlated with multiple echocardiographic markers of ventricular interdependency. LV ω may be a novel marker for fluid-tissue biomechanical interactions in LV-RV interdependency. PMID:27162613

  4. Wall Thickness, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Diastolic Filling Abnormalities Predict Response to Postoperative Biventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Brusen, Robin M.; Hahn, Rebecca; Cabreriza, Santos E.; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Daniel Y.; Truong, Wanda; Spotnitz, Henry M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Post-cardiopulmonary bypass biventricular pacing improves hemodynamics but without clearly defined predictors of response. Based on preclinical studies and prior observations, it was suspected that diastolic dysfunction or pulmonary hypertension is predictive of hemodynamic benefit. Design Randomized controlled study of temporary biventricular pacing after cardiopulmonary bypass. Setting Single-center study at university-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Interventions Patients who underwent bypass with pre-operative ejection fraction ≤40% and QRS duration ≥100 ms or double-valve surgery were enrolled. At 3 time points between separation from bypass and postoperative day 1, pacing delays were varied to optimize hemodynamics. Participants Data from 43 patients were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results Cardiac output and arterial pressure were measured under no pacing, atrial pacing, and biventricular pacing. Preoperative echocardiograms and pulmonary artery catheterizations were reviewed, and measures of both systolic and diastolic function were compared to hemodynamic response. Early after separation, improvement in cardiac output was positively correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (R2 = 0.97, p < 0.001), ventricle wall thickness (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.002)), and E/e′, a measure of abnormal diastolic ventricular filling velocity (R2 = 0.56, p = 0.04). Similar trends were seen with mean arterial pressure. QRS duration and ejection fraction did not correlate significantly with improvements in hemodynamics. Conclusions There may be an effect of biventricular pacing related to amelioration of abnormal diastolic filling patterns rather than electrical resynchronization in the postoperative state. PMID:25998068

  5. Diastolic dysfunction characterizes cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Piyush O.; contractor, Qais; Chaurasia, Ajay S.; Rathi, Pravin M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Present study aims to study the occurrence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and its correlation to hepatorenal syndrome by assessing the cardiac status in patients with cirrhosis of liver and healthy controls. Methods Thirty alcoholic cirrhotic, thirty non-alcoholic cirrhotic and thirty controls were enrolled for the study. Cardiac parameters were assessed by color doppler echocardiography. Patients were followed up for twelve months period for development of hepatorenal syndrome. Results Mild diastolic dysfunction was present in 18 cirrhotic patients (30%): grade I in fifteen patients and grade II in three. Diastolic dysfunction was unrelated to age; sex and etiology of cirrhosis. Among all the echocardiographic parameters, only deceleration time was found to be statistically significant. Echocardiographic parameters in systolic and diastolic function were not different in compensated vs decompensated patients in different Child-Pugh classes or cirrhosis aetiologies. At one year follow-up, no significant differences were found in survival between patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Hepatorenal syndrome developed in only two patients and its correlation with diastolic dysfunction was not statistically significant. Conclusions Present study shows that although diastolic dysfunction is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There are no significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. HRS is not correlated to diastolic dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There is no difference in survival at one year between patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis is unrelated to circulatory dysfunction, ascites and HRS. PMID:25634400

  6. Mapping conduction velocity of early embryonic hearts with a robust fitting algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shi; Wang, Yves T; Ma, Pei; Werdich, Andreas A; Rollins, Andrew M; Jenkins, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac conduction maturation is an important and integral component of heart development. Optical mapping with voltage-sensitive dyes allows sensitive measurements of electrophysiological signals over the entire heart. However, accurate measurements of conduction velocity during early cardiac development is typically hindered by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements of action potentials. Here, we present a novel image processing approach based on least squares optimizations, which enables high-resolution, low-noise conduction velocity mapping of smaller tubular hearts. First, the action potential trace measured at each pixel is fit to a curve consisting of two cumulative normal distribution functions. Then, the activation time at each pixel is determined based on the fit, and the spatial gradient of activation time is determined with a two-dimensional (2D) linear fit over a square-shaped window. The size of the window is adaptively enlarged until the gradients can be determined within a preset precision. Finally, the conduction velocity is calculated based on the activation time gradient, and further corrected for three-dimensional (3D) geometry that can be obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We validated the approach using published activation potential traces based on computer simulations. We further validated the method by adding artificially generated noise to the signal to simulate various SNR conditions using a curved simulated image (digital phantom) that resembles a tubular heart. This method proved to be robust, even at very low SNR conditions (SNR = 2-5). We also established an empirical equation to estimate the maximum conduction velocity that can be accurately measured under different conditions (e.g. sampling rate, SNR, and pixel size). Finally, we demonstrated high-resolution conduction velocity maps of the quail embryonic heart at a looping stage of development. PMID:26114034

  7. Cardiac macrophages promote diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Sager, Hendrik B; Roh, Jason D; Valero-Muñoz, María; Houstis, Nicholas E; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Sun, Yuan; Wilson, Richard M; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Tricot, Benoit; Osborne, Michael T; Hung, Judy; Vinegoni, Claudio; Naxerova, Kamila; Sosnovik, David E; Zile, Michael R; Bradshaw, Amy D; Liao, Ronglih; Tawakol, Ahmed; Weissleder, Ralph; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Swirski, Filip K; Sam, Flora; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2018-02-05

    Macrophages populate the healthy myocardium and, depending on their phenotype, may contribute to tissue homeostasis or disease. Their origin and role in diastolic dysfunction, a hallmark of cardiac aging and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, remain unclear. Here we show that cardiac macrophages expand in humans and mice with diastolic dysfunction, which in mice was induced by either hypertension or advanced age. A higher murine myocardial macrophage density results from monocyte recruitment and increased hematopoiesis in bone marrow and spleen. In humans, we observed a parallel constellation of hematopoietic activation: circulating myeloid cells are more frequent, and splenic 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging signal correlates with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction. While diastolic dysfunction develops, cardiac macrophages produce IL-10, activate fibroblasts, and stimulate collagen deposition, leading to impaired myocardial relaxation and increased myocardial stiffness. Deletion of IL-10 in macrophages improves diastolic function. These data imply expansion and phenotypic changes of cardiac macrophages as therapeutic targets for cardiac fibrosis leading to diastolic dysfunction. © 2018 Hulsmans et al.

  8. Left ventricular diastolic filling with an implantable ventricular assist device: beat to beat variability with overall improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Zhou, J.; Greenberg, N. L.; Savage, R. M.; McCarthy, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of left ventricular (LV) unloading by an implantable ventricular assist device on LV diastolic filling. BACKGROUND: Although many investigators have reported reliable systemic and peripheral circulatory support with implantable LV assist devices, little is known about their effect on cardiac performance. METHODS: Peak velocities of early diastolic filling, late diastolic filling, late to early filling ratio, deceleration time of early filling, diastolic filling period and atrial filling fraction were measured by intraoperative transesophageal Doppler echocardiography before and after insertion of an LV assist device in eight patients. A numerical model was developed to simulate this situation. RESULTS: Before device insertion, all patients showed either a restrictive or a monophasic transmitral flow pattern. After device insertion, transmitral flow showed rapid beat to beat variation in each patient, from abnormal relaxation to restrictive patterns. However, when the average values obtained from 10 consecutive beats were considered, overall filling was significantly normalized from baseline, with early filling velocity falling from 87 +/- 31 to 64 +/- 26 cm/s (p < 0.01) and late filling velocity rising from 8 +/- 11 to 32 +/- 23 cm/s (p < 0.05), resulting in an increase in the late to early filling ratio from 0.13 +/- 0.18 to 0.59 +/- 0.38 (p < 0.01) and a rise in the atrial filling fraction from 8 +/- 10% to 26 +/- 17% (p < 0.01). The deceleration time (from 112 +/- 40 to 160 +/- 44 ms, p < 0.05) and the filling period corrected by the RR interval (from 39 +/- 8% to 54 +/- 10%, p < 0.005) were also significantly prolonged. In the computer model, asynchronous LV assistance produced significant beat to beat variation in filling indexes, but overall a normalization of deceleration time as well as other variables. CONCLUSIONS: With LV assistance, transmitral flow showed rapidly varying patterns beat by beat in each patient, but

  9. Evaluation of P-Wave Dispersion, Diastolic Function, and Atrial Electromechanical Conduction in Pediatric Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Irdem, Ahmet; Aydın Sahin, Derya; Kervancioglu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Osman; Sucu, Murat; Keskin, Mehmet; Kilinc, Metin

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate ventricular diastolic dysfunction, inter- and intraatrial conduction delay, and P-wave dispersion in pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The study comprised a total of 30 pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (mean age 7.8 ± 3.2 years) and 30 healthy children (mean age 8.4 ± 3.6 years) as the control group. A SH diagnosis was made in the event of increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased serum free triiodothyronine (T3 ) and free thyroxine (T4 ) concentrations. Conventional Doppler imaging (TDI) showed low mitral early diastolic E-wave velocity and E/A ratio (P < 0.001) and significantly higher mitral late diastolic A-wave velocity (P = 0.001) in hypothyroidism patients. Moreover, patients with hypothyroidism had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) septal Em velocity and Em /Am ratios compared with the control group (P < 0.001), whereas Am velocity was higher in hypothyroidism patients (P = 0.018). LV lateral Em velocity and Em /Am ratio were significantly lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared with the control group (P < 0.001). With regard to atrial electromechanical conduction, atrial electromechanical delay (PA) lateral, PA septum, PA tricuspid, and each of interatrial and intraatrial conduction delay were significantly prolonged in hypothyroidism patients as compared with the control group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.023, P = 0.002, and P = 0.003, respectively). P-wave dispersion was significantly different in the pediatric patients with hypothyroidism (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated atrial electromechanical conduction delay, abnormal P-wave dispersion, and ventricle diastolic dysfunction in pediatric patients with hypothyroidism. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cardiac Amyloidosis Shows Decreased Diastolic Function as Assessed by Echocardiographic Parameterized Diastolic Filling.

    PubMed

    Salman, Katrin; Cain, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Sundqvist, Martin G; Ugander, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis is a rare but serious condition with poor survival. One of the early findings by echocardiography is impaired diastolic function, even before the development of cardiac symptoms. Early diagnosis is important, permitting initiation of treatment aimed at improving survival. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism entails describing the left ventricular filling pattern during early diastole using the mathematical equation for the motion of a damped harmonic oscillator. We hypothesized that echocardiographic PDF analysis could detect differences in diastolic function between patients with amyloidosis and controls. Pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography of transmitral flow was measured in 13 patients with amyloid heart disease and 13 age- and gender matched controls. E- waves (2 to 3 per subject) were analyzed using in-house developed software. Nine PDF-derived parameters were obtained in addition to conventional echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function. Compared to controls, cardiac amyloidosis patients had a larger left atrial area (23.7 ± 7.5 cm 2 vs. 18.5 ± 4.8 cm 2 , p = 0.04), greater interventricular septum wall thickness (14.4 ± 2.6 mm vs. 9.3 ± 1.3 mm, p < 0.001), lower e' (0.06 ± 0.02 m/s vs. 0.09 ± 0.02 m/s, p < 0.001) and higher E/e' (18.0 ± 12.9 vs. 7.7 ± 1.3, p = 0.001). The PDF parameter peak resistive force was greater in cardiac amyloidosis patients compared to controls (17.9 ± 5.7 mN vs. 13.1 ± 3.1 mN, p = 0.03), and other PDF parameters did not differ. PDF analysis revealed that patients with cardiac amyloidosis had a greater peak resistive force compared to controls, consistent with a greater degree of diastolic dysfunction. PDF analysis may be useful in characterizing diastolic function in amyloid heart disease. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of diastolic function indices in the risk stratification of patients with mixed aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Egbe, Alexander C; Khan, Arooj R; Boler, Amber; Said, Sameh M; Geske, Jeffrey B; Miranda, William R; Akintoye, Emmanuel; Connolly, Heidi M; Warnes, Carole A; Oh, Jae K

    2018-06-01

    Determine the role of diastolic function indices in pre-operative and post-operative risk stratification in patients with moderate mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD). A retrospective study was conducted of asymptomatic patients with moderate MAVD (a combination of moderate aortic stenosis and moderate aortic regurgitation) and an ejection fraction of 50% or more who were followed up at Mayo Clinic from 1 January 2004, to 31 December 2013. A pre-requisite for inclusion in the study was assessment of diastolic function involving at least three of the following indices: tissue Doppler early diastolic velocity (e'), mitral inflow early velocity (E), tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index. Primary endpoints were aortic valve replacement (AVR) or cardiac death while secondary endpoints were cardiovascular adverse events (CAEs) after AVR. We defined CAEs as stroke, heart failure hospitalization, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiac death. There were 214 patients (age 61 ± 8 years, men 146 [68%]) followed for 6.1 ± 2.3 years during which 162 (76%) AVRs and 11 (5%) cardiac deaths occurred. The multivariable risk factors for cardiac death or AVR were relative wall thickness (RWT) > 0.42 [hazard ratio (HR), 1.88 [95% CI, 1.28-2.59]; P = 0.001] and average E/e' >14 (HR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.29-3.01]; P = 0.02). Freedom from CAE after AVR was significantly lower in the patients with baseline RWT >0.42 or mean E/e' >14 than the other patients: 79% (95% CI 74-83%) vs. 94% (95% CI 89-98%) at 3 years (P = 0.03). The presence of RWT >0.42 or E/e' >14 identifies a high-risk patient subset whose risk for cardiovascular morbidities persists even after AVR.

  12. Dynamic change in left ventricular apical back rotation: a marker of diastolic suction with exercise.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jin; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Darae; Cho, In-Jeong; Hong, Geu-Ru; Moon, Sun-Ha; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Ha, Jong-Won

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesized that the absence of a decrease in minimal left ventricular (LV) pressure during exercise would be associated with impaired LV apical back rotation during exercise. A total of 21 patients (59 ± 10 years) underwent invasive LV pressure measurements and simultaneous echocardiography at rest and during submaximal supine bicycle exercise. Patients were classified according to the changes in minimal LV pressure from rest to maximal exercise (Δminimal LVP); Group 1 (n = 8) had a decrease in minimal LV pressure with exercise, whereas Group 2 (n = 13) had an increase in minimal LV pressure. LV apical back-rotation parameters by speckle-tracking echocardiography at rest and during 50 W of exercise were compared. At rest, there were no differences in LV pressure and echocardiographic parameters between groups. However, at 50 W of exercise, Group 2 had higher LV early and end-diastolic pressures and a prolonged time constant of LV relaxation. In Group 2, e' velocity was lower and E/e' was higher. Apical back rotation at the mitral valve opening (MVO) was reduced and minimal apical back-rotation velocity was lower in Group 2. Δminimal LVP significantly correlated with apical back rotation at MVO (r = -0.77, P = 0.009) and minimal apical back-rotation velocity at 50 W (r = 0.69, P = 0.028). The lack of decrease in minimal LV pressure during exercise, a manifestation of impaired LV suction in early diastole, is linked closely with impaired LV apical back rotation during exercise. Dynamic changes in LV apical back rotation during exercise can be used as a non-invasive parameter of diastolic suction during exercise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction without left ventricular hypertrophy in obese children and adolescents: a Tissue Doppler Imaging and Cardiac Troponin I Study.

    PubMed

    El Saiedi, Sonia A; Mira, Marwa F; Sharaf, Sahar A; Al Musaddar, Maysoun M; El Kaffas, Rania M H; AbdelMassih, Antoine F; Barsoum, Ihab H Y

    2018-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for various cardiovascular problems. Increase in body mass index is often an independent risk factor for the development of elevated blood pressure and clustering of various cardiovascular risk factors. To determine early markers of left ventricular affection in obese patients before the appearance of left ventricular hypertrophy. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 42 obese patients and 30 healthy controls. Their ages ranged from 6 to 19 years. Studied children were subjected to anthropometric, lipid profile, and serum Troponin I level measurements. Echocardiographic evaluation performed to assess the left ventricle included left ventricular dimension measurement using motion-mode echocardiography, based on which patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (10 patients) were eliminated, as well as conventional and tissue Doppler imaging. Tissue Doppler findings in the study groups showed that the ratio of transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to septal peak early diastolic myocardial velocity (E/e') was significantly higher in cases compared with controls [6.9±1.4 versus 9.0±1.6, p (Pearson's coefficient)=0.001, respectively]. The level of cardiac troponin I was significantly higher in cases compared with controls [0.14±0.39 ng/ml versus 0.01±0.01 ng/ml, p (Pearson's coefficient)=0.047, respectively] and there was a significant correlation between troponin I and transmitral early diastolic filling velocity to septal peak early diastolic myocardial velocity ratio (E/e') [R (correlation coefficient)=0.6]. Tissue Doppler Imaging and Troponin I evaluation proved useful tools to detect early affection of the left ventricle in obese patients even in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of rosuvastatin in preventing the progression of diastolic dysfunction in aortic stenosis: A substudy of the aortic stenosis progression observation measuring effects of rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a noninvasive echocardiographic method for the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction in patients with varying degrees of aortic stenosis (AS). Little is known however, on the utility of TDI in the serial assessment of diastolic abnormalities in AS. Objective The aim of the current proposal was to examine whether treatment with rosuvastatin was successful in improving diastolic abnormalities in patients enrolled in the Aortic Stenosis Progression Observation Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) study. Methods Conventional Doppler indices including peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral velocities, and E/A ratio were measured from spectral Doppler. Tissue Doppler measurements including early (E') and late (A') velocities of the lateral annulus were determined, and E/E' was calculated. Results The study population included 168 patients (56 ± 13 years), whose AS severity was categorized based on peak velocity at baseline (Group I: 2.5-3.0 m/s; Group II: 3.1-3.5 m/s; Group III: 3.6-4.0 m/s). Baseline and follow-up hemodynamics, LV dimensions and diastolic functional parameters were evaluated in all three groups. There was increased diastolic dysfunction from baseline to follow-up in each of the placebo and rosuvastatin groups. In patients with increasing severity of AS in Groups I and II, the lateral E' was lower and the E/E' (as an estimate of increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) was higher at baseline (p < 0.05). However, treatment with rosuvastatin did not affect the progression of diastolic dysfunction from baseline to 3.5 year follow-up between patients in any of the three predefined groups. Conclusion In patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic AS, rosuvastatin did not attenuate the progression of diastolic dysfunction. PMID:21299902

  15. Assessment of regional systolic and diastolic myocardial function using tissue Doppler and strain imaging in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Gouni, Vassiliki; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Tissier, Renaud; Serres, François; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) or strain (St) imaging could provide sensitive indices for early detection and treatment follow-up of canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Analysis of TDI and St features in dogs with overt DCM is a prerequisite before using these new criteria in prospective screenings of predisposed families or in clinical trials. Radial and longitudinal right and left myocardial motion, assessed by TDI and St variables, is altered in dogs with DCM. Case records for 26 dogs; 14 with DCM and 12 healthy controls of comparable age and weight were reviewed. A retrospective analysis was conducted of conventional echocardiography, 2-dimensional color TDI, and St imaging data. The DCM group was characterized by decreases in radial and longitudinal systolic velocity gradients of the left ventricular free wall (LVFW), radial and longitudinal absolute values of peak systolic St of the LVFW, and longitudinal systolic right ventricular (RV) velocities (all P < .001 versus control) associated with longitudinal postsystolic contraction waves in 7/14 dogs. Early diastolic LVFW velocities also were decreased for longitudinal (P < .01) and radial (P < .05) motions. All radial LVFW, longitudinal basal LVFW, and RV systolic velocities were negatively correlated with heart rate (P < .01). LV contractility along both the short and long axes is impaired in dogs with spontaneous DCM, as is systolic RV and diastolic LVFW function. These myocardial alterations are associated with an inverse force-frequency relationship. Studies now are needed to determine the comparative sensitivity of TDI and St variables for the early detection of canine DCM.

  16. The MASSIVE survey - VIII. Stellar velocity dispersion profiles and environmental dependence of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; Thomas, Jens; Blakeslee, John P.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Ito, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    We measure the radial profiles of the stellar velocity dispersions, σ(R), for 90 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the MASSIVE survey, a volume-limited integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) galaxy survey targeting all northern-sky ETGs with absolute K-band magnitude MK < -25.3 mag, or stellar mass M* ≳ 4 × 1011M⊙, within 108 Mpc. Our wide-field 107 arcsec × 107 arcsec IFS data cover radii as large as 40 kpc, for which we quantify separately the inner (2 kpc) and outer (20 kpc) logarithmic slopes γinner and γouter of σ(R). While γinner is mostly negative, of the 56 galaxies with sufficient radial coverage to determine γouter we find 36 per cent to have rising outer dispersion profiles, 30 per cent to be flat within the uncertainties and 34 per cent to be falling. The fraction of galaxies with rising outer profiles increases with M* and in denser galaxy environment, with 10 of the 11 most massive galaxies in our sample having flat or rising dispersion profiles. The strongest environmental correlations are with local density and halo mass, but a weaker correlation with large-scale density also exists. The average γouter is similar for brightest group galaxies, satellites and isolated galaxies in our sample. We find a clear positive correlation between the gradients of the outer dispersion profile and the gradients of the velocity kurtosis h4. Altogether, our kinematic results suggest that the increasing fraction of rising dispersion profiles in the most massive ETGs are caused (at least in part) by variations in the total mass profiles rather than in the velocity anisotropy alone.

  17. The SLUGGS Survey: A Catalog of Over 4000 Globular Cluster Radial Velocities in 27 Nearby Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Alabi, Adebusola; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Foster, Caroline; Usher, Christopher; Spitler, Lee; Bellstedt, Sabine; Pastorello, Nicola; Villaume, Alexa; Wasserman, Asher; Pota, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present positions and radial velocities for over 4000 globular clusters (GCs) in 27 nearby early-type galaxies from the SLUGGS survey. The SLUGGS survey is designed to be representative of elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the stellar mass range 10 < log {M}* /M ⊙ < 11.7. The data have been obtained over many years, mostly using the very stable multi-object spectrograph DEIMOS on the Keck II 10 m telescope. Radial velocities are measured using the calcium triplet lines, with a velocity accuracy of ±10-15 km s-1. We use phase space diagrams (I.e., velocity-position diagrams) to identify contaminants such as foreground stars and background galaxies, and to show that the contribution of GCs from neighboring galaxies is generally insignificant. Likely ultra-compact dwarfs are tabulated separately. We find that the mean velocity of the GC system is close to that of the host galaxy systemic velocity, indicating that the GC system is in overall dynamical equilibrium within the galaxy potential. We also find that the GC system velocity dispersion scales with host galaxy stellar mass, in a similar manner to the Faber-Jackson relation for the stellar velocity dispersion. Publication of these GC radial velocity catalogs should enable further studies in many areas, such as GC system substructure, kinematics, and host galaxy mass measurements.

  18. Troglitazone, an antidiabetic drug, improves left ventricular mass and diastolic function in normotensive diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, H; Sugano, M; Abe, N; Yonemoch, H; Makino, N

    2001-01-01

    Patients with NIDDM have excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in the absence of hypertension. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which is an ominous prognostic sign and an independent risk factor for cardiac events, is often present in NIDDM patients. NIDDM male patients with (n=10) and without (n=12) hypertension, all of whom had been diagnosed over 10 years ago, were examined in the present study. Normotensive NIDDM patients had not received any anti-hypertensive drugs. All patients were classified according to the left ventricular mass (LVM) index by using M-mode echocardiography and were assessed regarding their systolic (fractional shortening) and diastolic function, which included the maximal early flow velocity (MFV), the mitral valve deceleration time (DT), and the isovolumic relaxation time (IRT) as determined by Doppler indices. Troglitazone (TRO), an antidiabetic drug, was administered to both groups at a dose of 400 mg/day for 6 months. After TRO treatment, a reduction in the LVM index and an improvement in the diastolic function were observed in the normotensive but not in the hypertensive patients. The TRO treatment was sensitive for cardiac regression in those normotensive patients. These results suggest that LVH and the diastolic function in NIDDM patients without hypertension may be associated with elevated insulin resistance because TRO has a pharmacological function to increase the insulin sensitivity and to decrease insulin resistance.

  19. Insulin resistance-associated decreases in left ventricular diastolic function are strongly modified by the extent of concentric remodeling in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Vernice; Norton, Gavin R; Raymond, Andrew; Libhaber, Carlos D; Millen, Aletta M E; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Maseko, Muzi J; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-10-01

    Whether excess adiposity, associated metabolic abnormalities or alternative risk factors for left ventricular (LV) diastolic function are modified rather than mediated by geometric LV remodeling, is uncertain. Echocardiographic LV mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT) and diastolic function (lateral and septal wall myocardial tissue lengthening at the level of the mitral annulus [e'] [n=430], ratio of early-to-late transmitral blood flow velocity (E/A), and E/e' [n=430]) were determined in 737 randomly recruited participants of a community-based study (43% obese). Independent of LVMI and confounders, indexes of adiposity and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were independently associated with LV diastolic function (p<0.05). In addition, RWT was independently associated with LV diastolic function (p<0.002). Importantly, an independent interaction between HOMA-IR and RWT, but not between blood pressure or age and RWT, was related to LV diastolic function (p<0.05). This translated into an independent relationship between HOMA-IR and lateral e' (partial r=-0.17, p<0.02), septal e' (partial r=-0.14, p=0.05), E/A (partial r=-0.17, p<0.005) and E/e' (partial r=0.19, p<0.01) in those with RWT above, but a lack of relationship between HOMA-IR and LV diastolic function (p>0.59) in those with RWT below the median for the sample. Similarly, HOMA-IR was independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in those with RWT above (p<0.05) but not below (p>0.19) the median for the sample. The relationship between insulin resistance, but not alternative risk factors and LV diastolic function is markedly modified by the presence of a more concentrically remodeled LV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tissue Doppler-derived E/e' ratio as a parameter for assessing diastolic heart failure and as a predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Biro; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Jae Seok; Han, Byoung-Geun; Choi, Seung Ok; Yang, Jae Won

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with heart failure (HF) or mortality. We investigated whether the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/e' ratio), estimated using tissue Doppler imaging, has prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD. For 186 patients with CKD of stages III to V, we obtained echocardiograms with tissue Doppler imaging. A 5-year follow-up of 136 patients was performed based on hospital records and telephone interviews. The enrolled patients (79 males and 57 females) were categorized into the following CKD subgroups: stage III (n = 25); stage IV (n = 22); and stage V (n = 89). The average follow-up period was 30.45 months and the mean age of the patients was 61.13 years. The mortality rate after 5 years was 60.0%. The causes of death were: sepsis, 21.9%; HF, 16.2%; and sudden death, 15.2%. Age (p = 0.000), increased C-reactive protein level (p = 0.018), and increased E/e' ratio (p = 0.048) were found to correlate with mortality. Age (p = 0.000), decreased ejection fraction (p = 0.003), and increased E/e' ratio (p = 0.045) correlated with cardiovascular event. The E/e' ratio can predict mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with CKD who have diastolic dysfunction.

  1. Evaluation of third trimester uterine artery flow velocity indices in relationship to perinatal complications.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, G; Breborowicz, A; Brazert, M; Maczkiewicz, M; Kobelski, M; Dubiel, M; Gudmundsson, S

    2006-09-01

    Uterine artery Doppler is becoming a routine part of pregnancy surveillance in high-risk pregnancies. Which blood flow velocity waveform index to measure is debated and the 'notch' in early diastole is not widely accepted, as it is a subjective measure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different indices in the prediction of adverse outcome of pregnancies suspected for intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Uterine artery blood flow was recorded in 217 pregnancies admitted for Doppler ultrasound surveillance due to suspected IUGR. The median gestational age at examination was 38 weeks (range 25-42 weeks). Only cases having bilateral uterine artery notching were included in the evaluation. The uterine artery Doppler spectrum was analyzed for different indices, including evaluation of notch and end-diastolic velocities. Umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry was also performed. The outcome variables chosen were: a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, preterm birth, and abdominal delivery. ROC-curve calculations were used to compare the different indices. The uterine artery blood velocity pulsatility index (PI) and resistance indices (RI) were the best predictors of adverse outcome of pregnancy. Apart from premature birth, the systolic/end-diastolic ratio was less predictive of adverse outcome. The indices including only diastolic blood velocities were the least predictive of adverse outcome. The group with notch velocity above end-diastolic velocity was compared with those having notch velocity below the end-diastolic velocity. No difference in outcome was seen between the two groups. RI and PI as measures of third trimester utero-placental vascular impedance are the best predictors of adverse outcome of IUGR-suspected pregnancies.

  2. Different mechanisms for diastolic mitral regurgitation illustrated by three comparative cases.

    PubMed

    Sisu, Roxana C; Vinereanu, Dragos

    2011-04-01

    Diastolic mitral regurgitation (DMR) has been reported in patients with AV block, aortic regurgitation, cardiomyopathies, and in patients with long filling periods in atrial tachyarrhythmias. The mechanism for DMR is a reversal in the atrioventricular gradient during diastole. However, because of its relatively low velocity, it may be difficult to diagnose noninvasively. We present three different cases of diastolic MR in 2:1 second-degree AV block, atrial flutter, and dilated cardiomyopathy, with different locations in diastole. Diastolic tricuspid regurgitation commonly accompanies DMR. Careful analysis of echocardiographical images related with online ECG is very important in order to delineate systolic and DMR, and their timing in systole and diastole. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Diastolic left ventricular function in preterm infants with a patent ductus arteriosus: a serial Doppler echocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lothar; Stiller, Brigitte; Koch, Heike; Koehne, Petra; Lange, Peter

    2004-02-01

    In very low birth weight neonates, a left-to-right shunt via persistent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may interact with diastolic left ventricular function, but specific changes of Doppler parameters have yet to be reported. In a serial transmitral Doppler study, we investigated the impact of a PDA on diastolic function parameters. Twenty-two patients with and without PDA were examined on day 3.8+/-1 and day 14+/-2 after birth. By the first examination, 13 out of 22 patients had a PDA; by the second examination, the number was still 8 out of 22. Peak early and atrial flow velocities (44.8+/-15 and 50.1+/-13 cm/s, respectively) were higher (p<0.05) for neonates with PDA compared to those with closed duct (30.9+/-6 and 34.2 cm/s, respectively). Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was shorter in neonates with PDA (45+/-7 ms, N=21) compared to those with a closed duct (55.3+/-5 ms, N=23) (p<0.01). IVRT correlated inversely with cardiac index (R=-0.79, p<0.01). All observed changes reversed to the normal range after closure of the PDA. When premature infants with a PDA experience a preload challenge, early and atrial peak velocities increase and IVRT shortens significantly. This coincidence of elevated transvalvular pressure differences and decreased IVRT in neonates with immature diastolic function can best be explained as a result of left atrial pressure elevation. Consequently, pulmonary venous pressure must be elevated, with its inherent effect on pulmonary capillary physiology. Thus, the monitoring of left ventricular diastolic function adds significant information to the care of preterm infants with a PDA.

  4. Phloem Transport Velocity Varies over Time and among Vascular Bundles during Early Cucumber Seedling Development1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jessica A.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2013-01-01

    We use a novel dye-tracing technique to measure in vivo phloem transport velocity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants during early seedling development. We focus on seedlings because of their importance in plant establishment and because they provide a simple source and sink model of phloem transport. The dye-tracing method uses a photodiode to track the movement of a bleach front of fluorescent dye traveling in the phloem from the cotyledons (source) to the roots (sink). During early seedling development, phloem transport velocity in this direction can change 2-fold depending on vascular connectivity and the number of actively growing sinks. Prior to leaf expansion, vascular bundles attached to the first developing leaf demonstrate a decline in basipetal phloem transport that can be alleviated by the leaf’s removal. At this stage, seedlings appear carbon limited and phloem transport velocity is correlated with cotyledon area, a pattern that is apparent both during cotyledon expansion and after source area manipulation. When the first leaf transitions to a carbon source, seedling growth rate increases and basipetal phloem transport velocity becomes more stable. Because bundles appear to operate autonomously, transport velocity can differ among vascular bundles. Together, these results demonstrate the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of phloem transport and underline the need for a better understanding of how changes in phloem physiology impact growth and allocation at this critical stage of development. PMID:24072581

  5. Association of left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential systolic dysfunction with diastolic function in hypertension: a nonlinear analysis focused on the interplay with left ventricular geometry.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Nistri, Stefano; Cameli, Matteo; Papesso, Barbara; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Galderisi, Maurizio; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Mondillo, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    The relationships of left ventricular (LV) longitudinal and circumferential systolic dysfunction with diastolic performance in hypertensive patients have never been compared. In 532 asymptomatic hypertensive patients, circumferential function was assessed with the use of midwall fractional shortening (mFS) and stress-corrected mFS (SCmFS), whereas longitudinal function was assessed with the use of left atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) and systolic mitral annulus velocity (s'). Early diastolic annular velocity (e') and the E/e' ratio were measured. Global longitudinal and circumferential strain were determined in a subset of 210 patients. e' was linearly related to all systolic indexes (AVPD: R = 0.40; s': R = 0.39; mFS: R = 0.16; SCmFS: R = 0.17; all P < .0001), but the correlations were stronger with longitudinal indexes than with circumferential ones (P < .0001). E/e' was nonlinearly related to AVPD (R = -0.49; P < .0001) and s' (R = -0.34; P < .0001) and showed no relationship with mFS and SCmFS. Longitudinal indexes were superior to circumferential ones in predicting e' <8 cm/s, E/e' <8, and E/e' ≥13. The effect of LV geometry on LV diastolic function was evident among patients with preserved systolic longitudinal function, but was blunted among patients with impaired longitudinal function. In multivariable analyses, only longitudinal indexes remained associated with e' and E/e'. Analyses using strains provided similar results. In asymptomatic hypertensive subjects, LV diastolic performance is independently associated with longitudinal systolic dysfunction, but not with circumferential systolic dysfunction. Subtle longitudinal systolic impairment plays a role in mediating the effect of LV geometry on diastolic performance. These findings may support the need of critically revising the concept of isolated diastolic dysfunction in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urinary type IV collagen is related to left ventricular diastolic function and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertensive patients with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Iida, Masato; Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Ishiguro, Yuko S; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Ueda, Norihiro; Honjo, Haruo; Kamiya, Kaichirou

    2014-01-01

    Urinary type IV collagen is an early biomarker of diabetic nephropathy. Concomitant prediabetes (the early stage of diabetes) was associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in hypertensive patients. We hypothesized that urinary type IV collagen may be related to these cardiac dysfunctions. We studied hypertensive patients with early prediabetes (HbA1c <5.7% and fasting glucose >110, n=18), those with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4, n=98), and those with diabetes (HbA1c>6.5 or on diabetes medications, n=92). The participants underwent echocardiography to assess left atrial volume/body surface area (BSA) and the ratio of early mitral flow velocity to mitral annular velocity (E/e'). Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was defined if patients had E/e'≥15, or E/e'=9-14 accompanied by left atrial volume/BSA≥32ml/mm(2). Urinary samples were collected for type IV collagen and albumin, and blood samples were taken for BNP and HbA1c. Urinary type IV collagen and albumin increased in parallel with the deterioration of glycemic status. In hypertensive patients with prediabetes, subjects with LVDD had higher levels of BNP and urinary type IV collagen than those without LVDD. In contrast, in hypertensive patients with diabetes, subjects with LVDD had higher urinary albumin and BNP than those without LVDD. Urinary type IV collagen correlated positively with BNP in hypertensive patients with prediabetes, whereas it correlated with HbA1c in those with diabetes. In hypertensive patients with prediabetes, urinary type IV collagen was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction and BNP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Mitral Annular Calcium on Left Ventricular Diastolic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Codolosa, Jose N; Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Alnabelsi, Talal; Goykhman, Igor; Romero-Corral, Abel; Pressman, Gregg S

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function by Doppler flow imaging and tissue Doppler is an integral part of the echocardiographic examination. Mitral annular calcium (MAC) is frequently encountered on echocardiography. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MAC, quantitatively measured by computed tomography scan, on echocardiographic LV diastolic parameters. We included 155 patients aged ≥65 years. Computed tomography reconstructions of the mitral annulus were created, and calcium identified and quantified by Agatston technique. Calcium locations were assigned using an overlaid template depicting the annular segments in relation to surrounding anatomic structures. Echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function was performed in standard fashion. Mean age was 77 years; 49% were men; and 43% were black. Patients with MAC had lower septal e' (p = 0.003), lateral e' (p = 0.04), and average e' (p = 0.01) compared with those without MAC. They also had a higher E-wave velocity (p = 0.01) and E/e' ratio (p <0.001). When evaluated by severity of MAC, and after adjustment for multiple clinical factors, there was a graded (inverse) relation between MAC severity and septal e' (p = 0.01), lateral e' (p = 0.01), and average e' (p = 0.01). In conclusion, LV diastolic parameters, as measured by Doppler echocardiography, are altered in the presence of MAC. This could be due to direct effects of MAC on annular function or might reflect truly reduced diastolic function. Interpretation of diastolic parameters in patients with MAC should be performed with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Doppler echocardiographic investigation of left ventricular diastolic function in preterm infants with and without a patent ductus arteriosus].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Stiller, B; Koehne, P; Koch, H; Lange, P E

    2004-01-01

    We studied the influence of preload augmentation on Doppler-derived left ventricular diastolic function parameters in infants with a birth weight <1500 g. In 44 neonates with a closed duct and 29 neonates with an open ductus arteriosus a complete echocardiographic study including Doppler investigations of the mitral inflow signals and analysis of diastolic time intervals was performed. Neonates with an open duct had a lower median gestational age (27.1 vs. 29, P<0.01), a higher cardiac index (425 vs. 260 ml/min/kg, P<0.001), and a different M-mode left atrial to aortic diameter ratio (1.36 vs. 0.79, P<0.001), but birth weight, age at examination (6.6 vs. 7.9 days), and heart rate were similar compared to the neonates with a closed duct. Main differences in diastolic indexes existed in early and atrial filling integrals and peak velocities, early filling acceleration time, and isovolumic relaxation time. Most informative in neonates with an open ductus peak early filling velocity (41.2 vs. 30.4 cm, P<0.01) and peak atrial filling velocity (49.2 vs. 35.9, P<0.001) are higher, and isovolumic relaxation time is shorter (45 vs. 53 ms, P<0.001) than in closed duct peers. Isovolumic relaxation time is inversely correlated with the cardiac index (R = -0.78). These parameter changes can be interpreted as incipient left ventricular diastolic failure in extremely low birth weight infants in the presence of a preload challenge. The coincidence of higher peak velocities with a shortened isovolumic relaxation time is very likely a result of left atrial pressure elevation. Preload mismatch has to be considered in preterm infants with a persistent ductus arteriosus. The results of this study can be helpful to find the indication for PDA-closure and to adjust volume replacement therapy, and catecholamine medication to a level appropriate for the individual cardiac performance.

  9. Low velocity collisions of porous planetesimals in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Niem, D.; Kührt, E.; Hviid, S.; Davidsson, B.

    2018-02-01

    The ESA Rosetta mission has shown that Comet 67P/Churuymov-Gerasimenko is bi-lobed, has a high average porosity of around 70%, does not have internal cavities on size scales larger than 10 m, the lobes could have individual sets of onion shell-like layering, and the nucleus surface contains 100 m-scale cylindrical pits. It is currently debated whether these properties are consistent with high-velocity collisional evolution or if they necessarily are surviving signatures of low-velocity primordial accretion. We use an Eulerian hydrocode to study collisions between highly porous bodies of different sizes, material parameters and relative velocities with emphasis on 5-100 m/s to characterize the effects of collisions in terms of deformation, compaction, and heating. We find that accretion of 1 km cometesimals by 3 km nuclei at 13.5 m/s flattens and partially buries the cometesimal with ∼ 1% reduction of the bulk porosity. This structure locally becomes more dense but the global effect of compaction is minor, suggesting that low-velocity accretion does not lead to a 'bunch of grapes' structure with large internal cavities but a more homogeneous interior, consistent with Rosetta findings. The mild local compaction associated with accretion is potentially the origin of the observed nucleus layering. In 2D axially symmetric impacts hit-and-stick collisions of similarly-sized nuclei are possible at velocities up to 30 m/s where deformation becomes severe. The bulk porosity is reduced significantly, even at 30-50 m/s relative velocity. To avoid hit-and-run collisions the impact angle must be less than 35°-45° from the surface normal at 10 m/s, and even smaller at higher velocities. Impact heating is insignificant. We find that the small cross section of the 67P neck may require a ≤ 5 m/s impact, unless the cohesion exceeds 10 kPa. We conclude that bi-lobe nucleus formation is possible at velocities typically discussed in hierarchical growth scenarios. Impacts of a 7 m

  10. Interstudy heterogeneity of definitions of diastolic dysfunction severely affects reported prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Selmeryd, Jonas; Henriksen, Egil; Leppert, Jerzy; Hedberg, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this article is to examine how the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) recommendations on the classification of diastolic dysfunction (DDF) are interpreted in the scientific community and to explore how variations in the DDF definition affect the reported prevalence. Methods and results A systematic review of studies citing the EACVI/ASE consensus document ‘Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography’ was performed. The definition of DDF used in each study was recorded. Subsequently, several possible interpretations of the EACVI/ASE classification scheme were used to obtain DDF prevalence in a community-based sample (n = 714). In the systematic review, 60 studies were included. In 13 studies, no specification of DDF definition was presented, a one-level classification tree was used in 13, a two-level classification tree in 18, and in the remaining 16 studies, a DDF definition was presented but no grading of DDF was performed. In 17 studies, the DDF definition relied solely on early diastolic tissue velocity and/or left atrial size. In eight of these studies, a single parameter was used, in two studies the logical operator AND was used to combine two or more parameters, and the remaining seven studies used the logical operator OR. The resulting prevalence of DDF in the community-based sample varied from 12 to 84%, depending on the DDF definition used. Conclusion A substantial heterogeneity of definitions of DDF was evident among the studies reviewed, and the different definitions had a substantial impact on the reported prevalence of DDF. PMID:26374880

  11. Coronary flow reserve/diastolic function relationship in angina-suffering patients with normal coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Anchisi, Chiara; Marti, Giuliano; Bellacosa, Ilaria; Mary, David; Vacca, Giovanni; Marino, Paolo; Grossini, Elena

    2017-05-01

    Coronary blood flow and diastolic function are well known to interfere with each other through mechanical and metabolic mechanisms. We aimed to assess the relationship between coronary flow reserve (CFR) and diastolic dysfunction in patients suffering from angina but with normal coronary angiography. In 16 patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries, CFR was measured using transthoracic echo-Doppler by inducing hyperemia through dipyridamole infusion. Diastolic function (E/A, deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time [IVRT], propagation velocity [Vp]) and left ventricular mass were evaluated by means of two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. The patients were initially divided into two groups on the grounds of CFR only (ACFR: altered CFR, n = 9; NACFR: unaltered CFR, n = 7). Thereafter they were divided into four groups on the grounds of CFR and diastolic function (NN: normal; AA: altered CFR/diastole; AN: altered CFR/normal diastole; NA: normal CFR/altered diastole). Most of the subjects were scheduled in AA (n = 8) or NA (n = 5) groups, which were taken into consideration for further analysis. Patients were not different regarding various risk factors. ACFR and AA patients were older with normal body weight in comparison with NACFR and NA patients (P < 0.05). In the AA group, CFR and diastolic variables were found to be related to each other. Diastolic dysfunction and reduced CFR were correlated in patients with concomitant alterations of those variables only. Because most risk factors were shared with patients with altered diastolic properties only, our findings could represent a direct relationship between altered CFR and diastole.

  12. Diastolic dysfunction in the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J C; López, P; Mancebo, J; Zapata, L

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common finding in critically ill patients. It is characterized by a progressive deterioration of the relaxation and the compliance of the left ventricle. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is a cornerstone in its diagnosis. Acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertensive crisis is the most frequent presentation of diastolic dysfunction critically ill patients. Myocardial ischemia, sepsis and weaning failure from mechanical ventilation also may be associated with diastolic dysfunction. The treatment is based on the reduction of pulmonary congestion and left ventricular filling pressures. Some studies have found a prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in some diseases such as sepsis. The present review aims to analyze thoroughly the echocardiographic diagnosis and the most frequent scenarios in critically ill patients in whom diastolic dysfunction plays a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of atorvastatin treatment on left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients-The ALEVENT clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cho-Kai; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Chiang, Jiun-Yang; Lin, Ting-Tse; Wu, Yi-Fan; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Kao, Tze-Wah; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, predict the development of LVDD. We hypothesized that PD patients with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels might benefit from statin treatment for LVDD and designed a randomized clinical trial to prove the hypothesis. We screened 213 PD patients and randomly assigned 32 men and women with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <130 mg/dL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels of ≥1.5 mg/L, and LVDD, diagnosed by conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography, to treatment with atorvastatin, 40 mg daily, or without. The primary end points were changes in TDI diastolic parameters or global strain imaging diastolic parameters. Atorvastatin reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 43% and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels by 45% (both P < .001). Follow-up TDI showed significant improvement of early mitral flow velocities divided by early diastolic peak velocities of the mitral annulus at the medial and lateral site (Nominal change for E/E medial : -5.01 ± 6.36 vs 1.80 ± 6.59 for atorvastatin and control, respectively, P = .02). There was also a significant improvement in global strain imaging after atorvastatin treatment (global strain rate, -17.12 ± 1.42 vs -14.61 ± 1.78 for atorvastatin and control, respectively, P = .002 and E/SR IVR , 462.35 ± 110.54 vs 634.09 ± 116.81, P = .003). In this trial of PD patients without hyperlipidemia but with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and LVDD, atorvastatin significantly improved cardiac diastolic function (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01503671). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Soma-Pillay, P; Louw, M C; Adeyemo, A O; Makin, J; Pattinson, R C

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk. This was a descriptive study performed at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Ninety-six women with severe preeclampsia and 45 normotensive women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited during the delivery admission. Seventy-four (77.1%) women in the pre-eclamptic group were classified as a maternal near miss. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed at delivery and one year post-partum. At one year post-partum, women with pre-eclampsia had a higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.02) than women in the normotensive control group. Women with early onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation had an increased risk of diastolic dysfunction at one year post-partum (RR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.11-10.5, p = 0.04) and this was irrespective of whether the patient had chronic hypertension or not. Women who develop early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks are at a significant risk of developing cardiac diastolic dysfunction one year after delivery compared to normotensive women with a history of a low-risk pregnancy.

  15. Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harra, Louise K.; Hara, Hirohisa; Doschek, George A.; Matthews, Sarah; Warren, Harry; Culhane, J. Leonard; Woods, Magnus M.

    2017-06-01

    In order to understand the onset phase of a solar eruption, plasma parameter measurements in the early phases are key to constraining models. There are two current instrument types that allow us to make such measurements: narrow-band imagers and spectrometers. In the former case, even narrow-band filters contain multiple emission lines, creating some temperature confusion. With imagers, however, rapid cadences are achievable and the field of view can be large. Velocities of the erupting structures can be measured by feature tracking. In the spectrometer case, slit spectrometers can provide spectrally pure images by “rastering” the slit to build up an image. This method provides limited temporal resolution, but the plasma parameters can be accurately measured, including velocities along the line of sight. Both methods have benefits and are often used in tandem. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that data from the wide slot on the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, along with imaging data from AIA, can be used to deconvolve velocity information at the start of an eruption, providing line-of-sight velocities across an extended field of view. Using He II 256 Å slot data at flare onset, we observe broadening or shift(s) of the emission line of up to ±280 km s-1. These are seen at different locations—the redshifted plasma is seen where the hard X-ray source is later seen (energy deposition site). In addition, blueshifted plasma shows the very early onset of the fast rise of the filament.

  16. Measuring Velocities in the Early Stage of an Eruption: Using “Overlappogram” Data from Hinode EIS

    SciTech Connect

    Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah; Culhane, J. Leonard

    In order to understand the onset phase of a solar eruption, plasma parameter measurements in the early phases are key to constraining models. There are two current instrument types that allow us to make such measurements: narrow-band imagers and spectrometers. In the former case, even narrow-band filters contain multiple emission lines, creating some temperature confusion. With imagers, however, rapid cadences are achievable and the field of view can be large. Velocities of the erupting structures can be measured by feature tracking. In the spectrometer case, slit spectrometers can provide spectrally pure images by “rastering” the slit to build up anmore » image. This method provides limited temporal resolution, but the plasma parameters can be accurately measured, including velocities along the line of sight. Both methods have benefits and are often used in tandem. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that data from the wide slot on the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, along with imaging data from AIA, can be used to deconvolve velocity information at the start of an eruption, providing line-of-sight velocities across an extended field of view. Using He ii 256 Å slot data at flare onset, we observe broadening or shift(s) of the emission line of up to ±280 km s{sup −1}. These are seen at different locations—the redshifted plasma is seen where the hard X-ray source is later seen (energy deposition site). In addition, blueshifted plasma shows the very early onset of the fast rise of the filament.« less

  17. Early intervention of long-acting nifedipine GITS reduces brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and improves arterial stiffness in Chinese patients with mild hypertension: a 24-week, single-arm, open-label, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jidong; Wang, Yan; Hu, Haijuan; Yang, Xiaohong; Tian, Zejun; Liu, Demin; Gu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Hongmei; Xie, Ruiqin; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) is used to treat angina and hypertension. The authors aimed to study the early intervention impact on arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity (PWV) independent of its blood-pressure-(BP) lowering effect in mild hypertensive patients. This single-center, single-arm, open-label, prospective, Phase IV study recruited patients with mild hypertension and increased PWV from December 2013 to December 2014 (N=138; age, 18-75 years; systolic blood pressure, 140-160 mmHg; diastolic BP, 90-100 mmHg; increased brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV, ≥12 m/s]). Nifedipine GITS (30 mg/d) was administered for 24 weeks to achieve target BP of <140/90 mmHg. The dose was uptitrated at 60 mg/d in case of unsatisfactory BP reduction after 4 weeks. Primary study end point was the change in baPWV after nifedipine GITS treatment. Hemodynamic parameters (office BP, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and heart rate and adverse events) were evaluated at baseline and followed-up at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. Majority of patients (n=117; 84.8%) completed the study. baPWV decreased significantly at 4 weeks compared with baseline (1,598.87±239.82 vs 1,500.89±241.15 cm/s, P <0.001), was stable at 12 weeks (1,482.24±215.14 cm/s, P <0.001), and remained steady through 24 weeks (1,472.58±205.01 cm/s, P <0.001). Office BP reduced from baseline to week 4 (154/95 vs 136/85 mmHg) and remained steady until 24 weeks. Nifedipine GITS significantly decreased 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring ( P <0.001) after 24 weeks from baseline. Mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure were lowered significantly after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment ( P <0.001). These changes in baPWV were significantly correlated with changes in systolic blood pressure, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure ( P <0.05), but not with changes in pulse pressure ( P >0.05). There were no other drug-related serious adverse events. Nifedipine GITS was considerably

  18. Early intervention of long-acting nifedipine GITS reduces brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and improves arterial stiffness in Chinese patients with mild hypertension: a 24-week, single-arm, open-label, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jidong; Wang, Yan; Hu, Haijuan; Yang, Xiaohong; Tian, Zejun; Liu, Demin; Gu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Hongmei; Xie, Ruiqin; Cui, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) is used to treat angina and hypertension. The authors aimed to study the early intervention impact on arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity (PWV) independent of its blood-pressure-(BP) lowering effect in mild hypertensive patients. Methods This single-center, single-arm, open-label, prospective, Phase IV study recruited patients with mild hypertension and increased PWV from December 2013 to December 2014 (N=138; age, 18–75 years; systolic blood pressure, 140–160 mmHg; diastolic BP, 90–100 mmHg; increased brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV, ≥12 m/s]). Nifedipine GITS (30 mg/d) was administered for 24 weeks to achieve target BP of <140/90 mmHg. The dose was uptitrated at 60 mg/d in case of unsatisfactory BP reduction after 4 weeks. Primary study end point was the change in baPWV after nifedipine GITS treatment. Hemodynamic parameters (office BP, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and heart rate and adverse events) were evaluated at baseline and followed-up at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. Results Majority of patients (n=117; 84.8%) completed the study. baPWV decreased significantly at 4 weeks compared with baseline (1,598.87±239.82 vs 1,500.89±241.15 cm/s, P<0.001), was stable at 12 weeks (1,482.24±215.14 cm/s, P<0.001), and remained steady through 24 weeks (1,472.58±205.01 cm/s, P<0.001). Office BP reduced from baseline to week 4 (154/95 vs 136/85 mmHg) and remained steady until 24 weeks. Nifedipine GITS significantly decreased 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (P<0.001) after 24 weeks from baseline. Mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure were lowered significantly after 4, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment (P<0.001). These changes in baPWV were significantly correlated with changes in systolic blood pressure, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure (P<0.05), but not with changes in pulse pressure (P>0.05). There were no other drug-related serious adverse events. Conclusion

  19. Relationship of neonatal cerebral blood flow velocity asymmetry with early motor, cognitive and language development in term infants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Chin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Yi; Peng, Shinn-Forng; Hung, Han-Yang; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chen, Wei J; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) asymmetry measures with developmental outcomes in term infants. Doppler CBFV parameters (peak systolic velocity [PSV] and mean velocity [MV]) of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries of 52 healthy term infants were prospectively examined on postnatal days 1-5, and then their motor, cognitive and language development was evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The left CBFV asymmetry measure (PSV or MV) was calculated by subtracting the right-side value from the left-side value. Left CBFV asymmetry measures were significantly positively related to motor scores at 6 (r = 0.3-0.32, p < 0.05) and 12 (r = 0.35, p < 0.05) months of age, but were not related to cognitive or language outcome. Thus, the leftward hemodynamic status of the middle cerebral arteries, as measured by cranial Doppler ultrasound in the neonatal period, predicts early motor outcome in term infants. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diastolic function of the nonfilling human left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Paulus, W J; Vantrimpont, P J; Rousseau, M F

    1992-12-01

    To investigate an early-diastolic left ventricular suction effect in humans, tip-micromanometer left ventricular pressure recordings were obtained in patients with mitral stenosis at the time of balloon inflations during percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty performed with a self-positioning Inoue balloon, which fits tightly in the mitral orifice. When mitral inflow was impeded in anesthetized dogs, left ventricular pressure decayed to a negative asymptote value. This negative asymptote value was consistent with an early diastolic suction effect. Tip-micromanometer left ventricular pressure recordings were obtained in 23 patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis at the time of balloon inflations during percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty performed with a self-positioning Inoue balloon. The left ventricular diastolic asymptote pressure (P(asy)) was determined in 47 nonfilling beats with a sufficiently long (greater than 200 ms) diastolic time interval (that is, the interval from minimal first derivative of left ventricular pressure to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) and equaled 2 +/- 3 mm Hg for beats with normal intraventricular conduction and 3 +/- 2 mm Hg for beats with aberrant intraventricular conduction. Left ventricular angiography was performed in five patients during the first inflation of the Inoue balloon at the time of complete balloon expansion. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume of the nonfilling beats averaged 38 +/- 14 ml and was comparable to the left ventricular end-systolic volume (39 +/- 19 ml) measured during baseline angiography before mitral valvuloplasty. Time constants of left ventricular pressure decay were calculated on 21 nonfilling beats with a diastolic time interval greater than 200 ms, normal intraventricular conduction and peak left ventricular pressure greater than 50 mm Hg. Time constants (T0 and TBF) derived from an exponential curve fit with zero asymptote pressure and with a best-fit asymptote pressure were compared with a

  1. Left atrial volume is not an index of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hammoudi, Nadjib; Charbonnier, Magali; Levy, Pierre; Djebbar, Morad; Stankovic Stojanovic, Katia; Ederhy, Stéphane; Girot, Robert; Cohen, Ariel; Isnard, Richard; Lionnet, François

    2015-03-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is common in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Left atrial (LA) size is widely used as an index of LVDD; however, LA enlargement in SCA might also be due to chronic volume overload. To investigate whether LA size can be used to diagnose LVDD in SCA. One hundred and twenty-seven adults with stable SCA underwent echocardiographic assessment. LA volume was measured by the area-length method and indexed to body surface area (LAVi). Left ventricular (LV) filling pressures were assessed using the ratio of early peak diastolic velocities of mitral inflow and septal annular mitral plane (E/e'). Using mitral inflow profile and E/e', LV diastolic function was classified as normal or abnormal. LAVi>28mL/m(2) was used as the threshold to define LA enlargement. The mean age was 28.6±8.5years; there were 83 women. Mean LAVi was 48.3±11.1mL/m(2) and 124 (98%) patients had LA dilatation. In multivariable analysis, age, haemoglobin concentration and LV end-diastolic volume index were independent determinants of LAVi (R(2)=0.51; P<0.0001). E/e' was not linked to LAVi (P=0.43). Twenty patients had LVDD; when compared with patients without LVDD, they had a similar LAVi (52.2±14.7 and 47.5±10.2mL/m(2), respectively; P=0.29). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that LAVi could not be used to diagnose LVDD (area under curve=0.58; P=0.36). LA enlargement is common in SCA but appears not to be linked to LVDD. LAVi in this population is related to age, haemoglobin concentration and LV morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [The effect of atrial pacing on left ventricular diastolic function and BNP levels in patients with DDD pacemaker].

