Morgan, Debra; Funk, Melanie; Crossley, Margaret; Basran, Jenny; Kirk, Andrew; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal
Early differential diagnosis of dementia is becoming increasingly important as new pharmacologic therapies are developed, as these treatments are not equally effective for all types of dementia. Early detection and differential diagnosis also facilitates informed family decision making and timely access to appropriate services. Information about…
Krivisheev, A B; Kuimov, A D; Krivosheev, B N
To evaluate differential-diagnostic significance of different clinical signs, endoscopic and serological studies in making diagnosis of early gastric syphilis (EGS) in patients with helicobacter infection. Thirty patients were hospitalized with diagnosis of gastric and/or duodenal ulcer. Helicobacter pylori was identified morphologically or with a rapid urease test. Syphilis was rejected when microprecipitation reaction was negative and confirmed with Wassermann reaction. The patients received standard treatment including a course of eradication therapy. Endoscopic examination discovered single and multiple ulcers in 25 and 5 patients, respectively, located in the stomach and duodenum. A rapid test for syphilis produced negative and positive results in 28 and 2 patients, respectively. Twenty two patients tolerated eradication therapy well. Positive results were achieved in 19 (84.6%) patients. Six patients had side effects (pruritus, urticaria, dyspepsia) on eradication treatment day 2-3. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (elevated body temperature 38-38.6 degrees C) and roseola eruption were observed in 2 (6.7%) patients with positive serological reactions for syphilis on the first day of eradication therapy. Diagnostic criteria of EGS are the following: serologically confirmed manifest or latent syphilis, poor effect of standard antiulcer treatment, rapid elimination of the disease symptoms in antisyphilis therapy and positive changes in pathological alterations in gastric mucosa.
Zabotti, Alen; Errichetti, Enzo; Zuliani, Francesca; Quartuccio, Luca; Sacco, Stefania; Stinco, Giuseppe; De Vita, Salvatore
Exclusion of psoriatic skin/nail lesions is important in differentiating early seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) from early polyarticular psoriatic arthritis (EPsA) and such manifestations may go unnoticed in atypical or minimally expressed cases. The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation in highlighting dermatological lesions missed on rheumatological examination and to investigate the role of ultrasonography (US) and dermoscopy in improving the recognition of subclinical psoriatic findings. Patients with a new diagnosis of seropositive or seronegative ERA and EPsA with prevalent hands involvement were recruited. All were reassessed for the presence of psoriatic lesions during an integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation and underwent hands US and proximal nailfold dermoscopy. Seventy-three consecutive subjects were included in the study: 25 with seropositive ERA, 23 with seronegative ERA, and 25 with EPsA. One-fourth of the subjects initially diagnosed as seronegative ERA presented cutaneous or nail psoriasis on integrated rheumatological-dermatological evaluation, thereby being reclassified as EPsA. The presence of at least 1 extrasynovial feature on hand US and dotted vessels on proximal nailfold dermoscopy was significantly associated with EPsA, with a sensitivity of 68.0% and 96.0% and a specificity of 88.1% and 83.3% for US and dermoscopy, respectively. When used together, specificity for PsA diagnosis raised to 90.5%. Integrated rheumatological-dermatological clinical evaluation may be helpful in identifying patients with EPsA misclassified as seronegative ERA. Additionally, US and dermoscopy may be used as supportive tools in identifying subclinical psoriatic features, which may come in handy in distinguishing EPsA from ERA.
Li, P; Huang, Y; Li, Y; Cai, L; Ji, G H; Zheng, Y; Chen, Z Q
Objective: To evaluate the value of multi-parametric MRI (Mp-MRI) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer(PCa) in the peripheral zone(PZ) and low T 2 WI signal intensity of prostatitis. Methods: A total of 40 patients with PZ early PCa and 37 with prostatitis of hypointense T 2 WI signal in PZ were retrospectively analyzed, which were collected from the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from Janurary 2009 to June 2015, who underwent T 2 WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI examination and all patients were confirmed by pathology. All the data was transferred to GE Advanced Workstation AW4.3, the indexes divided into cancerous and prostatitis regions were calculated by Functool2 of signal intensity-time(SI-T) curve and ADC value, to calcuate the time to minimum(T max ), the whole enhancment degree (SI max ). ROC cure was used to determine the cutoff value for PCa detection with the ADC value. Result: On T 2 WI, 57.5% of PCa (23/40) showed focal nodular homogeneous low signal intensity, 70.3% of prostatitis(26/37) showed diffuse inhomogeneous low signal intensity. DCE-MRI, the distribution of curve types for malignant tumors was type Ⅰ 2.5%(1/40), typeⅡ32.5%(13/40) and type Ⅲ 65.0% (26/40). While the numbers for prostatitis was type Ⅰ 16.2%(6/37) , type Ⅱ 56.8% (21/37) and type Ⅲ 27.0% (10/37)respectively.The patterns of curve types in malignant lesions were different from benign lesions significantly(χ 2 =12.32, P <0.01). The mean values of T max , SI max in cancerous and prostatitis regions were (17.96±2.91)s, 1.76%±0.23% and (21.19±3.59)s, 1.53%±0.18%, respectively ( t =5.37, 6.10; P <0.01). On DWI, The mean ADC values in cancerous and prostatitis regions were (0.95±0.13)×10 -3 mm 2 /s and (1.12±0.13)×10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively ( t =7.10, P <0.01). According to the ROC analysis, when the cutoff value was 1.01×10 -3 mm 2 /s, the early PCa of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy was 79.1%, 72.7% and 76
Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Flückiger, Christoph; Wright, Aidan G C; Caspar, Franz
We examined interpersonal problems in psychotherapy outpatients with a principal diagnosis of a depressive disorder in routine care (n=361). These patients were compared to a normative non-clinical sample and to outpatients with other principal diagnoses (n=959). Furthermore, these patients were statistically assigned to interpersonally defined subgroups that were compared regarding symptoms and the quality of the early alliance. The sample of depressive patients reported higher levels of interpersonal problems than the normative sample and the sample of outpatients without a principal diagnosis of depression. Latent Class Analysis identified eight distinct interpersonal subgroups, which differed regarding self-reported symptom load and the quality of the early alliance. However, therapists' alliance ratings did not differentiate between the groups. This interpersonal differentiation within the group of patients with a principal diagnosis of depression may add to a personalized psychotherapy based on interpersonal profiles.
Struyfs, Hanne; Van Broeck, Bianca; Timmers, Maarten; Fransen, Erik; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Deyn, Peter P; Streffer, Johannes R; Mercken, Marc; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan
Overlapping cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) levels between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD patients decrease differential diagnostic accuracy of the AD core CSF biomarkers. Amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms might improve the AD versus non-AD differential diagnosis. To determine the added diagnostic value of Aβ isoforms, Aβ(1-37), Aβ(1-38), and Aβ(1-40), as compared to the AD CSF biomarkers Aβ(1-42), T-tau, and P-tau(181P). CSF from patients with dementia due to AD (n = 50), non-AD dementias (n = 50), mild cognitive impairment due to AD (n = 50) and non-demented controls (n = 50) was analyzed with a prototype multiplex assay using MSD detection technology. The non-AD group consisted of frontotemporal dementia (FTD; n = 17), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 17), and vascular dementia (n = 16). Aβ(1-37) and Aβ(1-38) increased accuracy to differentiate AD from FTD or DLB. Aβ(1-37), Aβ(1-38), and Aβ(1-40) levels correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores and disease duration in dementia due to AD. The Aβ(1-42)/Aβ(1-40) ratio improved diagnostic performance of Aβ(1-42) in most differential diagnostic situations. Aβ(1-42) levels were lower in APOE ε4 carriers compared to non-carriers. Aβ isoforms help to differentiate AD from FTD and DLB. Aβ isoforms increase diagnostic performance of Aβ(1-42). In contrast to Aβ1-42, Aβ isoforms seem to be correlated with disease severity in AD. Adding the Aβ isoforms to the current biomarker panel could enhance diagnostic accuracy.
Chronic hepatitis comprises a group of disorders of the liver exhibiting a chronic necroinflammatory process that differs in etiology, clinical course and treatment strategies. A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is usually made when inflammation and liver cell necrosis persist for longer than 6 months. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic patients to those with advanced hepatic failure. Both sexes and all age groups are affected. Chronic hepatitis may emerge as a sequelae of hepatitis C and less often after hepatitis B. Both diseases are treatable and require rapid and exact diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must exclude autoimmune hepatitis, chronic steatohepatitis, congenital metabolic hepatopathies and drug-induced hepatopathies. Laboratory tests, histologic investigations and clinical differential diagnosis must exclude other causes of chronic liver disease.
Kai, Feng; Lifeng, Liu; Haijing, Song; Xianhua, Liu; Hu, Xia
To investigate the predictive value of 4,183 Da peptide of dermcidin protein in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. A prospective controlled study was conducted. Serum samples were drawn from 161 patients with acute coronary'syndrome [ACS, including 46 patients with unstable angina (UA), 23 with acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and 92 with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction], 111 subjects for routine physical examination, including 45 patients with hypertension history, 42 with coronary heart disease, 22 with diabetes, and 54 patients with non-ACS (including pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, aneurysm, arrhythmia, myocarditis, coronary myocardial bridge, pleurisy, pneumothorax pneumomediastinum, rib fracture, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer, and pancreatitis) to serve as controls. 4 183 Da peptide of dermcidin protein was assessed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) technology, and myeloperoxidase [MPO, determined by point-of-care testing (POCT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively], high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), myoglobin (MYO), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) were quantitated with biochemical analysis. The power of the biomarkers above for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis for ischemic heart disease were judged by comparison of their sensitivity and specificity. (1) It was showed by one-way ANOVA that 4,183 Da peptide was higher in ACS group than that in control group (relative abundance: 22.05 ± 16.97 vs. 15.52 ± 14.09, P = 0.001), but no difference was found between ACS group and non-ACS group (relative abundance: 22.05 ± 16.97 vs. 19.99 ± 17.63, P = 0.416). (2) The specificity and sensitivity of the 4 183 Da polypeptide and MPO for predicting ACS and UA were compared with the receiver operating
Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Monteagudo, Ana; Cali, Giuseppe; El Refaey, Hazem; Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Arslan, Alan A
Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a serious complication of pregnancy, which consists of implantation of the gestational sac in the hysterotomy scar. This condition is increasing in frequency and often poses a diagnostic challenge. Its diagnosis is dependent on visual assessment of the uterus on the longitudinal sagittal ultrasound plane. Misdiagnosing a low intrauterine chorionic sac as a CSP, or a true scar pregnancy as an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), may lead to adverse outcomes including hysterectomy. The objective of the study is to describe a sonographic method for the differential diagnosis of CSP vs IUP in early gestation. The current study tests the hypothesis that on a first-trimester ultrasound performed between 5-10 weeks of gestation, the relative location of the center of gestational sac to the midpoint of the uterus along a longitudinal line between the external cervical os and the fundus can be used for early detection of CSPs. This is a retrospective review of electronically archived ultrasound images of IUP and CSP between 5-10 weeks of gestation. A total of 242 ultrasound images were analyzed: 185 cases of normal IUPs (including 128 in anteverted uteri, 31 in retroverted uteri, and 26 IUPs with history of cesarean delivery) and 57 cases of CSPs diagnosed from 2004 through 2015 in a single institution. The following measurements were made for each case: distance from the external cervical os to the uterine fundus, the midpoint axis of the uterus, the distance from the external cervical os to the center of gestational sacs, and the distance from the external cervical os to the most distant edge of the gestational sacs from the cervix. The location of the center of the gestational sac relative to the midpoint axis of the uterus between 5-10 weeks of gestation differentiated between IUP and CSP (mean 17.8 vs -10.6 mm, respectively, P = .0001), indicating that most CSPs are located proximally to the midpoint axis of the uterus whereas most normal
Shahjehan, Khurram; Li, Guangxi; Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Kashyap, Rahul; Janish, Christopher; Alsara, Anas; Jaffe, Allan S.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Gajic, Ognjen
Background: At the onset of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, critically ill patients with acute lung injury (ALI) may be difficult to distinguish from those with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). No single clinical parameter provides satisfying prediction. We hypothesized that a combination of those will facilitate early differential diagnosis. Methods: In a population-based retrospective development cohort, validated electronic surveillance identified critically ill adult patients with acute pulmonary edema. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression were used to develop a decision support tool based on routine clinical information to differentiate ALI from CPE. Performance of the score was validated in an independent cohort of referral patients. Blinded post hoc expert review served as gold standard. Results: Of 332 patients in a development cohort, expert reviewers (κ, 0.86) classified 156 as having ALI and 176 as having CPE. The validation cohort had 161 patients (ALI = 113, CPE = 48). The score was based on risk factors for ALI and CPE, age, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, and peripheral oxygen saturation/Fio2 ratio. It demonstrated good discrimination (area under curve [AUC] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] P = .16). Similar performance was obtained in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.88; HL P = .13). Conclusions: A simple decision support tool accurately classifies acute pulmonary edema, reserving advanced testing for a subset of patients in whom satisfying prediction cannot be made. This novel tool may facilitate early inclusion of patients with ALI and CPE into research studies as well as improve and rationalize clinical management and resource use. PMID:22030803
Garway-Heath, David F
This chapter reviews the evidence for the clinical application of vision function tests and imaging devices to identify early glaucoma, and sets out a scheme for the appropriate use and interpretation of test results in screening/case-finding and clinic settings. In early glaucoma, signs may be equivocal and the diagnosis is often uncertain. Either structural damage or vision function loss may be the first sign of glaucoma; neither one is consistently apparent before the other. Quantitative tests of visual function and measurements of optic-nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer anatomy are useful to either raise or lower the probability that glaucoma is present. The posttest probability for glaucoma may be calculated from the pretest probability and the likelihood ratio of the diagnostic criterion, and the output of several diagnostic devices may be combined to achieve a final probability. However, clinicians need to understand how these diagnostic devices make their measurements, so that the validity of each test result can be adequately assessed. Only then should the result be used, together with the patient history and clinical examination, to derive a diagnosis.
Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro; Batista, Pollyanna Barros; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; de Souza-Costa, Danielle; Eliam, Lucas; Eliam, Miguel; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Darrigo-Junior, Luiz Guilherme; Ferraz-Filho, José Roberto Lopes; Geller, Mauro; Gianordoli-Nascimento, Ingrid F; Madeira, Luciana Gonçalves; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes; Mendes, Hérika Martins; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Pavarino, Erika Cristina; Baptista-Pereira, Luciana; Rezende, Nilton A; Rodrigues, Luíza de Oliveira; da Silva, Carla Menezes; de Souza, Juliana Ferreira; de Souza, Márcio Leandro Ribeiro; Stangherlin, Aline; Valadares, Eugênia Ribeiro; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira
Neurofibromatoses (NF) are a group of genetic multiple tumor growing predisposition diseases: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and schwannomatosis (SCH), which have in common the neural origin of tumors and cutaneous signs. They affect nearly 80 thousand of Brazilians. In recent years, the increased scientific knowledge on NF has allowed better clinical management and reduced complication morbidity, resulting in higher quality of life for NF patients. In most cases, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, clinical geneticists, oncology and internal medicine specialists are able to make the differential diagnosis between NF and other diseases and to identify major NF complications. Nevertheless, due to its great variability in phenotype expression, progressive course, multiple organs involvement and unpredictable natural evolution, NF often requires the support of neurofibromatoses specialists for proper treatment and genetic counseling. This Part 1 offers step-by-step guidelines for NF differential diagnosis. Part 2 will present the NF clinical management.
Hypersomnia includes a group of disorders in which the primary complaint is excessive daytime sleepiness. Chronic hypersomnia is characterized by at least 3 months of excessive sleepiness prior to diagnosis and may affect 4% to 6% of the population. The severity of daytime sleepiness needs to be quantified by subjective scales (at least the Epworth sleepiness scale) and objective tests such as the multiple sleep latency test. Chronic hypersomnia does not correspond to an individual clinical entity but includes numerous different etiologies of hypersomnia as recently reported in the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders. This review details most of those disorders, including narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, idiopathic hypersomnia with and without long sleep time, recurrent hypersomnia, behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome, hypersomnia due to medical condition, hypersomnia due to drug or substance, hypersomnia not due to a substance or known physiologic condition, and also sleep-related disordered breathing and periodic leg movement disorders.
Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu
Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals. Case numbers of murine typhus and Q fever correlated significantly with temperature and rainfall; the scrub typhus case number was only significantly related with temperature. Neither temperature nor rainfall correlated with the case number of dengue fever. The rarity of dengue fever cases from January to June in Taiwan may be a helpful clue for diagnosis in the area. A male predominance was observed, as the male-to-female rate was 2.1 for murine typhus and 7.4 for Q fever. Multivariate analysis revealed the following six important factors for differentiating the rickettsial diseases and Q fever group from the dengue fever group: fever ≥8 days, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase, platelets >63,000/mL, C-reactive protein >31.9 mg/L, absence of bone pain, and absence of a bleeding syndrome. Understanding the rarity of dengue in the first half of a year in Taiwan and the six differentiating factors may help facilitate the early differential diagnosis of rickettsial diseases and Q fever from dengue fever, permitting early antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Aramă, St S; Anca, Ioana Alina; Munteanu, Daniela-Ioana; Aramă, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana; Moroti, Ruxandra; Ion, Daniela Adriana
Febrile exanthema (FE) is an extremely polymorphous clinical entity, frequently seen in daily clinical practice. FE is characterized by diffuse rash and fever. FE is classified in 4 types, depending on the primary skin lesion: macular, maculopapular, vesicular, and bullous exanthema. It is of infectious and non-infectious cause. Among the infectious causes the most frequent is the viral one. FE may affect all ages, but especially children and young people. Usually, FE raises important issues of differential diagnosis, because its clinical and etiological complexity. To decide the most appropriate therapeutic and prophylactic measures for FE, it is important to know the clinical criteria and the specific diagnostic methods.
Kockott, G; Dittmar, F
Disorders of sexual libido are seldom organic, in general they are of psychological origin. It is, however, difficult to obtain a differential diagnosis. One of the first diagnostic considerations must be the establishment of primary or secondary libidinal dificit, or indeed, whether there is no libido at all. In cases of libido disorders with primary libido dificit, depression, organic disease, or side effects of pharmaca may be the cause. Libido disorders in the presence of functional libido, however, must be regarded as primarily psychologically caused. An exception are libido problems in the presence of diabetes mellitus and peripheral vasculatory defeciencies. In these cases libido is either totally absent or appears only secondarily. The symptomatology of libido disorders in the presence of depression, diabetes melitus, and peripheral vasculatory disturbancies, as well as psychologically caused erectile and ejaculatory difficulties are discussed in detail. These groups are compared with respect to libido and behavior involving erection, ejaculation, anxiety and avoidance.
Becker, Georg; Müller, Antje; Braune, Stefan; Büttner, Thomas; Benecke, Reiner; Greulich, Wolfgang; Klein, Wolfgang; Mark, Günter; Rieke, Jürgen; Thümler, Reiner
In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) approximately 60 % of the nigrostriatal neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are degenerated before neurologists can establish the diagnosis according to the widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. It is conceivable that neuroprotective therapy starting at such an 'advanced stage' of the disease will fail to stop the degenerative process. Therefore, the identification of patients at risk and at earlier stages of the disease appears to be essential for any successful neuroprotection. The discovery of several genetic mutations associated with IPD raises the possibility that these, or other biomarkers, of the disease may help to identify persons at risk of IPD. Transcranial ultrasound have shown susceptibility factors for IPD related to an increased iron load of the substantia nigra. In the early clinical phase, a number of motor and particularly non-motor signs emerge, which can be identified by the patients and physicians years before the diagnosis is made, notably olfactory dysfunction, depression, or 'soft' motor signs such as changes in handwriting, speech or reduced ambulatory arm motion. These signs of the early, prediagnostic phase of IPD can be detected by inexpensive and easy-to-administer tests. As one single instrument will not be sensitive enough, a battery of tests has to be composed measuring independent parameters of the incipient disease. Subjects with abnormal findings in this test battery should than be submitted to nuclear medicine examinations to quantify the extent of dopaminergic injury and to reach the goal of a reliable, early diagnosis.
Jones, John H.
We currently have extensive data for four different terrestrial bodies of the inner solar system: Earth, the Moon, Mars, and the Eucrite Parent Body [EPB]. All formed early cores; but all(?) have mantles with elevated concentrations of highly sidero-phile elements, suggestive of the addition of a late "veneer". Two appear to have undergone extensive differentiation consistent with a global magma ocean. One appears to be inconsistent with a simple model of "low-pressure" chondritic differentiation. Thus, there seems to be no single, simple paradigm for understand-ing early differentiation.
Belics, Zoran; Gérecz, Balázs; Csákány, M György
Ectopic pregnancy is a high-risk condition that occurs in 2% of reported pregnancies. This percentage is fivefold higher than that registered in the 1970s. Since 1970 there has been a two-fold increase in the ratio of ectopic pregnancies to all reported pregnancies in Hungary and in 2012 7.4 ectopic pregnancies per thousand registered pregnancies were reported. Recently, the majority (80%) of cases can be diagnosed in early stage, and the related mortality objectively decreased in the past few decades to 3.8/10,000 ectopic pregnancies. If a woman with positive pregnancy test has abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding the physician should perform a work-up to safely exclude the possibility of ectopic pregnancy. The basis of diagnosis is ultrasonography, especially vaginal ultrasound examination and measurement of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. The ultrasound diagnosis is based on the visualization of an ectopic mass rather than the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. In some questionable cases the diagnostic uterine curettage or laparoscopy may be useful. The actuality of this topic is justified by practical difficulties in obtaining correct diagnosis, especially in the early gestational time.
Chapman, S.; Nakielny, R.
This book is composed of lists of differential diagnoses divided into categories: bone, spine, joints, respiratory, cardio-vascular, abdomen, gastrointestinal, urinary tract, soft tissues, face and neck, and skull and brain. It does not contain any reproductions of radiographs.
Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Seong-Joon; Lee, Haeng Jin; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Palace, Jacqueline; Fujihara, Kazuo
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly manifesting as optic neuritis and/or myelitis, which are frequently recurrent/bilateral or longitudinally extensive, respectively. As the autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) can mediate the pathogenesis of NMOSD, testing for the AQP4-Ab in serum of patients can play a crucial role in diagnosing NMOSD. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis of NMOSD in clinical practice is often challenging despite the phenotypical and serological characteristics of the disease because: (1) diverse diseases with autoimmune, vascular, infectious, or neoplastic etiologies can mimic these phenotypes of NMOSD; (2) patients with NMOSD may only have limited clinical manifestations, especially in their early disease stages; (3) test results for AQP4-Ab can be affected by several factors such as assay methods, serologic status, disease stages, or types of treatment; (4) some patients with NMOSD do not have AQP4-Ab; and (5) test results for the AQP4-Ab may not be readily available for the acute management of patients. Despite some similarity in their phenotypes, these NMOSD and NMOSD-mimics are distinct from each other in their pathogenesis, prognosis, and most importantly treatment. Understanding the detailed clinical, serological, radiological, and prognostic differences of these diseases will improve the proper management as well as diagnosis of patients. PMID:28670343
This book presents a practical guide to the diagnosis and management of obstruction, both mechanical and organic, of the large and small bowel. Obstruction is a common problem for surgeons, and this text emphasizes differential diagnosis and the use of all radiologic modalities. It presents the surgical and medical considerations involved with gallstones, bezoars, parasites, tumors, inflammation, trauma, intussusception, more.
Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.
Fadil, Halim; Kelley, Roger E; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo
There are a number of illnesses that can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS). This pretty much includes any pathological process that can reflect injury to the central nervous system either in a transient or progressive basis. Typically, MS presents itself in individuals in their teens up to their late 30s. On occasion, however, one can see MS present in patients in their 60s. However, in retrospect, many of these patients might have had subtle manifestations of MS in their younger years. Visual obscuration or visual loss can be a manifestation of retinal ischemia, retinal migraine, or optic neuritis which might or might not evolve into a clinical picture compatible with MS. Cranial neuropathy, long tract signs, sensory disturbance, and/or gait ataxia can be related to a number of different processes such as illicit drug use, neurosarcoidosis, neuro-Behcet's disease, neuroborreliosis, HIV-related disease, neurosyphilis, vascular occlusive disease including vasculitis, connective tissue disorders, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), idiopathic transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or tropical spastic paraparesis. In addition, a constellation of symptoms, with questionable objective findings, along with normal MRI imaging, normal CSF results, and normal evoked response testing, when indicated, might identify a conversion disorder or possibly malingering. There are now established criteria for the diagnosis of MS, but initial presentations can be less than "textbook" in nature. With the advent of immunomodulating therapy, it has become more important to diagnose MS more effectively earlier on in the course of the illness. Prior to specific therapy for MS, astute clinicians did not necessarily move with alacrity to establish the diagnosis in patients with subtle or transient manifestations. This was in recognition of the fact that little could be offered to alter the course of the illness and a number of patients might never experience further problems if
Besemer, Britta; Müssig, Karsten
A 54-year-old female patient is admitted for evaluation of her thyroid function after two cycles of ipilimumab therapy. The decision for the anti-cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-antigen-4-therapy (anti-CTLA-4) was made two months earlier because of malignant melanoma with pulmonary metastases. The patient was euthyroid before initiation of treatment and without known thyroid disease. The laboratory reveals thyrotoxicosis with elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels. The anti-thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody levels are within the normal range. Thyroid ultrasound shows a normal-sized, inhomogenous, hypoechogenic thyroid gland, consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to ipilimumab-induced autoimmune thyroiditis is made. The patient does not receive any thyroid-specific medication, with regular control of the thyroid hormone levels. When the patient becomes euthyroid, the ipilimumab therapy is continued. Three weeks later, the patient develops hypothyroidism and a supplementation with L-thyroxine is initiated. An anti-CTLA-4 therapy may cause thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, before initiation and in the course of the treatment, regular controls of the thyroid hormone levels are required. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.
Langner, Sönke; Fleck, Steffen; Baldauf, Jörg; Mensel, Birger; Kühn, Jens Peter; Kirsch, Michael
Purpose Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or obstruction of its pathways, resulting in ventricular dilatation and increased intracranial pressure. Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and planning of treatment. Methods This review article presents the different types of hydrocephalus und their typical imaging appearance, describes imaging techniques, and discusses differential diagnoses of the different forms of hydrocephalus. Results and Conclusion Imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. While magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the first-line imaging modality, computed tomography (CT) is often the first-line imaging test in emergency patients. Key points · Occlusive hydrocephalus is caused by obstruction of CSF pathways.. · Malabsorptive hydrocephalus is caused by impaired CSF absorption.. · The MR imaging protocol should always include sagittal high-resolution T2-weighted images.. · When an inflammatory etiology is suspected, imaging with contrast agent administration is necessary.. Citation Format · Langner S, Fleck S, Baldauf J et al. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Hydrocephalus in Adults. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 728 - 739. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Paul, Karel; Melichar, Jan; Miletín, Jan; Dittrichová, Jaroslava
Clinically relevant apneas, which are common in preterm infants, may adversely affect later neuropsychological condition in this group of patients. Pharmacotherapy to stimulate respiratory functions may be unsuccessful. Polygraphic recording may help in the differential diagnosis of these clinically relevant events. Twenty-nine preterm neonates born before 36 weeks of gestational age were examined using polygraphic recording (respiration--two channels, perioral electromyography, oxygen saturation, heart rate, electroencephalography, electrocardiography, electrooculography). The examination was ordered by the attending physician after an unsuccessful treatment of apnea by Aminophylline, and it should contribute to the clarification of the causes of these events. In the course of the polygraphic examinations, altogether 63 episodes were recorded during which the pulse oximeter alarm signal was set off. In 42 cases, the alarm signal was set off in events during which SaO(2) fell below 85%. In the remaining 21 cases, the alarm signal was set off in episodes during which early bradycardia below 90/min occurred. The onset of apnea was very often associated with the phasic increase of the perioral electromyography and with electroencephalography arousal reaction. Because of suspicion that these apneas may be triggered by episodes of gastroesophageal reflux, the interruption of the Aminophylline treatment and setting up an antireflux regimen were recommended. These therapeutic measures had a positive effect: The frequency of alarm signals decreased within 48 h by a statistically significant 50%. In cases where the pharmacotherapy of apnea by stimulation of respiratory functions is not successful, differential diagnostic analysis should be performed. Polygraphy may contribute to the clarification of the causes underlying clinically relevant apneas in a view of newly described polygraphic signs. It is feasible to suspect, based on these signs, that gastroesophageal reflux is
Seery, Carol Hubbard
Purpose: This case study demonstrates the application of an assessment protocol for differential diagnosis of psychogenic stuttering, neurogenic stuttering, developmental stuttering, and malingering. Method: A male in his late 30s, accused of armed robbery, was evaluated for stuttering at the request of his defense attorney. The speech assessment…
Oquendo, M A
Characteristics of ataque de nervios, a culturally condoned expression of distress that is most frequently seen in Hispanic women, are described. It has symptoms in common with affective and anxiety disorders, with which it can co-occur, and these are delineated for purposes of differential diagnosis. Possible reasons for the preponderance of the condition in women are discussed, along with suggested intervention strategies.
Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui
Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596
Creten, C; van der Zwaan, S; Blankespoor, R J; Maatkamp, A; Klinkenberg, S; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V H J M; Nicolai, J; Dhossche, D M; van Os, J; Schieveld, J N M
Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), early onset schizophrenia (EOS), and late onset autism (LOA) often follow a similar course: initially, development is normal, then there is a sudden neuropsychiatric deterioration of social interaction and communication skills, which is combined with a decline in intelligence and reduction in daily activities. A 9-year-old boy was admitted to the paediatric ward with acute onset of secondary epileptic seizures. It was not long until the boy's symptoms resembled that of patients with cdd, eos and loa. Intensive tests led to the diagnosis of anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis should be regarded as a possible organic cause underlying the syndromal presentation of CDD, EOS and LOA.
Paterson, Ross W.; Torres-Chae, Charles C.; Kuo, Amy L.; Ando, Tim; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Wong, Katherine; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Haman, Aissa; Garcia, Paul; Johnson, David Y.; Miller, Bruce L.; Geschwind, Michael D.
Objectives To identify the misdiagnoses of patients with sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD) during the course of their disease and determine which medical specialties saw patients with sCJD prior to the correct diagnosis being made and at what point in the disease course a correct diagnosis was made. Design Retrospective medical record review. Setting A specialty referral center of a tertiary academic medical center. Participants One hundred sixty-three serial patients over a 5.5-year period who ultimately had pathologically proven sCJD. The study used the subset of 97 patients for whom we had adequate medical records. Main Outcome Measures Other diagnoses considered in the differential diagnosis and types of medical specialties assessing patients with sCJD. Results Ninety-seven subjects’ records were used in the final analysis. The most common disease categories of misdiagnosis were neurodegenerative, autoimmune/paraneoplastic, infectious, and toxic/metabolic disorders. The most common individual misdiagnoses were viral encephalitis, paraneoplastic disorder, depression, vertigo, Alzheimer disease, stroke, unspecified dementia, central nervous system vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, and Hashimoto encephalopathy. The physicians who most commonly made these misdiagnoses were primary care physicians and neurologists; in the 18% of patients who were diagnosed correctly at their first assessment, the diagnosis was almost always by a neurologist. The mean time from onset to diagnosis was 7.9 months, an average of two-thirds of the way through their disease course. Conclusions Diagnosis of sCJD is quite delayed. When evaluating patients with rapidly progressive dementia with suspected neurodegenerative, autoimmune, infectious, or toxic/metabolic etiology, sCJD should also be included in the differential diagnosis, and appropriate diagnostic tests, such as diffusion brain magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered. Primary care physicians and neurologists
Osadsky, Captain Rasto
While rarely seen in the present-day Western world, phocomelia is not uncommon in underdeveloped countries. Phocomelia is an abnormality in which the limbs are not fully formed. It may be inherited as an autosomal recessive or dominant disorder. This case concerns a 12-year-old Afghan boy with multiple skeletal anomalies, most prominently of his right arm, including aplasia of the entire proximal humerus, hypoplasia of the clavicle and scapula, and absence of the radial ray and thumb. A hypoplastic left thumb was also present. Other anomalies included thoracic scoliosis, upper thoracic hemivertebrae, and mild cardiomegaly. The differential diagnosis and likely diagnosis are discussed.
Brashers, V L; Haden, K
Evaluating cough in the primary care setting can be very difficult and requires a thorough look through a long list of potential differential diagnoses. The most worrisome diagnosis is that of a lung malignancy. Primary care providers must assess each patient carefully in a logical, precise manner to determine a working diagnosis for acute versus chronic cough in smokers and nonsmokers. Early detection leads to a diagnosis of lung cancer at earlier stages and may offer the only possibility of cure. This article provides primary care providers with an overview of the most common causes of cough, an algorithm to assist with the diagnosis, and a brief overview of the staging, diagnostic workup, treatment, and management of lung cancer.
Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.
The birth and infancy of Earth was a time of profound differentiation involving massive internal reorganization into core, mantle and proto-crust, all within a few hundred million years of solar system formation ( t0). Physical and isotopic evidence indicate that the formation of iron-rich cores generally occurred very early in planetesimals, the building blocks of proto-Earth, within about 3 million years of t0. The final stages of terrestrial planetary accretion involved violent and tremendously energetic giant impacts among core-segregated Mercury- to Mars-sized objects and planetary embryos. As a consequence of impact heating, the early Earth was at times partially or wholly molten, increasing the likelihood for high-pressure and high-temperature equilibration among core- and mantle-forming materials. The Earth's silicate mantle harmoniously possesses abundance levels of the siderophile elements Ni and Co that can be reconciled by equilibration between iron alloy and silicate at conditions comparable to those expected for a deep magma ocean. Solidification of a deep magma ocean possibly involved crystal-melt segregation at high pressures, but subsequent convective stirring of the mantle could have largely erased nascent layering. However, primitive upper mantle rocks apparently have some nonchondritic major and trace element refractory lithophile element ratios that can be plausibly linked to early mantle differentiation of ultra-high-pressure mantle phases. The geochemical effects of crystal fractionation in a deep magma ocean are partly constrained by high-pressure experimentation. Comparison between compositional models for the primitive convecting mantle and bulk silicate Earth generally allows, and possibly favors, 10-15% total fractionation of a deep mantle assemblage comprised predominantly of Mg-perovskite and with minor but geochemically important amounts of Ca-perovskite and ferropericlase. Long-term isolation of such a crystal pile is generally
Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.
Scangas, George A; Bleier, Benjamin S
The ability to scrutinize our surroundings remains heavily dependent on the sense of smell. From the ability to detect dangerous situations such as fires to the recollection of a fond memory triggered by an odor, the advantages of an intact olfactory system cannot be overstated. Outcomes studies have highlighted the profound negative impact of anosmia and parosmia on the overall quality of life. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders estimates that ∼1.4% of the United States population experiences chronic olfactory dysfunction and smell loss. Efforts have focused on improving both the diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction through olfactory testing and improved reporting of treatment outcomes of olfactory training. The purpose of this article was to review the differential diagnosis, workup, and current treatment strategies of anosmia and smell disorders.
Deshpande, Sneha Satish; Kane, Shubhada; Arya, Supreeta
Plasma cell neoplasms have been classified into various types, with a range of clinical and radiological presentations. Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is a subset of plasma cell neoplasms which presents as an isolated non-osseous soft tissue mass. Though carotid space neoplasms are commonly encountered, EMP in the carotid space is rare and seldom considered in the initial differential diagnosis of a carotid space mass. These tumors can be treated by surgery or radiotherapy. On the other hand, the commonly encountered tumors in the carotid space are treated surgically. Also, it is mandatory to exclude multiple myeloma in the patients presenting with EMP. Hence, accurate and early diagnosis has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We report a rare case of EMP of the carotid space, describing the imaging features and the differential diagnoses with clues pointing to this rare entity.
Tremor is one of the most common involuntary movement disorders seen in clinical practice. In addition to the detailed history, the differential diagnosis is mainly clinical based on the distinction at rest, postural and intention, activation condition, frequency, and topographical distribution. The causes of tremor are heterogeneous and it can present alone (for example, essential tremor) or as a part of a neurological syndrome (for example, multiple sclerosis). Essential tremor and the tremor of Parkinson's disease are the most common tremors encountered in clinical practice. This article focuses on a practical approach to these different forms of tremor and how to distinguish them clinically. Evidence supporting various strategies used in the differentiation is then presented, followed by a review of formal guidelines or recommendations when they exist. PMID:16344298
Llorens, P; Atlschiller, H; Pisano, R; Moya, P
The semiological characteristics of the ulcerated gastric lesions, benign and malignant, are on study. Its frequency and location is analysed in 32,829 subjects of 40 or more years of age, apparently in good health, finding gastric ulcers in 2.98% been unique in 2.3% and multiple in 0.68%. A symptomatic group of 8,765 people of 40 or more years, showed gastric ulcer in 7.11% been unique in 5.18% and multiple in 1.93%. It is also reported the frequency of gastric cancer in both studied groups, which leads to permanently propose the differential diagnostic with benign lesions, underlying by its frequency those of ulcerated type. The value of the gastric biopsy in differential diagnosis represents finally an aid of major importance because its high yield.
Bernet, W; Chang, D K
Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.
Donkervoort, S; Bonnemann, C G; Loeys, B; Jungbluth, H; Voermans, N C
Joint hypermobility is the defining feature of various inherited connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome and various types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and these will generally be the first conditions to be considered by geneticists and pediatricians in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with such findings. However, several congenital and adult-onset inherited myopathies also present with joint hypermobility in the context of often only mild-to-moderate muscle weakness and should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of joint hypermobility. In fact, on the molecular level disorders within both groups represent different ends of the same spectrum of inherited extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders. In this review we will summarize the measures of joint hypermobility, illustrate molecular mechanisms these groups of disorders have in common, and subsequently discuss the clinical features of: 1) the most common connective tissue disorders with myopathic or other neuromuscular features: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome; 2) myopathy and connective tissue overlap disorders (muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders), including collagen VI related dystrophies and FKBP14 related kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; and 3) various (congenital) myopathies with prominent joint hypermobility including RYR1- and SEPN1-related myopathy. The aim of this review is to assist clinical geneticists and other clinicians with recognition of these disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Autism Spectrum Disorders have for some time been the focus of intense interest for clinicians and researchers because of the high prevalence of the disorders among children in the community (approximately 1%), their severity and pervasiveness. Particular attention has been paid to the early diagnosis of the disorder and to the intensive therapeutic intervention. Currently the best prognosis for autism lays in the early diagnosis and intervention. Postponing the diagnosis and the intervention beyond infancy is considered loss of precious time. The diagnosis of autism, which begins early in life, was until recently considered that could be reliability made at the age of 3 years. Recent follow up studies however on children at risk for autism (children who had an older sibling with autism) have shown that the clinical signs of autism emerge at the end of the first year and become distinct by the end of the second year when the diagnosis can reliably be made. From a clinical perspective it is noted that the early clinical signs of risk for autism are related to social communication (e.g. limited or absent response when calling his/her name and to joint attention), stereotype behaviours and body movements or unusual handling of objects (e.g. intensive observation of objects and stereotype movements of hands and tapping or spinning), incongruent regulation of emotions (reduced positive and increased negative emotion). There is also delay in developmental characteristics such as the language (both receptive and expressive) and motor (particularly in postural control - characteristic is the drop of the head backwards when the infant is held in horizontal position). Studies on various aspects of the endophenotype of certain clinical signs among infants at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders, such as avoidance of eye contact, delay in verbal communication and increase of the head circumference, may provide useful information and may assist the clinician on follow up in the
Sitek, Emilia J; Barczak, Anna; Harciarek, Michał
Although Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, there are several conditions (ie, frontotemporal dementia or Huntington's disease) associated with a relatively earlier onset. This article provides arguments in favor of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia, as episodic memory impairment is not observed early in the course of most types of young-onset dementia that predominantly affect the domains of behavior, executive, language, and/or motor function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taxel, P; Kenny, A
Secondary osteoporosis refers to osteoporosis in which an underlying cause or factor other than those attributable to the postmenopausal state or aging can be identified. Primary, or idiopathic, osteoporosis implies that a secondary cause cannot be found. Secondary osteoporosis occurs not only in postmenopausal women but also in men and premenopausal women. In series reported from specialized centers, as many as 30% of postmenopausal women and 50% to 80% of men have an identifiable secondary cause of osteoporosis, although the frequency of secondary osteoporosis is probably much lower in the general population. In assessing the patient with osteoporosis, it is important to look for secondary causes and aggravating factors that are reversible and amenable to therapy. In addition to secondary forms, 2 metabolic bone diseases, osteomalacia and primary hyperparathyroidism, can mimic or aggravate osteoporosis. This paper will summarize the differential diagnosis and management of osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and hyperparathyroidism and review the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis.
Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Barisić, Freja; Bulat, Vedrana; Buljan, Marija; Situm, Mirna; Bradić, Lada; Mihić, Josip
Scalp hair folliculitis is a relatively common condition in dermatological practice and a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the lack of exact guidelines. Generally, inflammatory diseases of the pilosebaceous follicle of the scalp most often manifest as folliculitis. There are numerous infective agents that may cause folliculitis, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, as well as many noninfective causes. Several noninfectious diseases may present as scalp hair folliculitis, such as folliculitis decalvans capillitii, perifolliculitis capitis abscendens et suffodiens, erosive pustular dermatitis, lichen planopilaris, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, etc. The classification of folliculitis is both confusing and controversial. There are many different forms of folliculitis and several classifications. According to the considerable variability of histologic findings, there are three groups of folliculitis: infectious folliculitis, noninfectious folliculitis and perifolliculitis. The diagnosis of folliculitis occasionally requires histologic confirmation and cannot be based solely on clinical appearance of scalp lesions. This article summarizes prominent variants of inflammatory diseases of the scalp hair follicle with differential diagnosis and appertaining histological features.
Robertson, Gary L
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine. It can be caused by any of 4 fundamentally different defects that must be distinguished for safe and effective management. They are: (1) pituitary DI, due to inadequate production and secretion of antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressin (AVP); (2) gestational DI due to degradation of AVP by an enzyme made in placenta; (3) primary polydipsia, due to suppression of AVP secretion by excessive fluid intake; and (4) nephrogenic DI due to renal insensitivity to the antidiuretic effect of AVP. This review describes several methods of differential diagnosis, indicates the advantages and disadvantages of each and presents a new approach that is simpler and less costly but just as reliable as the best of the older methods. The various treatments for the different types of DI and recent findings on the genetic basis of the familial forms of DI are also discussed with emphasis on their contributions to improved diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herndon, C.D. Anthony
The diagnosis, evaluation and management of antenatal hydronephrosis has undergone a two stage paradigm shift since the advent of prenatal ultrasonography in the early 1980s. Initially the identification of a large number of asymptomatic infants appeared to afford the surgeon the opportunity for preemptive intervention. However, it has now become apparent that antenatal hydronephrosis (AH) is far more difficult to interpret thanoriginally perceived. The initial enthusiasm for surgery has now been replaced by a much more conservative approach to ureteropelvic junction(UPJ) obstruction, multi-cystic dysplastic kidney(MCDK), vesicoureteral reflux and the non-refluxing megaureter. This review will highlight the postnatal evaluation of AH and include an overview of the Society for Fetal Urology grading system for hydronephrosis. The differential diagnosis and treatment options for UPJ obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, MCDK, duplication anomalies, megaureter, and posterior urethral valves will be discussed. PMID:17619702
Trammell, Beth; Wilczynski, Susan M.; Dale, Brittany; Mcintosh, David E.
Successful treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is entirely contingent on an accurate diagnosis. Although many resources exist to help the clinician with differential diagnosis of children, particularly in early childhood, the resources available for evaluating adolescents and adults is far less prevalent. Clinicians often…
Chew, Jessica; Silverman, Daniel H S
FDG-PET is a valuable tool that will continue to aid in identifying AD in its prodromal and early dementia stages, distinguishing it from other causes of dementia, and tracking progression of the disease. As brain FDG-PET scans and well-trained readers of these scans are becoming more widely available to clinicians who are becoming more informed about the role FDG-PET can play in early AD diagnosis, its use is expected to increase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wani, Sajad A.; Mufti, Gowher N.; Bhat, Nisar A.; Baba, Ajaz A.
Intralobar sequestration is characterized by aberrant formation of nonfunctional lung tissue that has no communication with the bronchial tree and receives systemic arterial blood supply. Failure of earlier diagnosis can lead to recurrent pneumonia, failure to thrive, multiple hospital admissions, and more morbidity. The aim of this case report is to increase the awareness about the lung sequestration, to diagnose and treat it early, so that it is resected before repeated infection, and prevent the morbidity and mortality. PMID:26273485
This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed
Sarmiento, A.; Sanchez-Morillo, D.; Jiménez, S.; Alemany, P.
Glaucoma is a degenerative disease that constitutes the second cause of blindness in developed countries. Although it cannot be cured, its progression can be prevented through early diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for automatic glaucoma diagnosis based on retinal colour images. We focus on capturing the inherent colour changes of optic disc (OD) and cup borders by computing several colour derivatives in CIE L∗a∗b∗ colour space with CIE94 colour distance. In addition, we consider spatial information retaining these colour derivatives and the original CIE L∗a∗b∗ values of the pixel and adding other characteristics such as its distance to the OD centre. The proposed strategy is robust due to a simple structure that does not need neither initial segmentation nor removal of the vascular tree or detection of vessel bends. The method has been extensively validated with two datasets (one public and one private), each one comprising 60 images of high variability of appearances. Achieved class-wise-averaged accuracy of 95.02% and 81.19% demonstrates that this automated approach could support physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in its early stage, and therefore, it could be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening programs. PMID:29279773
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and
Miller, DH; Weinshenker, BG; Filippi, M; Banwell, BL; Cohen, JA; Freedman, MS; Galetta, SL; Hutchinson, M; Johnson, RT; Kappos, L; Kira, J; Lublin, FD; McFarland, HF; Montalban, X; Panitch, H; Richert, JR; Reingold, SC; Polman, CH
Background and objectives Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) requires exclusion of diseases that could better explain the clinical and paraclinical findings. A systematic process for exclusion of alternative diagnoses has not been defined. An International Panel of MS experts developed consensus perspectives on MS differential diagnosis. Methods Using available literature and consensus, we developed guidelines for MS differential diagnosis, focusing on exclusion of potential MS mimics, diagnosis of common initial isolated clinical syndromes, and differentiating between MS and non-MS idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Results We present recommendations for 1) clinical and paraclinical red flags suggesting alternative diagnoses to MS; 2) more precise definition of “clinically isolated syndromes” (CIS), often the first presentations of MS or its alternatives; 3) algorithms for diagnosis of three common CISs related to MS in the optic nerves, brainstem, and spinal cord; and 4) a classification scheme and diagnosis criteria for idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. Conclusions Differential diagnosis leading to MS or alternatives is complex and a strong evidence base is lacking. Consensus-determined guidelines provide a practical path for diagnosis and will be useful for the non-MS specialist neurologist. Recommendations are made for future research to validate and support these guidelines. Guidance on the differential diagnosis process when MS is under consideration will enhance diagnostic accuracy and precision. PMID:18805839
Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer; Turygin, Nicole
There has been an exponential growth in assessment methods to diagnose disorders on the autism spectrum. Many reasons for this trend exist and include advancing knowledge on how to make a diagnosis, the heterogeneity of the spectrum, the realization that different methods may be needed based on age and intellectual disability. Other factors…
Kaplan, Frederick S.; Xu, Meiqi; Glaser, David L.; Collins, Felicity; Connor, Michael; Kitterman, Joseph; Sillence, David; Zackai, Elaine; Ravitsky, Vardit; Zasloff, Michael; Ganguly, Arupa; Shore, Eileen M.