    PubMed

    Apali, Zeynep; Bayata, Serdar; Yeşil, Murat; Arikan, Erdinç; Postaci, Nursen

    2010-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of atrial pacing on left ventricular diastolic function and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with DDD pacemaker. Thirty patients with complete atrio-ventricular (AV) block and DDD pacemaker were included. All patients had normal left ventricular systolic function. Echocardiographic diastolic function parameters (transmitral and tissue Doppler velocities during early (E and E') and late (A and A') filling) and NT-pro-BNP levels were evaluated prospectively during atrial sensing and pacing periods. Echocardiographic data were compared with paired sample t test and NT-pro-BNP levels were compared with Wilcoxon test. Echocardiographic E/A, E'/A', E/E' ratios were calculated as 0.72+/-0.34, 0.61+/-0.21 and 8.76+/-2.58 during atrial sensing period. Same parameters were found as 0.71+/-0.23, 0.64+/-0.16 and 8.93+/-3.16 respectively during atrial pacing period. Echocardiographic left ventricular diastolic function parameters were not significantly different during atrial pacing and atrial sensing periods. Median plasma NT-pro-BNP levels were measured as 142 pg/ml (min-max 47-563 pg/ml) and 147 pg/ml (min-max 33-1035 pg/ml) during atrial sensing and pacing periods respectively. These levels were not significantly different (p=0.86). The result of this study has shown that, atrial pacing has not any additional detrimental effect on left ventricular diastolic function parameters in paced patients with normal left ventricular systolic function.

  3. Hyperinsulinemia and sulfonylurea use are independently associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with suboptimal blood glucose control

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoaki; Maeda, Yasutaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Sasaki, Shuji; Kabemura, Teppei; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Inoguchi, Toyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the underlying mechanisms leading to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) remain poorly understood. The study was designed to assess the risk factors for LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods The study cohort included 101 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without overt heart disease. Left ventricular diastolic function was estimated as the ratio of early diastolic velocity (E) from transmitral inflow to early diastolic velocity (e’) of tissue Doppler at mitral annulus (E/e’). Parameters of glycemic control, plasma insulin concentration, treatment with antidiabetic drugs, lipid profile, and other clinical characteristics were evaluated, and their association with E/e’ determined. Patients with New York Heart Association class >1, ejection fraction <50%, history of coronary artery disease, severe valvulopathy, chronic atrial fibrillation, or creatinine clearance <30 mL/min, as well as those receiving insulin treatment, were excluded. Results Univariate analysis showed that E/e’ was significantly correlated with age (p<0.001), sex (p<0.001), duration of diabetes (p=0.002), systolic blood pressure (p=0.017), pulse pressure (p=0.010), fasting insulin concentration (p=0.025), and sulfonylurea use (p<0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that log E/e’ was significantly and positively correlated with log age (p=0.034), female sex (p=0.019), log fasting insulin concentration (p=0.010), and sulfonylurea use (p=0.027). Conclusions Hyperinsulinemia and sulfonylurea use may be important in the development of LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27648285

  4. Regional myocardial velocity imaged by magnetic resonance in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Karwatowski, S P; Mohiaddin, R H; Yang, G Z; Firmin, D N; St John Sutton, M; Underwood, S R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the pattern of global and regional left ventricular long axis motion during early diastole in patients with ischaemic heart disease with and without myocardial infarction using magnetic resonance velocity mapping. DESIGN--Prospective study of 26 patients with a history of myocardial infarction (age 29-78, mean 55 years) and 21 patients with coronary artery disease without infarction (age range 39-71, mean 58 years). Values were compared with a control group (19 controls, age 35-76, mean 52 years) with a low likelihood of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS--Regional long axis velocity varied with time and position around the ventricle. All measurements were taken at the time of maximum early diastolic long axis velocity. Patients with coronary artery disease without infarction had lower values for maximum (mean (SD)) (99 (30) v 125 (33) mm/s, P < 0.05) and mean peak early diastolic wall motion (63 (13) v 82 (22) mm/s, P < 0.05) than controls. The coefficient of variation showed greater inhomogeneity of relaxation in patients than in controls (38 (18)% v 27 (10)%). All values were lower in patients with previous infarction than in patients with coronary artery disease without infarction and normal subjects. In patients with previous myocardial infarction the maximum (mean (SD)) early diastolic velocity was 80 (22) mm/s (P < 0.01 compared with controls and P < 0.05 compared with patients without infarction) and the mean (SD) velocity was 47 (18) mm/s (P < 0.01 compared with controls). The coefficient of variation was greater (52 (33)%) than for controls (P < 0.05) and patients with coronary artery disease without infarction. 18 of 26 patients with previous myocardial infarction and 13 of 21 patients with coronary artery disease without infarction had regional abnormalities corresponding to areas of fixed or reversible ischaemia on exercise electrocardiography or thallium myocardial perfusion tomography. CONCLUSIONS--Magnetic resonance velocity

  5. Right Heart Vortex Entrainment Volume and Right Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce

    2014-11-01

    Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this study, we investigate and quantify differences in the characteristics of coherent rotating flow structures (vortices) in the RA and RV between subjects with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) and normal controls. Fifteen RVDD subjects and 10 age-matched controls underwent same day 3D time resolved CMR and echocardiography. Echocardiography was used to determine RVDD stage as well as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). CMR data was used for RA and RV vortex quantification and visualization during early and late ventricular diastole. RA and RV vortex entrainment volume is quantified and visualized using the Lambda-2 criterion, and the results are compared between healthy subjects and those with RVDD. The resulting trends are discussed and hypotheses are presented regarding differences in vortex characteristics between healthy and RVDD subjects cohorts.

  6. Right Heart Vorticity and Right Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this study, we investigate and quantify differences in the characteristics of coherent rotating flow structures (vortices) in the RA and RV between subjects with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) and normal controls. Fifteen RVDD subjects and 10 age-matched controls underwent same day 3D time resolved CMR and echocardiography. Echocardiography was used to determine RVDD stage as well as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). CMR data was used for RA and RV vortex quantification and visualization during early ventricular diastole and the results are compared between healthy subjects and those with RVDD. The resulting trends are discussed and hypotheses are presented regarding differences in vortex characteristics between healthy and RVDD subjects cohorts.

  7. Path length entropy analysis of diastolic heart sounds.

    PubMed

    Griffel, Benjamin; Zia, Mohammad K; Fridman, Vladamir; Saponieri, Cesare; Semmlow, John L

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multiscale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%-81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Path Length Entropy Analysis of Diastolic Heart Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Griffel, B.; Zia, M. K.; Fridman, V.; Saponieri, C.; Semmlow, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multi-scale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%–81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. PMID:23930808

  9. Extended main sequence turnoffs in intermediate-age star clusters: a correlation between turnoff width and early escape velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Kalirai, Jason S.

    2014-12-10

    We present a color-magnitude diagram analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a mass-limited sample of 18 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr old) star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, including eight clusters for which new data were obtained. We find that all star clusters in our sample feature extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population (including unresolved binary stars). FWHM widths of the MSTOs indicate age spreads of 200-550 Myr. We evaluate the dynamical evolution of clusters with and without initial mass segregation. Our main results are (1) the fractionmore » of red clump (RC) stars in secondary RCs in eMSTO clusters scales with the fraction of MSTO stars having pseudo-ages of ≲1.35 Gyr; (2) the width of the pseudo-age distributions of eMSTO clusters is correlated with their central escape velocity v {sub esc}, both currently and at an age of 10 Myr. We find that these two results are unlikely to be reproduced by the effects of interactive binary stars or a range of stellar rotation velocities. We therefore argue that the eMSTO phenomenon is mainly caused by extended star formation within the clusters; and (3) we find that v {sub esc} ≥ 15 km s{sup –1} out to ages of at least 100 Myr for all clusters featuring eMSTOs, and v {sub esc} ≤ 12 km s{sup –1} at all ages for two lower-mass clusters in the same age range that do not show eMSTOs. We argue that eMSTOs only occur for clusters whose early escape velocities are higher than the wind velocities of stars that provide material from which second-generation stars can form. The threshold of 12-15 km s{sup –1} is consistent with wind velocities of intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars and massive binary stars in the literature.« less

  10. ASSESSMENT OF DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS, AND CAROTID INTIMA-MEDIA THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY.

    PubMed

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Yılmaz, Nusret; Yanıkoğlu, Atakan; Özdem, Sebahat; Yıldırım, Aytül Belgi; Süleymanlar, Gültekin; Altunbaş, Hasan Ali

    2017-05-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly, may be an efficient approach to extending the lifespan of affected patients. Therefore, it is crucial to determine any cardiovascular diseases in the subclinical period. The study objectives were to determine markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and asses heart structure and function. This was a cross-sectional, single-center study of 53 patients with acromegaly and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse-wave velocity (PWV), and echocardiographic data were compared between these groups. CIMT and PWV were higher in the acromegaly group than in the healthy group (P = .008 and P = .002, respectively). Echocardiography showed that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was present in 11.3% of patients. Left ventricular mass index and left atrial volume index were higher in the patients (P = .016 and P<.001, respectively). No differences in the CIMT, PWV, or echocardiographic measurements were identified between the patients with biochemically controlled and uncontrolled acromegaly and the control group. Our results showed that subclinical atherosclerosis (i.e., CIMT and PWV markers) and heart structure and function were worse in patients with acromegaly than in healthy individuals. Because there were no differences in these parameters between patients with controlled and uncontrolled acromegaly, our results suggest that the structural and functional changes do not reverse with biochemical control. AA = active acromegaly BSA = body surface area CA = biochemically controlled acromegaly CH = concentric hypertrophy CIMT = carotid intima-media thickness DBP = diastolic blood pressure DM = diabetes mellitus ECHO = echocardiography EDV = enddiastolic volume EF = ejection fraction ESV = endsystolic volume GH = growth hormone HC = healthy control HL = hyperlipidemia HT = hypertension IGF-1 = insulin

  11. Cardiac-Specific IGF-1 Receptor Transgenic Expression Protects Against Cardiac Fibrosis and Diastolic Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Karina; McMullen, Julie R.; Julius, Tracey L.; Tan, Joon Win; Love, Jane E.; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Ritchie, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compelling epidemiological and clinical evidence has identified a specific cardiomyopathy in diabetes, characterized by early diastolic dysfunction and adverse structural remodeling. Activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) promotes physiological cardiac growth and enhances contractile function. The aim of the present study was to examine whether cardiac-specific overexpression of IGF-1R prevents diabetes-induced myocardial remodeling and dysfunction associated with a murine model of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 1 diabetes was induced in 7-week-old male IGF-1R transgenic mice using streptozotocin and followed for 8 weeks. Diastolic and systolic function was assessed using Doppler and M-mode echocardiography, respectively, in addition to cardiac catheterization. Cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte width, heart weight index, gene expression, Akt activity, and IGF-1R protein content were also assessed. RESULTS Nontransgenic (Ntg) diabetic mice had reduced initial (E)-to-second (A) blood flow velocity ratio (E:A ratio) and prolonged deceleration times on Doppler echocardiography compared with nondiabetic counterparts, indicative markers of diastolic dysfunction. Diabetes also increased cardiomyocyte width, collagen deposition, and prohypertrophic and profibrotic gene expression compared with Ntg nondiabetic littermates. Overexpression of the IGF-1R transgene markedly reduced collagen deposition, accompanied by a reduction in the incidence of diastolic dysfunction. Akt phosphorylation was elevated ∼15-fold in IGF-1R nondiabetic mice compared with Ntg, and this was maintained in a setting of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS The current study suggests that cardiac overexpression of IGF-1R prevented diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Targeting IGF-1R–Akt signaling may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic cardiac disease. PMID:20215428

  12. Acute changes in pulmonary artery pressures due to exercise and exposure to high altitude do not cause left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Alain M; Kiencke, Stephanie; Fischler, Manuel; Dorschner, Lorenz; Debrunner, Johann; Mairbäurl, Heimo; Maggiorini, Marco; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans Peter

    2007-08-01

    Altitude-induced pulmonary hypertension has been suggested to cause left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction due to ventricular interaction. In this study, we evaluate the effects of exercise- and altitude-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressures on LV diastolic function in an interventional setting investigating high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) prophylaxis. Among 39 subjects, 29 were HAPE susceptible (HAPE-S) and 10 served as control subjects. HAPE-S subjects were randomly assigned to prophylactic tadalafil (10 mg), dexamethasone (8 mg), or placebo bid, starting 1 day before ascent. Doppler echocardiography at rest and during submaximal exercise was performed at low altitude (490 m) and high altitude (4,559 m). The ratio of early transmitral inflow peak velocity (E) to atrial transmitral inflow peak velocity (A), pulmonary venous flow parameters, and tissue velocity within the septal mitral annulus during early diastole (E') were used to assess LV diastolic properties. LV filling pressures were estimated by E/E'. Systolic right ventricular to atrial pressure gradients (RVPGs) were measured in order to estimate pulmonary artery pressures. At 490 m, E/A decreased similarly with exercise in HAPE-S and control subjects (HAPE-S, 1.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.3 +/- 0.3; control, 1.7 +/- 0.4 to 1.3 +/- 0.3; p = 0.12 between groups) [mean +/- SD], whereas RVPG increased significantly more in HAPE-S subjects (20 +/- 5 to 43 +/- 9 mm Hg vs 18 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 3 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Changes in RVPG levels during exercise did not correlate with changes in E/A (p > 0.1). From 490 to 4,559 m, no correlations between changes in RVPG and changes in E/A or atrial reversal (both p > 0.1) were observed. Neither of the groups showed an increase in E/E' from 490 to 4,559 m. Increased pulmonary artery pressure associated with exercise and acute exposure to 4,559 m appears not to cause LV diastolic dysfunction in healthy subjects. Therefore, ventricular interaction seems not to be of

  13. Patterns of left ventricular diastolic function in Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Stefano; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Pisicchio, Cataldo; Pandian, Natesa G; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Whether morphologic left ventricular (LV) changes in elite athletes are associated with altered diastolic properties is undefined. The aim of this study was to investigate LV diastolic properties in a large population of Olympic athletes compared to untrained controls. A total of 1,145 Olympic athletes (61% men), and 154 controls, free of cardiovascular disease, underwent two-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler echocardiography, and Doppler tissue imaging. Athletes had similar E velocities (87 ± 15 vs 89 ± 16 cm/sec, P = .134) but significantly decreased A velocities (47 ± 10 vs 56 ± 12 cm/sec, P < .001) compared with controls, with increased E/A ratios (1.93 ± 0.50 vs 1.63 ± 0.35, P < .001) and values ranging up to 4.8. Isovolumic relaxation (83 ± 13 vs 71 ± 16 msec, P < .001) and deceleration times (203 ± 40 vs 181 ± 36 msec, P < .001) were longer in athletes compared with controls. Doppler tissue imaging e' (13.8 ± 2.2 vs 16.2 ± 3.7 cm/sec, P < .001) and a' (7.2 ± 1.8 vs 8.5 ± 2.1 cm/sec, P < .001) were lower in athletes than in controls, but their ratio was not different between groups; E/e' ratios (6.37 ± 1.2 vs 5.72 ± 1.33, P < .001) were mildly higher in athletes. Subgroup analysis for type of sport showed that endurance athletes had the lowest A and a' velocities and the largest E/A ratios. Gender analysis revealed that men had significantly lower E and A velocities, as well as e', e'/a' ratios, and E/e' ratios (P < .01), compared with women. This study provides normal values for Doppler echocardiographic and Doppler tissue imaging parameters describing diastolic function in elite athletes, which may be implemented as reference values in the clinical assessment of athlete's heart and prove useful in understanding the physiologic limits of cardiac adaptations in athletes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. All rights reserved.

  14. Interplay between arterial stiffness and diastolic function: a marker of ventricular-vascular coupling.

    PubMed

    Zito, Concetta; Mohammed, Moemen; Todaro, Maria Chiara; Khandheria, Bijoy K; Cusmà-Piccione, Maurizio; Oreto, Giuseppe; Pugliatti, Pietro; Abusalima, Mohamed; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Vriz, Olga; Carerj, Scipione

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the interplay between left ventricular diastolic function and large-artery stiffness in asymptomatic patients at increased risk of heart failure and no structural heart disease (Stage A). We divided 127 consecutive patients (mean age 49 ± 17 years) with risk factors for heart failure who were referred to our laboratory to rule out structural heart disease into two groups according to presence (Group 1, n = 35) or absence (Group 2, n = 92) of grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Doppler imaging with high-resolution echo-tracking software was used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) and stiffness of carotid arteries. Group 1 had significantly higher mean age, blood pressure, left ventricular mass index, carotid IMT and arterial stiffness than Group 2 (P < 0.05). Overall, carotid stiffness indices (β-stiffness index, augmentation index and elastic modulus) and 'one-point' pulse wave velocity each showed inverse correlation with E-wave velocity, E' velocity and E/A ratio, and direct correlation with A-wave velocity, E-wave deceleration time and E/E' ratio (P < 0.05). Arterial compliance showed negative correlations with the echocardiographic indices of left ventricular diastolic function (P < 0.05). On logistic regression analysis, age, hypertension, SBP, pulse pressure, left ventricular mass index, carotid IMT and stiffness parameters were associated with grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.05 for each). However, on multivariate logistic analysis, only 'one-point' pulse wave velocity and age were independent predictors (P = 0.038 and P = 0.016, respectively). An independent association between grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness is demonstrated at the earliest stage of heart failure. Hence, assessment of vascular function, beyond cardiac function, should be included in a comprehensive clinical evaluation of these patients.

  15. Interrelationship of mid-diastolic mitral valve motion, pulmonary venous flow, and transmitral flow.

    PubMed

    Keren, G; Meisner, J S; Sherez, J; Yellin, E L; Laniado, S

    1986-07-01

    This study offers a unifying mechanism of left ventricular filling dynamics to link the unexplained mid-diastolic motion of the mitral valve with an associated increase in transmitral flow, with the phasic character of pulmonary vein flow, and with changes in the atrioventricular pressure difference. M mode echograms of mitral valve motion and Doppler echocardiograms of mitral and pulmonary vein flow velocities were recorded in 12 healthy volunteers (heart rate = 60 +/- 9 beats/min). All echocardiograms showed an undulation in the mitral valve (L motion) at a relatively constant delay from the peak of the diastolic phase of pulmonary vein flow (K phase). In six subjects, the L motion was also associated with a distinct wave of mitral flow (L wave). Measured from the onset of the QRS complex, Q-K was 577 +/- 39 msec; Q-L was 703 +/- 42 msec, and K-L was 125 +/- 16 msec. Multiple measurements within each subject during respiratory variations in RR interval indicated exceptionally small differences in the temporal relationships (mean coefficient of variation 2%). Early rapid flow deceleration is caused by a reversal of the atrioventricular pressure gradient, and the L wave arises from the subsequent reestablishment of a positive gradient due to left atrial filling via the pulmonary veins. The mitral valve moves passively in response to the flowing blood and the associated pressure difference. This interpretation is confirmed by (1) a computational model, and (2) a retrospective analysis of data from patients with mitral stenosis and from conscious dogs instrumented to measure transmitral pressure-flow relationships.

  16. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  17. Carotid atherosclerosis and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a sample of hypertensive Nigerian patients

    PubMed Central

    Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Adebayo, Philip B.; Aremu, Ademola A.; Opadijo, Oladimeji G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine the association of carotid atherosclerosis and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) among treated hypertensive Nigerian patients. Methods This was a single center cross-sectional study performed at the Cardiology Clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and December 2012. The study included 122 hypertensive Nigerians (mean age, 57.3 ± 14.7 years, 36.9% women). Patients’ clinical, demographic, and echocardiographic parameters were obtained. Diastolic dysfunction was assessed with the trans-tricuspid Doppler flow. Results Patients with DD were significantly older than those with normal diastolic function. Mean and maximum carotid intima media thickness measurements were significantly higher among patients with right ventricular DD than in those with normal diastolic function. Mean systolic blood pressure (148.3 ± 31.9 vs 128.0 ± 2.8 mm Hg, P = 0.049) and interventricular septal thickness in diastole (12.8 ± 2.3 vs 11.6 ± 2.8mm, P = 0.048) were significantly higher and tricuspid annular pulmonary systolic excursion (33.6 ± 4.9 vs 23.0 ± 4.2 mm, P = 0.035) was significantly lower in patients with right ventricular DD than in those with normal diastolic function. Carotid intima media thickness measurements were correlated with early trans-tricuspid Doppler flow and early transtricuspid diastolic flow/late right atrial transtricupsid diastolic flow ratio. Conclusion Right ventricular DD in hypertensive patients was significantly correlated with increased carotid atherosclerosis. Carotid intima media thickness measurements may therefore be a surrogate marker for DD in hypertensive subjects. PMID:24382850

  18. HbA1c Identifies Subjects With Prediabetes and Subclinical Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Antonino; Mangiafico, Sarah; Urbano, Francesca; Scicali, Roberto; Scandura, Salvatore; D'Agate, Veronica; Piro, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes is associated with subclinical cardiac changes associated with heart failure development. We investigated diastolic function and its association with markers of glycation and inflammation related to cardiovascular disease in patients with prediabetes. We focused on individuals with prediabetes identified only by glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c; 5.7% to 6.4% and normal fasting glucose (NFG) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. Cross-sectional study. Departments of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Cardiology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. HbA1c, OGTT, Doppler echocardiography, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGEs), and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were evaluated. We recruited 167 subjects with NFG/NGT who were stratified according to HbA1c level: controls (HbA1c <5.7%) and HbA1c prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7% to 6.4%). Patients with HbA1c prediabetes (n = 106) showed a lower peak mitral inflow in early diastole (E wave) to late diastolic atrial filling velocity (A wave) ratio (E/A ratio) than controls (n = 61) (1.10 ± 0.24 vs 1.18 ± 0.23; P < 0.05). They showed a higher left atrium volume (LAV) (28.4 ± 5 vs 22.1 ± 3; P < 0.05) and sphericity index (SI) (0.6 ± 0.06 vs 0.5 ± 0.05; P < 0.05). After multiple regression analyses, HbA1c, sRAGE, and esRAGE were the major determinants of E/A ratio, LAV, and SI. Subjects with HbA1c prediabetes exhibited subclinical cardiac alterations associated with sRAGE, esRAGE, and HbA1c. These subjects would not have been classified as having prediabetes on the basis of fasting glycemia or post-OGTT values. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, but not with aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of hypertensive families.

    PubMed

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel; Trojar, Andrej; Zeljko, Tadej

    2008-01-01

    We investigated left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in association with insulin level/insulin resistance (IR) and aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait, FT). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotensive with FT (aged 28-39 years) and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and function were measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. LV diastolic function was reported as peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) in tissue Doppler imaging. Fasting insulin and aldosterone were determined. In subjects with FT, the LV mass was higher than in controls (92.14 +/- 24.02 vs. 70.08 +/- 20.58 g; p < 0.001). The study group had a worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p < 0.001). In subjects with FT, the E(m)/A(m) ratio was independently associated with IR (partial p = 0.029 in multivariate model, R(2) = 0.51), but not with LV mass. The aldosterone level was comparable in both groups. In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional abnormalities were found. LV dysfunction but not an increase in LV mass is associated with IR. The aldosterone level is probably not responsible for the development of early hypertensive heart disease. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Quantification of Global Diastolic Function by Kinematic Modeling-based Analysis of Transmitral Flow via the Parametrized Diastolic Filling Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Mossahebi, Sina; Zhu, Simeng; Chen, Howard; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative cardiac function assessment remains a challenge for physiologists and clinicians. Although historically invasive methods have comprised the only means available, the development of noninvasive imaging modalities (echocardiography, MRI, CT) having high temporal and spatial resolution provide a new window for quantitative diastolic function assessment. Echocardiography is the agreed upon standard for diastolic function assessment, but indexes in current clinical use merely utilize selected features of chamber dimension (M-mode) or blood/tissue motion (Doppler) waveforms without incorporating the physiologic causal determinants of the motion itself. The recognition that all left ventricles (LV) initiate filling by serving as mechanical suction pumps allows global diastolic function to be assessed based on laws of motion that apply to all chambers. What differentiates one heart from another are the parameters of the equation of motion that governs filling. Accordingly, development of the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism has shown that the entire range of clinically observed early transmitral flow (Doppler E-wave) patterns are extremely well fit by the laws of damped oscillatory motion. This permits analysis of individual E-waves in accordance with a causal mechanism (recoil-initiated suction) that yields three (numerically) unique lumped parameters whose physiologic analogues are chamber stiffness (k), viscoelasticity/relaxation (c), and load (xo). The recording of transmitral flow (Doppler E-waves) is standard practice in clinical cardiology and, therefore, the echocardiographic recording method is only briefly reviewed. Our focus is on determination of the PDF parameters from routinely recorded E-wave data. As the highlighted results indicate, once the PDF parameters have been obtained from a suitable number of load varying E-waves, the investigator is free to use the parameters or construct indexes from the parameters (such as stored

  1. Quantification of global diastolic function by kinematic modeling-based analysis of transmitral flow via the parametrized diastolic filling formalism.

    PubMed

    Mossahebi, Sina; Zhu, Simeng; Chen, Howard; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative cardiac function assessment remains a challenge for physiologists and clinicians. Although historically invasive methods have comprised the only means available, the development of noninvasive imaging modalities (echocardiography, MRI, CT) having high temporal and spatial resolution provide a new window for quantitative diastolic function assessment. Echocardiography is the agreed upon standard for diastolic function assessment, but indexes in current clinical use merely utilize selected features of chamber dimension (M-mode) or blood/tissue motion (Doppler) waveforms without incorporating the physiologic causal determinants of the motion itself. The recognition that all left ventricles (LV) initiate filling by serving as mechanical suction pumps allows global diastolic function to be assessed based on laws of motion that apply to all chambers. What differentiates one heart from another are the parameters of the equation of motion that governs filling. Accordingly, development of the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism has shown that the entire range of clinically observed early transmitral flow (Doppler E-wave) patterns are extremely well fit by the laws of damped oscillatory motion. This permits analysis of individual E-waves in accordance with a causal mechanism (recoil-initiated suction) that yields three (numerically) unique lumped parameters whose physiologic analogues are chamber stiffness (k), viscoelasticity/relaxation (c), and load (xo). The recording of transmitral flow (Doppler E-waves) is standard practice in clinical cardiology and, therefore, the echocardiographic recording method is only briefly reviewed. Our focus is on determination of the PDF parameters from routinely recorded E-wave data. As the highlighted results indicate, once the PDF parameters have been obtained from a suitable number of load varying E-waves, the investigator is free to use the parameters or construct indexes from the parameters (such as stored

  2. The imprint of dark matter haloes on the size and velocity dispersion evolution of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Nipoti, Carlo; Stiavelli, Massimo; Ciotti, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are observed to be more compact, on average, at z ≳ 2 than at z ≃ 0, at fixed stellar mass. Recent observational works suggest that such size evolution could reflect the similar evolution of the host dark matter halo density as a function of the time of galaxy quenching. We explore this hypothesis by studying the distribution of halo central velocity dispersion (σ0) and half-mass radius (rh) as functions of halo mass M and redshift z, in a cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulation. In the range 0 ≲ z ≲ 2.5, we find σ0∝M0.31-0.37 and rh∝M0.28-0.32, close to the values expected for homologous virialized systems. At fixed M in the range 1011 M⊙ ≲ M ≲ 5.5 × 1014 M⊙ we find σ0 ∝ (1 + z)0.35 and rh ∝ (1 + z)-0.7. We show that such evolution of the halo scaling laws is driven by individual haloes growing in mass following the evolutionary tracks σ0 ∝ M0.2 and rh ∝ M0.6, consistent with simple dissipationless merging models in which the encounter orbital energy is accounted for. We compare the N-body data with ETGs observed at 0 ≲ z ≲ 3 by populating the haloes with a stellar component under simple but justified assumptions: the resulting galaxies evolve consistently with the observed ETGs up to z ≃ 2, but the model has difficulty in reproducing the fast evolution observed at z ≳ 2. We conclude that a substantial fraction of the size evolution of ETGs can be ascribed to a systematic dependence on redshift of the dark matter haloes structural properties.

  3. Left ventricular myocardial velocities and deformation indexes in top-level athletes.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Antonello; Cocchia, Rosangela; Riegler, Lucia; Scarafile, Raffaella; Salerno, Gemma; Gravino, Rita; Golia, Enrica; Pezzullo, Enrica; Citro, Rodolfo; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Cuomo, Sergio; Caso, Pio; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Bossone, Eduardo; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define the range of left ventricular (LV) velocities and deformation indexes in highly trained athletes, analyzing potential differences induced by different long-term training protocols. Standard echocardiography, pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography, and two-dimensional strain echocardiography of the interventricular septum and lateral wall were performed in 370 endurance athletes and 280 power athletes. Using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler, the following parameters of myocardial function were assessed: systolic peak velocities (S(m)), early (E(m)) and late (A(m)) diastolic velocities, and the E(m)/A(m) ratio. By two-dimensional strain echocardiography, peaks of regional systolic strain and LV global longitudinal strain were calculated. LV mass index and ejection fraction did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, power athletes showed an increased sum of wall thicknesses (P < .01) and relative wall thickness, while LV stroke volume and LV end-diastolic diameter (P < .001) were greater in endurance athletes. By pulsed-wave tissue Doppler analysis, E(m) and E(m)/A(m) at both the septal and lateral wall levels were higher in endurance athletes. By two-dimensional strain echocardiography, myocardial deformation indexes were comparable between the two groups. E(m)/A(m) ratios ≥ 1 were found in the overall population, while 90 % of athletes had an E(m) ≥ 16 cm/sec, S(m) ≥ 10 cm/sec, and global longitudinal strain ≤ -16%. Multivariate analyses evidenced independent positive association between Em peak velocity and LV end-diastolic volume (P < .001) and an independent correlation of global longitudinal strain with the sum of LV wall thicknesses (P < .005). This study describes the full spectrum of systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities and deformation indexes in a large population of competitive athletes. Copyright © 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between the abnormal diastolic vortex structure and impaired left ventricle filling in patients with hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bin-Yu; Xie, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin-Fang; Lv, Qing; Liu, Man-Wei; Kong, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Liu, Jin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Intraventricular hydrodynamics plays an important role in evaluating cardiac function. Relationship between diastolic vortex and left ventricular (LV) filling is still rarely elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of vortex during diastole in hyperthyroidism (HT) and explore the alteration of hydromechanics characteristics with sensitive indexes. Forty-three patients diagnosed with HT were classified into 2 groups according to whether myocardial damage existed: simple hyperthyroid group (HT1, n = 21) and thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy (HT2, n = 22). Twenty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. Offline vector flow mapping (VFM model) was used to analyze the LV diastolic blood flow patterns and fluid dynamics. Hemodynamic parameters, vortex area (A), circulation (C), and intraventricular pressure gradient (ΔP), in different diastolic phases (early, mid, and late) were calculated and analyzed. HT2, with a lower E/A ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), had a larger left atrium diameter (LAD) compared with those of the control group and HT1 (P < .05). Compared with the control group, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient during early and mid-diastole were higher in HT1 and lower in HT2 (P < .05). And in late diastole, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient of HT2 became higher than those of the control group (P < .05). Good correlation could be found between CE and E/A (P < .05), CM and ΔPM (P < .01), CL and FT3 (P < .05). VFM is proven practical for detecting the relationship between the changes of left ventricular diastolic vortex and the abnormal left ventricular filling. PMID:28445281

  6. Significance of left ventricular diastolic function on outcomes after surgical ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Nishina, Takeshi; Saji, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2010-05-01

    Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) has been introduced to restore the dilated left ventricular (LV) chamber and improve LV systolic function; however, SVR has also been reported to detrimentally affect LV diastolic properties. We sought to investigate the impact of preoperative LV diastolic function on outcomes after SVR in patients with heart failure. Sixty-seven patients (60 +/- 14 years) with LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction, 0.27 +/- 0.10) underwent SVR. They were evaluated by echocardiography preoperatively, and early (diastolic filling patterns of transmitral flow (impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, and restrictive filling patterns). Patients in the restrictive group showed far greater cardiovascular mortality than the other two groups (p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis showed that preoperative restrictive filling pattern was a predominant predictor for adjusted cardiovascular death (p = 0.023; hazard ratio = 3.0). Left ventricular ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume, and grade of mitral regurgitation improved in all groups early after surgery; however, these variables in the restrictive group significantly deteriorated late after surgery (from 29 +/- 8 to 25 +/- 6 for LV ejection fraction; from 183 +/- 59 to 226 +/- 53 for left ventricular end-diastolic volume; and from 0.7 +/- 0.6 to 1.7 +/- 0.9 for mitral regurgitation grade; p < 0.05 for all). In patients with LV systolic dysfunction undergoing SVR, preoperative restrictive LV diastolic filling pattern strongly related to higher mortality with aggravation of LV systolic function, mitral regurgitation grade, or LV remodeling. This might be attributable to deterioration of diastolic function induced by SVR. Copyright (c) 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between the abnormal diastolic vortex structure and impaired left ventricle filling in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin-Yu; Xie, Ming-Xing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xin-Fang; Lv, Qing; Liu, Man-Wei; Kong, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Liu, Jin-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Intraventricular hydrodynamics plays an important role in evaluating cardiac function. Relationship between diastolic vortex and left ventricular (LV) filling is still rarely elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of vortex during diastole in hyperthyroidism (HT) and explore the alteration of hydromechanics characteristics with sensitive indexes.Forty-three patients diagnosed with HT were classified into 2 groups according to whether myocardial damage existed: simple hyperthyroid group (HT1, n = 21) and thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy (HT2, n = 22). Twenty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled as the control group. Offline vector flow mapping (VFM model) was used to analyze the LV diastolic blood flow patterns and fluid dynamics. Hemodynamic parameters, vortex area (A), circulation (C), and intraventricular pressure gradient (ΔP), in different diastolic phases (early, mid, and late) were calculated and analyzed.HT2, with a lower E/A ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), had a larger left atrium diameter (LAD) compared with those of the control group and HT1 (P < .05). Compared with the control group, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient during early and mid-diastole were higher in HT1 and lower in HT2 (P < .05). And in late diastole, the vortex size and strength, intraventricular pressure gradient of HT2 became higher than those of the control group (P < .05). Good correlation could be found between CE and E/A (P < .05), CM and ΔPM (P < .01), CL and FT3 (P < .05).VFM is proven practical for detecting the relationship between the changes of left ventricular diastolic vortex and the abnormal left ventricular filling.

  8. Ia diastolic dysfunction: an echocardiographic grade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Anil; Mookadam, Farouk; Hakim, Fayaz A; Mulroy, Eoin; Saadiq, Rayya; Doherty, Mairead; Cha, Stephen; Seward, James; Wilansky, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate that a distinct group of patients with Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction who do not conform to present ASE/ESE diastolic grading exists. Echocardiographic and demographic data of the Grade Ia diastolic dysfunction were extracted and compared with that of Grades I and II in 515 patients. The mean of age of the cohort was 75 ± 9 years and body mass index did not differ significantly between the 3 groups (P = 0.45). Measurements of left atrial volume index (28.58 ± 7 mL/m(2) in I, 33 ± 10 mL/m(2) in Ia, and 39 ± 12 mL/m(2) in II P < 0.001), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) (100 ± 17 msec in I, 103 ± 21 msec in Ia, and 79 ± 15 msec in II P < 0.001), deceleration time (248 ± 52 msec in I, 263 ± 58 msec in Ia, and 217 ± 57 msec in II P < 0.001), medial E/e' (10 ± 3 in I, 18 ± 5.00 in Ia, and 22 ± 8 in II), and lateral E/e' (8 ± 3 in I, 15 ± 6 in Ia, and 18 ± 9 in II P < 0.001) were significantly different in grade Ia compared with I and II. These findings remained significant even after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes, and smoking. Patients with echocardiographic characteristics of relaxation abnormality (E/A ratio of <0.8) and elevated filling pressures (septal E/e' ≥15, lateral E/e' ≥12, average E/e' ≥13) should be graded as a separate Grade Ia group. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The effect of right ventricle pacemaker lead position on diastolic function in patients with preserved left ventricle ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Vladimir; Perisić, Zoran; Jolić, Aleksandar; Adamović, Dragana; Zastranović, Lale; Aleksić, Aleksandar; Kostić, Tomislav; Božinović, Nenad; Aleksić, Zeljka; Soldatović, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze any changes during diastole in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), after pacemaker stimulation from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and right ventricular apex (RVA) lead position. This was a prospective, randomized, follow up study, which lasted for 12 months. Our research included 132 consecutive patients who were implanted with a permanent antibradycardiac pacemaker. Regarding the right ventricle lead position the patients were divided into two groups: The RVOT group--71 patients, with right ventricle outflow tract lead position and the RVA group--61 patients, with right ventricle apex lead position. We measured LVEF and diastolic parameters: peak filling ratio and time to peak filling ratio obtained by radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). The LVEF and various diastolic parameters and left atrial diameter were obtained by echocardiography. Based on the values of deceleration time of early diastolic filling (DTE), and other diastolic parameters like left atrial diameter, all the patients were classified into three degrees of diastolic dysfunction. Our results showed that there was no group difference in distribution of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), VVI to DDD pacemakers implantation ratio, RNV parameters (LVEF, peak filling rate (PFR), time to PFR (TPFR)) and echocardiography parameters: LVEF and parameters of diastolic dysfunction. After 12 months of pacemaker stimulation, LVEF by RNV remained the same in the RVOT group 51.31±15.80% (P=0.75), and also in the RVA group 53.83±6.57%, (P=0.19). In the RVOT group the PFR was highly lower and this finding was significant (P=0.01), while TPFR was also significantly lower (P=0.03). By dividing the patients according to the degree of diastolic dysfunction we found that most patients in both groups at enrollment had a second degree diastolic dysfunction. In both groups diastolic dysfunction increased, the number of patients with third degree diastolic

  10. Acute and chronic hypothyroidism are associated with similar left ventricular diastolic dysfunction relative to the euthyroid state: results of doppler echocardiographic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Gauna, A; Messuti, H; Papadopulos, G; Benchuga, G; Viale, F; Marlowe, R J; Silva Croome, M C

    2011-10-01

    How the duration of hypothyroidism affects left ventricular diastolic function is not well-characterized. We sought to compare left ventricular diastolic function in acutely vs chronically hypothyroid patients vs euthyroid controls, and within individuals while on vs off T4. We prospectively performed such comparisons measuring pulsed-wave and color M-mode Doppler echocardiographic variables: early or late mitral peak velocities (E wave or A wave, respectively), E wave/A wave ratio, E wave deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), mitral flow propagation velocity (Vp), E wave/Vp ratio. Subjects comprised the acute HYPO group, 10 patients undergoing T4 withdrawal ≥ 6 months post-primary treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); the chronic HYPO group, 23 treatment-naïve Hashimoto thyroiditis patients; and 21 healthy euthyroid controls. Subjects were adults aged ≤ 60 yr, predominantly female, with sinus rhythm; exclusion criteria were cardiovascular or thyroid disorder besides DTC (Hashimoto thyroiditis) in acute (chronic) HYPO patients or medication (besides thyroid hormone) affecting cardiac or thyroid function. Mean IVRT was significantly delayed and mean Vp, significantly slowed in both HYPO groups vs controls (p<0.0005), but did not differ between HYPO groups. These variables also were significantly impaired (p<0.05) within individuals when off vs on T4 (no.=8 acute, 10 chronic HYPO patients). Both HYPO groups had elevated mean E wave/Vp ratios vs controls, but the elevation reached significance (p<0.05) only in the larger chronic HYPO group. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is largely similar in acutely or chronically hypothyroid patients off T4 vs healthy controls or the same patients on T4.

  11. Diastolic blood pressure-estimated left ventricular dp/dt.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hüseyin; Minareci, Kenan; Kabukçu, Mehmet; Sancaktar, Oktay

    2002-02-01

    Peak dp/dt is one of the best isovolumic phase indexes of the myocardial contractile state requiring invasive procedures or presence of mitral regurgitation severe enough to measure in clinical practice by Doppler echocardiography. In this study, we sought the correlation between two noninvasive methods of measurements for left ventricular dp/dt-diastolic blood pressure- (DBP) estimated and continuous-wave Doppler-derived dp/dt-min electrocardiographic/echocardiographic study to emphasize the clinical feasibility of the DBP-estimated method. Thirty-six randomized patients (27 male, 9 female; 58 +/- 8 years) with mild mitral regurgitation were enrolled in this study. DBP-estimated dp/dt was calculated from DBP minus the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) over the isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT). LVEDP was assumed to be 10 mmHg for all patients. Doppler-determined left ventricular dp/dt was derived from the continuous-wave Doppler spectrum of mitral regurgitation jet by dividing the magnitude of the left ventricular atrial pressure gradient rise between 1 mm/sec-3 mm/sec of mitral regurgitant velocity signal by the time taken for this change. Left ventricular dp/dt by Doppler was 1122 +/- 303 mmHg/sec and blood pressure-estimated dp/dt was 1063 +/- 294 mmHg/sec. There was a high correlation (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) of dp/dt between the two techniques. DBP and IVCT can generate left ventricular dp/dt without invasive procedures, even in the absence of mitral regurgitation in clinical practice.

  12. Effect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage function and thrombotic potential in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Demirçelik, Muhammed Bora; Çetin, Mustafa; Çiçekcioğlu, Hülya; Uçar, Özgül; Duran, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on left atrial appendage functions, spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In 58 patients with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrilation and preserved left ventricular systolic function, left atrial appendage functions, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast grading and left ventricular diastolic functions were evaluated using transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiogram. Patients divided in two groups: Group D (n=30): Patients with diastolic dysfunction, Group N (n=28): Patients without diastolic dysfunction. Categorical variables in two groups were evaluated with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The significance of the lineer correlation between the degree of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and clinical measurements was evaluated with Spearman's correlation analysis. Peak pulmonary vein D velocity of the Group D was significantly higher than the Group N (p=0.006). However, left atrial appendage emptying velocity, left atrial appendage lateral wall velocity, peak pulmonary vein S, pulmonary vein S/D ratio were found to be significantly lower in Group D (p=0.028, p<0.001, p<0.001; p<0.001). Statistically significant negative correlation was found between SEC in left atrium and left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities respectively (r=-0.438, r=-0.328, r=-0.233, r=-0.447). Left atrial appendage emptying, filling, pulmonary vein S/D levels and lateral wall velocities were significantly lower in SEC 2-3-4 than SEC 1 (p=0.003, p=0.029, p<0.001, p=0.002). In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial appendage functions are decreased in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may constitute a potential risk for formation of thrombus and stroke.

  13. Biventricular and atrial diastolic function assessment using conventional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging in adults with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kiotsekoglou, Anatoli; Moggridge, James C; Bijnens, Bart H; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Alpendurada, Francisco; Mullen, Michael J; Saha, Samir; Nassiri, Dariush K; Camm, John; Sutherland, George R; Child, Anne H

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies provided evidence about left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, in the literature, data on right ventricular and bi-atrial diastolic function are limited. We aimed to investigate whether, in the absence of significant valvular disease, diastolic dysfunction is present not only in both ventricles but also in the atrial cavities. Seventy-two adult unoperated MFS patients and 73 controls without significant differences in age, sex, and body surface area from the patient group were studied using two-dimensional, pulsed, and colour-Doppler and tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI). Biventricular early filling measurements were significantly decreased in MFS patients when compared with controls (P < 0.001). Pulsed TDI early filling measurements obtained from five mitral annular regions and over the lateral tricuspid valve corner were significantly reduced in the patient group (P < 0.001). Indices reflecting atrial function at the reservoir, conduit and contractile phases were also significantly decreased in MFS patients (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated significant biventricular diastolic and biatrial systolic and diastolic dysfunction in MFS patients. Our findings suggest that MFS affects diastolic function independently. Diastolic abnormalities could be attributed to fibrillin-1 deficiency and dysregulation of transforming growth factor-beta activity in the cardiac extracellular matrix.

  14. Effects of ranolazine in a model of doxorubicin-induced left ventricle diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Coppini, Raffaele; Piegari, Elena; Russo, Rosa; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Rivellino, Alessia; Santini, Lorenzo; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Rossi, Francesco; Berrino, Liberato; Urbanek, Konrad; De Angelis, Antonella

    2017-11-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer drug, but its clinical application is hampered by cardiotoxicity. Asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction can be the earliest manifestation of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Therefore, a search for therapeutic intervention that can interfere with early manifestations and possibly prevent later development of cardiotoxicity is warranted. Increased doxorubicin-dependent ROS may explain, in part, Ca 2+ and Na + overload that contributes to diastolic dysfunction and development of heart failure. Therefore, we tested whether the administration of ranolazine, a selective blocker of late Na + current, immediately after completing doxorubicin therapy, could affect diastolic dysfunction and interfere with the progression of functional decline. Fischer 344 rats received a cumulative dose of doxorubicin of 15 mg·kg -1 over a period of 2 weeks. After the assessment of diastolic dysfunction, the animals were treated with ranolazine (80 mg·kg -1 , daily) for the following 4 weeks. While diastolic and systolic function progressively deteriorated in doxorubicin-treated animals, treatment with ranolazine relieved diastolic dysfunction and prevented worsening of systolic function, decreasing mortality. Ranolazine lowered myocardial NADPH oxidase 2 expression and oxidative/nitrative stress. Expression of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger 1 and Na v 1.5 channels was reduced and of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 2 protein was increased. In addition, ranolazine lowered doxorubicin-induced hyper-phosphorylation and oxidation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and decreased myocardial fibrosis. Ranolazine, by the increased Na + influx, induced by doxorubicin, altered cardiac Ca 2+ and Na + handling and attenuated diastolic dysfunction induced by doxorubicin, thus preventing the progression of cardiomyopathy. This article is part of a themed section on New Insights into Cardiotoxicity Caused by Chemotherapeutic Agents

  15. Effect of CPAP on diastolic function in coronary artery disease patients with nonsleepy obstructive sleep apnea: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Helena; Johansson, Magnus C; Thunström, Erik; Guron, Cecilia Wallentin; Uzel, Harun; Saygin, Mustafa; Herlitz, Johan; Peker, Yüksel

    2017-08-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with worse diastolic function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This analysis determined whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment would improve diastolic function in CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA. Between December 2005 and November 2010, 244 revascularized CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] score<10) were randomly assigned to CPAP or no-CPAP. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained at baseline, and after 3 and 12months. A total of 171 patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%), no atrial fibrillation or severe valve abnormalities, and technically adequate echocardiograms at baseline and follow-up visits were included (CPAP, n=87; no-CPAP, n=84). In the intention-to-treat analysis, CPAP had no significant effect on echocardiographic parameters of mild (enlarged left atrium or decreased diastolic relaxation velocity) or worse (increased E/é filling index [presumed elevated left ventricular filling pressure]) diastolic function. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant association between CPAP usage for ≥4h/night and an increase in diastolic relaxation velocity at 12months' follow-up (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0-4.9; p=0.039) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and left atrium diameter at baseline. CPAP did not improve diastolic dysfunction in CAD patients with nonsleepy OSA. However, good CPAP adherence was significantly associated with an increase in diastolic relaxation velocity after one year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of pressure-volume loop and echocardiographic measures of diastolic function in patients with a single-ventricle physiology.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shahryar M; Butts, Ryan J; Buckley, Jason; Hlavacek, Anthony M; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Khambadkone, Sachin; Baker, G Hamilton

    2014-08-01

    Echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function have not been validated against invasive pressure-volume loop (PVL) analysis in the single-ventricle population. The authors hypothesized that echocardiographic measures of diastolic function would correlate with PVL indices of diastolic function in patients with a single-ventricle physiology. The conductance-derived PVL measures of diastolic function included the isovolumic relaxation time constant (τ), the maximum rate of ventricular pressure decline (peak -dP/dt), and a measure of passive diastolic stiffness (μ). The echocardiographic measures included Doppler inflow patterns of the dominant atrioventricular valve (DAVV), tissue Doppler velocities (TDI) at the lateral (ventricular free wall) component of the DAVV annulus, and the TDI-derived isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT'). The correlation between PVL and echocardiographic measures was examined. The study enrolled 13 patients at various stages of surgical palliation. The median age of the patients was 3 years (range 3 months to 19 years). τ correlated well with Doppler E:A (r = 0.832; p = 0.005), lateral E:E' (r = 0.747; p = 0.033), and IVRT' (r = 0.831; p = 0.001). Peak -dP/dt also was correlated with IVRT' (r = 0.609; p = 0.036), and μ also was correlated with IVRT' (r = 0.884; p = 0.001). This study represents the first-ever comparison of diastolic echocardiographic and PVL indices in a single-ventricle population. The findings show that Doppler E:A, lateral E:E', and IVRT' correlate well with PVL measures of diastolic function. This study supports further validation of echocardiographic measures of diastolic function versus PVL measures of diastolic function in the single-ventricle population.

  17. Role of Doppler Diastolic Parameters in Differentiating Physiological Left Ventricular Hypertrophy from Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Dhutia, Harshil; D'Silva, Andrew; Malhotra, Aneil; Sheikh, Nabeel; Narain, Rajay; Ensam, Bode; Papatheodorou, Stathis; Tome, Maite; Sharma, Rajan; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    The association between athletic participation and alteration in diastolic function is not well established. The aims of this study were to determine the spectrum of Doppler parameters of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in a large cohort of healthy athletes and to quantify the overlap between physiologic LV hypertrophy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A retrospective analysis of indices of LV diastolic function was performed in 1,510 healthy athletes (mean age, 22 ± 5 years; range, 13-33 years; 72% men). The results were compared with those from 58 young patients with HCM. Septal E' < 7 cm/sec and lateral E' < 10 cm/sec were found in five (0.3%) and eight (0.5%) athletes, respectively. Septal E' was >14.6 cm/sec in 170 (11%) and lateral E' was >19.9 cm/sec in 430 (28%) athletes. Athletes aged >25 years showed lower E' velocities compared with younger athletes (mean septal E', 11.8 ± 6.1 vs 12.9 ± 5.9 cm/sec [P < .001]; mean lateral E', 17.1 ± 3.6 vs 19.3 ± 4.1 cm/sec [P < .001]). Athletes with high indexed LV end-diastolic diameters (>32 mm/m 2 ) exhibited lower septal E' compared with athletes with normal indexed LV end-diastolic diameters (mean septal E', 11.9 ± 6 vs 12.7 ± 6 cm/sec; P = .002). Septal E' < 10 cm/sec and lateral E' < 12 cm/sec showed the best accuracy in differentiating between HCM and athlete's heart. Reduced septal and lateral E' are rarely observed in young elite athletes. Tissue Doppler velocities tend to decrease with increasing age and LV size, and values representative of supernormal diastolic function are found in less than one-third of young athletes. Cutoff thresholds for Doppler parameters of diastolic function should be corrected for multiple demographic and clinical variables to differentiate cardiac adaptation to exercise from HCM in young individuals. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Left ventricular ejection time, not heart rate, is an independent correlate of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Paolo; Palombo, Carlo; Salvi, Giovanni Matteo; Labat, Carlos; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase

    2013-12-01

    Several studies showed a positive association between heart rate and pulse wave velocity, a sensitive marker of arterial stiffness. However, no study involving a large population has specifically addressed the dependence of pulse wave velocity on different components of the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to explore in subjects of different age the link between pulse wave velocity with heart period (the reciprocal of heart rate) and the temporal components of the cardiac cycle such as left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was assessed in 3,020 untreated subjects (1,107 men). Heart period, left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, and early-systolic dP/dt were determined by carotid pulse wave analysis with high-fidelity applanation tonometry. An inverse association was found between pulse wave velocity and left ventricular ejection time at all ages (<25 years, r(2) = 0.043; 25-44 years, r(2) = 0.103; 45-64 years, r(2) = 0.079; 65-84 years, r(2) = 0.044; ≥ 85 years, r(2) = 0.022; P < 0.0001 for all). A significant (P < 0.0001) negative but always weaker correlation between pulse wave velocity and heart period was also found, with the exception of the youngest subjects (P = 0.20). A significant positive correlation was also found between pulse wave velocity and dP/dt (P < 0.0001). With multiple stepwise regression analysis, left ventricular ejection time and dP/dt remained the only determinant of pulse wave velocity at all ages, whereas the contribution of heart period no longer became significant. Our data demonstrate that pulse wave velocity is more closely related to left ventricular systolic function than to heart period. This may have methodological and pathophysiological implications.

  19. Visualization of flow by vector analysis of multidirectional cine MR velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Mohiaddin, R H; Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J

    1994-01-01

    We describe a noninvasive method for visualization of flow and demonstrate its application in a flow phantom and in the great vessels of healthy volunteers and patients with aortic and pulmonary arterial disease. The technique uses multidirectional MR velocity mapping acquired in selected planes. Maps of orthogonal velocity components were then processed into a graphic form immediately recognizable as flow. Cine MR velocity maps of orthogonal velocity components in selected planes were acquired in a flow phantom, 10 healthy volunteers, and 13 patients with dilated great vessels. Velocities were presented by multiple computer-generated streaks whose orientation, length, and movement corresponded to velocity vectors in the chosen plane. The velocity vector maps allowed visualization of complex patterns of primary and secondary flow in the thoracic aorta and pulmonary arteries. The technique revealed coherent, helical forward blood movements in the normal thoracic aorta during midsystole and a reverse flow during early diastole. Abnormal flow patterns with secondary vortices were seen in patients with dilated arteries. The potential of MR velocity vector mapping for in vitro and in vivo visualization of flow patterns is demonstrated. Although this study was limited to two-directional flow in a single anatomical plane, the method provides information that might advance our understanding of the human vascular system in health and disease. Further developments to reduce the acquisition time and the handling and presenting of three-directional velocity data are required to enhance the capability of this method.

  20. Second diastolic pulmonary venous flow and isolated late diastolic mitral valve regurgitation in first-degree atrioventricular block.

    PubMed

    Leibundgut, Gregor; Bernheim, Alain M

    2010-04-01

    The authors report the case of a 77-year-old male patient with sinus rhythm and a first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block who was referred for echocardiographic follow-up 18 years after aortic valve replacement. Left ventricular systolic function as well as the function of the aortic prosthesis was normal. Systolic mitral regurgitation (MR) was virtually absent, but isolated late diastolic MR was detected by colour Doppler imaging. Coincidental to the occurrence of diastolic MR, a second late diastolic forward flow in the pulmonary veins was observed. Therefore, during the prolonged left atrial relaxation caused by first-degree AV block, the left atrial pressure drops below the pressure in both adjacent chambers in late diastole, resulting in both late diastolic MR and a second diastolic pulmonary venous forward flow.

  1. Early signs that predict later haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Engür, Defne; Deveci, Murat; Türkmen, Münevver K

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to determine the optimal cut-off values, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic power of 12 echocardiographic parameters on the second day of life to predict subsequent ductal patency. We evaluated preterm infants, born at ⩽32 weeks of gestation, starting on their second day of life, and they were evaluated every other day until ductal closure or until there were clinical signs of re-opening. We measured transductal diameter; pulmonary arterial diastolic flow; retrograde aortic diastolic flow; pulsatility index of the left pulmonary artery and descending aorta; left atrium and ventricle/aortic root ratio; left ventricular output; left ventricular flow velocity time integral; mitral early/late diastolic flow; and superior caval vein diameter and flow as well as performed receiver operating curve analysis. Transductal diameter (>1.5 mm); pulmonary arterial diastolic flow (>25.6 cm/second); presence of retrograde aortic diastolic flow; ductal diameter by body weight (>1.07 mm/kg); left pulmonary arterial pulsatility index (⩽0.71); and left ventricle to aortic root ratio (>2.2) displayed high sensitivity and specificity (p0.9). Parameters with moderate sensitivity and specificity were as follows: left atrial to aortic root ratio; left ventricular output; left ventricular flow velocity time integral; and mitral early/late diastolic flow ratio (p0.05) had low diagnostic value. Left pulmonary arterial pulsatility index, left ventricle/aortic root ratio, and ductal diameter by body weight are useful adjuncts offering a broader outlook for predicting ductal patency.

  2. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. This was a case-control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e': 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function.

  3. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases on left ventricular diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Shuo; Feng, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Min; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in hospitalized elderly patients. Methods This was a case–control observational study of 148 consecutive hospitalized elderly patients (≥65 years old): 73 subjects without COPD as controls and 75 patients with COPD. Mild-to-moderate COPD was defined as stages 1 and 2, while severe and very severe COPD was defined as stages 3 and 4, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were analyzed and compared. Results Compared with the control group, patients with COPD had a higher frequency of LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Smoking frequency, frequency of cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes, and serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were higher in the COPD group (all P<0.05). COPD patients showed more abnormalities in diastolic function (E/e′: 11.51±2.50 vs 10.42±3.25, P=0.047), but no differences in systolic function and right ventricular function (all P>0.05). Patients with severe/very severe COPD showed no differences in LV diastolic function compared to patients with mild/moderate COPD (P>0.05), but serum NT-proBNP levels were higher in severe/very severe COPD (P<0.05). Conclusion Results suggest that early-stage COPD may have an impact on the LV diastolic function. Severe COPD mainly affected right ventricular function. In hospitalized elderly patients with COPD, LV diastolic dysfunction should be taken into account together with right ventricular function. PMID:25565790

  4. Impaired left ventricular diastolic function is related to the formation of left ventricular apical thrombus in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung Lim; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Sun, Byung Joo; Oh, Jin Kyung; Seong, Seok Woo; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kwon, In Sun; Seong, In-Whan

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular (LV) apical thrombus is a clinically important complication which can cause systemic embolization in patients with anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Systolic dysfunction has been a risk factor for developing LV apical thrombus in AMI patients. However, the role of diastolic dysfunction in the development of LV apical thrombus in these patients is still unknown. We performed this study to evaluate whether diastolic dysfunction can influence the development of LV apical thrombus in anterior AMI patients. We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive anterior AMI patients with available echocardiographic images within 1 month from January 2005 to April 2016. After gathering clinical characteristics from their medical records, systolic and diastolic functions were analyzed from digitally stored echocardiographic images. We included a total of 1045 patients (748 males, mean age 64 ± 12 years) with anterior AMI, and 494 (47%) were diagnosed as STEMI. The incidence of LV apical thrombus was 3.3% (34/1045). The LV apical thrombus group had larger LV diastolic dimension, larger LV diastolic and systolic volumes, and lower LVEF than the no LV thrombus group. The LV apical thrombus group showed higher mitral E velocity over mitral annular E' velocity ratio, an indicator of LV end-diastolic pressure (P < 0.001). In the LV apical thrombus group, the incidence of grade 2 diastolic dysfunction (32 vs 12%, P = 0.001) and grade 3 diastolic dysfunction (26 vs 2%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher than in the no LV apical thrombus group. The presence of more than grade 2 diastolic dysfunction, LVEF and presence of LV apical aneurysm were statistically significant factors associated with LV apical thrombus after the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, along with LV systolic dysfunction and LV apical aneurysm, LV diastolic dysfunction was also related with the presence of LV apical thrombus in patients with anterior AMI.

  5. Early Reticulocytosis and Anemia Are Associated with Abnormal and Conditional Transcranial Doppler Velocities in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Fasano, Ross M; Estrada, Monica; He, Jianping; Luban, Naomi L C; McCarter, Robert

    2016-02-01

    To improve prediction of sickle cell anemia severity at an early age, we evaluated whether absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) or hemoglobin (Hb) levels during early infancy (2-6 months of age) in patients with sickle cell anemia predict the risk of later developing an abnormal (abTCD) or conditional (cdTCD) Transcranial Doppler (TCD). We used chart review to identify 121 consecutive patients who underwent TCD screening and had steady state ARC and Hb levels recorded between 2 and 6 months of age. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between ARC, Hb levels, and risk of developing cdTCD/abTCD over time. Mean ARC in early infancy was highest and mean Hb lowest in those children with abTCDs and cdTCDs. Cox regression analysis revealed that those subjects with an ARC ≥200 K/μL in early infancy had nearly 3 times the risk of having an abTCD/cdTCD than the group with an ARC <200 K/μL, and patients with a Hb <8.5 g/dL had 2.7 times the risk of having an abTCD/cdTCD. These data suggest that both elevated ARC and low baseline Hb during early infancy are associated with an increased risk of developing a cdTCD or abTCD later in childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Hsu; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lien, Yu-Chung; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Wu, Cho-Kai

    2013-08-30

    Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population. This was a cross-sectional study of 149 patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function who were undergoing PD. LVDD was diagnosed (according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines) and EpF thickness measured by echocardiography. The patients without LVDD were used as controls. The serum inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured. The location and amount of adipose tissue were assessed by computed tomography (CT) at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Subjects with LVDD had higher levels of hsCRP, more visceral and peritoneal fat, and thicker EpF (all p < 0.001) than controls. Visceral adipose tissue, hsCRP, and EpF all correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with LVDD. Multivariate regression analysis rendered the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and LVDD insignificant, whereas EpF was the most powerful determinant of LVDD (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.43-4.08, p < 0.01). EpF thickness also correlated significantly with the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e'; r = 0.27, p < 0.01). EpF thickness is significantly independently associated with LVDD in patients undergoing PD and may be involved in its pathogenesis.

  7. Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 149 patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function who were undergoing PD. LVDD was diagnosed (according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines) and EpF thickness measured by echocardiography. The patients without LVDD were used as controls. The serum inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured. The location and amount of adipose tissue were assessed by computed tomography (CT) at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Results Subjects with LVDD had higher levels of hsCRP, more visceral and peritoneal fat, and thicker EpF (all p < 0.001) than controls. Visceral adipose tissue, hsCRP, and EpF all correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with LVDD. Multivariate regression analysis rendered the relationship between visceral adipose tissue and LVDD insignificant, whereas EpF was the most powerful determinant of LVDD (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.43–4.08, p < 0.01). EpF thickness also correlated significantly with the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e’; r = 0.27, p < 0.01). Conclusion EpF thickness is significantly independently associated with LVDD in patients undergoing PD and may be involved in its pathogenesis. PMID:24001037

  8. Early or delayed surgical treatment in compound limb fractures due to high velocity missile injuries: a 5-year retrospective study from Medical City in Baghdad.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilli, Ali Bakir; Salih, Dheyaa Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Compound limb fractures due to high-velocity missiles are complex and usually associated with multiple other injuries. These can occur in both military and civilian settings. High-velocity missiles are presently used by terrorists worldwide. Early surgical debridement and skeletal fixation are the gold standards in managing these injuries, but data supporting these recommendations are lacking. Our aim was to determine the relationship between time (the time of injury to the time of surgical treatment) and the rate of deep infection in patients treated in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq due to terrorist activity from 2004-2008. This is a retrospective review of a series of open limb fractures. A total of 102 civilian patients with 114 limb fractures due to high-velocity missile injuries were selected for this study from Medical City records. Patients were followed in the outpatient department in Medical City Teaching Complex both clinically and radiologically. Surgical treatment was accomplished in less than six hours from time of injury in group A (55 fractures, 48.4%) and more than six hours in group B (59 fractures, 51.7%). The infection rate for group A was 30.9% and group B was 23.7%. A very high infection rate was noted for these injuries, and there was no increase in the rate of deep infection in patients treated more than six hours after the injury.

  9. Association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and hypertension subtypes in untreated Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Ting-Yan; Ding, Feng-Hua; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The association of target organ damage with 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and ambulatory hypertension subtypes has not yet been examined in untreated Chinese patients. We measured left ventricular mass index by echocardiography (n=619), the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (n=1047), and aortic pulse wave velocity by tonometry (n=1013) in 1047 untreated subjects (mean age, 50.6 years; 48.9% women). Normotension was a 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure <130/<80 mm Hg. Hypertension subtypes were isolated diastolic hypertension and mixed systolic plus diastolic hypertension. We assessed associations of interest by multivariable-adjusted linear models. Using normotension as reference, mixed hypertension was associated with higher (P≤0.003) left ventricular mass index (+4.31 g/m(2)), urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.63 mg/mmol), and pulse wave velocity (+0.76 m/s); and isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with similar left ventricular mass index and pulse wave velocity (P≥0.39), but higher urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (+1.24 mg/mmol; P=0.002). In younger participants (<55 years), the mutually independent effect sizes associated with 1 SD increases in 24-hour systolic/diastolic blood pressure were +3.31/-0.36 g/m(2) (P=0.009/0.79) for left ventricular mass index, +1.15/+1.14 mg/mmol (P=0.02/0.04) for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and +0.54/-0.05 m/s (P<0.001/0.54) for pulse wave velocity. In older participants, these estimates were +3.58/+0.30 g/m(2) (P=0.045/0.88), +1.23/+1.05 mg/mmol (P=0.002/0.54), and +0.76/-0.49 m/s (P<0.001/<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, 24-hour systolic blood pressure and mixed hypertension are major determinants of target organ damage irrespective of age and target organ, whereas 24-hour diastolic blood pressure and isolated diastolic hypertension only relate to the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio below middle age.

  10. Treatment of hypertension with perindopril reduces plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels, left ventricular mass, and improves echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, F.; Aksoy, F. G.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Sabah, I.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiac deaths, and diastolic dysfunction is a usual finding during the course of this disease. HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic therapy with perindopril on left ventricular (LV) mass, left atrial size, diastolic function, and plasma level of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with hypertension. METHODS: Twenty four patients who had not been previously taking any antihypertensive medication and without prior history of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, dysrhythmias, valvular heart disease, or systemic illnesses received 4-8 mg/day of perindopril orally. Echocardiographic studies were acquired at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of therapy. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 174 +/- 19.7 and 107.5 +/- 7.8 mmHg to 134 +/- 10.6 and 82 +/- 6.7 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001). Left ventricular mass decreased from 252.4 +/- 8.3 to 205.7 +/- 7.08 g and left atrial volume from 20.4 +/- 5.1 to 17.6 +/- 5.2 ml, respectively (p < 0.001). Transmitral Doppler early and atrial filling velocity ratio (E/A) increased from 0.69 +/- 0.06 to 0.92 +/- 0.05 m/s and plasma ANP level decreased from 71.9 +/- 11.7 to 35.3 +/- 7.8 pg/ml (p < 0.001). Reduction of LV mass correlated positively with a reduction in ANP levels (r = 0.66, p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Perindopril caused a significant reduction of LV mass, left atrial volume, and plasma ANP levels, as well as improvement in Doppler parameters of LV filling in this group of patients with hypertension.

  11. Prevalence of arterial stiffness and the risk of myocardial diastolic dysfunction in women.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Ute; Brecht, Anna; Nauman, Ahmad T; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Ruecke, Mirjam; Knebel, Fabian; Stangl, Verena; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2016-10-01

    The present study determines the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and arterial stiffness (ASt) in a female urban population by measuring the brachial augmentation index (AIx) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). The study tests the hypothesis that the measurement of AIx and PWV is useful in addition to that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors when assessing the risk for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). This cross-sectional study recruited 965 women aged 25-75 years from 12 districts of Berlin. The ASt indices, brachial AIx, aortic PWV and the central blood pressure were measured by an oscillometric method. A randomly selected subgroup (n=343) was examined by echocardiography. Trans-mitral inflow E/A ratio and diastolic mitral annulus velocity (é) were assessed. Questionnaires, medical history and blood sampling were used for the evaluation of individual risk factors. Normal vascular function was found in 55% of the women included. The prevalence of women with pathological AIx only (AIx ⩾ -10%, PWV normal) was 21.5%, whereas 17.9% were affected by increased AIx and PWV (AIx ⩾ -10%, PWV ⩾9.7 m/s), and 6% with only pathological PWV values. The prevalence of LVDD was 31.7%. LVDD was significantly associated with pathological PWV ⩾ 9.7 m/s [OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.02-1.57], age [OR: 4.17, 95%CI: 2.87-6.07] and a waist circumference >80 cm [OR: 3.61, 95%CI: 1.85-7.04] in multiple regression analysis. The high prevalence of markers for vascular dysfunction and ASt in a general female population and their importance as a mediator of diastolic dysfunction should encourage implementation of aortic PWV measurement to improve cardiovascular-risk assessment in particular to identify subclinical myocardial diastolic dysfunction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. New diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities for diastolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Dudley, Samuel C

    2014-02-03

    Despite the fact that up to half of all heart failure occurs in patients without evidence of systolic cardiac dysfunction, there are no universally accepted diagnostic markers and no approved therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF, otherwise known as diastolic heart failure, has nearly the same grim prognosis as systolic heart failure, and diastolic heart failure is increasing in incidence and prevalence. Major trials have shown that many of the treatments that are salutary in systolic heart failure have no beneficial effects in diastolic heart failure, suggesting different underlying mechanisms for these two disorders. Even criteria for diagnosis of HFpEF are still debated, and there is still no gold standard marker to detect diastolic dysfunction. Here, we will review some promising new insights into the pathogenesis of diastolic dysfunction that may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

  13. Effect of canagliflozin on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Masaya; Kayama, Yosuke; Takeda, Norihiko; Horiuchi, Ryuzo; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2018-05-22

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) greatly increases the risks of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. In particular, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction that develops from the early stages of T2DM is an important factor in the onset and exacerbation of heart failure. The effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on left ventricular diastolic function has not been elucidated. We have performed the first prospective study on the effects of canagliflozin on left ventricular diastolic function in T2DM. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of additional treatment with canagliflozin for 3 months on left ventricular diastolic function in patients with T2DM. A total of 38 patients with T2DM were consecutively recruited for this study. Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography. The primary study outcome was a change in the septal E/e' as a parameter of left ventricular diastolic function. A total of 37 patients (25 males and 12 females) were included in the analysis. Mean age of participants was 64.2 ± 8.1 years (mean ± SD), mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 ± 8.1 years, and mean HbA1c was 7.9 ± 0.7%. Of the participants, 86.5% had hypertension, 100% had dyslipidemia, and 32.4% had cardiovascular disease. Canagliflozin significantly improved left ventricular diastolic function (septal E/e' ratio 13.7 ± 3.5-12.1 ± 2.8, p = 0.001). Furthermore, among the various parameters that changed through the administration of canagliflozin, only changes in hemoglobin significantly correlated with changes in the septal E/e' ratio (p = 0.002). In multiple regression analysis, changes in hemoglobin were also revealed to be an independent predictive factor for changes in the septal E/e' ratio. This study showed for the first time that canagliflozin could improve left ventricular diastolic function within 3 months in patients with T2DM. The benefit was especially apparent in patients with

  14. Does oxidative stress modulate left ventricular diastolic function in asymptomatic subjects with hereditary hemochromatosis?

    PubMed

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Bolan, Charles D; Tripodi, Dorothy J; Sachdev, Vandana; Nguyen, Tammy T; Botello, Gilberto; Yau, Yu-Ying; Sidenko, Stanislav; Inez, Ernst; Ali, Mir I; Waclawiw, Myron A; Leitman, Susan F; Rosing, Douglas R

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about the early mechanisms mediating left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). However, the increased oxidative stress related to iron overload may be involved in this process, and strain rate (SR), a sensitive echocardiography-derived measure of diastolic function, may detect such changes. we evaluated the relationship between left ventricular diastolic function measured with tissue Doppler SR and oxidative stress in asymptomatic HH subjects and control normal subjects. Ninety-four consecutive visits of 43 HH subjects, age 30-74 (50 +/- 10, mean +/- SD), and 37 consecutive visits of 21 normal volunteers, age 30-63 (48 +/- 8), were evaluated over a 3-year period. SR was obtained from the basal septum in apical four-chamber views. All patients had confirmed C282Y homozygosity, a documented history of iron overload, and were New York Heart Association functional class I. Normal volunteers lacked HFE gene mutations causing HH. In the HH subjects, the SR demonstrated moderate but significant correlations with biomarkers of oxidative stress; however, no correlations were noted in normal subjects. The biomarkers of iron overload per se did not show significant correlations with the SR. Although our study was limited by the relatively small subject number, these results suggest that a possible role of oxidative stress to affect LV diastolic function in asymptomatic HH subjects and SR imaging may be a sensitive measure to detect that effect.

  15. Echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic parameters in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Garncarz, M A

    2007-01-01

    Echocardiography is a valuable tool for the evaluation of systolic and diastolic cardiac function. A high correlation between measurements of diastolic mitral inflow parameters analyzed with Doppler echocardiography and invasive methods makes the former valuable. The aim of this study was to ascertain if significant differences occur in diastolic myocardial parameters between dogs with no heart disease and dogs with subclinical or clinical dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore the aim of the study was to determine whether heart failure in dilated cardiomypathy is a result of systolic dysfunction alone or both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Eleven parameters were analyzed: E wave, E-AT, E-DT, E time, A wave, A-AT, A-DT, A time, E+A time, E/A ratio, and IVRT. The study confirmed the value of noninvasive echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. Significant differences were found in E wave, E-AT, E time, E/A ratio and IVRT between healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. All are characterized by a significant decrease compared to healthy dogs after taking into account age and body weight except for the E/A ratio, which significantly increased in value. There were no significant changes in any of the Doppler parameters for diastolic evaluation in subclinical cases of DCM. Advanced heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy entails systolic and diastolic dysfunction.

  16. Histone deacetylase activity governs diastolic dysfunction through a nongenomic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mark Y.; Lin, Ying H.; Wennersten, Sara A.; Demos-Davies, Kimberly M.; Cavasin, Maria A.; Mahaffey, Jennifer H.; Monzani, Valmen; Saripalli, Chandrasekhar; Mascagni, Paolo; Reece, T. Brett; Ambardekar, Amrut V.; Granzier, Henk L.; Dinarello, Charles A.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2018-01-01

    There are no approved drugs for the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is characterized by left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. We demonstrate that ITF2357 (givinostat), a clinical-stage inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) catalytic activity, is efficacious in two distinct murine models of diastolic dysfunction with preserved EF. ITF2357 blocked LV diastolic dysfunction due to hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats and suppressed aging-induced diastolic dysfunction in normotensive mice. HDAC inhibitor–mediated efficacy was not due to lowering blood pressure or inhibiting cellular and molecular events commonly associated with diastolic dysfunction, including cardiac fibrosis, cardiac hypertrophy, or changes in cardiac titin and myosin isoform expression. Instead, ex vivo studies revealed impairment of cardiac myofibril relaxation as a previously unrecognized, myocyte-autonomous mechanism for diastolic dysfunction, which can be ameliorated by HDAC inhibition. Translating these findings to humans, cardiac myofibrils from patients with diastolic dysfunction and preserved EF also exhibited compromised relaxation. These data suggest that agents such as HDAC inhibitors, which potentiate cardiac myofibril relaxation, hold promise for the treatment of HFpEF in humans. PMID:29437146

  17. Spatial correlation of action potential duration and diastolic dysfunction in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits.

    PubMed

    Odening, Katja E; Jung, Bernd A; Lang, Corinna N; Cabrera Lozoya, Rocio; Ziupa, David; Menza, Marius; Relan, Jatin; Franke, Gerlind; Perez Feliz, Stefanie; Koren, Gideon; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Brunner, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Föll, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced dispersion of action potential duration (APD) is a major contributor to long QT syndrome (LQTS)-related arrhythmias. To investigate spatial correlations of regional heterogeneities in cardiac repolarization and mechanical function in LQTS. Female transgenic LQTS type 2 (LQT2; n = 11) and wild-type littermate control (LMC) rabbits (n = 9 without E4031 and n = 10 with E4031) were subjected to phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to assess regional myocardial velocities. In the same rabbits' hearts, monophasic APDs were assessed in corresponding segments. In LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits, APD was longer in all left ventricular segments (P < .01) and APD dispersion was greater than that in LMC rabbits (P < .01). In diastole, peak radial velocities (Vr) were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated compared to LMC rabbits in LV base and mid (LQT2: -3.36 ± 0.4 cm/s, P < .01; E4031-treated: -3.24 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .0001; LMC: -4.42 ± 0.5 cm/s), indicating an impaired diastolic function. Regionally heterogeneous diastolic Vr correlated with APD (LQT2: correlation coefficient [CC] 0.38, P = .01; E4031-treated: CC 0.42, P < .05). Time-to-diastolic peak Vr were prolonged in LQT2 rabbits (LQT2: 196.8 ± 2.9 ms, P < .001; E4031-treated: 199.5 ± 2.2 ms, P < .0001, LMC 183.1 ± 1.5), indicating a prolonged contraction duration. Moreover, in transgenic LQT2 rabbits, diastolic time-to-diastolic peak Vr correlated with APD (CC 0.47, P = .001). In systole, peak Vr were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits (P < .01) but longitudinal velocities or ejection fraction did not differ. Finally, random forest machine learning algorithms enabled a differentiation between LQT2, E4031-treated, and LMC rabbits solely based on "mechanical" magnetic resonance imaging data. The prolongation of APD led to impaired diastolic and systolic function in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits. APD correlated with regional diastolic dysfunction, indicating that LQTS is not purely an

  18. Non-invasive method of determining diastolic intracranial pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining diastolic intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. A first change in the length of a path across the skull of the patient caused by a known change in ICP is measured and used to determine an elasticity constant for the patient. Next, a second change in the length of the path across the patient's skull occurring between systolic and diastolic portions of the patient's heartbeat is measured. The patient's diastolic ICP is a function of the elasticity constant and the second change.

  19. Intrafamilial aggregation and heritability of tissue Doppler indexes of left ventricular diastolic function in a group of African descent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Vernice R; Norton, Gavin R; Libhaber, Carlos D; Maseko, Muzi J; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-06-01

    Although several indexes of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function show heritability, the genetic influence on the tissue Doppler index, E/e' (early transmitral velocity/velocity of myocardial tissue lengthening), an index of LV filling pressures in those of black African descent is currently unknown. Furthermore, whether any genetic influences on E/e' are through an impact of LV remodeling or aortic function is unknown. Intrafamilial aggregation and heritability (SAGE software) of E/e' (echocardiography) were assessed in 129 nuclear families (29 spouse pairs, 216 parent-child pairs, and 113 sibling-sibling pairs) from an urban developing community of black Africans, independent of LV mass index (LVMI), LV relative wall thickness (RWT), central aortic systolic pressure (SBPc), and backward wave pressures (Pb) (applanation tonometry, SphygmoCor software). Independent of confounders including LVMI and RWT, E/e' was correlated in parent-child (r = 0.23; P < .001) and sibling-sibling (r = 0.29; P < .005), but not in spouse (r = 0.13; P = .51) pairs. The relationships between parent-child (r = 0.22; P < .001) and sibling-sibling (r = 0.29; P < .005) pairs persisted with adjustments for SBPc. The relationships between parent-child (r = 0.22; P < .001) and sibling-sibling (r = 0.26; P < .01) pairs also persisted with adjustments for Pb. Independent of confounders including LVMI and RWT, E/e' showed significant heritability (h(2) ± standard error of the mean [SEM] = 0.51 ± 0.11; P < .0001) which similarly persisted with adjustments for SBPc (h(2) ± SEM = 0.50 ± 0.11; P < .0001) and Pb (h(2) ± SEM = 0.49 ± 0.11; P < .0001). In conclusion, in a group of African ancestry, independent of LV remodeling and aortic function, E/e' shows significant intrafamilial aggregation and robust heritability. Hence, genetic factors may play an important role in determining moderate-to-severe LV diastolic dysfunction independent of

  20. Presystolic tricuspid valve closure: an alternative mechanism of diastolic sound genesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, C H; Xiao, H B; Gibson, D G

    1990-01-01

    We describe a previously unrecognised cause of an added diastolic heart sound. The patient had first-degree heart block and diastolic tricuspid regurgitation, leading to presystolic closure of the tricuspid valve and the production of a loud diastolic sound. Unlike previously described mechanisms for diastolic sounds, this sound was generated by the sudden acceleration of retrograde AV flow in late diastole.

  1. EARLY OR DELAYED SURGICAL TREATMENT IN COMPOUND LIMB FRACTURES DUE TO HIGH VELOCITY MISSILE INJURIES: A 5-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM MEDICAL CITY IN BAGHDAD

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilli, Ali Bakir; Salih, Dheyaa Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Background Compound limb fractures due to high-velocity missiles are complex and usually associated with multiple other injuries. These can occur in both military and civilian settings. Highvelocity missiles are presently used by terrorists worldwide. Early surgical debridement and skeletal fixation are the gold standards in managing these injuries, but data supporting these recommendations are lacking. Aim of the study Our aim was to determine the relationship between time (the time of injury to the time of surgical treatment) and the rate of deep infection in patients treated in Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq due to terrorist activity from 2004-2008. Design This is a retrospective review of a series of open limb fractures. Patients and method A total of 102 civilian patients with 114 limb fractures due to high-velocity missile injuries were selected for this study from Medical City records. Patients were followed in the outpatient department in Medical City Teaching Complex both clinically and radiologically. Results Surgical treatment was accomplished in less than six hours from time of injury in group A (55 fractures, 48.4%) and more than six hours in group B (59 fractures, 51.7%). The infection rate for group A was 30.9% and group B was 23.7%. Conclusion A very high infection rate was noted for these injuries, and there was no increase in the rate of deep infection in patients treated more than six hours after the injury. PMID:21045979

  2. Resonance enhancement of dark matter interactions: the case for early kinetic decoupling and velocity dependent resonance width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duch, M.; Grzadkowski, B.

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the possibility of enhancing dark matter (DM) self-scattering cross-section σ self , we have revisited the issue of DM annihilation through a Breit-Wigner resonance. In this case thermally averaged annihilation cross-section has strong temper-ature dependence, whereas elastic scattering of DM on the thermal bath particles is sup-pressed. This leads to the early kinetic decoupling of DM and an interesting interplay in the evolution of DM density and temperature that can be described by a set of coupled Boltzmann equations. The standard Breit-Wigner parametrization of a resonance prop-agator is also corrected by including momentum dependence of the resonance width. It has been shown that this effects may change predictions of DM relic density by more than order of magnitude in some regions of the parameter space. Model independent discussion is illustrated within a theory of Abelian vector dark matter. The model assumes extra U(1) symmetry group factor and an additional complex Higgs field needed to generate a mass for the dark vector boson, which provides an extra neutral Higgs boson h 2. We discuss the resonant amplification of σ self . It turns out that if DM abundance is properly reproduced, the Fermi-LAT data favor heavy DM and constraint the enhancement of σ self to the range, which cannot provide a solution to the small-scale structure problems.

  3. Chagas cardiomyopathy: The potential effect of benznidazole treatment on diastolic dysfunction and cardiac damage in dogs chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fabiane M; Mazzeti, Ana L; Caldas, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Karolina R; Lima, Wanderson G; Torres, Rosália M; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality among patients with Chagas disease, and the relevance of trypanocidal treatment to improving diastolic dysfunction is still doubtful. In the present study, we used a canine model infected with the benznidazole-sensitive Berenice-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strain to verify the efficacy of an etiologic treatment in reducing the parasite load and ameliorating cardiac muscle tissue damage and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in the chronic phase of the infection. The effect of the treatment on reducing the parasite load was monitored by blood PCR and blood culture assays, and the effect of the treatment on the outcome of heart tissue damage and on diastolic function was evaluated by histopathology and echo Doppler cardiogram. The benefit of the benznidazole-treatment in reducing the parasite burden was demonstrated by a marked decrease in positive blood culture and PCR assay results until 30days post-treatment. At this time, the PCR and blood culture assays yielded negative results for 82% of the treated animals, compared with only 36% of the untreated dogs. However, a progressive increase in the parasite load could be detected in the peripheral blood for one year post-treatment, as evidenced by a progressive increase in positive results for both the PCR and the blood culture assays at follow-up. The parasite load reduction induced by treatment was compatible with the lower degree of tissue damage among animals euthanized in the first month after treatment and with the increased cardiac damage after this period, reaching levels similar to those in untreated animals at the one-year follow-up. The two infected groups also presented similar, significantly smaller values for early tissue septal velocity (E' SIV) than the non-infected dogs did at this later time. Moreover, in the treated animals, an increase in the E/E' septal tissue filling pressure ratio was observed when compared with basal values as well as with

  4. Hydraulic forces contribute to left ventricular diastolic filling

    PubMed Central

    Maksuti, Elira; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Kovács, Sándor J.; Broomé, Michael; Ugander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial active relaxation and restoring forces are known determinants of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We hypothesize the existence of an additional mechanism involved in LV filling, namely, a hydraulic force contributing to the longitudinal motion of the atrioventricular (AV) plane. A prerequisite for the presence of a net hydraulic force during diastole is that the atrial short-axis area (ASA) is smaller than the ventricular short-axis area (VSA). We aimed (a) to illustrate this mechanism in an analogous physical model, (b) to measure the ASA and VSA throughout the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and (c) to calculate the magnitude of the hydraulic force. The physical model illustrated that the anatomical difference between ASA and VSA provides the basis for generating a hydraulic force during diastole. In volunteers, VSA was greater than ASA during 75–100% of diastole. The hydraulic force was estimated to be 10–60% of the peak driving force of LV filling (1–3 N vs 5–10 N). Hydraulic forces are a consequence of left heart anatomy and aid LV diastolic filling. These findings suggest that the relationship between ASA and VSA, and the associated hydraulic force, should be considered when characterizing diastolic function and dysfunction. PMID:28256604

  5. Automatic detection of end-diastolic and end-systolic frames in 2D echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Zolgharni, Massoud; Negoita, Madalina; Dhutia, Niti M; Mielewczik, Michael; Manoharan, Karikaran; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Finegold, Judith A; Sacchi, Stefania; Cole, Graham D; Francis, Darrel P

    2017-07-01

    Correctly selecting the end-diastolic and end-systolic frames on a 2D echocardiogram is important and challenging, for both human experts and automated algorithms. Manual selection is time-consuming and subject to uncertainty, and may affect the results obtained, especially for advanced measurements such as myocardial strain. We developed and evaluated algorithms which can automatically extract global and regional cardiac velocity, and identify end-diastolic and end-systolic frames. We acquired apical four-chamber 2D echocardiographic video recordings, each at least 10 heartbeats long, acquired twice at frame rates of 52 and 79 frames/s from 19 patients, yielding 38 recordings. Five experienced echocardiographers independently marked end-systolic and end-diastolic frames for the first 10 heartbeats of each recording. The automated algorithm also did this. Using the average of time points identified by five human operators as the reference gold standard, the individual operators had a root mean square difference from that gold standard of 46.5 ms. The algorithm had a root mean square difference from the human gold standard of 40.5 ms (P<.0001). Put another way, the algorithm-identified time point was an outlier in 122/564 heartbeats (21.6%), whereas the average human operator was an outlier in 254/564 heartbeats (45%). An automated algorithm can identify the end-systolic and end-diastolic frames with performance indistinguishable from that of human experts. This saves staff time, which could therefore be invested in assessing more beats, and reduces uncertainty about the reliability of the choice of frame. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Echocardiographic features of impaired left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Combellas, I; Puigbo, J J; Acquatella, H; Tortoledo, F; Gomez, J R

    1985-01-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's disease, simultaneous echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and apexcardiograms were recorded in 20 asymptomatic patients with positive Chagas's serology and no signs of heart disease (group 1), 12 with Chagas's heart disease and symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia but no heart failure (group 2), 20 normal subjects (group 3), and 12 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (group 4). The recordings were digitised to determine left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and the rate and duration of left ventricular cavity dimension increase and wall thinning. In groups 1 and 2 (a) aortic valve closure (A2) and mitral valve opening were significantly delayed relative to minimum dimension and were associated with prolonged isovolumic relaxation, (b) left ventricular cavity size was abnormally increased during isovolumic relaxation and abnormally reduced during isovolumic contraction, and (c) peak rate of posterior wall thinning and dimension increase were significantly reduced and duration of posterior wall thinning was significantly prolonged; both of these abnormalities occurred at the onset of diastolic filling. These abnormalities were more pronounced in group 2 and were accompanied by an increase in the height of the apexcardiogram "a" wave, an indication of pronounced atrial systole secondary to end diastolic filling impairment due to reduced left ventricular distensibility. Group 4, which had an established pattern of diastolic abnormalities, showed changes similar to those in group 2; however, the delay in aortic valve closure (A2) and in mitral valve opening and the degree of dimension change were greater in the latter group. Thus early isovolumic relaxation and left ventricular abnormalities were pronounced in the patients with Chagas's heart disease and may precede systolic compromise, which may become apparent in later stages of the disease. The digitised method is valuable in the early detection of

  7. Effect of well-controlled gestational diabetes on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in neonates.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Yazdan; Habibi, Danial; Nasri, Khadijeh; Alinejad, Saeed; Taherahmad, Hassan; Arjmand Shabestari, Ali; Nematinejad, Ali

    2018-06-17

    There are some evidences supporting the relation between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of well-controlled GDM on morphological and functional myocardium. We designed a prospective cross-sectional study to evaluate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function of 60 neonates born from mothers with well-controlled GDM (case group) on days of 3-5 after birth. The infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) group were divided into two groups: diabetic mothers treated only with diet (class A) and group of mothers on medical therapy by insulin or metformin (class B). Traditional echocardiography and pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD), tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed for all the neonates. The study group consisted of 60 neonates as males (M) = 32, (0.53%) and females (F) = 28, (0.46%). Using M-mode echocardiography, interventricular septum thickness (IVS), and LV mass were significantly higher in IDM than control group (p = .0001). The PWD showed both a significantly more peak mitral flow at early diastolic wave (E) and an early filling deceleration time (E-DT) (p = .0001). Tissue Doppler echocardiography parameters A' (cm/s) (p = .0001), E' (cm/s) (p = .002), and E'/A' ratio (p = .0001), left ventricular myocardial performance index (LVMPI), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) were outstandingly different between the two groups (p = .0001, respectively). Evaluating the GDM group mothers of class A and class B, no significant difference was noted in PWD or TDI parameters compared with the healthy ones. It seems that neonates of mothers with well-controlled GDM are still at increased risk of cardiac hypertrophy, subclinical diastolic dysfunction, and impaired left ventricular relaxation. This can be interpreted that focusing only on glycemic control is not enough to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  8. High S/N Echelle spectroscopy in young stellar groups. II. Rotational velocities of early-type stars in SCO OB2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. G. A.; Verschueren, W.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the rotational velocities of early-type stars in the Sco OB2 association. We measure v.sin(i) for 156 established and probable members of the association. The measurements are performed with three different techniques, which are in increasing order of expected v.sin(i): 1) converting the widths of spectral lines directly to v.sin(i), 2) comparing artificially broadened spectra of low v.sin(i) stars to the target spectrum, 3) comparing the HeI λ4026 line profile to theoretical models. The sample is extended with literature data for 47 established members of Sco OB2. Analysis of the v.sin(i) distributions shows that there are no significant differences between the subgroups of Sco OB2. We find that members of the binary population of Sco OB2 on the whole rotate more slowly than the single stars. In addition, we find that the B7-B9 single star members rotate significantly faster than their B0-B6 counterparts. We test various hypotheses for the distribution of v.sin(i) in the association. The results show that we cannot clearly exclude any form of random distribution of the direction and/or magnitude of the intrinsic rotational velocity vector. We also investigate the effects of rotation on colours in the Walraven photometric system. We show that positions of B7-B9 single dwarfs above the main sequence are a consequence of rotation. This establishes the influence of rotation on the Walraven colours, due primarily to surface gravity effects.

  9. The MASSIVE Survey - V. Spatially resolved stellar angular momentum, velocity dispersion, and higher moments of the 41 most massive local early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Thomas, Jens; Greene, Jenny E.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Walsh, Jonelle; Ito, Jennifer; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    We present spatially resolved two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the 41 most massive early-type galaxies (ETGs; MK ≲ -25.7 mag, stellar mass M* ≳ 1011.8 M⊙) of the volume-limited (D < 108 Mpc) MASSIVE survey. For each galaxy, we obtain high-quality spectra in the wavelength range of 3650-5850 Å from the 246-fibre Mitchell integral-field spectrograph at McDonald Observatory, covering a 107 arcsec × 107 arcsec field of view (often reaching 2 to 3 effective radii). We measure the 2D spatial distribution of each galaxy's angular momentum (λ and fast or slow rotator status), velocity dispersion (σ), and higher order non-Gaussian velocity features (Gauss-Hermite moments h3 to h6). Our sample contains a high fraction (˜80 per cent) of slow and non-rotators with λ ≲ 0.2. When combined with the lower mass ETGs in the ATLAS3D survey, we find the fraction of slow rotators to increase dramatically with galaxy mass, reaching ˜50 per cent at MK ˜ -25.5 mag and ˜90 per cent at MK ≲ -26 mag. All of our fast rotators show a clear anticorrelation between h3 and V/σ, and the slope of the anticorrelation is steeper in more round galaxies. The radial profiles of σ show a clear luminosity and environmental dependence: the 12 most luminous galaxies in our sample (MK ≲ -26 mag) are all brightest cluster/group galaxies (except NGC 4874) and all have rising or nearly flat σ profiles, whereas five of the seven `isolated' galaxies are all fainter than MK = -25.8 mag and have falling σ. All of our galaxies have positive average h4; the most luminous galaxies have average h4 ˜ 0.05, while less luminous galaxies have a range of values between 0 and 0.05. Most of our galaxies show positive radial gradients in h4, and those galaxies also tend to have rising σ profiles. We discuss the implications for the relationship among dynamical mass, σ, h4, and velocity anisotropy for these massive galaxies.

  10. Differential Systolic and Diastolic Regulation of the Cerebral Pressure-Flow Relationship During Squat-Stand Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Smirl, Jonathan D; Wright, Alexander D; Ainslie, Philip N; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral pressure-flow dynamics are typically reported between mean arterial pressure and mean cerebral blood velocity. However, by reporting only mean responses, potential differential regulatory properties associated with systole and diastole may have been overlooked. Twenty young adults (16 male, age: 26.7 ± 6.6 years, BMI: 24.9 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ) were recruited for this study. Middle cerebral artery velocity was indexed via transcranial Doppler. Cerebral pressure-flow dynamics were assessed using transfer function analysis at both 0.05 and 0.10 Hz using squat-stand manoeuvres. This method provides robust and reliable measures for coherence (correlation index), phase (timing buffer) and gain (amplitude buffer) metrics. There were main effects for both cardiac cycle and frequency for phase and gain metrics (p < 0.001). The systolic phase (mean ± SD) was elevated at 0.05 (1.07 ± 0.51 radians) and 0.10 Hz (0.70 ± 0.46 radians) compared to the diastolic phase (0.05 Hz: 0.59 ± 0.14 radians; 0.10 Hz: 0.33 ± 0.11 radians). Conversely, the systolic normalized gain was reduced (0.05 Hz: 0.49 ± 0.12%/%; 0.10 Hz: 0.66 ± 0.20%/%) compared to the diastolic normalized gain (0.05 Hz: 1.46 ± 0.43%/%; 0.10 Hz: 1.97 ± 0.48%/%). These findings indicate there are differential systolic and diastolic aspects of the cerebral pressure-flow relationship. The oscillations associated with systole are extensively buffered within the cerebrovasculature, whereas diastolic oscillations are relatively unaltered. This indicates that the brain is adapted to protect itself against large increases in systolic blood pressure, likely as a mechanism to prevent cerebral haemorrhages.

  11. Reducing RBM20 activity improves diastolic dysfunction and cardiac atrophy.

    PubMed

    Hinze, Florian; Dieterich, Christoph; Radke, Michael H; Granzier, Henk; Gotthardt, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Impaired diastolic filling is a main contributor to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a syndrome with increasing prevalence and no treatment. Both collagen and the giant sarcomeric protein titin determine diastolic function. Since titin's elastic properties can be adjusted physiologically, we evaluated titin-based stiffness as a therapeutic target. We adjusted RBM20-dependent cardiac isoform expression in the titin N2B knockout mouse with increased ventricular stiffness. A ~50 % reduction of RBM20 activity does not only maintain cardiac filling in diastole but also ameliorates cardiac atrophy and thus improves cardiac function in the N2B-deficient heart. Reduced RBM20 activity partially normalized gene expression related to muscle development and fatty acid metabolism. The adaptation of cardiac growth was related to hypertrophy signaling via four-and-a-half lim-domain proteins (FHLs) that translate mechanical input into hypertrophy signals. We provide a novel link between cardiac isoform expression and trophic signaling via FHLs and suggest cardiac splicing as a therapeutic target in diastolic dysfunction. Increasing the length of titin isoforms improves ventricular filling in heart disease. FHL proteins are regulated via RBM20 and adapt cardiac growth. RBM20 is a therapeutic target in diastolic dysfunction.

  12. Left ventricular long axis tissue Doppler systolic velocity is independently related to heart rate and body size.

    PubMed

    Peverill, Roger E; Chou, Bon; Donelan, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    The physiological factors which affect left ventricular (LV) long-axis function are not fully defined. We investigated the relationships of resting heart rate and body size with the peak velocities and amplitudes of LV systolic and early diastolic long axis motion, and also with long-axis contraction duration. Two groups of adults free of cardiac disease underwent pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging at the septal and lateral mitral annular borders. Group 1 (n = 77) were healthy subjects <50 years of age and Group 2 (n = 65) were subjects between 40-80 years of age referred for stress echocardiography. Systolic excursion (SExc), duration (SDur) and peak velocity (s') and early diastolic excursion (EDExc) and peak velocity (e') were measured. SExc was not correlated with heart rate, height or body surface area (BSA) for either LV wall in either group, but SDur was inversely correlated with heart rate for both walls and both groups, and after adjustment for heart rate, males in both groups had a shorter septal SDur. Septal and lateral s` were independently and positively correlated with SExc, heart rate and height in both groups, independent of sex and age. There were no correlations of heart rate, height or BSA with either e` or EDExc for either wall in either group. Heart rate and height independently modify the relationship between s` and SExc, but neither are related to EDExc or e`. These findings suggest that s` and SExc cannot be used interchangeably for the assessment of LV long-axis contraction.

  13. Diastolic Backward-Traveling Decompression (Suction) Wave Correlates With Simultaneously Acquired Indices of Diastolic Function and Is Reduced in Left Ventricular Stunning.

    PubMed

    Ladwiniec, Andrew; White, Paul A; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; O'Sullivan, Michael; West, Nick E J; Davies, Justin E; Hoole, Stephen P

    2016-09-01

    Wave intensity analysis can distinguish proximal (propulsion) and distal (suction) influences on coronary blood flow and is purported to reflect myocardial performance and microvascular function. Quantifying the amplitude of the peak, backwards expansion wave (BEW) may have clinical utility. However, simultaneously acquired wave intensity analysis and left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume loop data, confirming the origin and effect of myocardial function on the BEW in humans, have not been previously reported. Patients with single-vessel left anterior descending coronary disease and normal ventricular function (n=13) were recruited prospectively. We simultaneously measured LV function with a conductance catheter and derived wave intensity analysis using a pressure-low velocity guidewire at baseline and again 30 minutes after a 1-minute coronary balloon occlusion. The peak BEW correlated with the indices of diastolic LV function: LV dP/dtmin (rs=-0.59; P=0.002) and τ (rs=-0.59; P=0.002), but not with systolic function. In 12 patients with paired measurements 30 minutes post balloon occlusion, LV dP/dtmax decreased from 1437.1±163.9 to 1299.4±152.9 mm Hg/s (median difference, -110.4 [-183.3 to -70.4]; P=0.015) and τ increased from 48.3±7.4 to 52.4±7.9 ms (difference, 4.1 [1.3-6.9]; P=0.01), but basal average peak coronary flow velocity was unchanged, indicating LV stunning post balloon occlusion. However, the peak BEW amplitude decreased from -9.95±5.45 W·m(-2)/s(2)×10(5) to -7.52±5.00 W·m(-2)/s(2)×10(5) (difference 2.43×10(5) [0.20×10(5) to 4.67×10(5); P=0.04]). Peak BEW assessed by coronary wave intensity analysis correlates with invasive indices of LV diastolic function and mirrors changes in LV diastolic function confirming the origin of the suction wave. This may have implications for physiological lesion assessment after percutaneous coronary intervention. URL: http://www.isrctn.org. Unique identifier: ISRCTN42864201. © 2016 American Heart

  14. Local versus global aortic pulse wave velocity in early atherosclerosis: An animal study in ApoE-/--mice using ultrahigh field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gotschy, Alexander; Bauer, Wolfgang R.; Winter, Patrick; Nordbeck, Peter; Rommel, Eberhard; Jakob, Peter M.; Herold, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Increased aortic stiffness is known to be associated with atherosclerosis and has a predictive value for cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the local distribution of early arterial stiffening due to initial atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, global and local pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in ApoE-/- and wild type (WT) mice using ultrahigh field MRI. For quantification of global aortic stiffness, a new multi-point transit-time (TT) method was implemented and validated to determine the global PWV in the murine aorta. Local aortic stiffness was measured by assessing the local PWV in the upper abdominal aorta, using the flow/area (QA) method. Significant differences between age matched ApoE-/- and WT mice were determined for global and local PWV measurements (global PWV: ApoE-/-: 2.7±0.2m/s vs WT: 2.1±0.2m/s, P<0.03; local PWV: ApoE-/-: 2.9±0.2m/s vs WT: 2.2±0.2m/s, P<0.03). Within the WT mouse group, the global PWV correlated well with the local PWV in the upper abdominal aorta (R2 = 0.75, P<0.01), implying a widely uniform arterial elasticity. In ApoE-/- animals, however, no significant correlation between individual local and global PWV was present (R2 = 0.07, P = 0.53), implying a heterogeneous distribution of vascular stiffening in early atherosclerosis. The assessment of global PWV using the new multi-point TT measurement technique was validated against a pressure wire measurement in a vessel phantom and showed excellent agreement. The experimental results demonstrate that vascular stiffening caused by early atherosclerosis is unequally distributed over the length of large vessels. This finding implies that assessing heterogeneity of arterial stiffness by multiple local measurements of PWV might be more sensitive than global PWV to identify early atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:28207773

  15. Local versus global aortic pulse wave velocity in early atherosclerosis: An animal study in ApoE-/--mice using ultrahigh field MRI.

    PubMed

    Gotschy, Alexander; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Winter, Patrick; Nordbeck, Peter; Rommel, Eberhard; Jakob, Peter M; Herold, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Increased aortic stiffness is known to be associated with atherosclerosis and has a predictive value for cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the local distribution of early arterial stiffening due to initial atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, global and local pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in ApoE-/- and wild type (WT) mice using ultrahigh field MRI. For quantification of global aortic stiffness, a new multi-point transit-time (TT) method was implemented and validated to determine the global PWV in the murine aorta. Local aortic stiffness was measured by assessing the local PWV in the upper abdominal aorta, using the flow/area (QA) method. Significant differences between age matched ApoE-/- and WT mice were determined for global and local PWV measurements (global PWV: ApoE-/-: 2.7±0.2m/s vs WT: 2.1±0.2m/s, P<0.03; local PWV: ApoE-/-: 2.9±0.2m/s vs WT: 2.2±0.2m/s, P<0.03). Within the WT mouse group, the global PWV correlated well with the local PWV in the upper abdominal aorta (R2 = 0.75, P<0.01), implying a widely uniform arterial elasticity. In ApoE-/- animals, however, no significant correlation between individual local and global PWV was present (R2 = 0.07, P = 0.53), implying a heterogeneous distribution of vascular stiffening in early atherosclerosis. The assessment of global PWV using the new multi-point TT measurement technique was validated against a pressure wire measurement in a vessel phantom and showed excellent agreement. The experimental results demonstrate that vascular stiffening caused by early atherosclerosis is unequally distributed over the length of large vessels. This finding implies that assessing heterogeneity of arterial stiffness by multiple local measurements of PWV might be more sensitive than global PWV to identify early atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. Velocity diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, W. J.; Stewart, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of velocity diagrams for axial flow turbines are considered. Application is treated in two parts which includes: (1) mean-section diagrams, and (2) radial variation of diagrams. In the first part, the velocity diagrams occurring at the mean section are assumed to represent the average conditions encountered by the turbine. The different types of diagrams, their relation to stage efficiency, and their selection when staging is required are discussed. In the second part, it is shown that in certain cases the mean-section diagrams may or may not represent the average flow conditions for the entire blade span. In the case of relatively low hub- to tip-radius ratios, substantial variations in the velocity diagrams are encountered. The radial variations in flow conditions and their effect on the velocity diagrams are considered.

  17. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m(2), eGFR < 90 group; n=117) and those with eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (eGFR ≥ 90 group; n=124). The change in renal function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR < 90 group (β=-0.015, p=0.035). baPWV was independently associated with cardiovascular events (odds ratio=1.002, p=0.048) in the eGFR < 90 group, but not in the eGFR ≥ 90 group. The receiver operative characteristic curve analysis showed that 1,568 cm/sec was the cut-off value of baPWV for predicting CV events in the eGFR < 90 group (area under curve=0.691, p=0.03) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with early stages of CKD, baPWV was independently associated with the decline in renal function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  18. High Serum Phosphorus Level Is Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Tian, Na; Liu, Yanqiu; Li, Wei; Lin, Hong; Fan, Rui; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Donghong; Yao, Fengjuan

    We initiated this study to explore the relationships of serum phosphorus level with left ventricular ultrasound features and diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. 174 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving PD were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Conventional echocardiography examination and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed in each patient. Clinical information and laboratory data were also collected. Analyses of echocardiographic features were performed according to phosphorus quartiles groups. And multivariate regression models were used to determine the association between serum phosphorus and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). With the increase of serum phosphorus levels, patients on PD showed an increased tissue Doppler-derived E/e' ratio of lateral wall (P < 0.001), indicating a deterioration of left ventricular diastolic function. Steady growths of left atrium and left ventricular diameters as well as increase of left ventricular muscle mass were also observed across the increasing quartiles of phosphorus, while left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal. In a multivariate analysis, the regression coefficient for E/e' ratio in the highest phosphorus quartile was almost threefold higher relative to those in the lowest quartile group. And compared with patients in the lowest phosphorus quartile (<1.34 mmol/L) those in the highest phosphorus quartile (>1.95 mmol/L) had a more than fivefold increased odds of E/e' ratio >15. Our study showed an early impairment of left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients. High serum phosphorus level was independently associated with greater risk of LVDD in these patients. Whether serum phosphorus will be a useful target for prevention or improvement of LVDD remains to be proved by further studies.

  19. [Microvascular injury effects and possibility of early anastomosis in the maxillofacial region following high velocity missile wound: an experimental study in dogs].

    PubMed

    Yan, Y

    1990-02-01

    In order to provide the basis of microvascular anastomosis for reconstruction of maxillofacial defects from firearm injury by using vascularized free tissue transplantation, we studied the mechanism and pathology of microvascular injuries and the possibility of their early anastomosis. The dogs' face were wounded by 0.7 g or 1.03 g steel spheres whose muzzle velocity were 1300 m/s or 1500 m/s. The injury effects of microvascular angiograms were recorded through high speed X-ray camera at the impacting moment the specimens of small vessel were collected for light and electron microscopy at different times after wound. Some dogs were used for performing microvascular anastomosis in the wound region at different times after wound. We found that there were temporary cavity effects in maxillofacial firearm wounds, in and around which small vessel blunt injuries were found, which spread 3 cm from the wound edge. Microvascular anastomosis 3 days after the wound could get higher shortterm patency rate. These results support the conclusion that if we use microsurgical methods to repair defects in maxillofacial firearm wound region, the pedicles of the flap should be laid beyond 3 cm from the wound edge, and the reconstructive operation should be done 3 days after the wound.