BACKGROUND Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare and disabling genetic condition characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and by progressive heterotopic ossification in specific anatomic patterns. Most patients with fibrodys-plasia ossificans progressiva are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures that can cause lifelong disability. Recently, the genetic cause of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva was identified, and definitive genetic testing for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is now available before the appearance of heterotopic ossification. METHODS We recently evaluated 7 children for diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva before the onset of heterotopic ossification. A medical history, physical examination, and skeletal survey were obtained on all of the patients, as well as clinical genetic testing for the canonical fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva mutation. RESULTS All 7 of the children (4 girls and 3 boys; ages 3 months to 6 years) had congenital malformations of the great toes, but none had radiographic evidence of heterotopic ossification at the time of evaluation. Five of the 7 children had soft tissue lesions of the neck and back, suggestive of early fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva flare-ups, 3 of whom had undergone invasive diagnostic procedures that exacerbated their condition. Two children had no history or signs of soft tissue swelling or flare-ups. DNA sequence analysis found that all 7 of the children had the recurrent fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva missense mutation, a single nucleotide substitution (c.617G>A) at codon 206 in the glycine-serine activation domain of activin receptor IA, a bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor. CONCLUSION Clinical suspicion of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva early in life on the basis of malformed great toes can lead to early clinical diagnosis, confirmatory
Katus, Hugo; Ziegler, André; Ekinci, Okan; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Achenbach, Stephan; Blankenberg, Stefan; Brueckmann, Martina; Collinson, Paul; Comaniciu, Dorin; Crea, Filippo; Dinh, Wilfried; Ducrocq, Grégory; Flachskampf, Frank A; Fox, Keith A A; Friedrich, Matthias G; Hebert, Kathy A; Himmelmann, Anders; Hlatky, Mark; Lautsch, Dominik; Lindahl, Bertil; Lindholm, Daniel; Mills, Nicholas L; Minotti, Giorgio; Möckel, Martin; Omland, Torbjørn; Semjonow, Véronique
The diagnostic evaluation of acute chest pain has been augmented in recent years by advances in the sensitivity and precision of cardiac troponin assays, new biomarkers, improvements in imaging modalities, and release of new clinical decision algorithms. This progress has enabled physicians to diagnose or rule-out acute myocardial infarction earlier after the initial patient presentation, usually in emergency department settings, which may facilitate prompt initiation of evidence-based treatments, investigation of alternative diagnoses for chest pain, or discharge, and permit better utilization of healthcare resources. A non-trivial proportion of patients fall in an indeterminate category according to rule-out algorithms, and minimal evidence-based guidance exists for the optimal evaluation, monitoring, and treatment of these patients. The Cardiovascular Round Table of the ESC proposes approaches for the optimal application of early strategies in clinical practice to improve patient care following the review of recent advances in the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The following specific 'indeterminate' patient categories were considered: (i) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin <99th percentile; (ii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin <99th percentile but above the limit of detection; (iii) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile but without dynamic change; and (iv) patients with symptoms and high-sensitivity troponin >99th percentile and dynamic change but without coronary plaque rupture/erosion/dissection. Definitive evidence is currently lacking to manage these patients whose early diagnosis is 'indeterminate' and these areas of uncertainty should be assigned a high priority for research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Vogrig, Alberto; Joubert, Bastien; Ducray, Francois; Thomas, Laure; Izquierdo, Cristina; Decaestecker, Kévin; Martinaud, Olivier; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Grand, Sylvie; Honnorat, Jérome
To identify the clinical and radiological features that should raise suspicion for the autoimmune encephalitis (AE)-like presentation of glioblastoma. This is an observational, retrospective case series of patients referred to the French National Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Diseases for suspected AE (possible, probable or definite, using the 2016 criteria) who later received a final diagnosis of glioblastoma according to 2016 WHO criteria. An extensive literature search was also conducted for similar existing cases. Between 2014 and 2016, 306 patients were referred to our center for suspected AE. Six of these patients (2%) later developed pathologically confirmed glioblastoma. Thirteen patients (9 male) were included for analysis (6 from the present series and 7 from the literature); median age was 63. Initially, a diagnosis of AE was clinically suspected based on: working memory deficits (77%), seizures (62%) (including status epilepticus in 23%), and psychiatric symptoms (46%). Initial brain MRI was not in favor of a typical glioblastoma pattern and showed bilateral (54%) or unilateral selective limbic involvement. Five patients exhibited initial slight contrast enhancement. A clear inflammatory CSF was present in five patients and three from the literature showed autoantibody positivity (NMDAR, VGKC, GluRepsilon2). Median delay between suspicions of AE to GBM diagnosis was 3 months (range 1.5-24) and one patient from the literature was diagnosed post-mortem. An alternative diagnosis of glioblastoma should be considered in patients presenting initially as AE, especially in patients who do not fulfill the criteria for definite AE and in those with a poor clinical evolution despite initial improvement.
Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia
Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86
Binder, C; Pichler, E; Radaskiewicz, T; Scheibenreiter, S
A 3 months old girl presented with significant enlargement of liver, spleen and lymphnodes, with moderate anemia, thrombopenia and leucocytosis. In the differential count there was a shift to the left and an increase of monocyte-like cells (35%). Differential diagnosis included leucemoid reaction, infectious mononucleosis, myelo-proliferative disorder with a missing C chromosome and chronic myeloid leucemia. Clinical symptoms, cytochemistry and caryotype of bone marrow cells suggested infantile chronic myeloic leucemia and normal ALP index and possibly normal HbF. Treatment with 6-mercaptopurine was followed by partial remission. The therapeutic consequences of exact differential diagnosis are discussed.
Coelho, Carlos M; Gonçalves, Daniela C; Purkis, Helena; Pocinho, Margarida; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J
Differential diagnosis implies identifying shared and divergent characteristics between clinical states. Clinical work with older adults demands not only the knowledge of nosological features associated with differential diagnosis, but also recognition of idiosyncratic factors associated with this population. Several factors can interfere with an accurate diagnosis of specific phobia in older cohorts. The goal of this paper is to review criteria for specific phobia and its differential diagnosis with panic disorder, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder, while stressing the specific factors associated with aging. A literature search regarding specific phobia in older adults was carried out using PubMed. Relevant articles were selected and scanned for further pertinent references. In addition, relevant references related to differential diagnosis and assessment were used. Etiologic factors, specificity of feared stimulus or situation, fear predictability and the nature of phobic situations are key points to be assessed when implementing a differential diagnosis of specific phobia. First, age-related sensory impairments are common and interfere both with information processing and communication. Second, medical illnesses create symptoms that might cause, interfere with, or mimic anxiety. Third, cohort effects might result in underreporting, through the inability to communicate or recognize anxiety symptoms, misattributing them to physical conditions. Finally, diagnostic criteria and screening instruments were usually developed using younger samples and are therefore not adapted to the functional and behavioral characteristics of older samples.
Mohammed, Osama; Benlamri, Rachid
In this paper we describe a novel model for differential diagnosis designed to make recommendations by utilizing semantic web technologies. The model is a response to a number of requirements, ranging from incorporating essential clinical diagnostic semantics to the integration of data mining for the process of identifying candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. We introduce two major components, which we find essential to the construction of an integral differential diagnosis recommendation model: the evidence-based recommender component and the proximity-based recommender component. Both approaches are driven by disease diagnosis ontologies designed specifically to enable the process of generating diagnostic recommendations. These ontologies are the disease symptom ontology and the patient ontology. The evidence-based diagnosis process develops dynamic rules based on standardized clinical pathways. The proximity-based component employs data mining to provide clinicians with diagnosis predictions, as well as generates new diagnosis rules from provided training datasets. This article describes the integration between these two components along with the developed diagnosis ontologies to form a novel medical differential diagnosis recommendation model. This article also provides test cases from the implementation of the overall model, which shows quite promising diagnostic recommendation results.
Do, Thanh-Toan; Zhou, Yiren; Zheng, Haitian; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Koh, Dawn
We research a mobile imaging system for early diagnosis of melanoma. Different from previous work, we focus on smartphone-captured images, and propose a detection system that runs entirely on the smartphone. Smartphone-captured images taken under loosely-controlled conditions introduce new challenges for melanoma detection, while processing performed on the smartphone is subject to computation and memory constraints. To address these challenges, we propose to localize the skin lesion by combining fast skin detection and fusion of two fast segmentation results. We propose new features to capture color variation and border irregularity which are useful for smartphone-captured images. We also propose a new feature selection criterion to select a small set of good features used in the final lightweight system. Our evaluation confirms the effectiveness of proposed algorithms and features. In addition, we present our system prototype which computes selected visual features from a user-captured skin lesion image, and analyzes them to estimate the likelihood of malignance, all on an off-the-shelf smartphone.
Non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) are recurrent angina pectoris like pain without evidence of coronary heart diesease in conventional diagnostic evaluation. The prevalence of NCCP is up to 70% and may be detected in this order at all levels of the medical health care system (general practitioner, emergency department, chest pain unit, coronary care). Reduction of quality of life in NCCP is comparable, partially even higher compared to cardiac chest pain. Reasons for psychological strain are symptom recurrence in app. 50%, nonspecific diagnosis with resulting uncertainty and insufficient integration of other medical disciplines in diagnostic work-up. Managing of patients with NCCP has to be interdisciplinary because non cardiac causes of chest pain may be found frequently. This are musculosceletal in app. 40%, gastrointestinal in app. 20%, psychiatric in app. 10% and pulmonary and mediastinal diseases in app. 5% of cases. Also gastroenterological expertise is required because here gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in app. 60%, hypercontractile esophageal motility disorders with nutcracker, jackhammer esophagus or distal esophageal spasmus or achalasia in app. 20% and other esophageal alterations (e. g. infectious esophageal inflammation, drug-induced ulcer, rings, webs, eosinophilic esophagits) in app. 30% of cases may be detected as cause of chest pain may. This implicates that regular interdisciplinary round wards and interdisciplinary management of chest pain units are mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep
Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345
Fiocchi, Alessandro; Claps, Alessia; Dahdah, Lamia; Brindisi, Giulia; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Martelli, Alberto
Purpose of review To assess all the possible differential diagnosis of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), both in acute and chronic presentation, reviewing the data reported in published studies. Recent findings There is an increase of reported cases of FPIES in recent years. As the disease presents with nonspecific symptoms, it can be misunderstood in many ways. The differential diagnosis includes, in acute presentations, the following: sepsis, other infectious diseases, acute gastrointestinal episodes, surgical emergencies, food allergies. In its chronic forms, FPIES may mimic malabsorption syndromes, metabolic disorders, primary immunodeficiencies, neurological conditions, coagulation defects, and other types of non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Summary A thorough clinical evaluation, including symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings, is necessary to lead the clinicians toward the diagnosis of FPIES. The major reason for delayed diagnosis appears to be the lack of knowledge of the disease. PMID:24739227
Pakdaman, Michael N; Sepahdari, Ali R; Elkhamary, Sahar M
Orbital inflammatory disease (OID) represents a collection of inflammatory conditions affecting the orbit. OID is a diagnosis of exclusion, with the differential diagnosis including infection, systemic inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms, among other conditions. Inflammatory conditions in OID include dacryoadenitis, myositis, cellulitis, optic perineuritis, periscleritis, orbital apicitis, and a focal mass. Sclerosing orbital inflammation is a rare condition with a chronic, indolent course involving dense fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate. Previously thought to be along the spectrum of OID, it is now considered a distinct pathologic entity. Imaging plays an important role in elucidating any underlying etiology behind orbital inflammation and is critical for ruling out other conditions prior to a definitive diagnosis of OID. In this review, we will explore the common sites of involvement by OID and discuss differential diagnosis by site and key imaging findings for each condition. PMID:24778772
Hu-Torres, Sandra; Foster, C Stephen
The purpose of this review is to comprehensively explain the differential diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. Web-based literature review. Main diagnostic decisions are made through a thorough anterior segment exam and a comprehensive exploration of past medical and family history. High clinical suspicion of other uveitic entities occurring in children is necessary and must be excluded by the practitioner before immediate diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis is made.
Kim, Dam; Choi, Chan-Bum; Lee, Jiyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Jung, Young Ok; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jaejoon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Sang-Heon; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Bae, Sang-Cheol
Background/Aims To determine whether early diagnosis is beneficial for functional status of various disease durations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods A total of 4,540 RA patients were enrolled as part of the Korean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA). We defined early diagnosis as a lag time between symptom onset and RA diagnosis of ≤ 12 months, whereas patients with a longer lag time comprised the delayed diagnosis group. Demographic characteristics and outcomes were compared between early and delayed diagnosis groups. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of early diagnosis on the development of functional disability in RA patients. Results A total of 2,597 patients (57.2%) were included in the early diagnosis group. The average Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score was higher in the delayed diagnosis group (0.64 ± 0.63 vs. 0.70 ± 0.66, p < 0.01), and the proportion of patients with no functional disability (HAQ = 0) was higher in the early diagnosis group (22.9% vs. 20.0%, p = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, early diagnosis was independently associated with no functional disability (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40). In a subgroup analysis according to disease duration, early diagnosis was associated with no functional disability in patients with disease duration < 5 years (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.72) but not in patients with longer disease duration (for 5 to 10 years: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.52; for ≥ 10 years: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.28). Conclusions Early diagnosis is associated with no functional disability, especially in patients with shorter disease duration. PMID:27618867
Grundmann, U; Lausberg, H; Schäfers, H-J
Acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but important differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. The variability of presenting symptoms makes it difficult to diagnose correctly. Important clinical indicators - besides chest pain - are symptoms related to acute aortic insufficiency and/or pericardial tamponade, variable acute neurologic alterations, or signs of peripheral or visceral malperfusion. The spontaneous prognosis depends on the location and extent of the dissection, and left untreated dissection carries a high mortality. The key goal of preclinical treatment is stabilization with analgesia, mild sedation (opioids, benzodiazepines) and treatment of hypertension (beta-blockers) or hypotension (fluid administration). If the patient presents with a high probability of dissection, early transfer to a specialized center appears advisable. Initial clinical diagnostic studies include transthoracic echocardiogram and computed tomography. If the ascending aorta is involved (Stanford type A) immediate replacement of the proximal aorta is necessary. Isolated dissections of the descending aorta (type B) require aggressive blood pressure control, but can be managed conservatively in most cases. A high level of vigilance is necessary in all patients to detect and treat visceral ischemia.
Schwartz, Robert A; McDonough, Patrick H; Lee, Brian W
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a life-threatening, typically drug-induced, mucocutaneous disease. TEN has a high mortality rate, making early diagnosis and treatment of paramount importance. New but experimental diagnostic tools that measure serum granulysin and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) offer the potential to differentiate early TEN from other, less serious drug reactions, but these tests have not been validated and are not readily available. The mainstay of treatment for TEN involves discontinuation of the offending drug, specialized care in an intensive care unit or burn center, and supportive therapy. Pharmacogenetic studies have clearly established a link between human leukocyte antigen allotype and TEN. Human leukocyte antigen testing should be performed on patients of East Asian descent before the initiation of carbamezapine and on all patients before the initiation of abacavir. The effectiveness of systemic steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, plasmapheresis, cyclosporine, biologics, and other agents is uncertain. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Blessing, Andreas; Studer, Anna; Gross, Amelie; Gruss, L Forest; Schneider, Roland; Dammann, Gerhard
There is a debate concerning risks and benefits of early intervention in psychosis, especially concerning diagnosis disclosure. The present study reports preliminary findings on self-reported locus of control and psychological distress after the disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center. We compared the ratings of the locus of control and psychological distress before and after communication of diagnosis. The study included individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (n = 10), schizophrenia (n = 9), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 11). Results indicate greater endorsement of the internal locus of control in individuals with ARMS after communication of diagnosis in contrast to the other groups. Our results suggest that disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center leads to a reduction of psychological distress and increased feelings of control over one's health. Persons with ARMS seem to particularly benefit from disclosure of diagnosis as part of early intervention.
Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.
Inherited endocrine tumors have been increasingly recognized in clinical practice, although some difficulties still exist in differentiating these conditions from their sporadic endocrine tumor counterparts. Here, we list the 12 main topics that could add helpful information and clues for performing an early differential diagnosis to distinguish between these conditions. The early diagnosis of patients with inherited endocrine tumors may be performed either clinically or by mutation analysis in at-risk individuals. Early detection usually has a large impact in tumor management, allowing preventive clinical or surgical therapy in most cases. Advice for the clinical and surgical management of inherited endocrine tumors is also discussed. In addition, recent clinical and genetic advances for 17 different forms of inherited endocrine tumors are briefly reviewed. PMID:23917672
Stemeyer, G; Stähli, P
This study reviews the patient material first from the point of view of referral diagnosis. Secondly, we focus on difficulties in selective differential diagnoses. 1501 patients underwent electroretinographic (ERG) testing from 1989 to 1994, amounting to 1815 ERG recordings, including follow-up examinations. The technique applied is full-field, single flash ERG with selective stimulation of the rod- and of the cone-systems. In 3.8% (57 cases) the ERG was performed under general anesthesia in outpatients. Tapetoretinal degenerations, toxic retinal side effects, inflammatory disease and ocular trauma represented, in this order, the major groups of referral diagnoses aside from unclear visual loss. The documentation or the exclusion of tapetoretinal degeneration represented the largest share (57%) of the application of the diagnostic procedure. 171 cases of isolated retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and 33 cases of syndromic RP were identified. Frequent and rare diagnostic entities and their differential diagnoses within this group are discussed. Inevitably, a number of diagnostic decisions remain problematic, in particular at the first examination. These diagnostic difficulties are addressed also and include the differentiation between RP sine pigmento and congenital amaurosis Leber in infants, RP with macular involvement vs. cone-rod degeneration, unilateral RP vs. postinflammatory conditions, and progressive cone dystrophy vs. achromatopsia, cone-rod degeneration or Stargardt's disease. Frequent and meaningful indications for ERG recording and difficult diagnostic decisions arise from this review of a relatively large group of patients. A number of diagnoses can hardly, if not at all be established without ERG testing. These include retinal cause of visual loss in infants, congenital amaurosis Leber, RP sine pigmento, early stages of RP, carrier status in XL RP and in choroideremia, progressive cone dystrophy, toxic retinopathy without fundus changes, retinal involvement
Silber, Thomas J.
Functional complaints constitute the major reason why adolescents visit the physician's office. These complaints may coexist with organic illness of minor or major significance. Proposes a definition of functional disorders, sets forth a classification of the differential diagnosis of these disorders and suggests techniques for their management.…
García-Renedo, R J; Pérez-Carro, L; Fernández-Torres, J J; Carranza-Bencano, A; Gómez-del Alamo, G
The ankle soft tissue pathology represents a very painful disorder for patients who, often times, are not precisely diagnosed. Anterolateral ankle impingement is a condition that occurs in young people and athletes due to a plantar flexion-inversion mechanism. We report a case of anterolateral ankle impingement describing the arthroscopic technique and making the differential diagnosis considering other conditions.
Hill, Carrie L.; Spengler, Paul M.
Delineates a process model for mental-health counselors to follow in formulating a differential diagnosis of dementia and depression in adults 65 years and older. The model is derived from empirical, theoretical, and clinical sources of evidence. Explores components of the clinical interview, of hypothesis formation, and of hypothesis testing.…
Weiss, Benjamin P.; Wang, Jun
Paleomagnetic studies of meteorites have shown that the solar nebula was likely magnetized and that many early planetary bodies generated dynamo magnetic ﬁelds in their advecting metallic cores. The surface ﬁelds on these bodies were recorded by a diversity of chondrites and achondrites, ranging in intensity from several μT to several hundred μT. In fact, an achondrite parent body without evidence for paleomagnetic ﬁelds has yet to be conﬁdently identiﬁed, hinting that early solar system ﬁeld generation and the dynamo process in particular may have been common. Here we present paleomagnetic measurements of the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 indicating thatmore » it last cooled in a near-zero ﬁeld (<∼1.7μT), estimated to have occurred at 4563.09 ± 0.26 million years ago (Ma) from Al–Mg chronometry. Because NWA 7325 is highly depleted in siderophile elements, its parent body nevertheless underwent large-scale metal-silicate differentiation and likely formed a metallic core. This makes NWA 7325 the ﬁrst recognized example of an essentially unmagnetized igneous rock from a differentiated early solar system body. These results indicate that all magnetic ﬁelds, including those from any core dynamo on the NWA 7325 parent body, the solar nebula, young Sun, and solar wind, were <1.7 μT at the location of NWA 7325 at 4563 Ma. This supports a recent conclusion that the solar nebula had dissipated by ∼4 million years after solar system formation. NWA 7325 also serves as an experimental control that gives greater conﬁdence in the positive identiﬁcation of remanent magnetization in other achondrites.« less
Weiss, Benjamin P.; Wang, Huapei; Sharp, Thomas G.; ...
Paleomagnetic studies of meteorites have shown that the solar nebula was likely magnetized and that many early planetary bodies generated dynamo magnetic fields in their advecting metallic cores. The surface fields on these bodies were recorded by a diversity of chondrites and achondrites, ranging in intensity from several μT to several hundred μT. In fact, an achondrite parent body without evidence for paleomagnetic fields has yet to be confidently identified, hinting that early solar system field generation and the dynamo process in particular may have been common. Here we present paleomagnetic measurements of the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 indicating thatmore » it last cooled in a near-zero field (<~1.7μT), estimated to have occurred at 4563.09 ± 0.26 million years ago (Ma) from Al–Mg chronometry. Because NWA 7325 is highly depleted in siderophile elements, its parent body nevertheless underwent large-scale metal-silicate differentiation and likely formed a metallic core. This makes NWA 7325 the first recognized example of an essentially unmagnetized igneous rock from a differentiated early solar system body. These results indicate that all magnetic fields, including those from any core dynamo on the NWA 7325 parent body, the solar nebula, young Sun, and solar wind, were <1.7 μT at the location of NWA 7325 at 4563 Ma. Finally, this supports a recent conclusion that the solar nebula had dissipated by ~4 million years after solar system formation. NWA 7325 also serves as an experimental control that gives greater confidence in the positive identification of remanent magnetization in other achondrites.« less
Weiss, Benjamin P.; Wang, Huapei; Sharp, Thomas G.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Shuster, David L.; Downey, Brynna; Hu, Jinping; Fu, Roger R.; Kuan, Aaron T.; Suavet, Clément; Irving, Anthony J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiajun
Paleomagnetic studies of meteorites have shown that the solar nebula was likely magnetized and that many early planetary bodies generated dynamo magnetic fields in their advecting metallic cores. The surface fields on these bodies were recorded by a diversity of chondrites and achondrites, ranging in intensity from several μT to several hundred μT. In fact, an achondrite parent body without evidence for paleomagnetic fields has yet to be confidently identified, hinting that early solar system field generation and the dynamo process in particular may have been common. Here we present paleomagnetic measurements of the ungrouped achondrite NWA 7325 indicating that it last cooled in a near-zero field (<∼1.7 μT), estimated to have occurred at 4563.09 ± 0.26 million years ago (Ma) from Al-Mg chronometry. Because NWA 7325 is highly depleted in siderophile elements, its parent body nevertheless underwent large-scale metal-silicate differentiation and likely formed a metallic core. This makes NWA 7325 the first recognized example of an essentially unmagnetized igneous rock from a differentiated early solar system body. These results indicate that all magnetic fields, including those from any core dynamo on the NWA 7325 parent body, the solar nebula, young Sun, and solar wind, were <1.7 μT at the location of NWA 7325 at 4563 Ma. This supports a recent conclusion that the solar nebula had dissipated by ∼4 million years after solar system formation. NWA 7325 also serves as an experimental control that gives greater confidence in the positive identification of remanent magnetization in other achondrites.
Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Tokura, Yoshiki
Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is an inflammatory disease characterized by repeated pruritic follicular papules and pustules arranged in arcuate plaques, and folliculotropic infiltration of eosinophils. The diagnosis of EPF is occasionally difficult and problematic because EPF may share the clinical appearance and histological findings with other diseases. Moreover, EPF has several clinical subtypes, including the classical type, infantile type and immunosuppression-associated type. Because the therapies of EPF are relatively specific as compared to eczematous disorders, accurate diagnosis is essential for the management of EPF. Clinical differential diagnoses include tinea, acne, rosacea, eczematous dermatitis, granuloma faciale, autoimmune annular erythema, infestations and pustular dermatosis. Histologically, cutaneous diseases with eosinophilic infiltrates can be differentially diagnosed. Follicular mucinosis, mycosis fungoides and other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are the most important differential diagnoses both clinically and histopathologically. It should be kept in mind particularly that the initial lesions of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma resemble EPF. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Park, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Byung Ihn; Lee, Eun Sun; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Jong Beum
Rapid advances in liver imaging have improved the evaluation of hepatocarcinogenesis and early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this situation, detection of early-stage HCC in its development is important for the improvement of patient survival and optimal treatment strategies. Because early HCCs are considered precursors of progressed HCC, precise differentiation between a dysplastic nodule (DN), especially a high-grade DN, and early HCC is important. In clinical practice, these nodules are frequently called "borderline hepatic nodules." This article discusses radiological and pathological characteristics of these borderline hepatic nodules and offers an understanding of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis by focusing on the descriptions of the imaging changes in the progression of DN and early HCC. Detection and accurate diagnosis of borderline hepatic nodules are still a challenge with contrast enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI with extracellular contrast agents. However, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI may be useful for improving the diagnosis of these borderline nodules. Since there is a net effect of incomplete neoangiogenesis and decreased portal venous flow in the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis, borderline hepatic nodules commonly show iso- or hypovascularity. Therefore, precise differentiation of these nodules remains a challenging issue. In MRI using hepatobiliary contrast agents, signal intensity of HCCs on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) is regarded as a potential imaging biomarker. Borderline hepatic nodules are seen as nonhypervascular and hypointense nodules on the HBP, which is important for predicting tumor behavior and determining appropriate therapeutic strategies.
Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Errante, Yuri; Rossi Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Galassi, Stefania; Della Sala, Sabino Walter; Bernardi, Bruno; Fariello, Giuseppe; Longo, Daniela
Differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions, either isolated or in association with cerebellar and supra-tentorial lesions, can be challenging. Knowledge of the structural organization is crucial for the differential diagnosis and establishment of prognosis of pathologies with involvement of the brainstem. Familiarity with the location of the lesions in the brainstem is essential, especially in the pediatric population. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive and specific imaging technique for diagnosing disorders of the posterior fossa and, particularly, the brainstem. High magnetic static field MRI allows detailed visualization of the morphology, signal intensity and metabolic content of the brainstem nuclei, together with visualization of the normal development and myelination. In this pictorial essay we review the brainstem pathology in pediatric patients and consider the MR imaging patterns that may help the radiologist to differentiate among vascular, toxico-metabolic, infective-inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic processes. Helpful MR tips can guide the differential diagnosis: These include the location and morphology of lesions, the brainstem vascularization territories, gray and white matter distribution and tissue selective vulnerability. PMID:26834941
Toppelberg, Claudio O.; Tabors, Patton; Coggins, Alissa; Lum, Kirk; Burger, Claudia
Early diagnosis of selective mutism (SM) is an important concern. SM prevalence is higher than initially thought and at least three times higher in immigrant language minority children. Although the DSM-IV precludes diagnosing SM in immigrant children with limited language proficiency (as children acquiring a second language may normally undergo a…
Koikkalainen, Juha; Rhodius-Meester, Hanneke; Tolonen, Antti; Barkhof, Frederik; Tijms, Betty; Lemstra, Afina W.; Tong, Tong; Guerrero, Ricardo; Schuh, Andreas; Ledig, Christian; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Remes, Anne M.; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hasselbalch, Steen; Mecocci, Patrizia; van der Flier, Wiesje; Lötjönen, Jyrki
Different neurodegenerative diseases can cause memory disorders and other cognitive impairments. The early detection and the stratification of patients according to the underlying disease are essential for an efficient approach to this healthcare challenge. This emphasizes the importance of differential diagnostics. Most studies compare patients and controls, or Alzheimer's disease with one other type of dementia. Such a bilateral comparison does not resemble clinical practice, where a clinician is faced with a number of different possible types of dementia. Here we studied which features in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans could best distinguish four types of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies, and control subjects. We extracted an extensive set of features quantifying volumetric and morphometric characteristics from T1 images, and vascular characteristics from FLAIR images. Classification was performed using a multi-class classifier based on Disease State Index methodology. The classifier provided continuous probability indices for each disease to support clinical decision making. A dataset of 504 individuals was used for evaluation. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 70.6% and balanced accuracy was 69.1% for the five disease groups using only automatically determined MRI features. Vascular dementia patients could be detected with high sensitivity (96%) using features from FLAIR images. Controls (sensitivity 82%) and Alzheimer's disease patients (sensitivity 74%) could be accurately classified using T1-based features, whereas the most difficult group was the dementia with Lewy bodies (sensitivity 32%). These results were notable better than the classification accuracies obtained with visual MRI ratings (accuracy 44.6%, balanced accuracy 51.6%). Different quantification methods provided complementary information, and consequently, the best results were obtained by
Simpson-Dent, S.; Fearfield, L. A.; Staughton, R. C.
Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is a chronic, intensely pruritic condition of unknown pathogenesis that causes marked morbidity in those HIV patients whom it affects. There is a wide differential diagnosis of itchy skin conditions in HIV which are amenable to different treatments. It is therefore essential to take a biopsy of each suspected case and examine multiple sections of the biopsy to confirm or refute a diagnosis of EF. Treatment of EF can be difficult but we hope that by suggesting a rational approach to this and considering possible therapeutic options more patients may be helped with this troublesome dermatosis. PMID:10616350
Kumar, Anil; Brennan, Michael T
When a patient complains of orofacial pain, health care providers must make a correct diagnosis. Doing this can be difficult, since various signs and symptoms may not be specific for 1 particular problem or disorder. One initially should formulate a broad differential diagnosis that can be narrowed after analysis of the history and examination. In this article, orofacial pain is categorized as being caused by: intracranial pain, headaches, neuropathic pain, intraoral pain, temporomandibular disorder, cervical pain, pain related to anatomically associated structures, referred pain, or mental illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.
Buchmann, J; Arens, U; Harke, G; Smolenski, U C; Kayser, R
The differential diagnostic evaluation of painful functional disorders of the lumbosacral and lumbopelvic region, i. e. the so-called “low back pain” is very extensive, but is often reduced to the question of chronicity. The manual medical diagnosis can make a valuable contribution in such cases for determination of structural and functional pathology. Early application of manual medical therapies seems to be effective for peracute complaints. The mobilization of restrictions of the pelvic visceral attachments should be included. In the following review manual medical syndromes are presented that summarize the findings from the musculoskeletal and visceral system. This is intended to facilitate the primary differential diagnostic evaluation, as well as treatment planning. The combination with osteopathic methods is very profitable. A necessary specialist differential diagnosis remains essential.
Polydorides, Alexandros D
The histologic finding of chronic inflammation in an endoscopic mucosal biopsy of the stomach (chronic gastritis) is very common and usually reflects the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, infectious organisms are not always present in biopsy material, and some cases of chronic gastritis do not result from H. pylori infection. Thus, the differential diagnosis of this finding is an important one for pathologists to keep in mind. This review presents the three most common and clinically significant causes of chronic, noninfectious gastritis, namely, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, lymphocytic gastritis, and gastric involvement in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn disease. For each entity, a brief discussion of its etiology and pathogenesis, a review of the clinical and endoscopic features, and a description of the microscopic findings are presented in the context of the differential diagnosis of chronic gastritis with emphasis on helpful histopathologic hints and long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ong, C L; Wong, T H; Rauff, A
Gall bladder perforation is a rare complication of cholecystitis. A definitive diagnosis is uncommon before surgery and the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition are high. We report six patients with gall bladder perforation to show the difficulty of making an early diagnosis. The history and the clinical findings of these patients are reviewed to highlight diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:1885081
Mast, P; Rodrigueztapia, M T; Daeniker, L; Krejci, I
Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a congenital disease which increases in prevalence. It affects permanent first molars and, often to a lesser degree, permanent incisors with variable severity. The aetiology is unknown, but different hypotheses have been advanced. Differential diagnosis is mandatory not to confound MIH with other diseases. Treatment consists in a minimally invasive approach by reinforcing and protecting the existing dental structure. In more severe cases, restorative treatment may be indicated.
Khambete, Neha; Kumar, Rahul
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies. Materials and Methods: Ten patients aged between 19 years and 40 years with periapical lesions associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth were selected and consented for the study. Pre-operative periapical radiographs were obtained. Measurements and provisional diagnoses of the apical areas were made by two specialist observers on two separate occasions. Preoperative ultrasound examinations with Doppler flowmetry were then performed and the images assessed by two specialist observers for the size, contents, vascular supply and a provisional diagnosis made as to whether the lesion was a cyst or granuloma. Endodontic surgery was performed including curettage of the apical tissues to enable histopathological investigation, which provided the gold standard diagnosis. All measurements and findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: Total 10 lesions were identified in 10 patients. On periapical radiographs, lesions were readily identified but observers were unable to differentiate granuloma from cyst using either modality. Where sufficient buccal cortical bone had been resorbed, ultrasound imaging was simple but underestimated the size of the lesions compared with periapical radiographs. In all cases, the ultrasound diagnosis agreed with the histopathological gold standard. Conclusion: Ultrasonography (USG) can provide accurate information about the nature of intraosseous lesions of the jaws before any surgical procedure. It is proposed that USG with Doppler flowmetry can provide an additional diagnostic tool without invasive surgery, where treatment option is nonsurgical. PMID:25657525
Aralica, Gorana; Milošević, Danko; Konjevoda, Paško; Seiwerth, Sven; Štambuk, Nikola
Medical differential diagnosis is a method of identifying the presence of a particular entity (disease) within a set of multiple possible alternatives. The significant problem in dermatology and pathology is the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions, especially of dysplastic nevi. Malignant melanoma is the most malignant skin neoplasma, with increasing incidence in various parts of the world. It is hoped that the methods of quantitative pathology, i.e. morphometry, can help objectification of the diagnostic process, since early discovery of melanoma results in 10-year survival rate of 90%. The aim of the study was to use fractal dimension calculated from the perimeter-area relation of the cell nuclei as a tool for the differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. We analyzed hemalaun-eosin stained pathohistological slides of pigmented skin lesions: intradermal naevi (n = 45), dysplastic naevi (n = 47), and malignant melanoma (n = 50). It was found that fractal dimension of malignant melanoma cell nuclei differs significantly from the intradermal and dysplastic naevi (p ≤ 0. 001, Steel-Dwass Multiple Comparison Test). Additionaly, ROC analysis confirmed the value of fractal dimension based evaluation. It is suggested that the estimation of fractal dimension from the perimeter-area relation of the cell nuclei may be a potentially useful morphometric parameter in the medical differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions.
Amir, Tali; Poretti, Andrea; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M
Fetal ventriculomegaly is a common and frequently leading neuroimaging finding in complex brain malformations. Here we report on pre- and postnatal neuroimaging findings in three fetuses with prenatal ventriculomegaly and brainstem kinking. We aim to identify key neuroimaging features that may allow the prenatal differentiation between diseases associated with fetal ventriculomegaly and brainstem kinking. All pre- and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were qualitatively evaluated for infra- and supratentorial abnormalities. Data about clinical features and genetic findings were collected from clinical histories. In all three patients, fetal MRI showed ventriculomegaly and brainstem kinking. In two patients, postnatal MRI also showed supratentorial migration abnormalities and eye abnormalities were found. In these children, the diagnosis of α-dystroglycanopathy was genetically confirmed. In the third patient, basal ganglia had an abnormal shape on MRI suggesting a tubulinopathy. The differential diagnosis of prenatal ventriculomegaly and brainstem kinking includes α-dystroglycanopathies, X-linked hydrocephalus due to mutations in L1CAM, and tubulinopathies. The prenatal differentiation between these diseases may be difficult. The presence of ocular abnormalities on prenatal neuroimaging may favor α-dystroglycanopathies, while dysplastic basal ganglia may suggest a tubulinopathy. However, in some patients the final differentiation between these diseases is possible only postnatally. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Saito, Keigo; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the prognosis of patients with HCC is generally poor, the 5-year survival rate is > 70% if patients are diagnosed at an early stage. However, early diagnosis of HCC is complicated by the coexistence of inflammation and cirrhosis. Thus, novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC are required. Currently, the diagnosis of HCC without pathological correlation is achieved by analyzing serum α-fetoprotein levels combined with imaging techniques. Advances in genomics and proteomics platforms and biomarker assay techniques over the last decade have resulted in the identification of numerous novel biomarkers and have improved the diagnosis of HCC. The most promising biomarkers, such as glypican-3, osteopontin, Golgi protein-73 and nucleic acids including microRNAs, are most likely to become clinically validated in the near future. These biomarkers are not only useful for early diagnosis of HCC, but also provide insight into the mechanisms driving oncogenesis. In addition, such molecular insight creates the basis for the development of potentially more effective treatment strategies. In this article, we provide an overview of the biomarkers that are currently used for the early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:26457017
Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Kockler, Hanna; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai
As a result of the increased public interest in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), certain core manifestations of ASD--impaired social interaction and communication, bizarre interests--are now commonly recognized as being typical of autism, not only in children, but in adults as well. More often than before, general practitioners, neurologists, and psychiatrists find themselves being asked whether a patient is suffering from previously unrecognized Asperger syndrome (AS). The prevalence of ASD is estimated at 1%, and the ratio of diagnosed to undiagnosed cases at about 3:2. Little is known about the diagnostic evaluation of AS in adulthood. We selectively searched the Medline database for pertinent literature, paying special attention to diagnostic manuals and to the guideline of the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Centrally important aspects of the diagnosis of AS include an assessment of the patient's ability to assume the emotional perspectives of others, non-verbal modes of expression, repetitive behavior patterns, and childhood social behavioral history. The autism quotient (AQ) is now established as a simple but nonspecific screening test. Up to 70% of all affected adults have comorbid disturbances, most often depression and anxiety disorders. The differential diagnosis includes personality disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The diagnostic assessment should proceed in stepwise fashion, starting from simple screening in primary care and then moving on to evaluation of the suspected diagnosis by a mental health care specialist, followed by extensive further investigation in an outpatient clinic specifically devoted to patients with autism spectrum disorders. The diagnostic assessment of autism in adults requires knowledge of the core and accompanying manifestations of autism and of their differential diagnoses. More research is needed for the
Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B.; Nottke, Charly; Wetherby, Amy M.
Background: Although a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears to be stable in children as young as age three, few studies have explored stability of a diagnosis in younger children. Predictive value of diagnostic tools for toddlers and patterns of symptom change are important considerations for clinicians making early diagnoses. Most…
Wolin, Edward M
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare, heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, with the lungs and GI tract being the most common sites of origin. Despite increasing incidence, awareness of lung NETs remains low among thoracic specialists who are often involved in the assessment and early treatment of these patients. Successful treatment requires accurate and timely diagnosis; however, classification can be challenging, particularly for well-differentiated and intermediate-differentiated lung NET types (typical carcinoids [TC] and atypical carcinoids [AC]). Diagnosis and management of lung NETs are further complicated by the nonspecificity of symptoms, variable natural history, and lack of high-level clinical evidence; a multidisciplinary approach is required, which has been shown to improve prognosis. Currently, surgery remains the only curative option for TC/AC. Inconsistencies between guideline recommendations for systemic therapies, especially for chemotherapy, result in a lack of consensus on a standardized treatment for unresectable disease. Recent data from the Phase III RAD001 in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors, Fourth Trial (RADIANT-4), which contained a large population of patients with advanced, well-differentiated, nonfunctional lung NETs in addition to those with GI NETs, found a reduced risk of disease progression and death with everolimus compared with placebo, leading to US approval of everolimus in these patient populations. This study is the first high-level therapeutic evidence in patients with TC/AC, and everolimus is currently the only agent approved for treatment of TC/AC. Increased awareness, prompt diagnosis, and additional adequately powered controlled clinical trials of patients with well-differentiated and intermediate-differentiated lung NETs are needed to further improve evidence-based care. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gladkova, Natalia D.; Petrova, Galina P.; Derpaluk, Elena; Nikulin, Nikolai K.; Snopova, Ludmila; Chumakov, Yuri; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Kuranov, Roman V.
The capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging in vivo of optical patterns of pathomorphological processes in the skin and use of their optical patterns in clinical practice for differential diagnosis of dermatoses are presented. Images of skin tissue 0.8 - 1.5 mm deep were acquired with a resolution of 5, 12 and 20 micrometer using three compact fiber OCT devices developed at the Institute of Applied Physics RAS. The acquisition time of images of skin regions 2 - 6 mm in length was 2 - 4 s. The OCT capabilities were analyzed based on the study of 50 patients with different dermatoses. OCT images were interpreted by comparing with parallel histology. It is shown that OCT can detect in vivo optical patterns of morphological alterations in such general papulous dermatoses as lichen ruber planus and psoriasis, a capability that can be used in differential diagnosis of these diseases. Most informative are OCT images obtained with a resolution of 5 micrometer. The results of our study demonstrate the practical importance of OCT imaging for diagnosis of different dermatoses. OCT is noninvasive and, therefore, makes it possible to perform frequent multifocal examination of skin without any adverse effects.
Kim, Nam Ryang; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung
Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic granulomatous disease that presents as a slowly progressive, indolent, indurated infiltration with multiple abscesses, fistulas, and sinuses. The purpose of this article is to report on a case of actinomycosis with clinical findings similar to periodontitis. A 46-year-old female presented with recurrent throbbing pain on the right first and second molar of the mandible three weeks after root planing. Exploratory flap surgery was performed, and the bluish-gray tissue fragment found in the interproximal area between the two molars was sent for histopathology. The diagnosis from the biopsy was actinomycosis. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of this case were clinically indistinguishable from periodontitis. The patient did not report any symptoms, and she is scheduled for a follow-up visit. The present study has identified periodontitis-mimicking actinomycosis. Actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases with periodontal pain and inflammation that do not respond to nonsurgical treatment for periodontitis. More routine submissions of tissue removed from the oral cavity for biopsies may be beneficial for differential diagnosis.
Pierro, L; Capoferri, C; Brancato, R
A hereditary retinoblastoma (RTB) was identified by ocular echography in a newborn, whose predisposition to RTB had been assessed based on the family history and DNA testing of the chorionic villi at the eighth week of pregnancy. Ultrasonography was performed during pregnancies without an abnormality being demonstrated. On the third day of life a B-scan examination showed a small membranous lesion in the nasal parapapillary area, whilst on A-scan, the lesion appeared as a hyperreflective peak. Thanks to its early identification, the tumor was successfully treated by photocoagulation.
Qiao, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Li, Na; Song, Chen; Li, Man
Objective To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Methods The scientific literature databases PubMed, Cochrane Library and CNKI were comprehensively searched for studies relevant to the use of CEUS technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian cancer. Pooled summary statistics for specificity (Spe), sensitivity (Sen), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR−), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95%CIs were calculated. Software for statistical analysis included STATA version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). Results Following a stringent selection process, seven high quality clinical trials were found suitable for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The 7 studies contained a combined total of 375 ovarian cancer patients (198 malignant and 177 benign). Statistical analysis revealed that CEUS was associated with the following performance measures in differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors: pooled Sen was 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92∼0.98); the summary Spe was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.86∼0.94); the pooled LR+ was 10.63 (95%CI = 6.59∼17.17); the pooled LR− was 0.04 (95%CI = 0.02∼0.09); and the pooled DOR was 241.04 (95% CI = 92.61∼627.37). The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.20∼1.00). Lastly, publication bias was not detected (t = −0.52, P = 0.626) in the meta-analysis. Conclusions Our results revealed the high clinical value of CEUS in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Further, CEUS may also prove to be useful in differential diagnosis at early stages of this disease. PMID:25764442
Balhara, Ashok K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K; Singh, Inderjeet
An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area.
Gupta, Meenakshi; Singh, Surender; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Singh, Inderjeet
An early and accurate diagnosis of reproductive dysfunctions or aberrations is crucial to better reproductive management in livestock. High reproductive efficiency is a prerequisite for high life-time production in dairy animals. Early pregnancy diagnosis is key to shorten the calving interval through early identification of open animals and their timely treatment and rebreeding so as to maintain a postpartum barren interval close to 60 days. A buffalo, the most important dairy animal in the Indian subcontinent, is known for problems related to high calving interval, late puberty, and high incidence of anestrus. Lack of reliable cow-side early pregnancy diagnosis methods further aggravates the situation. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis are being practiced in bovine species, yet none qualifies as the ideal pregnancy diagnosis method due to the inherent limitations of sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, speed, and ease of performing the test. The advancement of molecular techniques like proteomics and their applications in animal research has given a new hope to look for pregnancy biomarker molecules in these animals. This review attempts to examine common pregnancy diagnosis methods available for dairy animals, while assessing the usefulness of the modern technologies in detecting novel pregnancy markers and designing future strategies for research in this area. PMID:24382949
Rigo, Lilian; Lodi, Leodinei; Garbin, Raíssa Rigo
ABSTRACT Objective To check knowledge of undergraduate dental students to make diagnosis of dental fluorosis with varying degrees of severity and choose its appropriate treatment. Methods Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire addressing knowledge of undergraduates based on ten images of mouths presenting enamel changes. Results Only three images were correctly diagnosed by most undergraduates; the major difficulty was in establishing dental fluorosis severity degree. Conclusion Despite much information about fluorosis conveyed during the Dentistry training, as defined in the course syllabus, a significant part of the students was not able to differentiate it from other lesions; they did not demonstrate expertise as to defining severity of fluorosis and indications for treatment, and could not make the correct diagnosis of enamel surface changes. PMID:26761552
Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis
Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521
Matsuoka, Katsunari; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro
Although chondrosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor, cases arising in the rib are relatively rare. We experienced a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the right 10th rib during follow-up after lung cancer surgery. Although the finding of an osteolytic mass suggested a metastatic bone tumor, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography demonstrated low fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, and a primary bone tumor was suspected. The bone tumor was resected and diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Four years after resection, there has been no recurrence or metastasis. Positron-emission tomography was useful for differential diagnosis between a chondrosarcoma and a metastatic bone tumor.
Kórász, Krisztián; Simon, Lajos
Gender identity disorder, or transsexualism as it is more commonly known, is a highly complex clinical entity. It is an identifiable and incapacitating disease which can be diagnosed and successfully treated by reassignment surgery. The diagnosis of gender identity disorder can be a difficult process. Transsexual patients will have to undergo extensive psychiatric assessment. The authors review the development of nosology of transsexualism. The current classification systems, symptoms and diagnostic features of gender identity disorders are discussed. The article also discusses differential diagnostic features, like intersex states, psychosis, transvestitism, autogynephilia, gynandromorphophilia, and self-amputation. The authors also discuss the problem of comorbidity, as well.
Llorens Salvador, R; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Pacheco Usmayo, A; Picó Aliaga, S; Garcés Iñigo, E
Ovarian cysts are the most common abdominal cysts in female fetuses and newborn girls. Ultrasonography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing ovarian cysts because it makes it possible to differentiate them from other cystic lesions. Although most neonatal ovarian cysts regress in the first few months after birth, complications can occur during gestation or after birth. The manifestations of ovarian cysts on ultrasonography will depend on the complications. The management is controversial, although the current trend favors watchful waiting. We describe the different presentations of neonatal ovarian cysts with their complications and their patterns of findings on ultrasonography. We also discuss the differential diagnosis with other cystic abdominal lesions, and finally we discuss the therapeutic management of neonatal ovarian cysts. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The diagnosis of liver involvement in early syphilis has always posed problems because of its rarity and the difficulty of excluding coincidental liver disease caused by a multitude of pathogens. Case reports deal predominantly with jaundiced homosexual men in whom syphilis is discovered later, and the prospective studies of patients with early syphilis disclose only mild biochemical abnormalities in liver function test results. There is no single characteristic feature attributable to early syphilitic hepatitis. Even liver histologic findings are variable. At least in those patients who have jaundice, there is a likelihood of coincidental viral hepatitis. Therefore, the evidence to implicate Treponema pallidum as a liver pathogen in early syphilis is not convincing.
Meier, N; Lipp, E; Solenthaler, M
Pernicious anemia and Vitamin B12 deficiency have a wide range of symptoms and are a common finding in the elderly. A 73 year old female is admitted to the hospital because of dyspnea, fatigue and loss of appetite and weight. While previous medical history and physical examination are inconspicuous, laboratory findings show severe pancytopenia with macrocytosis, low reticulocyte count and marked signs of hemolysis. A very low serum level of vitamin B12 and chronic atrophic type A gastritis upon endoscopy with presence of parietal cell antibodies in the serum lead to the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Complete restitution is achieved by parenteral vitamin B12 substitution. Nowadays, severe pernicious anemia is only rarely seen. The differential diagnosis of pancytopenia (with macrocytic anemia) combined with hemolysis and the essential hints to the diagnosis of pernicious anemia are discussed, and thereby practical aspects including therapy actualized.
Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur; Turan, Aynur; Demirel, Nihal; Demirkan, Tulin Hakan
Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare, congenital non-hereditary syndrome, characterized by multiple pigmented nevi. We report the radiologic findings of a newborn who had extensive cutaneous melanotic nevus with satellite lesions in the brain. Ultrasound showed multiple echogenic foci in the cerebral parenchyma. Subsequent MRI confirmed these lesions as characteristic deposits of melanin. The infant was asymptomatic, but presence of risk factors such as malign transformation or neurological manifestations makes early diagnosis very important. We present this case to emphasize on the radiological findings of this syndrome in order to reach an early diagnosis. PMID:25780540
Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Hee Jin; Kwag, Hyon Joo; Hong, Hyun-Pyo; Park, Hae-Won; Lee, Yong-Rae; Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ultrasound (US) elastography is useful for the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed US elastography findings of 18 feet with a clinical history and physical examination highly suggestive of plantar fasciitis but with normal findings on conventional US imaging as well as 18 asymptomatic feet. Softening of the plantar fascia was significantly greater in the patient than in the control group [Reviewers 1 and 2: 89% (16/18) vs. 50% (9/18), P=.027, respectively]. US elastography is useful for the early diagnosis of plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seo, Yu-Mi; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sung-Churl; Yu, Jae-Won; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Han, Ji-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Yil
This study aimed to analyse laboratory values according to fever duration, and evaluate the relationship across these values during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) to aid in the early diagnosis for early-presenting KD and incomplete KD patients. Clinical and laboratory data of patients with KD (n=615) were evaluated according to duration of fever at presentation, and were compared between patients with and without coronary artery lesions (CALs). For evaluation of the relationships across laboratory indices, patients with a fever duration of 5 days or 6 days were used (n=204). The mean fever duration was 6.6±2.3 days, and the proportions of patients with CALs was 19.3% (n=114). C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and neutrophil differential values were highest and hemoglobin, albumin, and lymphocyte differential values were lowest in the 6-day group. Patients with CALs had longer total fever duration, higher CRP and neutrophil differential values and lower hemoglobin and albumin values compared to patients without CALs. CRP, albumin, neutrophil differential, and hemoglobin values at the peak inflammation stage of KD showed positive or negative correlations each other. The severity of systemic inflammation in KD was reflected in the laboratory values including CRP, neutrophil differential, albumin, and hemoglobin. Observing changes in these laboratory parameters by repeated examinations prior to the peak of inflammation in acute KD may aid in diagnosis of early-presenting KD patients.
Perrino, Carmen M; Ho, Alex; Dall, Christopher P; Zynger, Debra L
GATA3 is a relatively new immunohistochemical marker which shows consistent nuclear expression in a variety of tumours, including breast and urothelial carcinoma. The staining pattern of GATA3 in adrenal lesions is not well established. We aim to describe the expression of GATA3 in adrenal tumours and determine if there is differential staining between pheochromocytoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma. A retrospective search was performed to identify 74 adrenal lesions which were tested immunohistochemically for GATA3 expression. GATA3 was negative in 90% of adrenal cortical carcinoma. In contrast, pheochromocytomas were frequently positive (71%), including benign pheochromocytoma, pheochromocytoma with features concerning for malignancy, malignant (metastatic) pheochromocytoma and composite pheochromocytoma with ganglioneuroma. Metastatic lung adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland had occasional (36%) expression, while metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma in the adrenal gland did not express GATA3. As the most common pitfall in diagnosing adrenal cortical carcinoma is mistaking it for pheochromocytoma or vice versa, GATA3 may be useful in narrowing the differential diagnosis as a part of a panel of immunohistochemical markers. However, occasional GATA3 expression in the most common source of metastases within the adrenal gland, metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma, may confound the diagnosis due to the overlapping expression with pheochromocytoma and other carcinomas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hofheinz, K; Ganzleben, I; Schliep, S; Wacker, J; Schett, G; Manger, B
In December 2014 a patient presented to our clinic with the clinical symptoms of vasculitis. However, treatment with glucocorticoids did not lead to any improvement; therefore, the differential diagnostics were extended to other indications and ultimately led to the diagnosis of scurvy. This article describes the clinical picture of scurvy and its relationship to rheumatic diseases based on a clinical case and additional information from the literature. Differences and similarities with important rheumatological disease symptoms are presented. Scurvy is a rare hypovitaminosis disease which can be manifested in different forms. In addition to vasculitis the symptoms can also resemble arthritis and hemarthrosis is a typical finding. These symptoms can be accompanied by unspecific manifestations, such as muscle pain and due to impaired collagen synthesis characteristic features, such as corkscrew hair can be observed. The causal therapy of scurvy is substitution of ascorbic acid. Scurvy is a rare differential diagnosis in the context of rheumatic diseases. The indications for scurvy can be a lack of response to immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs as well as individual symptoms, such as corkscrew hair.
Orzan, OA; Șandru, A; Jecan, CR
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567
TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; TABORS, PATTON; COGGINS, ALISSA; LUM, KIRK; BURGER, CLAUDIA
Early diagnosis of selective mutism (SM) is an important concern. SM prevalence is higher than initially thought and at least three times higher in immigrant language minority children. Although the DSM-IV precludes diagnosing SM in immigrant children with limited language proficiency (as children acquiring a second language may normally undergo a “silent period”), specific diagnostic boundaries are not clear. The specific focus of this article is, therefore, the exact circumstances in which a language minority child should be diagnosed with SM. PMID:15908842
Coid, Jeremy W; Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Hickey, Nicole; Kahtan, Nadji; Freestone, Mark
Psychiatric diagnosis is not considered a risk factor for offending following discharge. However, treatment interventions and aftercare are strongly influenced by clinical primary diagnosis. We compared differential risks of reoffending of patients falling into six primary diagnostic categories following discharge from Medium Secure Units in the UK: schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder; delusional disorder; mania/hypomania; depressive disorder; organic brain syndrome; personality disorder. We followed up 1344 patients, on average 6.2 years (SD=2.1) at risk, discharged from 7 of 14 Regional Medium Secure services in England and Wales. Outcomes were period prevalence, incidence, and cumulative probability of criminal conviction. Established demographic and criminal history predictors of reoffending were observed across different diagnostic categories. Risks of all offending were increased for personality disorder, violence/acquisitive offending for delusional disorder, sexual offending for mania/hypomania and violence/acquisitive offending for organic brain syndrome. Patterns of risk over time differed markedly between categories of mental disorder. Most patients with personality disorder who offended violently did so within 4 years of discharge. A subgroup with delusional disorder demonstrated increased risk of violent offending 5 years after discharge. Differential risks of reoffending are observed between different diagnostic groups. Clinical diagnosis should be included together with established risk measures in risk management following discharge. Close supervision of patients with personality disorder should begin immediately after discharge when risks of reoffending are greatest. For delusional disorder further investigation is needed into the marked increase in risk of violence after 5 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seo, Hee Ri Na; Na, Kuk Young; Yim, Hyun Ee; Kim, Tae Hee; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kang, Seok Yun; An, Young-Sil; Chun, Mison; Kim, Woojae; Park, Rae Woong; Jung, Yong Sik
Purpose Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The diagnosis of IGM requires that other granulomatous lesions in the breast be excluded. Tuberculous mastitis (TM) is also an uncommon disease that is often difficult to differentiate from IGM. The purpose of this study is to develop a new algorithm for the differential diagnosis and treatment of IGM and TM. Methods Medical records of 68 patients (58 with IGM and 10 with TM) between July 1999 and February 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The mean age of the patients was 33.5 (IGM) and 40 (TM) years (p=0.018). The median follow-up was 84 months. Of the total 10 patients with TM, 5 patients had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The most common symptoms of the diseases were breast lump and pain. However, axillary lymphadenopathy was more seen in TM (50%) compared to IGM (20.6%) (p=0.048). TM showed more cancer-mimicking findings on radiologic study (p=0.028). In IGM, 48 patients (82.7%) underwent surgical wide excision and 21 patients (36.2%) were managed with corticosteroid therapy and antibiotics. All of the TM patients received anti-tuberculosis medications and 9 patients (90%) underwent wide excision. The mean treatment duration was 2.8 months in IGM and 8.4 months in TM. Recurrence developed in 5 patients (8.6%) in IGM and 1 patient (10%) in TM. Conclusion This study shows different characteristics between IGM and TM. The IGM patients were younger and had more mastalgia symptoms than the TM patients. Axillary lymphadenopathy was seen more often in TM patients. Half of the TM patients had pulmonary tuberculosis or tuberculosis lymphadenitis. Surgical wide excision might be both therapeutic and useful for providing an exact diagnosis. PMID:22493637
Whurr, Renata; Lorch, Marjorie
The recent literature on spasmodic dysphonia is reviewed with regard to pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment options, audits, and current methods of management. Advances in technology have enabled clinicians to better understand the connection between brain and laryngeal function and dysfunction. Refinements in imaging and genetic investigation techniques have led to advances in the understanding of the underlying mechanism of this neurolaryngeal disorder. Development of diagnostic assessment tools and measures of quality of life hold the potential to improve treatment and care. Fifty articles published between 2014 and 2015 were selected for this review. The sources were drawn from several clinical specialties: 54% come under the scope of laryngology, 32% from neurology, and 14% from other areas. It remains poorly understood, misdiagnosed, and underdiagnosed. Its identification, diagnosis, treatment selection, and coordination of care require an expert specialist multidisciplinary team. More training is required to help people who have this chronic and psychosocially disabling voice disorder, which impinges on all aspects of their lives. Spasmodic dysphonia is now classified as a 'rare' disease in the United States. This designation will assist in international standards of diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and management.
Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak
The diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic meningitis (EOM) is the identification of an absolute count of 10 eosinophils per ml or more than 10% of the total white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the proper clinical context. The most common cause of EOM is Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, termed meningitic angiostrongyliasis (MA). Neurognathostomiasis (NG) is the main parasitic disease in the differential diagnosis of meningitic angiostrongyliasis. This short review is based on articles published on Medline between 2000 and 2012 related to EOM. There are three main approaches that can be used to differentiate between MA and NG, involving clinical factors, history of larval exposure, and serological tests. MA patients presented with acute severe headache but without neurological deficit, combined with a history of eating uncooked snails or slugs. NG patients always presented with motor weakness, migratory swelling, radicular pain and had history of eating uncooked poultry or fish. Specific antigenic bands in immunoblot tests are helpful tools to differentiate the two diseases. Other causes of eosinophilic meningitis are neurocysticercosis, cerebral paragonimiasis, Toxoplasma canis, Baylisascaris, tuberculous meningitis, and cryptococcal meningitis.
Colliot, O; Hamelin, L; Sarazin, M
A major challenge for neuroimaging is to contribute to the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows detecting different types of structural and functional abnormalities at an early stage of the disease. Anatomical MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The recent diagnostic criteria of "mild cognitive impairment due to AD" include hippocampal atrophy, which is considered a marker of neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in the hippocampus and throughout the whole brain. Recent modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI provide additional measures that could contribute to the early diagnosis but require further validation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Krithika, C; Kota, S; Gopal, K S; Koteeswaran, D
A radicular cyst associated with carious teeth is a very common odontogenic lesion in the oral cavity, but calcifications in residual radicular cysts are quite rare. We report one such case where a routine pre-implant radiographic assessment revealed a mixed periapical radiopaque radiolucent lesion in the right maxillary central incisor region. Histological and radiographic studies show that there is a slow increase in the mineralized deposits within the cyst lumen with time. This becomes prominent histochemically in cysts more than 8 years old and radiographically 6 years later, as seen in our case. In this paper we would like to highlight the importance of a residual radicular cyst with calcifications in the differential diagnosis of a mixed periapical radiopaque radiolucent lesion.
Krithika, C; Kota, S; Gopal, KS; Koteeswaran, D
A radicular cyst associated with carious teeth is a very common odontogenic lesion in the oral cavity, but calcifications in residual radicular cysts are quite rare. We report one such case where a routine pre-implant radiographic assessment revealed a mixed periapical radiopaque radiolucent lesion in the right maxillary central incisor region. Histological and radiographic studies show that there is a slow increase in the mineralized deposits within the cyst lumen with time. This becomes prominent histochemically in cysts more than 8 years old and radiographically 6 years later, as seen in our case. In this paper we would like to highlight the importance of a residual radicular cyst with calcifications in the differential diagnosis of a mixed periapical radiopaque radiolucent lesion. PMID:21346087
Hyams, V J
The differential diagnosis of approximately 2000 cases of palatine tonsillar malignancy contained in the Otolaryngic Pathology Registry of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology are presented to include basic statistics of age, race and sex. These statistics and others from the World English language medical literature are compared and discussed briefly. Pertinent information points out the overwhelming predominance of squanmous (epidermoid) carcinoma, the delayed medical attention of patients and hence the advanced clinical state of the disease when first diagnosed, the involvement of cervical lymph nodes in the majority of cases and the causative relationship of alcoholism. A discussion of the various histological types of tonsillar carcinoma suggests a simplification of the current microscopic classification.
Carro, Amelia; Carro, Fernando; del Valle, Miguel Enrique
Long-term, intense sport activity induces morphologic and functional adaptations on cardiovascular system. The magnitude of these changes is determined by various factors, creating a specific condition: the "Athlete's Heart" (AH). It is important to distinguish this entity from other cardiomyopathies, taking into account that the differential diagnosis can be challenging. There has been an increase in the number of people practicing sports, which goes in parallel with the increase in the prevalence of AH. However, the proportion of asymptomatic subjects affected by cardiovascular diseases taking part on competitive sports, is also growing. We revise the main characteristics of AH, as well as the key points to distinguish AH from pathologic conditions. A delicate characterization as AH or cardiomyopathy would help to settle appropriate measures to lower the risk of sports-related sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.
An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.
Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.
An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.
Sharma, Verinder; Sommerdyk, Christina
Childbirth can trigger or exacerbate a variety of psychiatric disorders but the extant literature has focused primarily on mood disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) after childbirth can occur alone or in combination with other psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder. Due to the general lack of awareness of the relationship between childbirth and OCD among clinicians as well as patients, the disorder may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. This article describes the prevalence, clinical features, common psychiatric comorbidities, differential diagnosis and potential consequences of underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis. Using case vignettes strategies for its detection and clinical management are suggested. Finally, areas in need of further research are proposed.
Taschner, P.E.M.; Vos, N. de; Breuning, M.H.
Accurate diagnosis of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is important for a correct prognosis of the disease and for genetic counseling. Up to now, no direct diagnostic test has been available for NCL. The clinical diagnosis is made on the basis of symptoms, neurophysiological, neuroradiological, and specific lipopigment pattern data. Recent advances in the genetics of NCL have enabled us to use polymorphic DNA markers linked to the CLN1 and CLN3 loci as a tool in the differential diagnosis of NCL. We have applied genetic analysis with polymorphic DNA markers flanking the CLN3 gene on chromosome 16 to two consanguineous familiesmore » in which NCL occurs. In the first family, which is of Turkish extraction, two patients suffering from a protracted form of juvenile NCL previously had been diagnosed with juvenile NCL. Haplotypes from this family indicate that the patients and their healthy sibling are haplo-identical, suggesting that this protracted form of juvenile NCL is not linked to the CLN3 locus. In the second family, which is Moroccan origin, one patient suffers from the early juvenile variant of NCL (Lake-Cavanagh). In this family, the patient and one of the healthy siblings have identical haplotypes, excluding linkage of early juvenile NCL to the CLN3 locus on 16p12.1-11.2. Therefore, these cases from different populations demonstrate that haplotype analysis can be used as an additional method to exclude the diagnosis of juvenile NCL. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less
Lambova, Sevdalina; Hermann, W; Muller-Ladner, Ulf
In the nailfold area, specific diagnostic microvascular abnormalities are easily recognized via capillaroscopic examination in systemic sclerosis (SSc). They are termed "scleroderma" type capillaroscopic pattern, which includes presence of dilated, giant capillaries, haemorrhages, avascular areas, and neoangiogenic capillaries and are observed in the majority of SSc patients (in more than 90%). LeRoy and Medsger (2001) proposed criteria for early diagnosis of SSc with inclusion of the abnormal capillaroscopic changes and suggested to prediagnose SSc prior to the development of other manifestations of the disease. It is a new era in the diagnosis of SSc. At present, an international multicenter project is performed. It aims validation of criteria for very early diagnosis of SSc (project VEDOSS (Very Early Diagnosis of Systemic Sclerosis) and is organized by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Scleroderma Trials and Reasearch. Very recently the first results of the VEDOSS project were processed and new EULAR/ACR (American College of Rheumatology) classification criteria have been validated and published (2013), in which the characteristic capillaroscopic changes have been included. Our observations confirm the high frequency of the specific capillaroscopic changes of the fingers in SSc, which have been found in 97.2% of the cases from the studied patient population. We have performed for the first time capillaroscopic examinations of the toes in SSc. Interestingly,"scleroderma type" capillaroscopic pattern was also found at the toes in a high proportion of patients - 66.7%, but it is significantly less frequent as compared with fingers (97.2%, p<0.05). In our opinion, the examination of the toes of SSc patients should be considered as it suggests an additional opportunity for evaluation of the microvascular changes in these patients although the observed changes are in a lower proportion of cases. Thus, capillaroscopic examination is a cornerstone for the very
Karimi, Karen; Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Fike, Jesse; Stanford, Carol; Hall, John C
Acute cutaneous necrosis is characterised by a wide range of aetiologies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, warranting complex considerations in management. Early recognition is imperative in diagnosis and management of sudden gangrenous changes in the skin. This review discusses major causes of cutaneous necrosis, examines the need for early assessment, and integrates techniques related to diagnosis and management. The literature, available via PubMed, on acute cutaneous necrotic syndromes was reviewed to summarise causes and synthesise appropriate treatment strategies to create a clinician's guide in the early diagnosis and management of acute cutaneous necrosis. Highlighted in this article are key features associated with common causes of acute cutaneous necrosis: warfarin-induced skin necrosis, heparin-induced skin necrosis, calciphylaxis, pyoderma gangrenosum, embolic phenomena, purpura fulminans, brown recluse spider bite, necrotising fasciitis, ecthyma gangrenosum, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypergammaglobulinemia, and cryoglobulinemia. This review serves to increase recognition of these serious pathologies and complications, allowing for prompt diagnosis and swift limb- or life-saving management.
Ahmad, Shamail; Orrell, Martin; Iliffe, Steve; Gracie, Antonia
Background In primary care, the diagnosis of dementia is often delayed and the 2007 National Audit Office Report concluded action was needed to improve patient care and value for money. Aim To investigate the attitudes, awareness, and practice of GPs in England regarding early diagnosis and management of patients with dementia, and perceptions of local specialist services, to identify training or support needs. Design of study Secondary analysis of survey data that capture the above attitudes, awareness, and practice. Setting Online survey, targeting GP members of medeConnect. Method Survey data were obtained using an anonymised online self-completion questionnaire, and then analysed using standard data-analysis software. Results A total of 1011 GPs across the eight English regions responded. Older GPs were more confident in diagnosing and giving advice about dementia, but less likely to feel that early diagnosis was beneficial, and more likely to feel that patients with dementia can be a drain on resources with little positive outcome. Younger GPs were more positive and felt that much could be done to improve quality of life. Attitudes had no correlation with sex. GPs in general felt they had not had sufficient basic and post-qualifying training in dementia, and overall knowledge about dementia was low. Conclusion Much could be done to improve GPs' knowledge of dementia, and the confidence of older GPs could be an educational resource. However, greater experience may create scepticism about early diagnosis because of the perceived poor quality of specialist services. PMID:20849686
Witt, Robert L; Ferris, Robert L; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Sherman, Steven I; Steward, David L; Nikiforov, Yuri E
To define molecular biology in clinical practice for diagnosis, surgical management, and prognostication of differentiated thyroid cancer. Ovid Medline 2006-2012 Manuscripts with clinical correlates. Papillary thyroid carcinomas harbor point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements, all of which activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These mutually exclusive mutations are found in 70% of PTC. BRAF mutation is found in 45% of papillary thyroid cancer and is highly specific. Follicular carcinomas are known to harbor RAS mutation or PAX8/PPARγ rearrangement. These mutations are also mutually exclusive and identified in 70% of follicular carcinomas. Molecular classifiers measure the expression of a large number of genes on a microarray chip providing a substantial negative predictive value pending further validation. 1) 20% to 30% of cytologically classified Follicular Neoplasms and Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance collectively are malignant on final pathology. Approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed solely for diagnostic purposes are benign. Molecular alteration testing may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures, 2) may reduce the number of completion thyroidectomies, and 3) may lead to more individualized operative and postoperative management. Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARγ for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm improve specificity, whereas molecular classifiers may add negative predictive value to fine needle aspiration diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Ambrose, Nicola L; Haskard, Dorian O
Behçet syndrome (also known as Behçet disease) is a rare condition that is associated with considerable morbidity. Cases of Behçet syndrome have been reported worldwide, but the highest prevalence occurs in countries that border the ancient Silk Route, such as Turkey and Iran. Although oral ulceration, genital ulceration and eye disease are the classic triad of manifestations, the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and central nervous systems can also be affected. The syndrome is chronic and relapsing with some patients having benign episodes whereas others have more serious complications, including blindness or the rupture of a pulmonary arterial aneurysm. Diagnosing Behçet syndrome, particularly outside of endemic regions, often incurs a considerable delay owing to the rarity of this condition. Furthermore, a paucity exists of data from randomized controlled trials on the optimal therapeutic approaches to use in patients, as well as a lack of informative laboratory surrogate markers to monitor disease progression. This Review discusses the issues surrounding the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Behçet syndrome and presents the current approaches to managing patients with this complex group of disorders.
Teschner, M; Kramer, S; Donnerstag, F; Länger, F; Lenarz, Th; Schwab, B
A 28-year-old female patient with a migrant background presented for surgery with a suspected cholesteatoma in the left ear. The patient reported having had an aural discharge for several months; otoscopic examination revealed a runny ear, and discrete granulation tissue was seen. Pure-tone audiometry showed conduction hearing loss of 30-40 dB across all frequencies in the left ear; high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone revealed that the mastoid and tympanic cavity were completely obscured. The intraoperative finding showed a caseous space-occupying mass that completely filled the tympanic cavity. The suspected diagnosis of tuberculosis was corroborated by pathohistological, microbiological and molecular biological tests. Tuberculostatic therapy was initiated at a different location. Although tuberculosis of the middle ear is a rare condition in Germany, it should nevertheless be considered when making a differential diagnosis, especially in high-risk patients where cholesteatoma is suspected on clinical and radiological evidence or in patients with a chronic middle ear process.
Tobías-González, Pablo; Gil Mira, Mar; Valero de Bernabé, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio
Dandy-Walker syndrome is a set of abnormalities of the posterior fossa including three modalities: classic Dandy-Walker malformation, Dandy-Walker variant and mega-cisterna magna. Our objective is clarify the differential diagnosis among these entities. Descriptive and retrospective study of Dandy-Walker cases diagnosed at our Department during the last five years plus a review of the related Medical literature. Three cases of Dandy-Walker modalities are reported: one case of classic Dandy-Walker malformation, one case of Dandy-Walker variant, and one case of false Dandy-Walker. In the first two cases the patients underwent legal abortion, whereas in the last one a healthy male newborn was delivered in the week 38 of gestation. Malformations in the posterior fossa, including Dandy-Walker syndrome, are still a challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Technical developments in imaging, such as in three-dimensional sonography and magnetic resonance, allow higher resolution and multiplanar images for an easier diagnose. There is a high rate of false positive, particularly before the 18th week of gestation. It is advisable not to establish a final diagnose before that week.
Vermersch, P; Outteryck, O; Ferriby, D; Zéphir, H
Myelitis is common, related to multiple aetiologies and constitute in some cases a differential diagnosis for spinal cord tumors. Our objective was to review the clinical and paraclinical aspects of the main aetiologies of myelitis. These aetiologies will be reviewed based on data not only from the scientific literature but also from our personal experience reported in different cohorts of patients. Multiple sclerosis is the main cause of partial myelitis in young adults. Neuromyelitis optica is now a well-known specific entity frequently revealed by a transverse myelitis. The diagnosis is based on specific criteria, including the presence of anti-NMO antibodies. In our cohorts, approximately 12 % of the patients admitted for an acute or subacute myelitis were related to infections, mainly of a viral origin. Patients with myelitis must be screened for systemic diseases. As for neuromyelitis optica, patients with myelitis related to a systemic disease should be treated in emergency. Acute myelitis is sometimes the first symptom of a systemic lupus or of a sarcoidosis. Sjögren syndrome can mimic myelitis related to primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Spinal cord imaging contributes greatly to defining the myelitis. In most cases, a routine clinical and paraclinical examination and the follow-up of the patients can contribute to establishing the aetiology of a myelitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Allan, James C.; Sato, Marcello Otake; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Qiu, Dongchuan; Mamuti, Wulamu; Craig, Philip S.; Ito, Akira
Multiplex PCR was established for differential diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, including their causative agents. For identification of the parasites, multiplex PCR with cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene yielded evident differential products unique for Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica and for American/African and Asian genotypes of Taenia solium with molecular sizes of 827, 269, 720, and 984 bp, respectively. In the PCR-based detection of tapeworm carriers using fecal samples, the diagnostic markers were detected from 7 of 14 and 4 of 9 T. solium carriers from Guatemala and Indonesia, respectively. Test sensitivity may have been reduced by the length of time (up to 12 years) that samples were stored and/or small sample volumes (ca. 30 to 50 mg). However, the diagnostic markers were detected by nested PCR in five worm carriers from Guatemalan cases that were found to be negative by multiplex PCR. It was noteworthy that a 720 bp-diagnostic marker was detected from a T. solium carrier who was egg-free, implying that it is possible to detect worm carriers and treat before mature gravid proglottids are discharged. In contrast to T. solium carriers, 827-bp markers were detected by multiplex PCR in all T. saginata carriers. The application of the multiplex PCR would be useful not only for surveillance of taeniasis and cysticercosis control but also for the molecular epidemiological survey of these cestode infections. PMID:14766815
Parodi, Stefano; Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Libener, Roberta; Ivaldi, Giovanni Paolo; Mussap, Michele; Ferrari, Enrico; Manneschi, Chiara; Montani, Erika; Muselli, Marco
Tumour markers are standard tools for the differential diagnosis of cancer. However, the occurrence of nonspecific symptoms and different malignancies involving the same cancer site may lead to a high proportion of misclassifications. Classification accuracy can be improved by combining information from different markers using standard data mining techniques, like Decision Tree (DT), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and k-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) classifier. Unfortunately, each method suffers from some unavoidable limitations. DT, in general, tends to show a low classification performance, whereas ANN and KNN produce a "black-box" classification that does not provide biological information useful for clinical purposes. Logic Learning Machine (LLM) is an innovative method of supervised data analysis capable of building classifiers described by a set of intelligible rules including simple conditions in their antecedent part. It is essentially an efficient implementation of the Switching Neural Network model and reaches excellent classification accuracy while keeping low the computational demand. LLM was applied to data from a consecutive cohort of 169 patients admitted for diagnosis to two pulmonary departments in Northern Italy from 2009 to 2011. Patients included 52 malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM), 62 pleural metastases (MTX) from other tumours and 55 benign diseases (BD) associated with pleurisies. Concentration of three tumour markers (CEA, CYFRA 21-1 and SMRP) was measured in the pleural fluid of each patient and a cytological examination was also carried out. The performance of LLM and that of three competing methods (DT, KNN and ANN) was assessed by leave-one-out cross-validation. LLM outperformed all other considered methods. Global accuracy was 77.5% for LLM, 72.8% for DT, 54.4% for KNN, and 63.9% for ANN, respectively. In more details, LLM correctly classified 79% of MPM, 66% of MTX and 89% of BD. The corresponding figures for DT were: MPM = 83%, MTX
Nam, Y; Kim, H-G; Kho, H-S
This study aimed to deduce evidence-based clinical clues that differentiate temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-mimicking conditions from genuine TMD by text mining using natural language processing (NLP) and recursive partitioning. We compared the medical records of 29 patients diagnosed with TMD-mimicking conditions and 290 patients diagnosed with genuine TMD. Chief complaints and medical histories were preprocessed via NLP to compare the frequency of word usage. In addition, recursive partitioning was used to deduce the optimal size of mouth opening, which could differentiate TMD-mimicking from genuine TMD groups. The prevalence of TMD-mimicking conditions was more evenly distributed across all age groups and showed a nearly equal gender ratio, which was significantly different from genuine TMD. TMD-mimicking conditions were caused by inflammation, infection, hereditary disease and neoplasm. Patients with TMD-mimicking conditions frequently used "mouth opening limitation" (P < .001), but less commonly used words such as "noise" (P < .001) and "temporomandibular joint" (P < .001) than patients with genuine TMD. A diagnostic classification tree on the basis of recursive partitioning suggested that 12.0 mm of comfortable mouth opening and 26.5 mm of maximum mouth opening were deduced as the most optimal mouth-opening cutoff sizes. When the combined analyses were performed based on both the text mining and clinical examination data, the predictive performance of the model was 96.6% with 69.0% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity in predicting TMD-mimicking conditions. In conclusion, this study showed that AI technology-based methods could be applied in the field of differential diagnosis of orofacial pain disorders. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Xin, Lei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Dan; Lin, Jin-Huan; Liao, Zhuan; Ji, Jun-Tao; Du, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Fei; Hu, Liang-Hao; Li, Zhao-Shen
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of pancreas. Early diagnosis will improve the prognosis of patients. This study aimed to obtain serum miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of CP. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRs) of CP patients from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and the DEmiRs in plasma of early CP patients (n = 10) from clinic by miRNA microarrays. Expression levels of DEmiRs were further tested in clinical samples including early CP patients (n = 20), late CP patients (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 18). The primary endpoints were area under curve (AUC) and expression levels of DEmiRs. Four DEmiRs (hsa-miR-320a-d) were obtained from GEO CP, meanwhile two (hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a) were identified as distinct biomarkers of early CP by miRNA microarrays. When applied on clinical serum samples, hsa-miR-320a-d were accurate in predicting late CP, while hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a were accurate in predicting early CP with AUC of 100.0% and 87.5%. Our study indicates that miRNA expression profile is different in early and late CP. Hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-130a are biomarkers of early CP, and the panel of the above 6 serum miRNAs has the potential to be applied clinically for early diagnosis of CP. PMID:28074846
Hirschfeld, R M
Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for
Mert, Ertan; Ozge, Aynur; Taşdelen, Bahar; Yilmaz, Arda; Bilgin, Nursel G
The correct diagnosis of headache disorders in an emergency room is important for developing early management strategies and determining optimal emergency room activities. This prospective clinical based study was performed in order to determine demographic and clinical clues for differential diagnosis of primary and secondary headache disorders and also to obtain a classification plot for the emergency room practitioners. This study included 174 patients older than 15 years of age presenting in the emergency room with a chief complaint of headache. Definite headache diagnoses were made according to ICHD-II criteria. Classification and regression tree was used as new method for the statistical analysis of the differential diagnostic process. Our 174 patients with headache were diagnosed as basically primary (72.9%) and secondary (27.1%) headaches. Univariate analysis with cross tabs showed three important results. First, unilateral pain location caused 1.431-fold increase in the primary headache risk (p = 0.006). Second, having any triggers caused 1.440-fold increase in the primary headache risk (p = 0.001). Third, having associated co-morbid medical disorders caused 4.643-fold increase in the secondary headache risk (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the presence of comorbidity, the patient's age, the existence of trigger and relaxing factors, the pain in other body parts that accompanies headache and the quality of pain in terms of location and duration were all important clues for physicians in making an accurate differentiation between primary and secondary headaches.
Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Lyman, Roberta L; Hockett, Mitchell; Rodriguez, Rudy; Dos Santos, Marcos Veiga; Anderson, Kevin L
This research study aimed to evaluate the use of the milk leukocyte differential (MLD) to: (a) identify quarter milks that are culture-positive; and (b) characterize the milk leukocyte responses to specific groups of pathogens causing subclinical mastitis. The MLD measures the absolute number and relative percentage of inflammatory cells in milk samples. Using the MLD in two dairy herds (170 and 172 lactating cows, respectively), we studied all lactating cows with a most recent monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) >200 × 103 cells/ml. Quarter milk samples from 78 cows meeting study criteria were analysed by MLD and aseptically collected milk samples were subjected to microbiological culture (MC). Based upon automated instrument evaluation of the number and percentage of inflammatory cells in milk, samples were designated as either MLD-positive or - negative for subclinicial mastitis. Positive MC were obtained from 102/156 (65·4%) of MLD-positive milk samples, and 28/135 (20·7%) of MLD-negative milk samples were MC-positive. When MC was considered the gold standard for mastitis diagnosis, the calculated diagnostic Se of the MLD was 65·4% (IC95% = 57·4 to 72·8%) and the Sp was 79·3% (IC95% = 71·4 to 85·7%). Quarter milks positive on MC had higher absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages, with higher neutrophils% and lymphocytes% but lower macrophages%. The Log10 (N/L) ratios were the most useful ratio to differentiate specific subclinical mastitis quarters from healthy quarters. Use of the MLD on cows with monthly composite SCC > 200 × 103 cells/ml for screening at quarter level identified quarters more likely to be culture-positive. In conclusion, the MLD can provide an analysis of mammary quarter status more detailed than provided by SCC alone; however, the MLD response to subclinical mastitis was not found useful to specifically identify the causative pathogen.
Moynier, Frederic; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Irisawa, Keita; Boyet, Maud; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Rosing, Minik T.
Recent high precision 142Nd isotope measurements showed that global silicate differentiation may have occurred as early as 30–75 Myr after the Solar System formation [Bennett V, et al. (2007) Science 318:1907–1910]. This time scale is almost contemporaneous with Earth’s core formation at ∼30 Myr [Yin Q, et al. (2002) Nature 418:949–952]. The 182Hf-182W system provides a powerful complement to the 142Nd results for early silicate differentiation, because both core formation and silicate differentiation fractionate Hf from W. Here we show that eleven terrestrial samples from diverse tectonic settings, including five early Archean samples from Isua, Greenland, of which three have been previously shown with 142Nd anomalies, all have a homogeneous W isotopic composition, which is ∼2ε-unit more radiogenic than the chondritic value. By using a 3-stage model calculation that describes the isotopic evolution in chondritic reservoir and core segregation, as well as silicate differentiation, we show that the W isotopic composition of terrestrial samples provides the most stringent time constraint for early core formation (27.5–38 Myr) followed by early terrestrial silicate differentiation (38–75 Myr) that is consistent with the terrestrial 142Nd anomalies. PMID:20534492
Bassas-Vila, J; González Lama, Y
The first description of perianal fistulas and complications in Crohn disease was made 75 years ago by Penner and Crohn. Published studies have subsequently confirmed that perianal fistulas are the most common manifestations of fistulising Crohn disease. Hidradenitis suppurativa was described in 1854 by a French surgeon, Aristide Verneuil. It is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent and debilitating disease of the pilosebaceous follicle, that usually manifests after puberty with deep, painful and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, usually the axillary, inguinal and anogenital regions. The differential diagnosis between hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease can be challenging, especially when the disease is primarily perianal. When they occur simultaneously, hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease show severe phenotypes and patients can respond to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, although adalimumab is currently the only treatment with demonstrated efficacy in hidradenitis suppurativa and Crohn disease. In addition, there is sometimes a need for different complementary surgical procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.
Durdu, Murat; Ilkit, Macit
Folliculitis is a superficial inflammation of the hair follicles, and can be observed in individuals of any age or race. The incidence of folliculitis is unknown because most patients only consult a doctor in cases of increasing lesions. There are various infectious and non-infectious causes of folliculitis, and the most common causative agent is Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, several Gram-negative bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens can cause follicular papules and pustules. In routine practice, however, these lesions are usually thought to be bacterial. Therefore, topical and/or systemic antibacterial treatment is recommended, but this involves the risk of being misused for months or even years. Cytology, a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and repeatable diagnostic method, can reveal various bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review discusses the use of clinical sampling and staining of cytologic samples for the differential diagnosis of folliculitis, cytologic findings, and the frequency with which dermatologists use cytology to diagnose folliculitis, particularly in the age of molecular biology and more expensive, sophisticated investigations.
Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Birmaher, Boris
Background Over the past 20 years, the evidence regarding pediatric bipolar disorder (BP) has increased substantially. As a result, recent concerns have focused primarily on prevalence and differential diagnosis. Method Selective review of the literature. Results BP as defined by rigorously applying diagnostic criteria has been observed among children and especially adolescents in numerous countries. In contrast to increasing diagnoses in clinical settings, prevalence in epidemiologic studies has not recently changed. BP-spectrum conditions among youth are highly impairing and confer high risk for conversion to BP-I and BP-II. Compared to adults, youth with BP have more mixed symptoms, more changes in mood polarity, are more often symptomatic and seem to have worse prognosis. The course, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of BP among children and adolescents are in many ways otherwise similar to those of adults with BP. Nonetheless, many youth with BP receive no treatment and most do not receive BP-specific treatment. Conclusion Despite increased evidence supporting the validity of pediatric BP, discrepancies between clinical and epidemiologic findings suggest that diagnostic misapplication may be common. Simultaneously, low rates of treatment of youth with BP suggest that withholding of BP diagnoses may also be common. Clinicians should apply diagnostic criteria rigorously in order to optimize diagnostic accuracy and ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:22652925
Valentini, A L; Speca, S; Gui, B; Soglia, G; Soglia, B G; Miccò, M; Bonomo, L
Adenomyosis is a pathological gynaecological condition characterised by benign invasion of the endometrium into the myometrium. It is often misdiagnosed, or is not easily recognised, although it is responsible for disabling symptoms such as menorrhagia, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhoea and infertility in premenopausal women. The aim of this pictorial review is to analyse the features of adenomyosis by illustrating the most usual and typical imaging patterns, along with the unusual appearances, seen in a vast array of gynaecological imaging modalities. The different findings of focal and diffuse adenomyosis along with the diagnostic limitations of ultrasound, hysterosalpingography and magnetic resonance imaging are described, as are the pitfalls and differential diagnosis with other pathological conditions that are often misdiagnosed as adenomyosis. The role of the different imaging modalities in planning appropriate treatment and their usefulness in monitoring therapy are also discussed.
Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L
In vivo imaging of amyloid-β (Aβ) with positron emission tomography has moved from the research arena into clinical practice. Clinicians working with cognitive decline and dementia must become familiar with its benefits and limitations. Amyloid imaging allows earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and better differential diagnosis of dementia and provides prognostic information for mild cognitive impairment. It also has an increasingly important role in therapeutic trial recruitment and for evaluation of anti-Aβ treatments. Longitudinal observations are required to elucidate the role of Aβ deposition in the course of Alzheimer disease and provide information needed to fully use the prognostic power of this investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Qazzaz, Noor Kamal; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Islam, Shabiul
The early detection of poststroke dementia (PSD) is important for medical practitioners to customize patient treatment programs based on cognitive consequences and disease severity progression. The aim is to diagnose and detect brain degenerative disorders as early as possible to help stroke survivors obtain early treatment benefits before significant mental impairment occurs. Neuropsychological assessments are widely used to assess cognitive decline following a stroke diagnosis. This study reviews the function of the available neuropsychological assessments in the early detection of PSD, particularly vascular dementia (VaD). The review starts from cognitive impairment and dementia prevalence, followed by PSD types and the cognitive spectrum. Finally, the most usable neuropsychological assessments to detect VaD were identified. This study was performed through a PubMed and ScienceDirect database search spanning the last 10 years with the following keywords: “post-stroke”; “dementia”; “neuro-psychological”; and “assessments”. This study focuses on assessing VaD patients on the basis of their stroke risk factors and cognitive function within the first 3 months after stroke onset. The search strategy yielded 535 articles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, only five articles were considered. A manual search was performed and yielded 14 articles. Twelve articles were included in the study design and seven articles were associated with early dementia detection. This review may provide a means to identify the role of neuropsychological assessments as early PSD detection tests. PMID:25246795
Santo, Marco Aurelio; Pajecki, Denis; Riccioppo, Daniel; Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan
Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2%) patients were male and 445 (82.8%) were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46), and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5%) patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.
Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya
Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.
de Sousa, E B; Dos Santos, G C; Duarte, M E L; Moura, V; Aguiar, D P
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability worldwide, due to progressive articular cartilage loss and degeneration. According to recent research, OA is more than just a degenerative disease due to some metabolic components associated to its pathogenesis. However, no biomarker has been identified to detect this disease at early stages or to track its development. Metabolomics is an emerging field and has the potential to detect many metabolites in a single spectrum using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques or mass spectrometry (MS). NMR is a reproducible and reliable non-destructive analytical method. On the other hand, MS has a lower detection limit and is more destructive, but it is more sensitive. NMR and MS are useful for biological fluids, such as urine, blood plasma, serum, or synovial fluid, and have been used for metabolic profiling in dogs, mice, sheep, and humans. Thus, many metabolites have been listed as possibly associated to OA pathogenesis. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the studies in animal models and humans, regarding the use of metabolomics as a tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis. The concept of osteoarthritis as a metabolic disease and the importance of detecting a biomarker for its early diagnosis are highlighted. Then, some studies in plasma and synovial tissues are shown, and finally the application of metabolomics in the evaluation of synovial fluid is described.
Cai, Chengzhong; Carey, Kai A; Nedosekin, Dmitry A; Menyaev, Yulian A; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Stumhofer, Jason S; Zharov, Vladimir P
In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has already demonstrated a great potential for the diagnosis of deadly diseases through ultrasensitive detection of rare disease-associated circulating markers in whole blood volume. Here, we demonstrate the first application of this powerful technique for early diagnosis of malaria through label-free detection of malaria parasite-produced hemozoin in infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as high-contrast PA agent. The existing malaria tests using blood smears can detect the disease at 0.001-0.1% of parasitemia. On the contrary, linear PAFC showed a potential for noninvasive malaria diagnosis at an extremely low level of parasitemia of 0.0000001%, which is ∼10(3) times better than the existing tests. Multicolor time-of-flight PAFC with high-pulse repetition rate lasers at wavelengths of 532, 671, and 820 nm demonstrated rapid spectral and spatial identification and quantitative enumeration of individual iRBCs. Integration of PAFC with fluorescence flow cytometry (FFC) provided real-time simultaneous detection of single iRBCs and parasites expressing green fluorescence proteins, respectively. A combination of linear and nonlinear nanobubble-based multicolor PAFC showed capability to real-time control therapy efficiency by counting of iRBCs before, during, and after treatment. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity, high-resolution ultrafast PAFC-FFC platform represents a powerful research tool to provide the insight on malaria progression through dynamic study of parasite-cell interactions directly in bloodstream, whereas portable hand-worn PAFC device could be broadly used in humans for early malaria diagnosis. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Stadje, Rebekka; Dornieden, Katharina; Baum, Erika; Becker, Annette; Biroga, Tobias; Bösner, Stefan; Haasenritter, Jörg; Keunecke, Christian; Viniol, Annika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert
Tiredness is one of the most frequent complaints in primary care. Although often self-limiting and frequently associated with psychosocial stress, patients but also their physicians are often uncertain regarding a serious cause and appropriate diagnostic work-up. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting on differential diagnosis of fatigue in primary care. MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference abstracts were searched for primary care based studies of patients presenting with tiredness. Twenty-six studies were included. We report on anaemia, malignancy, serious organic disease, depression and the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) as causes of tiredness as presenting complaint. We found considerable heterogeneity of estimates which was reduced by limiting our analysis to high quality studies. Prevalences were as follows-anaemia: 2.8 % (CI (confidence interval) 1.6-4.8 %); malignancy: 0.6 % (CI 0.3-1.3 %); serious somatic disease: 4.3 % (CI 2.7-6.7 %); depression 18.5 % (CI 16.2-21.0 %). Pooling was not appropriate for CFS. In studies with control groups of patients without the symptom of tiredness, prevalence of somatic disease was identical to those complaining of tiredness. Depression, however, was more frequent among those with tiredness. Serious somatic disease is rare in patients complaining of tiredness. Since prevalence is similar in patients without tiredness, the association may not be causal. Extensive investigations are only warranted in case of specific findings from the history or clinical examination. Instead, attention should focus on depression and psychosocial problems.
Nurdin, D. S.; Isa, M. N.; Ismail, R. C.; Ahmad, M. I.
This paper presents an optimized design of Processing Element (PE) of Systolic Array (SA) which implements affine gap penalty Smith Waterman (SW) algorithm on the Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX75T Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) sequence alignment. The PE optimization aims to reduce PE logic resources to increase number of PEs in FPGA for higher degree of parallelism during alignment matrix computations. This is useful for aligning long DNA-based disease sequence such as Breast Cancer (BC) for early diagnosis. The optimized PE architecture has the smallest PE area with 15 slices in a PE and 776 PEs implemented in the Virtex - 6 FPGA.
Di Giusto, M; Lazzari, R; Giorgetti, T; Paesano, R; Pachi, A
The early discovery of a fetal pathology creates a "crisis" situation fraught with psychic problems for the couple who must live through it. The Authors observed a group of patients in the second trimester of pregnancy. They had all requested therapeutic abortion since serious malformation of the fetus had been confirmed. By means of a questionnaire constructed for the purpose, certain characteristics of fetal malformation and of pregnancy were evidenced, as well as the way these were experienced by the patients. The immediate and delayed reactions to the diagnosis of malformation were also studied, as was the experience lived when faced with the choice of abortion.
Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.
We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806
Eleftheriadis, T; Leivaditis, K; Antoniadi, G; Liakopoulos, V
Hyperkalemia is a relative common and sometimes life threatening electorlyte disorder. Although its symptomatic treatment is relatively easy, since precise therapeutic algorithms are available, its differential diagnosis is more complicated. The present review aims to unfold the differential diagnosis of hypekalemia using a pathophysiological, albeit clinically useful, approach. The basic elements of potassium homeostasis are provided, the causes of hyperkalemia are categorized and analysed and finally the required for the diferrential diagnosis laboratory tests are mentioned.
Eleftheriadis, T; Leivaditis, K; Antoniadi, G; Liakopoulos, V
Hyperkalemia is a relative common and sometimes life threatening electorlyte disorder. Although its symptomatic treatment is relatively easy, since precise therapeutic algorithms are available, its differential diagnosis is more complicated. The present review aims to unfold the differential diagnosis of hypekalemia using a pathophysiological, albeit clinically useful, approach. The basic elements of potassium homeostasis are provided, the causes of hyperkalemia are categorized and analysed and finally the required for the diferrential diagnosis laboratory tests are mentioned. PMID:23935306
Casaroto, Ana R; Loures, Daniela C N Rocha; Moreschi, Eduardo; Veltrini, Vanessa C; Trento, Cleverson L; Gottardo, Vilmar D; Lara, Vanessa S
The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the KCOTs are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This article paper reports the case of a patient, a 10-year-old boy with NBCCS, emphasizing its clinical and radiographic manifestations. This study highlights the importance of health professionals in the early diagnosis of NBCCS and in a preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.
Wong, Ngai Sze; Huang, Shujie; Zheng, Heping; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Peizhen; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Li Gang; Goh, Beng Tin; Yang, Bin
Early diagnosis of syphilis and timely treatment can effectively reduce ongoing syphilis transmission and morbidity. We examined the factors associated with the early diagnosis of syphilis to inform syphilis screening strategic planning. In an observational study, we analyzed reported syphilis cases in Guangdong Province, China (from 2014 to mid-2015) accessed from the national case-based surveillance system. We categorized primary and secondary syphilis cases as early diagnosis and categorized latent and tertiary syphilis as delayed diagnosis. Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify the factors associated with early diagnosis. We also examined the factors associated with early diagnosis at the individual and city levels in multilevel logistic regression models with cases nested by city (n = 21), adjusted for age at diagnosis and gender. Among 83,944 diagnosed syphilis cases, 22% were early diagnoses. The city-level early diagnosis rate ranged from 7 to 46%, consistent with substantial geographic variation as shown in the multilevel model. Early diagnosis was associated with cases presenting to specialist clinics for screening, being male and attaining higher education level. Cases received syphilis testing in institutions and hospitals, and diagnosed in hospitals were less likely to be in early diagnosis. At the city-level, cases living in a city equipped with more hospitals per capita were less likely to be early diagnosis. To enhance early diagnosis of syphilis, city-specific syphilis screening strategies with a mix of passive and client/provider-initiated testing might be a useful approach.
Major accomplishments include the mapping out of liquidus boundaries of lunar and meteoritic basalts at low pressure; the refinement of computer models that simulate low pressure fractional crystallization; the development of a computer model to calculate high pressure partial melting of the lunar and Martian interiors; and the proposal of a hypothesis of early lunar differentiation based upon terrestrial analogs.
Early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma has not been clear and consistent in concepts and methods. At present, according to the pathophysiology process of optic nerve damage and its detection technology, early diagnosis on the concept still belongs to the early clinical diagnosis instead of preclinical diagnosis, and on the method depends on the fundus as morphological index combined with the visual field as functional index. The direction of early clinical diagnosis mainly lies in exploring more effective diagnosis index, rather than blindly adopt new diagnostic technology.
Manzoor Atta, Babar; Saleem, M.; Ali, Hina; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Imran; Ahmed, M.
The current study was designed to identify the stage for the diagnosis of disease before visible symptoms appeared. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been employed to identify disease signatures for its early diagnosis in rice plant leaves. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) diseased and healthy leaf samples were collected from the rice fields in September, 2017 which were then used to record spectra using an excitation wavelength at 410 nm. The spectral range of emission was set from 420 to 800 nm which covers the blue–green and the chlorophyll bands. It was found that diseased leaves have a narrower ‘chlorophyll a’ band than healthy ones, and furthermore, that the emission band at 730 nm was either declined or depleted in the sample with high infection symptoms. In contrast, the blue–green region was observed to increase due to the emergence of disease. As the band intensity of chlorophyll decreases during infection, this decrease in chlorophyll content and increase in the blue–green spectral region could provide a new approach for predicting BLB at an early stage. The important finding was that the chlorophyll degradation and rise in the blue–green region take place in leaves with BLB or during BLB infection. Principal component analysis has been applied to spectral data which successfully separated diseased samples from healthy ones even with very small spectral variations.
We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.