  20. E-wave generated intraventricular diastolic vortex to L-wave relation: model-based prediction with in vivo validation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Caruthers, Shelton D; Kovács, Sándor J

    2014-08-01

    The Doppler echocardiographic E-wave is generated when the left ventricle's suction pump attribute initiates transmitral flow. In some subjects E-waves are accompanied by L-waves, the occurrence of which has been correlated with diastolic dysfunction. The mechanisms for L-wave generation have not been fully elucidated. We propose that the recirculating diastolic intraventricular vortex ring generates L-waves and based on this mechanism, we predict the presence of L-waves in the right ventricle (RV). We imaged intraventricular flow using Doppler echocardiography and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) in 10 healthy volunteers. L-waves were recorded in all subjects, with highest velocities measured typically 2 cm below the annulus. Fifty-five percent of cardiac cycles (189 of 345) had L-waves. Color M-mode images eliminated mid-diastolic transmitral flow as the cause of the observed L-waves. Three-dimensional intraventricular flow patterns were imaged via PC-MRI and independently validated our hypothesis. Additionally as predicted, L-waves were observed in the RV, by both echocardiography and PC-MRI. The re-entry of the E-wave-generated vortex ring flow through a suitably located echo sample volume can be imaged as the L-wave. These waves are a general feature and a direct consequence of LV and RV diastolic fluid mechanics. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Assessment of Diastolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Nacif, Marcelo S; Almeida, Andre L C; Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Armstrong, Anderson C; Yang, Eunice; Sibley, Christopher T; Hundley, W Gregory; Liu, Songtao; Lima, Joao Ac; Bluemke, David A

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance is in need of a simple and robust method for diastolic function assessment that can be done with routine protocol sequences. To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) model-based volumetric assessment of diastolic function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and compare the results obtained with the model with those obtained by echocardiography. The study participants provided written informed consent and were included if having undergone both echocardiography and cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) CMR on the same day. Guide points at the septal and lateral mitral annulus were used to define the early longitudinal relaxation rate (E'), while a time-volume curve from the 3D model was used to assess diastolic filling parameters. We determined the correlation between 3D CMR and echocardiography and the accuracy of CMR in classifying the diastolic function grade. The study included 102 subjects. The E/A ratio by CMR was positively associated with the E/A ratio by echocardiography (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001). The early diastolic relaxation velocity by tissue Doppler and longitudinal relaxation rate for the lateral mitral annulus displacement were positively associated (p = 0.007), as were the ratio between Doppler E/e' and CMR E/E' (p = 0.01). CMR-determined normalized peak E (NE) and deceleration time (DT) were able to predict diastolic dysfunction (areas under the curve [AUCs] = 0.70 and 0.72, respectively). In addition, the lateral E/E' ratio showed good utility in identifying diastolic dysfunction (AUC = 0.80). Overall, echocardiography and CMR interobserver and intraobserver agreements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient range 0.72 - 0.97). 3D modeling of standard cine CMR images was able to identify study subjects with reduced diastolic function and showed good reproducibility, suggesting a potential for a routine diastolic function assessment by CMR. A ressonância magnética cardíaca necessita de um m

  2. Experimental study of the intraventricular filling vortex in diastolic dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Samaee, Milad; Nelsen, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) is a clinical syndrome that is prevalent in over half of heart failure patients. HFNEF patients typically show diastolic dysfunction, caused by a decrease in relaxation capability of the left ventricular (LV) muscle tissue and/or an increase in LV chamber stiffness. Numerous studies using non-invasive medical imaging have shown that an intraventricular filling vortex is formed in the LV during diastole. We conducted 2D particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements on a left heart simulator to investigate diastolic flow under increasing LV wall stiffness, LV wall thickness and heart rate (HR) conditions. Flexible-walled, optically clear LV physical models cast from silicone were fitted within a fluid-filled acrylic chamber. Pulsatile flow within the LV model was generated using a piston pump and 2-component Windkessel elements were used to tune the least stiff (baseline) LV model to physiological conditions. The results show that peak circulation of the intraventricular filling vortex is diminished in conditions of diastolic dysfunction as compared to the baseline case. Increasing HR exacerbated the circulation of the filling vortex across all cases.

  3. Long-term obesity promotes alterations in diastolic function induced by reduction of phospholamban phosphorylation at serine-16 without affecting calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André S; da Silva, Danielle C T; do Nascimento, André F; de Campos, Dijon H S; Luvizotto, Renata A M; de Deus, Adriana F; Freire, Paula P; Medeiros, Alessandra; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antonio C

    2014-09-15

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between the duration of obesity, cardiac function, and the proteins involved in myocardial calcium (Ca(2+)) handling. We hypothesized that long-term obesity promotes cardiac dysfunction due to a reduction of expression and/or phosphorylation of myocardial Ca(2+)-handling proteins. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups (n = 10 each): control (C; standard diet) and obese (Ob; high-fat diet) for 30 wk. Morphological and histological analyses were assessed. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo by echocardiographic evaluation and in vitro by papillary muscle. Cardiac protein expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a), calsequestrin, L-type Ca(2+) channel, and phospholamban (PLB), as well as PLB serine-16 phosphorylation (pPLB Ser(16)) and PLB threonine-17 phosphorylation (pPLB Thr(17)) were determined by Western blot. The adiposity index was higher (82%) in Ob rats than in C rats. Obesity promoted cardiac hypertrophy without alterations in interstitial collagen levels. Ob rats had increased endocardial and midwall fractional shortening, posterior wall shortening velocity, and A-wave compared with C rats. Cardiac index, early-to-late diastolic mitral inflow ratio, and isovolumetric relaxation time were lower in Ob than in C. The Ob muscles developed similar baseline data and myocardial responsiveness to increased extracellular Ca(2+). Obesity caused a reduction in cardiac pPLB Ser(16) and the pPLB Ser(16)/PLB ratio in Ob rats. Long-term obesity promotes alterations in diastolic function, most likely due to the reduction of pPLB Ser(16), but does not impair the myocardial Ca(2+) entry and recapture to SR. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Quantifying Diastolic Function: From E-Waves as Triangles to Physiologic Contours via the 'Geometric Method'.

    PubMed

    Golman, Mikhail; Padovano, William; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2018-03-01

    Conventional echocardiographic diastolic function (DF) assessment approximates transmitral flow velocity contours (Doppler E-waves) as triangles, with peak (E peak ), acceleration time (AT), and deceleration time (DT) as indexes. These metrics have limited value because they are unable to characterize the underlying physiology. The parametrized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism provides a physiologic, kinematic mechanism based characterization of DF by extracting chamber stiffness (k), relaxation (c), and load (x o ) from E-wave contours. We derive the mathematical relationship between the PDF parameters and E peak , AT, DT and thereby introduce the geometric method (GM) that computes the PDF parameters using E peak , AT, and DT as input. Numerical experiments validated GM by analysis of 208 E-waves from 31 datasets spanning the full range of clinical diastolic function. GM yielded indistinguishable average parameter values per subject vs. the gold-standard PDF method (k: R 2  = 0.94, c: R 2  = 0.95, x o : R 2  = 0.95, p < 0.01 all parameters). Additionally, inter-rater reliability for GM-determined parameters was excellent (k: ICC = 0.956 c: ICC = 0.944, x o : ICC = 0.993). Results indicate that E-wave symmetry (AT/DT) may comprise a new index of DF. By employing indexes (E peak , AT, DT) that are already in standard clinical use the GM capitalizes on the power of the PDF method to quantify DF in terms of physiologic chamber properties.

  5. Improvement in diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients in patients with HOCM after ethanol septal reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovner, Aleksandr; Smith, Rebecca; Greenberg, Neil L.; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Smedira, Nicholas; Lever, Harry M.; Thomas, James D.; Garcia, Mario J.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to validate measurement of intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPG) and analyze their change in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) after ethanol septal reduction (ESR). Quantitative analysis of color M-mode Doppler (CMM) images may be used to estimate diastolic IVPG noninvasively. Noninvasive IVPG measurement was validated in 10 patients undergoing surgical myectomy. Echocardiograms were then analyzed in 19 patients at baseline and after ESR. Pulsed Doppler data through the mitral valve and pulmonary venous flow were obtained. CMM was used to obtain the flow propagation velocity (Vp) and to calculate IVPG off-line. Left atrial pressure was estimated with the use of previously validated Doppler equations. Data were compared before and after ESR. CMM-derived IVPG correlated well with invasive measurements obtained before and after surgical myectomy [r = 0.8, P < 0.01, Delta(CMM - invasive IVPG) = 0.09 +/- 0.45 mmHg]. ESR resulted in a decrease of resting LVOT systolic gradient from 62 +/- 10 to 29 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the Vp and IVPG (from 48 +/- 5to 74 +/- 7 cm/s and from 1.5 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.3 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.001 for both). Estimated left atrial pressure decreased from 16.2 +/- 1.1 to 11.5 +/- 0.9 mmHg (P < 0.001). The increase in IVPG correlated with the reduction in the LVOT gradient (r = 0.6, P < 0.01). Reduction of LVOT obstruction after ESR is associated with an improvement in diastolic suction force. Noninvasive measurements of IVPG may be used as an indicator of diastolic function improvement in HOCM.

  6. Evaluation of atrial electromechanical delay and diastolic functions in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sokmen, Abdullah; Acar, Gurkan; Sokmen, Gulizar; Akcay, Ahmet; Akkoyun, Murat; Koroglu, Sedat; Nacar, Alper Bugra; Ozkaya, Mesut

    2013-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a well-known cause of atrial fibrillation (AF) which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Atrial electromechanical delay (EMD) is a significant predictor of AF. The aim of this study was to assess the atrial EMD and diastolic functions in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism by using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The study population consisted of 3 groups: group I (30 healthy subjects), group II (38 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism), and group III (25 patients with overt hyperthyroidism). Atrial electromechanical coupling was measured with TDI. Standard echocardiographic measurements and parameters of diastolic function were obtained by conventional echocardiography and TDI. Intra- and inter-atrial EMD were significantly prolonged in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism compared with control group (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001 for intra-atrial EMD; P < 0.001 for inter-atrial EMD). In groups II and III, mitral A velocity (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001) and mitral E-wave deceleration time (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02) were significantly increased, and mitral E/A ratio (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001) was significantly decreased compared with the control group. The lateral mitral Em /Am ratio in group II and group III was significantly lower than controls (P = 0.001). Mitral Em /Am ratio (β = -0.32, P = 0.002) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level (β = -0.27, P = 0.009) were negatively and independently correlated with inter-atrial EMD. This study showed that intra- and inter-atrial electromechanical intervals were prolonged and diastolic function was impaired in both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. TSH level and mitral Em /Am ratio were found as independent predictors of atrial EMD. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ye, Ping-xian; Ye, Ping-zhen; Zhu, Jian-hua; Chen, Wei; Gao, Dan-chen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on exercise tolerance in patients with diastolic dysfunction and exercise-induced hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study was performed. Sixty patients with diastolic dysfunction (mitral flow velocity E/A <1) and exercise-induced hypertension (SBP>200 mm Hg) treated with atorvastatin (20 mg q.d) or placebo for 1 year. Cardiopulmonary exercise test and exercise blood pressure measurement were performed. Plasma B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration at rest and at peak exercise, plasma high sensitive-C reaction protein (hs-CRP) and endothelin (ET) concentration were determined at baseline and after treatment. After treatment by atorvastatin, the resting SBP, pulse pressure, the peak exercise SBP and BNP were significantly decreased; and the exercise time, metabolic equivalent, maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold were increased. All of these parameters had significant differences with baseline levels (P<0.05) and the rest pulse pressure, the peak exercise SBP and BNP, and the exercise time had significant differences compared with placebo treatment (P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and ET were markedly reduced by atorvastatin treatment compared with baseline and placebo (P<0.05). No difference in above parameters was found before and after placebo treatment (P>0.05). In patients with diastolic dysfunction at rest and exercise-induced hypertension, atorvastatin can effectively reduce plasma hs-CRP and ET level, lower blood pressure and peak exercise SBP, decrease peak exercise plasma BNP concentration, and ultimately improve exercise tolerance.

  8. Prognostic Value of Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve in Patients with Nonculprit Stenosis of Intermediate Severity Early after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Tesic, Milorad; Djordjevic-Dikic, Ana; Giga, Vojislav; Stepanovic, Jelena; Dobric, Milan; Jovanovic, Ivana; Petrovic, Marija; Mehmedbegovic, Zlatko; Milasinovic, Dejan; Dedovic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Milorad; Juricic, Stefan; Orlic, Dejan; Stojkovic, Sinisa; Vukcevic, Vladan; Stankovic, Goran; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Ostojic, Miodrag; Beleslin, Branko

    2018-04-03

    Treatment of nonculprit coronary stenosis during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction may be beneficial, but the mode and timing of the intervention are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the significance and prognostic value of preserved coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in patients with nonculprit intermediate stenosis early after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Two hundred thirty patients with remaining intermediate (50%-70%) stenosis of non-infarct-related arteries, in whom CFVR was performed within 7 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, were prospectively enrolled. Twenty patients with reduced CFVR and positive results on stress echocardiography or impaired fractional flow reserve underwent revascularization and were not included in further analysis. The final study population of 210 patients (mean age, 58 ± 10 years; 162 men) was divided into two groups on the basis of CFVR: group 1, CFVR > 2 (n = 174), and group 2, CFVR ≤ 2 (n = 36). Cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization of the evaluated vessel were considered adverse events. Mean follow-up duration was 47 ± 16 months. Mean CFVR for the whole group was 2.36 ± 0.40. There were six adverse events (3.4%) related to the nonculprit coronary artery in group 1, including one cardiac death, one ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and four revascularizations. In group 2, there were 30 adverse events (83.3%, P < .001 vs group 1), including two cardiac deaths, two ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions, and 26 revascularizations. In patients with CFVR > 2 of the intermediate nonculprit coronary lesion, deferral of revascularization is safe and associated with excellent long-term clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients by Doppler M-mode echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, N. L.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that small intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPG) are important for efficient filling of the left ventricle (LV) and as a sensitive marker for ischemia. Unfortunately, there has previously been no way of measuring these noninvasively, severely limiting their research and clinical utility. Color Doppler M-mode (CMM) echocardiography provides a spatiotemporal velocity distribution along the inflow tract throughout diastole, which we hypothesized would allow direct estimation of IVPG by using the Euler equation. Digital CMM images, obtained simultaneously with intracardiac pressure waveforms in six dogs, were processed by numerical differentiation for the Euler equation, then integrated to estimate IVPG and the total (left atrial to left ventricular apex) pressure drop. CMM-derived estimates agreed well with invasive measurements (IVPG: y = 0.87x + 0.22, r = 0.96, P < 0.001, standard error of the estimate = 0.35 mmHg). Quantitative processing of CMM data allows accurate estimation of IVPG and tracking of changes induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation. This novel approach provides unique information on LV filling dynamics in an entirely noninvasive way that has previously not been available for assessment of diastolic filling and function.

  10. Coronary microvascular function in patients with isolated systolic and combined systolic/diastolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bozbas, Huseyin; Pirat, Bahar; Yildirir, Aylin; Eroglu, Serpil; Simsek, Vahide; Sade, Elif; Atar, Ilyas; Aydinalp, Alp; Ozin, Bulent; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2012-12-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a common condition in the elderly that is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Concerning the effect of type of hypertension on coronary microvascular function, coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with ISH was evaluated and the results were compared with patients with combined systolic/diastolic hypertension (SDH). Seventy-six elderly patients (older than 60 years) who were free of coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study (38 with ISH and 38 with combined SDH). Using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, CFR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline diastolic peak flow velocities. A CFR value of >2 was accepted as normal. The mean age was 68.6±6.3 years and the groups had similar features with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients with ISH had significantly lower CFR values compared with those with combined SDH (2.22±0.51 vs 2.49±0.56, respectively; P=.03). On multivariate regression analysis, ISH (β=-0.40, P=.004) and dyslipidemia (β=-0.29, P=.04) were the independent predictors of CFR. These findings indicate that CFR, an indicator of coronary microvascular/endothelial function, is impaired more profoundly in patients with ISH than in patients with combined SDH. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on intraoperative left ventricular end-diastolic pressure.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Kosaku; Ota, Takashi; Nagamine, Katsutoshi; Koide, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Shishido, Koki; Tanaka, Masashi; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for patients with aortic stenosis is a less invasive alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement. Despite this, careful anesthetic management, especially strict control of blood pressure and fluid management, is necessary. During TAVI, normalization of left ventricular afterload due to aortic balloon valvuloplasty and prosthetic valve deployment is expected to result in rapid improvement of systolic function and consequent improvement in diastolic function. However, the early effect of TAVI on left ventricular diastolic function is less clear. We hypothesized that TAVI induces a rapid decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) after valve deployment. This retrospective observational study included 71 patients who had undergone TAVI using the transfemoral approach with a balloon-expandable valve under general anesthesia. Intraoperative LVEDP was measured using an intracardiac catheter. The severity of residual aortic regurgitation (AR) was assessed using the Sellers criteria. The mean (SD) LVEDP was 17.8 (5.3) mmHg just before TAVI and increased significantly to 27.3 (8.2) mmHg immediately after prosthetic valve deployment (p < 0.0001). The change in LVEDP was 8.7 (8.6) mmHg in patients with low residual AR (Sellers ≤1) and 11.0 (7.1) mmHg in those with high residual AR (Sellers ≥2); however, this difference was not significant. No correlation was found between the LVEDP change and intraoperative fluid balance. In conclusion, LVEDP increased significantly in the early period after valve deployment during TAVI, regardless of residual AR severity. It was suggested that the tolerability of fluid load could be reduced at that time.

  12. Increased left ventricular mass and diastolic dysfunction are associated with endothelial dysfunction in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to investigate left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait - FT), and to determine the association between LV mass and determinants of LV diastolic function and endothelium-dependent (NO-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotonics with FT aged 28-39 (mean 33) years and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and LV diastolic function was measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). LV diastolic filling properties were assessed and reported as the peak E/A wave ratio, and peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) on TDI. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (flow-mediated dilation--FMD) were measured. In subjects with FT, the LV mass index was higher than in controls (92.14+/-24.02 vs 70.08+/-20.58); p<0.001). Offspring of hypertensive families had worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E/A ratio, lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p<0.001). In subjects with FT, FMD was decreased compared with the controls (6.11+/-3.28% vs 10.20+/-2.07%; p<0.001). LV mass index and E(m)/A(m) ratio were associated with FMD (p<0.001). In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional changes were found. We demonstrated that an increase in LV mass and alterations in LV diastolic function are related to endothelial dysfunction.

  13. Doppler indexes of left ventricular systolic and diastolic flow and central pulse pressure in relation to renal resistive index.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Knez, Judita; Thijs, Lutgarde; Liu, Yan-Ping; Gu, Yu-Mei; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    The cardio-renal interaction occurs via hemodynamic and humoral factors. Noninvasive assessment of renal hemodynamics is currently possible by assessment of renal resistive index (RRI) derived from intrarenal Doppler arterial waveforms as ((peak systolic velocity - end-diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity). Limited information is available regarding the relationship between RRI and cardiac hemodynamics. We investigated these associations in randomly recruited subjects from a general population. In 171 participants (48.5% women; mean age, 52.2 years), using pulsed wave Doppler, we measured RRI (mean, 0.60) and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and transmitral (E and A) blood flow peak velocities and its velocity time integrals (VTI). Using carotid applanation tonometry, we measured central pulse pressure and arterial stiffness indexes such as augmentation pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. In stepwise regression analysis, RRI independently and significantly increased with female sex, age, body weight, brachial pulse pressure, and use of β-blockers, whereas it decreased with body height and mean arterial pressure. In multivariable-adjusted models with central pulse pressure and arterial stiffness indexes as the explanatory variables, we observed a significant and positive correlation of RRI only with central pulse pressure (P < 0.0001). Among the Doppler indexes of left ventricular blood flow, RRI was significantly and positively associated with LVOT and E peak velocities (P ≤ 0.012) and VTIs (P ≤ 0.010). We demonstrated that in unselected subjects RRI was significantly associated with central pulse pressure and left ventricular systolic and diastolic Doppler blood flow indexes. Our findings imply that in addition to the anthropometric characteristics, cardiac hemodynamic factors influence the intrarenal arterial Doppler waveform patterns. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  14. New approaches to the Doppler echocardiographic assessment of diastolic function: from research laboratory to clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasquet, A.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, Doppler echocardiography has become a well-established tool for the diagnosis of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Unfortunately, in many clinical situations traditional Doppler indices of transmittal and pulmonary venous flow are inconclusive, primarily due to their dependence on left atrial pressure. Recently, new Doppler indices that are much less dependent on preload have been developed, based on intraventricular flow propagation and intrinsic myocardial velocity. These methodologies provide direct assessment of ventricular relaxation and the small intraventricular pressure gradients essential to efficient filling of the ventricle. We review in this article the theoretical and experiment background of these new echo techniques as well as how they can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  15. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  16. Effect of the mitral valve on diastolic flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat, E-mail: mittal@jhu.edu

    2014-12-15

    The leaflets of the mitral valve interact with the mitral jet and significantly impact diastolic flow patterns, but the effect of mitral valve morphology and kinematics on diastolic flow and its implications for left ventricular function have not been clearly delineated. In the present study, we employ computational hemodynamic simulations to understand the effect of mitral valve leaflets on diastolic flow. A computational model of the left ventricle is constructed based on a high-resolution contrast computed-tomography scan, and a physiological inspired model of the mitral valve leaflets is synthesized from morphological and echocardiographic data. Simulations are performed with a diodemore » type valve model as well as the physiological mitral valve model in order to delineate the effect of mitral-valve leaflets on the intraventricular flow. The study suggests that a normal physiological mitral valve promotes the formation of a circulatory (or “looped”) flow pattern in the ventricle. The mitral valve leaflets also increase the strength of the apical flow, thereby enhancing apical washout and mixing of ventricular blood. The implications of these findings on ventricular function as well as ventricular flow models are discussed.« less

  17. New Doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.; Klein, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography is one of the most useful clinical tools for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Doppler indices of LV filling and pulmonary venous (PV) flow are used not only for diagnostic purposes but also for establishing prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions. The utility of these indices is limited, however, by the confounding effects of different physiologic variables such as LV relaxation, compliance and filling pressure. Since alterations in these variables result in changes in Doppler indices of opposite direction, it is often difficult to determine the status of a given variable when a specific Doppler filling pattern is observed. Recently, color M-mode and tissue Doppler have provided useful insights in the study of diastolic function. These new Doppler applications have been shown to provide an accurate estimate of LV relaxation and appear to be relatively insensitive to the effects of preload compensation. This review will focus on the complementary role of color M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography and traditional Doppler indices of LV filling and PV flow in the assessment of diastolic function.

  18. Noninvasive calculation of the aortic blood pressure waveform from the flow velocity waveform: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Vennin, Samuel; Mayer, Alexia; Li, Ye; Fok, Henry; Clapp, Brian; Alastruey, Jordi; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure usually requires measurements that are difficult to acquire during the imaging required to obtain concurrent LV dimensions essential for determination of LV mechanical properties. We describe a novel method for deriving aortic pressure from the aortic flow velocity. The target pressure waveform is divided into an early systolic upstroke, determined by the water hammer equation, and a diastolic decay equal to that in the peripheral arterial tree, interposed by a late systolic portion described by a second-order polynomial constrained by conditions of continuity and conservation of mean arterial pressure. Pulse wave velocity (PWV, which can be obtained through imaging), mean arterial pressure, diastolic pressure, and diastolic decay are required inputs for the algorithm. The algorithm was tested using 1) pressure data derived theoretically from prespecified flow waveforms and properties of the arterial tree using a single-tube 1-D model of the arterial tree, and 2) experimental data acquired from a pressure/Doppler flow velocity transducer placed in the ascending aorta in 18 patients (mean ± SD: age 63 ± 11 yr, aortic BP 136 ± 23/73 ± 13 mmHg) at the time of cardiac catheterization. For experimental data, PWV was calculated from measured pressures/flows, and mean and diastolic pressures and diastolic decay were taken from measured pressure (i.e., were assumed to be known). Pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with theoretical pressure: mean ± SD root mean square (RMS) error 0.7 ± 0.1 mmHg. Similarly, for experimental data, pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with measured pressure (mean RMS error 2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg). First systolic shoulder and systolic peak pressures were also accurately rendered (mean ± SD difference 1.4 ± 2.0 mmHg for peak systolic pressure). This is the first noninvasive derivation of aortic pressure based on fluid dynamics (flow and wave speed) in the

  19. Noninvasive calculation of the aortic blood pressure waveform from the flow velocity waveform: a proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Vennin, Samuel; Mayer, Alexia; Li, Ye; Fok, Henry; Clapp, Brian; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure usually requires measurements that are difficult to acquire during the imaging required to obtain concurrent LV dimensions essential for determination of LV mechanical properties. We describe a novel method for deriving aortic pressure from the aortic flow velocity. The target pressure waveform is divided into an early systolic upstroke, determined by the water hammer equation, and a diastolic decay equal to that in the peripheral arterial tree, interposed by a late systolic portion described by a second-order polynomial constrained by conditions of continuity and conservation of mean arterial pressure. Pulse wave velocity (PWV, which can be obtained through imaging), mean arterial pressure, diastolic pressure, and diastolic decay are required inputs for the algorithm. The algorithm was tested using 1) pressure data derived theoretically from prespecified flow waveforms and properties of the arterial tree using a single-tube 1-D model of the arterial tree, and 2) experimental data acquired from a pressure/Doppler flow velocity transducer placed in the ascending aorta in 18 patients (mean ± SD: age 63 ± 11 yr, aortic BP 136 ± 23/73 ± 13 mmHg) at the time of cardiac catheterization. For experimental data, PWV was calculated from measured pressures/flows, and mean and diastolic pressures and diastolic decay were taken from measured pressure (i.e., were assumed to be known). Pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with theoretical pressure: mean ± SD root mean square (RMS) error 0.7 ± 0.1 mmHg. Similarly, for experimental data, pressure reconstructed from measured flow agreed well with measured pressure (mean RMS error 2.4 ± 1.0 mmHg). First systolic shoulder and systolic peak pressures were also accurately rendered (mean ± SD difference 1.4 ± 2.0 mmHg for peak systolic pressure). This is the first noninvasive derivation of aortic pressure based on fluid dynamics (flow and wave speed) in the

  20. The stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies from low to high stellar velocity dispersion: homogeneous analysis of ATLAS3D and Sloan Lens ACS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posacki, Silvia; Cappellari, Michele; Treu, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation about the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on a joint lensing and dynamical analysis, and on stellar population synthesis models, for a sample of 55 lens ETGs identified by the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys (SLACS). We construct axisymmetric dynamical models based on the Jeans equations which allow for orbital anisotropy and include a dark matter halo. The models reproduce in detail the observed Hubble Space Telescope photometry and are constrained by the total projected mass within the Einstein radius and the stellar velocity dispersion (σ) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey fibres. Comparing the dynamically-derived stellar mass-to-light ratios (M*/L)dyn, obtained for an assumed halo slope ρh ∝ r-1, to the stellar population ones (M*/L)Salp, derived from full-spectrum fitting and assuming a Salpeter IMF, we infer the mass normalization of the IMF. Our results confirm the previous analysis by the SLACS team that the mass normalization of the IMF of high-σ galaxies is consistent on average with a Salpeter slope. Our study allows for a fully consistent study of the trend between IMF and σ for both the SLACS and atlas3D samples, which explore quite different σ ranges. The two samples are highly complementary, the first being essentially σ selected, and the latter volume-limited and nearly mass selected. We find that the two samples merge smoothly into a single trend of the form log α = (0.38 ± 0.04) × log (σe/200 km s-1) + ( - 0.06 ± 0.01), where α = (M*/L)dyn/(M*/L)Salp and σe is the luminosity averaged σ within one effective radius Re. This is consistent with a systematic variation of the IMF normalization from Kroupa to Salpeter in the interval σe ≈ 90-270 km s-1.

  1. Using Global Plate Velocity Boundary Conditions for Embedded Regional Geodynamic Models: Application to 3-D Modeling of the Early Rifting of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramón, Jorge M.; Morgan, Jason P.; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of far-field boundary conditions is one of the most poorly resolved issues for regional modeling of geodynamic processes. In viscous flow, the choice of far-field boundary conditions often strongly shapes the large-scale structure of a geosimulation. The mantle velocity field along the sidewalls and base of a modeling region is typically much more poorly known than the geometry of past global motions of the surface plates as constrained by global plate motion reconstructions. For regional rifting models it has become routine to apply highly simplified 'plate spreading' or 'uniform rifting' boundary conditions to a 3-D model that limits its ability to simulate the geodynamic evolution of a specific rifted margin. One way researchers are exploring the sensitivity of regional models to uncertain boundary conditions is to use a nested modeling approach in which a global model is used to determine a large-scale flow pattern that is imposed as a constraint along the boundaries of the region to be modeled. Here we explore the utility of a different approach that takes advantage of the ability of finite element models to use unstructured meshes than can embed much higher resolution sub-regions. Here we demonstrate the workflow and code tools that we created to generate this unstructured mesh: solver based on springs, guide-mesh and routines to improve the quality, e.g., closeness to a regular tetrahedron, of the tetrahedral elements of the mesh. Note that the same routines are used to generate a new mesh in the remeshing of a distorted Lagrangian mesh. In our initial project to validate this approach, we create a global spherical shell mesh in which a higher resolution sub-region is created around the nascent South Atlantic Rifting Margin. Global Plate motion BCs and plate boundaries are applied for the time of the onset of rifting, continuing through several 10s of Ma of rifting. Thermal, compositional, and melt-related buoyancy forces are only non

  2. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X(2) test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max. interval was found in 33% of patients, indiabetic group

  3. Early Predictors of Hypertension in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vohr, Betty R.; Allan, Walter; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the blood pressure of former preterm and term matched adolescent controls, and identify risk factors associated with blood pressure at 16 years. Design Observational cohort study. Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Setting Three academic centers participating in the Multicenter Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial. Participants 296 children born in 1989–1992 with birth weights 600- <1250g who participated in the Multicenter Indomethacin IVH Prevention Trial and 95 term controls were evaluated at 16 years. Main Outcome Measures Blood pressure and predictors of blood pressure. Results The adjusted mean difference in blood pressure for preterm adolescents was 5.1 mm Hg; p=0.002 for systolic and 2.1 mm Hg; p=0.027 for diastolic blood pressure. Among preterms, the primary predictors of increased systolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months (b=8.54, p<.001), preeclampsia (b=5.67, p=0.020), non-white race (b=3.77, p=0.04) and male gender (b=5.09). Predictors of diastolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months, (b=4.69, p=0.001, brain injury (b=6.51, p=0.002 and male gender (b=−2.4, p=0.02). Conclusions Early programming secondary to increased early weight gain velocity, intrauterine stress and neonatal brain injury may all contribute to risk of increased blood pressure among former preterm adolescents. PMID:20586997

  4. Skin-autofluorescence, a measure of tissue advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), is related to diastolic function in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Jasper W L; Hummel, Yoran M; Voors, Adriaan A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Miyata, Toshio; Huisman, Roel M; Smit, Andries J; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2008-09-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is a frequent cause of heart failure, particularly in dialysis patients. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are increased in dialysis patients and are suggested to play a role in the development of diastolic dysfunction. The aim of our study was to assess whether AGE accumulation in dialysis patients is related to the presence of diastolic dysfunction. Data were analyzed from 43 dialysis patients, age 58 +/- 15 years, of whom 65% were male. Diastolic function was assessed using tissue velocity imaging (TVI) on echocardiography. Tissue AGE accumulation was measured using a validated skin-autofluorescence (skin-AF) reader. Plasma N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were measured by stable-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma pentosidine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Skin-AF correlated with mean E' (r = -0.51, P < .001), E/A ratio (r = -0.39, P = .014), and E/E' (r = 0.38, P = .019). Plasma AGEs were not significantly associated with diastolic function. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that 54% of the variance of average E' was explained by age (P = .007), dialysis type (P = 0.016), and skin-AF (P = .013). Tissue AGEs measured as skin-AF, but not plasma AGE levels, were related to diastolic function in dialysis patients. Although this may support the concept that tissue AGEs explain part of the increased prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in these patients, the ambiguous relation between plasma and tissue AGEs needs further exploring.

  5. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  6. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Hissen, Sarah L.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress.In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders.Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex‐mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA‐driven.This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Abstract Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post‐exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s−1) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s−1; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood

  7. Relationship of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic function with cardiovascular and renal outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gail E; de Backer, Tine; Contreras, Gabriel; Wang, Xuelei; Kendrick, Cynthia; Greene, Tom; Appel, Lawrence J; Randall, Otelio S; Lea, Janice; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Vagaonescu, Tudor; Phillips, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    African Americans with hypertension are at high risk for adverse outcomes from cardiovascular and renal disease. Patients with stage 3 or greater chronic kidney disease have a high prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Our goal was to study prospectively the relationships of LV mass and diastolic function with subsequent cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort study. Of 691 patients enrolled in the cohort, 578 had interpretable echocardiograms and complete relevant clinical data. Exposures were LV hypertrophy and diastolic parameters. Outcomes were cardiovascular events requiring hospitalization or causing death; a renal composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (censoring death); and heart failure. We found strong independent relationships between LV hypertrophy and subsequent cardiovascular (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.27) events, but not renal outcomes. After adjustment for LV mass and clinical variables, lower systolic tissue Doppler velocities and diastolic parameters reflecting a less compliant LV (shorter deceleration time and abnormal E/A ratio) were significantly (P<0.05) associated with future heart failure events. This is the first study to show a strong relationship among LV hypertrophy, diastolic parameters, and adverse cardiac outcomes in African Americans with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These echocardiographic risk factors may help identify high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease for aggressive therapeutic intervention.

  8. Biomarkers and echocardiography for evaluating the improvement of the ventricular diastolic function after surgical relief of hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Huei-Ming; Lin, Ting-Tse; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Jou-Wei; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lai, Ling-Ping; Huang, Yi-You

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is complex. Hydronephrosis caused by urolithiasis may cause cytokine release and lead to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac function changes observed in patients who received double J placement using feasible biomarkers and echocardiography. This was a prospective, single-center study. Eighty-seven patients who presented with acute unilateral hydronephrosis and received ureteroscope stone manipulation were enrolled. Echocardiography and cytokines were measured on the day of the operation and 24 hours after the procedure. Changes before and after surgery were assessed by the paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Correlation analyses between echocardiographic diastolic indices and cytokine levels were performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Patients with hydronephrosis showed a higher left atrium volume index (LAVI), decreased E', and increased E/ E' ratio, which indicated diastolic dysfunction. Patients with hydronephrosis also exhibited decreased global strain rates during isovolumetric relaxation (SRIVR) and E/ SRIVR, which confirmed the diastolic dysfunction. Significant reductions in LAVI, increases in SRIVR and decreases in E/ SRIVR were observed after the operation. Biomarkers, such as TGF-β and serum NT-proBNP, were significantly decreased after surgery. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the post-surgical decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in SRIVR. Unilateral hydronephrosis causes cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and relieving hydronephrosis could improve diastolic function. Improvements in cardiac dysfunction can be evaluated by echocardiography and measuring cytokine levels. The results of this study will inform efforts to improve the early diagnosis of CRS and prevent further deterioration of cardiac function when treating patients with hydronephrosis. PMID:29161313

  9. Biomarkers and echocardiography for evaluating the improvement of the ventricular diastolic function after surgical relief of hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Huei-Ming; Lin, Ting-Tse; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Jou-Wei; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lai, Ling-Ping; Huang, Yi-You; Chu, Chun-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is complex. Hydronephrosis caused by urolithiasis may cause cytokine release and lead to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac function changes observed in patients who received double J placement using feasible biomarkers and echocardiography. This was a prospective, single-center study. Eighty-seven patients who presented with acute unilateral hydronephrosis and received ureteroscope stone manipulation were enrolled. Echocardiography and cytokines were measured on the day of the operation and 24 hours after the procedure. Changes before and after surgery were assessed by the paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. Correlation analyses between echocardiographic diastolic indices and cytokine levels were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Patients with hydronephrosis showed a higher left atrium volume index (LAVI), decreased E', and increased E/ E' ratio, which indicated diastolic dysfunction. Patients with hydronephrosis also exhibited decreased global strain rates during isovolumetric relaxation (SRIVR) and E/ SRIVR, which confirmed the diastolic dysfunction. Significant reductions in LAVI, increases in SRIVR and decreases in E/ SRIVR were observed after the operation. Biomarkers, such as TGF-β and serum NT-proBNP, were significantly decreased after surgery. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the post-surgical decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in SRIVR. Unilateral hydronephrosis causes cardiac diastolic dysfunction, and relieving hydronephrosis could improve diastolic function. Improvements in cardiac dysfunction can be evaluated by echocardiography and measuring cytokine levels. The results of this study will inform efforts to improve the early diagnosis of CRS and prevent further deterioration of cardiac function when treating patients with hydronephrosis.

  10. Diastolic stiffness as assessed by diastolic wall strain is associated with adverse remodelling and poor outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Tomohito; Mohammed, Selma F; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Dunlay, Shannon M; Weston, Susan A; Sakata, Yasushi; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Roger, Veronique L; Redfield, Margaret M

    2012-07-01

    The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is complex but increased left ventricular (LV) diastolic stiffness plays a key role. A load-independent, non-invasive, direct measure of diastolic stiffness is lacking. The diastolic wall strain (DWS) index is based on the linear elastic theory, which predicts that impaired diastolic wall thinning reflects resistance to deformation in diastole and thus, increased diastolic myocardial stiffness. The objectives of this community-based study were to determine the distribution of this novel index in consecutive HFpEF patients and healthy controls, define the relationship between DWS and cardiac structure and function and determine whether increased diastolic stiffness as assessed by DWS is predictive of the outcome in HFpEF. Consecutive HFpEF patients (n = 327, EF ≥ 50%) and controls (n = 528) from the same community were studied. Diastolic wall strain was lower in HFpEF (0.33 ± 0.08) than in controls (0.40 ± 0.07, P < 0.001). Within HFpEF, those with DWS ≤ median (0.33) had higher LV mass index, relative wall thickness, E/e', Doppler-estimated LV end-diastolic pressure to LV end-diastolic volume ratio, left atrial volume index, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels than those with DWS > median. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients with DWS ≤ median had higher rate of death or HF hospitalization than those with DWS > median (P = 0.003) even after the adjustment for age, gender, log BNP, LV geometry, or log E/e' (P < 0.01). These data suggest that DWS, a simple index, is useful in assessing diastolic stiffness and that more advanced diastolic stiffness is associated with worse outcomes in HFpEF.

  11. Dense Velocity Field of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Aktug, B.; Dogru, A.; Tasci, L.

    2017-12-01

    While the GNSS-based crustal deformation studies in Turkey date back to early 1990s, a homogenous velocity field utilizing all the available data is still missing. Regional studies employing different site distributions, observation plans, processing software and methodology not only create reference frame variations but also heterogeneous stochastic models. While the reference frame effect between different velocity fields could easily be removed by estimating a set of rotations, the homogenization of the stochastic models of the individual velocity fields requires a more detailed analysis. Using a rigorous Variance Component Estimation (VCE) methodology, we estimated the variance factors for each of the contributing velocity fields and combined them into a single homogenous velocity field covering whole Turkey. Results show that variance factors between velocity fields including the survey mode and continuous observations can vary a few orders of magnitude. In this study, we present the most complete velocity field in Turkey rigorously combined from 20 individual velocity fields including the 146 station CORS network and totally 1072 stations. In addition, three GPS campaigns were performed along the North Anatolian Fault and Aegean Region to fill the gap between existing velocity fields. The homogenously combined new velocity field is nearly complete in terms of geographic coverage, and will serve as the basis for further analyses such as the estimation of the deformation rates and the determination of the slip rates across main fault zones.

  12. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently inmore » group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  13. Systolic and diastolic assessment by 3D-ASM segmentation of gated-SPECT Studies: a comparison with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Gomez, C.; Bijnens, B. H.; Huguet, M.; Sukno, F.; Moragas, G.; Frangi, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    Gated single photon emission tomography (gSPECT) is a well-established technique used routinely in clinical practice. It can be employed to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) function of a patient. The purpose of this study is to assess LV systolic and diastolic function from gSPECT datasets in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) measurements. This is achieved by applying our recently implemented 3D active shape model (3D-ASM) segmentation approach for gSPECT studies. This methodology allows for generation of 3D LV meshes for all cardiac phases, providing volume time curves and filling rate curves. Both systolic and diastolic functional parameters can be derived from these curves for an assessment of patient condition even at early stages of LV dysfunction. Agreement of functional parameters, with respect to CMR measurements, were analyzed by means of Bland-Altman plots. The analysis included subjects presenting either LV hypertrophy, dilation or myocardial infarction.

  14. Diastolic viscous properties of the intact canine left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, S D; Tamura, K; Tamura, T; Dahm, M; Frater, R W; Yellin, E L

    1990-08-01

    The viscoelastic model of the ventricle predicts that the rate of change of volume (strain rate) is a determinant of the instantaneous pressure in the ventricle during diastole. Because relaxation is not complete before the onset of filling, one cannot distinguish the individual effects of relaxation and viscosity unless the passive and active components that determine the ventricular pressure are separated. To overcome this problem, we used the method of ventricular volume clamping to compare the pressures in the fully relaxed ventricle at a given volume at zero strain rate (static pressure) and high strain rate (dynamic pressure). Six open-chest, fentanyl-anesthetized dogs were instrumented with micromanometers and an electronically controlled mitral valve occluder in series with the electromagnetic flow probe. We reasoned as follows: If there were significant viscosity, then the dynamic pressure would be higher than the static pressure. The static pressure was measured when the ventricle was completely relaxed following a mitral valve occlusion after an arbitrary filling volume had been achieved. The dynamic pressure was determined by delaying the onset of filling until relaxation was complete and then measuring the pressure at the same volume that was achieved when the static pressure was measured. In 19 different hemodynamic situations, the dynamic and static pressures were identical (mean difference, 0.1 +/- 0.8 mm Hg), indicating that in the passive ventricle viscoelastic effects are insignificant and do not contribute to the left ventricular diastolic pressure under normal filling rates.

  15. EVALUATION OF RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FILLING

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual fluid-dynamics framework for diastolic filling is developed. The convective deceleration load (CDL) is identified as an important determinant of ventricular inflow during the E-wave (A-wave) upstroke. Convective deceleration occurs as blood moves from the inflow anulus through larger-area cross-sections toward the expanding walls. Chamber dilatation underlies previously unrecognized alterations in intraventricular flow dynamics. The larger the chamber, the larger become the endocardial surface and the CDL. CDL magnitude affects strongly the attainable E-wave (A-wave) peak. This underlies the concept of diastolic ventriculoannular disproportion. Large vortices, whose strength decreases with chamber dilatation, ensue after the E-wave peak and impound inflow kinetic energy, averting an inflow-impeding, convective Bernoulli pressure-rise. This reduces the CDL by a variable extent depending on vortical intensity. Accordingly, the filling vortex facilitates filling to varying degrees, depending on chamber volume. The new framework provides stimulus for functional genomics research, aimed at new insights into ventricular remodeling. PMID:23585308

  16. Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Yuthika; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan; Kaushik, Reshma

    2017-08-01

    To study the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and the response of LVDD to L-thyroxine therapy. This cross-sectional case-control study with one longitudinal arm included 67 patients with SCH attending a tertiary care hospital in Uttarakhand, India, and 67 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. LVDD was assessed by 2D, pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD), continuous wave Doppler (CWD), and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Patients with LVDD received L-thyroxine therapy with reassessment for LVDD 6 months later. SCH patients had a higher prevalence of LVDD than controls (13.43% versus 1.49%; p = 0.017). LVDD showed a significant association with gender (p = 0.004) and serum FT4 (p = 0.001). E velocity, E' velocity, A' velocity, iso-volumetric relaxation time (IVRT), E/A, and E'/A' ratios were significantly lower, while A velocity, deceleration time (DT), E/E' ratio, left atrial (LA) volume index, and peak tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity were significantly higher in cases than controls (p < 0.05 each). The E/A ratio correlated significantly with age, serum very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TG), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p < 0.05 each). E' velocity correlated significantly with age, serum total cholesterol, VLDL, and TG (p < 0.05 each), DT with serum total cholesterol (p = 0.047), and LA volume index with age (p = 0.021). Age (p = 0.016) and serum HDL (p = 0.029) were independent predictors of E/A ratio. Gender was an independent predictor for LVDD (p = 0.003). Echocardiographic indices for LVDD showed significant improvement after 6 months of L-thyroxine therapy (p < 0.05 each). LVDD occurs commonly in SCH patients. It can be detected timely using echocardiography and may be reversed by L-thyroxine therapy.

  17. Evaluation of right ventricular function in early period following transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Ağaç, Mustafa Tarık; Akyüz, Ali Rıza; Acar, Zeydin; Akdemir, Ramazan; Korkmaz, Levent; Kırış, Abdülkadir; Erkuş, Emre; Erkan, Hakan; Celik, Sükrü

    2012-03-01

    There is limited data on alterations in novel right ventricular (RV) function indices like tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TASV) after transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. We aimed to evaluate RV function by echocardiography (ECG) with these novel indices in early period in patients with secundum-type ASD that was closed percutaneously. Patients were enrolled to study if they had secundum-type ASD that was suitable for percutaneous closure. Patient population consisted of 4 men and 16 women. Echocardiography was performed before and 1 month after closure. Mean age was 37 ± 16. Mean diameter of ASD and total atrial septum length measured by ECG were 19 ± 6 mm and 49 ± 7 mm, respectively. Mean diameter of defect in transesophageal echocardiography was 20 ± 6 mm. Stretched mean diameter in catheterization was 23 ± 6 mm. One month after closure, there were statistically significant decreases in RV end-diastolic diameters (43.3 ± 10.7 mm vs. 34.9 ± 5.5 mm; P < 0.001), RV/left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter ratio (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.87 ± 0.1; P < 0.001), TASV (16.9 ± 3.2 cm/sec vs. 14.3 ± 3.3 cm/sec; P < 0.05), early diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (15.3 ± 3.1 cm/sec vs. 13.4 ± 2.4 cm/sec P <0.05), late diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (16.2 ± 5.4 cm/sec vs. 14.3 ± 6.3 cm/sec; P < 0.05), and TAPSE (29.9 ± 6.2 mm vs. 22.4 ± 7.4 mm; P < 0.001). LV end-diastolic diameter (38.0 ± 6.9 mm and 40.0 ± 4.5 P < 0.05) was increased, whereas there was no change in LV ejection fraction. Closure of ASD by using Amplatzer devices led to decrease in right heart chamber size, tissue Doppler-derived tricuspid annular velocities and TAPSE in early period. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Usefulness of Electrocardiographic QT Interval to Predict Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Jane E.; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Vallakati, Ajay; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2013-01-01

    Whether a normal electrocardiogram excludes left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (DD) and whether electrocardiographic parameters are associated with DD is unknown. We therefore sought to investigate the relation between electrocardiographic parameters and DD. We first evaluated 75 consecutive patients referred for echocardiography for clinical suspicion of heart failure (phase 1). Electrocardiography and comprehensive echocardiography were performed on all patients and were analyzed separately in a blinded fashion. Receiver operating characteristic curves and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine which electrocardiographic parameters were most closely associated with DD. Next, we prospectively validated our results in 100 consecutive, unselected patients undergoing echocardiography (phase 2). In phase 1 of our study, the mean age was 59 ± 14 years, 41% were women, 31% had coronary disease, 53% had hypertension, and 25% had diabetes. The mean ejection fraction was 54 ± 15%, and 64% had DD. Of all the electrocardiographic parameters, the QTc interval was most closely associated with DD. QTc was inversely associated with E′ velocity (r = −0.54, p <0.0001), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for QTc as a predictor of DD was 0.82. QTc prolongation was independently associated with reduced E′ velocity (p = 0.021 after adjustment for age, gender, medications, QRS duration, and ejection fraction). In phase 2 of our study QTc was the electrocardiographic parameter most associated with reduced E′ velocity (435 ± 31 vs 419 ± 24 ms; p = 0.004), confirming our phase 1 study findings. In conclusion, QTc prolongation was the electrocardiographic marker most predictive of DD and was independently associated with DD. PMID:21907948

  19. The less familiar side of heart failure: symptomatic diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Morris, Spencer A; Van Swol, Mark; Udani, Bela

    2005-06-01

    Arrange for echocardiography or radionuclide angiography within 72 hours of a heart failure exacerbation. An ejection fraction >50% in the presence of signs and symptoms of heart failure makes the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure probable. To treat associated hypertension, use angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or diuretics to achieve a blood pressure goal of <130/80 mm Hg. When using beta-blockers to control heart rate, titrate doses more aggressively than would be done for systolic failure, to reach a goal of 60 to 70 bpm. Use ACE inhibitors/ARBs to decrease hospitalizations, decrease symptoms, and prevent left ventricular remodeling.

  20. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism treats obesity-associated cardiac diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bender, Shawn B; DeMarco, Vincent G; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Habibi, Javad; Garro, Mona; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Aroor, Annayya R; Jaffe, Iris Z; Sowers, James R

    2015-05-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus exhibit a high prevalence of cardiac diastolic dysfunction (DD), an independent predictor of cardiovascular events for which no evidence-based treatment exists. In light of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation in obesity and the cardioprotective action of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists in systolic heart failure, we examined the hypothesis that MR blockade with a blood pressure-independent low-dose spironolactone (LSp) would treat obesity-associated DD in the Zucker obese (ZO) rat. Treatment of ZO rats exhibiting established DD with LSp normalized cardiac diastolic function, assessed by echocardiography. This was associated with reduced cardiac fibrosis, but not reduced hypertrophy, and restoration of endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated coronary arterioles via a nitric oxide-independent mechanism. Further mechanistic studies revealed that LSp reduced cardiac oxidative stress and improved endothelial insulin signaling, with no change in arteriolar stiffness. Infusion of Sprague-Dawley rats with the MR agonist aldosterone reproduced the DD noted in ZO rats. In addition, improved cardiac function in ZO-LSp rats was associated with attenuated systemic and adipose inflammation and an anti-inflammatory shift in cardiac immune cell mRNAs. Specifically, LSp increased cardiac markers of alternatively activated macrophages and regulatory T cells. ZO-LSp rats had unchanged blood pressure, serum potassium, systemic insulin sensitivity, or obesity-associated kidney injury, assessed by proteinuria. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MR antagonism effectively treats established obesity-related DD via blood pressure-independent mechanisms. These findings help identify a particular population with DD that might benefit from MR antagonist therapy, specifically patients with obesity and insulin resistance. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Implication of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cryptogenic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Jung-Gon; Kim, Ji-Sun; Roh, Hakjae; Ahn, Moo-Young; Park, Byoung Won; Hyon, Min Su

    2014-09-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was aimed to investigate whether LVDD in cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CS) could be a clue to stroke mechanism. The clinical and echocardiographic findings of 1589 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. LVDDs among stroke subtypes were graded by transthoracic echocardiography into 4 groups by severity: normal, abnormal relaxation (grade I), pseudonormal (grade II), and restrictive diastolic filling (grade III), whereas severe LVDD was defined as grade III. We classified the lesion pattern of CS into cardioembolism-mimic or non-cardioembolism-mimic and determined whether cardioembolism-mimic lesions were associated with severe LVDD. The fraction of severe LVDD in CS was not different from that of stroke with AF (27.3% versus 37.1%; P=0.173) but was significantly higher than that of stroke without AF (27.3% versus 13.4%; P=0.008). Cardioembolism-mimic CS had more severe LVDD than non-cardioembolism-mimic CS (41.4% versus 11.5%; P=0.013). LVDD of grade II (odds ratio, 4.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.99-6.41) and grade III (odds ratio, 5.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.42-9.17) were independently related to stroke with AF after adjusting covariates. The severe LVDD could be a predictor of stroke with AF, and its frequency was similar between CS and stroke with AF. Cardioembolism-mimic CS had significantly more severe LVDD than non-cardioembolism-mimic CS. LVDD could be helpful to discriminate the stroke mechanism in the patients with acute CS. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Shear-Velocity Structure and Azimuthal and Radial Anisotropy Beneath the Kaapvaal Craton From Bayesian Inversion of Surface-Wave Data: Inferences for the Architecture and Early Evolution of Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, S.; Ravenna, M.; Adam, J.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy provides essential information on the deformation of the lithosphere. Knowledge of anisotropy also allows us to isolate the isotropic-average seismic velocities, relatable to the lithospheric temperature and composition. We use Rayleigh and Love-wave phase velocities and their azimuthal anisotropy measured in broad period ranges across the footprint of the Southern Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE), from the Kaapvaal Craton to the Limpopo Belt. We invert the data using our recently developed, fully non-linear Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and determine, for the first time, both the isotropic-average S velocity and its radial and azimuthal anisotropy as a function of depth from the upper crust down to the asthenosphere. The probabilistic inversion provides a way to quantify non-uniqueness, using direct parameter-space sampling, and assess model uncertainties. The high-velocity anomaly indicative of the cold cratonic lithosphere bottoms at 200-250 km beneath the central and western Kaapvaal Craton, underlain by a low-velocity zone. Beneath northern Kaapvaal and Limpopo, by contrast, high velocities extend down to 300-350 km. Although this does not require a lithosphere that has maintained this thickness over a geologically long time, the data does require the mantle to be anomalously cold down to 300-350 km. Interestingly, topography correlates with the thickness of this high-velocity layer, with lower elevations where the lid is thicker. Radial shear-wave anisotropy is in the 2-5 percent range (Vsh > Vsv) from the lower crust down to 200 km, below which depth it decreases gradually. Radial variations in the amplitude of radial anisotropy show no clear relationship with those in the amplitude of azimuthal anisotropy or isotropic-average Vs anomalies. Azimuthal anisotropy changes the fast-propagation direction near the base of the lithosphere (200-300 km depth), from the laterally varying fast azimuths in the lower lithosphere to a spatially

  3. Cardiac DPP-4 inhibition by saxagliptin ameliorates isoproterenol-induced myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Junichi; Kimoto, Naoya; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Kunori, Shunji

    2016-09-01

    Saxagliptin, a potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor, is characterized by its slow dissociation from DPP-4 and its long half-life and is expected to have a potent tissue membrane-bound DPP-4-inhibitory effect in various tissues. In the present study, we examined the effects of saxagliptin on in situ cardiac DPP-4 activity. We also examined the effects of saxagliptin on isoproterenol-induced the changes in the early stage such as, myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Male SD rats treated with isoproterenol (1 mg/kg/day via osmotic pump) received vehicle or saxagliptin (17.5 mg/kg via drinking water) for 2 weeks. In situ cardiac DPP-4 activity was measured by a colorimetric assay. Cardiac gene expressions were examined and an echocardiographic analysis was performed. Saxagliptin treatment significantly inhibited in situ cardiac DPP-4 activity and suppressed isoproterenol-induced myocardial remodeling and the expression of related genes without altering the blood glucose levels. Saxagliptin also significantly ameliorated cardiac diastolic dysfunction in isoproterenol-treated rats. In conclusion, the inhibition of DPP-4 activity in cardiac tissue by saxagliptin was associated with suppression of myocardial remodeling and cardiac diastolic dysfunction independently of its glucose-lowering action in isoproterenol-treated rats. Cardiac DPP-4 activity may contribute to myocardial remodeling in the development of heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co.,Ltd. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Right heart function in impaired left ventricular diastolic function: 2D speckle tracking echocardiography-based and Doppler tissue imaging-based analysis of right atrial and ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Brand, Anna; Bathe, Marny; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Seeland, Ute; Rücke, Mirjam; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Stangl, Karl; Knebel, Fabian; Stangl, Verena; Dreger, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) function, assessed by Doppler tissue imaging and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE), in women with signs of early impaired left ventricular diastolic function (DD). In a cross-sectional trial, standard parameters of diastolic and right heart function were investigated in 438 women of the Berlin Female Risk Evaluation (BEFRI) study. In a subset of women, average peak systolic RA strain (RAS), as well as the average peak systolic RV strain of the free wall (RVS free wall) and of all RV segments (average RV strain; RVS Avg), was analyzed using 2DSTE. Compared to women with normal diastolic function (DD0), RAS, RVS free wall and RVS Avg were significantly reduced in DD (43.1% ± 11.9%, -26.7% ± 5.6%, and -23.3% ± 3.5% in DD0; vs 35.1% ± 10.4%, -23.9% ± 5.5%, and -20.6% ± 3.8% in DD; P < .01). Peak RV myocardial velocity (RV-IVV) and acceleration during isovolumetric contraction (RV-IVA) were markedly higher in DD (15.0 ± 3.9 cm/s and 3.1 ± 1.0 m/s² in DD vs 11.9 ± 3.2 cm/s and 2.8 ± 0.8 m/s² in DD0; P < .05). RAS and RV-IVV were significantly associated with DD after adjustment to age, BMI, and left atrial strain in multivariate regression analysis. Systolic right heart function is significantly altered in DD. DTI as well as 2DSTE constitute sensitive echocardiographic tools that enable the diagnosis of impaired right heart mechanics in early-staged DD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Infrasound array criteria for automatic detection and front velocity estimation of snow avalanches: towards a real-time early-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, E.; Ripepe, M.; Ulivieri, G.; Kogelnig, A.