Parida, Pradipta; Nirmal, Nirmal Shanmugasundaram; Gopalakrishnan, Surianarayanan; Saxena, Sunil Kumar
To study the clinical and radiological findings to make early diagnosis of foreign body (FB) aspiration in children. This prospective study was conducted on 45 children below 12 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of FB aspiration undergone rigid bronchoscopy from September 2008 to may 2010. Bronchoscopy was positive for FB in 37 children. The results of these 37 children (15 female and 22 male) were analyzed. 81% of children were in age group of 1-3 years. Penetration syndrome (sudden onset coughing, choking and gagging when the child is having something in the mouth) (89.2%) and decreased breath sounds (86.5%) were the most common clinical features. Cough, respiratory difficulty and fever were present in 83.8%, 78.4% and 27% respectively. Tachypnoea, tachycardia, chest retractions, decreased chest movements and wheeze were present in 83.3%, 83.3%, 83.3%, 51.4% and 43.2% respectively. Unilateral hyperinflation (64.9%), mediastinal shift (45.9%), and collapse (21.6%) were common radiological sign on chest radiograph and in 13.5% patients the chest X-rays were normal. Sites of FB lodgments were larynx, trachea, right main bronchus, left main bronchus and bilateral bronchi in 10.8%, 10.8%, 35.1%, 37.8 and 5.5% respectively. Food related FBs were present in 30 cases (peanut in 54.1%) and inorganic FBs were present in 7 cases. FBs were removed successfully by rigid bronchoscopy in all cases without any mortality. Penetration syndrome, localized decreased breath sounds, unilateral hyperinflation and/or mediastinal shift on radiology are predictors for early diagnosis of FB aspiration.
Goroll, Allan H.; And Others
An interactive, computer-based teaching exercise in diagnosis that emphasizes pathophysiology in the analysis of clinical data is described. Called the Jaundice Program, its objective is to simplify the pattern recognition problem by relating clinical findings to diagnosis via reference to disease mechanisms. (LBH)
Kunz, C; Leiggener, C S; Fridrich, K; Schmuziger, N; Hammer, B
For the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), functional disorders are common but tumors and tumor like lesions are rare, although these are often mistaken for functional ailments. Early examination by computed tomography or, as a method of choice, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended in case of persisting TMJ problems. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign but locally destructive fibrohistiocytic lesion originating in synovial tissue. Involvement of the temporomandibular joint is extremely rare, with the average age of patients being 44.6 years. This paper reports on a 13-year-old patient with diffuse PVNS involving the middle ear and middle cranial fossa. The treatment of choice involves wide local excision and reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint with long-term follow-up. Pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed.
Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan
Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585
Wu, Po-Chang; Huang, Min-Nung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Yu, Chia-Li
Nailfold capillaroscopy is a useful tool to distinguish primary from secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) by examining the morphology of nailfold capillaries but its role in disease diagnosis is not clearly established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy in differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) with RP. The data between the year 2005 and 2009 were retrieved from the nailfold capillaroscopic database of National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Only the data from the patients with RP were analyzed. The criteria for interpretation of capillaroscopic findings were predefined. The final diagnoses of the patients were based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for individual diseases, independent of nailfold capillaroscopic findings. The sensitivity and the specificity of each capillaroscopic pattern to the diseases were determined. The data from a total of 67 patients were qualified for the current study. We found the sensitivity and specificity of scleroderma pattern for systemic sclerosis (SSc) were 89.47% and 80%, and the specificity of the early, active, and late scleroderma patterns for SSc reached 87.5%, 97.5%, and 95%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pattern for SLE and polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) pattern for PM/DM were 33.33%/95.45% and 60%/96.3%, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) pattern for MCTD were 20%/100%. The nailfold capillaroscopic (NC) patterns may be useful in the differential diagnosis of CTDs with RP. The NC patterns for SSc and PM/DM are both sensitive and specific to the diseases, while the SLE and MCTD patterns exhibit high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick; Denton, Christopher P; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Pope, Janet E; Hinzmann, Barbara; Davies, Siobhan; de Oliveira Pena, Janethe; Khanna, Dinesh
To gain insight into clinical practice regarding referral, early diagnosis and other aspects of the management of patients with dcSSc in Europe and the USA. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 84 rheumatologists (or internal medicine physicians) and 40 dermatologists in different countries (the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA). Physicians were asked to identify key steps in the patient pathway relating to patient presentation, diagnosis and referral, in addition to other treatment and follow-up processes. The interviewed physicians reported that late presentation with dcSSc was common, with some patients presenting to primary care physicians after symptoms had persisted for up to 1 year. Awareness of dcSSc is reported to vary widely among primary care physicians. Final diagnosis, generally following guideline-based recommendations, was by rheumatologists in most cases (or internal medicine physicians in France) and they remained responsible for global patient management, with lesser involvement in diagnosis and management by dermatologists. Specialist centres were not well defined and did not exist in all countries. Patients and primary healthcare providers can be unaware of the symptoms of dcSSc, therefore presentation and referral to specialist care are often late. Thus, improved awareness among patients and primary care physicians is necessary to facilitate earlier referral and diagnosis. Once referred, more consistent use of the modified Rodnan skin score at diagnosis and follow-up may help to monitor disease progression. Furthermore, establishing specialist centres may help to promote such changes and improve patient care.
Teipel, Stefan; Kilimann, Ingo; Thyrian, Jochen R; Kloppel, Stefan; Hoffmann, Wolfgang
The use of imaging markers for the diagnosis of predementia and early dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has widely been explored in research settings and specialized care. The use of these markers in primary care has yet to be established. Summarize current evidence for the usefulness of imaging markers for AD in primary compared to specialized care settings. Selective overview of the literature, and pilot data on the use of MRI-based hippocampus and basal forebrain volumetry for the discrimination of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases from healthy controls in 58 cases from a primary care cohort and 58 matched cases from a memory clinic's sample. Molecular imaging marker of amyloid pathology, and volumetric markers of regional and whole brain atrophy support the diagnosis of AD dementia and MCI due to AD, and contribute to confidence in the differential diagnosis of AD and non-AD related dementias in specialized care. Limited evidence from the literature and our primary care cohort suggests that the diagnostic accuracy of volumetric imaging markers may be similar in the dementia stage of AD, but may be inferior for cases with MCI in primary compared with specialized care. Evidence is still widely lacking on the use of imaging markers for early and differential diagnosis of AD dementia, and detection of prodromal AD in primary care. Further progress to fill this gap will depend on the availability of international multimodal data from well-defined primary care cohorts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Yang, Jun; Hou, Ziming; Wang, Changjiang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hongbing
Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is an aggressive brain tumor that occurs predominantly in the pediatric population. Conventional diagnosis method and standard therapy cannot treat ACPs effectively. In this paper, we aimed to identify key genes for ACP early diagnosis and treatment. Datasets GSE94349 and GSE68015 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Consensus clustering was applied to discover the gene clusters in the expression data of GSE94349 and functional enrichment analysis was performed on gene set in each cluster. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and hubs were selected. Support vector machine (SVM) model was built based on the signature genes identified from enrichment analysis and PPI network. Dataset GSE94349 was used for training and testing, and GSE68015 was used for validation. Besides, RT-qPCR analysis was performed to analyze the expression of signature genes in ACP samples compared with normal controls. Seven gene clusters were discovered in the differentially expressed genes identified from GSE94349 dataset. Enrichment analysis of each cluster identified 25 pathways that highly associated with ACP. PPI network was built and 46 hubs were determined. Twenty-five pathway-related genes that overlapped with the hubs in PPI network were used as signatures to establish the SVM diagnosis model for ACP. The prediction accuracy of SVM model for training, testing, and validation data were 94, 85, and 74%, respectively. The expression of CDH1, CCL2, ITGA2, COL8A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 were significantly upregulated in ACP tumor samples, while CAMK2A, RIMS1, NEFL, SYT1, and STX1A were significantly downregulated, which were consistent with the differentially expressed gene analysis. SVM model is a promising classification tool for screening and early diagnosis of ACP. The ACP-related pathways and signature genes will advance our knowledge of ACP pathogenesis
Camacho, V; Estorch, M; Marquié, M; Domènech, A; Flotats, A; Fernández, A; Duch, J; Geraldo, L L; Deportos, J; Artigas, C; Lleó, A; Carrió, I
The importance of accurate and early diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) lies in its pharmacological management. Delayed imaging of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy allows differentiation between DLB and other neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of early imaging of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy for differentiating DLB from others neurodegenerative disease with cognitive impairment. We assess retrospectively 106 patients (51 men, mean age 78 years) with cognitive impairment that underwent a cardiac (123)I-MIBG study. Planar images were acquired in anterior view of the thorax 15min (early) and 4h (delayed) after tracer administration. The heart-to-mediastinum ratios (HMR) at 15m (HMR15m) and at 4h (HMR4h) were obtained. After four years, 52 patients were diagnosed of DLB.HMR15m and HMR4h were significantly inferior in DLB respect to the others neurodegenerative diseases (1,27±0,15 vs 1,76±0,15,p<0,05) and (1,14±0,13 vs 1,68±0,19,p<0.01), respectively. The ROC analysis showed a HMR15m cut off point of 1.56 to differentiated DLB from the other dementias with a sensitivity and a specificity of 98%. Early imaging of cardiac (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy can help to differentiate DLB from other neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.
Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon Aa
Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve. A significant difference between the serum concentrations
Boskabadi, Hassan; Omidian, Masoud; Tavallai, Shima; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Parizadeh, Mostafa; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon AA
Background: Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and permanent neurological and developmental deficit. Early and accurate diagnosis would help to establish the likely prognosis and may also help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Studies in experimental animal models suggest that a protein called Hsp70 may be a good and potentially useful marker of cellular stress that may be clinically useful in determining the presence of neonatal asphyxia. Objectives: Regarding the importance of early and accurate diagnosis of asphyxia, we conducted this study, which is the first investigation of the comparison of the serum Hsp70 antigen level between asphyxiated and healthy infants. Patients and Methods: In this observational study, the serum concentrations of Hsp70 antigen were compared between neonates suffering from perinatal asphyxia (n = 50) and normal neonates (n = 51). The inclusion criteria for the cases were neonates who had reached term and had at least two clinical criteria of asphyxia. Exclusion criteria were babies with gestational age < 37 weeks, infants with congenital abnormalities or positive blood culture. Exclusion criteria in this group were the requirement to hospital stay during first week of the life or babies whose mothers had difficulties during pregnancy or delivery. Term neonates without major anomalies who had asphyxia during delivery were enrolled in the first six hours after delivery, and control group consisted of healthy term neonates without problems and normal delivery process in the first week of life. The cord blood was taken during labor to measure Hsp70 antigen level by using an in-house ELISA (The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results: The median values of serum anti Hsp70 titers were significantly higher in asphyxiated neonates compared with non-asphyxiated neonates (0.36 [0.04 - 1.14] vs 0.24 [0.01 - 0.63]). At cutoff point = 0.3125 ng/mL, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 76% based on ROC curve
Frost, Elizabeth A M
With the general use of fast acting anesthetic agents, patients usually awaken quickly in the post operative period. However, sometimes recovery is protracted and the list of possible causes in long. Accurate diagnosis is key to institution of appropriate therapy.
Sciubba, J J
Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly
Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil
The current study investigated the impact of diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) in children on parenting stress. While there is increasing pressure to provide early diagnosis of ASC, there is a lack of evidence relating to the impact of early diagnosis on the parents. The parents of 85 children with ASC completed measures of their…
Proverbio, Maria Renata; Lamba, Marta; Rossi, Alessandro; Siani, Paolo
Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation. Clear sensorium and no fever were observed. Immediately the suspicion of botulism was risen and botulinum antitoxin was administered. 3 days later serum and rectal samples tested positive for Clostridium botulinum. The patient completely recovered when discharged from hospital. Foodborne botulism is still possible in developed countries. The confirmation test of botulism requires some days. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis prompt clinical suspicion is thus crucial. The outcome depends on rapid implementation of appropriate management with intensive respiratory care and antitoxin administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reda, Islam; Khalil, Ashraf; Elmogy, Mohammed; Abou El-Fetouh, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Elmaghraby, Adel; Ghazal, Mohammed; El-Baz, Ayman
The objective of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The presented system integrates both clinical biomarkers (prostate-specific antigen) and extracted features from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging collected at multiple b values. The presented system performs 3 major processing steps. First, prostate delineation using a hybrid approach that combines a level-set model with nonnegative matrix factorization. Second, estimation and normalization of diffusion parameters, which are the apparent diffusion coefficients of the delineated prostate volumes at different b values followed by refinement of those apparent diffusion coefficients using a generalized Gaussian Markov random field model. Then, construction of the cumulative distribution functions of the processed apparent diffusion coefficients at multiple b values. In parallel, a K-nearest neighbor classifier is employed to transform the prostate-specific antigen results into diagnostic probabilities. Finally, those prostate-specific antigen–based probabilities are integrated with the initial diagnostic probabilities obtained using stacked nonnegativity constraint sparse autoencoders that employ apparent diffusion coefficient–cumulative distribution functions for better diagnostic accuracy. Experiments conducted on 18 diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data sets achieved 94.4% diagnosis accuracy (sensitivity = 88.9% and specificity = 100%), which indicate the promising results of the presented computer-aided diagnostic system. PMID:29804518
Lee, Jung Nam; Ryu, Dong Yup; Park, Sung Han; You, Hyun Seok; Lee, Bong Eun; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Tae Oh; Heo, Jeong; Kim, Gwang Ha; Song, Geun Am; Kim, Suk; Park, Do Youn
It is difficult to clinically and endoscopically differentiate intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and Crohns disease (CD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of in vitro interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) assay for differential diagnosis between ITB and CD. Sixty patients for whom differential diagnosis between ITB and CD was difficult were enrolled between January 2007 and January 2009. The INF-gamma-producing T-cell response to early secreted antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10 were measured by T-SPOT.TB blood test in vitro. We evaluated the usefulness of T-SPOT.TB blood test by comparing its results with the final diagnosis. Twenty and forty patients were revealed to be positive and negative in T-SPOT.TB blood test, respectively. Of the 20 patients found to be positive, 12 patients (60%) were finally diagnosed as ITB, 6 patients as CD, and 2 patients as Behcets enterocolitis. Of the 40 patients with negative results, 38 patients (95%) were diagnosed as CD; one as Behcets enterocolitis; one as nonspecific colitis; none as ITB. The sensitivity and specificity of T-SPOT.TB blood test for ITB were 100% and 83.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values of T-SPOT.TB blood test for ITB were 60.0% and 100%, respectively. When differential diagnosis between ITB and CD is difficult, T-SPOT.TB blood test may be a helpful and rapid diagnostic tool to exclude ITB. Prospective large-scaled studies are required for further evaluation of the usefulness of T-SPOT.TB blood test for differential diagnosis between ITB and CD.
Bondioni, Maria Pia; Pazzaglia, Ugo Ernesto; Izzi, Claudia; Di Gaetano, Giuseppe; Laffranchi, Francesco; Baldi, Maurizia; Prefumo, Federico
The purpose of the paper was to assess the morphometric parameters to improve the specificity of the ultrasound (US) signs for the early differential diagnosis between two lethal dysplasias, as thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) and osteogenesis imperfecta type 2 (OI-2). The diaphyseal length and the bowed shape of long bones associated with vertebral body dimension assessment were investigated in a group of 14 pregnancy terminations carried out in the time period 2007-2013. The definitive diagnosis was established after pregnancy termination by means of skeletal standardized X-rays, histopathology and gene analysis. TD and OI-2 long bones were significantly shorter than controls. No significant differences were observed between the two dysplasias. The bowing angle was higher in OI-2; a true angulation or eventually axial displacement was present only in the latter. Furthermore, they did not show any evidence of vertebral collapse. The thanatophoric dysplasia presented less bowed long bones, and never true angulation. The spine was steadily characterized by flattened anterior vertebral bodies. Long bone shortening is not a sufficient and accurate sign for early sonographic differential diagnosis between TD and OI-2. Angled diaphysis, axial diaphyseal displacement and a conserved vertebral body height in the prenatal period support the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type 2, while moderately regular bowed diaphysis associated with platyspondyly that of thanatophoric dysplasia.
Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D
Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708
Usually the detection of hyphae in tissue is unmistakable evidence of a deep mycosis requiring antimycotic treatment. Micromorphology alone rarely allows a specific diagnosis, thus confusion is possible between Candida, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Fusarium species or several other fungal agents. If broad, nearly non-septated hyphae are detected histologically mucormycosis can be suspected. Detection of hyphae in tissue is always a cause for concern because therapeutic consequences must follow. Because therapeutic strategies may differ depending on the specific fungal agent, a suspected diagnosis should be supplemented by other methods, e.g. culture of unfixed specimens, by immunohistology or molecular biological methods.
Sousa, Pedro A; Pereira, Salomé; Candeias, Rui; de Jesus, Ilídio
Correct diagnosis in wide QRS complex tachycardia remains a challenge. Differential diagnosis between ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, and although data from clinical history and physical examination may suggest a particular origin, it is the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram that usually enables this differentiation. Since 1978, various electrocardiographic criteria have been proposed for the differential diagnosis of wide complex tachycardias, particularly the presence of atrioventricular dissociation, and the axis, duration and morphology of QRS complexes. Despite the wide variety of criteria, diagnosis is still often difficult, and errors can have serious consequences. To reduce such errors, several differential diagnosis algorithms have been proposed since 1991. However, in a small percentage of wide QRS tachycardias the diagnosis remains uncertain and in these the wisest decision is to treat them as ventricular tachycardias. The authors' objective was to review the main electrocardiographic criteria and differential diagnosis algorithms of wide QRS tachycardia. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Alexander, Henry; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe
Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical “columns”: (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC. PMID:22028706
Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Alexander, Henry; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe
Diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is presently based on mainly clinical symptoms. BPS/IC can be considered as a worst-case scenario of bladder overactivity of unknown origin, including bladder pain. Usually, patients are partially or completely resistant to anticholinergic therapy, and therapeutical options are especially restricted in case of BPS/IC. Therefore, early detection of patients prone to develop BPS/IC symptoms is essential for successful therapy. We propose extended diagnostics including molecular markers. Differential diagnosis should be based on three diagnostical "columns": (i) clinical diagnostics, (ii) histopathology, and (iii) molecular diagnostics. Analysis of molecular alterations of receptor expression in detrusor smooth muscle cells and urothelial integrity is necessary to develop patient-tailored therapeutical concepts. Although more research is needed to elucidate the pathomechanisms involved, extended BPS/IC diagnostics could already be integrated into routine patient care, allowing evidence-based pharmacotherapy of patients with idiopathic bladder overactivity and BPS/IC.
Zabalegui, B; Gil, J; Zabalegui, I
Treatment of endodontically involved teeth requires accurate diagnosis of the clinical pulpal condition to determine the primary cause of pathosis. The case presented shows the differential diagnosis between a desmoplastic fibroma and a failure of a misdiagnosed endodontic treatment. The initial direction of treatment should had never been the endodontic therapy but local surgical curettage of the lesion.
Ivashchenko, V E; Kalabukha, I A; Mayetnyi, E M
Differentiated tactics of diagnostic videothoracoscopy (VTHS) in a pleural exudate syndrome, which ought to be treated with hydrothorax elimination and artificial pneumothorax creation, was proposed. Further roentgenological investigation permits to create a plan for the operation conduction and a certain anesthesia application. Criteria for the operation planning and the anesthesiological support choice were elaborated. Results of VTHS conduction in 261 patients in Department of Thoracic Surgery were analyzed. The differentiated tactics for the VTHS performance application have had saved the patients from the unnecessary endotracheal narcosis conduction, and reduced a pharmacological load on a patient, as well as a rate of contraindications for the operation usage and the stationary treatment duration.
Wiebel, Christiane B; Valsecchi, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Investigating the temporal dynamics of natural image processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) has a long tradition in object recognition research. In a classical Go-NoGo task two characteristic effects have been emphasized: an early task independent category effect and a later task-dependent target effect. Here, we set out to use this well-established Go-NoGo paradigm to study the time course of material categorization. Material perception has gained more and more interest over the years as its importance in natural viewing conditions has been ignored for a long time. In addition to analyzing standard ERPs, we conducted a single trial ERP pattern analysis. To validate this procedure, we also measured ERPs in two object categories (people and animals). Our linear classification procedure was able to largely capture the overall pattern of results from the canonical analysis of the ERPs and even extend it. We replicate the known target effect (differential Go-NoGo potential at frontal sites) for the material images. Furthermore, we observe task-independent differential activity between the two material categories as early as 140 ms after stimulus onset. Using our linear classification approach, we show that material categories can be differentiated consistently based on the ERP pattern in single trials around 100 ms after stimulus onset, independent of the target-related status. This strengthens the idea of early differential visual processing of material categories independent of the task, probably due to differences in low-level image properties and suggests pattern classification of ERP topographies as a strong instrument for investigating electrophysiological brain activity. © 2014 ARVO.
Bellassen, Virginie; Iglói, Kinga; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz; Dubois, Bruno; Rondi-Reig, Laure
Episodic memory impairment is a hallmark for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Most actual tests used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease do not assess the spatiotemporal properties of episodic memory and lead to false-positive or -negative diagnosis. We used a newly developed, nonverbal navigation test for Human, based on the objective experimental testing of a spatiotemporal experience, to differentially Alzheimer's disease at the mild stage (N = 16 patients) from frontotemporal lobar degeneration (N = 11 patients) and normal aging (N = 24 subjects). Comparing navigation parameters and standard neuropsychological tests, temporal order memory appeared to have the highest predictive power for mild Alzheimer's disease diagnosis versus frontotemporal lobar degeneration and normal aging. This test was also nonredundant with classical neuropsychological tests. As a conclusion, our results suggest that temporal order memory tested in a spatial navigation task may provide a selective behavioral marker of Alzheimer's disease.
Shirazi, P.; Konopka, L.; Crayton, J.W.
Accurate diagnostic evaluation of patients with neurologic and neuropsychiatric disease is important because early treatment may halt disease progression and prevent impairment or disability. Cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO has been ascribed to luxury perfusion following ischemic infarction. The present study sought to identify other conditions that also display radiotracer hyperfixation in order to develop a differential diagnosis of this finding on SPECT imaging. Two hundred fifty (n=250) successive cerebral SPECT images were reviewed for evidence of HMPAO hyperfixation. Hyperfixation was defined as enhanced focal perfusion surrounded by a zone of diminished or normal cerebral perfusion. All patients were scanned aftermore » intravenous injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HMPAO. Volume-rendered and oblique images were obtained with a Trionix triple-head SPECT system using ultra high resolution fan beam collimators. Thirteen (13/250; 5%) of the patients exhibited regions of HMPAO hyperfixation. CT or MRI abnormalities were detected in 6/13 cases. Clinical diagnoses in these patients included intractable psychosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and narcotic dependence, major depression, acute closed-head trauma, hypothyroidism, as well as subacute ischemic infarction. A wide variety of conditions may be associated with cerebral hyperfixation of HMPAO. These conditions include neurologic and psychiatric diagnoses, and extend the consideration of hyperfixation beyond ischemic infarction. Consequently, a differential diagnosis of HMPAO hyperfixation may be broader than originally considered, and this may suggest a fundamental role for local cerebral hyperperfusion. Elucidation of the fundamental mechanism(s) for cerebral hyperperfusion requires further investigation.« less
Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Robert; Ballard, Kirrie J.
Purpose: The gold standard for diagnosing childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is expert judgment of perceptual features. The aim of this study was to identify a set of objective measures that differentiate CAS from other speech disorders. Method: Seventy-two children (4-12 years of age) diagnosed with suspected CAS by community speech-language…
Takuma, Kensuke; Kamisawa, Terumi; Tabata, Taku; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Igarashi, Yoshinori
AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops. METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted. RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients
Schwalenberg, T; Neuhaus, J; Horn, L-C; Alexander, H; Zimmermann, G; Ho Thi, P; Mallock, T; Stolzenburg, J-U
The diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is challenging, since pathogenetic mechanisms and the definition of clinical relevant parameters are still under lively discussion. The criteria recently proposed by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC) define a collective of patients based on the cardinal symptom of bladder pain which is heterogeneous, and therefore cannot receive standardised consistent therapy. Thus an extended diagnosis based on molecular markers seems to be indicated to render individual pharmacotherapy possible, and to contribute to elucidation of BPS/IC pathogenesis. For this purpose we feel the vital need for taking a bladder biopsy. The diagnosis of BPS/IC should rely on 3 "columns": (1) clinical diagnostics; (2) histopathology; (3) molecular diagnostics/protein expression. Since a significant contribution of the 3 functional units of the bladder to the pathophysiology is most evident, the examinations should ideally include urothelium, lamina propria, and detrusor musculature. Generation of receptor profiles of the detrusor muscle represents a first attempt to define a diagnostic tool for the individualisation of BPS/IC pharmacotherapy. Other factors, e.g., beta-hCG expression in the urothelium, need further evaluation. Extended BPS/IC diagnostics could be realistically integrated into routine patient care within a clinic/laboratory network. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.
Hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia are symptoms of two relatively rare hereditary diseases and are extraordinarily important from the standpoint of the differential diagnosis. Mutation in calcium sensing receptor gene (CaSR) clinically manifests as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) or as the much more serious neonatal hyperparathyreosis. Hypercalciuric hypocalcemia is extremely rare. Prognosis for the most frequent mutations in the CaSR gene FHH is considered benign; nevertheless, if overlooked it can lead to an incorrect diagnosis of primary hyperparathyreosis, which has a fundamentally different prognosis and treatment. Familial hypophosphatemia sometimes occurs as hereditary rickets, which is a consequence of insufficient production of vitamin D-hormone or abnormal function of vitamin D receptors (VDR). The disease manifests as X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets. Autosomal recessive form is very rare. Oncogenic hypophosphatemia should be excluded in differential diagnosis. In this review the issues of pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment of FHH and hypophosphatemic rickets are discussed.
Liu, Haiyan; Li, Sijin; Yang, Suyun; Wu, Zhifang
To investigate the value of (99)Tc(m)N-NOET dual-phase SPECT in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung tumors. CT scan, early (20 to 30 min) and delayed (2 h) imaging of NOET SPECT were performed on 61 patients suspected of lung lesions before operation. The results were compared with the pathological findings. All cases were not treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or surgery before checks. Moreover, all patients had pathological diagnosis. To determine the value in differential diagnosis of tumors by analyzing the tumor uptake and excretion of (99)Tc(m)N-NOET, and the results were compared with that of CT. The value of early T/N ratio (ER) in the malignant (G1) and benign (G2) groups was 1.25 ± 0.15 and 1.09 ± 0.11 (P < 0.001), respectively, and delayed T/N ratio (DR) was 1.40 ± 0.17 and 1.18 ± 0.21 (P < 0.001). The retention index (RI) of groups G1 was (12.22 ± 6.38)% and group G2 was (8.3 ± 10.91)%, with a non-significant difference between them (P > 0.05). The ER, DR and RI of NOET SPECT in the malignant patients were not significantly correlated with TNM staging, pathological types, tumor diameter, cavity in the lung tumor mass, history of smoking, tumor size and patient gender (P > 0.05). The sensitivity of NOET dual-phase SPECT and CT in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung tumors was 94.1% vs. 90.2%, specificity was 70.0% vs. 80.0% , positive predictive value (PPV) was 94.1% vs. 95.8%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 70.0% vs. 61.5 %, and accuracy was 90.2%. vs. 88.5% (P > 0.05 for all). (99)Tc(m)N- NOET dual-phase SPECT could be used in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung tumors, with no significant differences compared with the efficacy of CT imaging. The semiquantitative indexes (ER, DR and RI) of NOET SPECT can also be used in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung tumors, and are not significantly correlated with TNM staging, pathological types, tumor diameter, cavity of the
Benito, Luisa; Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Gómez, Eva; Martí, David; Mitjavila, Joan; Torres, Ferran; Miró, Òscar; Sisó, Antoni; Mont, Lluís
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is likely to improve therapy and prognosis. The study objective was to evaluate the usefulness of a programme for early diagnosis of AF in patients from an urban primary care centre. Participants were recruited from a randomized sample of patients not diagnosed with AF but having relevant risk factors: age ≥ 65 years, ischaemic and/or valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and/or diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). The intervention included (i) initial visit with clinical history, electrocardiogram, and instruction about pulse palpation and warning signs and (ii) electrocardiogram every 6 months during a 2-year follow-up. The main endpoint of the study was the proportion of new cases diagnosed at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were number of new AF diagnoses and complications associated with the arrhythmia in both groups. A total of 928 patients were included (463 IG and 465 CG). At 6 months, AF was diagnosed in 8 IG patients and 1 CG patient (1.7 vs. 0.2%, respectively, P = 0.018). After 2 years of follow-up, 11 IG patients and 6 CG patients had newly diagnosed AF (2.5 vs. 1.3%, respectively, P = 0.132). Time to first diagnosis of AF was shorter in IG patients [median (inter-quartile range): 7 (192) days vs. 227 (188.5) days in CG, P = 0.029]. The simple screening proposed could be useful for the early detection of AF in primary care. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Wang, Bright L.
The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.
Vélez, Paola; Paredes, Patricio; Fuenmayor, Frances
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children causes serious morbidity and mortality, especially if it is not recognized on time in the initial diagnosis. However, there are other diseases that can appear to be a metabolic disorder of this kind and be ignored if it is not suspected. We present a clinical case with hyperglycemic ketoacidosis due to the contact with organophosphate; we had to use a continuous infusion of insulin to control the metabolic disorder without repercussions after the girl came home. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Stavropoulos, Katherine Kuhl-Meltzoff; Bolourian, Yasamine; Blacher, Jan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect one in 68 children. Given the increase in both prevalence and awareness of ASD, it is critical to provide accurate and timely diagnosis. However, ASD often co-occurs with other disorders, making diagnosis difficult. The objective of the current case study was to provide two examples of differential diagnosis in ASD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) observed in an autism clinic. In both cases, the goal was to decide whether each child should be given a diagnosis of ASD, PTSD, or both. PMID:29642485
Ben Nsir, Atef; Thai, Quoc-Anh; Kassar, Alia Zhani; Ben Said, Imed; Jemel, Hafedh
Gliosarcomas are rare, malignant primary brain tumors, most commonly located in the temporal lobe, that contain both glial and mesenchymal elements. Gliosarcomas located within the cerebellum are exceedingly rare. The previously unreported finding of a cerebellar gliosarcoma concurrently with an extracranial metastasis to the lungs is discussed here. A 57-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of chest pain, weight loss, headaches, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed a left cerebellar dysfunction, and the radiological work-up revealed a 6 × 6-cm right apical pulmonary tumor and a 4 × 3.5 × 3.8-cm peripherally enhancing left cerebellar mass. On the basis of a smoking history in the setting of a lung lesion and cerebellar mass, the presumptive diagnosis was primary lung cancer with metastasis to the cerebellum. Gross total resection of a firm pseudo-encapsulated cerebellar mass was performed. The microscopic features and the immunohistochemical profile confirmed the diagnosis of Gliosarcoma. The thoracic lesion was removed subsequently, and pathology confirmed it as an extracranial metastasis from the cerebellar gliosarcoma. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy were then administered. No clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence was observed during one year of follow-up monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, a primary infratentorial gliosarcoma with extracranial metastases has not been previously described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sene, Kagnew Hailesellasse; Porter, Christopher J; Palidwor, Gareth; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Muro, Enrique M; Campbell, Pearl A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A
Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5) undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs) over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1), our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2) that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of mESC differentiation, and
Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed
Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate.
Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed
Context: Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Evidence Acquisition: Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Results: Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Conclusions: Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate. PMID:26587034
The number of cases diagnosed with developmental disorders is rapidly increasing among those consulting psychiatry clinics for the first time in their adulthood. The author presents the concept of developmental disorders, discusses how they can be differentiated from other psychiatric disorders, and proposes some treatments. From now on, all psychiatrists should know the difference between developmental disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and diagnose them multi-axially, including the dimension of development. They should always keep in mind how developmental disorders lead to difficulties in everyday life, and treat developmental disorders in conjunction with adequate environmental modifications along with the treatment of other comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Hippe, S; Kellner, N; Seliger, G; Wiechmann, V; Grünewald, T
Q fever is a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease with a mostly benign course, which regularly reoccurs in Germany. This report is about a patient with sporadic serologically proven Q fever, which also showed typical histopathological findings with nonspecific granulomatous hepatitis, usually seen in acute disease. The bone marrow biopsy revealed so-called doughnut granulomas, which are not pathognomonic but a typical finding in Q fever. This case report impressively underlines that the histomorphological findings can make a decisive contribution to the clarification by extended differential diagnostics, even though it plays a subordinate role in the routine diagnostics of disseminated Q fever.
Salvatore, Christian; Cerasa, Antonio; Battista, Petronilla; Gilardi, Maria C; Quattrone, Aldo; Castiglioni, Isabella
Determination of sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression is intended to aid researchers and clinicians to develop new treatments and monitor their effectiveness, as well as to lessen the time and cost of clinical trials. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-related biomarkers have been recently identified by the use of machine learning methods for the in vivo differential diagnosis of AD. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging papers investigating this topic are focused on the difference between AD and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), not considering the impact of MCI patients who will (MCIc) or not convert (MCInc) to AD. Morphological T1-weighted MRIs of 137 AD, 76 MCIc, 134 MCInc, and 162 healthy controls (CN) selected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohort, were used by an optimized machine learning algorithm. Voxels influencing the classification between these AD-related pre-clinical phases involved hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal ganglia, gyrus rectus, precuneus, and cerebellum, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD. Classification accuracy was 76% AD vs. CN, 72% MCIc vs. CN, 66% MCIc vs. MCInc (nested 20-fold cross validation). Our data encourage the application of computer-based diagnosis in clinical practice of AD opening new prospective in the early management of AD patients.
Gasser, A-I; Salamin, V; Zumbach, S
executive functions could not differentiate between patients with late life depression and patients with prodromal Alzheimer's disease. A measure of global cognitive decline does not seem to be helpful in differentiating early Alzheimer's disease and depression, unlike an analysis of the neuropsychological profile on several composite scales, such as the Mini Mental State Examination. Furthermore, recent work has investigated the utility of olfactory or gustative markers with promising results and convenient tools for clinical practice. Concerning morphological brain imaging, only detailed volumetric analysis could show differences between the two diseases, but these techniques are not always available for clinical practice. It is the same for other recent techniques, such as quantitative electroencephalography, Near InfraRed Spectroscopy, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, or Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography, which have received little attention so far as differential diagnostic tools. Finally, cerebrospinal fluid analysis could be useful, including beta amyloid levels. Despite numerous efforts in recent years, differential diagnosis of dementia from depression in the elderly remains difficult. Results of this review highlight the necessity of conducting more research in this area, with multi-method studies, using not only cognitive analysis but also cerebral imaging techniques. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Choi, Ivy Y; Karpus, Olga N; Turner, Jason D; Hardie, Debbie; Marshall, Jennifer L; de Hair, Maria J H; Maijer, Karen I; Tak, Paul P; Raza, Karim; Hamann, Jörg; Buckley, Christopher D; Gerlag, Danielle M; Filer, Andrew
Previous studies have shown increased expression of stromal markers in synovial tissue (ST) of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, ST expression of stromal markers in early arthritis in relationship to diagnosis and prognostic outcome was studied. ST from 56 patients included in two different early arthritis cohorts and 7 non-inflammatory controls was analysed using immunofluorescence to detect stromal markers CD55, CD248, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and podoplanin. Diagnostic classification (gout, psoriatic arthritis, unclassified arthritis (UA), parvovirus associated arthritis, reactive arthritis and RA), disease outcome (resolving vs persistent) and clinical variables were determined at baseline and after follow-up, and related to the expression of stromal markers. We observed expression of all stromal markers in ST of early arthritis patients, independent of diagnosis or prognostic outcome. Synovial expression of FAP was significantly higher in patients developing early RA compared to other diagnostic groups and non-inflammatory controls. In RA FAP protein was expressed in both lining and sublining layers. Podoplanin expression was higher in all early inflammatory arthritis patients than controls, but did not differentiate diagnostic outcomes. Stromal marker expression was not associated with prognostic outcomes of disease persistence or resolution. There was no association with clinical or sonographic variables. Stromal cell markers CD55, CD248, FAP and podoplanin are expressed in ST in the earliest stage of arthritis. Baseline expression of FAP is higher in early synovitis patients who fulfil classification criteria for RA over time. These results suggest that significant fibroblast activation occurs in RA in the early window of disease.
Rogers, Tova; Pulitzer, Melissa; Marino, Maria L; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Zivanovic, Oliver; Marchetti, Michael A
There are limited studies on the dermoscopic features of mucosal melanoma, particularly early-stage lesions. Described criteria include the presence of blue, gray, or white colors, with a reported sensitivity of 100%. It is unclear if these features will aid in the detection of early mucosal melanoma or improve diagnostic accuracy compared to naked-eye examination alone. An Asian female in her fifties was referred for evaluation of an asymptomatic, irregularly pigmented patch of the clitoral hood and labia minora of unknown duration. Her past medical history was notable for Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. She denied a personal or family history of skin cancer. Dermoscopic evaluation of the vulvar lesion revealed heterogeneous brown and black pigmentation mostly composed of thick lines. There were no other colors or structures present. As the differential diagnosis included vulvar melanosis and mucosal melanoma, the patient was recommended to undergo biopsy, which was delayed due to complications from her underlying lung cancer. Repeat dermoscopic imaging performed three months later revealed significant changes concerning for melanoma, including increase in size, asymmetric darkening, and the appearance of structureless areas and central blue and pink colors. Histopathological examination of a biopsy and subsequent resection confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in situ. Previously described dermoscopic features for mucosal melanoma may not have high sensitivity for early melanomas. Additional studies are needed to define the dermoscopic characteristics of mucosal melanomas that aid in early detection. Health care providers should have a low threshold for biopsy of mucosal lesions that show any clinical or dermoscopic features of melanoma, especially in older women.
Molins, Claudia R; Ashton, Laura V; Wormser, Gary P; Andre, Barbara G; Hess, Ann M; Delorey, Mark J; Pilgard, Mark A; Johnson, Barbara J; Webb, Kristofor; Islam, M Nurul; Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Molla, Irida; Jewett, Mollie W; Belisle, John T
Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is coprevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients, we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N -acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. Development of classification models with the 261-MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to inform patient management by objectively distinguishing early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Molins, C. R.; Ashton, L. V.; Wormser, G. P.; Andre, B. G.; Hess, A. M.; Delorey, M. J.; Pilgard, M. A.; Johnson, B. J.; Webb, K.; Islam, M. N.; Pegalajar-Jurado, A; Molla, I.; Jewett, M. W.; Belisle, J. T.
Lyme disease, the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States, results from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. Early clinical diagnosis of this disease is largely based on the presence of an erythematous skin lesion for individuals in high-risk regions. This, however, can be confused with other illnesses including southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), an illness that lacks a defined etiological agent or laboratory diagnostic test, and is co-prevalent with Lyme disease in portions of the Eastern United States. By applying an unbiased metabolomics approach with sera retrospectively obtained from well-characterized patients we defined biochemical and diagnostic differences between early Lyme disease and STARI. Specifically, a metabolic biosignature consisting of 261 molecular features (MFs) revealed that altered N-acyl ethanolamine and primary fatty acid amide metabolism discriminated early Lyme disease from STARI. More importantly, development of classification models with the 261 MF biosignature and testing against validation samples differentiated early Lyme disease from STARI with an accuracy of 85 to 98%. These findings revealed metabolic dissimilarity between early Lyme disease and STARI, and provide a powerful and new approach to objectively distinguish early Lyme disease from an illness with nearly identical symptoms. PMID:28814545
Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Okada, Hiroki; Friedrich, Anne; Kanno, Yoichiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hasuda, Hirokazu; Inahashi, Masaaki; Okazaki, Naoto; Tamura, Hiroyasu; Nakamura, Ryo; Hirata, Dai; Fukuda, Hisashi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Schacherer, Joseph; Akao, Takeshi; Ohya, Yoshikazu
Sake yeast was developed exclusively in Japan. Its diversification during breeding remains largely uncharacterized. To evaluate the breeding processes of the sake lineage, we thoroughly investigated the phenotypes and differentiation of 27 sake yeast strains using high-dimensional, single-cell, morphological phenotyping. Although the genetic diversity of the sake yeast lineage is relatively low, its morphological diversity has expanded substantially compared to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species as a whole. Evaluation of the different types of breeding processes showed that the generation of hybrids (crossbreeding) has more profound effects on cell morphology than the isolation of mutants (mutation breeding). Analysis of phenotypic robustness revealed that some sake yeast strains are more morphologically heterogeneous, possibly due to impairment of cellular network hubs. This study provides a new perspective for studying yeast breeding genetics and micro-organism breeding strategies. PMID:28642365
Desoete, Annemmie; De Weerd, Frauke; Vanderswalmen, Ruth; De Bond, Annemie
The study was conducted to look at differences between children who outgrew and did not outgrow an early diagnosis of mathematical learning disorder (MD; n=13), and peers without MD (n=13). Children were tested at 5, 6, 7 and 10 years of age. About 54% of the children with an early diagnosis of MD still experienced mathematical difficulties at the…
Vaclav Vojta (1917-2000) developed an early diagnostic method of the neurodevelopmental disorder of infants and came up with therapeutic concept consisting in releasing of global motor complexes by means of the stimulation of proper areas on patients body. In the diagnostics apart from very careful observation of the spontaneous movement of the infant and examination of the reflexes that are characteristic for the first weeks of human's life, Vojta applied the examination of the 7 postural reactions. Presence of the trouble in patterns and dynamics of the postural reactions Vojta called Central Nervous Coordination Disorder--CNCD and regarded as work diagnosis or alarm signal indicating necessity of application of the therapy, especially when asymmetry of the muscle tone and primitive reflexes beyond their physiological appearance period are observed or the number of the abnormal reactions exceeds 5. Global motor complexes as reflex locomotion--crawling and rotation--consist of all the partial motion patterns, which are gradually used by healthy infant in the process of postural and motor ontogenesis. Providing the central nervous system with proper external stimulation allows to, using neuronal plasticity, recreate an access to the human's postural development program and gradually replace pathological motor patterns by those more regular. Exercises repeated several times a day rebuilt support, erectile and vertical mechanisms, improve automatic postural control and phase lower limb movement. Affecting especially on autochtonic muscles of the spine exercises balance synergic cooperation of muscle groups in the trunk and those surrounding key body joints. This way they correct body's posture and peripheral motion and pathology of the outlasted primitive reflexes gradually withdraws.
Berenguer Francés, Miguel Ángel; Lafaurie Acevedo, Alejandro; Tormo Ferrero, Vicente; Cardenal Macia, Rafael; Andreu Martínez, Francisco José
SAPHO syndrome was proposed in the late 80s in order to group different osteoarticular manifestations with specific radiological findings such as the hyperostosis of the front part of the chest wall. Prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are unknown, while diagnosis is made both clinically and by the specific gammagraphic image of «bull horn» in the sternoclavicular joint. The following case of a 64-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast pT1N0Mx is reported. When studying the extent of the disease, a gammagraphic image of diffuse blast injury in the sterna manubrium was evidenced, which allowed the suspicion of Paget's disease or metastatic injury. Study was completed with a chest CT in which manubrium sclerosis was evidenced, suggesting metástasis. Res ults of the studies pointed out SAPHO syndrome as the most likely diagnostic option. The low tumor stage of the patient prompted the idea of possible alternative diagnoses. A deeper knowledge of this clinical condition may be crucial to avoid mistakes when classifying a subject in more advanced tumor stages, and consequently, to prevent the use of more aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactacidosis and stroke-like episode (MELAS) syndrome is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with a clinical onset between the first and third decade. The clinical hallmark is the stroke-like-episode, which mimicks ischemic stroke but is usually transient and non-disabling in nature. The morphological equivalent on MRI is a T2-hyperintensity, predominantly over the temporo-parieto-occipital region, not confined to a vascular territory, which is also hyperintense on diffusion weighted imaging and on apparent diffusion coefficient sequences (vasogenic edema, stroke-like lesion). Additional features include seizures, cognitive decline, psychosis, lactic acidosis, migraine, visual impairment, hearing loss, short stature, diabetes, or myopathy. Muscle biopsy typically shows ragged-red fibers, COX-negative fibers, SDH hyperreactivity, and abnormally shaped mitochondria with paracristalline inclusions. The diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of a biochemical respiratory chain defect or one of the disease-causing mutations, of which 80 % affect the mitochondrial tRNALeu gene.
Merlino, Giovanni; Serafini, Anna; Robiony, Francesca; Valente, Mariarosaria; Gigli, Gian Luigi
RLS is a common sleep disorder with distinctive clinical features. The prevalence of RLS in Caucasians and North Americans ranges from 5% to 10%. However, only some of these subjects (almost the 3% of the general population) report being affected by a frequent and severe form of the sleep disorder. RLS is diagnosed clinically by means of four internationally recognized criteria that summarize the main characteristics of the sleep disorder. Besides the essential criteria, supportive and associated features of RLS have been established by experts in order to help physicians treat patients with doubtful symptoms. Several clinical conditions may mimic this sleep disorder. In order to increase the sensibility and specificity of RLS diagnosis, doctors should perform a meticulous patient history and then an accurate physical and neurological examination. Dopamine agonists are recognized as the preferred first-line treatment for RLS. Rotigotine is a non-ergoline dopamine agonist with selectivity for D1, D2 and D3 receptors. The drug is administered via transdermal patches which release rotigotine for 24 hours. Four clinical trials demonstrated that this compound is able to improve RLS symptomatology with few and moderate adverse events. Head to head trials are required to compare the efficacy and tolerability of rotigotine with other dopamine agonists administered via oral intake. Rotigotine has been approved by the FDA and EMEA for Parkinson’s disease. For the treatment of moderate to severe idiopathic RLS, rotigotine has been recommended for approval by the EMEA and is under review by the FDA. PMID:19557102
Solodinina, E N; Starkov, Y G; Shumkin, L V
The article states the results of examination and treatment of 57 patients with stenosis of the common bile duct of various genesis. The main aim of the work is criteria definition and evaluation of diagnostic significance of endosonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant common bile duct stenosis. The paper presents a methodology of endoscopic ultrasound and basic criteria for the differential diagnosis of tumors and other lesions of the extrahepatic bile ducts. A comparative analysis of endosonography, ultrasound, CT, MRCP was conducted. The sensitivity of endosonography in determining the nature of the common bile duct stenosis was 97.7%, a specificity 100% and accuracy 98.2%, which is superior to other methods of radiological diagnosis. In comprehensive surgical centers endosonography should be used as a method of specifying the final diagnosis to determine the nature of the common bile duct stenosis, particularly at low constriction location.
Schmidt, K L
The generalised tendomyopathy is one of the most variegated and fascinating disease of man. The unusual constellation and combination of symptoms constrain to the differential-diagnostic demarcation of a great number of rheumatic and non-rheumatic diseases. While the rheumatic polymyalgia and myositis are easily to be demarcated, the decision between a primary and secondary generalised tendomyopathy can be difficult. In individual cases a classical tendomyopathy can be accompanied by antinuclear factors and then it is at the earliest a "collagenosis the state of waiting". The therapy of tendomyopathy is altogether unsatisfactory. All forms of therapy (medicamentous, physical, psychotherapy) help at the utmost in 50%. Surprisingly, on the part of the medicaments the non-steroidal antiphlogistic drugs and the glucocorticoids in most cases completely fail, and also the physical therapy is frequently not tolerated and/or has only a short duration of effect. The more important are the influence on possible evoking factors, the optimization of the social background and the utilization of the possibilities of the "secondary prevention" (balneotherapy in a health resort, sauna bath, Kneipp's applications, change of the living and working conditions, easy sports activities). Since the disease is frequent, but not yet known in general, it should be made better acquainted among the physicians. The generalised tendomyopathy is and remains a cardinal problem not only of rheumatology, but of the physician's working-day in general.
Feliciano, K V; Kovacs, M H; Alzate, A
This paper presents the results of a descriptive study carried out in the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, between March and September 1994. The study aimed at health services available for performing early diagnosis of Hansen's disease with emphasis on accessibility and quality of the services provided. The sample consisted of 32 health clinics visited for diagnostic purposes by 183 patients with Hansen's disease. Information on organizational infrastructures was collected by means of interviews with health clinic managers. Information regarding routine procedures in the 32 clinics was collected by observation, with special attention given to archival and inspection activities. A total of 1,998 patients were interviewed to determine accessibility of services. Time spent in consultation with the physician was determined for 1,000 patients who were seen by 123 physicians at the clinics during the interviews. To explore physicians' attitude and knowledge regarding Hansen's disease, 133 were randomly selected from a list of names. The following factors were identified as hindering early diagnosis of Hansen's disease: the large number of people seeking service who could not be seen by a physician on the same day; the long time elapsed between appointment scheduling and the actual visit (for those not seen on the same day); the long wait for the consultation; the brevity of the consultation; the low availability of trained personnel; the low proportion of physicians who examined all body surfaces; difficulties in the clinical recognition of the disease; and physicians not prepared to make a differential diagnosis. These obstacles can precipitate the physical deterioration of Hansen's disease patients and stimulate the persistence of transmissibility; therefore, they need to be overcome if Hansen's disease is to be eliminated.
Burggraaff, Marloes C; de Vries-Knoppert, Willemine A E J; Petzold, Axel
This case series describes a new optical coherence tomography (OCT) specific observation relevant to the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected optic neuritis. A tiny prefoveal floater, only detectable by OCT, was found responsible for the symptoms in three patients, one of whom had been referred with unilateral delayed visual evoked potentials. This case series suggests that with increased use of OCT in routine clinical care, entoptic phenomena can be demonstrated as a relevant differential diagnosis to optic neuritis. Patients should be explained the benign nature of their symptoms.
Braaten, Alyssa J; Parsons, Thomas D; McCue, Robert; Sellers, Alfred; Burns, William J
Similarities in presentation of Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder, pose differential diagnosis challenges. The current study identifies specific neuropsychological patterns of scores for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. Neuropsychological domains directly assessed in the study included: immediate memory, delayed memory, confrontational naming, verbal fluency, attention, concentration, and executive functioning. The results reveal specific neuropsychological comparative profiles for Dementia of Alzheimer's Type, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, and Major Depressive Disorder. The identification of these profiles will assist in the differential diagnosis of these disorders and aid in patient treatment.
Matsumoto, Kohei; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Akazawa, Yoichi; Komori, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Murakami, Takashi; Asaoka, Daisuke; Hojo, Mariko; Tomita, Natsumi; Nagahara, Akihito; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi; Watanabe, Sumio
To investigate clinicopathological features of early stage gastric cancer with enteroblastic differentiation (GCED). We retrospectively investigated data on 6 cases of early stage GCED and 186 cases of early stage conventional gastric cancer (CGC: well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma) who underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection from September 2011 to February 2015 in our hospital. GCED was defined as a tumor having a primitive intestine-like structure composed of cuboidal or columnar cells with clear cytoplasm and immunohistochemical positivity for either alpha-fetoprotein, Glypican 3 or SALL4. The following were compared between GCED and CGC: age, gender, location and size of tumor, macroscopic type, ulceration, depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, positive horizontal and vertical margin, curative resection rate. Six cases (5 males, 1 female; mean age 75.7 years; 6 lesions) of early gastric cancer with a GCED component and 186 cases (139 males, 47 females; mean age 72.7 years; 209 lesions) of early stage CGC were investigated. Mean tumor diameters were similar but rates of submucosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and non-curative resection were higher in GCED than CGC (66.6% vs 11.4%, 33.3% vs 2.3%, 66.6% vs 0.4%, 83.3% vs 11% respectively, P < 0.01). Deep submucosal invasion was not revealed endoscopically or by preoperative biopsy. Histologically, in GCED the superficial mucosal layer was covered with a CGC component. The GCED component tended to exist in the deeper part of the mucosa to the submucosa by lymphatic and/or venous invasion, without severe stromal reaction. In addition, Glypican 3 was the most sensitive marker for GCED (positivity, 83.3%), immunohistochemically. Even in the early stage GCED has high malignant potential, and preoperative diagnosis is considered difficult. Endoscopists and pathologists should know the clinicopathological features of this highly malignant type
Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.
Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semiquantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. We show that after a kinetic analysis of contrast agent appearance, providing the quantitative features characterizing the perfusion pattern of the joint, it is possible to accurately discriminate RA from PSA by building a random forest classifier on the computed features. We compare its accuracy with the assessment performed by expert radiologist blinded of the diagnosis.
Welkoborsky, Hans-J; Graß, Sylvia; Deichmüller, Cordula; Bertram, Oliver; Hinni, Michael L
improve or worsening of clinical symptoms during 24 h of therapy, signs for subperiostal abscess in CT scan, and/or vision loss. Patients with infectous orbital complications had fever, elevated CRP and white blood cell counts. This symptom complex is key in making the correct diagnosis. Interestingly, 61 % of patients in this study demonstrated non-sinusitis related diseases leading to acute orbital swelling, which also required prompt recognition and appropriate therapy.
Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a highly lethal infectious disease and early diagnosis of TB is critical for the control of disease progression. The objective of this study was to profile a panel of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB infection. Methods Using TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) analysis followed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) validation, expression levels of miRNAs in serum samples from 30 patients with active tuberculosis and 60 patients with Bordetella pertussis (BP), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and enterovirus (EV) were analyzed. Results The Low-Density Array data showed that 97 miRNAs were differentially expressed in pulmonary TB patient sera compared with healthy controls (90 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated). Following qRT-PCR confirmation and receiver operational curve (ROC) analysis, three miRNAs (miR-361-5p, miR-889 and miR-576-3p) were shown to distinguish TB infected patients from healthy controls and other microbial infections with moderate sensitivity and specificity (area under curve (AUC) value range, 0.711-0.848). Multiple logistic regression analysis of a combination of these three miRNAs showed an enhanced ability to discriminate between these two groups with an AUC value of 0.863. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered levels of serum miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of pulmonary TB infection. PMID:23272999
Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Thomas Jose; Montealegre, Denia Ramirez; Matsumoto, Julie Ann
Abnormal cranial or spinal nerve contrast enhancement on MRI in cases of suspected pediatric leukodystrophy is recognized as an important clue to the diagnosis of either metachromatic leukodystrophy or globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease). We report a case of genetically confirmed childhood vanishing white matter with enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in addition to the more typical intracranial findings. This case expands the limited differential diagnosis of cranial nerve or spinal nerve enhancement in cases of suspected leukodystrophy and may aid in more efficient work-up and earlier diagnosis of vanishing white matter.
Csősz, Éva; Deák, Eszter; Kalló, Gergő; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness among patients with diabetes. The appearance and the severity of the symptoms correlate with the duration of diabetes and poor blood glucose level management. Diabetic retinopathy is also categorized as a chronic low-level inflammatory disease; the high blood glucose level promotes the accumulation of the advanced glycation end products and leads to the stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Examination of protein level alterations in tears using state-of the art proteomics techniques have identified several proteins as possible biomarkers for the different stages of the diabetic retinopathy. Some of the differentially expressed tear proteins have a role in the barrier function of tears linking the diabetic retinopathy with another eye complication of diabetes, namely the diabetic keratopathy resulting in impaired wound healing. Understanding the molecular events leading to the eye complications caused by hyperglycemia may help the identification of novel biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in order to improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness among diabetic patients can develop without any serious symptoms therefore the early detection is crucial. Because of the increasing prevalence there is a high need for improved screening methods able to diagnose DR as soon as possible. The non-invasive collection and the relatively high protein concentration make the tear fluid a good source for biomarker discovery helping the early diagnosis. In this work we have reviewed the administration of advanced proteomics techniques used in tear biomarker studies and the identified biomarkers with potential to improve the already existing screening methods for DR detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Zhiming; Yu, Lan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Yuanxiang; Ren, Yande; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming
The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of mammographic texture analysis in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Digital mammography images were obtained from the Picture Archiving and Communication System at our institute. Texture features of mammographic images were calculated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to identify differences between the benign and malignant group. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of texture features. Significant differences of texture features of histogram, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and run length matrix (RLM) were found between the benign and malignant breast group (P < .05). The area under the ROC (AUROC) of histogram, GLCM, and RLM were 0.800, 0.787, and 0.761, with no differences between them (P > .05). The AUROCs of imaging-based diagnosis, texture analysis, and imaging-based diagnosis combined with texture analysis were 0.873, 0.863, and 0.961, respectively. When imaging-based diagnosis was combined with texture analysis, the AUROC was higher than that of imaging-based diagnosis or texture analysis (P < .05). Mammographic texture analysis is a reliable technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, the combination of imaging-based diagnosis and texture analysis can significantly improve diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Moric, Mario; Sporer, Scott M; Berger, Richard A; Della Valle, Craig J
Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be difficult in the early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty (THA) because normal cues from the physical examination often are unreliable, and serological markers commonly used for diagnosis are elevated from the recent surgery. The purposes of this study were to determine the optimal cutoff values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count, and differential for diagnosing PJI in the early postoperative period after primary THA. We reviewed 6033 consecutive primary THAs and identified 73 patients (1.2%) who underwent reoperation for any reason within the first 6 weeks postoperatively. Thirty-six of these patients were infected according to modified Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Mean values for the diagnostic tests were compared between groups and receiver operating characteristic curves generated along with an area under the curve (AUC) to determine test performance and optimal cutoff values to diagnose infection. The best test for the diagnosis of PJI was the synovial fluid WBC count (AUC = 98%; optimal cutoff value 12,800 cells/μL) followed by the CRP (AUC = 93%; optimal cutoff value 93 mg/L), and synovial fluid differential (AUC = 91%; optimal cutoff value 89% PMN). The mean ESR (infected = 69 mm/hr, not infected = 46 mm/hr), CRP (infected = 192 mg/L, not infected = 30 mg/L), synovial fluid WBC count (infected = 84,954 cells/μL, not infected = 2391 cells/μL), and differential (infected = 91% polymorphonuclear cells [PMN], not infected = 63% PMN) all were significantly higher in the infected group. Optimal cutoff values for the diagnosis of PJI in the acute postoperative period were higher than those traditionally used for the diagnosis of chronic PJI. The serum CRP is an excellent screening test, whereas the synovial fluid WBC count is more specific.
Mickiewicz, Beata; Thompson, Graham C; Blackwood, Jaime; Jenne, Craig N; Winston, Brent W; Vogel, Hans J; Joffe, Ari R
The first steps in goal-directed therapy for sepsis are early diagnosis followed by appropriate triage. These steps are usually left to the physician's judgment, as there is no accepted biomarker available. We aimed to determine biomarker phenotypes that differentiate children with sepsis who require intensive care from those who do not. We conducted a prospective, observational nested cohort study at two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and one pediatric emergency department (ED). Children ages 2-17 years presenting to the PICU or ED with sepsis or presenting for procedural sedation to the ED were enrolled. We used the judgment of regional pediatric ED and PICU attending physicians as the standard to determine triage location (PICU or ED). We performed metabolic and inflammatory protein mediator profiling with serum and plasma samples, respectively, collected upon presentation, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Ninety-four PICU sepsis, 81 ED sepsis, and 63 ED control patients were included. Metabolomic profiling revealed clear separation of groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.89, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.96 (standard deviation [SD] 0.01), and predictive ability (Q(2)) of 0.60. Protein mediator profiling also showed clear separation of the groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.78 and AUROC of 0.88 (SD 0.03). Combining metabolomic and protein mediator profiling improved the model (Q(2) =0.62), differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.87 and AUROC of 0.95 (SD 0.01). Separation of PICU sepsis or ED sepsis from ED controls was even more accurate. Prespecified age subgroups (2-5 years old and 6-17 years old) improved model accuracy minimally. Seventeen metabolites or protein mediators accounted for separation of PICU sepsis and ED sepsis with 95% confidence. In children ages 2-17 years, combining metabolomic and
Guan, Qiongfeng; Zhang, Lisan; Hong, Wenke; Yang, Yi; Chen, Zhaoying; Lu, Peilin; Zhang, Dan; Hu, Xingyue
This study assesses the value of the video head impulse test (vHIT) for early diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) among acute vertigo. Thirty-three cases of vestibular neuritis (VN), 96 patients with other acute vertigo (AV), and 50 cases of normal controls used vHIT to quantitatively test a pair of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflection (VOR) gains, two pairs of vertical VOR gains, and the corresponding three pairs of VOR gain asymmetry. The peculiarity of VOR gains in VN and the differences between VN and other AV, normal controls by vHIT, were collected and analyzed. There were statistically significant differences in the three pairs of VOR gains asymmetry between VN and other AV, and normal controls (P<0.01). The sensitivity was 87.9% and specificity was 94.3% in differentiating VN from normal and other acute vertigo by vHIT. This study shows vHIT has advantages in the diagnosis of VN in acute vertigo with good sensitivity and specificity and indicates a widespread clinical application.
Warren, Paul H.
Our studies are highly interdisciplinary, but are focused on the processes and products of early planetary and asteroidal differentiation, especially the genesis of the ancient lunar crust. The compositional diversity that we explore is the residue of process diversity, which has strong relevance for comparative planetology. Most of the accessible lunar crust consists of materials hybridized by impact-mixing. Our lunar research concentrates on the rare pristine (unmixed) samples that reflect the original genetic diversity of the early crust. Among HED basalts (eucrites and clasts in howardites), we distinguish as pristine the small minority that escaped the pervasive thermal metamorphism of the parent asteroid's crust. We have found a correlation between metamorphically pristine HED basalts and the similarly small minority of compositionally evolved "Stannern trend" samples, which are enriched in incompatible elements and titanium compared to main group eucrites, and yet have relatively high mg ratios. Other topics under investigation included: lunar and SNC (martian?) meteorites; igneous meteorites in general; impact breccias, especially metal-rich Apollo samples and polymict eucrites; siderophile compositions of the lunar and martian mantles; and planetary bulk compositions and origins.
Bourdon, Bernard; Touboul, Mathieu; Caro, Guillaume; Kleine, Thorsten
We examine the implications of new 182W and 142Nd data for Mars and the Moon for the early evolution of the Earth. The similarity of 182W in the terrestrial and lunar mantles and their apparently differing Hf/W ratios indicate that the Moon-forming giant impact most probably took place more than 60Ma after the formation of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (4.568Gyr). This is not inconsistent with the apparent U-Pb age of the Earth. The new 142Nd data for Martian meteorites show that Mars probably has a super-chondritic Sm/Nd that could coincide with that of the Earth and the Moon. If this is interpreted by an early mantle differentiation event, this requires a buried enriched reservoir for the three objects. This is highly unlikely. For the Earth, we show, based on new mass-balance calculations for Nd isotopes, that the presence of a hidden reservoir is difficult to reconcile with the combined 142Nd-143Nd systematics of the Earth's mantle. We argue that a likely possibility is that the missing component was lost during or prior to accretion. Furthermore, the 142Nd data for the Moon that were used to argue for the solidification of the magma ocean at ca 200Myr are reinterpreted. Cumulate overturn, magma mixing and melting following lunar magma ocean crystallization at 50-100Myr could have yielded the 200Myr model age.
Oliveira, Lorena Maria Lima de; Souza, Marcos Vilela de; Guedes, Antonio Carlos Martins; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi
Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH) is the main cutaneous marker of HTLV-1 infection. This disease occurs primarily in children and should be differentiated from other eczemas, especially from atopic dermatitis. The largest series of IDH are from Jamaica and Brazil. There are an estimated 15 to 20 million infected people in the world, and Brazil is one of the endemic regions. Studies suggest that IDH in children may be a marker for the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM / TSP) in adulthood.
Mukherji, R N; Moss, P D
Attention is drawn to the fact that in a number of types of short-limbed dwarfism a precise diagnosis can be made in the neonatal period. Examples are given and the prognostic and genetic implications are discussed. It is important to be able to advise parents of the likely outlook for the infant and of the genetic implication. Early diagnosis is therefore not merely an academic exercise.
Overton, Terry; Fielding, Cheryl; Alba, Roman
This study examines the decision-making process used for differential diagnosis of a sample of Hispanic children referred for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Of the sample of 28 children, 18 were diagnosed with ASDs. Of the 10 children who were not diagnosed with ASDs, 80% were found to have multiple diagnostic labels or comorbidities.…
Basilakos, Alexandra; Yourganov, Grigori; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Fogerty, Daniel; Rorden, Chris; Feenaughty, Lynda; Fridriksson, Julius
Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a consequence of stroke that frequently co-occurs with aphasia. Its study is limited by difficulties with its perceptual evaluation and dissociation from co-occurring impairments. This study examined the classification accuracy of several acoustic measures for the differential diagnosis of AOS in a sample of…
Alexander, Kathleen M; Olsen, Janette; Seiger, Cindy; Peterson, Teri S
Student physical therapists are expected to learn and confidently perform technical skills while integrating nontechnical behavioral and cognitive skills in their examinations and interventions. The purpose of this study was to compare the self-confidence of entry-level doctoral student physical therapists during foundational assessment and musculoskeletal differential diagnosis courses and the students' competencies based on skills examinations. Methods using qualitative and quantitative procedures. Student physical therapists (n=27) participated in a basic assessment course followed by a musculoskeletal differential diagnosis course. The students completed confidence surveys prior to skills examinations in both courses. A random sample of students participated in focus groups, led by a researcher outside the physical therapy department. Student confidence did not correlate with competency scores. At the end of the basic clinical assessment course and the beginning of the differential diagnosis course, students' confidence was significantly below baseline. However, by the end of the differential diagnosis course, student confidence had returned to original baseline levels. Over three semesters, the students lost confidence and then regained confidence in their abilities. Additional experience and practice influenced perceived confidence. However, increased competence may have been associated with poor self-appraisal skills instead of increased competency.
Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Wen-Chung
The assessment of differential item functioning (DIF) is routinely conducted to ensure test fairness and validity. Although many DIF assessment methods have been developed in the context of classical test theory and item response theory, they are not applicable for cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), as the underlying latent attributes of CDMs are…
Lleshi, V; Le Goff-Cubilier, V; Budry, P; Bryois, C
In every day practice, it is difficult, sometimes impossible, and always ethically delicate to determine the differential diagnosis between: disorders of a somatic nature, simulation and factitious disorders, as much for the psychiatrist as for the general practitioner in the front line. Our aim is to lead a reflection on this controversial theme on the basis of a clinical illustration.
Mentis, A-F A; Kyprianou, M A; Xirogianni, A; Kesanopoulos, K; Tzanakaki, G
The differential diagnosis of acute community-acquired meningitis is of paramount importance in both therapeutic and healthcare-related economic terms. Despite the routinely used markers, novel, easily calculated, and rapidly available biomarkers are needed particularly in resource-poor settings. A promising, exponentially studied inflammatory marker is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), albeit not assessed in meningitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the NLR in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. Data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood leukocyte parameters from more than 4,000 patients diagnosed with either bacterial or viral meningitis in Greece during the period 2006-2013 were retrospectively examined. The diagnostic accuracy of the NLR and neutrophil counts in CSF and blood were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. The discrimination ability of both the NLR and neutrophil counts was significantly higher in CSF than in blood. The optimal cutoff values of the NLR and neutrophil counts were 2 in CSF vs 8 in blood, and 287 cells in CSF vs 12,100 cells in blood, respectively. For these values, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and odds ratio were statistically significantly higher in CSF than blood for both markers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the CSF NLR carries independent and additive information to neutrophil counts in the differential diagnosis of acute meningitis. This study is the first one to assess NLR in acute meningitis, providing promising results for its differential diagnosis.
Matson, Johnny L.; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Matson, Michael L.
The development of standardized tests to assess autism, particularly in young children, is a topic of considerable interest in the research community. Recent years have seen an exponential growth in scales for differential diagnosis. Particular emphasis has been placed on defining and better delineating the symptoms of the disorder relative to…
Puchtel, I. S.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Touboul, M.; Horan, M. F.; Walker, R. J.
Geochmical signatures generated in the manle as a result of radioactive decay of short- and long-lived nuclides can be used to constrain the timing of formation and the nature of now mostly vanished early terrestrial reservoirs. The 3.55 Ga komatiites from the Schapenburg Greenstone Remnant (SGR) located in the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa have a unique combination of trace element abundances and isotopic compositions that place strong constraints on the origin of these reservoirs. The SGR komatiites define a Re-Os isochron with an age of 3550±87 Ma and an initial γ187Os = +3.7±0.2 (2SD). The absolute HSE abundances in the mantle source of the SGR komatiite system are estimated to be only 29±5% of those in the present-day bulk silicate Earth (BSE) estimates. The SGR komatiites show coupled depletion, relative to the modern mantle, in 142Nd and 182W (μ142Nd = -5.0±2.8, μ182W = -8.4±4.5), the decay products of the short-lived 146Sm and 182Hf nuclides, respectively, indicating derivation from a mantle domain that was enriched in incompatible elements 30 Ma after Solar System formation. Early Hadean contributors to this mantle domain could include high-pressure fractionates from a primordial magma ocean. By contrast, the long-lived Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf isotope systems (ɛ143Nd = +2.4±0.1, ɛ176Hf = +5.7±0.3) indicate that the mantle domain that the SGR komatiites were ultimately derived from underwent additional processing after the early Hadean, including melt depletion at lower pressures. The preservation of early-formed 182W and 142Nd anomalies in the mantle until at least 3.55 Ga indicates that the products of early planetary differentiation survived both later planetary accretion and convective mantle mixing during the Hadean. This study lends further support to the notion that variable late accretion, by itself, cannot account for all of the observed W isotope and absolute and relative HSE abundance variations in the Archean mantle recorded by
Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut
Distinction between Crohn’s disease of the colon-rectum and ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) type unclassified can be of pivotal importance for a tailored clinical management, as each entity often involves specific therapeutic strategies and prognosis. Nonetheless, no gold standard is available and the uncertainty of diagnosis may frequently lead to misclassification or repeated examinations. Hence, we have performed a literature search to address the problem of differential diagnosis in IBD colitis, revised current and emerging diagnostic tools and refined disease classification strategies. Nowadays, the differential diagnosis is an untangled issue, and the proper diagnosis cannot be reached in up to 10% of patients presenting with IBD colitis. This topic is receiving emerging attention, as medical therapies, surgical approaches and leading prognostic outcomes require more and more disease-specific strategies in IBD patients. The optimization of standard diagnostic approaches based on clinical features, biomarkers, radiology, endoscopy and histopathology appears to provide only marginal benefits. Conversely, emerging diagnostic techniques in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology, genetics, epigenetics, metabolomics and proteomics have already shown promising results. Novel advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and biomarkers can shed new light for the differential diagnosis of IBD, better reflecting diverse disease behaviors based on specific pathogenic pathways. PMID:25574078
Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S.
The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research. PMID:21713313
Shankaracharya; Odedra, Devang; Samanta, Subir; Vidyarthi, Ambarish S
The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research.
Kuźbicki, Łukasz; Lange, Dariusz; Strączyńska-Niemiec, Anita; Chwirot, Barbara W
Early cutaneous melanomas may present a substantial diagnostic challenge. We have already reported that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) may be useful for differentiating between cutaneous melanomas and naevi. The purpose of this study was to examine the value of COX-2 in a challenging task of differential diagnosis of early melanomas and melanocytic naevi considered by histopathologists as morphologically difficult to unequivocally diagnose as benign lesions. The material for the study comprised formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of 46 naevi (including 27 cases of dysplastic, Spitz and Reed naevi) and 30 early human cutaneous melanomas. The expression of COX-2 was detected immunohistochemically. Melanomas expressed COX-2 significantly more strongly compared with naevi. The test, on the basis of determination of the percentage fractions of COX-2-positive cells, allows for differentiation of early skin melanomas and naevi with high sensitivity and specificity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the test results yielded areas under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC)=0.946±0.030 for central regions and AUC=0.941±0.031 for the peripheries of the lesions. The performance of the test in differentiating between melanomas and the naevi group comprising dysplastic, Spitz and Reed naevi was also good, with AUC=0.933±0.034 and 0.923±0.037 for the central and the border regions of the lesions, respectively. Using a more complex diagnostic algorithm also accounting for the staining intensity did not result in an improvement in the resolving power of the assay. A diagnostic algorithm using differences in the percentage fractions of cells expressing COX-2 may serve as a useful tool in aiding the differential diagnosis of 'histopathologically difficult' benign melanocytic skin lesions and early melanomas.
Lawler, D F; Rubin, D A; Evans, R H; Hildebolt, C F; Smith, K E; Widga, C; Martin, T J; Siegel, M; Sackman, J E; Smith, G K; Patel, T K
A proximal humeral articular surface from an ancient domestic dog deliberate burial was examined during survey of small mammal bones from a prehistoric early Late Woodland archeological site. An unusual lesion on the caudolateral articular surface prompted micro-computed tomography to define detailed structure. Results indicate cortical or immature woven bone arising subchondrally, replacing normal trabeculae, extending through a breach in the cortical surface, and having sharp transition with surrounding normal bone. Organized bone within the lesion indicates that the dog lived for months-to-years following insult. Differential diagnoses initially included: sharp penetrating trauma; intrinsic or extrinsic blunt fracturing force; osteochondrosis or complication of an osteochondral lesion; unusual osteoarthritis; and neoplasia. Computed tomography ruled out normal or unusual osteoarthritis, and neoplasia. The nature and small size of the lesion, relatively small size of the dog, and lack of evidence for complicating infection, suggest against sharp penetrating trauma as a sole cause. The most plausible differential diagnoses include: uncommon fracture-producing force in a companion animal, and blunt intrinsic or extrinsic force causing fracture at a weak point, such as an early osteochondral lesion, that was obliterated by healing. Combined gross examination, micro-computed tomography, and archeological-anthropological influences facilitated refinement of differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang
Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.
Piccolo, Andrea; Kaus, Boris; White, Richard; Johnson, Tim
Archean geodynamic processes are not well understood, but there is general agreement that the mantle potential temperature was higher than present, and that as a consequence significant amounts of melt were produced both in the mantle and any overlying crust. This has likely resulted in crustal differentiation. An early attempt to model the geodynamic effects of differentiation was made by Johnson et al. (2014), who used numerical modeling to investigate the crust production and recycling in conjunction with representative phase diagrams (based on the inferred chemical composition of the primary melt in accordance with the Archean temperature field). The results of the simulations show that the base of the over-thickened primary basaltic crust becomes gravitational unstable due to the mineral assemblage changes. This instability leads to the dripping of dense material into the mantle, which causes an asthenospheric return flow, local partial melting and new primary crust generation that is rapidly recycled in to mantle. Whereas they gave important insights, the previous simulations were simplified in a number of aspects: 1) the rheology employed was viscous, and both elasticity and pressure-dependent plasticity were not considered; 2) extracted mantle melts were 100% transformed into volcanic rocks, whereas on the present day Earth only about 20-30% are volcanic and the remainder is plutonic; 3) the effect of a free surface was not studied in a systematic manner. In order to better understand how these simplifications affect the geodynamic models, we here present additional simulations to study the effects of each of these parameters. Johnson, T.E., Brown, M., Kaus, B., and VanTongeren, J.A., 2014, Delamination and recycling of Archaean crust caused by gravitational instabilities: Nature Geoscience, v. 7, no. 1, p. 47-52, doi: 10.1038/NGEO2019.
Bostedt, H; Sieme, H; Bartmann, C-P; Handler, J; Sobiraj, A; Wehrend, A
This review describes stepwise the recto-manual and transrectal ultrasonographic evidence of early pregnancy detection in the horse. The morphological and physiological conditions in the individual phases of early pregnancy are presented in correlation to the potential clinical findings. The importance of embryonic and early foetal losses is presented. Communication and documentation of findings are also addressed. The final section is devoted to the evaluation of the examination effort. In this regard, it is emphasized that the gynaecological examination for the evaluation of the pregnancy status represents a service contract.
di Pietro, Massimiliano; Canto, Marcia I; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C
Because the esophagus is easily accessible with endoscopy, early diagnosis and curative treatment of esophageal cancer is possible. However, diagnosis is often delayed because symptoms are not specific during early stages of tumor development. The onset of dysphagia is associated with advanced disease, which has a survival at 5 years lower than 15%. Population screening by endoscopy is not cost-effective, but a number of alternative imaging and cell analysis technologies are under investigation. The ideal screening test should be inexpensive, well tolerated, and applicable to primary care. Over the past 10 years, significant progress has been made in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of dysplasia (squamous and Barrett's), and early esophageal cancer using resection and ablation technologies supported by evidence from randomized controlled trials. We review the state-of-the-art technologies for early diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment, which together could reduce the burden of disease. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Huaping; Li, Wenzheng; Yi, Xiaoping; Pei, Yigang; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wenguang; Hou, Jiale; Ghimire, Obin
To study the CT features for solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the abdomen and pelvis and to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Methods: Fourteen patients with SFT were collected in our hospital from January, 2011 to December, 2015. Characteristic of images were analyzed and compared for 10 SFT, which located outside the abdominal organs with extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGIST), leiomyosarcoma, and schwannoma. Results: Necrosis and cystic formation were frequently present in SFT in the abdomen and pelvis. CE-CT showed serpentine vessels along the periphery, while pattern of enhancement was map-like inhomogeneous progressive. Comparing with the EGIST or schwannoma, the difference of CT value in non-contrast and the arterial phase were statistically significant (P<0.05). The numbers of peritumoral circuity vessel were significantly different between SFT and EGIST (χ²=18.27, P<0.008) or between SFT and schwannoma (χ²=19.25, P<0.008). Comparing with the leiomyosarcoma or schwannoma, SFT located outside the abdominal organs. We found that tumor necrosis rate was significantly different between SFT and leiomyoscarcoma (χ²=8.00, P<0.008). Conclusion: SFT in the abdomen and pelvis show certain CT characteristics. The CT value in non-contrast and at the arterial phase, tumor necrosis rate, and serpentine vessels along the periphery were pivotal in differentiating SFT from leiomyosarcoma, EGIST and schwannoma.
1 AD _________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate...DATES COVERED 15 Jul 2015 - 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer...the expression level of deregulated miRNAs in mouse and human PCa tissues as well as serum samples using an advanced nanotechnology -based sensing
1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0118 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...COVERED 30Sep2012 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic
Benaiges, D; Garcia-Retortillo, M; Mas, A; Cañete, N; Broquetas, T; Puigvehi, M; Chillarón, J J; Flores-Le Roux, J A; Sagarra, E; Cabrero, B; Zaffalon, D; Solà, R; Pedro-Botet, J; Carrión, J A
The clinical value of thyrotropin receptor antibodies for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis induced by pegylated interferon-alpha remains unknown. We analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) receiving pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. Retrospective analysis of 274 patients with CHC receiving pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. Interferon-induced thyrotoxicosis was classified according to clinical guidelines as Graves disease, autoimmune and non- autoimmune destructive thyroiditis. 48 (17.5%) patients developed hypothyroidism, 17 (6.2%) thyrotoxicosis (6 non- autoimmune destructive thyroiditis, 8 autoimmune destructive thyroiditis and 3 Graves disease) and 22 "de novo" thyrotropin receptor antibodies (all Graves disease, 2 of the 8 autoimmune destructive thyroiditis and 17 with normal thyroid function). The sensitivity and specificity of thyrotropin receptor antibodies for Graves disease diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis were 100 and 85%, respectively. Patients with destructive thyroiditis developed hypothyroidism in 87.5% of autoimmune cases and in none of those with a non- autoimmune etiology (p<0.001). Thyrotropin receptor antibodies determination cannot replace thyroid scintigraphy for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in CHC patients treated with pegylated interferon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Blasco, Patricia M.; And Others
This article provides an overview of procedures commonly used in prenatal screening and diagnosis including ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. Emphasis is on the role of the early interventionist in supporting families during prenatal diagnosis. (Author/DB)
Hendifar, Andrew E; Marchevsky, Alberto M; Tuli, Richard
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies that arise from neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, most commonly originating from the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Lung NETs can be classified as well differentiated (low-grade typical carcinoids [TCs] and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoids [ACs]) and poorly differentiated (high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma or SCLC). The incidence of these tumors is increasing, but disease awareness remains low among thoracic specialists, who are often involved in the diagnosis and early treatment for these patients. An accurate and timely diagnosis can ensure the implementation of appropriate treatment and have a substantial impact on prognosis. However, lung NET classification and diagnosis, particularly for TCs/ACs, are complicated by several factors, including a variable natural history and nonspecific symptoms. Surgery remains the only curative option for TCs/ACs, but there is a lack of consensus between lung NET management guidelines regarding optimal treatment approaches in the unresectable/metastatic setting on account of the limited availability of high-level clinical evidence. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach to management of lung NETs is required to ensure a consistent and optimal level of care. RADIANT-4 is the first phase III trial involving a large subpopulation of patients with advanced well-differentiated lung NETs to report reductions in the risk for disease progression and death with everolimus over placebo. This led to the recent U.S. approval of everolimus-the first agent approved for advanced lung TCs/ACs. To further improve evidence-based care, additional randomized controlled trials in patients with lung carcinoids are needed. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Persechino, Flavia; De Carvalho, Nathalie; Ciardo, Silvana; De Pace, Barbara; Casari, Alice; Chester, Johanna; Kaleci, Shaniko; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Longo, Caterina; Farnetani, Francesca; Pellacani, Giovanni
Pigmented facial macules are common on sun damage skin. The diagnosis of early stage lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) is challenging. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been proven to increase diagnostic accuracy of facial lesions. A total of 154 pigmented facial macules, retrospectively collected, were evaluated for the presence of already-described RCM features and new parameters depicting aspects of the follicle. Melanocytic nests, roundish pagetoid cells, follicular infiltration, bulgings from the follicles and many bright dendrites and infiltration of the hair follicle (ie, folliculotropism) were found to be indicative of LM/LMM compared to non-melanocytic skin neoplasms (NMSNs), with an overall sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 83%. Concerning NMSNs, solar lentigo and lichen planus-like keratosis resulted better distinguishable from LM/LMM because usually lacking malignant features and presenting characteristic diagnostic parameters, such as epidermal cobblestone pattern and polycyclic papillary contours. On the other hand, distinction of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resulted more difficult, and needing evaluation of hair follicle infiltration and bulging structures, due to the frequent observation of few bright dendrites in the epidermis, but predominantly not infiltrating the hair follicle (estimated specificity for PAK 53%). A detailed evaluation of the components of the folliculotropism may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy. The classification of the type, distribution and amount of cells, and the presence of bulging around the follicles seem to represent important tools for the differentiation between PAK and LM/LMM at RCM analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ortiz-Ruiz, Alejandra; Postigo, María; Gil-Casanova, Sara; Cuadrado, Daniel; Bautista, José M; Rubio, José Miguel; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Linares, María
Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers. 88 volunteers have performed a series of questionnaires over 110 images to differentiate species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi) and parasite staging from thin blood smear images digitalized with a smartphone camera adapted to the ocular of a conventional light microscope. Visual cues evaluated in the surveys include texture and colour, parasite shape and red blood size. On-line volunteers are able to discriminate Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi) and stages in thin-blood smears according to visual cues observed on digitalized images of parasitized red blood cells. Friendly textual descriptions of the visual cues and specialized malaria terminology is key for volunteers learning and efficiency. On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour). While the accuracy of a single on-line expert is far from perfect, a single parasite classification obtained by combining the opinions of multiple on-line volunteers over the same smear, could improve accuracy and reliability of Plasmodium species
Warren, Paul H.
Our studies are highly interdisciplinary, but are focused on the processes and products of early planetary and asteroidal differentiation, especially the genesis of the ancient lunar crust. Most of the accessible lunar crust consists of materials hybridized by impact-mixing. Rare pristine (unmixed) samples reflect the original genetic diversity of the early crust. We studied the relative importance of internally generated melt (including the putative magma ocean) versus large impact melts in early lunar magmatism, through both sample analysis and physical modeling. Other topics under investigation included: lunar and SNC (martian?) meteorites; igneous meteorites in general; impact breccias, especially metal-rich Apollo samples and polymict eucrites; effects of regolith/megaregolith insulation on thermal evolution and geochronology; and planetary bulk compositions and origins. We investigated the theoretical petrology of impact melts, especially those formed in large masses, such as the unejected parts of the melts of the largest lunar and terrestrial impact basins. We developed constraints on several key effects that variations in melting/displacement ratio (a strong function of both crater size and planetary g) have on impact melt petrology. Modeling results indicate that the impact melt-derived rock in the sampled, megaregolith part of the Moon is probably material that was ejected from deeper average levels than the non-impact-melted material (fragmental breccias and unbrecciated pristine rocks). In the largest lunar impacts, most of the impact melt is of mantle origin and avoids ejection from the crater, while most of the crust, and virtually all of the impact-melted crust, in the area of the crater is ejected. We investigated numerous extraordinary meteorites and Apollo rocks, emphasizing pristine rocks, siderophile and volatile trace elements, and the identification of primary partial melts, as opposed to partial cumulates. Apollo 15 sample 15434,28 is an
Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.
Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differential learning (DL) compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from 19 electrodes according to the 10–20 system before and immediately after each 20-min exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes. PMID:27818627
Kim, Yong-In; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Sung, Hye-Jin; Na, Sang-Su; Hwang, Jaesung; Kim, Yongdai; Cho, Je-Yoel
Misdiagnosis of lung cancer remains a serious problem due to the difficulty of distinguishing lung cancer from other respiratory lung diseases. As a result, the development of serum-based differential diagnostic biomarkers is in high demand. In this study, 198 clinical serum samples from non-cancer lung disease and lung cancer patients were analyzed using nLC-MRM-MS for the levels of seven lung cancer biomarker candidates. When the candidates were assessed individually, only SERPINEA4 showed statistically significant changes in the serum levels. The MRM results and clinical information were analyzed using a logistic regression analysis to select model for the best 'meta-marker', or combination of biomarkers for differential diagnosis. Also, under consideration of statistical interaction, variables having low significance as a single factor but statistically influencing on meta-marker model were selected. Using this probabilistic classification, the best meta-marker was determined to be made up of two proteins SERPINA4 and PON1 with age factor. This meta-marker showed an enhanced differential diagnostic capability (AUC=0.915) for distinguishing the two patient groups. Our results suggest that a statistical model can determine optimal meta-markers, which may have better specificity and sensitivity than a single biomarker and thus improve the differential diagnosis of lung cancer and lung disease patients. Diagnosing lung cancer commonly involves the use of radiographic methods. However, an imaging-based diagnosis may fail to differentiate lung cancer from non-cancerous lung disease. In this study, we examined several serum proteins in the sera of 198 lung cancer and non-cancerous lung disease patients by multiple-reaction monitoring. We then used a combination of variables to generate a meta-marker model that is useful as a differential diagnostic biomarker. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira
Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sazonova, V Iu; Fedorova, V E; Danilova, N V
Pretumoral changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN III should be differentiated with regenerative changes during epidermization of endocervicoses. Epidermization is proliferation of undifferentiated reserve cells that differentiate towards the squamous epithelium, by superseding the ectopic endocervical glandular epithelium. This process was called immature squamous metaplasia (ISM). The objective of the investigation was to define the significance of different morphological signs in the differential diagnosis of CIN III and ISM. One hundred and twelve cervical, CIN III, and immature squamous metaplasia biopsies were selected for examination. The selected cervical specimens were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of p16 and CK17 expression. The p16+, CK17- cases were taken as true CIN III and the pl 6-, CK17+ as a regenerative process. The basis for this investigation is the signs included by O.K. Khmelnitsky into an algorithm for the differential diagnosis of epidermizing pseudoerosion and intraepithelial cancer of the cervix uteri. The algorithm was reconsidered to objectify. The investigation established great differences in the number of significant mitoses in the study groups. A clear trend was found for differences in the number of acanthotic strands. A new differential diagnostic algorithm for CIN III and ISM, which included the number of significant mitoses and acanthotic strands and p16 and CK17 expression, was proposed.
Schick, Christoph; Thalhammer, Axel; Balzer, Jörn O; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Vogl, Thomas J
Cervical lymph node enlargement is a common feature of most inflammatory and neoplastic entities of the head and neck. Filariasis can lead to lymphangiectasis resembling lymph node enlargement; however, this is a rare differential diagnosis in European patients. As ethnic minorities are increasing throughout Europe and personal mobility, e.g. during holidays, is increasing, such rare differential diagnoses have to be taken into consideration. We present the case of an Iraqi patient referred to as for a suspected cystic lymph node mass that was verified histologically by open MRI biopsy and proved to be a cystic manifestation of filariasis.
Makarova, N E; Vinnichenko, Yu A
The article presents the results of spectrophotometric tooth enamel scanning for differential diagnosis of focal enamel demineralization and fluorosis. Research was conducted in vivo on teeth affected by these diseases. VITA EasyShade spectrophotometer measurements were made on the affected area and on the visually healthy part of enamel. The lightness appeared as the only one differential significant optical characteristics of tooth enamel. Lightness metrics were higher in the case of initial caries than on the healthy part of enamel when these metrics were lower in the case of fluorosis than on the healthy part of enamel.
Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Riva, Elena; Toledano, Rafael; Campo, Pablo; Esteban, Jesús; Barrio, Antonio Del; Franch, Oriol
The validity of neuropsychological tests for the differential diagnosis of degenerative dementias may depend on the clinical context. We constructed a series of logistic models taking into account this factor. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and neuropsychological data of 301 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal degeneration (FTLD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Nine models were constructed taking into account the diagnostic question (eg, AD vs DLB) and subpopulation (incident vs prevalent). The AD versus DLB model for all patients, including memory recovery and phonological fluency, was highly accurate (area under the curve = 0.919, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 80%). The results were comparable in incident and prevalent cases. The FTLD versus AD and DLB versus FTLD models were both inaccurate. The models constructed from basic neuropsychological variables allowed an accurate differential diagnosis of AD versus DLB but not of FTLD versus AD or DLB. © The Author(s) 2014.
Petzschner, Frederike H; Weber, Lilian A E; Gard, Tim; Stephan, Klaas E
This article outlines how a core concept from theories of homeostasis and cybernetics, the inference-control loop, may be used to guide differential diagnosis in computational psychiatry and computational psychosomatics. In particular, we discuss 1) how conceptualizing perception and action as inference-control loops yields a joint computational perspective on brain-world and brain-body interactions and 2) how the concrete formulation of this loop as a hierarchical Bayesian model points to key computational quantities that inform a taxonomy of potential disease mechanisms. We consider the utility of this perspective for differential diagnosis in concrete clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varicous veins and postthrombotic syndrome can make typical reversible or irreversible skin changes on the lower extremities if no treatment is initiated. The typical clinical signs should be recognised in an early stage and possible differential diagnoses have to be excluded.
Rodrigues-Antunes, S; Borges, B N
Gastric cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Due to this, efforts are being made to improve the diagnosis of this neoplasm and the search for molecular markers that may be involved in its genesis. Within this perspective, the mitochondrial DNA is considered as a potential candidate, since it has several well documented changes and is readily accessible. However, numerous alterations have been reported in mtDNA, not facilitating the visualization of which alterations and molecular markers are truly involved with gastric carcinogenesis. This review presents a compilation of the main known changes relating mtDNA to gastric cancer and their clinical significance.
Sánchez-Castellanos, M E; Sandoval-Tress, C; Hernández-Torres, M
The omphalomesenteric duct is an embryonic structure which communicates the vitelline duct with the midgut. It normally disappears between the fifth and ninth weeks of intrauterine life. Anomalies related with the total or partial absence of this involution are show in 2 % of the population. We report a case of persistence of the omphalomesenteric duct and review the bibliography to establish the differences between this anomaly and umbilical granuloma, which is the main differential diagnosis.
Barthes, C; Mezan De Malartic, C; Baumann, C; Rousseaux, H; Morel, O
Ultrasound examination plays a central role in case of suspected non-viable pregnancy. A wrong diagnosis might have major consequence in terms of inadequate care, especially in cases of false positive non-viable pregnancy diagnosis. Ultrasound criterions are today well defined. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of a novel image-quoting method of first-trimester non-viable pregnancy. Thirty images of non-viable pregnancy were twice evaluated with blinded proofreading. Two quotations were evaluated: the first for the images of gestational sacs without embryo (gestational sac score), the second for the images with embryo (embryo score). The ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) was>0.75 for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility both for the quotations of the gestational sac and for the embryo with a low variability. Reproducibility of quoting crown rump length measurements <5mm was low at first proofreading but after adjustment of the quoting modalities, ICC was also>0.75. The inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of our quoting methods is high with a low variability. They might be a useful tool in current practice in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Devoy, Susan; Simpson, Ellen Elizabeth Anne
To identify factors that may increase intentions to seek help for an early dementia diagnosis. Early dementia diagnosis in Ireland is low, reducing the opportunity for intervention, which can delay progression, reduce psychological distress and increase social supports. Using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and a mixed methods approach, three focus groups were conducted (N = 22) to illicit attitudes and beliefs about help seeking for an early dementia diagnosis. The findings informed the development of the Help Seeking Intentions for Early Dementia Diagnosis (HSIEDD) questionnaire which was piloted and then administered to a sample of community dwelling adults from Dublin and Kildare (N = 95). Content analysis revealed participants held knowledge of the symptoms of dementia but not about available interventions. Facilitators of help seeking were family, friends and peers alongside well informed health professionals. Barriers to seeking help were a lack of knowledge, fear, loss, stigma and inaccessible services. The quantitative findings suggest the TPB constructs account for almost 28% of the variance in intentions to seek help for an early diagnosis of dementia, after controlling for sociodemographic variables and knowledge of dementia. In the final step of the regression analysis, the main predictors of help seeking were knowledge of dementia and subjective norm, accounting for 6% and 8% of the variance, respectively. Future interventions should aim to increase awareness of the support available to those experiencing early memory problems, and should highlight the supportive role that family, friends, peers and health professionals could provide.
Pristavu, Anda Ioana; Furnica, Cristina; Ifrim, Mona Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan Mihai
Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of lumbar hernia with associated abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs, and trunk muscles. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, all of which were diagnosed after birth. We present a case of LCVS diagnosed early in the second trimester of pregnancy using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. In our case, the associated anomalies were: multiple costovertebral anomalies, lumbar hernia, anal imperforation, left hand supernumerary digit, and clubfoot.
Chen, Zehong; Shi, Huijuan; Peng, Jianjun; Yuan, Yujie; Chen, Jianhui; Song, Wu
Defined as a family of scarce mesenchymal neoplasm which distinctively co-express melanocytic markers and muscle markers, perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) have been reported almost everybody site. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors-not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS) arising in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are still restricted into sporadic case reports. Herein we present a case of GI PEComas-NOS which occurs in the duodenum of a 27-year-old male. Our initial diagnosis tended to gastrointestinal stromal tumor or smooth muscle tumor till the correct diagnosis of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) was established by postoperative pathological examination. We also make a literature review of GI PEComas-NOS and highlight the challenge it brings to the differential diagnosis.
Chen, Zehong; Shi, Huijuan; Peng, Jianjun; Yuan, Yujie; Chen, Jianhui; Song, Wu
Defined as a family of scarce mesenchymal neoplasm which distinctively co-express melanocytic markers and muscle markers, perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) have been reported almost everybody site. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors-not otherwise specified (PEComas-NOS) arising in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are still restricted into sporadic case reports. Herein we present a case of GI PEComas-NOS which occurs in the duodenum of a 27-year-old male. Our initial diagnosis tended to gastrointestinal stromal tumor or smooth muscle tumor till the correct diagnosis of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) was established by postoperative pathological examination. We also make a literature review of GI PEComas-NOS and highlight the challenge it brings to the differential diagnosis. PMID:26339433
Teixeira, Alexandra; Vieira, Claúdia; Sousa, Nuno; Begonha, Rosa; Afonso, Mariana; Amaro, Teresina; Maurício, Joaquina
Serviço de Oncologia Médica. Instituto Português de Oncologia Francisco Gentil. Porto. Portugal. A 27-year-old man, smoker, presented with three months history of fever. A left pulmonary mass inseparable from the heart was identified and serum alpha-fetoprotein was 4160 ng/ml. The morphologic aspects and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy specimen, in conjunction with the clinical findings were compatible with a diagnosis of pulmonary blastoma with germ cell differentiation. The tumour was considered unresectable. The patient was submitted to two cycles of primary chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Despite a reduction in serum alpha-fetoprotein, the tumor did not regress. Second line chemotherapy (with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin) was instituted, but progressive disease was identified after 2 cycles. Six months after the diagnosis cerebral metastases were found and the patient died. This case illustrates a rare situation of difficult diagnosis and treatment.
Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Marquez-Gonzalez, Horacio; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima
To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases.
Jimenez-Baez, Maria Valeria; Barcenas-Contreras, Rodolfo; Morales Montoya, Carlos; Espinosa-Garcia, Laura Fatima
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a strategy for early detection of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) in Quintana Roo, México. Methods: Study transversal, observational, prospective, analytical, eight primary care units from Mexican Social Security Institute in the northern delegation of the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico were included. A program for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adult 376,169 was designed. Were diagnosed 683 cases of type 2 diabetes, in 105 patients randomized was conducted to direct ophthalmoscopy were subjected to a secondary hospital were assigned. Will determine the degree of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema was performed. Results: In population were 55.2% female, mean age 48+11.1 years, 23.8 % had some degree of DR, 28.0% with mild non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy 48.0 % moderate 16.0% and severe and 8.0% showed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Those over age 30 are 2.8 times more risk of developing DR, OR= 2.8; 95%CI: 0.42-18.0, and OR= 1.7; 95%CI: 1.02-2.95 women. Conclusions: The implementation of programs aimed at the early detection of debilitating conditions such as diabetic retinopathy health impact beneficiaries, effective links between primary care systems and provide second level positive health outcomes for patient diseases. PMID:26019380
Zhang, Hui-Ping; Bai, Min; Gu, Ji-Ying; He, Ying-Qian; Qiao, Xiao-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang
AIM To describe contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and evaluate differential diagnosis value of CEUS and conventional ultrasound for patients with benign and malignant gallbladder lesions. METHODS This study included 105 gallbladder lesions. Before surgical resection and pathological examination, conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed to examine for lesions. Then, all the lesions were diagnosed as (1) benign, (2) probably benign, (3) probably malignant or (4) malignant using both conventional ultrasound and CEUS. The CEUS features of these gallbladder lesions were analyzed and diagnostic efficiency between conventional ultrasound and CEUS was compared. RESULTS There were total 17 cases of gallbladder cancer and 88 cases of benign lesion. Some gallbladder lesions had typical characteristics on CEUS (e.g., gallbladder adenomyomatosis had typical characteristics of small nonenhanced areas on CEUS). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CEUS were 94.1%, 95.5%, 80.0%, 98.8% and 95.2%, respectively. These were significantly higher than conventional ultrasound (82.4%, 89.8%, 60.9%, 96.3% and 88.6%, respectively). CEUS had an accuracy of 100% for gallbladder sludge and CEUS helped in differential diagnosis among gallbladder polyps, gallbladder adenoma and gallbladder cancer. CONCLUSION CEUS may provide more useful information and improve the diagnosis efficiency for the diagnosis of gallbladder lesions than conventional ultrasound. PMID:29456413
The material from 667 lymph nodes, originally suspected of toxoplasmosis, was histologically re-examined, to evaluate criteria for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. The results showed that at least 80% of benign lymph node enlargements containing small groups of epithelioid cells were associated with high titres of Toxoplasma antibodies. Furthermore, 85--95% of the lymph nodes in association with high Toxoplasma antibodies showed the typical histological appearances of toxoplasmosis. The histological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is thus both fairly specific and sensitive. Other lymph node lesions with small groups of epithelioid cells must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis usually have a predominance of distinct large epithelioid cell granulomata. Lymph nodes with sinus histiocytosis showing the formation of small groups of epithelioid cells, do not demonstrate prominent hyperplasia and include sparse germinal centres and were not associated with toxoplasmosis. Lymph nodes with disturbed general structure and small groups of epithelioid cells must be carefully assessed because of the significant possibility of malignancy.