    2015-11-01

    Avalanche risk management is strongly related to the ability to identify and timely report the occurrence of snow avalanches. Infrasound has been applied to avalanche research and monitoring for the last 20 years but it never turned into an operational tool to identify clear signals related to avalanches. We present here a method based on the analysis of infrasound signals recorded by a small aperture array in Ischgl (Austria), which provides a significant improvement to overcome this limit. The method is based on array-derived wave parameters, such as back azimuth and apparent velocity. The method defines threshold criteria for automatic avalanche identification by considering avalanches as a moving source of infrasound. We validate the efficiency of the automatic infrasound detection with continuous observations with Doppler radar and we show how the velocity of a snow avalanche in any given path around the array can be efficiently derived. Our results indicate that a proper infrasound array analysis allows a robust, real-time, remote detection of snow avalanches that is able to provide the number and the time of occurrence of snow avalanches occurring all around the array, which represent key information for a proper validation of avalanche forecast models and risk management in a given area.

  6. Diastolic chamber properties of the left ventricle assessed by global fitting of pressure-volume data: improving the gold standard of diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Pérez del Villar, Candelas; del Álamo, Juan C; Rodríguez-Pérez, Daniel; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Antoranz, J Carlos; Desco, M Mar; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2013-08-15

    In cardiovascular research, relaxation and stiffness are calculated from pressure-volume (PV) curves by separately fitting the data during the isovolumic and end-diastolic phases (end-diastolic PV relationship), respectively. This method is limited because it assumes uncoupled active and passive properties during these phases, it penalizes statistical power, and it cannot account for elastic restoring forces. We aimed to improve this analysis by implementing a method based on global optimization of all PV diastolic data. In 1,000 Monte Carlo experiments, the optimization algorithm recovered entered parameters of diastolic properties below and above the equilibrium volume (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.99). Inotropic modulation experiments in 26 pigs modified passive pressure generated by restoring forces due to changes in the operative and/or equilibrium volumes. Volume overload and coronary microembolization caused incomplete relaxation at end diastole (active pressure > 0.5 mmHg), rendering the end-diastolic PV relationship method ill-posed. In 28 patients undergoing PV cardiac catheterization, the new algorithm reduced the confidence intervals of stiffness parameters by one-fifth. The Jacobian matrix allowed visualizing the contribution of each property to instantaneous diastolic pressure on a per-patient basis. The algorithm allowed estimating stiffness from single-beat PV data (derivative of left ventricular pressure with respect to volume at end-diastolic volume intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.65, error = 0.07 ± 0.24 mmHg/ml). Thus, in clinical and preclinical research, global optimization algorithms provide the most complete, accurate, and reproducible assessment of global left ventricular diastolic chamber properties from PV data. Using global optimization, we were able to fully uncouple relaxation and passive PV curves for the first time in the intact heart.

  7. Synergistic role of ADP and Ca2+ in diastolic myocardial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Vasco; Najafi, Aref; McConnell, Mark; Fowler, Ewan D; Bollen, Ilse A E; Wüst, Rob C I; dos Remedios, Cris; Helmes, Michiel; White, Ed; Stienen, Ger J M; Tardiff, Jil; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure (HF) with diastolic dysfunction has been attributed to increased myocardial stiffness that limits proper filling of the ventricle. Altered cross-bridge interaction may significantly contribute to high diastolic stiffness, but this has not been shown thus far. Cross-bridge interactions are dependent on cytosolic [Ca2+] and the regeneration of ATP from ADP. Depletion of myocardial energy reserve is a hallmark of HF leading to ADP accumulation and disturbed Ca2+ handling. Here, we investigated if ADP elevation in concert with increased diastolic [Ca2+] promotes diastolic cross-bridge formation and force generation and thereby increases diastolic stiffness. ADP dose-dependently increased force production in the absence of Ca2+ in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes from human hearts. Moreover, physiological levels of ADP increased actomyosin force generation in the presence of Ca2+ both in human and rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Diastolic stress measured at physiological lattice spacing and 37°C in the presence of pathological levels of ADP and diastolic [Ca2+] revealed a 76 ± 1% contribution of cross-bridge interaction to total diastolic stress in rat membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of creatine kinase (CK), which increases cytosolic ADP, in enzyme-isolated intact rat cardiomyocytes impaired diastolic re-lengthening associated with diastolic Ca2+ overload. In isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, CK inhibition increased ventricular stiffness only in the presence of diastolic [Ca2+]. We propose that elevations of intracellular ADP in specific types of cardiac disease, including those where myocardial energy reserve is limited, contribute to diastolic dysfunction by recruiting cross-bridges, even at low Ca2+, and thereby increase myocardial stiffness. Key points Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure patients is evident from stiffening of the passive properties of the ventricular wall. Increased actomyosin

  8. Systemic inflammation is associated with myocardial fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and cardiac hypertrophy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lu; Ellims, Andris H; Beale, Anna L; Taylor, Andrew J; Murphy, Andrew; Dart, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Regional or diffuse fibrosis is an early feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is related to poor prognosis. Previous studies have documented low-grade inflammation in HCM. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between circulating inflammatory markers and myocardial fibrosis, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and the degree of cardiac hypertrophy in HCM patients. Methods and results: Fifty HCM patients were recruited while 20 healthy subjects served as the control group. Seventeen inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were measured in plasma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography were used to assess cardiac phenotypes. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and serum amyloid P (SAP) were significantly increased in HCM patients compared to controls. IL-6, IL-4, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were correlated with regional fibrosis while stromal cell-derived factor-1 and MCP-1 were correlated with diffuse fibrosis. Fractalkine and interferon-γ were associated with left ventricular wall thickness. The above associations remained significant in a linear regression model including age, gender, body mass index and family history. TNF-α, IL-6, SAP, MCP-1 and IL-10 were associated with parameters of diastolic dysfunction. White blood cells were also increased in HCM patients and correlated with diffuse fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. However the associations between parameters of systemic inflammation and diastolic dysfunction were weakened in the linear regression analysis. Conclusions: Systemic inflammation is associated with parameters of the disease severity of HCM patients, particularly regional and diffuse fibrosis. Modifying inflammation may reduce myocardial fibrosis in HCM patients. PMID:29218105

  9. Right ventricular pressure response to exercise in adults with isolated ventricular septal defect closed in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moller, Thomas; Lindberg, Harald; Lund, May Brit; Holmstrom, Henrik; Dohlen, Gaute; Thaulow, Erik

    2018-06-01

    We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score -0.4, 95% CI -2.8-0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.

  10. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes patients: a novel 2D strain analysis based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Gan, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2016-09-01

    This study was to develop a strain analysis method to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) functions in type 2 diabetic patients with an asymptomatic LV diastolic dysfunction. Two groups (10 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic subjects and 10 control ones) were considered. All of the subjects had normal ejection fraction values but impaired diastolic functions assessed by the transmitral blood flow velocity. For each subject, based on cardiac MRI, global indexes including LV volume, LV myocardial mass, cardiac index (CI), and transmitral peak velocity, were measured, and regional indexes (i.e., LV deformation, strain and strain rate) were calculated through an image-registration technology. Most of the global indexes did not differentiate between the two groups, except for the CI, LV myocardial mass and transmitral peak velocity. While for the regional indexes, the global LV diastolic dysfunction of the diabetic indicated an increased strain (0.08 ± 0.044 vs. -0.031 ± 0.077, p = 0.001) and a reduced strain rate (1.834 ± 0.909 vs. 3.791 ± 2.394, p = 0.033) compared to the controls, moreover, the local LV diastolic dysfunction reflected by the strain and strain rate varied, and the degree of dysfunction gradually decreased from the basal level to the apical level. The results showed that the strain and strain rates are effective to capture the subtle alterations of the LV functions, and the proposed method can be used to estimate the LV myocardial function based on cardiac MRI.

  11. Physical exercise counteracts the increase in velocity of propagation of cortical spreading depression imposed by early over-nutrition in rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Heloísa Mirelle Costa; de Mendonça, Débora Carneiro; Sousa, Mariana Séfora Bezerra; Amancio-Dos-Santos, Angela

    2018-06-01

    This investigation studied whether physical exercise could modulate cortical spreading depression (CSD) propagation velocity in adult rat offspring from dams that had received a high-fat (HF) diet during lactation. Wistar male rats suckled by dams fed either control (C) or HF diet ad libitum. After weaning, pups received standard laboratory chow. From 40 to 60 days of life, half of the animals exercised on a treadmill (group E); the other half remained sedentary (group S). Two additional HF groups (E and S) received fluoxetine (F; 10 mg/kg/day, orogastrically) from 40 to 60 days of life (groups HF/EF and HF/F). At 40 days of life, rats from the maternal HF diet presented higher weight, thoracic circumference, and Lee Index than C animals and remained heavier at 60 days of life. Physical exercise decreased abdominal circumference. HF diet increased CSD propagation velocity (mean ± SD; mm/min) in sedentaries (HF/S 3.47 ± 0.31 versus C/S 3.24 ± 0.26). Treadmill exercise decelerated CSD propagation in both groups C/E (2.94 ± 0.28) and HF/E (2.97 ± 0.40). Fluoxetine alone decreased CSD propagation (HF/F 2.88 ± 0.45) compared with HF/S group. The combination of fluoxetine + exercise under HF condition (2.98 ± 0.27) was similar to HF/E group. Physical exercise is able to reduce CSD propagation velocity in rat adult brains even when they have suffered over-nourishing during lactation. The effects of exercise alone or fluoxetine alone on CSD were similar to the effects of fluoxetine + exercise, under the HF condition. Data reinforce malnutrition during lactation modifies cortical electrophysiology even when the HF condition no longer exists.

  12. Diastolic dysfunction in prediabetic male rats: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Koncsos, Gábor; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Boengler, Kerstin; Rohrbach, Susanne; Li, Ling; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Radovits, Tamás; Oláh, Attila; Mátyás, Csaba; Lux, Árpád; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Komlódi, Tímea; Bukosza, Nóra; Máthé, Domokos; Deres, László; Barteková, Monika; Rajtík, Tomáš; Adameová, Adriana; Szigeti, Krisztián; Hamar, Péter; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Tretter, László; Pacher, Pál; Merkely, Béla; Giricz, Zoltán; Schulz, Rainer; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2016-10-01

    Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4 High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Diastolic dysfunction in prediabetic male rats: Role of mitochondrial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Koncsos, Gábor; Varga, Zoltán V.; Boengler, Kerstin; Rohrbach, Susanne; Li, Ling; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schreckenberg, Rolf; Radovits, Tamás; Oláh, Attila; Mátyás, Csaba; Lux, Árpád; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Komlódi, Tímea; Bukosza, Nóra; Máthé, Domokos; Deres, László; Barteková, Monika; Rajtík, Tomáš; Adameová, Adriana; Szigeti, Krisztián; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Tretter, László; Pacher, Pál; Merkely, Béla; Schulz, Rainer; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4. High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy. In prediabetic animals, a mild diastolic dysfunction was observed, the number of myocardial lipid droplets increased, and left ventricular mass and wall thickness were elevated; however, no molecular sign of fibrosis or cardiac hypertrophy was shown. In prediabetes, production of reactive oxygen species was elevated in subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Expression of mitofusin-2 was increased, while the phosphorylation of phospholamban and expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3, a marker of mitophagy) decreased. However, expression of other markers of cardiac auto- and mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, inflammation, heat shock proteins, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, mammalian target of rapamycin, or apoptotic pathways were unchanged in prediabetes. This is the first comprehensive analysis of cardiac effects of prediabetes indicating that mild diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy are multifactorial phenomena that are associated with early changes in mitophagy, cardiac lipid accumulation, and elevated oxidative stress and that prediabetes-induced oxidative stress originates from the subsarcolemmal mitochondria. PMID:27521417

  14. Use of placental vascularization indices and uterine artery peak systolic velocity in early detection of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, chronic or gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia at risk.

    PubMed

    Altorjay, Ábel T; Surányi, Andrea; Nyári, Tibor; Németh, Gábor

    2017-04-14

    We aimed to investigate correlations between uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV), and placental vascularization in groups of normal blood pressure (NBP) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (chronic hypertension (CHT), gestational hypertension (GHT) and preeclampsia (PE)) alone or in combination with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and hypothesized that AUtPSV rises when GDM complicates pregnancy hypertension. Placental 3-dimensional power Doppler indices, such as vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI), and uterine artery peak systolic velocity (AUtPSV) were measured in CHT (N=43), CHT+GDM (N=15), GHT (N=57), GHT+GDM (N=23) and PE (N=17) pregnancies, and compared to NBP (N=109). Correlations were analyzed between vascularization indices, AUtPSV, pregestational BMI and adverse pregnancy outcome rates. In our results VI was higher in CHT (P=0.010), while FI was lower in CHT (P=0.009), GHT and PE (P=0.001) compared to NBP. In case of VFI, significant difference was found between CHT and GHT (P=0.002), and NBP and PE (P=0.001). FI was found prognostic for umbilical pH and neonatal birth weight. Pre-gestational BMI was significantly higher in GHT+GDM compared to GHT, and in CHT+GDM compared to the CHT group. As for AUtPSV, significant difference was found between NBP and CHT (P=0.012), NBP and CHT+GDM (P=0.045), NBP and GHT+GDM (P=0.007), NBP and PE (P=0.032), and GHT and GHT+GDM (P=0.048) groups. Our study revealed that vascularization indices and AUtPSV show significant differences due to gestational pathology, and can be useful in detection of pregnancies at risk.

  15. [Diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects. Disease or a physiological manifestation of ageing?].

    PubMed

    Meluzín, J; Podroužková, H; Gregorová, Z; Panovský, R

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this summary paper is to discuss the current knowledge of the impact of age on diastolic function of the left ventricle. Data from the literature: Reports published till this time have convincingly demonstrated a significant relationship of age to diastolic function of the left ventricle. Ageing is a physiological process accompanied by structural changes in both myocardium and arterial bed resulting in worsening of parameters characterizing the left ventricular diastolic function. This "physiological" diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects can be explained by the deterioration of passive left ventricular filling properties and by worsening of left ventricular relaxation. The detailed analysis of published reports shows problems in distiguishing this "physiological" diastolic dysfunction resulting from physiological tissue ageing from "pathological" diastolic dysfunction reflecting a disease of cardiovascular system. To interprete correctly values of parameters quantifying diastolic function of the left ventricle, one should take into account the age of subjects under the examination. Further studies are necessary to distinguish exactly "physiological" deterioration of diastolic function associated with ageing from really "pathological" diastolic dysfunction in the elderly subjects.

  16. Systolic and diastolic time intervals in pulsus alternans - Significance of alternating isovolumic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spodick, D. H.; Quarry, V. M.; Khan, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    Systolic and diastolic time intervals in 14 cardiac patients with pulsus alternans revealed significant alternation of preinjection period (PEP), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), ejection time index (ETI), PEP/LVET, and carotid dD/dt with better functional values in the strong beats. Cycle length, duration of electromechanical systole (EMS) and total diastole, i.e., isovolumic relaxation period (IRP) and diastolic filling period (DFP) occurred in 7 out of 8 patients. These diastolic intervals alternated reciprocally such that the IRP of the strong beats encroached upon the DFP of the next (weak) beats.

  17. Determinants of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Nazário Leão, R; Marques da Silva, P; Marques Pocinho, R; Alves, M; Virella, D; Palma Dos Reis, R

    2018-02-02

    The progression of hypertensive heart disease leads to the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), which is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the determinants for LVDD in patients with hypertension. This is a secondary analysis of data of Impedance Cardiography in the Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Arterial Hypertension (IMPEDDANS) Study. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for univariable analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to model for LVDD occurrence and discriminative capacity of the model assessed by the value of the area under the curve given by the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Older age (65 vs. 58 years, p<0.001), longer duration of hypertension (160 vs. 48 months, p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (59.8 vs. 15.9%, p<0.001), tobacco smoking (17.8 vs. 3.8%, p=0.016), higher systolic blood pressure (133 vs. 124mmHg, p=0.001) and slower heart rate (62 vs. 66bpm, p=0.023) were associated with LVDD. Multivariate model identified uncontrolled hypertension (AdjOR 36.90; 95% CI 7.94-171.58; p<0.001), smoking (AdjOR 6.66; 95% CI 1.63-27.26; p=0.008), eccentric hypertrophy (AdjOR 3.59; 95% CI 0.89-14.39; p=0.072), duration of hypertension (AdjOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02-1.05; p<0.001) and concentric remodeling (AdjOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.93; p=0.041) as the more determinant for occurrence of LVDD. The discriminative capacity of the model was AUC=0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.98). The occurrence of LVDD in hypertensive patients was strongly associated to long-lasting, uncontrolled hypertension, tobacco smoking, concentric remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain Natriuretic Hormone Predicts Stress Induced Alterations in Diastolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Choksy, Pratik; Davis, Harry C.; Januzzi, James; Thayer, Julian; Harshfield, Gregory; Robinson, Vincent JB; Kapuku, Gaston K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental stress (MS) reduces diastolic function (DF) and may lead to congestive heart failure with preserved systolic function. Whether brain natriuretic hormone (BNP) mediates the relationship of MS with DF is unknown. Method and Results 160 individuals aged 30 to 50 years underwent 2 hour protocol of 40 minutes rest, videogame stressor and recovery. Hemodynamics, pro-BNP samples and DF indices were obtained throughout the protocol. Separate regression analyses were conducted using rest and stress E/A, E’ and E/E’ as dependent variables. Predictor variables were entered into the stepwise regression models in a hierarchical fashion. At the first level age, sex, race, height, BMI, pro-BNP, and LVM were permitted to enter the models. The second level consisted of SBP, DBP and HR. The final level contained cross-product terms of race by SBP, DBP and HR. E/A ratio was lower during stress compared to rest, and recovery (p<0.01). Resting E/A ratio was predicted by a regression model of age (−.31), pro-BNP (.16), HR (−.40) and DBP (−.23) with an R2 = .33. Stress E/A ratio was predicted by age (−.24), pro-BNP (.08), HR (−.38), and SBP (−.21), total R2 = .22. Resting E’ model consisted of age (−.22), pro-BNP (.26), DBP (−.27) and LVM (−.15) with an R2 = .29. Stress E’ was predicted by age (−.18), pro-BNP (.35) and LVM (−.18) with an R2 = .18. Resting E/E’ was predicted by race (.17, B>W) and DBP (.24) with an R2 = .10. Stress E/E’ consisted of pro-BNP (−.36), height (−.26) and HR (−.21) with R2 = .15. Conclusion pro-BNP predicts both resting and stress DF suggesting that lower BNP during MS may be a maker of diastolic dysfunction in apparently healthy individuals. PMID:24841419

  19. Absent end diastolic flow of umbilical artery Doppler: pregnancy outcome in 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Poulain, P; Palaric, J C; Milon, J; Betremieux, P; Proudhon, J F; Signorelli, D; Grall, J Y; Giraud, J R

    1994-02-01

    We retrospectively studied the outcome of pregnancy in 62 cases of absent end diastolic flow (AEDF) of umbilical artery Doppler flow velocity waveform. The history of pregnancies revealed that nearly all were of high risk. Many cases presented cerebral (65%) or uterine (55.5%) Doppler flow abnormalities, or both (38%). We noted 10 fetal deaths and decided 7 pregnancy terminations. Malformation and chromosomal defect rate was 16%. We noted 44 (71%) live-births, a very high rate of cesarean section (86%), prematurity (75%), small for gestational age (39%). Forty-five percent of the neonates had a 1-min Apgar score under 7, which dropped to 27% at 5 min. Neonate mortality rate was 6.9% and the total mortality rate was 34% (21/62). Morbidity was significant (7 cases with severe morbidity, 2 cases with chromosomal abnormality of poor prognosis). We compared different sub-groups with a view to looking for some prenatal factors which predict poor neonatal outcome in case of AEDF.

  20. Effect of dobutamine on a Doppler echocardiographic index of combined systolic and diastolic performance.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Tamura, M; Toyono, M; Yasuoka, K

    2002-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography has become accepted in the evaluation of cardiac functional reserve. Although the Doppler-derived index of combined systolic/diastolic myocardial performance (Tei index) has been reported to be easily obtainable and useful for predicting left ventricular performance, the effect of dobutamine on the Tei index has not been determined in children. To assess the effect of dobutamine on the Tei index, 8 patients who had undergone surgery for ventricular septal defect and 7 patients who had a history of Kawasaki disease were examined. Echocardiographic recordings were obtained before and after dobutamine infusion (5 microg/kg per minute). Variables measured were transmitral flow velocities (E, A, E/A), rate-corrected mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (rate-corrected Vcf), and IMP. We measured isovolumic contraction time (ICT), isovolumic relaxation time (IRT), and ejection time (ET) and then calculated the Tei index using the following formula: Tei index = (ICT + IRT)/ET. Dobutamine infusion increased rate-corrected Vcf (29%, p < 0.01), peak E (7%, p < 0.05), and peak A (13%, p < 0.05). E/A ratio did not change during dobutamine infusion. ET, ICT, and IRT were found to decrease during dobutamine infusion. The magnitude of the change in the ICT (-21%, p < 0.01) was greater than those in IRT (-12%, p < 0.01) and ET (-8%, p < 0.05). The decrease in Tei index (-16%, p < 0.01) resulted in a decrease in ICT/ET (-21%, p < 0.01) and a slight decrease in IRT/ET (-12%, p < 0.05). The Tei index has potential as a sensitive indicator of the effects of inotropic stimilation on global left ventricular function.

  1. One arm exercise induces significant interarm diastolic blood pressure difference.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dezhi; Wang, Jiwei; Su, Hai; Xu, Jingsong; Liu, Yanna; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    This study is designed to investigate the inducing effect of one arm exercise on interarm difference (IAD) in the blood pressure (BP). Fifty healthy young participants were included in the study. Three-minute exercises of the right arm elbow flexion and extension were performed. The bilateral brachial BP was simultaneously measured with two automatic BP measurement devices before (basic) and immediately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after exercise. The absolute difference in the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the left and right BP of at least 10 mmHg was recognized as sIAD and dIAD. The baseline data of the SBP and DBP in left and right arms revealed no significant difference (SBP: 110 ± 10 vs. 111 ± 11 mmHg; DBP: 66 ± 8 vs. 66 ± 9 mmHg, both not significant). The prevalence of dIAD was 2% at the baseline. However, this prevalence increased to 80% at 0 min, as right arm exercise induced the right DBP decrease and left DBP increase, and then the prevalence decreased gradually within a 30-min recovery period. The prevalence of sIAD was zero at the baseline and the maximal prevalence was 8% during the 20-min postexercise period. One arm exercise can lead to a significant IAD in DBP. Any arm exercise should be avoided before BP measurement.

  2. Systolic [Ca2+]i regulates diastolic levels in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Kistamás, Kornél; Greensmith, David J.; Venetucci, Luigi A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points For the heart to function as a pump, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) must increase during systole to activate contraction and then fall, during diastole, to allow the myofilaments to relax and the heart to refill with blood.The present study investigates the control of diastolic [Ca2+]i in rat ventricular myocytes.We show that diastolic [Ca2+]i is increased by manoeuvres that decrease sarcoplasmic reticulum function. This is accompanied by a decrease of systolic [Ca2+]i such that the time‐averaged [Ca2+]i remains constant.We report that diastolic [Ca2+]i is controlled by the balance between Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ efflux during systole.The results of the present study identify a novel mechanism by which changes of the amplitude of the systolic Ca transient control diastolic [Ca2+]i. Abstract The intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) must be sufficently low in diastole so that the ventricle is relaxed and can refill with blood. Interference with this will impair relaxation. The factors responsible for regulation of diastolic [Ca2+]i, in particular the relative roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and surface membrane, are unclear. We investigated the effects on diastolic [Ca2+]i that result from the changes of Ca cycling known to occur in heart failure. Experiments were performed using Fluo‐3 in voltage clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing stimulation frequency increased diastolic [Ca2+]i. This increase of [Ca2+]i was larger when SR function was impaired either by making the ryanodine receptor leaky (with caffeine or ryanodine) or by decreasing sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca‐ATPase activity with thapsigargin. The increase of diastolic [Ca2+]i produced by interfering with the SR was accompanied by a decrease of the amplitude of the systolic Ca transient, such that there was no change of time‐averaged [Ca2+]i. Time‐averaged [Ca2+]i was increased by β‐adrenergic stimulation with isoprenaline and increased in a saturating

  3. Association between urine aldosterone and diastolic function in patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Yao; Lee, Hsiu-Hao; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Wu, Xue-Ming; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Liao, Min-Tsun; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lin, Yen-Hung

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between aldosterone and cardiac diastolic dysfunction. We prospectively enrolled 20 patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) and 22 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Plasma aldosterone concentration, plasma renin activity, and 24-h urine aldosterone level were measured. Echocardiography, including tissue Doppler image recordings, was performed. PA patients had a significantly higher left ventricular (LV) mass index and worse LV diastolic function than those in EH patients. Among various measures of aldosterone, log-transformed 24-h urine aldosterone level had the most consistent correlation with diastolic function. Aldosterone is strongly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Twenty-four hour urine aldosterone is a good indicator to evaluate the impact of aldosterone on LV diastolic function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evaluation of early cardiac dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with or without anticardiolipin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Barutcu, A; Aksu, F; Ozcelik, F; Barutcu, C A E; Umit, G E; Pamuk, O N; Altun, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic (TTE) imaging methods to identify cardiac dysfunction, an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in terms of cardiac effects. This study involved 80 patients: a study group (n = 50) and control group (n = 30). They were categorized into four subgroups: anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) (+) (n = 14) and aCL (-) (n = 36); systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 6 (n = 15) and SLEDAI < 6 (n = 35); disease period ≥ 5 years (n = 21) and disease period < 5 years (n = 29); major organ involvement (+) (n = 19), major organ involvement (-) (n = 31). The ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') for the study group was found to be higher than the control (p < 0.01). Systolic septal motion velocity (Ssm) was lower in the study group compared with the control (p < 0.01). Left atrium (LA) dimension was greater in the study group than the control (p < 0.01). Ssm was found to be lower in the aCL (+) patients compared with the control and aCL (-) groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). LA dimension was greater in the aCL (+) and (-) groups compared with the control, (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively) and aCL groups compared with each other (p < 0.05). The E/E' ratio for the aCL (+) and (-) groups was found to be greater than the control (p < 0.05). In the study, both the Ssm and the late diastolic septal velocity (sA') was found to be lower in the SLEDAI ≥ 6 group compared with SLEDAI<6 group, (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). LA dimension was statistically greater in the SLEDAI ≥ 6 group compared with the SLEDAI <6 group (p < 0.001). E' and early diastolic septal velocity (sE') were statistically lower in the disease period >5 years group compared with the disease period <5 years group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Carrying out regular scans with TTE

  5. Echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic functions in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A comperative study of diastolic functions in sub-phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Erkan; Karabulut, Onur; Yuksel, Uygar Cagdas; Celik, Murat; Bugan, Baris; Gokoglan, Yalcin; Ulubay, Mustafa; Gungor, Mutlu; Koklu, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder among reproductive-aged women. It is known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the echocardiographic data of patients according to the phenotypes of PCOS. This study included 113 patients with PCOS and 52 controls. Patients were classified into four potential PCOS phenotypes. Laboratory analyses and echocardiographic measurements were performed. Left ventricular mass was calculated by using Devereux formula and was indexed to body surface area. Phenotype-1 PCOS patients had significantly higher homeostasis model assessment - insu-lin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.023), free testosterone (p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.001) and free androgen index (p < 0.001) compared with the control group. There were significant differences between groups regarding the septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, Left ventricular ejection frac-tion, E/A ratio and left ventricular mass index (for all, p < 0.05). PCOS patients with phenotype 1 and 2 had significantly higher left ventricular mass index than the control group (p < 0.001). In univariate and multivariate analyses, PCOS phenotype, modified Ferriman-Gallwey Score and estradiol were found as variables, which independently could affect the left ventricular mass index. This study showed that women in their twenties who specifically fulfilled criteria for PCOS phenotype-1 according to the Rotterdam criteria, had higher left ventricular mass index and decreased E/A ratio, which might be suggestive of early stage diastolic dysfunction. (Cariol J 2017; 24, 4: 364-373).

  6. Left ventricular morphology and diastolic function in uraemia: echocardiographic evidence of a specific cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, L.; Vescovo, G.; Levedianos, G.; Zannini, L.; Nordio, M.; Lorenzi, S.; Caturelli, G.; Ambrosio, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities in uraemic patients are determined by high blood pressure or if they are an expression of a specific cardiomyopathy. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--City general hospital in Italy. SUBJECTS--35 uraemic patients receiving haemodialysis (17 men, 18 women; mean age 60.3 (11.2); mean duration of dialysis 52 months) were selected from the 64 patients in Venice who were receiving dialysis; subjects with diabetes, haemochromatosis, valvar dysfunction, regional dyskinesias, and pericarditis were excluded. 19 control normotensive subjects (6 men and 13 women), matched for age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Echocardiographic measurements of left atrium, left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volume, aortic root diameter, posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, left ventricle mass index, and ejection fraction in controls and in patients according to whether they were normotensive (five men, eight women) or hypertensive (12 men, 10 women) on 48 hour ambulatory monitoring; left ventricular diastolic function by Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS--Mean systolic and diastolic pressures, daytime systolic and diastolic pressures, and night time systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than in the normotensive patients. The normotensive patients had similar blood pressures to the controls. Left ventricular mass correlated significantly with the mean diastolic pressure and mean night time systolic and diastolic pressures. Parathyroid hormone concentrations were similar in the two groups of patients. Diastolic relaxation was impaired to the same degree in the two groups of patients. Parameters of diastolic function showed no relation to left ventricular mass, which was significantly higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive patients. CONCLUSIONS--Uraemia is likely to induce specific changes in the relaxation properties of the

  7. Patients with a hypertensive response to exercise have impaired systolic function without diastolic dysfunction or left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Philip M; Haluska, Brian; Yuda, Satoshi; Leano, Rodel; Marwick, Thomas H

    2004-03-03

    We sought to determine if a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is associated with myocardial changes consistent with early hypertensive heart disease. An HRE predicts the development of chronic hypertension (HT) and may reflect a preclinical stage of HT. Patients with a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and a negative stress test were recruited into three matched groups: 41 patients (age 56 +/- 10 years) with HRE (>210/105 mm Hg in men; >190/105 in women), comprising 22 patients with (HT+) and 19 without resting hypertension (HT-); and 17 matched control subjects without HRE. Long-axis function was determined by measurement of the strain rate (SR), peak systolic strain, and cyclic variation (CV) of integrated backscatter in three apical views. An HRE was not associated with significant differences in LV mass index. Exercise performance and diastolic function were reduced in HRE(HT+) patients, but similar in HRE(HT-) patients and controls. Systolic dysfunction (peak systolic strain, SR, and CV) was significantly reduced in HRE patients (p < 0.001 for all). These reductions were equally apparent in patients with and without a history of resting HT (p = NS) and were independent of LV mass index and blood pressure (p < 0.01). An HRE is associated with subtle systolic dysfunction, even in the absence of resting HT. These changes occur before the development of LV hypertrophy or detectable diastolic dysfunction and likely represent early hypertensive heart disease.

  8. Echocardiographic nomograms for upper abdominal aorta Doppler systolic wave values and systo-diastolic diameters variations in children.

    PubMed

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Giordano, Raffaele; Corsini, Iuri; Dani, Carlo; Scalese, Marco; Murzi, Bruno; Assanta, Nadia; Spadoni, Isabella; Molinaro, Sabrina; Kutty, Shelby; Iervasi, Giorgio; Franchi, Eliana

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aorta pulsatility and blood flow patterns are important diagnostic indicators in congenital heart disease. Reference values for these indexes are lacking. We prospectively studied abdominal aorta pulsed-wave Doppler systolic peak velocity, deceleration time, and wave duration, and two-dimensional vessel diameters in systole and diastole in healthy Caucasian children. Heteroscedasticity was accounted for by White or Breusch-Pagan test. Age, weight, height, heart rate (HR), and body surface area (BSA) were used as independent variables in different analyses to predict the mean values of each measurement. Structured Z-scores were then computed. In all, 853 subjects (age 0 days to 17 years; 45% females; BSA 0.12-2.12m 2 ) were studied. The predicted values and Z-score boundaries are presented. Data are also presented as mean±2 SDs for a given BSA. We report paediatric echocardiographic nomograms for multiple proximal abdominal aorta parameters including pulsed-wave Doppler systolic velocities, deceleration time, wave duration, and two-dimensional vessel diameter variations. Significant variations in these functional indexes with age were found that should be taken into account in clinical practice. At lower ages, steeper and shorter pulsed-wave Doppler peak velocity and limited pulsatility should be expected as physiologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive prediction of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aziz, Tarek A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3 different available methods for estimating left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) noninvasively in patients with coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). We used 3 equations for noninvasive estimation of LVEDP: The equation of Mulvagh et al., LVEDP(1) = 46 - 0.22 (IVRT) - 0.10 (AFF) - 0.03 (DT) - (2 ÷ E/A) + 0.05 MAR; the equation of Stork et al., LVEDP(2) = 1.06 + 15.15 × Ai/Ei; and the equation of Abd-El-Aziz, LVEDP(3) = [0.54 (MABP) × (1 - EF)] - 2.23. ( A, A-wave velocity; AFF, atrial filling fraction; Ai, time velocity integral of A wave; DT, deceleration time; E, E-wave velocity; Ei, time velocity integral of E wave; IVRT, isovolumic relaxation time; MABP, mean arterial blood pressure; MAR, time from termination of mitral flow to the electrocardiographic R wave; Ti, time velocity integral of total wave.) LVEDP measured by catheterization was correlated with LVEDP(1) (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), LVEDP(2) (r = 0.31, P < 0.05), and LVEDP(3) (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). The equation described by Abd-El-Aziz, LVEDP = [0.54 MABP × (1 - EF)] - 2.23, appears to be the most accurate, reliable, and easily applied method for estimating LVEDP noninvasively in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and an LVEDP < 20 mm Hg. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. HMI Measured Doppler Velocity Contamination from the SDO Orbit Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Phil; HMI Team

    2016-10-01

    The Problem: The SDO satellite is in an inclined Geo-sync orbit which allows uninterrupted views of the Sun nearly 98% of the time. This orbit has a velocity of about 3,500 m/s with the solar line-of-sight component varying with time of day and time of year. Due to remaining calibration errors in wavelength filters the orbit velocity leaks into the line-of-sight solar velocity and magnetic field measurements. Since the same model of the filter is used in the Milne-Eddington inversions used to generate the vector magnetic field data, the orbit velocity also contaminates the vector magnetic products. These errors contribute 12h and 24h variations in most HMI data products and are known as the 24-hour problem. Early in the mission we made a patch to the calibration that corrected the disk mean velocity. The resulting LOS velocity has been used for helioseismology with no apparent problems. The velocity signal has about a 1% scale error that varies with time of day and with velocity, i.e. it is non-linear for large velocities. This causes leaks into the LOS field (which is simply the difference between velocity measured in LCP and RCP rescaled for the Zeeman splitting). This poster reviews the measurement process, shows examples of the problem, and describes recent work at resolving the issues. Since the errors are in the filter characterization it makes most sense to work first on the LOS data products since they, unlike the vector products, are directly and simply related to the filter profile without assumptions on the solar atmosphere, filling factors, etc. Therefore this poster is strictly limited to understanding how to better understand the filter profiles as they vary across the field and with time of day and time in years resulting in velocity errors of up to a percent and LOS field estimates with errors up to a few percent (of the standard LOS magnetograph method based on measuring the differences in wavelength of the line centroids in LCP and RCP light). We

  11. Importance of early postnatal weight gain for normal retinal angiogenesis in very preterm infants: a multicenter study analyzing weight velocity deviations for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carolyn; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; VanderVeen, Deborah K; Hellström, Ann

    2012-08-01

    To assess WINROP (https://winrop.com), an algorithm using postnatal weight measurements, as a tool for the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a large geographically and racially diverse study population. WINROP analysis was performed retrospectively on conventionally at-risk infants from 10 neonatal intensive careunits.Weight measurements were entered into WINROP, which signals an alarm for an abnormal weight gain rate. Infants were classified into categories of no alarm (unlikely to develop type 1ROP)and alarm (at risk for developing type 1ROP).Use of WINROP requires that an infant has (1) gestational age less than 32 weeks at birth, (2) weekly weight measurements,(3) physiologic weight gain,and(4)absence of other pathologic retinal vascular disease. A total of 1706 infants with a median gestational age of 28 weeks (range, 22-31 weeks) and median birth weight of 1016 g (range, 378-2240 g) were included in the study analysis. An alarm occurred in 1101 infants (64.5%), with a median time from birth to alarm of 3 weeks (range, 0-12 weeks) and from alarm to treatment of 8 weeks (range, 1 day to 22 weeks). The sensitivity of WINROP was 98.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.7%. Two infants with type 1 ROP requiring treatment after 40 weeks' postmenstrual age did not receive an alarm. The WINROP system is a useful adjunct for ROP screening that identifies high-risk infants early to optimize care and potentially reduce the overall number of diagnostic ROP examinations.

  12. Predictive value of high sensitivity CRP in patients with diastolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Michowitz, Yoav; Arbel, Yaron; Wexler, Dov; Sheps, David; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Keren, Gad; George, Jacob; Roth, Arie

    2008-04-25

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been tested in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) and mixed results have been obtained with regards to its potential predictive value. However, the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with diastolic HF is not established. We studied the predictive role of high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) in patients with diastolic HF. HsCRP levels were measured in a cohort of CHF outpatients, 77 patients with diastolic HF and 217 patients with systolic HF. Concentrations were compared to a large cohort of healthy population (n=7701) and associated with the HF admissions and mortality of the patients. Levels of hsCRP did not differ between patients with systolic and diastolic HF and were significantly elevated compared to the cohort of healthy subjects even after adjustment to various clinical parameters (p<0.0001). In patients with diastolic HF, hsCRP levels associated with New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA-FC) (r=0.31 p=0.01). On univariate Cox regression model hsCRP levels independently predicted hospitalizations in patients with systolic but not diastolic HF (p=0.047). HsCRP concentrations are elevated in patients with diastolic HF and correlate with disease severity; their prognostic value in this patient population should be further investigated.

  13. Association of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Gyu; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang-Young; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of isolated minor nonspecific ST-T abnormalities (NSSTTA) on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and LV geometry on echocardiography. A cross-sectional study comprised of 74,976 Koreans who underwent ECG and echocardiography as part of a comprehensive health examination between March 2011 and December 2014. ECG was coded using Minnesota Code criteria. The frequencies of NSSTTA, impaired LV relaxation, and echocardiographic LVH were 1,139 (1.5%), 21,118 (28.2%), and 1,687 (2.3%) patients, respectively. The presence of NSSTTA was positively associated with the prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH on echocardiography. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% CIs) comparing patients with NSSTTA to control patients was 1.55 (1.33-1.80) for impaired LV relaxation and 3.15 (2.51-3.96) for echocardiographic LVH. The association between NSSTTA and impaired LV relaxation was stronger in the intermediate to high cardiovascular disease-risk group than in the low-risk group according to Framingham Risk Score stratification (P for interaction = 0.02). NSSTTA were associated with increased prevalence of impaired LV relaxation and LVH, suggesting NSSTTA as an early indicator of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and geometric abnormalities.

  14. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children.

    PubMed

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-07-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7-12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study-a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children

  15. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a preload insensitive index of left ventricular relaxation: animal and human validation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M J; Smedira, N G; Greenberg, N L; Main, M; Firstenberg, M S; Odabashian, J; Thomas, J D

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effect of preload in color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity (v(p)). The interpretation of Doppler filling patterns is limited by confounding effects of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preload. Color M-mode v(p) has been proposed as a new index of LV relaxation. We studied four dogs before and during inferior caval (IVC) occlusion at five different inotropic stages and 14 patients before and during partial cardiopulmonary bypass. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes (LV-EDV), the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), left atrial (LA) pre-A and LV end-diastolic pressures (LV-EDP) were measured. Peak velocity during early filling (E) and v(p) were extracted by digital analysis of color M-mode Doppler images. In both animals and humans, LV-EDV and LV-EDP decreased significantly from baseline to IVC occlusion (both p < 0.001). Peak early filling (E) velocity decreased in animals from 56 +/- 21 to 42 +/- 17 cm/s (p < 0.001) without change in v(p) (from 35 +/- 15 to 35 +/- 16, p = 0.99). Results were similar in humans (from 69 +/- 15 to 53 +/- 22 cm/s, p < 0.001, and 37 +/- 12 to 34 +/- 16, p = 0.30). In both species, there was a strong correlation between LV relaxation (tau) and v(p) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that color M-mode Doppler v(p) is not affected by preload alterations and confirms that LV relaxation is its main physiologic determinant in both animals during varying lusitropic conditions and in humans with heart disease.

  16. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a preload insensitive index of left ventricular relaxation: animal and human validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Main, M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Odabashian, J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of preload in color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity (v(p)). BACKGROUND: The interpretation of Doppler filling patterns is limited by confounding effects of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preload. Color M-mode v(p) has been proposed as a new index of LV relaxation. METHODS: We studied four dogs before and during inferior caval (IVC) occlusion at five different inotropic stages and 14 patients before and during partial cardiopulmonary bypass. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes (LV-EDV), the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), left atrial (LA) pre-A and LV end-diastolic pressures (LV-EDP) were measured. Peak velocity during early filling (E) and v(p) were extracted by digital analysis of color M-mode Doppler images. RESULTS: In both animals and humans, LV-EDV and LV-EDP decreased significantly from baseline to IVC occlusion (both p < 0.001). Peak early filling (E) velocity decreased in animals from 56 +/- 21 to 42 +/- 17 cm/s (p < 0.001) without change in v(p) (from 35 +/- 15 to 35 +/- 16, p = 0.99). Results were similar in humans (from 69 +/- 15 to 53 +/- 22 cm/s, p < 0.001, and 37 +/- 12 to 34 +/- 16, p = 0.30). In both species, there was a strong correlation between LV relaxation (tau) and v(p) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, r = 0.86, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that color M-mode Doppler v(p) is not affected by preload alterations and confirms that LV relaxation is its main physiologic determinant in both animals during varying lusitropic conditions and in humans with heart disease.

  17. Application of updated guidelines on diastolic dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Clancy, David J; Scully, Timothy; Slama, Michel; Huang, Stephen; McLean, Anthony S; Orde, Sam R

    2017-12-19

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is suggested to be associated with higher mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock, yet the methods of diagnosis described in the literature are often inconsistent. The recently published 2016 American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASE/EACVI) guidelines offer the opportunity to apply a simple pragmatic diagnostic algorithm for the detection of diastolic dysfunction; however, it has not been tested in this cohort. We sought to assess the applicability in septic patients of recently published 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines on diastolic dysfunction compared with the 2009 ASE guidelines. Our hypothesis was that there would be poor agreement in classifying patients. Prospective observational study includes patients identified as having severe sepsis and septic shock. Patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography on day 1 and day 3 of their ICU admission. Patients with normal and abnormal (ejection fraction < 52%) systolic function had their diastolic function stratified according to both the 2009 ASE and 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines. On day 1 echocardiography, of the 62 patients analysed, 37 (60%) had diastolic dysfunction according to the 2016 ASE/EACVI guideline with a further 23% having indeterminate diastolic function, compared to the 2009 ASE guidelines where only 13 (21%) had confirmed diastolic dysfunction with 46 (74%) having indeterminate diastolic dysfunction. On day 3, of the 55 patients studied, 22 patients (40%) were defined as having diastolic dysfunction, with 6 (11%) having indeterminate diastolic dysfunction according to the 2016 ASE/EACVI guidelines, compared to the 2009 guidelines where 11 (20%) were confirmed to have diastolic dysfunction and 41 (75%) had indeterminate diastolic function. Systolic dysfunction was identified in 18 of 62 patients (29%) on day 1 and 18 of 55 (33%) on day 3. These patients were classified as having abnormal diastolic function in 94

  18. Impact of diastolic and systolic blood pressure on mortality: implications for the definition of "normal".

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brent C; Wilt, Timothy J; Welch, H Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute currently defines a blood pressure under 120/80 as "normal." To examine the independent effects of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) on mortality and to estimate the number of Americans affected by accounting for these effects in the definition of "normal." DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASURES: Data on adults (age 25-75) collected in the early 1970s in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were linked to vital status data through 1992 (N = 13,792) to model the relationship between blood pressure and mortality rate adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, cholesterol, education and income. To estimate the number of Americans in each blood pressure category, nationally representative data collected in the early 1960s (as a proxy for the underlying distribution of untreated blood pressure) were combined with 2008 population estimates from the US Census. The mortality rate for individuals over age 50 began to increase in a stepwise fashion with increasing DBP levels of over 90. However, adjusting for SBP made the relationship disappear. For individuals over 50, the mortality rate began to significantly increase at a SBP ≥ 140 independent of DBP. In individuals ≤ 50 years of age, the situation was reversed; DBP was the more important predictor of mortality. Using these data to redefine a normal blood pressure as one that does not confer an increased mortality risk would reduce the number of American adults currently labeled as abnormal by about 100 million. DBP provides relatively little independent mortality risk information in adults over 50, but is an important predictor of mortality in younger adults. Conversely, SBP is more important in older adults than in younger adults. Accounting for these relationships in the definition of normal would avoid unnecessarily labeling millions of Americans as abnormal.

  19. The influence of type 2 diabetes and gender on ventricular repolarization dispersion in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Ylber; Kamberi, Ahmet; Xhunga, Sotir; Pocesta, Bekim; Ferati, Fatmir; Lala, Dali; Zeqiri, Agim; Rexhepi, Atila

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of type 2 DM and gender, on the QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend dispersion of ventricular repolarization, in patients with sub-clinic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction of the heart. Background: QT dispersion, that reflects spatial inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, Tpeak-Tend dispersion, this on the other hand reflects transmural inhomogeneity in ventricular repolarization, that is increased in an early stage of cardiomyopathy, and in patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as well. The left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, a basic characteristic of diabetic heart disease (diabetic cardiomyopathy), that developes earlier than systolic dysfunction, suggests that diastolic markers might be sensitive for early cardiac injury. It is also demonstrated that gender has complex influence on indices of myocardial repolarization abnormalities such as QT interval and QT dispersion. Material and methods: We performed an observational study including 300 diabetic patients with similar epidemiological-demographic characteristics recruited in our institution from May 2009 to July 2014, divided into two groups. Demographic and laboratory echocardiographic data were obtained, twelve lead resting electrocardiography, QT, QTc, Tpeak-Tend-intervals and dispersion, were determined manually, and were compared between various groups. For statistical analysis a t-test, X2 test, and logistic regression are used according to the type of variables. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for a confidence interval of 95%. Results: QTc max. interval, QTc dispersion and Tpeak-Tend dispersion, were significantly higher in diabetic group with subclinical LV (left ventricular) diastolic dysfunction, than in diabetic group with normal left ventricular diastolic function (445.24±14.7 ms vs. 433.55±14.4 ms, P<0.000; 44.98±18.78 ms vs. 32.05±17.9 ms, P<0.000; 32.60±1.6 ms vs. 17.46±2.0 ms, P<0.02. Prolonged QTc max

  20. Internal velocity factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. R.; Frank, A. J.; Massaglia, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the entries and planetary trajectories of space vehicles. It obtains the equivalence of altitude and flight path angle, respectively, to acceleration load factor with respect to velocity for a given inertial velocity.

  1. A device and method for rapid indirect measurement of human systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-12-01

    An indirect blood pressure measuring device and method were evolved for human use. This system is capable of providing 30 measurements each of systolic and diastolic pressures per minute. The system utilizes two brachial blood pressure cuffs (one on ...

  2. Increased longitudinal contractility and diastolic function at rest in well-trained amateur Marathon runners: a speckle tracking echocardiography study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity reduces cardiovascular risk. There is concern that Marathon running might acutely damage the heart. It is unknown to what extent intensive physical endurance activity influences the cardiac mechanics at resting condition. Methods Eighty-four amateur marathon runners (43 women and 41 men) from Berlin-Brandenburg area who had completed at least one marathon previously underwent clinical examination and echocardiography at least 10 days before the Berlin Marathon at rest. Standard transthoracic echocardiography and 2D strain and strain rate analysis were performed. The 2D Strain and strain rate values were compared to previous published data of healthy untrained individuals. Results The average global longitudinal peak systolic strain of the left ventricle was -23 +/- 2% with peak systolic strain rate -1.39 +/- 0.21/s, early diastolic strain rate 2.0 +/- 0.40/s and late diastolic strain rate 1.21 +/- 0.31/s. These values are significantly higher compared to the previous published values of normal age-adjusted individuals. In addition, no age-related decline of longitudinal contractility in well-trained athletes was observed. Conclusions There is increased overall longitudinal myocardial contractility at rest in experienced endurance athletes compared to the published normal values in the literature indicating a preserved and even supra-normal contractility in the athletes. There is no age dependent decline of the longitudinal 2D Strain values. This underlines the beneficial effects of regular physical exercise even in advanced age. PMID:24571726

  3. Protein Changes Contributing to Right Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Diastolic Dysfunction in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rain, Silvia; Bos, Denielli da Silva Goncalves; Handoko, M. Louis; Westerhof, Nico; Stienen, Ger; Ottenheijm, Coen; Goebel, Max; Dorfmüller, Peter; Guignabert, Christophe; Humbert, Marc; Bogaard, Harm‐Jan; dos Remedios, Cris; Saripalli, Chandra; Hidalgo, Carlos G.; Granzier, Henk L.; Vonk‐Noordegraaf, Anton; van der Velden, Jolanda; de Man, Frances S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function is impaired in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Our previous study showed that elevated cardiomyocyte stiffness and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity underlie diastolic dysfunction in PAH. This study investigates protein modifications contributing to cellular diastolic dysfunction in PAH. Methods and Results RV samples from PAH patients undergoing heart‐lung transplantation were compared to non‐failing donors (Don). Titin stiffness contribution to RV diastolic dysfunction was determined by Western‐blot analyses using antibodies to protein‐kinase‐A (PKA), Cα (PKCα) and Ca2+/calmoduling‐dependent‐kinase (CamKIIδ) titin and phospholamban (PLN) phosphorylation sites: N2B (Ser469), PEVK (Ser170 and Ser26), and PLN (Thr17), respectively. PKA and PKCα sites were significantly less phosphorylated in PAH compared with donors (P<0.0001). To test the functional relevance of PKA‐, PKCα‐, and CamKIIδ‐mediated titin phosphorylation, we measured the stiffness of single RV cardiomyocytes before and after kinase incubation. PKA significantly decreased PAH RV cardiomyocyte diastolic stiffness, PKCα further increased stiffness while CamKIIδ had no major effect. CamKIIδ activation was determined indirectly by measuring PLN Thr17phosphorylation level. No significant changes were found between the groups. Myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is mediated by sarcomeric troponin I (cTnI) phosphorylation. We observed increased unphosphorylated cTnI in PAH compared with donors (P<0.05) and reduced PKA‐mediated cTnI phosphorylation (Ser22/23) (P<0.001). Finally, alterations in Ca2+‐handling proteins contribute to RV diastolic dysfunction due to insufficient diastolic Ca2+ clearance. PAH SERCA2a levels and PLN phosphorylation were significantly reduced compared with donors (P<0.05). Conclusions Increased titin stiffness, reduced cTnI phosphorylation, and altered levels of phosphorylation of Ca2

  4. Intravenous Milrinone Infusion Improves Congestive Heart Failure Caused by Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Carlos A.; Giesler, Gregory M.; Kar, Biswajit; Hariharan, Ramesh; Delgado, Reynolds M.

    2005-01-01

    Although there have been significant advances in the medical treatment of heart failure patients with impaired systolic function, very little is known about the diagnosis and treatment of diastolic dysfunction. We report the cases of 3 patients in New York Heart Association functional class IV who had echocardiographically documented diastolic dysfunction as the main cause of heart failure. All 3 patients received medical therapy with long-term milrinone infusion. PMID:16107121

  5. Comparison of effects of sitagliptin and voglibose on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the 3D trial.