Madias, Nicolaos E.
Summary Nongap metabolic acidosis is a common form of both acute and chronic metabolic acidosis. Because derangements in renal acid-base regulation are a common cause of nongap metabolic acidosis, studies to evaluate renal acidification often serve as the mainstay of differential diagnosis. However, in many cases, information obtained from the history and physical examination, evaluation of the electrolyte pattern (to determine if a nongap acidosis alone or a combined nongap and high anion gap metabolic acidosis is present), and examination of the serum potassium concentration (to characterize the disorder as hyperkalemic or hypokalemic in nature) is sufficient to make a presumptive diagnosis without more sophisticated studies. If this information proves insufficient, indirect estimates or direct measurement of urinary NH4+ concentration, measurement of urine pH, and assessment of urinary HCO3− excretion can help in establishing the diagnosis. This review summarizes current information concerning the pathophysiology of this electrolyte pattern and the value and limitations of all of the diagnostic studies available. It also provides a systematic and cost-effective approach to the differential diagnosis of nongap metabolic acidosis. PMID:22403272
Zhao, Guang-Hui; Li, Juan; Blair, David; Li, Xiao-Yan; Elsheikha, Hany M; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Schistosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease caused by blood-dwelling flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Throughout the world, schistosomiasis is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, with close to 800 million people at risk of infection. Precise methods for identification of Schistosoma species and diagnosis of schistosomiasis are crucial for an enhanced understanding of parasite epidemiology that informs effective antiparasitic treatment and preventive measures. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of schistosomiasis has been revolutionized by the advent of new molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction-based methods have been useful in the analysis of genetic variation among Schistosoma spp. Mass spectrometry is now extending the range of biological molecules that can be detected. In this review, we summarize traditional, non-DNA-based diagnostic methods and then describe and discuss the current and developing molecular techniques for the diagnosis, species differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of Schistosoma spp. These exciting techniques provide foundations for further development of more effective and precise approaches to differentiate schistosomes and diagnose schistosomiasis in the clinic, and also have important implication for exploring novel measures to control schistosomiasis in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mukherji, R. N.; Moss, P. D.
Attention is drawn to the fact that in a number of types of short-limbed dwarfism a precise diagnosis can be made in the neonatal period. Examples are given and the prognostic and genetic implications are discussed. It is important to be able to advise parents of the likely outlook for the infant and of the genetic implication. Early diagnosis is therefore not merely an academic exercise. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:859790
Vladescu, Jason C.; Kodak, Tiffany
Although the use of differential reinforcement has been recommended in previous investigations and in early intervention curriculum manuals, few studies have evaluated the best method for providing differential reinforcement to maximize independent responding. This paper reviews previous research on the effectiveness of differential reinforcement…
Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany
Although the use of differential reinforcement has been recommended in previous investigations and in early intervention curriculum manuals, few studies have evaluated the best method for providing differential reinforcement to maximize independent responding. This paper reviews previous research on the effectiveness of differential reinforcement as treatment and describes important areas of future research.
Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany
Although the use of differential reinforcement has been recommended in previous investigations and in early intervention curriculum manuals, few studies have evaluated the best method for providing differential reinforcement to maximize independent responding. This paper reviews previous research on the effectiveness of differential reinforcement as treatment and describes important areas of future research. PMID:21119913
Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie
Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.
Hislop, T G; Coldman, A J; Skippen, D H
Shortly after diagnosis of breast cancer 416 patients were interviewed about their use of screening procedures and the method of tumour detection. Although 72% reported that they performed breast self-examination (BSE), only 12% actually inspected and palpated their breasts monthly. BSE was not significantly associated with tumour size or involvement of the lymph nodes; however, thorough inspection was associated with smaller tumours, and careful palpation with the absence of palpable nodes. Of those who no longer or never had examined their breasts 40% reported having annual breast examinations by their physician and had significantly smaller tumours than did the others. Most of the women (86%) reported having detected their own tumours, and BSE did not significantly increase the likelihood of self-detection. The frequency of use of screening procedures was similar in a sample of women without breast cancer. PMID:6498686
Kohler, J; Thoden, U
pain becomes more radicular in character, without being limited to defined dermatomic areas or peripheral nerves. The intense, burning pain is characterized by exacerbation during the night. Peripherally and centrally acting analgesics have only minor effects. Often neurological deficits are still absent at this time. Erythema migrans with radicular pain in the region of the dermatological lesion was observed in 2 patients. This is an early manifestation of MPN. After MPN and/or Lyme arthritis a sympathetic reflex dystrophy (SRD) developed in 2 patients. In a further patient SRD was observed right at the beginning of the illness, immediately before MPN. There is a close clinical similarity between SRD and the acute stage of ACA. Therefore, borreliosis can be assumed to produce a painful skin dystrophy like SRD or ACA by direct injury to the sympathetic nerves even in the early clinical stage of the infection. The main conditions to be considered in the differential diagnosis are polymyalgia rheumatica; lumbar disk herniation; inflammatory radiculopathies of other origin (e.g. herpes zoster); painful neuropathies, including the diabetic thoraco-abdominal form; internal disorders of chest and abdomen with referred pain; lymphocytic meningitis of other origin, encephalomyelitis; and sympathetic reflex dystrophy. High-dose penicillin G i.v. is a potent analgesic in all patients with tick-borne neuroborreliosis.
Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza
Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.
Chung, Jin; Lee, Won Kyung; Cha, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Jeoung Hyun; Ryu, Young Hoon
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for the differential diagnosis of breast papillary lesions. Methods This study was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study, with a waiver of informed consent. A total of 79 breast papillary lesions in 71 consecutive women underwent ultrasound and SWE prior to biopsy. Ultrasound features and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded for each lesion. All lesions were surgically excised or excised using an ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted method. The diagnostic performances of the quantitative SWE parameters were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Of the 79 lesions, six (7.6%) were malignant and 12 (15.2%) were atypical. Orientation, margin, and the final BI-RADS ultrasound assessments were significantly different for the papillary lesions (p < 0.05). All qualitative SWE parameters were significantly different (p < 0.05). The AUC values for SWE parameters of benign and atypical or malignant papillary lesions ranged from 0.707 to 0.757 (sensitivity, 44.4–94.4%; specificity, 42.6–88.5%). The maximum elasticity and the mean elasticity showed the highest AUC (0.757) to differentiate papillary lesions. Conclusion SWE provides additional information for the differential diagnosis of breast papillary lesions. Quantitative SWE features were helpful to differentiate breast papillary lesions. PMID:27893857
Nakamura, Megumi; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Tomoyuki; Baba, Kenji; Shimoda, Tetsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified into three receptor interference subgroups, A, B and C. In this study, to differentiate FeLV subgroups, we developed a simple assay system using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We prepared gfp pseudotype viruses, named gfp(FeLV-A), gfp(FeLV-B) and gfp(FeLV-C) harboring envelopes of FeLV-A, B and C, respectively. The gfp pseudotype viruses completely interfered with the same subgroups of FeLV reference strains on FEA cells (a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line). We also confirmed that the pseudotype viruses could differentiate FeLV subgroups in field isolates. The assay will be useful for differential diagnosis of FeLV subgroups in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the future.
Townsend, Anne; Backman, Catherine L; Adam, Paul; Li, Linda C
As interest in gender and health grows, the notion that women are more likely than men to consult doctors is increasingly undermined as more complex understandings of help seeking and gender emerge. While men's reluctance to seek help is associated with practices of masculinities, there has been less consideration of women's help-seeking practices. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that predominantly affects women and requires prompt treatment but considerable patient-based delays persist along the care pathway. This paper examines women's accounts of help seeking in early RA from symptom onset to diagnosis. We conducted in-depth interviews with 37 women with RA <12 months in Canada. Analysis was based on a constant comparison, thematic approach informed by narrative analysis. The women's accounts featured masculine practices associated with men's help-seeking. The women presented such behaviours as relational, e.g. rooted in family socialisation and a determination to maintain roles and 'normal' life. Our findings raise questions about how far notions of gender operate to differentiate men and women's help seeking and may indicate more similarities than differences. Recognising this has implications for policy and practice initiatives for both men and women. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Weiler, Stefan; Bellmann, Romuald; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A
Rare cases of high anion gap metabolic acidosis during long-term paracetamol administration in therapeutic doses with causative 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid} accumulation have been reported. Other concomitant risk factors such as malnutrition, alcohol abuse, renal or hepatic dysfunction, comedication with flue/oxacillin, vigabatrin, netilmicin or sepsis have been described. The etiology seems to be a drug-induced reversible inhibition of glutathione synthetase or 5-oxoprolinase leading to elevated serum and urine levels of 5-oxoproline. Other more frequent differential diagnoses, such as intoxications, ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis should be excluded. Causative substances should be stopped. 5-oxoproline concentrations in urine can be quantified to establish the diagnosis. Adverse drug reactions, which are not listed or insufficiently described in the respective Swiss product information, should be reported to the regional pharmacovigilance centres for early signal detection. 5-0 xoproline acidosis will be integrated as a potential adverse drug reaction in the Swiss product information for paracetamol.
Zeppieri, Marco; Brusini, Paolo; Parisi, Lucia; Johnson, Chris A; Sampaolesi, Roberto; Salvetat, Maria Letizia
To assess the ability of Pulsar perimetry (Pulsar) in detecting early glaucomatous visual field (VF) damage in comparison with Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT), Scanning Laser Polarimetry (SLP, GDx VCC), and Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT). Prospective observational cross-sectional case study. This multicenter study included: 87 ocular hypertensives (OHT); 67 glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) patients; 75 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients; and 90 normals. All patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) HFA 30-2, Pulsar T30W, FDT N-30, HRT II, and GDx VCC. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (AROCs) for discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes and agreement among instruments were determined. The best parameters for Pulsar, FDT, HRT, and GDx were, respectively: loss variance square root; no. of areas with P< 5%; Cup-Shape-Measure; and Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI). In detecting POAG eyes, Pulsar (AROC, 0.90) appeared comparable with FDT (0.89) and significantly better than HRT (0.82) and GDx (0.79). For GON, Pulsar ability (0.74) was higher than GDx (0.69) and lower than FDT (0.80) and HRT (0.83). The agreement among instruments ranged from 0.12 to 0.56. Pulsar test duration was significantly shorter than SAP and FDT (P< .001). Pulsar T30W test is a rapid and easy perimetric method, showing higher sensitivity than SAP in detecting early glaucomatous VF loss. Its diagnostic ability is good for detecting early perimetric POAG eyes and fair for GON eyes. Pulsar performance was comparable with FDT, HRT, and GDx, even if the agreement between instruments was poor to fair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Picaud, A; Nlome-Nze, A R; Engongha-Beka, T; Ogowet-Igumu, N
The authors summarize the case of diprosopic syncephalic joined twins diagnosed at 22 weeks of pregnancy by ultrasonography performed because of hydramnios. The rate of separation anomalies of monozygotic twins is assessed by a review of the literature: from 1 to twenty to fifty thousands for joined twins to 1 per cent fifty thousand to fifteen millions for diprosopus. The etiology is the result of a late division of the egg between D12 and D16. Often an encephalic diprosopic joined twins cause elevated levels of maternal serum alpha protein. Early ultrasonography permits to consider a vaginal therapeutic abortion.
Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.
In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.
Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S
Acral lentiginous melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that is associated with a relatively low survival rate. The latter is partly due to the advanced stage in which the tumor is usually diagnosed. The diagnostic delay is mainly due to difficulties in identifying the very early histopathological signs of acral melanoma. The current article is a review of diagnostic clues, concepts, and definitions from the literature, as well as illustrating examples from our own archives. We have sought to provide an article that can be easily consulted in difficult cases of acral lentiginous melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilken, Miguel; Ameghino, Lucía; Cammarota, Ángel; Nogués, Martín A; Del Castillo, Marcelo; Farez, Mauricio F
Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases), 53 (65%) men and 29 (35%) women, mean age 47.8 years. The most common microorganisms identified were: HSV-1 (11%), VZV (10%), HSV-2 (5%) and EBV (5%). Twenty-three patients (22% of the series) had non-infectious encephalitis. Headache (p < 0.0001) and fever (p = 0.008) were more frequent in encephalitis of infectious origin. Protein levels and white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in patients affected by infectious encephalitis than in those affected by noninfectious encephalitis (OR 95% CI 12.3 [2.9-51.7] and OR 95% CI 7.4 [2-27], respectively). Identifying specific causal agents of acute encephalitis remains a major challenge. Cerebrospinal fluid markers, as well as specific clinical findings, may however contribute to initial differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes.
Palmigiano, Angelo; Barone, Rita; Sturiale, Luisa; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Bua, Rosaria Ornella; Romeo, Donata Agata; Messina, Angela; Capuana, Maria Luisa; Maci, Tiziana; Le Pira, Francesco; Zappia, Mario; Garozzo, Domenico
This work aims at exploring the human CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) N-glycome by MALDI MS techniques, in order to assess specific glycosylation pattern(s) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n:24) and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n:11), these last as potential AD patients at a pre-dementia stage. For comparison, 21 healthy controls were studied. We identified a group of AD and MCI subjects (about 40-50% of the studied sample) showing significant alteration of CSF N-glycome profiling, consisting of a decrease in the overall sialylation degree and an increase in species bearing bisecting GlcNAc. Noteworthy, all the MCI patients that converted to AD within the clinical follow-up, had an abnormal CSF glycosylation profile. Based on the studied cohort, CSF glycosylation changes may occur before an AD clinical onset. Previous studies specifically focused on the key role of glycosyltransferase GnT-III on AD-pathogenesis, addressing the patho-mechanism to specific sugar modification of BACE-1 glycoprotein with bisecting GlcNAc. Our patients addressed protein N-glycosylation changes at an early phase of the whole biomolecular misregulation on AD, pointing to CSF N-glycome analyses as promising tool to enhance early detection of AD and also suggesting alternative therapeutics target molecules, such as specific glyco-enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ren, Ke; Dusad, Anand; Zhang, Yijia; Purdue, P Edward; Fehringer, Edward V; Garvin, Kevin L; Goldring, Steven R; Wang, Dong
To develop and evaluate diagnostic tools for early detection of wear particle-induced orthopaedic implant loosening. N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer was tagged with a near infrared dye and used to detect the inflammation induced by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a murine peri-implant osteolysis model. It was established by inserting an implant into the distal femur and challenging with routine PMMA particles infusion. The osteolysis was evaluated by micro-CT and histological analysis at different time points. Significant peri-implant osteolysis was found 3-month post PMMA particle challenge by micro-CT and histological analysis. At 1-month post challenge, when there was no significant peri-implant bone loss, the HPMA copolymer-near infrared dye conjugate was found to specifically target the femur with PMMA particles deposition, but not the contralateral control femur with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) infusion. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the macromolecular diagnostic agent to detect particle-induced peri-implant inflammation prior to the development of detectable osteolysis. Recognition of this early pathological event would provide the window of opportunity for prevention of peri-implant osteolysis and subsequent orthopaedic implant failure.
Vaitkuviene, A.; Andersen-Engels, S.; Auksorius, E.; Bendsoe, N.; Gavriushin, V.; Gustafsson, U.; Oyama, J.; Palsson, S.; Soto Thompson, M.; Stenram, U.; Svanberg, K.; Viliunas, V.; De Weert, M. J.
Permanent infections recognized as oncogenic factor. STD is common concomitant diseases in early precancerous genital tract lesions. Simple optical detection of early regressive pre cancer in cervix is the aim of this study. Hereditary immunosupression most likely is risk factor for cervical cancer development. Light induced fluorescence point monitoring fitted to live cervical tissue diagnostics in 42 patients. Human papilloma virus DNR in cervix tested by means of Hybrid Capture II method. Ultraviolet (337 nm) laser excited fluorescence spectra in the live cervical tissue analyzed by Principal Component (PrC) regression method and spectra decomposition method. PCr method best discriminated pathology group "CIN I and inflammation"(AUC=75%) related to fluorescence emission in short wave region. Spectra decomposition method suggested a few possible fluorophores in a long wave region. Ultraviolet (398 nm) light excitation of live cervix proved sharp selective spectra intensity enhancement in region above 600nm for High-grade cervical lesion. Conclusion: PC analysis of UV (337 nm) light excitation fluorescence spectra gives opportunity to obtain local immunity and Low-grade cervical lesion related information. Addition of shorter and longer wavelengths is promising for multi wave LIF point monitoring method progress in cervical pre-cancer diagnostics and utility for cancer prevention especially in developing countries.
Du, Zi-Yan; Shi, Min-Hua; Ji, Cheng-Hong; Yu, Yong
Pleiotrophin (PTN), an angiogenic factor, is associated with various types of cancer, including lung cancer. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of using serum PTN as an early indicator regarding disease diagnosis, classification and prognosis, for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Significant differences among PTN levels in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC, n=40), NSCLC (n=136), and control subjects with benign pulmonary lesions (n=21), as well as patients with different pathological subtypes of NSCLC were observed. A serum level of PTN of 300.1 ng/ml, was determined as the cutoff value differentiating lung cancer patients and controls, with a sensitivity and specificity of 78.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Negative correlations between serum PTN level and pathological differentiation level, stage, and survival time were observed in our cohort of patients with NSCLC. In addition, specific elevation of PTN levels in pulmonary tissue in and around NSCLC lesions in comparison to normal pulmonary tissue obtained from the same subjects was also observed (n=2). This study suggests that the serum PTN level of patients with NSCLC could be an early indicator for diagnosis and prognosis. This conclusion should be further assessed in randomized clinical trials.
Suresh, Lakshmanan; Neiders, Mirdza E
would have been otherwise missed if H & E studies had not been performed. This study has the largest cohort of patients with DG suspected of VBD reported in the literature. The patients were predominantly females who had most often been seen by a periodontist. The definitive diagnosis of DG was most accurately achieved when H & E along with two biopsies for direct IF studies were submitted for testing. H & E studies were particularly important for definitive diagnosis of negative cases. Oral lichen planus was the most common disease presenting as DG, which is consistent with recent studies. Systemic connective tissue disorders that present as DG at initial clinical examination require direct IF and serum studies for a conclusive diagnosis. Clinical pathologic correlation, including history, presentation, H & E, and direct IF studies, are essential in establishing a definitive and differential diagnosis for cases presenting with DG.
Buragohain, L; Kumar, R; Nanda, T; Phulia, S K; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Balhara, S; Ghuman, Sps; Singh, I; Balhara, A K
Interferon-tau (IFN-τ)-induced molecular markers such as ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15), 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and myxovirus resistance genes (MX1 and MX2) have generated immense attention towards developing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis of pregnancy in bovine. These molecules are expressed at transcriptional level in peripheral nucleated cells. However, their presence in the serum is still a question mark. This study reports sequential changes in expression of MX2 transcript in whole blood and serum MX2 protein level on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 in pregnant (n = 9) buffalo heifers, and on days 0, 7 and 14 in non-inseminated (n = 8) and inseminated non-pregnant (n = 10) control animals. In non-inseminated and inseminated non-pregnant heifers, the differential expression of MX2 transcript and MX2 protein level remained similar between day 7 and 14 post-oestrus. However, in pregnant heifers, on 14th and 28th day post-insemination MX2 transcript was 16.38 ± 1.57 and 28.16 ± 1.91 times upregulated as compared to day 0. Similarly, serum MX2 protein concentration followed analogous trend as MX2 transcript and increased gradually with the progression of pregnancy. Correlation analysis between expression of MX2 transcript and its serum protein level showed a significant positive correlation in pregnant animals, while it was random in other two groups. Therefore, MX2 surge at transcriptional and serum protein level after day 14-28 of pregnancy in buffalo holds potential for its use in early pregnancy detection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Okada, Kazunori; Rysavy, Steven; Flores, Arturo; Linguraru, Marius George
This paper proposes a novel application of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to an everyday clinical dental challenge: the noninvasive differential diagnosis of periapical lesions between periapical cysts and granulomas. A histological biopsy is the most reliable method currently available for this differential diagnosis; however, this invasive procedure prevents the lesions from healing noninvasively despite a report that they may heal without surgical treatment. A CAD using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool which helps to avoid potentially unnecessary surgery and to investigate the unknown healing process and rate for the lesions. The proposed semiautomatic solution combines graph-based random walks segmentation with machine learning-based boosted classifiers and offers a robust clinical tool with minimal user interaction. As part of this CAD framework, the authors provide two novel technical contributions: (1) probabilistic extension of the random walks segmentation with likelihood ratio test and (2) LDA-AdaBoost: a new integration of weighted linear discriminant analysis to AdaBoost. A dataset of 28 CBCT scans is used to validate the approach and compare it with other popular segmentation and classification methods. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method with 94.1% correct classification rate and an improvement of the performance by comparison with the Simon's state-of-the-art method by 17.6%. The authors also compare classification performances with two independent ground-truth sets from the histopathology and CBCT diagnoses provided by endodontic experts. Experimental results of the authors show that the proposed CAD system behaves in clearer agreement with the CBCT ground-truth than with histopathology, supporting the Simon's conjecture that CBCT diagnosis can be as accurate as histopathology for differentiating the periapical lesions.
Okada, Kazunori, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Rysavy, Steven; Flores, Arturo
Purpose: This paper proposes a novel application of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to an everyday clinical dental challenge: the noninvasive differential diagnosis of periapical lesions between periapical cysts and granulomas. A histological biopsy is the most reliable method currently available for this differential diagnosis; however, this invasive procedure prevents the lesions from healing noninvasively despite a report that they may heal without surgical treatment. A CAD using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers an alternative noninvasive diagnostic tool which helps to avoid potentially unnecessary surgery and to investigate the unknown healing process and rate for the lesions. Methods: The proposed semiautomatic solutionmore » combines graph-based random walks segmentation with machine learning-based boosted classifiers and offers a robust clinical tool with minimal user interaction. As part of this CAD framework, the authors provide two novel technical contributions: (1) probabilistic extension of the random walks segmentation with likelihood ratio test and (2) LDA-AdaBoost: a new integration of weighted linear discriminant analysis to AdaBoost. Results: A dataset of 28 CBCT scans is used to validate the approach and compare it with other popular segmentation and classification methods. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method with 94.1% correct classification rate and an improvement of the performance by comparison with the Simon’s state-of-the-art method by 17.6%. The authors also compare classification performances with two independent ground-truth sets from the histopathology and CBCT diagnoses provided by endodontic experts. Conclusions: Experimental results of the authors show that the proposed CAD system behaves in clearer agreement with the CBCT ground-truth than with histopathology, supporting the Simon’s conjecture that CBCT diagnosis can be as accurate as histopathology for differentiating the periapical lesions.« less
Yoon, Young K; Jo, Yu M; Kwon, Hyun H; Yoon, Hee J; Lee, Eun J; Park, So Y; Park, Seong Y; Choo, Eun J; Ryu, Seong Y; Lee, Mi S; Yang, Kyung S; Kim, Shin W
Although tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis are common causes of spinal infections, their protean manifestation complicates differential diagnosis. The clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics of tuberculous and pyogenic spontaneous spondylodiscitis were compared in this study. This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 11 teaching hospitals in the Republic of Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Study subjects included adult patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with tuberculous (n=60) or pyogenic (n=117) spontaneous spondylodiscitis. Risk factors for tuberculous spondylodiscitis were determined, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors independently associated with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis using the presence or absence of risk factors was used to generate a risk index to identify patients with increased probability of tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Of 177 patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis (n=60) were more frequently women, with increased nonlumbar spinal involvement and associated non-spinal lesions, delayed diagnosis, higher serum albumin levels, reduced white blood cell counts, and lower C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. Among 117 patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the most frequent causative microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (64.1%). The mean diagnostic delay was significantly shorter, which may reflect higher clinical expression leading to earlier diagnosis. A combination of clinical data and biomarkers had better predictive value for differential diagnosis compared with biomarkers alone, with an area under the curve of 0.93, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 95.0%, 79.5%, 70.4%, and 96.9%, respectively. This study provides guidance for clinicians to
Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad
Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.
Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats Anders; Gillberg, Christopher
Autism spectrum disorders involve a set of clinical phenotypes that mirror an early onset of neurodevelopmental deviations, with core symptoms that can probably be related to a deficiency in the social instinct. Underlying the cognitive impairments there are physiological brain problems, caused by a large number of medical factors. This narrative review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the last 5 years (2008–2012) presents aspects from many areas in autism spectrum disorder research, with a particular focus on early intervention and the subsequent impact on prognosis. Other major areas discussed are epidemiology, early symptoms and screening, early diagnosis, neuropsychology, medical factors, and the existence of comorbidities. There is limited evidence that any of the broadband “early intervention” programs are effective in changing the natural long-term outcome for many individuals with an early diagnosis of autism. However, there is some evidence that Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) is an effective treatment for some children with ASD. Nevertheless, there is emerging consensus that early diagnosis and information are needed in order that an autism-friendly environment be “created” around affected individuals. PMID:23459124
Voznyuk, E.I.; Grusha, O.V.
Radiophosphorus was used for the diagnosis of pigmentary formattons of the eye tn 38 patients. A negative radiological test was obtatned tn 24 patients. Dynamic clinical observations confirmed the absence of malignization of the pigmentary formation. In 15 patients the radiological test was positive. It ts concluded that the technique may be useful for the detection of early forms of malignization of the nevus. (auth)
Steenkeste, Karine; Deniset, Ariane; Lecart, Sandrine; Leveque-Fort, Sandrine; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre; Ferlicot, Sophie; Eschwege, Pascal
Urinary cytology is employed in diagnostic guidelines of bladder cancer in anatomo-pathological laboratories mostly for its ability to diagnose non detectable cancers using cystoscopy, but also because it is a non-invasive and non-constraining technique for a regular follow-up of the more exposed populations. The impossibility to detect such cancers is mainly due to their localization either in the bladder or in the upper urinary tract and the prostate. However, urinary cytology lacks sensitivity, especially for the detection of low grade low stage tumors due to inherent limitation of morphological criteria to distinguish low grade tumor cells from normal urothelial cells. For this purpose, we developed, in addition to urinary cytology, an original screening of these cytological slides by using spectrally-resolved and time-resolved fluorescence as a contrast factor, without changing any parameters in the cytological slide preparation. This method takes advantage of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, continuously tunable in the spectral range 700-950 nm allowing the observation of most endogenous cellular chromophores by biphotonic excitation. A commercial confocal microscope was also used in the measurements allowing an excitation of the samples between 458 nm and 633 nm. We observed that the fluorescence emission is differentially distributed in normal and pathological urothelial cells. Spectral- and time-resolved measurements attested this difference over about one hundred cases which have been tested to confirm the high accuracy of this non-invasive technique.
Liu, Shuang; Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Milner, Thomas E; Markey, Mia K; McKinnon, Stuart J; Rylander, Henry G
Compare performance of normalized reflectance index (NRI) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) parameters determined from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images for glaucoma and glaucoma suspect diagnosis. Seventy-five eyes from 71 human subjects were studied: 33 controls, 24 glaucomatous, and 18 glaucoma-suspects. RNFLT and NRI maps were measured using 2 custom-built OCT systems and the commercial instrument RTVue. Using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, RNFLT and NRI measured in 7 RNFL locations were analyzed to distinguish between control, glaucomatous, and glaucoma-suspect eyes. The mean NRI of the control group was significantly larger than the means of glaucomatous and glaucoma-suspect groups in most RNFL locations for all 3 OCT systems (P<0.05 for all comparisons). NRI performs significantly better than RNFLT at distinguishing between glaucoma-suspect and control eyes using RTVue OCT (P=0.008). The performances of NRI and RNFLT for classifying glaucoma-suspect versus control eyes were statistically indistinguishable for PS-OCT-EIA (P=0.101) and PS-OCT-DEC (P=0.227). The performances of NRI and RNFLT for classifying glaucomatous versus control eyes were statistically indistinguishable (PS-OCT-EIA: P=0.379; PS-OCT-DEC: P=0.338; RTVue OCT: P=0.877). NRI is a promising measure for distinguishing between glaucoma-suspect and control eyes and may indicate disease in the preperimetric stage. Results of this pilot clinical study warrant a larger study to confirm the diagnostic power of NRI for diagnosing preperimetric glaucoma.
Arshad, Ahmad R.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Saperi, Amalia A.; Jamal, Rahman; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Abdul Murad, Nor Azian
Among the neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD) ranks as the second most common disorder with a higher prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years old. Younger individuals may also be affected with PD which is known as early onset PD (EOPD). Despite similarities between the characteristics of EOPD and late onset PD (LODP), EOPD patients experience much longer disease manifestations and poorer quality of life. Although some individuals are more prone to have EOPD due to certain genetic alterations, the molecular mechanisms that differentiate between EOPD and LOPD remains unclear. Recent findings in PD patients revealed that there were differences in the genetic profiles of PD patients compared to healthy controls, as well as between EOPD and LOPD patients. There were variants identified that correlated with the decline of cognitive and motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms in PD. There were also specific microRNAs that correlated with PD progression, and since microRNAs have been shown to be involved in the maintenance of neuronal development, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, there is a strong possibility that these microRNAs can be potentially used to differentiate between subsets of PD patients. PD is mainly diagnosed at the late stage, when almost majority of the dopaminergic neurons are lost. Therefore, identification of molecular biomarkers for early detection of PD is important. Given that miRNAs are crucial in controlling the gene expression, these regulatory microRNAs and their target genes could be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. In this article, we discussed the genes involved and their regulatory miRNAs, regarding their roles in PD progression, based on the findings of significantly altered microRNAs in EOPD studies. We also discussed the potential of these miRNAs as molecular biomarkers for early diagnosis. PMID:29163029
Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar
Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.
Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Rodrigues, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Catarina; Magalhães, Teresa
The authors present the case of a ten-year-old Chinese boy who was taken to a hospital due to the presence of suspicious bruises on his body. The child was examined in the National Institute of Legal Medicine by forensic doctors and a forensic psychologist. Clinical characteristics of the case are summarized stressing that a better understanding of some kinds of integrative medicine (IM) may help to differentiate injuries resulting from those practices. This is the only and unique case diagnosed by the medico-legal services in Portugal. In fact a great range of IM practice has the potential to create confusion in the diagnosis of physical child abuse. This study focuses on the differential diagnosis of one specific kind of frequent skin injury usually seen in situations of both child abuse and IM (in this case TuiNa) - bruises. As the number of people who practice Traditional Chinese Medicine and other forms of IM increases in the Western world, the child protection community would benefit from familiarizing itselves with these practices to prevent social and/or legal conflicts that may arise from mistaken diagnoses of abuse. The objective of this case report is to emphasize the relevance of comprehensive and interdisciplinary evaluation of child abuse cases taking into account the specifics of each case, to achieve a proper diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xavier, Rose; Abraham, Bobby; Cherian, Vinod Jacob; Joseph, Jobin I.
Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an extremely rare complication of a rather common paediatric viral exanthem varicella. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Laboratory risk indicator of NF score aids in early clinical diagnosis in suspected cases of post-varicella NF thus enabling timely intervention. Surgery delayed for more than 24 hours, is an independent risk factor for death. Surgical debridement with good antibiotic coverage is the definitive treatment for NF. PMID:27251524
Eilers, R E; Oller, D K
To determine whether late onset of canonical babbling could be used as a criterion to determine risk of hearing impairment, we obtained vocalization samples longitudinally from 94 infants with normal hearing and 37 infants with severe to profound hearing impairment. Parents were instructed to report the onset of canonical babbling (the production of well-formed syllables such as "da," "na," "bee," "yaya"). Verification that the infants were producing canonical syllables was collected in laboratory audio recordings. Infants with normal hearing produced canonical vocalizations before 11 months of age (range, 3 to 10 months; mode, 7 months); infants who were deaf failed to produce canonical syllables until 11 months of age or older, often well into the third year of life (range, 11 to 49 months; mode, 24 months). The correlation between age at onset of the canonical stage and age at auditory amplification was 0.68, indicating that early identification and fitting of hearing aids is of significant benefit to infants learning language. The fact that there is no overlap in the distribution of the onset of canonical babbling between infants with normal hearing and infants with hearing impairment means that the failure of otherwise healthy infants to produce canonical syllables before 11 months of age should be considered a serious risk factor for hearing impairment and, when observed, should result in immediate referral for audiologic evaluation.
Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M
Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M
Background Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. Methods In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. Results The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. Conclusions In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. PMID:25908835
He, Qiwei; Glas, Cees A W; Veldkamp, Bernard P
This article explores the generalizability of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to various subpopulations. Besides identifying the differential symptom functioning (also referred to as differential item functioning [DIF]) related to various background variables such as gender, marital status and educational level, this study emphasizes the importance of evaluating the impact of DIF on population inferences as made in health surveys and clinical trials, and on the diagnosis of individual patients. Using a sample from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication (NCS-R), four symptoms for gender, one symptom for marital status, and three symptoms for educational level were significantly flagged as DIF, but their impact on diagnosis was fairly small. We conclude that the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD do not produce substantially biased results in the investigated subpopulations, and there should be few reservations regarding their use. Further, although the impact of DIF (i.e. the influence of differential symptom functioning on diagnostic results) was found to be quite small in the current study, we recommend that diagnosticians always perform a DIF analysis of various subpopulations using the methodology presented here to ensure the diagnostic criteria is valid in their own studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ji, Hyo Jin; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Jin Woo
Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC ( n = 122), PG ( n = 158), and PA ( n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF) were used as positive controls. Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. In this study all PCs ( n = 122) were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium ( n = 20). Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA.
Objectives Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. Materials and Methods The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC (n = 122), PG (n = 158), and PA (n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF) were used as positive controls. Results Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. Conclusions In this study all PCs (n = 122) were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium (n = 20). Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA. PMID:28503476
Park, Chan Hyuk; Chung, Moon Jae; Oh, Tak Geun; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Lee, Woo Jung; Song, Si Young
Differential diagnosis between gallbladder (GB) adenomas and cholesterol polyps based on ultrasonography or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is challenging because they have similar echogenicity and morphology. We evaluated the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) for differentiating between GB adenomas and cholesterol polyps. Between June 2010 and December 2011, a total of 87 patients with GB polyps who underwent a CEH-EUS were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 87 patients, 57 had a cholecystectomy. Of these, 34 patients were diagnosed with adenoma, cholesterol polyp, adenocarcinoma, or adenomyomatosis pathology. The remaining 23 patients were not diagnosed with GB polyps because their lesions separated from the GB mucosal layer during pathological sampling. On CEH-EUS, homogeneous and heterogeneous enhancement was shown in 6 and 2 patients with adenoma and in 4 and 8 patients with cholesterol polyps, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CEH-EUS for differential diagnosis of GB adenomas from cholesterol polyps based on the enhancement pattern were 75.0 and 66.6 %, respectively. CEH-EUS might be useful for distinguishing GB adenomas and cholesterol polyps based on enhancement patterns. However, an additional technique such as quantitative perfusion analysis is necessary because visual assessment of CEH-EUS images is subjective.
Muñoz-Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Hall, Anette; Mattila, Jussi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Husso, Minna; Hänninen, Tuomo; Vanninen, Ritva; Liu, Yawu; Hallikainen, Merja; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Remes, Anne M.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Soininen, Hilkka; Hartikainen, Päivi
Background Disease State Index (DSI) and its visualization, Disease State Fingerprint (DSF), form a computer-assisted clinical decision making tool that combines patient data and compares them with cases with known outcomes. Aims To investigate the ability of the DSI to diagnose frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods The study cohort consisted of 38 patients with FTD, 57 with AD and 22 controls. Autopsy verification of FTD with TDP-43 positive pathology was available for 14 and AD pathology for 12 cases. We utilized data from neuropsychological tests, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and the APOE genotype. The DSI classification results were calculated with a combination of leave-one-out cross-validation and bootstrapping. A DSF visualization of a FTD patient is presented as an example. Results The DSI distinguishes controls from FTD (area under the receiver-operator curve, AUC = 0.99) and AD (AUC = 1.00) very well and achieves a good differential diagnosis between AD and FTD (AUC = 0.89). In subsamples of autopsy-confirmed cases (AUC = 0.97) and clinically diagnosed cases (AUC = 0.94), differential diagnosis of AD and FTD performs very well. Conclusions DSI is a promising computer-assisted biomarker approach for aiding in the diagnostic process of dementing diseases. Here, DSI separates controls from dementia and differentiates between AD and FTD. PMID:27703465
The Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Canada released "Ontario's Differentiation Policy Framework for Postsecondary Education" in 2013. This chapter examines the mandate as it pertains to the college sector.
Lin, Jing; Gu, Wei; Hou, Yanyan
To explore the gestational age of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis (ICP) of pregnancy, and to analyze the relationship between the clinical biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes in order to arrive at a reasonable diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment. This is a retrospective clinical study. We selected 47,260 pregnant women who received prenatal care and underwent childbirth at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University from January 2014 to December 2016 for participating in this study. Of these 47,260 women, 407 developed ICP. To calculate the gestational week cutoff between early- and late-onset ICP by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's index. Two independent samples t tests and chi square test were used to compare the differences in biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes between the two groups. We found that 34 weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. Early-onset ICP is characterized by early onset, long disease duration and a higher incidence of preterm labor, fetal distress, and fetal low birth weight compared to late-onset ICP. Thirty-four weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. And to reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes in cases of early-onset ICP, we suggest prolonging gestation up to 37 weeks as far as possible before selecting iatrogenic birth.
Visser, H.J.; Jacobs, A.M.; Oloff, L.
Prompt recognition of cellulitis, osteomyelitis, diabetic osteolysis, Charcot neuroarthropathy, septic synovitis, and deep plantar abscesses in the diabetic foot is essential because the therapy is drastically different. Differential diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by recently developed scanning techniques.
Blin-Rochemaure, N; Allani-Essid, N; Carlier, R; Laugel, V; Quijano-Roy, S
Two siblings affected with Cockayne syndrome (CS) are described: this diagnosis was suggested by the finding of a demyelinating neuropathy on electromyography in both children and consistent clinical features. CS is a rare genetic disorder with severe prognosis and a highly varied phenotype, making early diagnosis difficult. Taking into account these two cases and the literature, the current diagnosis criteria are insufficiently specific and appear late: the diagnosis may be delayed because multi-organ involvement and sensorial impairment suggests more frequent neurometabolic disorders. Neuroradiologic abnormalities are suggestive but may occur later. The finding of a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy seems to be a more useful marker to suspect this disorder in the presence of other clinical features. Further studies are required to better define the chronology of the symptoms, not only for adequate genetic counseling and eventual prenatal diagnosis, but also to assess the efficacy of future therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554
Seo, Nieun; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu
Sclerosing cholangitis is a spectrum of chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and stricture of the bile ducts, which can be classified as primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive liver disease of unknown cause. On the other hand, secondary sclerosing cholangitis has identifiable causes that include immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, ischemic cholangitis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cholangitis, and eosinophilic cholangitis. In this review, we suggest a systemic approach to the differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis based on the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as the typical imaging features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiography. Familiarity with various etiologies of sclerosing cholangitis and awareness of their typical clinical and imaging findings are essential for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.
Malek, Matthew; Cortes, Lina M; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Rosenberg, Paul A
This article demonstrates a methodological approach to diagnosing a periapical radiolucency that could not be diagnosed using only basic clinical and radiographic findings. The patient was a 59-year-old Hispanic female with a small tender mass on the lower gingiva associated with tooth #25. Radiographic appearance demonstrated a well-defined radiolucent lesion at the apices of the mandibular incisors. The patient had no significant medical history. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed bony expansion of the buccal plate. Differential diagnosis included non-endodontic unilocular radiolucent lesions in the anterior mandibular region. Biopsy findings were consistent with periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD). In conclusion, clinical appearance of PCOD varies from non-expansile and asymptomatic to being expansile and sometimes symptomatic. In the latter cases, it may be necessary to use additional diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis.
Tokumitsu, Takako; Sato, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Takeshima, Hideo; Sato, Shinya; Asada, Yujiro
Subependymomas are slowly growing glial tumors, corresponding to WHO grade I. Few descriptions of the cytologic features of this neoplasm are available. This study describes the cytologic features of three subependymomas, as well as their differential diagnosis based on cytology. Three men, aged 52, 56, and 63 years, presented with headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a nodular intraventricular mass in all three patients. Intraoperative squash cytology specimens from the three intraventricular tumors showed nodular clusters with microcystic changes. Nuclei were round to oval in shape, but showed no evidence of severe nuclear atypia or mitoses. Histological examination showed features of subependymoma. Squash cytology findings, including nodular clusters, mild cellular atypia, microcystic changes, and mucoid material, are useful in the rapid intraoperative diagnosis of subependymoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kollmar, R; Schellinger, P D; Bardutzky, J; Meisel, F; Schwaninger, M
Myxedema coma is a rare and life-threatening complication of untreated hypothyroidism. Therefore, it must be part of the differential diagnosis in comatose patients. We report one patient who presented with CO(2) narcosis,hypothermia, bradycardia,hyporeflexia, tetraparesis, ascitis, pleural effusions, and heart insufficiency. Examination of the CSF, cranial CT, MRI, and MR angiography were normal. In suspicion of myxedema coma,the patient was treated with high dose L-thyroxine and hydrocortisone for preventing secondary adrenal insufficiency. A fast clinical recovery, decreased T4 (7.2 ng/l) and T3 (0.93 ng/l), and increased TSH (20.19 mU/l) together with the following anamnesis of radio iodine therapy and insufficient thyroxine intake confirmed the diagnosis. In conclusion, treatment of the myxedema coma must be started as soon as the laboratory results are confirmatory, since its course depends on the time of initiation of treatment.
Omari, Amro A; Mian, Shahzad I
Recurrent corneal erosions in corneal dystrophies are visually significant and bothersome to patients. The goal of this article is to review the pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of recurrent corneal erosions in corneal dystrophies. Forty-eight articles and 1 textbook recently published on corneal erosions in corneal dystrophies were reviewed. The findings on the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of erosions in each dystrophy were summarized. Any contradicting opinions for which the literature was unclear were either omitted or recorded as lacking strong evidence. The epithelial-stromal complex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of erosions in corneal dystrophies. The clinical features of each corneal dystrophy guide their diagnosis and management. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical features of erosions in corneal dystrophies can lead to better clinical outcomes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Liu, Xue-Wen; Wang, Ling; Li, Hui; Zhang, Rong; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, De-Ling; Xie, Chuan-Miao
The parapharyngeal space (PPS) is an inverted pyramid-shaped deep space in the head and neck region, and a variety of tumors, such as salivary gland tumors, neurogenic tumors, nasopharyngeal carcinomas with parapharyngeal invasion, and lymphomas, can be found in this space. The differential diagnosis of PPS tumors remains challenging for radiologists. This study aimed to develop and test a modified method for locating PPS tumors on magnetic resonance (MR) images to improve preoperative differential diagnosis. The new protocol divided the PPS into three compartments: a prestyloid compartment, the carotid sheath, and the areas outside the carotid sheath. PPS tumors were located in these compartments according to the displacements of the tensor veli palatini muscle and the styloid process, with or without blood vessel separations and medial pterygoid invasion. This protocol, as well as a more conventional protocol that is based on displacements of the internal carotid artery (ICA), was used to assess MR images captured from a series of 58 PPS tumors. The consequent distributions of PPS tumor locations determined by both methods were compared. Of all 58 tumors, our new method determined that 57 could be assigned to precise PPS compartments. Nearly all (13/14; 93%) tumors that were located in the pre-styloid compartment were salivary gland tumors. All 15 tumors within the carotid sheath were neurogenic tumors. The vast majority (18/20; 90%) of trans-spatial lesions were malignancies. However, according to the ICA-based method, 28 tumors were located in the pre-styloid compartment, and 24 were located in the post-styloid compartment, leaving 6 tumors that were difficult to locate. Lesions located in both the pre-styloid and the post-styloid compartments comprised various types of tumors. Compared with the conventional ICA-based method, our new method can help radiologists to narrow the differential diagnosis of PPS tumors to specific compartments. PMID:25104280
Mun, J-H; Kim, G-W; Jwa, S-W; Song, M; Kim, H-S; Ko, H-C; Kim, B-S; Kim, M-B
Subungual haemorrhages are characterized by well-circumscribed dots or blotches with a red to red-black pigmentation, but some cases can be difficult to distinguish from subungual melanoma by the naked eye alone. Dermoscopy has proven to be a useful, noninvasive tool in the diagnosis of pigmented lesions in the nail; however, few dermoscopic studies of subungual haemorrhages have been reported. To investigate characteristic dermoscopic patterns of subungual haemorrhages, and to find distinctive features that can differentiate them from nail-unit melanomas. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of either subungual haemorrhage or nail-unit melanoma at a tertiary university hospital were included in the study. Clinical features and dermoscopic patterns were evaluated. Sixty-four patients with a total of 90 lesions of subungual haemorrhage were enrolled in the study. The majority of cases (84%) showed combinations of more than one colour, while 16% had only one colour. The most common colour of the subungual haemorrhages was purple-black, in 37% of cases. A homogeneous pattern was observed in 92% of cases, globular patterns in 42% and streaks in 39%. Peripheral fading and periungual haemorrhages were found in 54% and 22% of cases, respectively. Destruction or dystrophy of the nail plate was observed in 16% of cases. In the 16 cases of nail-unit melanomas, Hutchinson sign, longitudinal irregular bands or lines, triangular shape of bands, vascular pattern, and ulcerations were found in 100%, 81%, 25%, 6% and 81% of cases, respectively. In contrast, these features were not found in subungual haemorrhages. Dermoscopy provides valuable information for the diagnosis of subungual haemorrhage and aids in the differential diagnosis from nail-unit melanoma. © 2013 The Authors. BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
Möller, A; Kalhoff, H; Reuter, T; Friedrichs, N; Wagner, N
Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease in childhood, which may already cause protein-losing enteropathy in newborns. This is a case report of an infant with generalized edema and protein-losing enteropathy, in whom intestinal lymphangiectasia was diagnosed at the age of two months. Following repetitive intravenous albumin und gamma globulin infusions, the elimination of long-chain fats from the diet and the substitution with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) led to an improvement of the protein-losing enteropathy. In newborns with low level of serum protein and edema protein-losing enteropathy caused by congenital lymphangiectasia might be considered as a differential diagnosis.
Christensen, Pernille; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Rasmussen, Niels; Backer, Vibeke
Recent studies suggest that exercise-induced inspiratory stridor (EIIS) is an important and often overlooked differential diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma. EIIS is characterised by astma-like symptoms, but differs by inspiratory limitation, fast recovery, and a lack of effect of inhaled bronchodilators. The prevalence of EIIS is reported to be 5-27%, and affects both children and adults. The pathophysiology, the pathogenesis, and the treatment of the condition are not yet clarified. At present, a population-based study is being conducted in order to address these points.
Mottron, Laurent; Soulières, Isabelle; Ménard, Edith
Individuals with Asperger syndrome may, when exposed to hostility (e.g. bullying at school or at work), develop hostile ideas against their social environment, sometimes leading to aggression. These ideas and acts may be confounded with those arising from a persecutory state in schizoid or schizotypal personality, or even schizophrenia. These entities can be confounded with Asperger syndrome due to their permanent nature, and the presence of atypical social and emotional behaviours. This paper proposes cognitive (Wechsler profile), developmental (course of hostile behaviours), discursive (qualitative features of discourse reporting hostile thoughts), which may contribute to differential diagnosis in the presence of hostile thoughts and behaviours. Consequences for case management are also reported.
Castellanos-González, María; Picazo Talavera, María Remedios
Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic multisystem granulomatous disease that commonly involves the skin in 25% of affected patients. Because lesions assume a vast array of morphologies, a classification dividing them into specific (with presence of typical granulomas in the biopsy) or nonspecific (not containing granulomas) has been proposed. In the first group the variant morpheaform is considered exceptional. We review the cases reported in the literature and describe the possible differential diagnosis. We highlight the importance of recognizing the very atypical presentation of sarcoidosis and its ability to mimic morpheaform or sclerosis diseases in our patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Morton, Laurel M; Phillips, Tania J
Wounds are an excellent example of how the field of dermatology represents a cross-section of many medical disciplines. For instance, wounds may be caused by trauma, vascular insufficiency, and underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and rheumatologic and inflammatory disease. This continuing medical education article provides an overview of wound healing and the pathophysiology of chronic wounds and reviews the broad differential diagnosis of chronic wounds. It also describes the initial steps necessary in evaluating a chronic wound and determining its underlying etiology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lux, H; Cavalcante, L Barreira; Baur, X
Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy may represent a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. This article is intended to facilitate differential diagnosis by a systematic description of relevant pathologies, notably with occupational etiology. Clinical findings of relevant diseases, i. e. of tuberculosis, chronic beryllium disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and histoplasmosis are compared.Case history, imaging and laboratory tests have important diagnostic impact. But also invasive methods can be necessary in order to exclude and prove malignancy, infection or autoimmune disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hellbach, Katharina; Yaroshenko, Andre; Meinel, Felix G; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Conlon, Thomas M; Bech, Martin; Mueller, Mark; Velroyen, Astrid; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Bamberg, Fabian; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of in vivo x-ray dark-field radiography for early-stage diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze how the dark-field signal correlates with morphological changes of lung architecture at distinct stages of emphysema. Female 8- to 10-week-old C57Bl/6N mice were used throughout all experiments. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by orotracheal injection of porcine pancreatic elastase (80-U/kg body weight) (n = 30). Control mice (n = 11) received orotracheal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. To monitor the temporal patterns of emphysema development over time, the mice were imaged 7, 14, or 21 days after the application of elastase or phosphate-buffered saline. X-ray transmission and dark-field images were acquired with a prototype grating-based small-animal scanner. In vivo pulmonary function tests were performed before killing the animals. In addition, lungs were obtained for detailed histopathological analysis, including mean cord length (MCL) quantification as a parameter for the assessment of emphysema. Three blinded readers, all of them experienced radiologists and familiar with dark-field imaging, were asked to grade the severity of emphysema for both dark-field and transmission images. Histopathology and MCL quantification confirmed the introduction of different stages of emphysema, which could be clearly visualized and differentiated on the dark-field radiograms, whereas early stages were not detected on transmission images. The correlation between MCL and dark-field signal intensities (r = 0.85) was significantly higher than the correlation between MCL and transmission signal intensities (r = 0.37). The readers' visual ratings for dark-field images correlated significantly better with MCL (r = 0.85) than visual ratings for transmission images (r = 0.36). Interreader agreement and the diagnostic accuracy of both quantitative and visual assessment were significantly higher
van Rumund, Anouke; Aerts, Marjolein B; Esselink, Rianne A J; Meijer, Frederick J A; Verbeek, Marcel M; Bloem, Bastiaan R
Differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from the various types of atypical parkinsonism (AP) such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and vascular parkinsonism (VP), can be challenging, especially early in the disease course when symptoms overlap. A major unmet need in the diagnostic workup of these disorders is a diagnostic tool that differentiates the various disorders, preferably in the earliest disease stages when the clinical presentation is similar. Many diagnostic tests have been evaluated, but their added value was studied mostly in retrospective case-control studies that included patients with a straightforward clinical diagnosis. Here, we describe the design of a prospective cohort study in patients with parkinsonism in an early disease stage who have an uncertain clinical diagnosis. Our aim is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (1) detailed clinical examination by a movement disorder specialist, (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and (3) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Patients with parkinsonism with an uncertain clinical diagnosis and a disease course less than three years will be recruited. Patients will undergo extensive neurological examination, brain MRI including conventional and advanced sequences, and a lumbar puncture. The diagnosis (including level of certainty) will be defined by a movement disorders expert, neuroradiologist and neurochemist based on clinical data, MRI results and CSF results, respectively. The clinical diagnosis after three years' follow-up will serve as the "gold standard" reference diagnosis, based on consensus criteria and as established by two movement disorder specialists (blinded to the test results). Diagnostic accuracy of individual instruments and added value of brain MRI and CSF analysis after evaluation by a movement disorder expert will be calculated, expressed as the change in percentage of
Kaida, Toyoji; Inomata, Takayuki; Minami, Yoshiyasu; Yazaki, Mayu; Fujita, Teppei; Iida, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuki; Nabeta, Takeru; Ishii, Shunsuke; Naruke, Takashi; Maekawa, Emi; Koitabashi, Toshimi; Ako, Junya
Our aim is to clarify the factors for early diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) in patients with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and its impact on cardiac function after corticosteroid therapy.A total of 15 CS patients with CAVB who underwent corticosteroid therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time from the first CAVB onset to the diagnosis of CS. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the early diagnosis group (within 1 year; group E, n = 10) and the late diagnosis group (over 1 year; group L, n = 5).The history of extracardiac sarcoidosis (60 versus 0%, P = 0.0440) and abnormal findings on echocardiography (70 versus 0%, P = 0.0256) at the CAVB onset were significantly more frequent in group E than in group L. The change of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels was significantly better in group E than in group L (0.8 ± 2.8 versus -32.4 ± 3.9%, P < 0.0001; -11.1 ± 16.0 versus 161.8 ± 35.8 pg/mL, P = 0.0013, respectively). After corticosteroid therapy, the LVEF and BNP levels were also significantly better in group E than in group L (53.3 ± 10.7 versus 37.0 ± 9.3%, P = 0.0128; 63.0 ± 46.4 versus 458.8 ± 352.0 pg/mL, P = 0.0027).The diagnosis may be delayed in CS patients with CAVB without history of extracardiac sarcoidosis. Abnormal findings on echocardiography contributed to the early diagnosis of CS. Therefore, the diagnosis of CS may be missed or delayed in patients without them. Time delay from the CAVB onset to the CS diagnosis may exacerbate the cardiac function.
Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina
To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.
Dunlap, D. R.; Wadhwa, M.
Chronology of achondrites provide critical insights into accretion and differentiation timescales in the early solar system. A diverse suite of achondrites are presented here to constrain the thermal histories of a number of distinct planetesimals.
Barrantes, Sergi; Sánchez Egea, Antonio J; González Rojas, Hernán A; Martí, Maria J; Compta, Yaroslau; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Simo Mezquita, Ester; Tolosa, Eduard; Valls-Solè, Josep
The differential diagnosis between patients with essential tremor (ET) and those with Parkinson's disease (PD) whose main manifestation is tremor may be difficult unless using complex neuroimaging techniques such as 123I-FP-CIT SPECT. We considered that using smartphone's accelerometer to stablish a diagnostic test based on time-frequency differences between PD an ET could support the clinical diagnosis. The study was carried out in 17 patients with PD, 16 patients with ET, 12 healthy volunteers and 7 patients with tremor of undecided diagnosis (TUD), who were re-evaluated one year after the first visit to reach the definite diagnosis. The smartphone was placed over the hand dorsum to record epochs of 30 s at rest and 30 s during arm stretching. We generated frequency power spectra and calculated receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) curves of total spectral power, to establish a threshold to separate subjects with and without tremor. In patients with PD and ET, we found that the ROC curve of relative energy was the feature discriminating better between the two groups. This threshold was then used to classify the TUD patients. We could correctly classify 49 out of 52 subjects in the category with/without tremor (97.96% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity) and 27 out of 32 patients in the category PD/ET (84.38% discrimination accuracy). Among TUD patients, 2 of 2 PD and 2 of 4 ET were correctly classified, and one patient having PD plus ET was classified as PD. Based on the analysis of smartphone accelerometer recordings, we found several kinematic features in the analysis of tremor that distinguished first between healthy subjects and patients and, ultimately, between PD and ET patients. The proposed method can give immediate results for the clinician to gain valuable information for the diagnosis of tremor. This can be useful in environments where more sophisticated diagnostic techniques are unavailable.
Tofts, Louise J; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Munns, Craig; Pacey, Verity; Sillence, David O
Background In this study we aimed to identify and review publications relating to the diagnosis of joint hypermobility and instability and develop an evidence based approach to the diagnosis of children presenting with joint hypermobility and related symptoms. Methods We searched Medline for papers with an emphasis on the diagnosis of joint hypermobility, including Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue (HDCT). Results 3330 papers were identified: 1534 pertained to instability of a particular joint; 1666 related to the diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos syndromes and 330 related to joint hypermobility. There are inconsistencies in the literature on joint hypermobility and how it relates to and overlaps with milder forms of HDCT. There is no reliable method of differentiating between Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, familial articular hypermobility and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobile type), suggesting these three disorders may be different manifestations of the same spectrum of disorders. We describe our approach to children presenting with joint hypermobility and the published evidence and expert opinion on which this is based. Conclusion There is value in identifying both the underlying genetic cause of joint hypermobility in an individual child and those hypermobile children who have symptoms such as pain and fatigue and might benefit from multidisciplinary rehabilitation management. Every effort should be made to diagnose the underlying disorder responsible for joint hypermobility which may only become apparent over time. We recommend that the term "Joint Hypermobility Syndrome" is used for children with symptomatic joint hypermobility resulting from any underlying HDCT and that these children are best described using both the term Joint Hypermobility Syndrome and their HDCT diagnosis. PMID:19123951
Louvrier, Camille; Pasmant, Eric; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Cohen, Joëlle; Nitschké, Patrick; Nectoux, Juliette; Orhant, Lucie; Zordan, Cécile; Goizet, Cyril; Goutagny, Stéphane; Lallemand, Dominique; Vidaud, Michel; Vidaud, Dominique; Kalamarides, Michel; Parfait, Béatrice
Clinical overlap between neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), schwannomatosis, and meningiomatosis can make clinical diagnosis difficult. Hence, molecular investigation of germline and tumor tissues may improve the diagnosis. We present the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of NF2, SMARCB1, LZTR1, SMARCE1, and SUFU tumor suppressor genes, using an amplicon-based approach. We analyzed blood DNA from a cohort of 196 patients, including patients with NF2 (N = 79), schwannomatosis (N = 40), meningiomatosis (N = 12), and no clearly established diagnosis (N = 65). Matched tumor DNA was analyzed when available. Forty-seven NF2-/SMARCB1-negative schwannomatosis patients and 27 NF2-negative meningiomatosis patients were also evaluated. A NF2 variant was found in 41/79 (52%) NF2 patients. SMARCB1 or LZTR1 variants were identified in 5/40 (12.5%) and 13/40 (∼32%) patients in the schwannomatosis cohort. Potentially pathogenic variants were found in 12/65 (18.5%) patients with no clearly established diagnosis. A LZTR1 variant was identified in 16/47 (34%) NF2/SMARCB1-negative schwannomatosis patients. A SMARCE1 variant was found in 3/39 (∼8%) meningiomatosis patients. No SUFU variant was found in the cohort. NGS was an effective and sensitive method to detect mutant alleles in blood or tumor DNA of mosaic NF2 patients. Interestingly, we identified a 4-hit mechanism resulting in the complete NF2 loss-of-function combined with SMARCB1 and LZTR1 haploinsufficiency in two-thirds of tumors from NF2 patients. Simultaneous investigation of NF2, SMARCB1, LZTR1, and SMARCE1 is a key element in the differential diagnosis of NF2, schwannomatosis, and meningiomatosis. The targeted NGS strategy is suitable for the identification of NF2 mosaicism in blood and for the investigation of tumors from these patients.
Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia
Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…
Maghooli, Keivan; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Shahmoradi, Leila; Habibi-koolaee, Mahdi; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Bouraghi, Hamid
Introduction: Differential diagnosis of Erythmato-Squamous Diseases (ESD) is a major challenge in the field of dermatology. The ESD diseases are placed into six different classes. Data mining is the process for detection of hidden patterns. In the case of ESD, data mining help us to predict the diseases. Different algorithms were developed for this purpose. Objective: we aimed to use the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to predict differential diagnosis of ESD. Methods: we used the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) methodology. For this purpose, the dermatology data set from machine learning repository, UCI was obtained. The Clementine 12.0 software from IBM Company was used for modelling. In order to evaluation of the model we calculate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the model. Results: The proposed model had an accuracy of 94.84% ( Standard Deviation: 24.42) in order to correct prediction of the ESD disease. Conclusions: Results indicated that using of this classifier could be useful. But, it would be strongly recommended that the combination of machine learning methods could be more useful in terms of prediction of ESD. PMID:28077889
Maghooli, Keivan; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Shahmoradi, Leila; Habibi-Koolaee, Mahdi; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Bouraghi, Hamid
Differential diagnosis of Erythmato-Squamous Diseases (ESD) is a major challenge in the field of dermatology. The ESD diseases are placed into six different classes. Data mining is the process for detection of hidden patterns. In the case of ESD, data mining help us to predict the diseases. Different algorithms were developed for this purpose. we aimed to use the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) to predict differential diagnosis of ESD. we used the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) methodology. For this purpose, the dermatology data set from machine learning repository, UCI was obtained. The Clementine 12.0 software from IBM Company was used for modelling. In order to evaluation of the model we calculate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the model. The proposed model had an accuracy of 94.84% (. 24.42) in order to correct prediction of the ESD disease. Results indicated that using of this classifier could be useful. But, it would be strongly recommended that the combination of machine learning methods could be more useful in terms of prediction of ESD.
Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Hyakusoku, Hiko
Previous articles suggested the presence of various kinds of malignant tumors that resemble keloid or hypertrophic scar, including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, trichilemmal carcinoma, and keloidal basal cell carcinoma. Thus, we studied our cases that were diagnosed with diseases other than keloid or hypertrophic scar. From April 2003 to March 2007, we examined 378 patients self diagnosed with keloid or hypertrophic scar.We detected 4 other diseases (1.06%) in the group of patients. All tumors were benign: apocrine cystadenoma, adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma, mixed tumor, and chronic folliculitis. Our study led us to the conclusion that differential or exclusive diagnosis of diseases similar to keloid and hypertrophic scar is important. We found the following considerations important in the examination of keloid or hypertrophic scar: (1) biopsy should be conducted in anomalous cases because malignant disease may be the original or secondary problem, (2) steroid injection should be performed only after careful consideration because malignancy or infections may be present, (3) careful differential diagnosis is particularly challenging in African-Americans because skin and tumor color are often similar, and (4) the presence of bacterial or fungal infection should be investigated.
Colella, Christine L; Beery, Theresa A
An interactive case study (ICS) is a novel way to enhance the teaching of differential diagnosis to distance learning nurse practitioner students. Distance education renders the use of many teaching strategies commonly used with face-to-face students difficult, if not impossible. To meet this new pedagogical dilemma and to provide excellence in education, the ICS was developed. Kolb's theory of experiential learning supported efforts to follow the utilization of the ICS. This study sought to determine whether learning outcomes for the distance learning students were equivalent to those of on-campus students who engaged in a live-patient encounter. Accuracy of differential diagnosis lists generated by onsite and online students was compared. Equivalency testing assessed clinical, rather than only statistical, significance in data from 291 students. The ICS responses from the distance learning and onsite students differed by 4.9%, which was within the a priori equivalence estimate of 10%. Narrative data supported the findings. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Ivkovic, M; Liu, B; Ahmed, F; Moore, D; Huang, C; Raj, A; Kovanlikaya, I; Heier, L; Relkin, N
Accurate diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus is challenging because the clinical symptoms and radiographic appearance of NPH often overlap those of other conditions, including age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. We hypothesized that radiologic differences between NPH and AD/PD can be characterized by a robust and objective MR imaging DTI technique that does not require intersubject image registration or operator-defined regions of interest, thus avoiding many pitfalls common in DTI methods. We collected 3T DTI data from 15 patients with probable NPH and 25 controls with AD, PD, or dementia with Lewy bodies. We developed a parametric model for the shape of intracranial mean diffusivity histograms that separates brain and ventricular components from a third component composed mostly of partial volume voxels. To accurately fit the shape of the third component, we constructed a parametric function named the generalized Voss-Dyke function. We then examined the use of the fitting parameters for the differential diagnosis of NPH from AD, PD, and DLB. Using parameters for the MD histogram shape, we distinguished clinically probable NPH from the 3 other disorders with 86% sensitivity and 96% specificity. The technique yielded 86% sensitivity and 88% specificity when differentiating NPH from AD only. An adequate parametric model for the shape of intracranial MD histograms can distinguish NPH from AD, PD, or DLB with high sensitivity and specificity.
VanWye, William R; Hoover, Donald L; Willgruber, Sean
Elbow pain can originate from many sources yet have similar signs and symptoms, thereby presenting differential diagnostic challenges. The elbow is commonly injured, thus requiring all clinicians to possess excellent diagnostic skills. A 24-year-old woman slipped and fell on her outstretched left hand, experiencing immediate elbow pain. The same day radiographs were deemed negative by her orthopedist, who referred her to physical therapy with the diagnoses of elbow sprain and contusion. Immediately after examining the patient, the physical therapist consulted with the referring orthopedist. The decision to consult was based on: the mechanism of injury, pain severity out of proportion to the referred diagnoses, significantly limited ROM, abnormal joint end feels, exquisite pain with tactile and tuning fork bony palpation, and positive elbow extension test. The treating physical therapist shared the above-noted findings with the orthopedist, who overruled and recommended continuing the original prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication and physical therapist treatment for four weeks. The physical therapist's updated plan of care at four weeks noted the patient's continued reports of pain, functional limitations, and disability. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) was then ordered, revealing a radial head fracture. A thorough history and examination by the physical therapist led to clustering of signs and symptoms, allowing for the development of a differential diagnosis list which included occult radial head fracture. All clinicians should be prepared to screen for complex conditions. Timely diagnosis and improved outcomes for clinically complex patients are increasingly necessary in contemporary healthcare reimbursement models.
Liu, Pei-fang; Li, Xin; Bao, Run-xian; Liu, Jing-zu; Ge, Zheng-jin
To determine the imaging features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2D time of flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) and study the value in the differential diagnosis and surgical planning for carotid space tumors. Twenty-six patients with suspected pulsatile carotid space mass were imaged by MRI and 2D TOF MRA from 1996 to 2003. Its characteristic findings were analyzed for lesion shape, margin, signal intensity, angle of common carotid bifurcation, and the relationship between the great vessels and carotid space mass. Of the 26 patients, 22 were verified histopathologically, including 15 carotid body tumors (1 patient had bilateral carotid body tumors), 4 carotid artery aneurysms, 3 schwannomas, and 1 metastatic carcinoma. The rest four patients had clinical pseudomasses proved by MRI and MRA as considerable dilated or tortuous carotid artery as compared with the contralateral one. Combined MRI and MRA assessment of carotid body tumors and carotid artery aneurysm yielded an accuracy of 100%. It was also revealed that the anatomy shown on the MRI and axial MRA source images was consistent with that found by surgery. MRI in combination with MRA is considered as non-invasive imaging technique for the evaluation of carotid space tumor showing superiority to other modalities in the differential diagnosis between vascular versus non-vascular tumours. This method may take the place of traumatic carotid angiography.
Rice, Kelly A; Chen, Edward S; Pate, Kelly A Metcalf; Hutchinson, Eric K; Adams, Robert J
Amyloidosis is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease in which amyloid, an insoluble fibrillar protein, is deposited inappropriately in multiple organs, eventually leading to organ dysfunction. Although this condition commonly affects macaques, there is currently no reliable method of early diagnosis. Changes in clinical pathology parameters have been associated with amyloidosis but occur in late stages of disease, are nonspecific, and resemble those seen in chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. A review of animal records revealed that amyloidosis was almost always diagnosed postmortem, with prevalences of 15% and 25% in our rhesus and pig-tailed macaque colonies, respectively. As a noninvasive, high-throughput diagnostic approach to improve antemortem diagnosis of amyloidosis in macaques, we evaluated serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein and the precursor to amyloid. Using necropsy records and ELISA analysis of banked serum, we found that SAA is significantly elevated in both rhesus and pig-tailed macaques with amyloid compared with those with chronic enterocolitis and healthy controls. At necropsy, 92% of rhesus and 83% of pig-tailed had amyloid deposition in either the intestines or liver. Minimally invasive biopsy techniques including endoscopy of the small intestine, mucosal biopsy of the colon, and ultrasound-guided trucut biopsy of the liver were used to differentiate macaques in our colonies with similar clinical presentations as either having amyloidosis or chronic, idiopathic enterocolitis. Our data suggest that SAA can serve as an effective noninvasive screening tool for amyloidosis and that minimally invasive biopsies can be used to confirm this diagnosis. PMID:23759529
Feghali, Maisa N; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Comer, Diane M; Caritis, Steve; Catov, Janet M; Scifres, Christina M
To examine pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) based on the timing of diagnosis. We compared demographics, blood sugars and outcomes between women diagnosed before (n = 167) or after 24 weeks' gestation (n = 1202) in a single hospital between 2009 and 2012. Because early screening is risk-based we used propensity score modelling and conditional logistic regression to account for systematic differences. Women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks were more likely to be obese and they were less likely to have excess gestational weight gain (35 vs. 45%, p = 0.04). Early diagnosis was associated with more frequent therapy including glyburide (65 vs. 56%, p < 0.001) and insulin (19 vs 6%, p < 0.001). After propensity score modelling and accounting for covariates, early diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for macrosomia (OR 2, 95% 1-4.15, p = 0.0498). Early diagnosis was not associated with other adverse outcomes. In a subgroup analysis comparing women treated with glyburide prior to 24 weeks compared to those diagnosed after 24 weeks, early diagnosis in women treated with glyburide was associated with an increased risk for macrosomia (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.4, P = 0.04). Women diagnosed with GDM before 24 weeks have unique features, are at risk for adverse outcomes, and require targeted approaches to therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhao Jinsong; Huang Jianchao; Sun Wei
A fault detection and diagnosis framework is proposed in this paper for early fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in order to improve the safety and continuity of production. In this framework, principal component analysis (PCA), one of the multivariate statistical technologies, is used for detecting abnormal events, while rule-based reasoning performs the fault diagnosis and consequence prediction, and also generates recommendations for fault mitigation once an abnormal event is detected. A software package, SWIFT, is developed based on the proposed framework, and has been applied in an actual industrial MSWI. The application shows thatmore » automated real-time abnormal situation management (ASM) of the MSWI can be achieved by using SWIFT, resulting in an industrially acceptable low rate of wrong diagnosis, which has resulted in improved process continuity and environmental performance of the MSWI.« less
Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Kreider, Consuelo Maun; Brasher, Susan N; Ansell, Margaret
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a lifelong condition that usually appears in late infancy or early childhood, and is characterized by social and communication deficits that impede optimal functioning. Despite widespread research and greater public awareness, ASD has an unclear etiology and no known cure, making it difficult to acquire accurate and timely diagnoses. In addition, once an ASD diagnosis is made, parents find it challenging to navigate the healthcare system and determine which interventions are most effective and appropriate for their child. A growing body of evidence supports the value of early diagnosis and treatment with evidence-based interventions, which can significantly improve the quality of life of individuals with ASD as well as of their carers and families. Particularly noteworthy are early interventions that occur in natural surroundings and can be modified to address age-related goals throughout the lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: 1) provide readers with a brief background related to ASD; 2) describe commonly used screening instruments and tools for early diagnosis; 3) describe early interventions that have empirical support; and 4) discuss how the parent-child and family relationships can be affected through this process. This information can provide professionals with information they can use to assist families who make critical and potentially life-changing decisions for children with ASD.
Li, C; Wen, Y B; Li, H; Su, W; Li, J; Cai, J F; Chen, L M; Li, X M; Li, X W
Objective: To investigate the value of serum free light chain (FLC) in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS). Methods: Forty-nine hospitalized patients who underwent renal biopsy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Monoclonal gammopathy was detected by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), urine IFE and serum FLC. All patients were classified as MGRS ( n =32) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) ( n =17). Results: Renal lesions in MGRS subgroup included light chain amyloidosis ( n =24, 75.0%), light chain deposition disease ( n =7, 21.9%), and fibrillary glomerulopathy ( n =1, 3.1%). Renal diseases in MGUS subgroup included membranous nephropathy ( n =10), focal segmental glomerulosclerosi (FSGS) ( n =3), diabetic glomerulopathy ( n =1), Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis ( n =1), anti-GBM disease concurrent with membranous nephropathy ( n =1) and glomerulomegaly ( n =1). Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGRS subgroup were 12, 16, 23 and 30, respectively. Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGUS subgroup were 11, 17, 6 and 3, respectively. MGRS and MGUS subgroups differed significantly in positive rate of serum IFE ( P <0.001), as well as positive rate of urine IFE ( P =0.02) and abnormal rate of serum FLC ratio ( P <0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, total consistent rate of serum FLC ratio for diagnosis of MGRS were 93.8%, 82.4%, and 89.8% respectively. The sensitivity for diagnosing MGRS could be increased to 100% by combining serum FLC ratio and urine IFE. Conclusions: The significance of monoclonal gammopathy in patients with renal disease should be evaluated by renal pathology.On the premise of excluding lymphoplasmacytic malignancy, serum FLC ratio had promising diagnostic value for MGRS
Bruno, Rossella; Alì, Greta; Giannini, Riccardo; Proietti, Agnese; Lucchi, Marco; Chella, Antonio; Melfi, Franca; Mussi, Alfredo; Fontanini, Gabriella
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare asbestos related cancer, aggressive and unresponsive to therapies. Histological examination of pleural lesions is the gold standard of MPM diagnosis, although it is sometimes hard to discriminate the epithelioid type of MPM from benign mesothelial hyperplasia (MH).This work aims to define a new molecular tool for the differential diagnosis of MPM, using the expression profile of 117 genes deregulated in this tumour.The gene expression analysis was performed by nanoString System on tumour tissues from 36 epithelioid MPM and 17 MH patients, and on 14 mesothelial pleural samples analysed in a blind way. Data analysis included raw nanoString data normalization, unsupervised cluster analysis by Pearson correlation, non-parametric Mann Whitney U-test and molecular classification by the Uncorrelated Shrunken Centroid (USC) Algorithm.The Mann-Whitney U-test found 35 genes upregulated and 31 downregulated in MPM. The unsupervised cluster analysis revealed two clusters, one composed only of MPM and one only of MH samples, thus revealing class-specific gene profiles. The Uncorrelated Shrunken Centroid algorithm identified two classifiers, one including 22 genes and the other 40 genes, able to properly classify all the samples as benign or malignant using gene expression data; both classifiers were also able to correctly determine, in a blind analysis, the diagnostic categories of all the 14 unknown samples.In conclusion we delineated a diagnostic tool combining molecular data (gene expression) and computational analysis (USC algorithm), which can be applied in the clinical practice for the differential diagnosis of MPM.
Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.; Garcia, Ashley; Rothschild, Carey E.
Background: Gluteal injuries, proximal hamstring injuries, and pelvic floor disorders have been reported in the literature among runners. Some suggest that hip, pelvis, and/or groin injuries occur in 3.3% to 11.5% of long distance runners. The purpose of this case report is to describe the differential diagnosis and treatment approach for a patient presenting with combined hip and pelvic pain. Case description: A 45-year-old female distance runner was referred to physical therapy for proximal hamstring pain that had been present for several months. This pain limited her ability to tolerate sitting and caused her to cease running. Examination of the patient's lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower extremity led to the initial differential diagnosis of hamstring syndrome and ischiogluteal bursitis. The patient's primary symptoms improved during the initial four visits, which focused on education, pain management, trunk stabilization and gluteus maximus strengthening, however pelvic pain persisted. Further examination led to a secondary diagnosis of pelvic floor hypertonic disorder. Interventions to address the pelvic floor led to resolution of symptoms and return to running. Outcomes: Pain level on the Visual Analog Scale decreased from 7/10 to 1/10 over the course of treatment. The patient was able to return to full sport activity and improved sitting tolerance to greater then two hours without significant discomfort. Discussion: This case suggests the interdependence of lumbopelvic and lower extremity kinematics in complaints of hamstring, posterior thigh and pelvic floor disorders. This case highlights the importance of a thorough examination as well as the need to consider a regional interdependence of the pelvic floor and lower quarter when treating individuals with proximal hamstring pain. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24175132
Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Brasil, Patricia; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Zogbi, Heruza Einsfeld; de Santis Gonçalves, Bianca; da Silva Santos, Aline; Lupi, Otilia; Valls de Souza, Rogerio; Santos Rodrigues, Cintia Damasceno Dos; da Silveira Bressan, Clarisse; Wakimoto, Mauymi Duarte; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva; Santos, Ingrid Cardoso Dos; Georg, Ingebourg; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita Maria; Veloso, Valdilea Gonçalves; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria
BackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsHIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical suspected arboviral disease from an ongoing cohort were followed from February through December 2015. Acute serum samples were tested for ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV by rRT-PCR, anti-DENV IgM/IgG, and syphilis assays; convalescent samples were tested for anti-DENV IgM/IgG; and urine samples were tested for ZIKV by rRT-PCR. ZIKV disease was defined according to the PAHO guidelines.ResultsOf 101 patients, ZIKV was confirmed in 43 cases and suspected in 34, and another diagnosis was assumed for 24 patients (dengue, secondary/latent syphilis, respiratory infections, human parvovirus B19, adverse drug reaction, musculoskeletal disorders, and acute gastroenteritis). ZIKV-confirmed and suspected patients reported similar signs and symptoms. Pruritic rash was the most common symptom, followed by myalgia, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, arthralgia, prostration, and headache. In the short-term follow-up [median 67.5 days (IQR: 32-104.5)], CD4 cell count (Z = -.831, p = 0.406) and HIV viral load (Z = -.447, p = 0.655) did not change significantly post ZIKV infection. There were no hospitalizations, complications, or deaths.ConclusionsAmong HIV-infected patients with suspected arboviral disease, 42.6% were ZIKV-infected. CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load were not different post ZIKV infection. Differential diagnosis with other diseases and adverse drug reaction should be evaluated.
Lawler, Dennis F; Reetz, Jennifer A; Sackman, Jill E; Evans, Richard H; Widga, Christopher
Hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) has been reported in numerous mammalian species, but no reports address the range of conditions that can lead to HO, or the implications of those conditions, for archaeological diagnosis. We describe suspected HO from skeletal remains of an ancient large domestic dog recovered in Iowa, USA, at the Cherokee Sewer site. Canid remains from this site date 7430-7020calBP. The site is believed to have been a temporary, low-intensity campsite where bison were procured. Over 100 specimens from two small dogs, two large dogs, and a coyote, are present in the archaeofaunal assemblage. We document five pathological metapodials; an affected left ulna, radius, tuber calcaneus, accessory carpal, radial carpal; and an affected right central, second, and third tarsal within in a proliferative mass. HO was suspected based on gross morphology, radiography, and computed tomography. HO is a paraneoplastic syndrome with undetermined underlying pathogenesis; neuroendocrine complication of a number of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases is suspected. We review known disease associations of HO to provide a balanced field for considering differential diagnosis of suspect archaeological specimens, and suggest that definitive diagnosis of HO, or suspected HO, may be impossible in many instances where only skeletal remains are available for study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Lester Dr
One of the most challenging diagnostic categories within tumors of the sinonasal tract is the small round blue cell tumors. Biopsies are usually small and limited, resulting in considerable diagnostic difficulty for practicing surgical pathologists. These tumors share several overlapping histologic and immunophenotypic findings while also showing considerable variation within and between cases. Specific tumor site of origin, imaging findings, and clinical findings must be combined with the histology and pertinent ancillary studies if the correct diagnosis is to be reached. Discrimination between neoplasms is critical as there are significant differences in therapy and overall outcome. It is important to have a well developed differential diagnosis for this category of tumors, where each of the diagnoses is considered, evaluated, and either confirmed or excluded from further consideration. In an undifferentiated tumor, showing a small round blue cell morphology, using the mnemonic 'MR SLEEP' helps to highlight tumors to consider: melanoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (including NUT carcinoma), small cell osteosarcoma, lymphoma, esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma), Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pituitary adenoma, and plasmacytoma. A panel of pertinent immunohistochemistry studies, histochemistries and/or molecular tests should aid in reaching a diagnosis, especially when taking the pattern and intensity of reactions into consideration.
Tonolini, Massimo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Bracchi, Elena; Magistrelli, Paolo; Vella, Adriana; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo
Despite availability of effective therapies, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) remains a major global disease, resulting from a combination of persistent Helicobacter pylori infection and widespread use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Albeit endoscopy definitely represents the mainstay diagnostic technique, patients presenting to emergency departments with unexplained abdominal pain generally undergo multidetector CT as an initial investigation. Although superficial ulcers generally remain inconspicuous, careful multiplanar CT interpretation may allow to detect deep ulcers, secondary mural and extraluminal signs of peptic gastroduodenitis, thereby allowing timely endoscopic verification and appropriate treatment. This pictorial essay aims to provide radiologists with an increased familiarity with CT diagnosis of non-perforated PUD, with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Following an overview of current disease epidemiology and complications, it explains the appropriate CT acquisition and interpretation techniques, and reviews with several examples the cross-sectional findings of uncomplicated PUD. Afterwards, the CT features of PUD complications such as ulcer haemorrhage, gastric outlet obstruction, biliary and pancreatic fistulisation are presented. • Gastric and duodenal peptic ulcers are increasingly caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs • Multiplanar CT interpretation allows detecting deep ulcers and secondary signs of gastroduodenitis • CT diagnosis of uncomplicated peptic disease relies on direct and indirect signs • Currently the commonest complication, haemorrhage may be treated with transarterial embolisation • Other uncommon complications include gastric outlet obstruction and biliopancreatic fistulisation.
Kammerer-Jacquet, Solène-Florence; Thierry, Sixte; Cabillic, Florian; Lannes, Morgane; Burtin, Florence; Henno, Sébastien; Dugay, Frédéric; Bouzillé, Guillaume; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Stock, Nathalie
The differential diagnosis between atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDLPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) from their morphologic counterparts is challenging. Currently, the diagnosis is guided by MDM2 and CDK4 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is confirmed by the amplification of the corresponding genes. Recently, p16 IHC has been proposed as a useful diagnostic biomarker. The objective was to assess the utility of p16 IHC in the differential diagnosis of ALT/WDLPS and DDLPS. Our series included 101 tumors that were previously analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for MDM2 and CDK4 amplification. We compared sensitivity and specificity of p16 IHC to MDM2 and CDK4 IHC in the differential diagnosis of ALT-WDLPS (n=19) versus benign adipocytic tumors (n=44) and DDLPS (n=18) versus mimicking sarcomas (n=20). In the differential diagnosis of ALT-WDLPS, p16 had a sensitivity of 89.5% but a specificity of 68.2%, which was impaired by false-positive lipomas with secondary changes, especially in biopsies. Likewise, in the differential diagnosis of DDLPS, p16 had a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 70%, which hampered its use as a single marker. However, adding p16 to MDM2 and/or CDK4 increased diagnostic specificity. Indeed, MDM2+/p16+ tumors were all ALT-WDLPS, and MDM2-/p16- tumors were all benign adipocytic tumors. Moreover, all MDM2+/CDK4+/p16+ tumors were DDLPS, and the MDM2-/CDK4-/p16- tumor was an undifferentiated sarcoma. Although the use of p16 as a single immunohistochemical marker is limited by its specificity, its combination with MDM2 and CDK4 IHC may help discriminate ALT-WDLPS/DDLPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moniaux, N; Chakraborty, S; Yalniz, M; Gonzalez, J; Shostrom, V K; Standop, J; Lele, S M; Ouellette, M; Pour, P M; Sasson, A R; Brand, R E; Hollingsworth, M A; Jain, M; Batra, S K
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with a dismal 5-year survival of less than 5%. The scarcity of early biomarkers has considerably hindered our ability to launch preventive measures for this malignancy in a timely manner. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a 24-kDa glycoprotein, was reported to be upregulated nearly 27-fold in pancreatic cancer cells compared to normal ductal cells in a microarray analysis. Given the need for biomarkers in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, we investigated the expression of NGAL in tissues with the objective of examining if NGAL immunostaining could be used to identify foci of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, premalignant lesions preceding invasive cancer. To examine a possible correlation between NGAL expression and the degree of differentiation, we also analysed NGAL levels in pancreatic cancer cell lines with varying grades of differentiation. Although NGAL expression was strongly upregulated in pancreatic cancer, and moderately in pancreatitis, only a weak expression could be detected in the healthy pancreas. The average composite score for adenocarcinoma (4.26±2.44) was significantly higher than that for the normal pancreas (1.0) or pancreatitis (1.0) (P<0.0001). Further, although both well- and moderately differentiated pancreatic cancer were positive for NGAL, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was uniformly negative. Importantly, NGAL expression was detected as early as the PanIN-1 stage, suggesting that it could be a marker of the earliest premalignant changes in the pancreas. Further, we examined NGAL levels in serum samples. Serum NGAL levels were above the cutoff for healthy individuals in 94% of pancreatic cancer and 62.5% each of acute and chronic pancreatitis samples. However, the difference between NGAL levels in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer was not significant. A ROC curve analysis revealed that ELISA for NGAL is fairly accurate in distinguishing pancreatic cancer
Tennakoon, T M P B; Rushdhi, M; Ranasinghe, A D C U; Dassanayake, R S
Thyroid cancer (TC), follicular adenoma (FA) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are three of the most frequently reported abnormalities that affect the thyroid gland. A frequent co-occurrence along with similar histopathological features is observed between TC and FA as well as between TC and HT. The conventional diagnostic methods such as histochemical analysis present complications in differential diagnosis when these abnormalities occur simultaneously. Hence, the authors recognize novel methods based on screening genetic defects of thyroid abnormalities as viable diagnostic and prognostic methods that could complement the conventional methods. We have extensively reviewed the existing literature on TC, FA and HT and also on three genes, namely braf, nras and ret/ptc, that could be used to differentially diagnose the three abnormalities. Emphasis was also given to the screening methods available to detect the said molecular markers. It can be conferred from the analysis of the available data that the utilization of braf, nras and ret/ptc as markers for the therapeutic evaluation of FA and HT is debatable. However, molecular screening for braf, nras and ret/ptc mutations proves to be a conclusive method that could be employed to differentially diagnose TC from HT and FA in the instance of a suspected co-occurrence. Thyroid cancer patients can be highly benefited from the screening for the said genetic markers, especially the braf gene due to its diagnostic value as well as due to the availability of personalized medicine targeted specifically for braf mutants.
Osako, Tomo; Takeuchi, Kengo; Horii, Rie; Iwase, Takuji; Akiyama, Futoshi
Secretory carcinoma (SC) is a rare histological type of breast cancer, and ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is highly specific to it. The differential diagnoses of SC include acinic cell carcinoma (ACCA) and cystic hypersecretory carcinoma (CHC), as well as invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). For patients with these rare but distinctive histological subtypes, SC and its histopathological mimics should be differentiated from each other. However, differential markers have not yet been assessed systematically, and we aimed to identify and evaluate novel and existing markers. We reviewed 19 cases diagnosed initially as SC using integrated diagnostic techniques, including morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology, and validated promising markers in 445 breast cancers. We reclassified 19 formerly diagnosed 'SCs' into nine SCs, three ACCAs, three CHCs, three IDCs and one microglandular adenosis. We confirmed that ETV6-NTRK3 gene rearrangement and amylase positivity are good diagnostic markers for SC and ACCA, respectively. Vacuolar staining for adipophilin, positivity for α-lactalbumin and negativity for ETV6 rearrangement are diagnostic markers for CHC. In this study, we propose a panel of four markers (ETV6 rearrangement, amylase, α-lactalbumin and adipophilin) for distinguishing SC, ACCA, CHC and IDC. This simple but robust panel will serve pathologists well as a practical guide for reaching an appropriate diagnosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vergier, J; Fromonot, J; Alvares De Azevedo Macedo, A; Godefroy, A; Marquant, E; Guieu, R; Tsimaratos, M; Reynaud, R
Diabetes insipidus is characterized by hypoosmotic polyuria related to deficiency of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) secretion (central diabetes insipidus, CDI) or renal insensitivity to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, NDI). The water deprivation test with assessment of AVP activity is currently the gold standard for differential diagnosis in patients presenting polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. Nevertheless, it can be dangerous without proper surveillance and its interpretation may be challenging. Other markers have been suggested. Direct quantification of circulating AVP is not sufficient for diagnosis: vasopressin is unstable, analysis is complex. AVP comes from prohormone preprovasopressin with concomitant release of copeptin (C-terminal moiety) in the equimolar ratio. Copeptin is stable in vitro, with easy and rapid measurement (<4h). Past studies have shown greater sensitivity and specificity of copeptin versus AVP to discriminate etiologies of polyuria in adults, but its value has not been demonstrated in infants yet. A 7-month-old infant presented polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with poor weight gain. Laboratory tests pointed out hypernatremia (170mmol/L) and blood hyperosmolarity (330mOsm/L) with inappropriate urinary hypoosmolarity (168mOsm/L). Plasmatic copeptin measurement was found at a very high level, 303pmol/L (1-14pmol/L). DdAVP administration did not improve the polyuria, confirming the final diagnosis of NDI. Hyperhydration with a hypoosmolar diet normalized the hydration status and circulating levels of copeptin within 1 week. Copeptin, a stable peptide reflecting AVP secretion, could be a safer and faster biomarker for etiological diagnosis of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome in children. Before regularization of hydration status, a single baseline measurement may be enough to discriminate NDI from other etiologies without the water deprivation test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bernauer, W; Duguid, G I; Dart, J K
Acanthamoeba keratitis is an uncommon condition which is usually associated with contact lens wear. The use of home made saline and poor hygiene are important risk factors. Early diagnosis is crucial since these cases respond well to medical therapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate early clinical signs. Between September 1992 and October 1994, 70 cases of acanthamoeba keratitis, one of them bilateral, were prospectively monitored at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. A database of all patients was set up and the clinical findings, diagnostic methods, therapeutic interventions and the outcome were recorded. 66 patients (96%) were contact lens wearers, 64 of them (97%) wore soft lenses. The mean interval between first symptoms and correct diagnosis was 42%. The most frequent initial diagnoses were "unclear keratoconjunctivitis" and "herpetic keratitis". Early corneal findings included punctate keratopathy (n = 14; 20%), pseudodendrites (n = 4; 6%), epithelial infiltrates (n = 17; 24%), diffuse or focal sub-epithelial infiltrates (n = 36; 51%) and radial keratoneuritis (n = 5; 7%). Ring infiltrates (n = 13; 18%) and corneal ulceration (n = 13) were late signs. When the above corneal findings are observed, particularly in contact lens wearers, the diagnosis of acanthamoeba keratitis should be considered. The diagnosis of "herpetic keratitis" in association with contact lens wear should be encountered with scepticism.
Paolacci, Lucia; Giannandrea, David; Mecocci, Patrizia; Parnetti, Lucilla
In recent years, many efforts have been spent to identify sensitive biomarkers able to improve the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Two different workgroups (NIA-AA and IWG) included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging findings in their sets of criteria in order to improve diagnostic accuracy as well as early diagnosis. The number of subjects with cognitive impairment increases with aging but the oldest old (≥85 years of age), the fastest growing age group, is still the most unknown from a biological point of view. For this reason, the aim of our narrative mini-review is to evaluate the pertinence of the new criteria for AD diagnosis in the oldest old. Moreover, since different subgroups of oldest old have been described in scientific literature (escapers, delayers, survivors), we want to outline the clinical profile of the oldest old who could really benefit from the use of biomarkers for early diagnosis. Reviewing the literature on biomarkers included in the diagnostic criteria, we did not find a high degree of evidence for their use in the oldest old, although CSF biomarkers seem to be still the most useful for excluding AD diagnosis in the "fit" subgroup of oldest old subjects, due to the high negative predictive value maintained in this age group.
Seror, Jeremy; Lefevre, Guillaume; Berkane, Nathalie; Richard, Frederic; Bornes, Marie; Uzan, Serge; Berkane, Nadia
Calcium-channel blockers administered to pregnant women as tocolytic agents can cause acute pulmonary edema. The first signs of this severe complication can be atypical and so delay introduction of appropriate therapy. We describe three cases in whom B-type natriuretic peptide measurements proved to be relevant in early diagnosis and monitoring of pregnant women with acute pulmonary edema. B-type natriuretic peptide measurement in this setting could contribute to timely diagnosis and improve follow-up. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Pereda, Arrate; Garin, Intza; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare disease whose phenotypic features are rather difficult to identify in some cases. Thus, although these patients may present with the Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype, which is characterized by small stature, obesity with a rounded face, subcutaneous ossifications, mental retardation and brachydactyly, its manifestations are somewhat variable. Indeed, some of them present with a complete phenotype, whereas others show only subtle manifestations. In addition, the features of the AHO phenotype are not specific to it and a similar phenotype is also commonly observed in other syndromes. Brachydactyly type E (BDE) is the most specific and objective feature of the AHO phenotype, and several genes have been associated with syndromic BDE in the past few years. Moreover, these syndromes have a skeletal and endocrinological phenotype that overlaps with AHO/PHP. In light of the above, we have developed an algorithm to aid in genetic testing of patients with clinical features of AHO but with no causative molecular defect at the GNAS locus. Starting with the feature of brachydactyly, this algorithm allows the differential diagnosis to be broadened and, with the addition of other clinical features, can guide genetic testing. We reviewed our series of patients (n = 23) with a clinical diagnosis of AHO and with brachydactyly type E or similar pattern, who were negative for GNAS anomalies, and classify them according to the diagnosis algorithm to finally propose and analyse the most probable gene(s) in each case. A review of the clinical data for our series of patients, and subsequent analysis of the candidate gene(s), allowed detection of the underlying molecular defect in 12 out of 23 patients: five patients harboured a mutation in PRKAR1A, one in PDE4D, four in TRPS1 and two in PTHLH. This study confirmed that the screening of other genes implicated in syndromes with BDE and AHO or a similar phenotype is very
Garriga, Marina; Milà, Marta; Mir, Manzoor; Al-Baradie, Raid; Huertas, Sonia; Castejon, Cesar; Casas, Laura; Badenes, Dolors; Giménez, Nuria; Font, M. Angels; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Ysamat, Maria; Aguilar, Miguel; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the most common cause of dementia. Cerebral ischemia is a major risk factor for development of dementia. 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DaTScan) is a complementary tool in the differential diagnoses of patients with incomplete or uncertain Parkinsonism. Additional application of DaTScan enables the categorization of Parkinsonian disease with dementia (PDD), and its differentiation from pure AD, and may further contribute to change the therapeutic decision. The aim of this study was to analyze the vascular contribution towards dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated the utility of DaTScan for the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with and without a clinical vascular component, and the association between neuropsychological function, vascular component and dopaminergic function on DaTScan. One-hundred and five patients with MCI or the initial phases of dementia were studied prospectively. We developed an initial assessment using neurologic examination, blood tests, cognitive function tests, structural neuroimaging and DaTScan. The vascular component was later quantified in two ways: clinically, according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and by structural neuroimaging using Wahlund Scale Total Score (WSTS). Early diagnosis of dementia was associated with an abnormal DaTScan. A significant association was found between a high WSTS and an abnormal DaTScan (p < 0.01). Mixed AD was the group with the highest vascular component, followed by the VaD group, while MCI and pure AD showed similar WSTS. No significant associations were found between neuropsychological impairment and DaTScan independently of associated vascular component. DaTScan seems to be a good tool to discriminate, in a first clinical assessment, patients with MCI from those with established dementia. There was bigger general vascular affectation observable in MRI or CT in patients with abnormal dopaminergic uptake seen on Da
Pundhir, Sachin; Bratt Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine; Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Jakobsen, Janus Schou; Ge, Ying; Schoof, Erwin Marten; Rapin, Nicolas; Waage, Johannes; Hasemann, Marie Sigurd; Porse, Bo Torben
Transcription factors PU.1 and CEBPA are required for the proper coordination of enhancer activity during granulocytic-monocytic (GM) lineage differentiation to form myeloid cells. However, precisely how these factors control the chronology of enhancer establishment during differentiation is not known. Through integrated analyses of enhancer dynamics, transcription factor binding, and proximal gene expression during successive stages of murine GM-lineage differentiation, we unravel the distinct kinetics by which PU.1 and CEBPA coordinate GM enhancer activity. We find no evidence of a pioneering function of PU.1 during late GM-lineage differentiation. Instead, we delineate a set of enhancers that gain accessibility in a CEBPA-dependent manner, suggesting a pioneering function of CEBPA. Analyses of Cebpa null bone marrow demonstrate that CEBPA controls PU.1 levels and, unexpectedly, that the loss of CEBPA results in an early differentiation block. Taken together, our data provide insights into how PU.1 and CEBPA functionally interact to drive GM-lineage differentiation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mugambi, Melissa Latigo; Deo, Sarang; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Kiyaga, Charles; Singer, Mendel E.