    PubMed

    Oe, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Kihara, Hajime; Shimada, Kenei; Fukuda, Shota; Takagi, Tsutomu; Miyoshi, Toru; Hirata, Kumiko; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2015-06-19

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) and may have cardio-protective effects. It remains unclear whether DPP-4i improves LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes, and, if so, it is attributable to the attenuation of PPH or to a direct cardiac effect of DPP-4i. We compared the effects of the DPP-4i, sitagliptin, and the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, on LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study of 100 diabetic patients with LV diastolic dysfunction. Patients received sitagliptin (50 mg/day) or voglibose (0.6 mg/day). The primary endpoints were changes in the e' velocity and E/e' ratio from baseline to 24 weeks later. The secondary efficacy measures included HbA1c, GLP-1, lipid profiles, oxidative stress markers and inflammatory markers. The study was completed with 40 patients in the sitagliptin group and 40 patients in the voglibose group. There were no significant changes in the e' velocity and E/e' ratio from baseline to 24 weeks later in both groups. However, analysis of covariance demonstrated that pioglitazone use is an independent factor associated with changes in the e' and E/e' ratio. Among patients not using pioglitazone, e' increased and the E/e' ratio decreased in both the sitagliptin and voglibose groups. GLP-1 level increased from baseline to 24 weeks later only in the sitagliptin group (4.8 ± 4.7 vs. 7.3 ± 5.5 pmol/L, p < 0.05). The reductions in HbA1c and body weight were significantly greater in the sitagliptin group than in the voglibose group (-0.7 ± 0.6 % vs. -0.3 ± 0.4, p < 0.005; -1.3 ± 3.2 kg vs. 0.4 ± 2.8 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). There were no changes in lipid profiles and inflammatory markers in both groups. Our trial showed that sitagliptin reduces HbA1c levels more greatly than

  6. The diastolic function to cyclic variation of myocardial ultrasonic backscatter relation: the influence of parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism determined chamber properties.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Christopher W; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Holland, Mark R; Miller, James G; Kovács, Sándor J

    2011-08-01

    Myocardial tissue characterization represents an extension of currently available echocardiographic imaging. The systematic variation of backscattered energy during the cardiac cycle (the "cyclic variation" of backscatter) has been employed to characterize cardiac function in a wide range of investigations. However, the mechanisms responsible for observed cyclic variation remain incompletely understood. As a step toward determining the features of cardiac structure and function that are responsible for the observed cyclic variation, the present study makes use of a kinematic approach of diastolic function quantitation to identify diastolic function determinants that influence the magnitude and timing of cyclic variation. Echocardiographic measurements of 32 subjects provided data for determination of the cyclic variation of backscatter to diastolic function relation characterized in terms of E-wave determined, kinematic model-based parameters of chamber stiffness, viscosity/relaxation and load. The normalized time delay of cyclic variation appears to be related to the relative viscoelasticity of the chamber and predictive of the kinematic filling dynamics as determined using the parameterized diastolic filling formalism (with r-values ranging from .44 to .59). The magnitude of cyclic variation does not appear to be strongly related to the kinematic parameters. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early improvement in left atrial remodeling and function after mitral valve repair or replacement in organic symptomatic mitral regurgitation assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Le Bihan, David C S; Della Togna, Dorival Julio; Barretto, Rodrigo B M; Assef, Jorge Eduardo; Machado, Lúcia Romero; Ramos, Auristela Isabel de Oliveira; Abdulmassih Neto, Camilo; Moisés, Valdir Ambrosio; Sousa, Amanda G M R; Campos, Orlando

    2015-07-01

    Left atrial (LA) dilation is associated with worse prognosis in various clinical situations including chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Real time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has allowed a better assessment of LA volumes and function. Little is known about LA size and function in early postoperative period in symptomatic patients with chronic organic MR. We aimed to investigate these aspects. By means of 3DE, 43 patients with symptomatic chronic organic MR were prospectively studied before and 30 days after surgery (repair or bioprosthetic valve replacement). Twenty subjects were studied as controls. Maximum (Vol-max), minimum, and preatrial contraction LA volumes were measured and total, passive, and active LA emptying fractions were calculated. Before surgery patients had higher LA volumes (P < 0.001) but smaller LA emptying fractions than controls (P < 0.01). After surgery there was a reduction in all 3 LA volumes and an increase in active atrial emptying fraction (AAEF). Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of early postoperative Vol-max reduction were preoperative diastolic blood pressure (coefficient = -0.004; P = 0.02), lateral mitral annular early diastolic velocity (e') (coefficient = 0.023; P = 0.008), and the mean transmitral diastolic gradient increment (coefficient = -0.035; P < 0.001). Furthermore, e' was also independently associated with AAEF increase (odds ratio = 1.66, P = 0.027). Early LA reverse remodeling and functional improvement occur after successful surgery of symptomatic organic MR regardless of surgical technique. Diastolic blood pressure and transmitral mean gradient augmentation are variables negatively related to Vol-max reduction. Besides, e' is positively correlated with both Vol-max reduction and AAEF increase. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Acceleration rate of mitral inflow E wave: a novel transmitral doppler index for assessing diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Badkoubeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Tavoosi, Anahita; Jabbari, Mostafa; Parsa, Amir Farhang Zand; Geraeli, Babak; Saadat, Mohammad; Larti, Farnoosh; Meysamie, Ali Pasha; Salehi, Mehrdad

    2016-06-10

    We performed comprehensive transmitral and pulmonary venous Doppler echocardiographic studies to devise a novel index of diastolic function. This is the first study to assess the utility of the acceleration rate (AR) of the E wave of mitral inflow as a primary diagnostic modality for assessing diastolic function. Study group consisted of 84 patients (53 + 11 years) with left ventricle (LV) diastolic dysfunction and 34 healthy people (35 ± 9 years) as control group, who were referred for clinically indicated two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) during 2012 and 2013 to Imam Hospital. Normal controls were defined as patients without clinical evidence of cardiac disease and had normal TTE. LV diastolic function was determined according to standardized protocol of American Society of Echocardiography (ASE). As our new parameter, AR of E wave of mitral inflow was also measured in all patients. It was represented by the slope of the line between onset of E wave and peak of it. Correlation between AR of E wave and LV diastolic function grade was measured using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of AR of E wave in diagnosing LV diastolic dysfunction in randomly selected two-thirds of population then its derived cutoff was evaluated in rest of the population. The institutional review board of the hospital approved the study protocol. All participants gave written informed consent. This investigation was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The mean value of AR was 1010 ± 420 cm/s(2) in patients whereas the mean value for the normal controls was 701 ± 210 cm/s(2). There was a strong and graded relation between AR of E wave of mitral inflow and LV diastolic function grade (Spearman P ≤0.0001, rs =0.69). ROC curve analysis revealed that AR of E wave of mitral inflow =750 cm/s(2) predicted moderate or severe LV diastolic

  9. Mitral valve coaptation and its relationship to late diastolic flow: A color Doppler and vector flow map echocardiographic study in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Sherrid, Mark V; Kushner, Josef; Yang, Georgiana; Ro, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Three competing theories about the mechanism of mitral coaptation in normal subjects were evaluated by color Doppler and vector flow mapping (VFM): (1) beginning of ventricular (LV) ejection, (2) "breaking of the jet" of diastolic LV inflow, and (3) returning diastolic vortices impacting the leaflets on their LV surfaces. We analyzed 80 color Doppler frames and 320 VFM measurements. In all 20 normal subjects, coaptation occurred before LV ejection, 78±16 ms before onset. On color Doppler frames the larger anterior, and smaller posterior vortices circle back and, in all cases, strike the ventricular surfaces of the leaflets. On the first closing-begins frame, for the first time, vortex velocity normal to the ventricular surface of the anterior leaflet (AML) is greater than that in the mitral orifice, and the angle of attack of LV vortical flow onto the AML is twice as high as the angle of flow onto the valve in orifice. Thus, at the moment coaptation begins, vortical flow strikes the mitral leaflet with higher velocity, and higher angle of attack than orifice flow, and thus with greater force. According to the "breaking of the jet" theory, one would expect to see de novo LV flow perpendicular to the leaflets beginning after transmitral flow terminates. Instead, the returning continuous LV vortical flow that impacts the valve builds continuously after the P-wave. Late diastolic vortices strike the ventricular surfaces of the mitral leaflets and contribute to valve coaptation, permitted by concomitant decline in transmitral flow. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection: sex differences and relationship with left ventricular diastolic function.

    PubMed

    Russo, Cesare; Jin, Zhezhen; Palmieri, Vittorio; Homma, Shunichi; Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2012-08-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been reported in heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) and in asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction, a precursor of HFNEF. It is unclear whether women, who have higher frequency of HFNEF, are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious effects of arterial stiffness on LV diastolic function. We investigated, in a large community-based cohort, whether sex differences exist in the relationship among arterial stiffness, wave reflection, and LV diastolic function. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed in 983 participants from the Cardiovascular Abnormalities and Brain Lesions study using applanation tonometry. The central pulse pressure/stroke volume index, total arterial compliance, pulse pressure amplification, and augmentation index were used as parameters of arterial stiffness and wave reflection. LV diastolic function was evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were greater in women compared with men, independent of body size and heart rate (all P<0.01), and showed inverse relationships with parameters of diastolic function in both sexes. Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors attenuated these relationships; however, a higher central pulse pressure/stroke volume index predicted LV diastolic dysfunction in women (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 2.30) and men (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 3.39), independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, in our community-based cohort study, higher arterial stiffness was associated with worse LV diastolic function in men and women. Women's higher arterial stiffness, independent of body size, may contribute to their greater susceptibility to develop HFNEF.

  11. End-diastolic fractional flow reserve: comparison with conventional full-cardiac cycle fractional flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Chalyan, David A; Zhang, Zhang; Takarada, Shigeho; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-02-01

    Diastolic fractional flow reserve (dFFR) has been shown to be highly sensitive for detection of inducible myocardial ischemia. However, its reliance on measurement of left-ventricular pressure for zero-flow pressure correction, as well as manual extraction of the diastolic interval, has been its major limitation. Given previous reports of minimal zero-flow pressure at end-diastole, we compared instantaneous ECG-gated end-diastolic FFR with conventional full-cardiac cycle FFR and other diastolic indices in the porcine model. Measurements of FFR in the left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries were performed in an open-chest swine model with an external occluder device on the coronary artery used to produce varying degrees of epicardial stenosis. An ultrasound flow-probe that was placed proximal to the occluder measured absolute blood flow in ml/min, and it was used as a gold standard for FFR measurement. A total of 17 measurements at maximal hyperemia were acquired in 5 animals. Correlation coefficient between conventional mean hyperemic FFR with pressure-wire and directly measured FFR with flow-probe was 0.876 (standard error estimate=0.069; P<0.0001). The hyperemic end-diastolic FFR with pressure-wire correlated better with FFR measured directly with flow-probe (r=0.941, standard error estimate=0.050; P<0.0001). Instantaneous hyperemic ECG-gated FFR acquired at end-diastole, as compared with conventional full-cardiac cycle FFR, has an improved correlation with FFR measured directly with ultrasound flow-probe.

  12. Is preeclampsia an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, George F; Aziz, Michael M; Boccia Liang, Claire; Williams, Shauna F; Apuzzio, Joseph J; Bilinski, Robyn; Mornan, Adenieki J D; Shah, Leena P

    2015-10-01

    To determine if preeclampsia is an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction and what factors among patients with preeclampsia are associated with diastolic dysfunction. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who delivered between 2008 and 2013 at a single institution who had a maternal echocardiogram during their pregnancy or within 5months of delivery. Patients with structural heart disease, ejection fraction less than 45%, pulmonary embolus, or age over 45years were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for medical and obstetric complications and echocardiogram findings. Demographic characteristics and rate of diastolic dysfunction were compared between patients with preeclampsia and without preeclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery, diabetes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate administration. Sixty-six patients were identified, of which 39 (59%) had preeclampsia. Past history of preeclampsia, IUGR in the current pregnancy, antihypertensive use and magnesium sulfate use were higher in the preeclampsia group. Fifteen patients (39%) in the preeclampsia group were African-American compared to 2 (3%) in the control group (p<0.01). Seventeen (44%) of the patients with preeclampsia were found to have diastolic dysfunction compared to 3 (11%) controls (OR=6.18, 95% CI 1.59,24.02; p=0.006). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal other independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction. In the patients with preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia with severe features and IUGR were not associated with diastolic dysfunction. Our study supports previous findings that preeclampsia is associated with diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic value of systolic mitral annular velocity measured with Doppler tissue imaging in patients with chronic heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nikitin, N P; Loh, P H; de Silva, R; Ghosh, J; Khaleva, O Y; Goode, K; Rigby, A S; Alamgir, F; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G F

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic value of various conventional and novel echocardiographic indices in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) caused by left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Methods 185 patients with a mean (SD) age of 67 (11) years with CHF and LV ejection fraction < 45% despite optimal pharmacological treatment were prospectively enrolled. The patients underwent two dimensional echocardiography with tissue harmonic imaging to assess global LV systolic function and obtain volumetric data. Transmitral flow was assessed with conventional pulse wave Doppler. Systolic (Sm), early, and late diastolic mitral annular velocities were measured with the use of colour coded Doppler tissue imaging. Results During a median follow up of 32 months (range 24–38 months in survivors), 34 patients died and one underwent heart transplantation. Sm velocity (hazard ratio (HR) 0.648, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.463 to 0.907, p  =  0.011), diastolic arterial pressure (HR 0.965, 95% CI 0.938 to 0.993, p  =  0.015), serum creatinine (HR 1.006, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.011, p  =  0.023), LV ejection fraction (HR 0.945, 95% CI 0.899 to 0.992, p  =  0.024), age (HR 1.035, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.071, p  =  0.052), LV end systolic volume index (HR 1.009, 95% CI 0.999 to 1.019, p  =  0.067), and restrictive pattern of transmitral flow (HR 0.543, 95% CI 0.278 to 1.061, p  =  0.074) predicted the outcome of death or transplantation on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only Sm velocity (HR 0.648, 95% CI 0.460 to 0.912, p  =  0.013) and diastolic arterial pressure (HR 0.966, 95% CI 0.938 to 0.994, p  =  0.016) emerged as independent predictors of outcome. Conclusions In patients with CHF and LV systolic dysfunction despite optimal pharmacological treatment, the strongest independent echocardiographic predictor of prognosis was Sm velocity measured with quantitative colour coded Doppler tissue

  14. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  15. Asynchronous (segmental early) relaxation impairs left ventricular filling in patients with coronary artery disease and normal systolic function.

    PubMed

    Vanoverschelde, J L; Wijns, W; Michel, X; Cosyns, J; Detry, J M

    1991-11-01

    Asynchronous segmental early relaxation, defined as a localized early segmental outward motion of the left ventricular endocardium during isovolumetric relaxation, has been associated with an altered left ventricular relaxation rate. To determine whether asynchronous segmental early relaxation also results in impaired left ventricular filling, early diastolic ventricular wall motion and Doppler-derived left ventricular filling indexes were examined in 25 patients with documented coronary artery disease and normal systolic function. Patients were further classified into two groups according to the presence (n = 15, group 1) or absence (n = 10, group 2) of asynchronous early relaxation at left ventriculography. A third group of 10 age-matched normal subjects served as a control group. No differences were observed between the two patient groups with coronary artery disease with respect to age, gender distribution, heart rate, left ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures or extent and severity of coronary artery disease. No differences in transmitral filling dynamics were observed between group 2 patients and age-matched control subjects. Conversely, group 1 patients had significantly lower peak early filling velocities (44 +/- 11 vs. 58 +/- 11 cm/s, p less than 0.01), larger atrial filling fraction (45 +/- 4% vs. 38 +/- 4%, p less than 0.001), lower ratio of early to late transmitral filling velocities (0.6 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.001) and a longer isovolumetric relaxation period (114 +/- 12 vs. 90 +/- 6 ms, p less than 0.001) compared with group 2 patients and control subjects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

  17. Diastolic time – frequency relation in the stress echo lab: filling timing and flow at different heart rates

    PubMed Central

    Bombardini, Tonino; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Venneri, Lucia; Petersen, Christina; Pasanisi, Emilio; Pratali, Lorenza; Alonso-Rodriguez, David; Pianelli, Mascia; Faita, Francesco; Giannoni, Massimo; Arpesella, Giorgio; Picano, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    A cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system based on first heart sound amplitude vibrations has been recently validated. Second heart sound can be simultaneously recorded in order to quantify both systole and diastole duration. Aims 1- To assess the feasibility and extra-value of operator-independent, force sensor-based, diastolic time recording during stress. Methods We enrolled 161 patients referred for stress echocardiography (exercise 115, dipyridamole 40, pacing 6 patients). The sensor was fastened in the precordial region by a standard ECG electrode. The acceleration signal was converted into digital and recorded together with ECG signal. Both systolic and diastolic times were acquired continuously during stress and were displayed by plotting times vs. heart rate. Diastolic filling rate was calculated as echo-measured mitral filling volume/sensor-monitored diastolic time. Results Diastolic time decreased during stress more markedly than systolic time. At peak stress 62 of the 161 pts showed reversal of the systolic/diastolic ratio with the duration of systole longer than diastole. In the exercise group, at 100 bpm HR, systolic/diastolic time ratio was lower in the 17 controls (0.74 ± 0.12) than in patients (0.86 ± 0.10, p < 0.05 vs. controls). Diastolic filling rate increased from 101 ± 36 (rest) to 219 ± 92 ml/m2* s-1 at peak stress (p < 0.5 vs. rest). Conclusion Cardiological systolic and diastolic duration can be monitored during stress by using an acceleration force sensor. Simultaneous calculation of stroke volume allows monitoring diastolic filling rate. Stress-induced "systolic-diastolic mismatch" can be easily quantified and is associated to several cardiac diseases, possibly expanding the spectrum of information obtainable during stress. PMID:18426559

  18. RIGHT AND LEFT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC PRESSURE–VOLUME RELATIONS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular compliance alterations can affect cardiac performance and adaptations. Moreover, diastolic mechanics are important in assessing both diastolic and systolic function, since any filling impairment can compromise systolic function. A sigmoidal passive filling pressure-volume relationship, developed using chronically instrumented, awake-animal disease models, is clinically adaptable to evaluating diastolic dynamics using subject-specific micromanometric and volumetric data from the entire filling period of any heartbeat(s). This innovative relationship is the global, integrated expression of chamber geometry, wall thickness, and passive myocardial wall properties. Chamber and myocardial compliance curves of both ventricles can be computed by the sigmoidal methodology over the entire filling period and plotted over appropriate filling pressure ranges. Important characteristics of the compliance curves can be examined and compared between the right and the left ventricle, and for different physiological and pathological conditions. The sigmoidal paradigm is more accurate and, therefore, a better alternative to the conventional exponential pressure-volume approximation. PMID:23179133

  19. Water velocity meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  20. Galectin-3 Reflects the Echocardiographic Grades of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Uzair; Behnes, Michael; Hoffmann, Julia; Natale, Michele; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Rusnak, Jonas; Kim, Seung Hyun; Lang, Siegfried; Hoffmann, Ursula; Bertsch, Thomas; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2018-07-01

    The level of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein purportedly reflects an ongoing cardiac fibrotic process and has been associated with ventricular remodeling, which is instrumental in the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Gal-3 in improved characterization of the grades of diastolic dysfunction as defined by echocardiography. Seventy HFpEF patients undergoing routine echocardiography were prospectively enrolled in the present monocentric study. Blood samples for measurements of Gal-3 and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were collected within 24 hours pre- or post-echocardiographic examination. The classification of patients into subgroups based on diastolic dysfunction grade permitted detailed statistical analyses of the derived data. The Gal-3 serum levels of all patients corresponded to echocardiographic indices, suggesting HFpEF (E/A, P=0.03 and E/E', P=0.02). Gal-3 was also associated with progressive diastolic dysfunction, and increased levels corresponded to the course of disease (P=0.012). Detailed analyses of ROC curves suggested that Gal-3 levels could discriminate patients with grade III diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve [AUC]=0.770, P=0.005). Gal-3 demonstrates remarkable effectiveness in the diagnosis of patients suffering from severe grade diastolic dysfunction. Increasing levels of Gal-3 possibly reflect the progressive course of HFpEF, as classified by the echocardiographic grades of diastolic dysfunction. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  1. Application of a simplified definition of diastolic function in severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Lanspa, Michael J; Gutsche, Andrea R; Wilson, Emily L; Olsen, Troy D; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Knox, Daniel B; Brown, Samuel M; Grissom, Colin K

    2016-08-04

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is common in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, but the best approach to categorization is unknown. We assessed the association of common measures of diastolic function with clinical outcomes and tested the utility of a simplified definition of diastolic dysfunction against the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) 2009 definition. In this prospective observational study, patients with severe sepsis or septic shock underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24 h of onset of sepsis (median 4.3 h). We measured echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function and used random forest analysis to assess their association with clinical outcomes (28-day mortality and ICU-free days to day 28) and thereby suggest a simplified definition. We then compared patients categorized by the ASE 2009 definition and our simplified definition. We studied 167 patients. The ASE 2009 definition categorized only 35 % of patients. Random forest analysis demonstrated that the left atrial volume index and deceleration time, central to the ASE 2009 definition, were not associated with clinical outcomes. Our simplified definition used only e' and E/e', omitting the other measurements. The simplified definition categorized 87 % of patients. Patients categorized by either ASE 2009 or our novel definition had similar clinical outcomes. In both definitions, worsened diastolic function was associated with increased prevalence of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. A novel, simplified definition of diastolic dysfunction categorized more patients with sepsis than ASE 2009 definition. Patients categorized according to the simplified definition did not differ from patients categorized according to the ASE 2009 definition in respect to clinical outcome or comorbidities.

  2. Stepwise shockwave velocity determinator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Timothy E.; Beeson, Harold

    1992-01-01

    To provide an uncomplicated and inexpensive method for measuring the far-field velocity of a surface shockwave produced by an explosion, a stepwise shockwave velocity determinator (SSVD) was developed. The velocity determinator is constructed of readily available materials and works on the principle of breaking discrete sensors composed of aluminum foil contacts. The discrete sensors have an average breaking threshold of approximately 7 kPa. An incremental output step of 250 mV is created with each foil contact breakage and is logged by analog-to-digital instrumentation. Velocity data obtained from the SSVD is within approximately 11 percent of the calculated surface shockwave velocity of a muzzle blast from a 30.06 rifle.

  3. Differential associations between glomerular filtration rate and duration of obesity depending on the presence or absence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Juan; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Vilallonga, Ramon; Romeo, June H

    2016-07-01

    A robust and consistent association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in several observational studies. Obesity remains the main preventable risk factor for CKD because it largely mediates diabetes and hypertension, the 2 most common etiologies for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Obesity is associated weakly with early stages of kidney disease but strongly with kidney progression to ESKD, even after adjustment for hypertension and diabetes. To assess the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and trans-thoracic echocardiography left ventricular function parameters in a cohort of patients with obesity. Cross-sectional study involving 324 obese (BMI=44.0±2.2Kg/m(2)) apparently healthy asymptomatic patients with an eGFR >60ml/min/1.73m(2). Each patient underwent transthoracic echocardiography and a blood testing. The eGFR was addressed by the CKD-EPI formula. All patients had a normal systolic function whereas 24.5% disclosed diastolic dysfunction (DD). Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence were 34.5% and 4.5% (respectively). All patients disclosed an eGFR >60ml/min while none of them disclosed hyperfiltration (eGFR >120ml/min). eGFR correlated inversely with BMI and the duration of obesity and positively with diastolic function parameters (P<0.001 for all, respectively). Patients with diastolic dysfunction displayed lower eGFR (P<0.0005) and longer duration of obesity (P<0.0005). Obesity and its duration are likely to impose hemodynamic changes affecting simultaneously both heart (diastolic dysfunction) and kidney (decreased glomerular filtration rate). Larger prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction: Relevance in critical illness and anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, R.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that HF with a preserved ejection fraction will become the more common form of HF which clinicians will encounter. The spectrum of diastolic disease extends from the asymptomatic phase to fulminant cardiac failure. These patients are commonly encountered in operating rooms and critical care units. A clearer understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and clinical implications of HF with a preserved ejection fraction is fundamental to directing further research and to evaluate interventions. This review highlights the impact of diastolic dysfunction and HF with a preserved ejection fraction during the perioperative period and during critical illness. PMID:23960679

  5. Clinical Features Associated With Nascent Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in a Population Aged 40 to 55 Years.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Jonathan D; Levinson, Rebecca T; Brittain, Evan L; Gupta, Deepak K; Farber-Eger, Eric; Shaffer, Christian M; Denny, Josh C; Roden, Dan M; Wells, Quinn S

    2018-06-15

    Diastolic dysfunction (DD), an abnormality in cardiac left ventricular (LV) chamber compliance, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although DD has been extensively studied in older populations, co-morbidity patterns are less well characterized in middle-aged subjects. We screened 156,434 subjects with transthoracic echocardiogram reports available through Vanderbilt's electronic heath record and identified 6,612 subjects 40 to 55 years old with an LV ejection fraction ≥50% and diastolic function staging. We tested 452 incident and prevalent clinical diagnoses for associations with early-stage DD (n = 1,676) versus normal function. There were 44 co-morbid diagnoses associated with grade 1 DD including hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78 to 2.28, p <5.3 × 10-29), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68 to 2.29, p = 2.1 × 10-17), tachycardia (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.19, p = 2.9 × 10-6), obesity (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.06, p = 1.7 × 10-12), and clinical end points, including end-stage renal disease (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.96, p = 1.2 × 10-8) and stroke (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.02, p = 6.9 × 10-3). Among the 60 incident diagnoses associated with DD, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (OR 4.63, 95% CI 3.39 to 6.32, p = 6.3 × 10-22) had the most significant association. Among subjects with normal diastolic function and blood pressure at baseline, a blood pressure measurement in the hypertensive range at the time of the second echocardiogram was associated with progression to stage 1 DD (p = 0.04). In conclusion, DD was common among subjects 40 to 55 years old and was associated with a heavy burden of co-morbid disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal reference values of diastolic strain rate in healthy individuals: Chronological trends and the comparison according to genders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Byung Joo; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Kim, Jeongai; Choi, Jin-Oh; Lee, Ju-Hee; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Kim, Woo-Shik; Park, Seung Woo

    2018-06-19

    Recently, the diastolic strain rate (DSR) utilizing speckle-tracking echocardiography has been proposed as a novel parameter for left ventricular diastolic function. We aimed to present normal reference data for those in a large-sized, selected group of healthy individuals. The current study was a part of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL), a prospective nationwide survey from 23 centers in Korea. We analyzed 447 subjects (age 48 ± 15 years, 234 females) without any history of cardiovascular disease and presented the early and late DSRs (SR e and SR a , respectively) in a total and gender-/age-specified groups. Among the total subjects, the mean SR e and SR a were 1.6 ± 0.4 S -1 and 0.8 ± 0.3 S -1 , respectively. With increasing age, there were significant trends of decreasing SR e and increasing SR a . Although both gender groups showed comparable age, the female group presented significantly higher SR e compared to male subjects with age of 20-59 years, which diminished after the age of 60 years. However, the SR a was comparable between genders in all age groups. On multiple linear regression, age showed independent associations with both SR e (β = -0.132, P = .010) and SR a (β = 0.440, P < .001), whereas gender did not show any association with SR e or SR a . We present normal reference data of a novel parameter, DSR, in a large-sized selected group with healthy Korean subjects. Additionally, we present significant age-related changes both in SR e and SR a without the impact of their gender. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diastolic blood pressure is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia in women with pre-existing diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Vestgaard, Marianne Jenlev; Jørgensen, Isabella Lindegaard; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene; McIntyre, Harold David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth Reinhardt

    2018-04-01

    To identify early clinical, modifiable risk factors for preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit and assess the prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders in women with pre-existing diabetes treated with tight glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control. A population-based cohort study of 494 women with pre-existing diabetes (307 and 187 women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively), included at their first antenatal visit from 2012 to 2016. The prevalence of chronic hypertension (without diabetic nephropathy or microalbuminuria), gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was recorded. Diabetic microangiopathy included presence of nephropathy, microalbuminuria and/or retinopathy. Treatment target was BP <135/85 mmHg. HbA1c was 6.9 ± 2.4% (50 ± 12 mmol/mol) at first antenatal visit and 6.0 ± 0.6% (43 ± 6 mmol/mol) before delivery with no differences between women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. At the first antenatal visit, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 6% (6% vs. 6%), nephropathy 2% (1% vs. 2%) and chronic hypertension 6% (3% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Gestational hypertension developed in 8% (9% vs. 6%) and preeclampsia developed in 8% (9% vs. 7%). Presence of diabetic microangiopathy (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.35 (confidence interval 2.12-8.93)) and diastolic BP (adjusted OR 1.72 per 10 mmHg (1.05-2.82)) at the first antenatal visit were independent risk factors for preeclampsia. At the first antenatal visit, diastolic BP was the only independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia in women with pre-existing diabetes in the context of tight glycemic and BP control. One out of four women had hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function using gated SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI].

    PubMed

    Toba, M; Kumita, S I; Mizumura, S; Cho, K; Kijima, T; Takahama, K; Kumazaki, T

    1996-04-01

    Development of 3 head SPECT system and 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals enable us to evaluate left ventricular systolic function on the basis of once gated SPECT routine. This study was focused on assessment of left ventricular diastolic function using 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT data. Twenty nine patients with ischemic heart diseases underwent 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT and 99mTc-HSAD ventriculographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function within 1 month. Region of interests (ROI), simultaneously calculating counts per pixel within ROI, were placed over whole myocardium of 16 serial phasic images reconstructed from gated SPECT data, following selection of the central slice within short axial images. Then, 29 patients were classified into 3 patterns of phase count curve (normal, mixed, and delayed relaxation = diastolic dysfunction). Moreover, 1/3 Count Decreasing Fraction (1/3 CDF) was calculated on the same concept as 1/3 FF. The curve pattern showed significant differences between normal and abnormal group divided on the basis of established indices such as 1/3 FF and PFR, and 1/3 CDF has correlations with 1/3 FF (r = 0.61) and PFR (r = 0.58). We concluded that the new parameters drawn from 99mTc-MIBI gated SPECT data might be feasible for evaluation of diastolic function.

  9. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Zaneta M.; Blair, Irene V.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Manson, Spero M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. Materials and Methods We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. Results We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, P = 0.02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, P = 0.09). Conclusion The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. PMID:28198537

  10. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  12. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased left ventricular mass index related to pulmonary hypertension in patients with systemic autoimmune disease without pericardial effusion.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Atsushi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Ozawa, Koya; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the relationship of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and LV mass index (LVMI) against pulmonary hypertension (PH) in systemic autoimmune disease (SAD). A total of 84 SAD patients (68 females; 53±17years; systemic lupus erythematosus, 27%; scleroderma, 17%; vasculitis, 16%; mixed connective tissue disease, 13% and polymyositis/dermatomyositis complex, 10%) without significant pericardial effusion (PE) on TTE (Vivid E9, GE) were analyzed. On TTE, PH was defined as peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) of ≥2.9m/s based upon 2015 ESC guideline. Left atrial volume index (LAVI) and E/E' were measured as indicators of LV diastolic dysfunction. LVMI was also measured. Seven patients (8%) had PH. PH patients had greater LAVI (p<0.001), E/E' (p=0.004), LVMI (p=0.009) than non-PH patients. LAVI (R=0.458), E/E' (R=0.337), and LVMI (R=0.313) significantly and positively correlated with TRV (all p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore determinants of TRV. Age, female sex, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were included in all the models. Three multiple regression models were generated using 1) LAVI, 2) E/E', and 3) LVMI and included LAVI, E/E', LVMI, and BNP as significant variables influencing TRV. Multi logistic regression analysis for predicting TRV of ≥2.9m/s showed that LAVI, and E/E' were significant predictors (Odds ratio, 1.296, and 1.370, respectively). In SAD patients without PE, LV diastolic dysfunction and increment of LVMI was closely associated with PH based upon TRV. LAVI and E/E' were independent predictors for PH. Measuring LAVI and E/E' may be a key to determine the mechanism of PH in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global Velocities from VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Chopo; Gordon, David; MacMillan, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Precise geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements have been made since 1979 at about 130 points on all major tectonic plates, including stable interiors and deformation zones. From the data set of about 2900 observing sessions and about 2.3 million observations, useful three-dimensional velocities can be derived for about 80 sites using an incremental least-squares adjustment of terrestrial, celestial, Earth rotation and site/session-specific parameters. The long history and high precision of the data yield formal errors for horizontal velocity as low as 0.1 mm/yr, but the limitation on the interpretation of individual site velocities is the tie to the terrestrial reference frame. Our studies indicate that the effect of converting precise relative VLBI velocities to individual site velocities is an error floor of about 0.4 mm/yr. Most VLBI horizontal velocities in stable plate interiors agree with the NUVEL-1A model, but there are significant departures in Africa and the Pacific. Vertical precision is worse by a factor of 2-3, and there are significant non-zero values that can be interpreted as post-glacial rebound, regional effects, and local disturbances.

  14. Role of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Predicting Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence after Successful Electrical Cardioversion

    PubMed Central

    Melduni, Rowlens M.; Cullen, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after successful electrical cardioversion is largely unknown. Studies suggest that there may be a link between abnormal LV compliance and the initial development, and recurrence of AF after electrical cardioversion. Although direct-current cardioversion (DCCV) is a well-established and highly effective method to convert AF to sinus rhythm, it offers little else beyond immediate rate control because it does not address the underlying cause of AF. Preservation of sinus rhythm after successful cardioversion still remains a challenge for clinicians. Despite the use of antiarrhythmic drugs and serial cardioversions, the rate of AF recurrence remains high in the first year. Current evidence suggests that diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with atrial volume and pressure overload, may be a mechanism underlying the perpetuating cycle of AF recurrence following successful electrical cardioversion. Diastolic dysfunction is considered to be a defect in the ability of the myofibrils, which have shortened against a load in systole to eject blood into the high-pressure aorta, to rapidly or completely return to their resting length. Consequently, LV filling is impaired and the non-compliant left ventricle is unable to fill at low pressures. As a result, left atrial and pulmonary vein pressure rises, and electrical and structural remodeling of the atrial myocardium ensues, creating a vulnerable substrate for AF. In this article, we review the current evidence highlighting the association of LV diastolic dysfunction with AF recurrence after successful electrical cardioversion and provide an approach to the management of LV diastolic dysfunction to prevent AF recurrence. PMID:23525127

  15. New insights into the mechanisms of diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Al; Canpolat, Uğur; Demiri, Edis; Kunak, Ayşegül Ulgen; Ozer, Necla; Aksoyek, Serdar; Ovunc, Kenan; Ozkan, Adem; Yildiz, Okan Bülent; Atalar, Enver

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of serum soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Subjects with age ≥ 50 years old and any cardiovascular risk factors or conditions were excluded from the study. Serum sRAGE levels determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LV diastolic dysfunction were evaluated according to current American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups except body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and fasting glucose levels. Serum sRAGE level was significantly lower in diabetic group compared with control group (676 ± 128 vs. 1044 ± 344, p < 0.05). Diastolic dysfunction was observed in 50% of diabetic patients (40% grade I and 10% grade II). Correlation analysis showed that serum sRAGE was negatively correlated with duration of diabetes, septal E'/A', lateral E'/A', and average E/E'. In multivariate regression analysis, serum sRAGE level was strongly associated with diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our study showed that serum sRAGE level was significantly lower in type 2 diabetic patients aged < 50 years old. Also, sRAGE has negative correlation with the duration of diabetes and it was significantly associated with the presence of diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

  16. Pathological periodontal pockets are associated with raised diastolic blood pressure in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Cecilia C; Wondimu, Biniyam; Marcus, Claude; Modéer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    Obesity, a well-known risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), is associated with chronic periodontitis in adults. This cross-sectional pilot study on obese adolescents was designed to investigate whether periodontal disease in terms of pathological periodontal pockets is associated with raised blood pressure and other risk markers for CVD. The study included 75 obese subjects between 12 to 18 years of age, mean 14.5. Subjects answered a questionnaire regarding health, oral hygiene habits and sociodemographic factors. A clinical examination included Visible Plaque Index (VPI %), Gingival inflammation (BOP %) and the occurrence of pathological pockets exceeding 4 mm (PD ≥ 4 mm). Blood serum were collected and analyzed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures were registered. Adolescents with pathological periodontal pockets (PD ≥ 4 mm; n = 14) had significantly higher BOP >25% (P = 0.002), higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008), higher levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.001), Leptin (P = 0.018), Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) (P = 0.049) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (P = 0.004) in blood serum compared with subjects without pathological periodontal pockets (PD ≥ 4 mm; n = 61). The bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that PD ≥ 4 mm (P = 0.008) and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with the dependent variable "diastolic blood pressure". The association between PD ≥ 4 mm and diastolic blood pressure remained significant (P = 0.006) even after adjusting for potential confounders BMI-sds, age, gender, mother's country of birth, BOP >25%, IL-6, IL-8, Leptin, MCP-1, TSH and total cholesterol in the multiple regression analysis. In conclusion, this study indicates an association between pathological periodontal pockets and diastolic blood pressure in obese adolescents. The association was unaffected by other risk markers for cardiovascular events or periodontal disease

  17. N-acetylcysteine reverses diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Tanganyika; Ryba, David M.; Wieczorek, David F.; Wolska, Beata M.

    2015-01-01

    S-glutathionylation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) induces Ca2+ sensitization and a slowing of cross-bridge kinetics as a result of increased oxidative signaling. Although there is evidence for a role of oxidative stress in disorders associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), this mechanism is not well understood. We investigated whether oxidative myofilament modifications may be in part responsible for diastolic dysfunction in HCM. We administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 30 days to 1-mo-old wild-type mice and to transgenic mice expressing a mutant tropomyosin (Tm-E180G) and nontransgenic littermates. Tm-E180G hearts demonstrate a phenotype similar to human HCM. After NAC administration, the morphology and diastolic function of Tm-E180G mice was not significantly different from controls, indicating that NAC had reversed baseline diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in our model. NAC administration also increased sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase protein expression, reduced extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, and normalized phosphorylation of phospholamban, as assessed by Western blot. Detergent-extracted fiber bundles from NAC-administered Tm-E180G mice showed nearly nontransgenic (NTG) myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Additionally, we found that NAC increased tension cost and rate of cross-bridge reattachment. Tm-E180G myofilaments were found to have a significant increase in S-glutathionylation of cMyBP-C, which was returned to NTG levels upon NAC administration. Taken together, our results indicate that oxidative myofilament modifications are an important mediator in diastolic function, and by relieving this modification we were able to reverse established diastolic dysfunction and hypertrophy in HCM. PMID:26432840

  18. Assessment of Diastolic Function in Single Ventricle Patients Following the Fontan Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Margossian, Renee; Sleeper, Lynn A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Barker, Piers C.; Mertens, Luc; Quartermain, Michael D.; Su, Jason T.; Shirali, Girish; Chen, Shan; Colan, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with functional single ventricles (FSV) following the Fontan procedure have abnormal cardiac mechanics. We sought to determine factors that influence diastolic function and to describe associations of diastolic function with current clinical status. Methods Echocardiograms were obtained as part of the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study. Diastolic function grade (DFG) was assessed as normal (grade 0), impaired relaxation (grade 1), pseudonormalization (grade 2), restrictive (grade 3). Studies were also classified dichotomously (restrictive pattern present or absent). Relationships between DFG and pre-Fontan variables (e.g., ventricular morphology, age at Fontan, history of volume-unloading surgery), and current status (e.g., systolic function, valvar regurgitation, exercise performance) were explored. Results DFG was calculable in 326/546 subjects (60%); mean age = 11.7±3.3 years. Overall, 32% of patients had grade 0, 9% grade 1, 37% grade 2, and 22% grade 3. Although there was no association between ventricular morphology and DFG, there was an association between ventricular morphology and E’, which was lowest in those with right ventricular morphology (p<.001); this association remained significant when using z-scores adjusted for age (p=<.001). DFG was associated with achieving maximal effort on exercise testing (p=.004); the majority (64%) of those not achieving maximal effort had DFG 2 or 3.No additional significant associations of DFG with laboratory or clinical measures were identified. Conclusion Assessment of diastolic function by current algorithms results in a high percentage of patients with abnormal DFG, but we found few clinically or statistically significant associations. This may imply a lack of impact of abnormal diastolic function upon clinical outcome in this cohort, or may indicate that the methodology may not be applicable to pediatric FSV patients. PMID:27624592

  19. Cats with diabetes mellitus have diastolic dysfunction in the absence of structural heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N J; Novo Matos, J; Baron Toaldo, M; Bartoszuk, U; Summerfield, N; Riederer, A; Reusch, C; Glaus, T M

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure characterized by diastolic dysfunction with or without the presence of systolic dysfunction in people and laboratory animals. The objective of this prospective study was to determine if cats with newly diagnosed DM had myocardial dysfunction and, if present, whether it would progress if appropriate antidiabetic therapy was commenced. Thirty-two diabetic cats were enrolled and received baseline echocardiographic examination; of these, 15 cats were re-examined after 6 months. Ten healthy age- and weight-matched cats served as controls. Diabetic cats at diagnosis showed decreased diastolic, but not systolic function, when compared to healthy controls, with lower mitral inflow E wave (E) and E/E' than controls. After 6 months, E and E/IVRT' decreased further in diabetic cats compared to the baseline evaluation. After excluding cats whose DM was in remission at 6 months, insulin-dependent diabetic cats had lower E, E/A and E' than controls. When classifying diastolic function according to E/A and E'/A', there was shift towards impaired relaxation patterns at 6 months. All insulin-dependent diabetic cats at 6 months had abnormal diastolic function. These results indicate that DM has similar effects on diastolic function in feline and human diabetics. The dysfunction seemed to progress rather than to normalize after 6 months, despite antidiabetic therapy. In cats with pre-existing heart disease, the development of DM could represent an important additional health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventricular distension and diastolic coronary blood flow in the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Gattullo, D; Linden, R J; Losano, G; Pagliaro, P; Westerhof, N

    1993-01-01

    There appears to be no agreement as to whether or not an increase in diastolic left ventricular pressure and/or volume can cause a decrease in diastolic coronary blood flow. We investigated the problem in the anaesthetized dog using a flaccid freely distensible latex balloon inserted into the left ventricle with the animal on extracorporeal circulation and the coronary perfusion pressure constant at about 45 mm Hg. Maximal vasodilatation and suppression of autoregulation in coronary vasculature was obtained by the intracoronary infusion of dipyridamole (10-40 mg/h). Ventricular volume was changed in steps of 10 ml from 10 to 70 ml and back to 10 ml, whilst recording coronary blood flow and left ventricular pressure in the left circumflex coronary artery. Over a range of ventricular volumes from 20 to 50 ml and a concomitant rise in diastolic ventricular pressure to about 20 mm Hg there was no change in the diastolic coronary flow. Only when the ventricular volume was more than two times the control value (i.e. exceeded 50 ml) and left ventricular pressure was more than 20 mm Hg, was there a decrease in coronary flow. During the return of the volume to the control level there was a fall in diastolic flow and ventricular contractility with respect to the values obtained when the volume was increased; these two effects were transient lasting less than 10 min. It was not considered that any of the three models of the coronary circulation, waterfall, intramyocardial pump or varying elastance model could explain our results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Effect of diastolic dysfunction on postoperative outcomes after cardiovascular surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Roop; Hernandez, Adrian V; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nagarajan, Vijaiganesh; Bueno, Hector; Coleman, Craig I; Ioannidis, John P A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative diastolic dysfunction on postoperative mortality and morbidity after cardiovascular surgery. We systematically searched for articles that assessed the prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction on cardiovascular surgery in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus until February 2016. Twelve studies (n = 8224) met our inclusion criteria. Because of the scarcity of outcome events, fixed-effects meta-analysis was performed via the Mantel-Haenszel method. Preoperative diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction was associated with greater postoperative mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-3.71; P < .0001), major adverse cardiac events (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.55-2.78; P ≤ .0001), and prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.04-4.16; P = .04) compared with patients without diastolic dysfunction among patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery. The odds of postoperative myocardial infarction (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.82-2.05; P = .28) and atrial fibrillation (OR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.49-14.43; P = .25) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Severity of preoperative diastolic dysfunction was associated with increased postoperative mortality (OR, 21.22; 95% CI, 3.74-120.33; P = .0006) for Grade 3 diastolic dysfunction compared with patients with normal diastolic function. Inclusion of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% accompanying diastolic dysfunction did not further impact postoperative mortality (P = .27; I(2) = 18%) compared with patients with normal LVEF and diastolic dysfunction. Presence of preoperative diastolic dysfunction was associated with greater postoperative mortality and major adverse cardiac events, regardless of LVEF. Mortality was significantly greater in grade III diastolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Diastolic Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sinoatrial or SA node) sends out an electrical signal that causes the atria to contract. This ... when the ventricles are full of blood. The electrical signals cause the ventricles to contract and push ...

  3. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (p<0.01). Exercise markedly reduced oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This

  4. Scan-rescan reproducibility of diastolic left ventricular kinetic energy, viscous energy loss and vorticity assessment using 4D flow MRI: analysis in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Vivian P; Westenberg, Jos J M; van der Palen, Roel L F; van den Boogaard, Pieter J; van der Geest, Rob J; de Roos, Albert; Blom, Nico A; Roest, Arno A W; Elbaz, Mohammed S M

    2018-01-05

    The aim of the current study was to assess the scan-rescan reproducibility of left ventricular (LV) kinetic energy (KE), viscous energy loss (EL) and vorticity during diastole from four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) in healthy subjects. Twelve volunteers (age 27 ± 3 years) underwent whole-heart 4D flow MRI twice in one session. In-scan consistency was evaluated by correlation between KE and EL. EL index was computed to measure the amount of EL relative to KE over diastole. Scan-rescan analysis was performed to test reproducibility of volumetric measurements of KE, EL, EL index and vorticity in the LV over early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling. In-scan consistency between KE and EL was strong-excellent (E-filling scan1: r = 0.92, P < 0.001; scan2: ρ = 0.96, P < 0.001 and A-filling scan1: ρ = 0.87, P < 0.001; scan2: r = 0.99, P < 0.001). For the majority of subjects (10 out of 12), KE and EL measures showed good to strong reproducibility. However, with a wide range of agreement [intraclass correlation (ICC): 0.64-0.95] and coefficients of variation (CV) ≤ 25%. EL index showed strong reproducibility for all 12 subjects with a strong ICC (0.94, P < 0.001) and a CV of 9%. Scan-rescan reproducibility of volumetric vorticity showed good-excellent ICCs (0.83-0.95) with CVs ≤ 11%. In conclusion, the current study shows strong-excellent in-scan consistency and overall good agreement between scans for 4D flow MRI assessment of left ventricular kinetic energy, energy loss and vorticity over diastole. However, substantial differences between the scans were also found in some parameters in two out of twelve subjects. Strong reproducibility was found in the dimensionless EL index , which measures the amount of viscous energy loss relative to the average kinetic energy over diastole.

  5. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  6. A new comprehensive 12-segment approach to right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rimbaş, Roxana C; Mihăilă, Sorina; Enescu, Oana A; Vinereanu, Dragoş

    2016-12-01

    2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) was proved to be accurate for the assessment of the RV function. However, normal values for RV strain refer mostly to 3- or 6-segment models, excluding the contribution of other RV walls to RV function. We analyze RV function by 2DSTE in a normal population, using parasternal two-(2C) and apical four-chamber (4C) RV views, and creating a new 12-segment model for a potential better definition of RV function. We prospectively evaluated 100 normals using 2DE and STE. We assessed the RV systolic function from regional strain (basal, mid, and apical), and at the level of each wall: lateral (LS), septal (SS), inferior (IS), and anterior (AS), and also global strain for 4C (4CGS), and 2C (2CGS). Global systolic strain rate (SRs) was measured from 2C and 4C views. Diastolic function was assessed from early (SRe) and late global strain rate (SRl), for both views. A total of 70 healthy individuals (48±15 years, 34 men) were suitable for concomitant 4C and 2CRV analysis. Feasibility of the STE analysis was 87.8%. We found significantly lower SS by comparison with LS, AS, and IS (P<.001). All S/SR parameters (GS, SRs, and SRe) were higher in 2C view than in 4C view (P<.001). All systolic S/SR parameters did not change with age. The early diastolic SR decreased, while the late diastolic SR increased with age. Our 12-segment RV strain model is feasible. Moreover, 2DSTE analysis using 2C and 4C views of the RV does not provide similar information. Rather, they offer complementary data. This might be of particularly clinical interest in diseases with regional RV dysfunction. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ranolazine improves cardiac diastolic dysfunction through modulation of myofilament calcium sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Joshua D.; Monasky, Michelle M.; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Lardin, Harvey A.; Liu, Hong; Patel, Bindiya G.; Taglieri, Domenico M.; Gu, Lianzhi; Kumar, Praveen; Pokhrel, Narayan; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sorescu, Dan; Solaro, R. John; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Previously, we demonstrated that a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mouse model produces cardiac oxidative stress and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function. Oxidative stress has been shown to increase late inward sodium current (INa), reducing the net cytosolic Ca2+ efflux. Objective Oxidative stress in the DOCA-salt model may increase late INa resulting in diastolic dysfunction amenable to treatment with ranolazine. Methods and Results Echocardiography detected evidence of diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive mice that improved after treatment with ranolazine (E/E′, sham 31.9 ± 2.8, sham+ranolazine 30.2 ± 1.9, DOCA-salt 41.8 ± 2.6, and DOCA-salt+ranolazine 31.9 ± 2.6, p = 0.018). The end diastolic pressure volume relationship slope was elevated in DOCA-salt mice, improving to sham levels with treatment (sham 0.16 ± 0.01 vs. sham+ranolazine 0.18 ± 0.01 vs. DOCA-salt 0.23 ± 0.2 vs. DOCA-salt+ranolazine 0.17 ± 0.01 mm Hg/L, p < 0.005). DOCA-salt myocytes demonstrated impaired relaxation, τ, improving with ranolazine (DOCA-salt 0.18 ± 0.02, DOCA-salt + ranolazine 0.13 ± 0.01, Sham 0.11 ± 0.01, Sham + ranolazine 0.09 ± 0.02 s, p = 0.0004). Neither late INa nor the Ca2+ transients were different from sham myocytes. Detergent extracted fiber bundles from DOCA-salt hearts demonstrated increased myofilament response to Ca2+ with glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C. Treatment with ranolazine ameliorated the Ca2+ response and cross-bridge kinetics. Conclusions Therefore, diastolic dysfunction could be reversed by ranolazine, likely resulting from a direct effect on myofilaments, indicating that cardiac oxidative stress may mediate diastolic dysfunction through altering the contractile apparatus. PMID:22343711

  8. Ranolazine improves cardiac diastolic dysfunction through modulation of myofilament calcium sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Joshua D; Monasky, Michelle M; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Lardin, Harvey A; Liu, Hong; Patel, Bindiya G; Taglieri, Domenico M; Gu, Lianzhi; Kumar, Praveen; Pokhrel, Narayan; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sorescu, Dan; Solaro, R John; Dudley, Samuel C

    2012-03-16

    Previously, we demonstrated that a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mouse model produces cardiac oxidative stress and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function. Oxidative stress has been shown to increase late inward sodium current (I(Na)), reducing the net cytosolic Ca(2+) efflux. Oxidative stress in the DOCA-salt model may increase late I(Na), resulting in diastolic dysfunction amenable to treatment with ranolazine. Echocardiography detected evidence of diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive mice that improved after treatment with ranolazine (E/E':sham, 31.9 ± 2.8, sham+ranolazine, 30.2 ± 1.9, DOCA-salt, 41.8 ± 2.6, and DOCA-salt+ranolazine, 31.9 ± 2.6; P=0.018). The end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship slope was elevated in DOCA-salt mice, improving to sham levels with treatment (sham, 0.16 ± 0.01 versus sham+ranolazine, 0.18 ± 0.01 versus DOCA-salt, 0.23 ± 0.2 versus DOCA-salt+ranolazine, 0.17 ± 0.0 1 mm Hg/L; P<0.005). DOCA-salt myocytes demonstrated impaired relaxation, τ, improving with ranolazine (DOCA-salt, 0.18 ± 0.02, DOCA-salt+ranolazine, 0.13 ± 0.01, sham, 0.11 ± 0.01, sham+ranolazine, 0.09 ± 0.02 seconds; P=0.0004). Neither late I(Na) nor the Ca(2+) transients were different from sham myocytes. Detergent extracted fiber bundles from DOCA-salt hearts demonstrated increased myofilament response to Ca(2+) with glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C. Treatment with ranolazine ameliorated the Ca(2+) response and cross-bridge kinetics. Diastolic dysfunction could be reversed by ranolazine, probably resulting from a direct effect on myofilaments, indicating that cardiac oxidative stress may mediate diastolic dysfunction through altering the contractile apparatus.

  9. Diastolic Dysfunction Following Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients: Incidence and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    González, Iria; Del Castillo, Silvia; Muñiz, Javier; Morales, Luis J.; Moreno, Fernando; Jiménez, Rosa; Cristóbal, Carmen; Graupner, Catherine; Talavera, Pedro; Curcio, Alejandro; Martínez, Paula; Guerra, Juan A.; Alonso, Joaquín J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiotoxicity represents a major limitation for the use of anthracyclines or trastuzumab in breast cancer patients. Data from longitudinal studies of diastolic dysfunction (DD) in this group of patients are scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence, evolution, and predictors of DD in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracyclines. Methods. This analytical, observational cohort study comprised 100 consecutive patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CHT) for breast cancer. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiogram, and measurement of cardiac biomarkers at baseline, end of anthracycline-based CHT, and at 3 months and 9 months after anthracycline-based CHT was completed. Fifteen patients receiving trastuzumab were followed with two additional visits at 6 and 12 months after the last dose of anthracycline-based CHT. A multivariate analysis was performed to find variables related to the development of DD. Fifteen of the 100 patients had baseline DD and were excluded from this analysis. Results. At the end of follow-up (median: 12 months, interquartile range: 11.1–12.8), 49 patients (57.6%) developed DD. DD was persistent in 36 (73%) but reversible in the remaining 13 patients (27%). Four patients developed cardiotoxicity (three patients had left ventricular systolic dysfunction and one suffered a sudden cardiac death). None of the patients with normal diastolic function developed systolic dysfunction during follow-up. In the logistic regression model, body mass index (BMI) and age were independently related to the development of DD, with the following odds ratio values: BMI: 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.36), and age: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03–1.19). Neither cardiac biomarkers nor remaining clinical variables were predictors of DD. Conclusion. Development of diastolic dysfunction after treatment with anthracycline or anthracycline- plus trastuzumab chemotherapy is common. BMI

  10. Spontaneous, local diastolic subsarcolemmal calcium releases in single, isolated guinea-pig sinoatrial nodal cells.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Yang, Dongmei; Maltseva, Larissa A; Kim, Mary S; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and release calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (dubbed "calcium clock"), in the form of spontaneous, rhythmic, local diastolic calcium releases (LCRs), together with voltage-sensitive ion channels (membrane clock) form a coupled system that regulates the action potential (AP) firing rate. LCRs activate Sodium/Calcium exchanger (NCX) that accelerates diastolic depolarization and thus participating in regulation of the time at which the next AP will occur. Previous studies in rabbit SA node cells (SANC) demonstrated that the basal AP cycle length (APCL) is tightly coupled to the basal LCR period (time from the prior AP-induced Ca2+ transient to the diastolic LCR occurrence), and that this coupling is further modulated by autonomic receptor stimulation. Although spontaneous LCRs during diastolic depolarization have been reported in SANC of various species (rabbit, cat, mouse, toad), prior studies have failed to detect LCRs in spontaneously beating SANC of guinea-pig, a species that has been traditionally used in studies of cardiac pacemaker cell function. We performed a detailed investigation of whether guinea-pig SANC generate LCRs and whether they play a similar key role in regulation of the AP firing rate. We used two different approaches, 2D high-speed camera and classical line-scan confocal imaging. Positioning the scan-line beneath sarcolemma, parallel to the long axis of the cell, we found that rhythmically beating guinea-pig SANC do, indeed, generate spontaneous, diastolic LCRs beneath the surface membrane. The average key LCR characteristics measured in confocal images in guinea-pig SANC were comparable to rabbit SANC, both in the basal state and in the presence of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Moreover, the relationship between the LCR period and APCL was subtended by the same linear function. Thus, LCRs in guinea-pig SANC contribute to the diastolic depolarization and APCL regulation. Our findings indicate that coupled-clock system

  11. Spontaneous, local diastolic subsarcolemmal calcium releases in single, isolated guinea-pig sinoatrial nodal cells

    PubMed Central

    Sirenko, Syevda G.; Yang, Dongmei; Maltseva, Larissa A.; Kim, Mary S.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and release calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (dubbed “calcium clock”), in the form of spontaneous, rhythmic, local diastolic calcium releases (LCRs), together with voltage-sensitive ion channels (membrane clock) form a coupled system that regulates the action potential (AP) firing rate. LCRs activate Sodium/Calcium exchanger (NCX) that accelerates diastolic depolarization and thus participating in regulation of the time at which the next AP will occur. Previous studies in rabbit SA node cells (SANC) demonstrated that the basal AP cycle length (APCL) is tightly coupled to the basal LCR period (time from the prior AP-induced Ca2+ transient to the diastolic LCR occurrence), and that this coupling is further modulated by autonomic receptor stimulation. Although spontaneous LCRs during diastolic depolarization have been reported in SANC of various species (rabbit, cat, mouse, toad), prior studies have failed to detect LCRs in spontaneously beating SANC of guinea-pig, a species that has been traditionally used in studies of cardiac pacemaker cell function. We performed a detailed investigation of whether guinea-pig SANC generate LCRs and whether they play a similar key role in regulation of the AP firing rate. We used two different approaches, 2D high-speed camera and classical line-scan confocal imaging. Positioning the scan-line beneath sarcolemma, parallel to the long axis of the cell, we found that rhythmically beating guinea-pig SANC do, indeed, generate spontaneous, diastolic LCRs beneath the surface membrane. The average key LCR characteristics measured in confocal images in guinea-pig SANC were comparable to rabbit SANC, both in the basal state and in the presence of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Moreover, the relationship between the LCR period and APCL was subtended by the same linear function. Thus, LCRs in guinea-pig SANC contribute to the diastolic depolarization and APCL regulation. Our findings indicate that coupled

  12. Modified circular velocity law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  13. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  14. Changes in left atrial deformation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Evaluation by vector velocity imaging

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Hala Mahfouz; Soltan, Ghada; Hassan, Hesham; Nazmy, Ahmed; Faheem, Naglaa; Saadan, Haythem; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents a generalized myopathic process affecting both ventricular and atrial myocardium. We assessed the global and regional left atrial (LA) function and its relation to left ventricular (LV) mechanics and clinical status in patients with HCM using Vector Velocity Imaging (VVI). Methods: VVI of the LA and LV was acquired from apical four- and two-chamber views of 108 HCM patients (age 40 ± 19years, 56.5% men) and 33 healthy subjects, all had normal LV systolic function. The LA subendocardium was traced to obtain atrial volumes, ejection fraction, velocities, and strain (ϵ)/strain rate (SR) measurements. Results: Left atrial reservoir (ϵsys,SRsys) and conduit (early diastolic SRe) function were significantly reduced in HCM compared to controls (P < .0001). Left atrial deformation directly correlated to LVϵsys, SRsys and negatively correlated to age, NYHA class, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), LA volume index and severity of mitral regurge (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characterist was constructed to explore the cutoff value of LA deformation in differentiation of LA dysfunction; ϵsys < 40% was 75% sensitive, 50% specific, SRsys < 1.7s− 1 was 70% sensitive, 61% specific, SRe> − 1.8s− 1 was 81% sensitive and 30% specific, SRa> − 1.5s− 1 was 73% sensitive and 40% specific. By multivariate analysis global LVϵsys and LV septal thickness are independent predictors for LAϵsys, while end systolic diameter is the only independent predictor for SRsys, P < .001. Conclusion: Left atrial reservoir and conduit function as measured by VVI were significantly impaired while contractile function was preserved among HCM patients. Left atrial deformation was greatly influenced by LV mechanics and correlated to severity of phenotype. PMID:24688992

  15. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  16. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  17. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  18. DVL Angular Velocity Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Wolfgang

    1944-01-01

    In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.

  19. Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with rapid deterioration of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and conduction disturbance.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jung Yeon; Yi, Jeong Eun; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a major cause of mortality. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old woman with eosinophilic endomyocarditis due to CSS. An electrocardiogram showed intraventricular conduction delay, and echocardiography showed an impaired relaxation pattern and biventricular apical thickening. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed subendocardial delayed enhancement with biventricular apical thrombi. Endomyocardial biopsy showed perivascular eosinophilic infiltration. Despite resolution of the hypereosinophilia after steroid therapy, her left ventricular (LV) diastolic function worsened into a restrictive pattern and she died with a ventricular escape rhythm on her 14th day in the hospital. This case is unusual in that there was rapid progression of the LV diastolic dysfunction and conduction disturbance due to CSS. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of diastolic flow patterns on the function of the left ventricle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hee; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to study the effect of intraventricular flow patterns on the pumping efficiency and the blood mixing and transport characteristics of the left ventricle. The simulations employ a geometric model of the left ventricle which is derived from contrast computed tomography. A variety of diastolic flow conditions are generated for a fixed ejection fraction in order to delineate the effect of flow patterns on ventricular performance. The simulations indicate that the effect of intraventricular blood flow pattern on the pumping power is physiologically insignificant. However, diastolic flow patterns have a noticeable effect on the blood mixing as well as the residence time of blood cells in the ventricle. The implications of these findings on ventricular function are discussed.

  1. An analysis of the differences between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Guo, P L; Xue, Y; Gou, W L; Tong, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is clinically divided into early onset and late onset preeclampsia based on the gestational age at delivery. Although the diagnostic criteria are the same in each subgroup of preeclampsia, it has been suggested that the maternal and perinatal mortalities of early onset and late onset preeclampsia are different. However, studies that compare clinical parameters or laboratory biomarkers between early onset and late onset preeclampsia are limited. Data on 177 women with early or late preeclampsia with severe hypertension were collected from a University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to January 2011 and analysed. Data included all the clinical parameters and laboratory biomarkers of liver and renal function. 63 women and 114 women were diagnosed with early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension, respectively. There was no difference in the maternal age and the incidence of clinical symptoms including edema, vision disturbance, severe headache and stillbirth between two groups. There was a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension but other markers of liver function were not altered. However, renal function including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Umbilical artery systolic velocity/diastolic velocity ratio was significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Our data demonstrates that the laboratory biomarkers of renal function differ between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension. The severity of renal dysfunction correlated with the time of delivery in preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. END-DIASTOLIC FLOW REVERSAL LIMITS THE EFFICACY OF PEDIATRIC INTRAAORTIC BALLOON PUMP COUNTERPULSATION

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Rogers, Benjamin D.; Ionan, Constantine E.; Koenig, Steven C.; Pantalos, George M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Counterpulsation with an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) has not achieved the same successes or clinical use in pediatric patients as in adults. In a pediatric animal model, IABP efficacy was investigated to determine whether IABP timing with a high-fidelity blood pressure signal may improve counterpulsation therapy versus a low-fidelity signal. METHODS In Yorkshire piglets (n=19, 13.0±0.5 kg) with coronary ligation-induced acute ischemic left ventricular failure, pediatric IABPs (5 or 7cc) were placed in the descending thoracic aorta. Inflation and deflation were timed with traditional criteria from low-fidelity (fluid-filled) and high-fidelity (micromanometer) blood pressure signals during 1:1 support. Aortic, carotid, and coronary hemodynamics were measured with pressure and flow transducers. Myocardial oxygen consumption was calculated from coronary sinus and arterial blood samples. Left ventricular myocardial blood flow and end-organ blood flow were measured with microspheres. RESULTS Despite significant suprasystolic diastolic augmentation and afterload reduction at heart rates of 105±3bmp, left ventricular myocardial blood flow, myocardial oxygen consumption, the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship, cardiac output, and end-organ blood flow did not change. Statistically significant end-diastolic coronary, carotid, and aortic flow reversal occurred with IABP deflation. Inflation and deflation timed with a high-fidelity versus low-fidelity signal did not attenuate systemic flow reversal or improve the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship. CONCLUSIONS Systemic end-diastolic flow reversal limited counterpulsation efficacy in a pediatric model of acute left ventricular failure. Adjustment of IABP inflation and deflation timing with traditional criteria and a high-fidelity blood pressure waveform did not improve IABP efficacy or attenuate flow reversal. End-diastolic flow reversal may limit the efficacy of IABP counterpulsation therapy

  3. Biomechanical and Hemodynamic Measures of Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: Translating Tissue Biomechanics to Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sae; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Avazmohammadi, Reza; Lapshin, Eugene; Bachman, Timothy N; Sacks, Michael; Simon, Marc A

    2017-09-12

    Right ventricular (RV) diastolic function has been associated with outcomes for patients with pulmonary hypertension; however, the relationship between biomechanics and hemodynamics in the right ventricle has not been studied. Rat models of RV pressure overload were obtained via pulmonary artery banding (PAB; control, n=7; PAB, n=5). At 3 weeks after banding, RV hemodynamics were measured using a conductance catheter. Biaxial mechanical properties of the RV free wall myocardium were obtained to extrapolate longitudinal and circumferential elastic modulus in low and high strain regions (E 1 and E 2 , respectively). Hemodynamic analysis revealed significantly increased end-diastolic elastance (E ed ) in PAB (control: 55.1 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 44.7-85.4 mm Hg/mL]; PAB: 146.6 mm Hg/mL [interquartile range: 105.8-155.0 mm Hg/mL]; P =0.010). Longitudinal E 1 was increased in PAB (control: 7.2 kPa [interquartile range: 6.7-18.1 kPa]; PAB: 34.2 kPa [interquartile range: 18.1-44.6 kPa]; P =0.018), whereas there were no significant changes in longitudinal E 2 or circumferential E 1 and E 2 . Last, wall stress was calculated from hemodynamic data by modeling the right ventricle as a sphere: stress=Pressure×radius2×thickness. RV pressure overload in PAB rats resulted in an increase in diastolic myocardial stiffness reflected both hemodynamically, by an increase in E ed , and biomechanically, by an increase in longitudinal E 1 . Modest increases in tissue biomechanical stiffness are associated with large increases in E ed . Hemodynamic measurements of RV diastolic function can be used to predict biomechanical changes in the myocardium. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Impact of HIV Infection on Diastolic Function and Left Ventricular Mass

    PubMed Central

    Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Hunt, Peter W.; Ho, Jennifer E.; Farah, Husam H.; Schnell, Amanda; Hoh, Rebecca; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Bolger, Ann F.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV patients have increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities among asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Methods/Results We performed echocardiography in 196 HIV-infected adults and 52 controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass indexed to the body surface area (LVMI), and diastolic function were assessed according to American Society of Echocardiography standards. LVMI was higher in HIV-infected patients (77.2g/m2 in HIV patients vs. 66.5g/m2 in controls, p<0.0001). LVEF was similar in both groups. Eight(4%) of the HIV patients had evidence of LV systolic dysfunction (defined as an EF<50%) versus none of the controls; 97(50%) had mild diastolic dysfunction compared to 29% of the HIV-uninfected subjects (p=0.008). After adjustment for hypertension and race, HIV-infected participants had a mean 8g/m2 larger LVMI compared to controls (p=0.001). Higher LVMI was independently associated with lower nadir CD4 T cell count, suggesting that immunodeficiency may play a role in this process. After adjustment for age and traditional risk factors, HIV patients had a 2.4 greater odds of having diastolic dysfunction as compared to controls (p=0.019). Conclusions HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and higher LVMI compared to controls. These differences were not readily explained by differences in traditional risk factors and were independently associated with HIV infection. These results suggest that contemporary asymptomatic HIV patients manifest mild functional and morphological cardiac abnormalities which are independently associated with HIV infection. PMID:19933410

  5. Diastolic stress echocardiography detects coronary artery disease in patients with asymptomatic type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Paraskevaidis, Ioannis A; Tsougos, Elias; Panou, Fotios; Dagres, Nikolaos; Karatzas, Dimitrios; Boutati, Eleni; Varounis, Christos; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2010-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as an equivalent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim of the study was to investigate whether in asymptomatic patients with type II diabetes, diastolic stress echocardiography may represent an alternative tool for the detection of CAD. The study population consisted of 105 patients with diabetes mellitus (age 61+/-9 years, 26% female, duration of diabetes 37+/-14 months). We performed an exercise stress test, followed by an echo-study and a single-positron emission tomography. Coronary angiography was performed within 1 month. Coronary angiography revealed a coronary artery stenosis of at least 70% in 72 patients (69%, CAD group), while the remaining formed the non-CAD group. Exercise induced an increase of both E/E' lateral and septal ratios as well as their average in the CAD group and on the contrary a decrease of these ratios in the non-CAD group. Receiver operating curve analysis for discrimination between patients with and without obstructive CAD showed an optimal cut-off value of -0.0708 for the exercise-induced change of E/E' average (area under curve 0.892, P<0.001). Sensitivities of scintigraphy and of diastolic stress echocardiography for detection of CAD were 75.0 and 93.1%, respectively; specificity was 78.8% for both methods. In asymptomatic patients, sensitivities of scintigraphy and diastolic stress echocardiography were 76.9 and 92.3%; specificity of both was 80%. In patients with type II diabetes, diastolic stress echocardiography, by means of E/E' ratio exercise-induced changes, can be used for the diagnosis and severity of CAD and for the detection of occult myocardial ischemia.

  6. Overweight female rats selectively breed for low aerobic capacity exhibit increased myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Megan S.; Ma, Lixin; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Mugerfeld, Irina; Hayden, Melvin R.; Garro, Mona; Knight, William; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Sowers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The statistical association between endurance exercise capacity and cardiovascular disease suggests that impaired aerobic metabolism underlies the cardiovascular disease risk in men and women. To explore this connection, we applied divergent artificial selection in rats to develop low-capacity runner (LCR) and high-capacity runner (HCR) rats and found that disease risks segregated strongly with low running capacity. Here, we tested if inborn low aerobic capacity promotes differential sex-related cardiovascular effects. Compared with HCR males (HCR-M), LCR males (LCR-M) were overweight by 34% and had heavier retroperitoneal, epididymal, and omental fat pads; LCR females (LCR-F) were 20% heavier than HCR females (HCR-F), and their retroperitoneal, but not perireproductive or omental, fat pads were heavier as well. Unlike HCR-M, blood pressure was elevated in LCR-M, and this was accompanied by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Like HCR-F, LCR-F exhibited normal blood pressure and LV weight as well as increased spontaneous cage activity compared with males. Despite normal blood pressures, LCR-F exhibited increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, as indicated by increased LV stiffness, a decrease in the initial filling rate, and an increase in diastolic relaxation time. Although females exhibited increased arterial stiffness, ejection fraction was normal. Increased interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in LCR-F was accompanied by the lowest protein levels of phosphorylated AMP-actived protein kinase [phospho-AMPK (Thr172)] and silent information regulator 1. Thus, the combination of risk factors, including female sex, intrinsic low aerobic capacity, and overweightness, promote myocardial stiffness/fibrosis sufficient to induce diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and LV hypertrophy. PMID:22345570

  7. Association of the Fourth Heart Sound with Increased Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sanjiv J.; Nakamura, Kenta; Marcus, Gregory M.; Gerber, Ivor L.; McKeown, Barry H.; Jordan, Mark V.; Huddleston, Michele; Foster, Elyse; Michaels, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the fourth heart sound (S4) is thought to be associated with a stiff left ventricle (LV), this association has never been proven. Recently, single-beat estimation of the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR) has been characterized (P = αVβ), allowing the estimation of EDPVR in larger groups of patients. We hypothesized that the S4 is associated with an upward- and leftward-shifted EDPVR, indicative of elevated end-diastolic stiffness. Methods and Results Ninety study participants underwent acoustic cardiographic analysis, echocardiography, and left heart catheterization. We calculated α and β coefficients to define the non-linear slope of the EDPVR using the single-beat method for measuring LV end-diastolic elastance. In the P = αVβ EDPVR estimation, α was similar (p=0.31) but β was significantly higher in the S4 group (5.96 vs. 6.51, p=0.002), signifying a steeper, upward- and leftward-shifted EDPVR curve in subjects with an S4. The intensity of the S4 was associated with both β (r=0.42, p < 0.0001) and E/E’ ÷ stroke volume index, another index of diastolic stiffness (r=0.39, p=0.0008). On multivariable analysis, β remained associated with the presence (p=0.008) and intensity (p<0.0001) of S4 after controlling for age, sex, and ejection fraction. Conclusions The S4 is most likely generated from an abnormally stiff LV, supporting the concept that the S4 is a pathologic finding in older patients. PMID:18514937

  8. Systolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular Mechanics during and after Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Eric J; Stembridge, Mike; Shave, Rob; Samuel, T Jake; Stone, Keeron; Esformes, Joseph I

    2017-10-01

    To improve the current understanding of the impact of resistance exercise on the heart, by examining the acute responses of left ventricular (LV) strain, twist, and untwisting rate ("LV mechanics"). LV echocardiographic images were recorded in systole and diastole before, during and immediately after (7-12 s) double-leg press exercise at two intensities (30% and 60% of maximum strength, one-repetition maximum). Speckle tracking analysis generated LV strain, twist, and untwisting rate data. Additionally, beat-by-beat blood pressure was recorded and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and LV wall stress were calculated. Responses in both exercise trials were statistically similar (P > 0.05). During effort, stroke volume decreased, whereas SVR and LV wall stress increased (P < 0.05). Immediately after effort, stroke volume returned to baseline, whereas SVR and wall stress decreased (P < 0.05). Similarly, acute exercise was accompanied by a significant decrease in systolic parameters of LV muscle mechanics (P < 0.05). However, diastolic parameters, including LV untwisting rate, were statistically unaltered (P > 0.05). Immediately after exercise, systolic LV mechanics returned to baseline levels (P < 0.05) but LV untwisting rate increased significantly (P < 0.05). A single, acute bout of double-leg press resistance exercise transiently reduces systolic LV mechanics, but increases diastolic mechanics after exercise, suggesting that resistance exercise has a differential impact on systolic and diastolic heart muscle function. The findings may explain why acute resistance exercise has been associated with reduced stroke volume but chronic exercise training may result in increased LV volumes.

  9. Mechanotransduction Mechanisms for Intraventricular Diastolic Vortex Forces and Myocardial Deformations: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are fundamental in cardiac adaptations, remodeling, reverse remodeling, and disease. This 2-article series proposes that variable forces associated with diastolic RV/LV rotatory intraventricular flows can exert physiologically and clinically important, albeit still unappreciated, epigenetic actions influencing functional and morphological cardiac adaptations and/or maladaptations. Taken in-toto, the 2-part survey formulates a new paradigm in which intraventricular diastolic filling vortex-associated forces play a fundamental epigenetic role, and examines how heart cells react to these forces. The objective is to provide a perspective on vortical epigenetic effects, to introduce emerging ideas and suggest directions of multidisciplinary translational research. The main goal is to make pertinent biophysics and cytomechanical dynamic systems concepts accessible to interested translational and clinical cardiologists. I recognize that the diversity of the epigenetic problems can give rise to a diversity of approaches and multifaceted specialized research undertakings. Specificity may dominate the picture. However, I take a contrasting approach. Are there concepts that are central enough that they should be developed in some detail? Broadness competes with specificity. Would however this viewpoint allow for a more encompassing view that may otherwise be lost by generation of fragmented results? Part 1 serves as a general introduction, focusing on background concepts, on intracardiac vortex imaging methods, and on diastolic filling vortex-associated forces acting epigenetically on RV/LV endocardium and myocardium. Part 2 will describe pertinent available pluridisciplinary knowledge/research relating to mechanotransduction mechanisms for intraventricular diastolic vortex forces and myocardial deformations and to their epigenetic actions on myocardial and ventricular function and adaptations. PMID:25624114

  10. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  11. Differences in prevalence of diastolic arterial hypertension in 1423 young individuals in two different interviews.

    PubMed

    De Lena, S M; Gende, O A; Almirón, M A; Cingolani, H E

    1994-09-01

    To determine prevalence of diastolic arterial hypertension (DAH) in young individuals using different criteria. Secondly, to test the possible different blood pressure reactions to mental stress and hand grip in two groups: group A, a 'low blood pressure group', and group B, diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg or greater in one interview and below these values in a second interview. A total of 1423 volunteer medical students was recruited at La Plata School of Medicine, average age 21 +/- 3 years. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured three times on two different occasions separated by one week. With the values obtained, prevalence of arterial hypertension was determined according to the criteria suggested by The Joint National Committee 4 (JNC-4) and the World Health Organization (WHO), and to statistical bases. Mental stress and hand grip tests were performed by groups A and B. The prevalence of DAH when only the first determination of the first interview was considered was 14.7%, 6.7% (considering the WHO criterion) or 5% (using the statistical criterion). These values are reduced if repeated measurements are averaged. The greatest reduction was obtained when the JNC-4 criterion was used (1.6%). The reactivity of stressors did not show any relationship with the initial blood pressure of the subjects. In epidemiological studies, the differences among the criteria should be considered when analyzing blood pressure of populations. Stress tests (mental stress and hand grip) do not help in identifying differences between the groups studied.

  12. Epinephrine and left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function decrease in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, Abdel J; Solórzano, Moisés I; Gómez, Luisangelly

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the effect of epinephrine over left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function in subjects without structural heart disease. Twenty-seven, 34.6±17.2year-old patients without structural heart disease were included. Intravenous epinephrine (50 to 100ng/kg/min) was infused. Left atrial and ventricular functions were evaluated by means of echocardiography before and during the epinephrine infusion. No complications were observed. Significant increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure were recorded. Both left atrial (minimal and maximal) volumes increased but increase in the minimal volume was more pronounced, and the ejection fraction diminished. Left atrial expansion index decreased and the fraction of left ventricular inflow volume resulting from atrial contraction increased. Two patients displayed abnormal left ventricular diastolic function. During epinephrine infusion, E/A and e' decreased, and isovolumetric relaxation time increased. In this group of young adults without structural heart disease, epinephrine infusion was safe, did not produce any complications, and induced a small but significant decrease in left atrial function and left ventricular diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling passive diastolic mechanics with quantitative MRI of cardiac structure and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Vicky Y; Lam, H I; Ennis, Daniel B; Cowan, Brett R; Young, Alistair A; Nash, Martyn P

    2009-10-01

    The majority of patients with clinically diagnosed heart failure have normal systolic pump function and are commonly categorized as suffering from diastolic heart failure. The left ventricle (LV) remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions, which in turn can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element (FE) model was customized to geometric data segmented from in vivo tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI) data and myofibre orientation derived from ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion in each voxel of a DTMRI directly corresponds to the local myocardial fibre orientation. Due to differences in myocardial geometry between in vivo and ex vivo imaging, myofibre orientations were mapped into the geometric FE model using host mesh fitting (a free form deformation technique). Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tagging data, were used as the loading constraints to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. Integrated physiological modelling of this kind will allow more insight into mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction under pathological conditions.

  14. Isolated diastolic hypertension associated risk factors among Chinese in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchun; Xing, Fengjun; Liu, Rongjuan; Liu, Li; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng; Sun, Wenjie; Song, Ziwei

    2015-04-22

    To explore potential risk factors of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) among young and middle-aged Chinese. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 338 subjects, aged 25 years and above, using random sampling technique. There were 68 cases of IDH, 46 cases of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), 89 cases of systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH), and 135 of subjects with normal blood pressure. Cases and controls were matched on sex by frequency matching. Demographic characteristics, blood pressure and other relevant information were collected. Compared with controls, patients with IDH and ISH had significant higher level of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05); while patients with SDH had significantly higher level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and BMI (p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects model showed that drinking tea, family history of hypertension (FHH), higher blood glucose, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein were related with elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.01); HFH, blood glucose, creatinine and BMI have positive effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.05). Drinking tea, FHH, high levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and BMI are associated with IDH among young and middle-aged Chinese.

  15. Isolated Diastolic Hypertension Associated Risk Factors among Chinese in Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanchun; Xing, Fengjun; Liu, Rongjuan; Liu, Li; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yufeng; Sun, Wenjie; Song, Ziwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential risk factors of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) among young and middle-aged Chinese. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 338 subjects, aged 25 years and above, using random sampling technique. There were 68 cases of IDH, 46 cases of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), 89 cases of systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH), and 135 of subjects with normal blood pressure. Cases and controls were matched on sex by frequency matching. Demographic characteristics, blood pressure and other relevant information were collected.Results: Compared with controls, patients with IDH and ISH had significant higher level of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05); while patients with SDH had significantly higher level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and BMI (p < 0.05). Linear mixed effects model showed that drinking tea, family history of hypertension (FHH), higher blood glucose, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein were related with elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.01); HFH, blood glucose, creatinine and BMI have positive effect on systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Drinking tea, FHH, high levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, blood glucose and BMI are associated with IDH among young and middle-aged Chinese. PMID:25913184

  16. Usefulness of Myocardial Annular Velocity Change During Mental Stress to Predict Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (From the Responses of Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment Trial).

    PubMed

    Alenezi, Fawaz; Brummett, Beverly H; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Babyak, Michael A; Alzaeim, Nabil; Wilson, Jennifer; Romano, Minna M D; Sun, Julia L; Ersboll, Mads; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is common and a prognostic factor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The present study aimed at examining associations between mental stress-induced myocardial annular velocity (MAV) and cardiovascular outcome in patients with CAD. MAV, specifically, diastolic early (e'), diastolic late (a'), and systolic (s') velocities were obtained at rest and during mental stress testing in 224 patients with clinically stable CAD. Using Cox regression models, age, sex, and baseline-adjusted mental stress-induced MAV measures were examined as predictors of a priori defined composite event term that comprised all-cause mortality and/or nonfatal cardiovascular events, resulting in an unplanned hospitalization (major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]). Median follow-up was 4 years. The sample was predominantly male, Caucasian with New York Heart Association functional class I and a mean age of 63 ± 10.2 years. MS-induced changes in e' (hazard ratio [HR] = .73) and s' (HR = .73) were significant (p <0.05) predictors of MACE, and the change in a' (HR = .74) was marginal (p = 0.05). The pattern of the relation for each MAV measure was such that patients with a greater decrease in e' and/or s' velocity had a higher probability of experiencing an MACE, and the association of the change in a' and MACE was marginal (p = 0.05), but the same tendency. The associations between MS-induced values of e' and a' for MACE were independent of resting levels. Mental stress-induced MAV changes independently predict an adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with stable CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Echocardiographic assessment by computer-assisted analysis of diastolic left ventricular function and hypertrophy in borderline or mild systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Papademetriou, V; Gottdiener, J S; Fletcher, R D; Freis, E D

    1985-09-15

    Systemic hypertension is a common cause of congestive heart failure. However, left ventricular (LV) systolic function remains normal for many years in patients with mild or moderate hypertension. In this study, high-quality M-mode echocardiograms were recorded in 7 patients with borderline hypertension, 14 patients with mild hypertension and 15 normal persons. Measures of systolic and diastolic LV function and the degree of LV hypertrophy were studied with the assistance of a tablet digitizer and dedicated microcomputer. Average blood pressure was 125 +/- 10/77 +/- 7 mm Hg in normal subjects, 146 +/- 18/92 +/- 2 mm Hg in patients with borderline hypertension and 150 +/- 11/102 +/- 4 in patients with mild hypertension. Indexes of systolic LV function were similar in all 3 groups. The peak rate of early relaxation of the LV posterior wall was significantly decreased in the group of patients with mild hypertension (4.7 vs 6.6 sec-1, p less than 0.01). The mitral valve closure rate was 150 +/- 32 mm/s in normal subjects, 119 +/- 35 mm/s in patients with borderline hypertension and 106 +/- 26 mm/s (p less than 0.001) in patients with mild hypertension. Mild LV hypertrophy was present in 6 of 7 patients with borderline and 13 of 14 patients with mild hypertension. The degree of hypertrophy and the level of blood pressure correlated poorly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Computational modelling of left-ventricular diastolic mechanics: effect of fibre orientation and right-ventricle topology.

    PubMed

    Palit, Arnab; Bhudia, Sunil K; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Turley, Glen A; Williams, Mark A

    2015-02-26

    Majority of heart failure patients who suffer from diastolic dysfunction retain normal systolic pump action. The dysfunction remodels the myocardial fibre structure of left-ventricle (LV), changing its regular diastolic behaviour. Existing LV diastolic models ignored the effects of right-ventricular (RV) deformation, resulting in inaccurate strain analysis of LV wall during diastole. This paper, for the first time, proposes a numerical approach to investigate the effect of fibre-angle distribution and RV deformation on LV diastolic mechanics. A finite element modelling of LV passive inflation was carried out, using structure-based orthotropic constitutive law. Rule-based fibre architecture was assigned on a bi-ventricular (BV) geometry constructed from non-invasive imaging of human heart. The effect of RV deformation on LV diastolic mechanics was investigated by comparing the results predicted by BV and single LV model constructed from the same image data. Results indicated an important influence of RV deformation which led to additional LV passive inflation and increase of average fibre and sheet stress-strain in LV wall during diastole. Sensitivity of LV passive mechanics to the changes in the fibre distribution was also examined. The study revealed that LV diastolic volume increased when fibres were aligned more towards LV longitudinal axis. Changes in fibre angle distribution significantly altered fibre stress-strain distribution of LV wall. The simulation results strongly suggest that patient-specific fibre structure and RV deformation play very important roles in LV diastolic mechanics and should be accounted for in computational modelling for improved understanding of the LV mechanics under normal and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Motion Prediction and the Velocity Effect in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguigui, Nicolas; Broderick, Michael P.; Baures, Robin; Amorim, Michel-Ange

    2008-01-01

    In coincidence-timing studies, children have been shown to respond too early to slower stimuli and too late to faster stimuli. To examine this velocity effect, children aged 6, 7.5, 9, 10.5, and adults were tested with two different velocities in a prediction-motion task which consisted of judging, after the occlusion of the final part of its…

  20. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children123

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. Objective: This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. Design: BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7–12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study—a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Results: Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. Conclusions: These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated

  1. What is the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and 6-minute walk test in hypertensive patients?

    PubMed

    Farag, El-Sayed M; Al-Daydamony, Mohammad M; Gad, Marwa M

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem. Hypertension is an important cause of HF. Most hypertensive patients have some degree of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) provides objective data about the exercise tolerance. We aimed to find the association between the degree of LV diastolic dysfunction and the functional capacity assessed by 6MWT in hypertensive patients. The study included 200 asymptomatic hypertensive patients. All patients had undergone full history taking, complete clinical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography for assessment of LV dimensions, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and 6MWT. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of LV diastolic dysfunction. Clinical and echocardiographic data were comparable between the two groups. Regarding 6MWT, at the end of the test, patients with diastolic dysfunction had significantly higher systolic (P = .0088) and diastolic (P = .019) blood pressure and higher Borg score for dyspnea (P < .00001). The distant walked and percentage of the distance to predicted value were significantly lower in patients with diastolic dysfunction (P = .0322 and .0002, respectively). Incidence of abnormal 6MWT was significantly higher in patients with diastolic dysfunction (P = .00041). Compared to patients with grades I and II, patients with grade III diastolic dysfunction had significantly higher Borg score (P = .013), lower distance walked (P = .039), and lower percentage of distance to predicted vale (P = .009). Independent predictors for abnormal 6MWT were as follows: E/E' ≥15 (P = .0022), E'/A' <1 (P = .0081), and deceleration time of E-wave <160 (P = .013). The presence of LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients has a bad effect on 6MWT. The degree of LV diastolic dysfunction was correlated with 6MWT results. It may be important to investigate LV diastolic function in asymptomatic hypertensive

  2. Cerebral blood flow velocity and neurodevelopmental outcome in infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Henry H; Wypij, David; Laussen, Peter C; Bellinger, David C; Stopp, Christian D; Soul, Janet S; Newburger, Jane W; Kussman, Barry D

    2014-07-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) measured by transcranial Doppler sonography has provided information on cerebral perfusion in patients undergoing infant heart surgery, but no studies have reported a relationship to early postoperative and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. CBFV was measured in infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch reconstruction as part of a trial of hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); CBFV (Vm, mean; Vs, systolic; Vd, end-diastolic) in the middle cerebral artery and change in Vm (rVm) were measured intraoperatively and up to 18 hours post-CPB. Neurodevelopmental outcomes, measured at 1 year of age, included the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. CBFV was measured in 100 infants; 43 with D-transposition of the great arteries, 36 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 21 with ventricular septal defects. Lower Vm, Vs, Vd, and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently related to longer intensive care unit duration of stay (p<0.05). In the 85 patients who returned for neurodevelopmental testing, lower Vm, Vs, Vd, and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently associated with lower PDI (p<0.05) and MDI (p<0.05, except Vs: p=0.06) scores. Higher Vs and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently associated with increased incidence of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging in 39 patients. Postoperative CBFV after biventricular repair is related to early postoperative and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age, possibly indicating that low CBFV is a marker of suboptimal postoperative hemodynamics and cerebral perfusion. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Infants Undergoing Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Henry H.; Wypij, David; Laussen, Peter C.; Bellinger, David C.; Stopp, Christian D.; Soul, Janet S.; Newburger, Jane W.; Kussman, Barry D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) measured by transcranial Doppler sonography has provided information on cerebral perfusion in patients undergoing infant heart surgery, but no studies have reported a relationship to early postoperative and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods CBFV was measured in infants undergoing biventricular repair without aortic arch reconstruction as part of a trial of hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CBFV (Vm, mean; Vs, systolic; Vd, end-diastolic) in the middle cerebral artery and change in Vm (rVm) were measured intraoperatively and up to 18 hours post-CPB. Neurodevelopmental outcomes, measured at 1 year of age, included the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Results CBFV was measured in 100 infants: 43 with D-transposition of the great arteries, 36 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 21 with ventricular septal defects. Lower Vm, Vs, Vd, and rVm at18 hours post-CPB were independently related to longer ICU duration of stay (P<0.05). In the 85 patients who returned for neurodevelopmental testing, lower Vm, Vs, Vd and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently associated with lower PDI (P<0.05) and MDI (P<0.05, except Vs: P=0.06) scores. Higher Vs and rVm at 18 hours post-CPB were independently associated with increased incidence of brain injury on MRI in 39 patients. Conclusions Postoperative CBFV after biventricular repair is related to early postoperative and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 1 year of age, possibly indicating that low CBFV is a marker of suboptimal postoperative hemodynamics and cerebral perfusion. PMID:24820395

  4. Vortex flow during early and late left ventricular filling in normal subjects: quantitative characterization using retrospectively-gated 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance and three-dimensional vortex core analysis.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Calkoen, Emmeline E; Westenberg, Jos J M; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2014-09-27

    LV diastolic vortex formation has been suggested to critically contribute to efficient blood pumping function, while altered vortex formation has been associated with LV pathologies. Therefore, quantitative characterization of vortex flow might provide a novel objective tool for evaluating LV function. The objectives of this study were 1) assess feasibility of vortex flow analysis during both early and late diastolic filling in vivo in normal subjects using 4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with retrospective cardiac gating and 3D vortex core analysis 2) establish normal quantitative parameters characterizing 3D LV vortex flow during both early and late ventricular filling in normal subjects. With full ethical approval, twenty-four healthy volunteers (mean age: 20±10 years) underwent whole-heart 4D Flow CMR. The Lambda2-method was used to extract 3D LV vortex ring cores from the blood flow velocity field during early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling. The 3D location of the center of vortex ring core was characterized using cylindrical cardiac coordinates (Circumferential, Longitudinal (L), Radial (R)). Comparison between E and A filling was done with a paired T-test. The orientation of the vortex ring core was measured and the ring shape was quantified by the circularity index (CI). Finally, the Spearman's correlation between the shapes of mitral inflow pattern and formed vortex ring cores was tested. Distinct E- and A-vortex ring cores were observed with centers of A-vortex rings significantly closer to the mitral valve annulus (E-vortex L=0.19±0.04 versus A-vortex L=0.15±0.05; p=0.0001), closer to the ventricle's long-axis (E-vortex: R=0.27±0.07, A-vortex: R=0.20±0.09, p=0.048) and more elliptical in shape (E-vortex: CI=0.79±0.09, A-vortex: CI=0.57±0.06; <0.001) compared to E-vortex. The circumferential location and orientation relative to LV long-axis for both E- and A-vortex ring cores were similar. Good to strong correlation was found

  5. Influence of type of aortic valve prosthesis on coronary blood flow velocity.

    PubMed

    Jelenc, Matija; Juvan, Katja Ažman; Medvešček, Nadja Tatjana Ružič; Geršak, Borut

    2013-02-01

    Severe aortic valve stenosis is associated with high resting and reduced hyperemic coronary blood flow. Coronary blood flow increases after aortic valve replacement (AVR); however, the increase depends on the type of prosthesis used. The present study investigates the influence of type of aortic valve prosthesis on coronary blood flow velocity. The blood flow velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the right coronary artery (RCA) was measured intraoperatively before and after AVR with a stentless bioprosthesis (Sorin Freedom Solo; n = 11) or a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis (St. Jude Medical Regent; n = 11). Measurements were made with an X-Plore epicardial Doppler probe (Medistim, Oslo, Norway) following induction of hyperemia with an adenosine infusion. Preoperative and postoperative echocardiography evaluations were used to assess valvular and ventricular function. Velocity time integrals (VTI) were measured from the Doppler signals and used to calculate the proportion of systolic VTI (SF), diastolic VTI (DF), and normalized systolic coronary blood flow velocities (NSF) and normalized diastolic coronary blood flow velocities (NDF). The systolic proportion of the LAD VTI increased after AVR with the St. Jude Medical Regent prosthesis, which produced higher LAD SF and NSF values than the Sorin Freedom Solo prosthesis (SF, 0.41 ± 0.09 versus 0.29 ± 0.13 [P = .04]; NSF, 0.88 ± 0.24 versus 0.55 ± 0.17 [P = .01]). No significant changes in the LAD velocity profile were noted after valve replacement with the Sorin Freedom Solo, despite a significant reduction in transvalvular gradient and an increase in the effective orifice area. AVR had no effect on the RCA flow velocity profile. The coronary flow velocity profile in the LAD was significantly influenced by the type of aortic valve prosthesis used. The differences in the LAD velocity profile probably reflect differences in valve design and the systolic transvalvular flow pattern.

  6. Acute effects of ultrafiltration on aortic mechanical properties determined by measurement of pulse wave velocity and pulse propagation time in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Banu Şahin; Şahin, Alparslan; Aladağ, Nazire Başkurt; Arslan, Gülgün; Kaptanoğulları, Hakan; Akın, İbrahim; Yıldız, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effects of acute hemodialysis session on pulse wave velocity are conflicting. The aim of the current study was to assess the acute effects of ultrafiltration on the aortic mechanical properties using carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity and pulse propagation time. Methods: A total of 26 (12 women, 14 men) consecutive patients on maintenance hemodialysis (mean dialysis duration: 40.7±25.6 (4-70) months) and 29 healthy subjects (13 women, 16 men) were included in this study. Baseline blood pressure, carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity, and pulse propagation time were measured using a Complior Colson device (Createch Industrie, France) before and immediately after the end of the dialysis session. Results: While systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in patients on hemodialysis than in healthy subjects, pulse propagation time was significantly higher in healthy subjects. Although body weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly decreased, heart rate and pulse propagation time were significantly increased after ultrafiltration. There was a significant positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and age, body height, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate. Conclusion: Although hemodialysis treatment may chronically worsen aortic mechanical properties, ultrafiltration during hemodialysis may significantly improve aortic pulse wave velocity, which is inversely related to aortic distensibility and pulse propagation time. PMID:25413228

  7. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fallo, F; Dalla Pozza, A; Sonino, N; Lupia, M; Tona, F; Federspil, G; Ermani, M; Catena, C; Soardo, G; Di Piazza, L; Bernardi, S; Bertolotto, M; Pinamonti, B; Fabris, B; Sechi, L A

    2009-11-01

    Insulin resistance is recognized as the pathophysiological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A relation between insulin sensitivity and left ventricular morphology and function has been reported in essential hypertension, where a high prevalence of NAFLD has been recently found. We investigated the inter-relationship between left ventricular morphology/function, metabolic parameters and NAFLD in 86 never-treated essential hypertensive patients subdivided in two subgroups according to the presence (n = 48) or absence (n = 38) of NAFLD at ultrasonography. The two groups were similar as to sex, age and blood pressure levels. No patient had diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, or other risk factors for liver disease. Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher and adiponectin levels were lower in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD, and were associated with NAFLD at univariate analysis. Patients with NAFLD had similar prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy compared to patients without NAFLD, but a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (62.5 vs 21.1%, P < 0.001), as defined by E/A ratio <1 and E-wave deceleration time >220 ms. Diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.040) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.012) remained independently associated with NAFLD at backward multivariate analysis. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with insulin resistance and abnormalities of left ventricular diastolic function in a cohort of patients with essential hypertension, suggesting a concomitant increase of metabolic and cardiac risk in this condition.

  8. Natural history of severe aortic stenosis: Diastolic wall strain as a novel prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Obasare, Edinrin; Bhalla, Vikas; Gajanana, Deepakraj; Rodriguez Ziccardi, Mary; Codolosa, Jose N; Figueredo, Vincent M; Morris, Dennis Lynn; Pressman, Gregg S

    2017-04-01

    Diastolic wall strain (DWS) has been proposed as a simple noninvasive measure of left ventricular (LV) stiffness. This study investigated DWS as a possible predictor of mortality in severe aortic stenosis (AS). 138 patients with severe AS (indexed aortic valve area [AVA]<0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ) and normal ejection fraction (>55%) were included. 52 patients (38%) had aortic valve interventions or poor image quality (n=5) and were excluded leaving 86 in the study group (84±8 years, 70% female, 69% African American). DWS was defined as (LVPWs-LVPWd)/LVPWs where LVPWs=left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole and LVPWd=left ventricular wall thickness in diastole. Follow-up extended 2.0±1.9 years (median 1.6 years). Mean DWS for the group was 0.21±0.11 (normal=0.4±0.07). In patients who died, DWS was significantly lower than in survivors (0.18±0.09 vs 0.24±0.11, P=.02). By contrast, traditional measures of diastolic dysfunction did not predict death. Regression analysis showed DWS predicted death even after adjusting for age, sex, race, indexed AVA, symptoms (angina, shortness of breath, dizziness, syncope), and clinical factors (creatinine, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia) (HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.02-5.90], P<.05). The best cutoff value for DWS of 0.25 had a sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 83% for predicting death. DWS is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with severe AS, even after accounting for traditional clinical and echocardiographic parameters. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. SIRT1 activation attenuates diastolic dysfunction by reducing cardiac fibrosis in a model of anthracycline cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cappetta, Donato; Esposito, Grazia; Piegari, Elena; Russo, Rosa; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Rivellino, Alessia; Berrino, Liberato; Rossi, Francesco; De Angelis, Antonella; Urbanek, Konrad

    2016-02-15

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is an effective anti-neoplastic drug but its clinical benefits are hampered by cardiotoxicity. Oxidative stress, apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis mediate the anthracycline cardiomyopathy. ROS trigger TGF-β pathway that activates cardiac fibroblasts promoting fibrosis. Myocardial stiffness contributes to diastolic dysfunction, less studied aspect of anthracycline cardiomyopathy. Considering the role of SIRT1 in the inhibition of the TGF-β/SMAD3 pathway, resveratrol (RES), a SIRT1 activator, might improve cardiac function by interfering with the development of cardiac fibrosis in a model of DOXO-induced cardiomyopathy. F344 rats received a cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg of DOXO in 2 weeks or DOXO+RES (DOXO and RES, 2.5mg/kg/day, concomitantly for 2 weeks and then RES alone for 1 more week). The effects of RES on cardiac fibroblasts were also tested in vitro. Along with systolic dysfunction, DOXO was also responsible of diastolic abnormalities. Myocardial stiffness correlated with fibroblast activation and collagen deposition. DOXO+RES co-treatment significantly improved ± dP/dt and, more interestingly, ameliorated end-diastolic pressure/volume relationship. Treatment with RES resulted in reduced fibrosis and fibroblast activation and, most importantly, the mortality rate was significantly reduced in DOXO+RES group. Fibroblasts isolated from DOXO+RES-treated rats, in which SIRT1 was upregulated, showed decreased levels of TGF-β and pSMAD3/SMAD3 when compared to cells isolated from DOXO-exposed hearts. Our findings reveal a key role of SIRT1 in supporting animal survival and functional parameters of the heart. SIRT1 activation by interfering with fibrogenesis can improve relaxation properties of myocardium and attenuate myocardial remodeling related to chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aging attenuates the interarm diastolic blood pressure difference induced by one-arm exercise.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei-tong; Li, Ju-xiang; Wang, Ji-wei; Xu, Jin-song; Yang, Qing; Geng, Yong-Jian; Su, Hai; Cheng, Xiao-shu

    2013-04-01

    It is known that one-arm exercise increases the interarm diastolic blood pressure difference (dIAD) in young individuals, but no research has been carried out in middle-aged and more senior populations. This study aimed to determine whether aging impacts the exercise-induced dIAD in healthy individuals. Normotensive adults (n=120) were recruited and divided into the young (22.5±1.5 years), middle-aged (42.8±4.6 years), and senior (61.0±7.0 years) groups. The right arm exercise involved performing cycling movements at 60 times/min for 3 min. Bilateral brachial blood pressures (BPs) were simultaneously measured using two automatic BP measurement devices before (baseline), immediately (0), 5, 10, and 15 min after the exercise. The difference in bilateral diastolic BPs was calculated as BP l-r and its absolute value of at least 10 mmHg was considered as IAD. At baseline, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) l-r and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) l-r were similar in three age groups. One-arm exercise induced a marked decrease in DBP in the exercised arm, and then increased the prevalence of DBP l-r and dIAD in the three age groups in an age-dependent manner. The prevalence of dIAD increased from the baseline of zero to 85% at 0 min in young, 37% in middle-aged, and 30% in senior groups. One-arm exercise did not significantly alter the prevalence of SBP l-r and systolic IAD in the three groups. A reverse correlation was found between the DBP l-r 0 and ages (r=-0.359, P<0.05), but there was no correlation between aging and SBP l-r 0. Aging attenuates the levels and duration of the dIAD induced by one-arm exercise in healthy adults.

  11. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  12. End-diastolic flow reversal limits the efficacy of pediatric intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Carlo R; Rogers, Benjamin D; Ionan, Constantine E; Pantalos, George M

    2014-05-01

    Counterpulsation with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has not achieved the same success or clinical use in pediatric patients as in adults. In a pediatric animal model, IABP efficacy was investigated to determine whether IABP timing with a high-fidelity blood pressure signal may improve counterpulsation therapy versus a low-fidelity signal. In Yorkshire piglets (n = 19; weight, 13.0 ± 0.5 kg) with coronary ligation-induced acute ischemic left ventricular failure, pediatric IABPs (5 or 7 mL) were placed in the descending thoracic aorta. Inflation and deflation were timed with traditional criteria from low-fidelity (fluid-filled) and high-fidelity (micromanometer) blood pressure signals during 1:1 support. Aortic, carotid, and coronary hemodynamics were measured with pressure and flow transducers. Myocardial oxygen consumption was calculated from coronary sinus and arterial blood samples. Left ventricular myocardial blood flow and end-organ blood flow were measured with microspheres. Despite significant suprasystolic diastolic augmentation and afterload reduction at heart rates of 105 ± 3 beats per minute, left ventricular myocardial blood flow, myocardial oxygen consumption, the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship, cardiac output, and end-organ blood flow did not change. Statistically significant end-diastolic coronary, carotid, and aortic flow reversal occurred with IABP deflation. Inflation and deflation timed with a high-fidelity versus low-fidelity signal did not attenuate systemic flow reversal or improve the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship. Systemic end-diastolic flow reversal limited counterpulsation efficacy in a pediatric model of acute left ventricular failure. Adjustment of IABP inflation and deflation timing with traditional criteria and a high-fidelity blood pressure waveform did not improve IABP efficacy or attenuate flow reversal. End-diastolic flow reversal may limit the efficacy of IABP counterpulsation therapy in

  13. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  14. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M K; Calderone, J B

    1991-11-01

    The assumption that humans are able to perceive and process angular kinematics is critical to many structure-from-motion and optical flow models. The current studies investigate this sensitivity, and examine several factors likely to influence angular velocity perception. In particular, three factors are considered: (1) the extent to which perceived angular velocity is determined by edge transitions of surface elements, (2) the extent to which angular velocity estimates are influenced by instantaneous linear velocities of surface elements, and (3) whether element-velocity effects are related to three-dimensional (3-D) tangential velocities or to two-dimensional (2-D) image velocities. Edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities influenced perceived angular velocity; this bias was related to 2-D image velocity rather than 3-D tangential velocity. Despite these biases, however, judgments were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter was surprisingly good, for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  15. Early Transthoracic Echocardiography after Cardiac Surgery Predicts Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lacalzada, Juan; Jiménez, Juan José; Iribarren, José Luis; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Martín-Cabeza, Marta; Izquierdo, María Manuela; Marí-López, Belén; García-González, Martín Jesús; Jorge-Pérez, Pablo; Barragán, Antonio; Laynez, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is frequent after cardiac surgery. We aimed to establish a predictive model of POAF based on postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings. This study included 147 patients (aged 67 ± 11 years; 109 men) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement. TTE and Doppler tissue imaging were performed on intensive care unit arrival after surgery. All patients were continuously monitored during hospitalization. The end point was the appearance of POAF. POAF appeared in 37 patients (25.2%). These patients were older (69 ± 16 vs. 65 ± 12 years; P < 0.001) and had increased long axis of the left atrium (LA) dimension (5.4 ± 1 vs. 4.8 ± 0.9 cm, P = 0.02), lower early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (e') (6.9 ± 2.1 vs. 8 ± 1.8 cm/sec; P < 0.01), and higher early diastolic pulsed Doppler mitral ratio (E)/e' (E/e') (17.4 ± 6.8 vs. 13.8 ± 6; P = 0.01). Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction grade (DFG) of 2 or 3 relative to grade 0 was significant: odds ratio (OR) 22.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.52-57.2; P < 0.001, and OR: 23.6, 95% CI: 3.57-60.1; P = 0.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of POAF were age (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18; P < 0.05), long-axis LA dimension (OR: 6.24, 95% CI: 1.97-8.23; P = 0.0017), DFG-2 (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.57-15.81; P < 0.001), and DFG-3 (OR: 8.3, 95% CI: 4.11-25.37; P < 0.001). Apart from age, the simple determination by postoperative TTE of long-axis LA dimension and DFG after cardiac surgery proved to be powerful independent predictors of POAF and may be useful for risk stratification of these patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Is the measurement of inferior thyroid artery blood flow velocity by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography useful for differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Ozel, Alper; Velet, Selvinaz; Buğdacı, Mehmet Sait; Cil, Esra; Altuntas, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of both the right and left inferior thyroid arteries measured by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy. The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of 96 patients with thyrotoxicosis (41 with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis, 31 age-matched pregnant patients with Graves' disease and 24 age- and sex-matched non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease) and 25 age and sex-matched healthy euthyroid subjects were assessed with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography. The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis were found to be significantly lower than those of pregnant patients with Graves' disease and higher than those of healthy euthyroid subjects. However, the right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in pregnant patients with Graves' disease were significantly lower than those of non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease. The right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities were positively correlated with TSH-receptor antibody levels. We found an overlap between the inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities in a considerable number of patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and pregnant patients with Graves' disease. This study suggests that the measurement of inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography does not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be recommended as an initial diagnostic test for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy.

  17. Is the measurement of inferior thyroid artery blood flow velocity by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography useful for differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease? A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Özel, Alper; Velet, Selvinaz; Buğdacı, Mehmet Sait; Çil, Esra; Altuntas, Yüksel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of both the right and left inferior thyroid arteries measured by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy. METHODS: The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and resistance indices of 96 patients with thyrotoxicosis (41 with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis, 31 age-matched pregnant patients with Graves' disease and 24 age- and sex-matched non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease) and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy euthyroid subjects were assessed with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography. RESULTS: The right and left inferior thyroid artery-peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis were found to be significantly lower than those of pregnant patients with Graves' disease and higher than those of healthy euthyroid subjects. However, the right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities in pregnant patients with Graves' disease were significantly lower than those of non-pregnant patients with Graves' disease. The right and left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities were positively correlated with TSH-receptor antibody levels. We found an overlap between the inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities in a considerable number of patients with gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and pregnant patients with Graves' disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the measurement of inferior thyroid artery-blood flow velocities with color-flow Doppler ultrasonography does not have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be recommended as an initial diagnostic test for a differential diagnosis between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and Graves' disease during pregnancy. PMID:22358236

  18. Effect of Aerobic versus Resistance Exercise on Pulse Wave Velocity, Intima Media Thickness and Left Ventricular Mass in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Kuk, Jennifer L; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Drant, Stacey; DeGroff, Curt; Lee, SoJung

    2015-11-01

    A cardiovascular comorbidity in obese adolescents is increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated in obese adolescents 1) the risk factors associated with aPWV, cIMT and LVM, and 2) the effects of aerobic (AE) versus resistance (RE) exercise alone (without calorie restriction) on aPWV, cIMT, LVM index (LVMI) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Eighty-one obese adolescents (12-18 yrs, BMI ≥95th percentile) were randomized to 3 months of AE (n = 30), RE (n = 27) or a control group (n = 24). Outcome measures included aPWV, cIMT, LVMI, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and lipids. At baseline, the strongest correlates of aPWV were body weight (r = .31) and diastolic BP (r = .28); of cIMT were body weight (r=0.26) and CRF (r=-0.25); and of LVMI was CRF (r=0.32) after adjusting for sex and race (p < .05 for all). Despite significant reductions in total fat and improvements in CRF in the AE and RE groups, aPWV, cIMT, LVMI, BP, lipids and body weight did not change as compared with controls (p > .05 for all). Interventions of longer duration or together with weight loss may be required to improve these early biomarkers of CVD in obese adolescents.

  19. Common presentation of rare diseases: Left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Ales; Cecchi, Franco

    2018-04-15

    Left ventricular hypertrophy may be a consequence of a hemodynamic overload or a manifestation of several diseases affecting different structural and functional proteins of cardiomyocytes. Among these, sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents the most frequent cause. In addition, several metabolic diseases lead to myocardial thickening, either due to intracellular storage (glycogen storage and lysosomal diseases), extracellular deposition (TTR and AL amyloidosis) or due to abnormal energy metabolism (mitochondrial diseases). The recognition of these rare causes of myocardial hypertrophy is important for family screening strategies, risk assessment, and treatment. Moreover, as there are specific therapies for some forms of HCM including enzyme substitution and chaperone therapies and specific treatments for TTR amyloidosis, a differential diagnosis should be sought in all patients with unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. Diastolic dysfunction is a key feature of HCM and its phenocopies. Its assessment is complex and requires evaluation of several functional parameters and structural changes. Severe diastolic dysfunction carries a negative prognostic implication and its value in differential diagnosis is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does ketogenic diet have any negative effect on cardiac systolic and diastolic functions in children with intractable epilepsy?: One-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Rahmi; Kucuk, Mehmet; Guzel, Orkide; Karadeniz, Cem; Yilmaz, Unsal; Mese, Timur

    2016-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been referred to as an "effective therapy with side effects" for children with intractable epilepsy. Among the most recognized adverse effects, there are cardiac conduction abnormalities, vascular and myocardial dysfunction. However, very limited and controversial data are available regarding the effects of the KD on cardiac functions. We sought to analyze the mid-term effect of ketogenic diet on cardiac functions in patients with intractable epilepsy who received a ketogenic diet for at least 12months using conventional and relatively new imaging techniques. This prospective study included 61 patients with intractable epilepsy who received ketogenic diet for at least 12months. Clinical examinations, serum carnitine and selenium levels as well as electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations were scheduled prior to the procedure and at 1, 3, 6 and 12months. We utilized two-dimensional, M-mode, colored Doppler, spectral Doppler and pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging techniques to investigate ventricular systolic and diastolic functions of this subgroup of patients. In our study, there was no significant difference after 1year of KD therapy compared to baseline values-except a significantly decreased A wave velocity-in terms of pulse wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the diastolic function. The tissue Doppler measurements obtained from the lateral wall of tricuspide and mitral annuli were not different at baseline and at month 12 of the treatment, as well. The ketogenic diet appears to have no disturbing effect on ventricular functions in epileptic children in the midterm. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of dietary sodium and potassium intake on left ventricular diastolic function and mass in adults≤40 years (from the Strong Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Haring, Bernhard; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T; Jhamnani, Sunny; Howard, Barbara V; Devereux, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intake of dietary sodium or potassium is related to changes in left ventricular (LV) diastolic functioning and LV mass index in young subjects with normal or elevated blood pressure. We prospectively analyzed echocardiographic data in 1,065 young adults (18 to 39 years) enrolled in the Strong Heart Family Study who were free from cardiovascular disease at baseline: 501 (47%) participants were normotensive and 564 (53%) were prehypertensive or hypertensive. Dietary sodium and potassium intakes were ascertained using a block food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cardiac geometry and functioning were assessed at baseline and 4 years later. Marginal models were used to assess the associations of average intakes of sodium and potassium with echocardiographic measures. Participants with prehypertension or hypertension were older, had higher body mass index, and reported higher intakes of sodium than normotensive subjects at baseline. In prospective analyses, potassium intake was found to be negatively related to mitral E velocity (p=0.029) in normotensive subjects, whereas sodium/potassium ratio was positively associated with atrial filling fraction (p=0.017). In prehypertensive or hypertensive participants, sodium consumption was positively associated with atrial filling fraction (p=0.034) and an increase in sodium/potassium ratio was related to higher LV mass index (p=0.046). In conclusion, an increase in dietary sodium/potassium ratio was related to an accentuation of atrial phase LV diastolic filling in normotensive young subjects, whereas in prehypertensive or hypertensive subjects it was associated with higher LV mass index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of serial coronary artery flow patterns early after primary angioplasty: new insights into the dynamics of the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Dawod; Rofe, Guy; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Goldhammer, Ehud; Makhoul, Nabeel; Shefer, Arie; Hassan, Amin; Rauchfleisch, Shmuel; Rosenschein, Uri

    2008-06-01

    The temporal behavior of the coronary microcirculation in acute myocardial infarction may affect outcome. Diastolic deceleration time and early systolic flow reversal derived from coronary artery blood flow velocity patterns reflect microcirculatory function. To assess left anterior descending coronary artery flow velocity patterns using Doppler transthoracic echocardiography after primary percutaneous coronary intervention, in patients with anterior AMI. Patterns of flow velocity patterns of the LAD were obtained using transthoracic echocardiography-Doppler in 31 consecutive patients who presented with anterior AMI. Measurements were done at 6 hours, 36-48 hours, and 5 days after successful PPCI. Measurements of DDT and pressure half times (Pt%), as well as observation for ESFR were performed. In the first 2 days following PPCI, the average DDT (600 +/- 340 msec) was shorter than on day 5 (807 +/- 332 msec) (P < 0.012), FVP in the first 2 days were dynamic and bidirectional: from short DDT (< 600 msec) to long DDT (> 600 msec) and vice versa. On day 5 most DDTs became longer. Pt1/2 at 6 hours was not different than at day 2 (174 +/- 96 vs. 193 +/- 99 msec, P = NS) and became longer on day 5 (235 +/- 98 msec, P = 0.012). Bidirectional patterns were also observed in the ESFR in 6 patients (19%) at baseline, in 4 (13%) at 36 hours, and in 2 (6.5%) on day 5 after PPCI. Flow velocity patterns of the LAD after PPCI in AMI are dynamic and reflect unpredictable changes in microcirculation.

  3. Diastolic scattered light fluctuation, resting force and twitch force in mammalian cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lakatta, E. G.; Lappé, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    1. When coherent light was passed through isolated isometric cardiac muscles during the diastolic or resting period, intensity fluctuations were observed in the scattered field. The frequency of these intensity fluctuations (f½) varied with many experimental interventions known to enhance Ca2+ flux into the cell. 2. In rat muscles stimulated at low frequencies (0.1 ± 2.0 min-1) stepwise increases (0.4-10 mm) of [Ca2+] in the bathing fluid ([Ca2+]e), or addition of ouabain (10-6-6 × 10-4 m) to the perfusate caused stepwise increases in f½. These were paralleled by increments in resting force (RF) such that the changes in f½ and RF were highly correlated. Substitution of K+ for Na+ in the perfusate resulted in parallel transients in RF and f½. 3. In contrast to the rat, most cat muscles stimulated at low frequencies in the steady state exhibited neither diastolic intensity fluctuations nor Ca2+-dependent changes in RF in [Ca2+]e of 10 mm or less; when [Ca2+]e was increased to 12-32 mm, however, steady-state Ca2+-dependent f½ and RF were observed. In a given [Ca2+]e reduction of [Na+]e increased f½. In the transient state following cessation of regular stimulation at more rapid rates (12-96 min-1) intensity fluctuations were present in all [Ca2+]e and decayed with time (seconds to minutes); the f½ and time course of the decay of the fluctuations were determined by the rate of prior stimulation and [Ca2+]e. 4. Maximum potentiation of twitch force in response to the above inotropic interventions was associated with an optimal level of f½ which was similar in both species; when higher levels of f½ were produced by more intense inotropic intervention, twitch force declined. Over the range of inotropic intervention up to and including that at which maximum twitch potentiation occurred, the increase in diastolic f½ predicted the extent of twitch potentiation with a high degree of accuracy (r > 0.97) both in the transient and steady states. 5. In contrast to the

  4. Unitaxial constant velocity microactuator

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniaxial drive system or microactuator capable of operating in an ultra-high vacuum environment. The mechanism includes a flexible coupling having a bore therethrough, and two clamp/pusher assemblies mounted in axial ends of the coupling. The clamp/pusher assemblies are energized by voltage-operated piezoelectrics therewithin to operatively engage the shaft and coupling causing the shaft to move along its rotational axis through the bore. The microactuator is capable of repeatably positioning to sub-manometer accuracy while affording a scan range in excess of 5 centimeters. Moreover, the microactuator generates smooth, constant velocity motion profiles while producing a drive thrust of greater than 10 pounds. The system is remotely controlled and piezoelectrically driven, hence minimal thermal loading, vibrational excitation, or outgassing is introduced to the operating environment.

  5. The usefulness of left atrial volume index and left ventricular mass index in determining subclinical cardiac involvement in patients with early-stage sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kasapkara, H A; Şentürk, A; Bilen, E; Duran Karaduman, B; Ayhan, H; Özen, M B; Durmaz, T; Keleş, T; Bozkurt, E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The present study has been designed to evaluate the importance of diastolic dysfunction with left atrial volume index (LAVi) and left ventricular mass index (LVMi) in determining subclinical cardiac involvement in subjects with stage I-II pulmonary sarcoidosis. A total of 54 patients under follow-up for sarcoidosis without cardiac involvement and 56 healthy subjects were included in the study. The echocardiographic assessment of the patients revealed no significant difference between the two groups regarding left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters, ejection fraction (LVEF) and annular velocity determined by tissue Doppler evaluation. The LVEF calculated was 61.8 ± 7.8 % in the sarcoidosis group versus 64.1 ± 2.7 % in the control group (p = 0.04). Left ventricular interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, and relative wall thickness were significantly higher in the sarcoidosis group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The sarcoidosis group had higher LVM and LVMi values compared to the control group (145 ± 18.1 and 79 ± 14 g/m(2), 135 ± 27.7 and 74 ± 14.2 g/m(2); p = 0.020 and p = 0.021, respectively). Left atrial end-systolic volume and LAVi were higher in the sarcoidosis group (28.7 ± 18.5; 15.6 ± 10.2) compared to the control group (16.6 ± 10.9; 8.9 ± 5.5) with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). The present study indicates diastolic dysfunction and increased LVMi despite normal systolic function in patients with early-stage sarcoidosis without cardiac involvement. Also, the diastolic parameters were normal without showing any significant difference compared to the control group while there was a statistically significant increase in LAVi. This finding suggests that LAVi may be the earliest marker of diastolic dysfunction in patients with early-stage sarcoidosis without cardiac

  6. [Antegrade diastolic blood flow and classic reflux in varicose dilatation of the intersaphenous vein].

    PubMed

    Shaidakov, E V; Rosukhovsky, D A; Grigoryan, A G; Bulatov, V L; Ilyukhin, E A

    2016-01-01

    In the intersaphenous vein (ISV) there may take place the so-called "antegrade" or "paradoxical" reflux. This type of blood flow is revealed in a series of patients during muscular diastole and is a link of the pathogenesis of varicose disease, but has, as distinct from the "classical" reflux, an antegrade direction. An incompetent saphenopopliteal junction (SPJ) is a source of the antegrade diastolic blood flow (ADBF) through the ISV. Descriptions of possible variants of impaired blood flow through the ISV are fragmentary and their interpretations are controversial. Prevalence and pathogenesis of these disorders impairments have not yet been studied. A cross-sectional study: over 4 years three centres examined a total of 1,413 patients diagnosed with class C2-C6 varicose veins according the CEAP classification. All patients underwent ultrasound duplex scanning of lower limb veins. The ADBF was determined as a unidirectional antegrade blood flow with the duration of not more than 0.5 second, observed after the crus was relived of compression (in the diastole). Of the patients included into the study who had no varicose veins on the contralateral extremity with the ISV being spotted we sequentially selected 40 subjects including them into the Study Group for the analysis of blood flow and the diameter of the ISV in health. Impairments of blood flow in the ISV were revealed in 61 (4.8%) of 1,265 extremities included into the study: the "classical" reflux in 9 (14.8%) limbs, ADBF was revealed in 37 (60.7%) limbs, a combination of the "classical" blood flow and ADBF - in 15 (24.6%) limbs. Hence, the patients were subdivided into three groups. Studying the nature of blood flow through the ISV in the control group on 40 lower limbs revealed no blood flow disorders. The mean ISV diameter amounted to 1.68 mm (ME=1 mm). The ISV diameter was considerably higher in all studied groups as compared with the control one (p<0.0001). The diameter of the ISV in its proximal portion

  7. [Association between urinary microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hang; Xue, Hao; Wang, Guangyi; Fu, Zhenhong; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yajun

    2015-04-01

    To explore the association between urinary microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in hypertensive patients. A total of 877 primary hypertension patients were enrolled in this trial from September 2009 to December 2012, and were randomly recruited and patients were divided into normal ACR group (ACR < 30 mg/g, n = 723), micro-albuminuria group (30 mg/g ≤ ACR < 300 mg/g, n = 136) and macro-albuminuria group (ACR ≥ 300 mg/g, n = 18). baPWV was measure by automatic pulse wave velocity measuring system. The baPWV values in patients of micro-albuminuria group and macro-albuminuria group were significantly higher than in the normal ACR group (all P < 0.05). The baPWV value of macro-albuminuria group was significantly higher than in the micro-albuminuria group (P < 0.05). Linear correlation analysis revealed that ACR was positively correlated with baPWV (r = 0.413, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ACR independently correlated with baPWV in patients with primary hypertension (β = 0.29, R(2) = 0.112, P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Using ACR < 30 mg/g and ACR ≥ 30 mg/g as dichotomous variable, binary logistic regression analysis showed that ACR ≥ 30 mg/g was also a risk factor of the ascending baPWV in primary hypertension patients (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.62-2.98) after adjusting the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. ACR is positively correlated to baPWV in primary hypertension patients, and the ascending baPWV is a risk factor of early renal dysfunction in primary hypertension patients.

  8. The a´ velocity in the tissue Doppler predicts S/D ratio <1 in patients with a normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Benny; Lundin, Fredrik; Tegeback, Rolf; Bojö, Leif

    2018-04-13

    To compare the ability of the a´ velocity and the e´ velocity in predicting a dominant diastolic pulmonary vein flow (S/D ratio <1) in patients with normal ejection fraction. We retrospectively evaluated the diastolic function according to the ASE/EACVI guidelines, the S/D ratio and the septal, lateral and average a´ velocity in 293 unselected in-hospital patients, aged 39-86 years, in sinus rhythm and with no or mild valve disease, having a normal systolic function (EF >50%). There was a good linear correlation between the S/D ratio and the a´ velocity, but a tendency towards a negative correlation between the S/D ratio and the e´ velocity. S/D ratio <1 was seen in 43 patients. These patients had a significantly lower a´ velocity compared to those with S/D-ratio ≥1, septal (6,1 ± 2,4 v 8,8 ± 2,1 cm/s; p < .001) and lateral (6,0 ± 2,6 v 9,3 ± 2,5 cm/s; p < .001) No significant difference was seen in the septal e´ velocity (6,8 ± 2,4 v 6,8 ± 2,1 cm/s), lateral e´ velocity (9,4 ± 2,6 v 9,1 ± 2,8 cm/s) or in the ejection fraction (58,6 ± 4,4% v 58,7 ± 4,0%). A diastolic dysfunction was present in 62 patients, normal diastolic function in 231 patients. The a´ velocity was significantly lower in patients with S/D ratio <1 in both groups (p < .01). The a´ velocity is superior to the e´ velocity in predicting S/D ratio <1 in patients with normal ejection fraction regardless the ASE/EACVI diastolic classification. A failing left atrium seems to be the explanation.

  9. A high-sugar and high-fat diet impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in mice.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Salvatore; Mauro, Adolfo G; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Marchetti, Carlo; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Abbate, Antonio; Toldo, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, exercise intolerance and cardiac dysfunction. Unhealthy diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and heart disease, but whether it directly affects cardiac function, and promotes the development and progression of HF is unknown. We fed 8-week old male or female CD-1 mice with a standard diet (SD) or a diet rich in saturated fat and sugar, resembling a "Western" diet (WD). Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was measured at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks by Doppler echocardiography, and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by cardiac catheterization prior to sacrifice. An additional group of mice received WD for 4 weeks followed by SD (wash-out) for 8 weeks. WD-fed mice experienced a significant decreased in LV ejection fraction (LVEF), reflecting impaired systolic function, and a significant increase in isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), myocardial performance index (MPI), and LVEDP, showing impaired diastolic function, without any sex-related differences. Switching to a SD after 4 weeks of WD partially reversed the cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction. A diet rich in saturated fat and sugars (WD) impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in the mouse. Further studies are required to define the mechanism through which diet affects cardiac function, and whether dietary interventions can be used in patients with, or at risk for, HF. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  11. Hydrokinetic canal measurements: inflow velocity, wake flow velocity, and turbulence

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gunawan, Budi

    2014-06-11

    The dataset consist of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) velocity measurements in the wake of a 3-meter diameter vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbine deployed in Roza Canal, Yakima, WA, USA. A normalized hub-centerline wake velocity profile and two cross-section velocity contours, 10 meters and 20 meters downstream of the turbine, are presented. Mean velocities and turbulence data, measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) at 50 meters upstream of the turbine, are also presented. Canal dimensions and hydraulic properties, and turbine-related information are also included.

  12. Particle Velocity Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the velocity of individual food particles within a liquid/solid food mixture that is cooked by an aseptic cooking method whereby the food mixture is heated as it flows through a flowline. At least one upstream and at least one downstream microwave transducer are provided to determine the minimum possible travel time of the fastest food particle through the flowline. In one embodiment, the upstream detector is not required. In another embodiment, a plurality of small dipole antenna markers are secured to a plurality of food particles to provide a plurality of signals as the markers pass the upstream and downstream transducers. The dipole antenna markers may also include a non-linear element to reradiate a harmonic frequency of a transmitter frequency. Upstream and downstream transducers include dipole antennas that are matched to the impedance of the food slurry and a signal transmission cable by various impedance matching means including unbalanced feed to the antennas.

  13. Truncation of titin's elastic PEVK region leads to cardiomyopathy with diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Granzier, Henk L; Radke, Michael H; Peng, Jun; Westermann, Dirk; Nelson, O Lynne; Rost, Katharina; King, Nicholas M P; Yu, Qianli; Tschöpe, Carsten; McNabb, Mark; Larson, Douglas F; Labeit, Siegfried; Gotthardt, Michael

    2009-09-11

    The giant protein titin plays key roles in myofilament assembly and determines the passive mechanical properties of the sarcomere. The cardiac titin molecule has 2 mayor elastic elements, the N2B and the PEVK region. Both have been suggested to determine the elastic properties of the heart with loss of function data only available for the N2B region. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of titin's proline-glutamate-valine-lysine (PEVK) region to biomechanics and growth of the heart. We removed a portion of the PEVK segment (exons 219 to 225; 282 aa) that corresponds to the PEVK element of N2B titin, the main cardiac titin isoform. Adult homozygous PEVK knockout (KO) mice developed diastolic dysfunction, as determined by pressure-volume loops, echocardiography, isolated heart experiments, and muscle mechanics. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed increased strain of the N2B element, a spring region retained in the PEVK-KO. Interestingly, the PEVK-KO mice had hypertrophied hearts with an induction of the hypertrophy and fetal gene response that includes upregulation of FHL proteins. This contrasts the cardiac atrophy phenotype with decreased FHL2 levels that result from the deletion of the N2B element. Titin's PEVK region contributes to the elastic properties of the cardiac ventricle. Our findings are consistent with a model in which strain of the N2B spring element and expression of FHL proteins trigger cardiac hypertrophy. These novel findings provide a molecular basis for the future differential therapy of isolated diastolic dysfunction versus more complex cardiomyopathies.

  14. Superior diastolic function with KATP channel opener diazoxide in a novel mouse Langendorff model.

    PubMed

    Makepeace, Carol M; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Kanter, Evelyn M; Schuessler, Richard B; Nichols, Colin G; Lawton, Jennifer S

    2018-07-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channel openers have been found to be cardioprotective in multiple animal models via an unknown mechanism. Mouse models allow genetic manipulation of K ATP channel components for the investigation of this mechanism. Mouse Langendorff models using 30 min of global ischemia are known to induce measurable myocardial infarction and injury. Prolongation of global ischemia in a mouse Langendorff model could allow the determination of the mechanisms involved in K ATP channel opener cardioprotection. Mouse hearts (C57BL/6) underwent baseline perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (30 min), assessment of function using a left ventricular balloon, delivery of test solution, and prolonged global ischemia (90 min). Hearts underwent reperfusion (30 min) and functional assessment. Coronary flow was measured using an inline probe. Test solutions included were as follows: hyperkalemic cardioplegia alone (CPG, n = 11) or with diazoxide (CPG + DZX, n = 12). Although the CPG + DZX group had greater percent recovery of developed pressure and coronary flow, this was not statistically significant. Following a mean of 74 min (CPG) and 77 min (CPG + DZX), an additional increase in end-diastolic pressure was noted (plateau), which was significantly higher in the CPG group. Similarly, the end-diastolic pressure (at reperfusion and at the end of experiment) was significantly higher in the CPG group. Prolongation of global ischemia demonstrated added benefit when DZX was added to traditional hyperkalemic CPG. This model will allow the investigation of DZX mechanism of cardioprotection following manipulation of targeted K ATP channel components. This model will also allow translation to prolonged ischemic episodes associated with cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IGF-1 Prevents Diastolic and Systolic Dysfunction Associated with Cardiomyopathy and Preserves Adrenergic Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Roof, Steve R.; Boslett, James; Russell, Duncan; del Rio, Carlos; Alecusan, Joe; Zweier, Jay L.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Hamlin, Robert; Mohler, Peter J.; Curran, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Aims Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-dependent signaling promotes exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy. However, the in vivo therapeutic potential of IGF-1 for heart disease is not well established. Here we test the potential therapeutic benefits of IGF-1 on cardiac function using an in vivo model of chronic catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods Rats were perfused with isoproterenol via osmotic pump (1 mg/kg/day) and treated with 2 mg/kg IGF-1 (2 mg/kg/day, 6 days a week) for 2 or 4 weeks. Echocardiography, ECG, and blood pressure were assessed. In vivo pressure-volume loop studies were conducted at 4 weeks. Heart sections were analyzed for fibrosis and apoptosis, and relevant biochemical signaling cascades were assessed. Results After 4 weeks, diastolic function (EDPVR, EDP, tau, E/A ratio), systolic function (PRSW, ESPVR, dP/dtmax), and structural remodeling (LV chamber diameter, wall thickness) were all adversely affected in isoproterenol-treated rats. All these detrimental effects were attenuated in rats treated with Iso+IGF-1. Isoproterenol-dependent effects on BP were attenuated by IGF-1 treatment. Adrenergic sensitivity was blunted in isoproterenol-treated rats but was preserved by IGF-1 treatment. Immunoblots indicate that cardioprotective p110α signaling and activated Akt are selectively upregulated in Iso+IGF-1 treated hearts. Expression of iNOS was significantly increased in both the Iso and Iso+IGF-1 groups, however tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels were decreased in the Iso group and maintained by IGF-1 treatment. Conclusion IGF-1 treatment attenuates diastolic and systolic dysfunction associated with chronic catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy while preserving adrenergic sensitivity and promoting BH4 production. These data support the potential use of IGF-1 therapy for clinical applications for cardiomyopathies. PMID:26399932

  16. Cardiac-Specific Deletion of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Impairs Glucose Oxidation Rates and Induces Diastolic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Keshav; Almutairi, Malak; Al Batran, Rami; Eaton, Farah; Gandhi, Manoj; Ussher, John Reyes

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk for cardiomyopathy, which is the presence of ventricular dysfunction in the absence of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. As myocardial energy metabolism is altered during obesity/T2D (increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation), we hypothesized that restricting myocardial glucose oxidation in lean mice devoid of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity/T2D would produce a cardiomyopathy phenotype, characterized via diastolic dysfunction. We tested our hypothesis via producing mice with a cardiac-specific gene knockout for pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, gene name Pdha1 ), the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation. Cardiac-specific Pdha1 deficient ( Pdha1 Cardiac-/- ) mice were generated via crossing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre expressing mouse under the control of the alpha-myosin heavy chain (αMHC-MerCreMer) promoter with a floxed Pdha1 mouse. Energy metabolism and cardiac function were assessed via isolated working heart perfusions and ultrasound echocardiography, respectively. Tamoxifen administration produced an ~85% reduction in PDH protein expression in Pdha1 Cardiac-/- mice versus their control littermates, which resulted in a marked reduction in myocardial glucose oxidation and a corresponding increase in palmitate oxidation. This myocardial metabolism profile did not impair systolic function in Pdha1 Cardiac-/- mice, which had comparable left ventricular ejection fractions and fractional shortenings as their αMHC-MerCreMer control littermates, but did produce diastolic dysfunction as seen via the reduced mitral E/A ratio. Therefore, it does appear that forced restriction of glucose oxidation in the hearts of Pdha1 Cardiac-/- mice is sufficient to produce a cardiomyopathy-like phenotype, independent of the perturbed metabolic milieu observed in obesity and/or T2D.

  17. Relationship between diastolic ventricular dysfunction and subclinical sleep-disordered breathing in atrial fibrillation ablation candidates.

    PubMed

    Kaitani, Kazuaki; Kondo, Hirokazu; Hanazawa, Koji; Onishi, Naoaki; Hayama, Yukiko; Tsujimura, Akira; Kuroda, Maiko; Nishimura, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Takahashi, Yusuke; Amano, Masashi; Imamura, Sari; Tamaki, Yodo; Enomoto, Soichiro; Miyake, Makoto; Tamura, Toshihiro; Motooka, Makoto; Izumi, Chisato; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is recognized as a primary factor or mediator of atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that the severity of SDB among AF ablation candidates would be associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) even for subclinical SDB. A total of 246 patients hospitalized for initial pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) were analyzed. Known SDB cases were excluded. We measured the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) by pulse oximetry overnight as an indicator of SDB, and classified SDB severity by 3 % ODI as normal (ODI < 5 events/h), mild (ODI ≤ 5 to <15 events/h), or moderate-to-severe (ODI ≥15 events/h). The LVDD was assessed by echocardiography using combined categories with tissue Doppler imaging and left atrial (LA) volume measurement. Among the participants, 42 patients (17.1 %) had LVDD. The prevalence of LVDD increased with the SDB severity from 8.6 % (normal) to 12.7 % (mild) to 40.0 % (moderate-to-severe SDB) (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of having LVDD in the moderate-to-severe SDB group (ODI ≥ 15) vs. normal group (ODI < 5) was 5.96 (95 % CI, 2.10-19.00, P = 0.006). The presence of moderate-to-severe SDB in AF ablation candidates adversely affected LV diastolic function even during a subclinical state of SDB.

  18. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, J M; Whitehouse, R H

    1976-01-01

    New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls. PMID:952550

  19. Normal Ranges of Right Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Strain Measures in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Philip T.; Sanchez, Aura; Machefsky, Aliza; Fowler, Susan; Holland, Mark R.; Singh, Gautam K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishment of the range of normal values and associated variations of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) derived right ventricular (RV) strain is a prerequisite for its routine clinical application in children. The objectives of this study were to perform a meta-analysis of normal ranges of RV longitudinal strain measurements derived by 2DSTE in children and identify confounders that may contribute to differences in reported measures. Methods A systematic review was launched in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, and ClinicTrials.gov. Search hedges were created to cover the concepts of pediatrics, speckle-tracking echocardiography, and right heart ventricle. Two investigators independently identified and included studies if they reported the 2DSTE derived RV strain measures: RV peak global longitudinal strain (pGLS), systolic strain rate (pGLSRs), early diastolic strain rate (pGLSRe), late diastolic strain rate (pGLSRa), or segmental longitudinal strain at the apical, mid, and basal ventricular levels in healthy children. Quality and reporting of the studies were assessed. The weighted mean was estimated by using random-effects with 95% confidence intervals (CI), heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2), and publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots and the Egger test. Effects of demographic, clinical, equipment, and software variables were assessed in a meta-regression. Results The search identified 226 children from 10 studies. The reported normal mean values of pGLS among the studies varied from −20.80% to −34.10% (mean, −29.03%, 95%CI, −31.52% to −26.54%), pGLSRs varied from −1.30 to −2.40 1/sec (mean, −1.88, 95%CI, −2.10 to −1.59), pGLSRe ranged from 1.7 to 2.69 1/sec (mean, 2.34, 95%CI, 2.00 to 2.67) and pGLSRa ranged from 1.00 to 1.30 1/sec (mean, 1.18, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.33). A significant base-to-apex segmental strain gradient (p <0.05) was

  20. Velocity distributions among colliding asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottke, William F., Jr.; Nolan, Michael C.; Greenberg, Richard; Kolvoord, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The probability distribution for impact velocities between two given asteroids is wide, non-Gaussian, and often contains spikes according to our new method of analysis in which each possible orbital geometry for collision is weighted according to its probability. An average value would give a good representation only if the distribution were smooth and narrow. Therefore, the complete velocity distribution we obtain for various asteroid populations differs significantly from published histograms of average velocities. For all pairs among the 682 asteroids in the main-belt with D greater than 50 km, we find that our computed velocity distribution is much wider than previously computed histograms of average velocities. In this case, the most probable impact velocity is approximately 4.4 km/sec, compared with the mean impact velocity of 5.3 km/sec. For cases of a single asteroid (e.g., Gaspra or Ida) relative to an impacting population, the distribution we find yields lower velocities than previously reported by others. The width of these velocity distributions implies that mean impact velocities must be used with caution when calculating asteroid collisional lifetimes or crater-size distributions. Since the most probable impact velocities are lower than the mean, disruption events may occur less frequently than previously estimated. However, this disruption rate may be balanced somewhat by an apparent increase in the frequency of high-velocity impacts between asteroids. These results have implications for issues such as asteroidal disruption rates, the amount/type of impact ejecta available for meteoritical delivery to the Earth, and the geology and evolution of specific asteroids like Gaspra.

  1. Knockout of TRPV1 Exacerbates Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by A High-fat Diet in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Beihua; Rubinstein, Jack; Ma, Shuangtao; Wang, Donna H

    2018-05-03

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in sensory nerves have anti-oxidative properties and counteract obesity and diabetes that are associated with diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction. We tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 knockout exacerbates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and diastolic dysfunction. Trpv1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were fed chow diet or HFD for 20 weeks. Then, we performed the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, measured the heart function through transthoracic echocardiography and Langendorff heart perfusion system, analyzed cardiac histology, and measured the myocardial superoxide production and the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. HFD increased body weight, heart weight, and levels of fasting glucose, insulin, and leptin in both strains, with no differences between two strains. HFD impaired glucose tolerance in both strains with a more profound effect in Trpv1-/- than WT mice. HFD increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter in diastole in both strains, while increased LV posterior wall thickness in diastole in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. HFD increased LV end-diastolic pressure in both strains with a further increase in Trpv1-/- mice, while decreased -dP/dt in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. HFD-induced cardiac collagen deposition and superoxide production were enhanced in Trpv1-/- mice. HFD upregulated cardiac p22phox in both strains, while increased p47phox in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. In summary, TRPV1 knockout exacerbates HFD-induced glucose intolerance, cardiac oxidative stress and collagen deposition, leading to aggravated LV diastolic dysfunction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Post-exercise contractility, diastolic function, and pressure: Operator-independent sensor-based intelligent monitoring for heart failure telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Bombardini, Tonino; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Bianchini, Elisabetta; Pasanisi, Emilio; Pratali, Lorenza; Pianelli, Mascia; Faita, Francesco; Giannoni, Massimo; Arpesella, Giorgio; Sicari, Rosa; Picano, Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    Background New sensors for intelligent remote monitoring of the heart should be developed. Recently, a cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system has been validated based on heart sound amplitude and timing variations at increasing heart rates. Aim To assess sensor-based post-exercise contractility, diastolic function and pressure in normal and diseased hearts as a model of a wireless telemedicine system. Methods We enrolled 150 patients and 22 controls referred for exercise-stress echocardiography, age 55 ± 18 years. The sensor was attached in the precordial region by an ECG electrode. Stress and recovery contractility were derived by first heart sound amplitude vibration changes; diastolic times were acquired continuously. Systemic pressure changes were quantitatively documented by second heart sound recording. Results Interpretable sensor recordings were obtained in all patients (feasibility = 100%). Post-exercise contractility overshoot (defined as increase > 10% of recovery contractility vs exercise value) was more frequent in patients than controls (27% vs 8%, p < 0.05). At 100 bpm stress heart rate, systolic/diastolic time ratio (normal, < 1) was > 1 in 20 patients and in none of the controls (p < 0.01); at recovery systolic/diastolic ratio was > 1 in only 3 patients (p < 0.01 vs stress). Post-exercise reduced arterial pressure was sensed. Conclusion Post-exercise contractility, diastolic time and pressure changes can be continuously measured by a cutaneous sensor. Heart disease affects not only exercise systolic performance, but also post-exercise recovery, diastolic time intervals and blood pressure changes – in our study, all of these were monitored by a non-invasive wearable sensor. PMID:19442285

  3. Geographic origin as a determinant of left ventricular mass and diastolic function - the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Vähämurto, L; Juonala, M; Ruohonen, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Kähönen, M; Laitinen, T; Tossavainen, P; Jokinen, E; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T; Pahkala, K

    2018-03-01

    Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function. The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years. Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139±1.0 vs. 135±1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e'-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86±0.03 vs. 4.74±0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: p<0.0001; E/e'-ratio: p=0.01). LV end-diastolic volume was higher among subjects with eastern baseline origin (135±0.9 vs. 131±0.9 ml, p=0.0011) but left atrial end-systolic volume, also indicating LV diastolic function, was not different between eastern and western subjects (43.4±0.5 vs. 44.0±0.5 ml, p=0.45). Most of the subjects were well within the normal limits of these echocardiographic measurements. In our healthy middle-aged population, geographic origin in eastern Finland associated with higher LV mass compared to western Finland. Higher E/e'-ratio suggests that subjects with eastern baseline origin might have higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in the future than western subjects.

  4. Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition with empagliflozin improves cardiac diastolic function in a female rodent model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Javad; Aroor, Annayya R; Sowers, James R; Jia, Guanghong; Hayden, Melvin R; Garro, Mona; Barron, Brady; Mayoux, Eric; Rector, R Scott; Whaley-Connell, Adam; DeMarco, Vincent G

    2017-01-13

    Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice. Eleven week old female db/db mice were fed normal mouse chow, with or without EMPA, for 5 weeks. Blood pressure (BP), HbA1c and fasting glucose were significantly increased in untreated db/db mice (DbC) (P < 0.01). EMPA treatment (DbE) improved glycemic indices (P < 0.05), but not BP (P > 0.05). At baseline, DbC and DbE had already established impaired diastolic relaxation as indicated by impaired septal wall motion (>tissue Doppler derived E'/A' ratio) and increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure (diastolic function improved with EMPA treatment. In DbC, myocardial fibrosis was accompanied by increased expression of profibrotic/prohypertrophic proteins, serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), and the development of these abnormalities were reduced with EMPA. DbC exhibited eccentric LV hypertrophy that was slightly improved by EMPA, indicated by a reduction in cardiomyocyte cross sectional area. In summary, EMPA improved glycemic indices along with diastolic relaxation, as well as SGK1/ENaC profibrosis signaling and associated interstitial fibrosis, all of which occurred in the absence of any changes in BP.

  5. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (sigma*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  6. Increased response of diastolic blood pressure to exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: an index of latent ventricular dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevaidis, I A; Kremastinos, D T; Kassimatis, A S; Karavolias, G K; Kordosis, G D; Kyriakides, Z S; Toutouzas, P K

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an abnormal response of diastolic blood pressure during treadmill exercise stress testing correlated with the number of obstructed vessels and with left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease. DESIGN--Diastolic blood pressure was measured invasively during exercise stress testing and coronary angiograms and left ventriculograms were obtained at rest in patients with coronary artery disease. The abnormal (> or = 15 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure response was compared with the number of obstructed coronary arteries and with left ventricular systolic function. SETTING--Two tertiary referral centres. PATIENTS--50 consecutive patients (mean age 57 years) with coronary artery disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The increase in diastolic blood pressure during exercise and its correlation with the appearance and disappearance of ST segment deviation, resting left ventricular systolic function, and the number of obstructed coronary arteries. RESULTS--Group 1: 10 (20%) patients (three with one, four with two, and three with three vessel coronary artery disease) (mean (SD) age 54.7 (12) years) had an abnormal diastolic blood pressure response that appeared 1.2 (0.3) min before ST segment deviation and became normal 0.9 (0.3) min after the ST segment returned to normal. Group 2: 40 (80%) patients (12 with one, 16 with two, and 12 with three vessel coronary arteries disease) (aged 56.8 (8.2) years) had a normal diastolic blood pressure response to stress testing. The ejection fraction (46.3 (5)%) and cardiac index (2.6 (0.1) 1/min/m2) in group 1 were less than in group 2 (61.6 (4.2)% and 3.8 (0.3) 1/min/m2 respectively, p < or = 0.001). The end systolic volume was greater in group 1 than in group 2: 38.7 (0.7 ml/m2 v 28.2 (2.1) ml/m2, p < or = 0.001. CONCLUSION--In patients with coronary artery disease an abnormal increase in diastolic blood pressure during exercise stress testing correlated well with left ventricular

  7. Validity of the Water Hammer Formula for Determining Regional Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity: Comparison of One-Point and Two-Point (Foot-to-Foot) Measurements Using a Multisensor Catheter in Human.

    PubMed

    Hanya, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Lack of high-fidelity simultaneous measurements of pressure and flow velocity in the aorta has impeded the direct validation of the water-hammer formula for estimating regional aortic pulse wave velocity (AO-PWV1) and has restricted the study of the change of beat-to-beat AO-PWV1 under varying physiological conditions in man. Aortic pulse wave velocity was derived using two methods in 15 normotensive subjects: 1) the conventional two-point (foot-to-foot) method (AO-PWV2) and 2) a one-point method (AO-PWV1) in which the pressure velocity-loop (PV-loop) was analyzed based on the water hammer formula using simultaneous measurements of flow velocity (Vm) and pressure (Pm) at the same site in the proximal aorta using a multisensor catheter. AO-PWV1 was calculated from the slope of the linear regression line between Pm and Vm where wave reflection (Pb) was at a minimum in early systole in the PV-loop using the water hammer formula, PWV1 = (Pm/Vm)/ρ, where ρ is the blood density. AO-PWV2 was calculated using the conventional two-point measurement method as the distance/traveling time of the wave between 2 sites for measuring P in the proximal aorta. Beat-to-beat alterations of AO-PWV1 in relationship to aortic pressure and linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop during a Valsalva maneuver were also assessed in one subject. The initial part of the loop became steeper in association with the beat-to-beat increase in diastolic pressure in phase 4 during the Valsalva maneuver. The linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop was maintained consistently during the maneuver. Flow velocity vs. pressure in the proximal aorta was highly linear during early systole, with Pearson's coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The average values of AO-PWV1 and AO-PWV2 were 6.3 ± 1.2 and 6.7 ± 1.3 m/s, respectively. The regression line of AO-PWV1 on AO-PWV2 was y = 0.95x + 0.68 (r = 0.93, p <0.001). This study concluded that the water-hammer formula (one-point method) provides

  8. Validity of the Water Hammer Formula for Determining Regional Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity: Comparison of One-Point and Two-Point (Foot-to-Foot) Measurements Using a Multisensor Catheter in Human

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of high-fidelity simultaneous measurements of pressure and flow velocity in the aorta has impeded the direct validation of the water-hammer formula for estimating regional aortic pulse wave velocity (AO-PWV1) and has restricted the study of the change of beat-to-beat AO-PWV1 under varying physiological conditions in man. Methods: Aortic pulse wave velocity was derived using two methods in 15 normotensive subjects: 1) the conventional two-point (foot-to-foot) method (AO-PWV2) and 2) a one-point method (AO-PWV1) in which the pressure velocity-loop (PV-loop) was analyzed based on the water hammer formula using simultaneous measurements of flow velocity (Vm) and pressure (Pm) at the same site in the proximal aorta using a multisensor catheter. AO-PWV1 was calculated from the slope of the linear regression line between Pm and Vm where wave reflection (Pb) was at a minimum in early systole in the PV-loop using the water hammer formula, PWV1 = (Pm/Vm)/ρ, where ρ is the blood density. AO-PWV2 was calculated using the conventional two-point measurement method as the distance/traveling time of the wave between 2 sites for measuring P in the proximal aorta. Beat-to-beat alterations of AO-PWV1 in relationship to aortic pressure and linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop during a Valsalva maneuver were also assessed in one subject. Results: The initial part of the loop became steeper in association with the beat-to-beat increase in diastolic pressure in phase 4 during the Valsalva maneuver. The linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop was maintained consistently during the maneuver. Flow velocity vs. pressure in the proximal aorta was highly linear during early systole, with Pearson’s coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The average values of AO-PWV1 and AO-PWV2 were 6.3 ± 1.2 and 6.7 ± 1.3 m/s, respectively. The regression line of AO-PWV1 on AO-PWV2 was y = 0.95x + 0.68 (r = 0.93, p <0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that the

  9. Velocity ratio and its application to predicting velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2003-01-01

    The velocity ratio of water-saturated sediment derived from the Biot-Gassmann theory depends mainly on the Biot coefficient?a property of dry rock?for consolidated sediments with porosity less than the critical porosity. With this theory, the shear moduli of dry sediments are the same as the shear moduli of water-saturated sediments. Because the velocity ratio depends on the Biot coefficient explicitly, Biot-Gassmann theory accurately predicts velocity ratios with respect to differential pressure for a given porosity. However, because the velocity ratio is weakly related to porosity, it is not appropriate to investigate the velocity ratio with respect to porosity (f). A new formulation based on the assumption that the velocity ratio is a function of (1?f)n yields a velocity ratio that depends on porosity, but not on the Biot coefficient explicitly. Unlike the Biot-Gassmann theory, the shear moduli of water-saturated sediments depend not only on the Biot coefficient but also on the pore fluid. This nonclassical behavior of the shear modulus of water-saturated sediment is speculated to be an effect of interaction between fluid and the solid matrix, resulting in softening or hardening of the rock frame and an effect of velocity dispersion owing to local fluid flow. The exponent n controls the degree of softening/hardening of the formation. Based on laboratory data measured near 1 MHz, this theory is extended to include the effect of differential pressure on the velocity ratio by making n a function of differential pressure and consolidation. However, the velocity dispersion and anisotropy are not included in the formulation.

  10. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  11. Central arterial stiffness and diastolic dysfunction are associated with insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in young women but polycystic ovary syndrome does not confer additional risk.

    PubMed

    Rees, E; Coulson, R; Dunstan, F; Evans, W D; Blundell, H L; Luzio, S D; Dunseath, G; Halcox, J P; Fraser, A G; Rees, D A

    2014-09-01

    Are arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and diastolic dysfunction increased in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) independently of the effects of obesity? Insulin resistance and central obesity are associated with subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction in young women, but a diagnosis of PCOS does not appear to confer additional risk at this age. Some studies have shown that young women with PCOS may have increased measures of cardiovascular risk, including arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and myocardial dysfunction. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS per se and how much is due to obesity and insulin resistance, which are common in PCOS and themselves associated with greater vascular risk. This cross-sectional study comprised 84 women with PCOS and 95 healthy volunteers, aged 16-45 years. The study was conducted in a university hospital. Subjects underwent a comprehensive assessment of body composition (including computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral fat; VF), measurements of arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity; aPWV), common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), diastolic function (longitudinal tissue velocity; e':a') and endocrinological measures. A sample size of 80 in each group gave 80% power for detecting a difference of 0.45 m/s in aPWV or a difference of 0.25 in e':a'. After adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), PCOS subjects had a greater insulin response (insulin area under the curve-IAUC) following glucose challenge (adjusted difference [AD] 35 900 pmol min/l, P < 0.001) and higher testosterone (AD 0.57 nmol/l, P < 0.001) and high molecular weight adiponectin than controls (AD 3.01 µg/ml, P = 0.02), but no significant differences in aPWV (AD -0.13 m/s, P = 0.33), ccIMT (AD -0.01 mm, P = 0.13), or e':a' (AD -0.01, P = 0.86) were observed. After adjustment for age, height and central pulse pressure, e':a' and aPWV were associated with log

  12. Preliminary comparison between real-time in-vivo spectral and transverse oscillation velocity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per; Hansen, Jens Munk; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-03-01

    Spectral velocity estimation is considered the gold standard in medical ultrasound. Peak systole (PS), end diastole (ED), and resistive index (RI) are used clinically. Angle correction is performed using a flow angle set manually. With Transverse Oscillation (TO) velocity estimates the flow angle, peak systole (PSTO), end diastole (EDTO), and resistive index (RITO) are estimated. This study investigates if these clinical parameters are estimated equally good using spectral and TO data. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned longitudinally. Average TO flow angles and std were calculated { 52+/-18 ; 55+/-23 ; 60+/-16 }°. Spectral angles { 52 ; 56 ; 52 }° were obtained from the B-mode images. Obtained values are: PSTO { 76+/-15 ; 89+/-28 ; 77+/-7 } cm/s, spectral PS { 77 ; 110 ; 76 } cm/s, EDTO { 10+/-3 ; 14+/-8 ; 15+/-3 } cm/s, spectral ED { 18 ; 13 ; 20 } cm/s, RITO { 0.87+/-0.05 ; 0.79+/-0.21 ; 0.79+/-0.06 }, and spectral RI { 0.77 ; 0.88 ; 0.73 }. Vector angles are within +/-two std of the spectral angle. TO velocity estimates are within +/-three std of the spectral estimates. RITO are within +/-two std of the spectral estimates. Preliminary data indicates that the TO and spectral velocity estimates are equally good. With TO there is no manual angle setting and no flow angle limitation. TO velocity estimation can also automatically handle situations where the angle varies over the cardiac cycle. More detailed temporal and spatial vector estimates with diagnostic potential are available with the TO velocity estimation.

  13. Vortex-ring mixing as a measure of diastolic function of the human heart: Phantom validation and initial observations in healthy volunteers and patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Töger, Johannes; Kanski, Mikael; Arvidsson, Per M; Carlsson, Marcus; Kovács, Sándor J; Borgquist, Rasmus; Revstedt, Johan; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2016-06-01

    To present and validate a new method for 4D flow quantification of vortex-ring mixing during early, rapid filling of the left ventricle (LV) as a potential index of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure. 4D flow mixing measurements were validated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a phantom setup. Controls (n = 23) and heart failure patients (n = 23) were studied using 4D flow at 1.5T (26 subjects) or 3T (20 subjects) to determine vortex volume (VV) and inflowing volume (VVinflow ). The volume mixed into the vortex-ring was quantified as VVmix-in = VV-VVinflow . The mixing ratio was defined as MXR = VVmix-in /VV. Furthermore, we quantified the fraction of the end-systolic volume (ESV) mixed into the vortex-ring (VVmix-in /ESV) and the fraction of the LV volume at diastasis (DV) occupied by the vortex-ring (VV/DV). PLIF validation of MXR showed fair agreement (R(2) = 0.45, mean ± SD 1 ± 6%). MXR was higher in patients compared to controls (28 ± 11% vs. 16 ± 10%, P < 0.001), while VVmix-in /ESV and VV/DV were lower in patients (10 ± 6% vs. 18 ± 12%, P < 0.01 and 25 ± 8% vs. 50 ± 6%, P < 0.0001). Vortex-ring mixing can be quantified using 4D flow. The differences in mixing parameters observed between controls and patients motivate further investigation as indices of diastolic dysfunction. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1386-1397. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multi-Velocity Component LDV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laser doppler velocimeter uses frequency shifting of a laser beam to provide signal information for each velocity component. A composite electrical signal generated by a light detector is digitized and a processor produces a discrete Fourier transform based on the digitized electrical signal. The transform includes two peak frequencies corresponding to the two velocity components.

  15. Definition of Contravariant Velocity Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Mao; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is an old issue in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). What is the so-called contravariant velocity or contravariant velocity component? In the article, we review the basics of tensor analysis and give the contravariant velocity component a rigorous explanation. For a given coordinate system, there exist two uniquely determined sets of base vector systems - one is the covariant and another is the contravariant base vector system. The two base vector systems are reciprocal. The so-called contravariant velocity component is really the contravariant component of a velocity vector for a time-independent coordinate system, or the contravariant component of a relative velocity between fluid and coordinates, for a time-dependent coordinate system. The contravariant velocity components are not physical quantities of the velocity vector. Their magnitudes, dimensions, and associated directions are controlled by their corresponding covariant base vectors. Several 2-D (two-dimensional) linear examples and 2-D mass-conservation equation are used to illustrate the details of expressing a vector with respect to the covariant and contravariant base vector systems, respectively.

  16. Instantaneous Velocity Using Photogate Timers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbeck, John

    2010-01-01

    Photogate timers are commonly used in physics laboratories to determine the velocity of a passing object. In this application a card attached to a moving object breaks the beam of the photogate timer providing the time for the card to pass. The length L of the passing card can then be divided by this time to yield the average velocity (or speed)…

  17. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Martínez-Larrad, María T; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; González-Sánchez, José L; Zabena, Carina; Martinez-Calatrava, María J; González, Alejandro; Morón, Francisco J; Ruiz, Agustín; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10) has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5) encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A) with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille), recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015) and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025). Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006) and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029). In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029). Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our results also

  18. Clinical variables affecting survival in patients with decompensated diastolic versus systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Oleg; Almoznino-Sarafian, Dorit; Shteinshnaider, Miriam; Alon, Irena; Tzur, Irma; Sokolsky, Ilya; Efrati, Shai; Babakin, Zoanna; Modai, David; Cohen, Natan

    2009-04-01

    The impact of various clinical variables on long-term survival of patients with acutely decompensated diastolic heart failure (DHF) compared to systolic heart failure (SHF) has not been sufficiently investigated. Clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected and analyzed for all-cause mortality in 473 furosemide-treated patients aged >or=60 years, hospitalized for acutely decompensated HF. Diastolic heart failure patients (n = 183) were more likely to be older, female, hypertensive, obese, with shorter preexisting HF duration, atrial fibrillation, lower New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, lower maintenance furosemide dosages, and to receive calcium antagonists. The SHF group (290 patients) demonstrated prevailing coronary artery disease, nitrate or digoxin treatment, and electrocardiographic conduction disturbances (P

  19. Exercise haemodynamics may unmask the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction among patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Maor, Elad; Grossman, Yoni; Balmor, Ronen Gingy; Segel, Michael; Fefer, Paul; Ben-Zekry, Sagit; Buber, Jonathan; DiSegni, Elio; Guetta, Victor; Ben-Dov, Issahar; Segev, Amit

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction can lead to pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of exercise during right heart catheterization in the unmasking of diastolic dysfunction. Between 2004 and 2012, 200 symptomatic patients with exertional dyspnoea, preserved left ventricular systolic function and suspected pulmonary hypertension, underwent right heart catheterization. Included in the study were 63 patients with resting pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤15 mmHg. Patients were divided to three tertiles based on their peak exercise PAWP. Mean age was 60 ± 20 years and 29% were males. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 31 ± 14 mmHg at rest and 42 ± 18 mmHg upon exercise. Mean change in PAWP between rest and exercise was 0.0 ± 4.3, 4.6 ± 2.4, and 16.6 ± 7.1 mmHg in the lower, middle, and upper tertiles, respectively (P < 0.001). Higher exercise PAWP tertiles were associated with reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (8.3 ± 6.7, 2.9 ± 2.7, and 5.8 ± 4.6 Woods units, respectively; P = 0.004). A multivariate linear regression model demonstrated that each 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was associated with 2.5 ± 1.0 mmHg increase in exercise PAWP (P = 0.017). A multivariate binary logistic model showed that subjects with borderline PAWP at rest (12-15 mmHg) were 4.5 times more likely to be in the upper tertile of exercise PAWP (P = 0.011). In symptomatic patients with pulmonary hypertension, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and PAWP ≤15 mmHg, exercise during right heart catheterization may unmask diastolic dysfunction. This is especially true for obese patients and patients with borderline resting PAWP. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  20. Comparison of frequencies of left ventricular systolic and diastolic heart failure in Chinese living in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yip, G W; Ho, P P; Woo, K S; Sanderson, J E

    1999-09-01

    There is a wide variation (13% to 74%) in the reported prevalence of heart failure associated with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function (diastolic heart failure). There is no published information on this condition in China. To ascertain the prevalence of diastolic heart failure in this community, 200 consecutive patients with the typical features of congestive heart failure were studied with standard 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. A LV ejection fraction (LVEF) >45% was considered normal. The results showed that 12.5% had significant valvular heart disease. Of the remaining 175 patients, 132 had a LVEF >45% (75%). Therefore, 66% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of heart failure had a normal LVEF. Heart failure with normal LV systolic function was more common than systolic heart failure in those >70 years old (65% vs 47%; p = 0.015). Most (57%) had an abnormal relaxation pattern in diastole and 14% had a restrictive filling pattern. In the systolic heart failure group, a restrictive filling pattern was more common (46%). There were no significant differences in the sex distribution, etiology, or prevalence of LV hypertrophy between these 2 heart failure groups. In conclusion, heart failure with a normal LVEF or diastolic heart failure is more common than systolic heart failure in Chinese patients with the symptoms of heart failure. This may be related to older age at presentation and the high prevalence of hypertension in this community.

  1. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2010-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  2. Meteor velocity distribution from CILBO double station video camera data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, Esther; Ott, Theresa; Koschny, Detlef; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Poppe, Bjoern

    2014-02-01

    This paper is based on data from the double-station meteor camera setup on the Canary Islands - CILBO. The data has been collected from July 2011 until August 2014. The CILBO meteor data of one year (1 June 2013 - 31 May 2014) were used to analyze the velocity distribution of sporadic meteors and to compare the distribution to a reference distribution for near-Earth space. The velocity distribution for 1 AU outside the influence of Earth derived from the Harvard Radio Meteor Project (HRMP) was used as a reference. This HRMP distribution was converted to an altitude of 100 km by considering the gravitational attraction of Earth. The new, theoretical velocity distribution for a fixed meteoroid mass ranges from 11 - 71 𝑘𝑚/𝑠 and peaks at 12.5 𝑘𝑚/𝑠. This represents the predicted velocity distribution. The velocity distribution of the meteors detected simultaneously by both cameras of the CILBO system was examined. The meteors are sorted by their stream association and especially the velocity distribution of the sporadics is studied closely. The derived sporadic velocity distribution has a maximum at 64 𝑘𝑚/𝑠. This drastic difference to the theoretical curve confirms that fast meteors are usually greatly over-represented in optical and radar measurements of meteors. The majority of the fast sporadics are apparently caused by the Apex contribution in the early morning hours. This paper presents first results of the ongoing analysis of the meteor velocity distribution.