Background There is scant evidence on the association between diagnosis delays and the receipt of test results in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) programs. We determine the association between diagnosis delays and other health care system and patient factors on result receipt. Methods We reviewed 703 infant HIV test records for tests performed between January 2008 and February 2009 at a regional referral hospital and level four health center in Uganda. The main outcome was caregiver receipt of the test result. The primary study variable was turnaround time (time between sample collection and result availability at the health facility). Additional variables included clinic entry point, infant age at sample collection, reported HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted a pooled analysis in addition to separate analyses for each facility. We estimated the relative risk of result receipt using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Results Overall, the median result turnaround time, was 38 days. 59% of caregivers received infant test results. Caregivers were less likely to receive results at turnaround times greater than 49 days compared to 28 days or fewer (ARR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70–0.98). Caregivers were more likely to receive results at the PMTCT clinic (ARR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.40–2.33) and less likely at the pediatric ward (ARR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.81) compared to the immunization clinic. At the level four health center, result receipt was half as likely among infants older than 9 months compared to 3 months and younger (ARR= 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.93). Conclusion In this study setting, we find evidence that longer turnaround times, clinic entry point and age at sample collection may be associated with receipt of infant HIV test results. PMID:24282502
Obar, Joshua J; Lefrançois, Leo
Understanding the regulation of the CD8(+) T-cell response and how protective memory cells are generated has been intensely studied. It is now appreciated that a naive CD8(+) T cell requires at least three signals to mount an effective immune response: (i) TCR triggering, (ii) co-stimulation and (iii) inflammatory cytokines. Only recently have we begun to understand the molecular integration of those signals and how early events regulate the fate decisions of the responding CD8(+) T cells. This review will discuss the recent findings about both the extracellular and intracellular factors that regulate the destiny of responding CD8(+) T cells.
Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Feyen, Bart F E; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Bjerke, Maria; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan
Differential dementia diagnosis remains a challenge due to overlap of clinical profiles, which often results in diagnostic doubt. Determine the added diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for differential dementia diagnosis as compared to autopsy-confirmed diagnosis. Seventy-one dementia patients with autopsy-confirmed diagnoses were included in this study. All neuropathological diagnoses were established according to standard neuropathological criteria and consisted of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementias (NONAD). CSF levels of Aβ1 - 42, T-tau, and P-tau181 were determined and interpreted based on the IWG-2 and NIA-AA criteria, separately. A panel of three neurologists experienced with dementia made clinical consensus dementia diagnoses. Clinical and CSF biomarker diagnoses were compared to the autopsy-confirmed diagnoses. Forty-two patients (59%) had autopsy-confirmed AD, whereas 29 patients (41%) had autopsy-confirmed NONAD. Of the 24 patients with an ambiguous clinical dementia diagnosis, a correct diagnosis would have been established in 67% of the cases applying CSF biomarkers in the context of the IWG-2 or the NIA-AA criteria respectively. AD CSF biomarkers have an added diagnostic value in differential dementia diagnosis and can help establishing a correct dementia diagnosis in case of ambiguous clinical dementia diagnoses.
Rennie, Winston J; Jans, Lennart; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Eshed, Iris
Anterior chest wall (ACW) inflammation is not an uncommon finding in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) and reportedly occurs in 26% of these patients. Radiologists may only be familiar with spinal and peripheral joint imaging, possibly due to the inherent challenges of ACW imaging on some cross-sectional imaging modalities. Knowledge of relevant joint anatomy and the location of sites of inflammation allows the interpreting radiologist to better plan appropriate imaging tests and imaging planes. Accurate assessment of disease burden, sometimes in the absence of clinical findings, may alert the treating rheumatologist, allowing a better estimation of disease burden, increased accuracy of potential imaging scoring systems, and optimize assessment and response to treatment. This article reviews salient anatomy and various imaging modalities to optimize diagnosis, important differential diagnoses, and the interpretation of ACW imaging findings in ax-SpA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Jinnah, Alexander H; Emory, Cynthia L; Mai, Nicholas H; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T
Hidradenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare adenexal tumor with a propensity for the head and neck region and extremities. We report a case of hidradenocarcinnoma in a 56-year-old woman with a mass on her right palm sampled by fine-needle aspiration and later confirmed on histological examination. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a dual population of cells including polyhedral eosinophilic cells and glycogen containing cells with pale/clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were pleomorphic with prominent nucleoli. Occassional papillary structures were identified on the cell block material. A series of immunohistochemical stains were performed and an adnexal neoplasm was suggested. The mass was resected. On histologic sections, infiltration into the adjacent soft tissue was identified. After an additional series of immunohistochemical stains, the diagnosis was confirmed as a HAC. Herein, we present our findings and discuss the differential diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Katz Sand, Ilana B.; Honce, Justin M.; Lublin, Fred D.
Several single gene disorders share clinical and radiologic characteristics with multiple sclerosis and have the potential to be overlooked in the differential diagnostic evaluation of both adult and paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis. This group includes lysosomal storage disorders, various mitochondrial diseases, other neurometabolic disorders, and several other miscellaneous disorders. Recognition of a single-gene disorder as causal for a patient’s ‘multiple sclerosis-like’ phenotype is critically important for accurate direction of patient management, and evokes broader genetic counselling implications for affected families. Here we review single gene disorders that have the potential to mimic multiple sclerosis, provide an overview of clinical and investigational characteristics of each disorder, and present guidelines for when clinicians should suspect an underlying heritable disorder that requires diagnostic confirmation in a patient with a definite or probable diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:25636970
Rauh, Peter; Neye, Holger; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter; Rickes, Steffen
Because jaundice is a common reason for hospital admission. A fast and correct differential diagnosis is very important to increase treatment efficacy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the high-resolution ultrasound in this kind of clinical setting. In a prospective study we included 30 patients and we divided them in patients with extrahepatic jaundice and patients with intrahepatic jaundice. We observed a high accuracy of the high-resolution sonography, with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100% for extrahepatic jaundice, and a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for intrahepatic jaundice. We conclude that the high-resolution ultrasound should be used in the very beginning of the diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of patients with unclear jaundice.
Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; Andrade, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro de; Brito, Fernanda Freitas de; Silva, Gardênia Viana da; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli
Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm.
Nobunaga, T; Azuma, C; Kimura, T; Tokugawa, Y; Takemura, M; Kamiura, S; Saji, F; Tanizawa, O
We used a new method of deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprint analysis to obtain the differential diagnosis between complete mole and hydropic abortus. This method with a deoxyribonucleic acid minisatellite probe requires only a small amount of tissue sample and peripheral blood, and presents individual specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (deoxyribonucleic acid "fingerprints") by simultaneous detection of many hypervariable regions (minisatellite regions) widely dispersed in the human genome. Southern blot hybridization showed that in cases of complete mole, all polymorphic fragments were exclusively inherited from the father. Some of the polymorphic bands of paternal deoxyribonucleic acid were not observed in molar deoxyribonucleic acid. However, in the hydropic abortus, the polymorphic fragments could be traced back to its parent. These results indicate that deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprints could distinguish the abnormal fertilization of complete mole (androgenesis) from the normal fertilization of hydropic abortus by identifying the difference in genetic variations between complete mole and hydropic abortus at the deoxyribonucleic acid level.
Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; de Andrade, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro; de Brito, Fernanda Freitas; da Silva, Gardênia Viana; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli
Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm. PMID:28225970
Ishibashi, Tomohiko; Yokota, Takafumi; Satoh, Yusuke; Ichii, Michiko; Sudo, Takao; Doi, Yukiko; Ueda, Tomoaki; Nagate, Yasuhiro; Hamanaka, Yuri; Tanimura, Akira; Ezoe, Sachiko; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru
Information of myeloid lineage-related antigen on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is important to clarify the mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis, as well as for the diagnosis and treatment of myeloid malignancies. We previously reported that special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1), a global chromatin organizer, promotes lymphoid differentiation from HSPCs. To search a novel cell surface molecule discriminating early myeloid and lymphoid differentiation, we performed microarray analyses comparing SATB1-overexpressed HSPCs with mock-transduced HSPCs. The results drew our attention to membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 3 (Ms4a3) as the most downregulated molecule in HSPCs with forced overexpression of SATB1. Ms4a3 expression was undetectable in hematopoietic stem cells, but showed a concomitant increase with progressive myeloid differentiation, whereas not only lymphoid but also megakaryocytic-erythrocytic progenitors were entirely devoid of Ms4a3 expression. Further analysis revealed that a subset of CD34 + CD38 + CD33 + progenitor population in human adult bone marrow expressed MS4A3, and those MS4A3 + progenitors only produced granulocyte/macrophage colonies, losing erythroid colony- and mixed colony-forming capacity. These results suggest that cell surface expression of MS4A3 is useful to distinguish granulocyte/macrophage lineage-committed progenitors from other lineage-related ones in early human hematopoiesis. In conclusion, MS4A3 is useful to monitor early stage of myeloid differentiation in human hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bharti, Brij; Shukla, Sachin; Tripathi, Ratnakar; Mishra, Suman; Kumar, Mohan; Pandey, Manoj; Mishra, Rajnikant
Background & objectives: The PAX5, a paired box transcription factor and B-cell activator protein (BSAP), activates B-cell commitment genes and represses non-B-cell lineage genes. About 14 transcript variants of PAX5 have been observed in human. Any alteration in its expression pattern leads to lymphogenesis or associated diseases and carcinogenesis in non-lymphoid tissues. Its mechanisms of function in pathophysiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are unclear. This study was intended to explore influence of PAX5 in cascade of NHL pathogenesis and diagnosis. Methods: Samples of 65 patients were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for cellular localization of PAX5, CD19, CD3, cABL, p53, Ras and Raf and by TUNEL assay, RNA-isolation and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, Western blot analysis, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) specific staining. Results: B-cell type NHL patients were positive for PAX5, p53, Ras, CD19, Raf and CD3. All of them showed TUNEL-positive cells. The differential expression pattern of PAX5, CD19, p53, CD3, ZAP70, HIF1α, Ras, Raf and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) at the levels of transcripts and proteins was observed. The LDH assay showed modulation of LDH4 and LDH5 isoforms in the lymph nodes of NHL patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The histological observations suggested that the patients represent diverse cases of NHL like mature B-cell type, mature T-cell type and high grade diffuse B-cell type NHL. The findings indicate that patients with NHL may also be analyzed for status of PAX5, CD19 and ZAP70, and their transcriptional and post-translational variants for the differential diagnosis of NHL and therapy. PMID:27748274
Laco, J; Ryska, A
The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of galectin-3 (gal3), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and E-cadherin (Ecad) in thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern with particular focus on their use in differential diagnosis. A series of 139 cases - 87 follicular adenomas (FAs), 26 follicular carcinomas (FCs), and 26 cases of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) was studied. Expression of gal3 was found in 29/87 (33%) of FAs, in 13/26 (50%) of FCs, and in 24/26 (92%) of FVPCs. Expression of CK19 was found in 11/87 (13%) of FAs, in 4/26 (15%) of FCs, and in 17/26 (65%) of FVPCs. Expression of NCAM was found in 60/87 (69%) of FAs, in 20/26 (77%) of FCs, and in 7/26 (27%) FVPCs. Expression of Ecad was found in 81/87 (93%) of FAs, in 22/26 (85%) of FCs, and in 17/26 (65%) of FVPCs. The sensitivity and specificity of gal3 for malignancy were 0.70 and 0.85, of CK19 0.48 and 0.98, of NCAM 0.28 and 0.47, and of Ecad 0.48 and 0.20, respectively. A significant difference (p < 0.05) in expression of all studied markers between FVPC versus FA and FC was found, in contrast to FA and FC. Therefore, the use of gal3 and CK19 in differential diagnosis of FVPC versus FA and FC can be recommended.
Hung, Chien-Ya; Sun, Pei-Lun; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Jaw, Fu-Shan
Similar clinical appearances prevent accurate diagnosis of two common skin diseases, clavus and verruca. In this study, electrical impedance is employed as a novel tool to generate a predictive model for differentiating these two diseases. We used 29 clavus and 28 verruca lesions. To obtain impedance parameters, a LCR-meter system was applied to measure capacitance (C), resistance (Re), impedance magnitude (Z), and phase angle (θ). These values were combined with lesion thickness (d) to characterize the tissue specimens. The results from clavus and verruca were then fitted to a univariate logistic regression model with the generalized estimating equations (GEE) method. In model generation, log ZSD and θSD were formulated as predictors by fitting a multiple logistic regression model with the same GEE method. The potential nonlinear effects of covariates were detected by fitting generalized additive models (GAM). Moreover, the model was validated by the goodness-of-fit (GOF) assessments. Significant mean differences of the index d, Re, Z, and θ are found between clavus and verruca (p<0.001). A final predictive model is established with Z and θ indices. The model fits the observed data quite well. In GOF evaluation, the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve is 0.875 (>0.7), the adjusted generalized R2 is 0.512 (>0.3), and the p value of the Hosmer-Lemeshow GOF test is 0.350 (>0.05). This technique promises to provide an approved model for differential diagnosis of clavus and verruca. It could provide a rapid, relatively low-cost, safe and non-invasive screening tool in clinic use.
van der Waaij, Laurens A; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Porte, Robert J
Pancreatic cystic tumors commonly include serous cystadenoma (SCA), mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCAC). A differential diagnosis with pseudocysts (PC) can be difficult. Radiologic criteria are not reliable. The objective of the study is to investigate the value of cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of benign (SCA, PC) vs. premalignant or malignant (MCA, MCAC) lesions. A search in PubMed was performed with the search terms cyst, pancrea, and fluid. Articles about cyst fluid analysis of pancreatic lesions that contained the individual data of at least 7 patients were included in the study. Data of all individual patients were combined and were plotted in scatter grams. Cutoff levels were determined. Twelve studies were included, which comprised data of 450 patients. Cysts with an amylase concentration <250 U/L were SCA, MCA, or MCAC (sensitivity 44%, specificity 98%) and, thus, virtually excluded PC. A carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) <5 ng/mL suggested a SCA or PC (sensitivity 50%, specificity 95%). A CEA >800 ng/mL strongly suggested MCA or MCAC (sensitivity 48%, specificity 98%). A carbohydrate-associated antigen (CA) 19-9 <37 U/mL strongly suggested PC or SCA (sensitivity 19%, specificity 98%). Cytologic examination revealed malignant cells in 48% of MCAC (n = 111). Most pancreatic cystic tumors should be resected without the need for cyst fluid analysis. However, in asymptomatic patients, in patients with an increased surgical risk, and, in patients in whom there is a diagnostic uncertainty about the presence of a PC, cyst fluid analysis helps to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy.
Cogendez, Ebru; Eken, Meryem Kurek; Bakal, Nuray; Gun, Ismet; Kaygusuz, Ecmel Isik; Karateke, Ates
The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the role of power Doppler imaging in the differential diagnosis of benign intrauterine focal lesions such as endometrial polyps and submucous myomas using the characteristics of power Doppler flow mapping. A total of 480 premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding were evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) searching for intrauterine pathology. Sixty-four patients with a suspicious focal endometrial lesion received saline infusion sonography (SIS) after TVS. Fifty-eight patients with focal endometrial lesions underwent power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS). Three different vascular flow patterns were defined: Single vessel pattern, multiple vessel pattern, and circular flow pattern. Finally, hysteroscopic resection was performed in all cases, and Doppler flow characteristics were then compared with the final histopathological findings. Histopathological results were as follows: endometrial polyp: 40 (69 %), submucous myoma: 18 (31 %). Of the cases with endometrial polyps, 80 % demonstrated a single vessel pattern, 7.5 % a multiple vessel pattern, and 0 % a circular pattern. Vascularization was not observed in 12.5 % of patients with polyps. Of the cases with submucousal myomas, 72.2 % demonstrated a circular flow pattern, 27.8 % a multiple vessel pattern, and none of them showed a single vessel pattern. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the single vessel pattern in diagnosing endometrial polyps were 80, 100, 100, and 69.2 %, respectively; and for the circular pattern in diagnosing submucous myoma, these were 72.2, 100, 100, and 88.9 %, respectively. Power Doppler blood flow mapping is a useful, practical, and noninvasive diagnostic method for the differential diagnosis of benign intrauterine focal lesions. Especially in cases of recurrent abnormal uterine bleeding, recurrent abortion, and infertility, PDUS can be preferred as a first-line diagnostic method.
Lisowska, Anna; Rekik, Islem
Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored. To ﬁll this gap, we propose a joint morphological brain multiplexes pairing and mapping strategy for early MCI detection, where a brain multiplex not only encodes the similarity in morphology between pairs of brain regions, but also a pair of brain morphological networks. Experimental results conﬁrm that the proposed framework outperforms in classification accuracy several state-of-the-art methods. More importantly, we unprecedentedly identiﬁed most discriminative brain morphological networks between eMCI and NC, which included the paired views derived from maximum principal curvature and the sulcal depth for the left hemisphere and sulcal depth and the average curvature for the right hemisphere. We also identified the most highly correlated morphological brain connections in our cohort, which included the (pericalcarine cortex, insula cortex) on the maximum principal curvature view, (entorhinal cortex, insula cortex) on the mean sulcal depth view, and (entorhinal cortex, pericalcarine cortex) on the mean average curvature view, for both hemispheres. These highly correlated morphological connections might serve as biomarkers for early MCI diagnosis.
Yao, Yibing; Fan, Yu; Wu, Jun; Wan, Haisu; Wang, Jing; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F.; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Qinghua
To identify a panel of tumor associated autoantibodies which can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-five unique and in-frame expressed phage proteins were isolated. Based on the gene expression profiling, four proteins were selected for further study. Both receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and leave-one-out method revealed that combined measurements of four antibodies produced have better predictive accuracies than any single marker alone. Leave-one-out validation also showed significant relevance with all stages of NSCLC patients. The panel of autoantibodies has a high potential for detecting early stage NSCLC. PMID:22713465
Shapira, Yehoshua; Finkelstein, Tamar; Kadry, Rana; Schonberger, Shirley; Shpack, Nir
Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.
Drotár, Peter; Mekyska, Jiří; Rektorová, Irena; Masarová, Lucia; Smékal, Zdeněk; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos
We present the PaHaW Parkinson's disease handwriting database, consisting of handwriting samples from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls. Our goal is to show that kinematic features and pressure features in handwriting can be used for the differential diagnosis of PD. The database contains records from 37 PD patients and 38 healthy controls performing eight different handwriting tasks. The tasks include drawing an Archimedean spiral, repetitively writing orthographically simple syllables and words, and writing of a sentence. In addition to the conventional kinematic features related to the dynamics of handwriting, we investigated new pressure features based on the pressure exerted on the writing surface. To discriminate between PD patients and healthy subjects, three different classifiers were compared: K-nearest neighbors (K-NN), ensemble AdaBoost classifier, and support vector machines (SVM). For predicting PD based on kinematic and pressure features of handwriting, the best performing model was SVM with classification accuracy of Pacc=81.3% (sensitivity Psen=87.4% and specificity of Pspe=80.9%). When evaluated separately, pressure features proved to be relevant for PD diagnosis, yielding Pacc=82.5% compared to Pacc=75.4% using kinematic features. Experimental results showed that an analysis of kinematic and pressure features during handwriting can help assess subtle characteristics of handwriting and discriminate between PD patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cross, Shane P M; Hermens, Daniel F; Scott, Jan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Hickie, Ian B
To examine whether clinical stage of illness and current diagnosis influence appointment behaviour in a specialized primary-level youth mental health service. Factors associated with attendance at 8697 appointments made by 828 young people (females = 497) aged 12-25 years over a 1-year period were analysed. The number of appointments made did not correlate with the rates of attendance. However, those with more severe psychiatric morbidity made significantly more appointments and missed significantly more appointments than those with less severe presentations. Impaired social functioning was the best predictor of female attendance rates, whereas age and clinical stage of illness best predicted male attendance rates. Current diagnosis rather than functional impairment appeared to influence the level of input offered by clinicians. Age, gender, severity of illness, functioning and psychological distress had differential associations with both planned treatment intensity and attendance rates. These differences are likely to have implications for service provision in this youth population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Taurines, Regina; Schwenck, Christina; Westerwald, Eva; Sachse, Michael; Siniatchkin, Michael; Freitag, Christine
According to DSM-IV TR and ICD-10, a diagnosis of autism or Asperger Syndrome precludes a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, despite the different conceptualization, population-based twin studies reported symptom overlap, and a recent epidemiologically based study reported a high rate of ADHD in autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the planned revision of the DSM-IV TR, dsm5 (www.dsm5.org), the diagnoses of autistic disorder and ADHD will not be mutually exclusive any longer. This provides the basis of more differentiated studies on overlap and distinction between both disorders. This review presents data on comorbidity rates and symptom overlap and discusses common and disorder-specific risk factors, including recent proteomic studies. Neuropsychological findings in the areas of attention, reward processing, and social cognition are then compared between both disorders, as these cognitive abilities show overlapping as well as specific impairment for one of both disorders. In addition, selective brain imaging findings are reported. Therapeutic options are summarized, and new approaches are discussed. The review concludes with a prospectus on open questions for research and clinical practice.
Bedrossian, C.W.; Bonsib, S.; Moran, C.
Most compensations for asbestos-related deaths secondary to cancer center around mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma is a common and troublesome one, necessitating the correlation between clinical history, radiographic findings, and pathologic examination of tissues and cells. We describe a multimodal approach based on the use of routine and special stains, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy for distinguishing between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. Once a malignant diagnosis is arrived at by careful pathological examination, the tumor is classified as mesothelioma if mesothelial cells are identified as the constituent cells of the neoplasm. Mesothelial cells are recognized bymore » (1) their main ultrastructural features: slender and elongated microvilli, abundant intermediate filaments, and lacking secretory granules; and (2) their characteristic immunocytochemical reactivity: positivity for cytokeratin, EMA, and vimentin, and negativity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), B72-3, Leu-M1, and other gland-cell markers. A variety of methods have been attempted in an effort to distinguish between reactive and malignant mesothelial cells. In practice, however, such distinction depends more on experience and expertise than in any fool-proof ancillary tests. A number of these tests are discussed along with the illustration of classical and unusual examples of mesothelioma and other pleural tumors.« less
Dias, Olívia Meira; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Pennati, Francesca; Aliverti, Andrea; Chate, Rodrigo Caruso; Sawamura, Márcio Valente Yamada; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de; Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira de
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a disease with variable clinical presentation in which inflammation in the lung parenchyma is caused by the inhalation of specific organic antigens or low molecular weight substances in genetically susceptible individuals. Alterations of the acute, subacute and chronic forms may eventually overlap, and the diagnosis based on temporality and presence of fibrosis (acute/inflammatory HP vs. chronic HP) seems to be more feasible and useful in clinical practice. Differential diagnosis of chronic HP with other interstitial fibrotic diseases is challenging due to the overlap of the clinical history, and the functional and imaging findings of these pathologies in the terminal stages. Areas covered: This article reviews the essential features of HP with emphasis on imaging features. Moreover, the main methodological limitations of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) interpretation are discussed, as well as new perspectives with volumetric quantitative CT analysis as a useful tool for retrieving detailed and accurate information from the lung parenchyma. Expert commentary: Mosaic attenuation is a prominent feature of this disease, but air trapping in chronic HP seems overestimated. Quantitative analysis has the potential to estimate the involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma more accurately and could correlate better with pulmonary function results.
Troyer, Mark R
Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder that can cause musculoskeletal symptoms and manifest as nonspecific low back pain. The patient was a 25-year-old woman who reported the sudden onset of severe left-sided lumbosacral, lower quadrant, buttock, and thigh pain. The physical therapist examination revealed findings suggestive of a pelvic visceral disorder during the diagnostic process. The physical therapist referred the patient for medical consultation, and she was later diagnosed by a gynecologist with endometriosis and a left ovarian cyst. The patient underwent laser laparoscopy and excision of the ovarian cyst followed by a regimen of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. The intervention resulted in abolition of the lower quadrant pain and a significant reduction of the back and leg pain that enabled the patient to return to her normal activities. A thorough physical therapist examination that considers all of the musculoskeletal, visceral, and psychosocial components is essential to identify pelvic disorders such as endometriosis and other disease processes during the differential diagnosis of nonspecific low back pain. Medical consultation is necessary to provide proper diagnosis and intervention of endometriosis, but physical therapists also may have an important role in the identification of endometriosis and the management of the musculoskeletal aspects of the disorder.
Turkmen, G G; Karçaaltıncaba, D; Isık, H; Fidancı, V; Kaayalp, D; Tımur, H; Batıoglu, S
Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) is important due to life-threatening consequences in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the prediction of EP. Forty-one patients with unruptured ectopic pregnancy comprised the case group and forty-two first trimester pregnant women with shown foetal heart beating in ultrasound comprised the control group. The mean ADA level in EP (10.9 ± 3.0 IU/L) was higher than that in control group (9.2 ± 3.6 IU/L) (p = 0.018). Receiver operating characteristics or ROC curve identified ADA value of 10.95 IU/L as optimal threshold for the prediction of EP with 56% sensitivity and 67% specificity. High ADA levels are valuable in the early diagnosis of EP. However more comprehensive studies are required.
Xie, Dan-dan; Li, Xiao-song; Liu, Yuan-yuan
To determine the value of blink reflex in early diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Bell palsy. Blink reflex and facial nerve conduction were examined in 58 patients with Bell palsy within one week after symptom onset. The patients without response of R1 , R2 and R2 ' waves were classified as complete efferent retardarce (Group A, 30 cases), and those with response of R1 , R2 and R2 ' waves were classified as incomplete efferent anomalies (Group B, 28 cases). The clinical outcomes after three months of systemic therapy were evaluated using the House-Blackmann (H-B) scale. Efferent anomalies of blink reflex occurred in ail of the 58 patients. Abnormal results of facial nerve conduction appeared in 23 (39. 7%) patients. The three months therapy was effective in 93% patients in Group B and 70% patients in Group A (P<0. 05). Blink reflex can play a significant role in early diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of Bell palsy.
Wang, Xian-Ling; Li, Cun-Jiang
To explore the early diagnosis of germinoma originating from the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus during juveniles. Retrospective analysis was done with the clinical cases of germinomas in BG and thalamus from 2000 to 2009. The symptoms, signs, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were analyzed and related literature were reviewed. Eight patents were collected. The main symptoms were hemiplegia, associated with aphasia and/or impaired cognition. Brain CT showed high density and calcification. Abnormal T1 and T2 signal were found in brain MRI frequently associated with ipsilateral hemisphere atrophy. MRS showed increased choline and decreased N-acetylaspartate level. Elevated CSF human chorionic gonadotrophin level were found in two of them. Germinoma in BG and thalamus predominates in a boy. The neuroimaging features are very informative for early diagnosis.
Chopra, G S; Narula, A S; Reddy, P S; Bhardwaj, J R
A total of 86 renal transplant patients who were transplanted with live related donor (LRD) and live unrelated donor (LURD) kidneys were studied for opportunistic infections. Immune diagnosis of Toxoplasma, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes-simplex virus type II (HSV-2), Aspergillosis and Tuberculosis was carried out in these patients along with sputum examination, CSF studies and biopsy of lymphnode and other tissues in few cases. A high degree of Toxoplasma, CMV & HSV-2 positivity was seen in transplanted patients. However sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculos was found to be low with standard criteria, which increased significantly when modified criteria were used. It is concluded that regular immunological monitoring should be carried out in transplanted patients so as to reach an early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections.
Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Hamangaba, Francis; Mayani, Felix; Moss, William J.
Background Early infant HIV diagnosis is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas where laboratory capacity is limited. Specimens must be transported to central laboratories for testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. This study was undertaken in rural Zambia to measure the turnaround time for confirmation of HIV infection and identify delays in diagnosis. Methods Chart reviews were conducted from 2010–2012 for children undergoing early infant HIV diagnosis at Macha Hospital in Zambia. Relevant dates, receipt of drugs by mother and child for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and test results were abstracted. Results 403 infants provided 476 samples for early infant diagnosis. The median age at the “6-week” and “6-month” assessments was 8.1 weeks and 7.0 months, respectively. The majority of mothers (80%) and infants (67%) received PMTCT. The median time between sample collection and arrival at the central laboratory in Lusaka was 17 days (IQR: 10, 28); arrival at the central laboratory to testing was 6 days (IQR: 5, 11); testing to return of results to the clinic was 29 days (IQR: 17, 36); arrival of results at the clinic to return of results to the caregiver was 45 days (IQR: 24, 79). The total median time from sample collection to return of results to the caregiver was 92 days (IQR: 84, 145). The proportion of HIV PCR positive samples was 12%. The total median turnaround time was shorter for HIV PCR positive as compared to negative or invalid samples (85 vs. 92 days; p = 0.08). Conclusions Delays in processing and communicating test results were identified, particularly in returning results from the central laboratory to the clinic and from the clinic to the caregiver. A more efficient process is needed so that caregivers can be provided test results more rapidly, potentially resulting in earlier treatment initiation and better outcomes for HIV-infected infants
Kiong, Kimberley L.; Tan, Ngian Chye; Skanthakumar, Thakshayeni; Teo, Constance E.H.; Soo, Khee Chee; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Roche, Elizabeth; Yee, Kaisin
Objective Orocutaneous and pharyngocutaneous fistula (OPCF) is a debilitating complication of head and neck surgery for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), resulting in delayed adjuvant treatment and prolonged hospitalization. As yet, there is no established test that can help in prompt and accurate diagnosis of OPCF. This study aims to determine the accuracy of bedside blue dye testing and its role as part of an algorithm for early diagnosis. We also analyze the risk factors predisposing to OPCF. Study Design Retrospective cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Methods Patients with head and neck SCC who underwent major resection and reconstruction, at risk of OPCF, were included. Results of blue‐dye and video‐fluoroscopic swallow‐studies (VFSS) testing for OPCF were recorded. For the patients that were noted to develop OPCF, the length of time to diagnosis of fistula and subsequent mode of management were examined. Results Of the 93 patients in this study, 25 (26.9%) developed OPCF. Advanced T‐classification (T3/T4) was the only significant predisposing risk factor (p = 0.013). The sensitivity and specificity of the bedside blue dye testing was found to be 36.4% and 100%, respectively. The test positive patients were diagnosed with OPCF at a median of postoperative day (POD) 9.5 as compared to POD 13 for the test negative patients (p = 0.001). Early diagnosis was associated with faster fistula resolution with treatment. Conclusion Blue dye testing is a simple bedside test that can assist in the early diagnosis of OPCF in patients, allowing treatment to be instituted earlier with improved outcomes. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29299509
Bruce, Irene; Ntlholang, Ontefetse; Crosby, Lisa; Cunningham, Conal; Lawlor, Brian
This study aimed to examine the validity of the Naturalistic Action Test in differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment from early dementia compared to clinical diagnosis and ascertain Naturalistic Action Test cut-off points. This was a cross-sectional study of 70 consecutive patients diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment attending the memory clinic in St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Patients with a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment who attended for routine annual assessment were asked to participate in the study. The Naturalistic Action Test was carried out after the patient had completed their routine assessment in the clinic. The Area under the Curve, AUC ± SE was 0.808 ± 0.058, p < 0.001 with 95% CI (0.695-0.922). There was concordance in 40 and discrepancy in 30 patients between the NAT and the gold standard consensus diagnosis (PPV 38%, NPV 96%, sensitivity 94%, specificity 46% and accuracy 59%) using cut-off point of ≥14 for normal function on Naturalistic Action Test. The difference was not related to age, sex, level of education or informant. Using the Youden index, we determined a Naturalistic Action Test cut-off score of ≥11 for Mild Cognitive Impairment in our study (PPV 50%, NPV 91%, sensitivity 78%, specificity 73% and accuracy of 74%). There was discrepancy in 18 patients using the new cut-off point (≥11 for Mild Cognitive Impairment vs ≤10 for dementia). The Naturalistic Action Test is a useful tool that can increase diagnostic accuracy in differentiating Mild Cognitive Impairment from early dementia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Henkel, Katrin; Lange, Peter; Eiffert, Helmut; Nau, Roland; Spreer, Annette
Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FP) is the most common single nerve affection. Most cases are idiopathic, but a relevant fraction is caused by potentially treatable aetiologies including infections. Not all current diagnosis and treatment guidelines recommend routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in the diagnostic workup of this symptom. In this study, we evaluated frequency of aetiologies and relevance of CSF analysis in an interdisciplinary cohort. We retrospectively analysed all cases of newly diagnosed FP treated at a German university medical centre in a 3-year period. Diagnostic certainty was classified for infectious aetiologies according to clinical and CSF parameters. 380 patients with FP were identified, 63 children and 317 adults. Idiopathic Bell´s palsy was predominant in 61 %. 25 % of FP was attributed to infections, and other causes were identified in 14 %. Clinical presentation alone was not conclusive for infectious aetiology, in almost half of patients with infection-attributed FP the reported symptoms or clinical signs did not differ from common symptoms of idiopathic Bell`s palsy. Determination of C-reactive protein or white blood cell count was not helpful in the identification of infectious causes, and radiological imaging was performed in a high proportion of adult patients without conclusive results. Nuchal rigidity was found only in 7 % of patients with CSF pleocytosis. The predominant infectious agents were Borrelia burgdorferi, VZV and HSV, and in most of these cases diagnosis relied on the findings of CSF analysis. This study outlines the importance of careful differential diagnosis to identify infectious causes of facial nerve palsy. The high incidence and frequent unspecific clinical presentation of infectious FP underlines the importance of including CSF analysis in the diagnostic routine workup of FP.
Reports of cutaneous myopericytoma (MPC) are very rare. The author herein reports a case of minute MPC of the neck. A 56-year-old woman noticed a painful small tumor in the neck, and consulted to our hospital. Dermatologists's diagnosis is a hyperplastic lymph node. Excision of the tumor was performed. Grossly, the tumor was a sold white tumor measuring 3 × 3 × 3 mm. Microscopically, it consisted of many vascular channels and perivascular cell proliferation encased by a fibrous capsule. The vascular proliferation showed a hemangiopericytoma (HPC)-like pattern such as staghorn-like vessels. Fibrosis was not present. The HPC-like cells had vesicular nuclei and polygonal cytoplasm. No atypia is recognized. The HPC-like cells focally showed vague nodular proliferation around the vessels. Immunohistocheically, the tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin, and positive for vimentin. The vasculatures were positive for factor VIII-related antigen, CD34, and CD31. The HPC-like tumor cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin and h-caldesmon, but negative for desmin, S100 protein, melanosome, bcl-2, CD99, and KIT. The Ki-67 labeling was 8% and p53 was negative. The pathologic diagnosis was MPC of the neck skin. The patient is now alive without recurrence 4 years after the excision. A review of the literature revealed 73 cases of MPC from 6 papers. MPC is male predominance, and the patients ages ranges from 13 to 87 years with the median of 47 years. The most common location was lower extremities followed in order by upper extremities, head and neck, and trunk. One MPC occurred within the vasculature, and 3 cases of MPC developed in the scar or trauma lesions. The prognosis after excision is good, but a very minority showed local recurrence. A differential diagnosis was also made.
study will recruit wounded warriors with severe extremity trauma, which places them at high risk for heterotopic ossification (HO); bone formation at...involved in HO; 2) to define accurate and practical methods to predict where HO will develop; and 3) to define potential therapies for prevention or...elicit HO. These tools also need to provide effective methods for early diagnosis or risk assessment (prediction) so that therapies for prevention or
Xie, Hong-Bo; Peng, Zi-Lai; Liu, Xu-Bang; Chen, Lian
To summarize early diagnosis and treatment methods of 20 patients with compartment syndrome caused by landslides during coal mine accidents in order to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome and reduce disability. From September 2006 to April 2010,20 patients with compartment syndrome were treated with the methods of early decompression, systemic support. All the patients were male with an average age of 42 years (ranged, 23 to 54). All the patients with high tension limb swelling, pain, referred pain passive positive; 5 extremities feeling diminish or disappear and the distal blood vessel beat were normal or weakened or disappeared; myoglobinuria, hyperkalemia, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine increased in 5 cases and oliguria in occurred 1 case. The function of affected limbs was observed according to disability ratings. Three cases complicated with infection of affected limb and 6 cases occurred with renal function insufficiency. Total recovery was in 16 cases, basically recovery in 3, amputation in 1 case. All patients were followed up for 6-15 months with an average of 12 months. The ability to work according to national standard identification--Employee work-related injuries and occupational disability rating classification (GB/T16180-2006) to assess, grade 5 was in 1 case, grade 8 in 2 cases, grade 10 in 1 case, no grade in 16 cases. Arteriopalmus of dorsalis pedis weaken and vanished can not be regard as an evidence in early diagnosis of compartment syndrome. Early diagnosis and decompression, systemic support and treatment is the key in reducing disability.
the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO...1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0119 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
Nishio, Shunji; Morioka, Takato; Suzuki, Satoshi; Fukui, Masashi
The clinical and neuroimaging features of 20 patients with lateral ventricular tumours located around the foramen of Monro were reviewed retrospectively with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. Histologic types were: eight neurocytomas, four subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SGCAs), three subependymomas, two fibrillary astrocytomas, and one each of pilocytic astrocytoma, malignant astrocytoma and malignant teratoma. The mean age of the patients with neurocytoma was 29.6 years, with SGCA 13.3 years and with subependymoma 55.3 years. All tumours appeared nodular in shape, and on computed tomography (CT) neurocytomas were either isodense or highdense with the brain, while all subependymomas and SGCAs were lowdense. Calcification was observed in two SGCAs, and one neurocytoma. Five neurocytomas and all four SGCAs showed mild to moderate contrast enhancement, while all three subependymomas showed either no, or scarce, enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were available in 10 patients, with the signal characteristics of four neurocytomas and three SGCAs being nonspecific, while two subependymomas were both hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Thus important features for differential diagnosis included age of the patient and density on precontrast CT. In this series, either an extensive excision of the tumour or a partial removal, thus relieving the obstruction of the foramina of Monro, usually provided long term survival, with 18 patients surviving a mean of 10.8 years. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soft tissue sarcomas include a wide spectrum of different entities. The so-called small round blue cell tumors and spindle cell tumors are difficult to classify based solely on conventional histology. To identify different subtypes of tumors special histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques are necessary. Analysis of protein expression by immunohistochemistry provides a helpful tool to investigate the histogenesis of tumors. A basic spectrum of antibodies should be included to study these tumors: Desmin and myogenin (or MyoD1) for skeletal differentiation; S-100, NSE, CD56, and synaptophysin for neural/neuroendocrine differentiation; CD3, CD20, and CD79 alpha for malignant lymphomas; CD34, sm-actin, and beta-catenin for spindle cell tumors; additional antigens, e. g. Ki-67 and p 53, for estimation of proliferation and tumor suppressor gene malfunctions. Nevertheless, the molecular analysis of soft tissue sarcomas is necessary for demonstration of specific translocations or gene defects to specify and proof a diagnosis. For this purpose, RT-PCR for RNA expression analysis of gene fusion transcripts and multi-color FISH for analysis of chromosomal rearrangements are used. Further investigations, using DNA microrrays may help to subclassify such tumors, with respect to prognosis or prediction of therapeutic response.
Li, Zihui; Du, Boping; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jinli; Zheng, Xiaojing; Jia, Hongyan; Xing, Aiying; Sun, Qi; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Zongde
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe and frequent form of central nervous system tuberculosis. The current lack of efficient diagnostic tests makes it difficult to differentiate TBM from other common types of meningitis, especially viral meningitis (VM). Metabolomics is an important tool to identify disease-specific biomarkers. However, little metabolomic information is available on adult TBM. We used 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics to investigate the metabolic features of the CSF from 18 TBM and 20 VM patients. Principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) were applied to analyze profiling data. Metabolites were identified using the Human Metabolome Database and pathway analysis was performed with MetaboAnalyst 3.0. The OSC-PLS-DA model could distinguish TBM from VM with high reliability. A total of 25 key metabolites that contributed to their discrimination were identified, including some, such as betaine and cyclohexane, rarely reported before in TBM. Pathway analysis indicated that amino acid and energy metabolism was significantly different in the CSF of TBM compared with VM. Twenty-five key metabolites identified in our study may be potential biomarkers for TBM differential diagnosis and are worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jia, Xiongfei; Gan, Chengjun; Xiao, Ke; He, Weifeng; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Cibing; Wu, Xiongfei; Luo, Gaoxing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Hu, Jie; Tan, Jiangling; Zhang, Xiaorong; Larsen, Peter Mose; Wu, Jun
Acute allograft rejection has been recognized as a major impediment to improved success in renal transplantation. Timely detection and control of rejection are very important for the improvement in long-term renal allograft survival. Thus, biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute rejection are required urgently to clinical medication. This study seeks to search for such biomarker candidates by comparing patients' pre-treatment urinary protein profiling with their post-treatment urinary protein profiling. A total of 15 significantly and consistently down-regulated protein candidates were identified. Among them, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin precursor (AACT), tumor rejection antigen gp96 (GP96) and Zn-Alpha-2-Glycoprotein (ZAG) were selected for further analysis. The results indicated that Western Blot assay of AACT, GP96 and ZAG had advanced the diagnosis time of acute renal rejection by 3 days, compared with current standard clinical observation and laboratory examination. Furthermore, the double-blind detection revealed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of acute renal rejection of AACT, GP96 and ZAG were 66.67%/100%/60%, 83.33%/100%/80% and 66.67%/100%/60%, respectively, and 100%/100%/100% in combination. In conclusion, urinary protein AACT, GP96 and ZAG could be a set of potential biomarkers for early non-invasive diagnosis of the acute rejection after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Tan, S J; Xu, L W; Xu, Z; Wu, J P; Liang, K; Jia, R P
To investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 190 patients with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination were enrolled. They were all underwent initial biopsy and 11 of them were also underwent repeated biopsy. In addition, 25 healthy cases (with normal digital rectal examination and PSA<4 ng/ml) were the control group.The PHI and PCA3 were detected by using immunofluorescence and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis were determined by ROC curve.In addition, the relationship between PHI/PSA and the Gleason score and clinical stage were analyzed. A total of 89 patients were confirmed PCa by Pathological diagnosis. The other 101 patients were diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The sensitivity and specificity of PCA3 test were 85.4% was 92.1%. Area under curve (AUC) of PHI is higher than AUC of PSA (0.727>0.699). The PHI in peripheral blood was positively correlated with Gleason score and clinical stage. The detection of PCA3 and PHI shows excellent detecting effectiveness. Compared with single PSA, the combined detection of PHI and PCA3 improved the diagnostic specificity. It can provide a new method for the early diagnosis in prostate cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies.
Kako, Peninnah M.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kibicho, Jennifer; Karani, Anna K.; Dressel, Anne
Early HIV testing is critical to prevention and timely treatment. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis can result in unnecessary deaths at a time when access to antiretroviral treatment proves life saving. While HIV prevention and treatment research has increased, less research exists on women's experiences with HIV diagnosis, despite the fact that women are most affected. Insights from local women are critical in designing culturally meaningful interventions that thwart missed opportunities for early HIV diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to uncover steps women took to know their HIV diagnosis. Using narrative inquiry methodology informed by post-colonial feminism, we interviewed 40 HIV- positive women in Kenya. Five themes emerged related to uptake of HIV testing for women: (a) spouse's critical illness or death; (b) years of suffering from HIV-related symptoms; (c) sick children; (d) prenatal testing; and (e) personal desire to know one's HIV status. These findings centered on women experiences provide an important basis for health promotion interventions related to HIV prevention, earlier detection, and treatment. PMID:24273455
Job, C K
In histopathological studies in leprosy, two important areas were identified in recently published work. They are early diagnosis and neuropathy. In histopathological examination, finding of M. leprae in tissues and/or granulomatous destruction of nerves are the two important findings to confirm the diagnosis. Immunopathological staining of M. leprae, PCR amplification of M. leprae antigen and S100 staining of Schwaann cells have considerably enhanced the sensitivity of histopathological diagnosis. If the two clinical findings such as hypopigmented patches with impaired sensation and thickened nerves accompanied by loss of sensation are the only ones that are taken into account for diagnosis, then a significant number of early patients will be missed. It is pointed out that biopsy examination of skin and nerves, when necessary, and skin-smear studies are indispensable diagnostic procedures. In the study of leprous neuropathy, there are several studies trying to decipher the entry of M. leprae into Schwann cells. The sharing of antigens between M. leprae and surface membrane of Schwann cells may be an important factor. However, there is much more to be learned in this area. In the control and prevention of neuritis, although corticosteroids administered along with multi-drug therapy was helpful, the benefit was not sustained.
Kabbani, Toufic A; Vanga, Rohini R; Leffler, Daniel A; Villafuerte-Galvez, Javier; Pallav, Kumar; Hansen, Joshua; Mukherjee, Rupa; Dennis, Melinda; Kelly, Ciaran P
Differentiating between celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is important for appropriate management but is often challenging. We retrospectively reviewed records from 238 patients who presented for the evaluation of symptoms responsive to gluten restriction without prior diagnosis or exclusion of CD. Demographics, presenting symptoms, serologic, genetic, and histologic data, nutrient deficiencies, personal history of autoimmune diseases, and family history of CD were recorded. NCGS was defined as symptoms responsive to a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the setting of negative celiac serology and duodenal biopsies while on a gluten-containing diet or negative human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8 testing. Of the 238 study subjects, 101 had CD, 125 had NCGS, 9 had non-celiac enteropathy, and 3 had indeterminate diagnosis. CD subjects presented with symptoms of malabsorption 67.3% of the time compared with 24.8% of the NCGS subjects (P<0.0001). In addition, CD subjects were significantly more likely to have a family history of CD (P=0.004), personal history of autoimmune diseases (P=0.002), or nutrient deficiencies (P<0.0001). The positive likelihood ratio for diagnosis of CD of a >2× upper limit of normal IgA trans-glutaminase antibody (tTG) or IgA/IgG deaminated gliadan peptide antibody (DGP) with clinical response to GFD was 130 (confidence interval (CI): 18.5-918.3). The positive likelihood ratio of the combination of gluten-responsive symptoms and negative IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP on a regular diet for NCGS was 9.6 (CI: 5.5-16.9). When individuals with negative IgA tTG or IgA/IgG DGP also lacked symptoms of malabsorption (weight loss, diarrhea, and nutrient deficiencies) and CD risk factors (personal history of autoimmune diseases and family history of CD), the positive likelihood ratio for NCGS increased to 80.9. On the basis of our findings, we have developed a diagnostic algorithm to differentiate CD from NCGS. Subjects with negative celiac
Xue, Heng; Ge, Hui-Yu; Miao, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Jin-Rui; Cui, Li-Gang
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of gastric cancer and gastritis, with histological results as reference standard. From September 2011 to August 2014, 82 patients (50 males and 32 females; mean age ± SD, 59.5 ± 15.0 years; range 19-91 years) with gastric cancer or gastritis were included in this Ethics Committee-approved prospective study. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and CEUS were applied to distinguish the two lesions, and both qualitative and quantitative features were evaluated. Of the 82 histopathologic-proven lesions, 58 were cancer and 24 were gastritis. For US, the gastric wall stratification was not preserved in about one-third of cancer (21/58, 36.2%) compared with gastritis (0/24, 0%) (p < 0.001). Blurred, angular, or spiculated serosa margin and increased echogenicity in perigastric fat appeared only in cancer (10/58, 17.2%), and all of them proved to be pathologic T3 or T4 stage. On CEUS, gastric cancer usually manifested as diffused enhancement without comb-teeth-like vessels (parallel curvilinear structures representing arterial branching within the gastric wall) (56/58, 96.6%), while these vessels presented in most gastritis (19/24, 79.2%, p < 0.001). For quantitative analysis, the malignant lesions showed later and lower enhancement (p < 0.001), and they also had slower speed to reach the peak intensity (p < 0.001). On CEUS, the absence of comb-teeth-like vessel is most reliable for diagnosing malignancy, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 96.5%, 79.2%, and 91.5%, respectively. Our results demonstrated the usefulness and accuracy of US and CEUS in differential diagnosis of gastric cancer and gastritis. CEUS has the potential to make the diagnosis more accurate.
Gold, Mark S.; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor self-esteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with > 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches. PMID:24393762
Taşçi-Duran, Emel; Unsal-Atan, Şenay
The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate attitudes women of towards cervical cancer prevention applications and early diagnosis, and whether or not their hopelessness levels had any influence. The present study was carried out in Isparta with a descriptive design. A sample of 251 individuals was recruited from January 2011 through May 2011 in the largest tea garden (restaurant- cafe). The data collection tool consisted of two parts: a "Questionnaire Form" identifying women; and the "Beck Hopelessness Scale". Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for Windows for the numerical and percentage distribution, average, standard deviation with the ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Some 70.2 % of the woman indicated that they had not taken the Pap test. There was a significant relationship between the hopelessness level and women believing that they could protect themselves from getting cervical cancer (F=10.11 p=0.00). There was a significant relationship between hopelessness levels and believing whether or not early diagnosis tests are deterministic (F=8.781 p=0.00). Our study concluded that the hopelessness level of women had an effect on their thoughts about cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis.
Gold, Mark S; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor selfesteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with ≥ 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches.
Brorstad, Alette; Oscarsson, Kristina Bergstedt; Ahlm, Clas
Hantavirus infections are emerging infections that cause either Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). A recent Swedish outbreak of nephropathia epidemica, a European HFRS, was analysed to study the patient flow and clinical picture and to investigate the value of an early diagnosis in general practice. Design. In a retrospective design, medical records of verified cases of Hantavirus infection were studied. The study was conducted in the county of Norrbotten, Sweden. Data from Hantavirus patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2008 were analysed. Demographic data, level of care, treatment, clinical symptoms, and laboratory findings were obtained. In total, 456 cases were included (58% males and 42% females). The majority of patients first saw their general practitioner and were exclusively treated in general practice (83% and 56%, respectively). When diagnosed correctly at the first visit, antibiotics and hospitalization were significantly lowered compared with delayed diagnosis (14% vs. 53% and 30% vs. 54%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The clinical picture was diverse. Early thrombocytopenia was found in 65% of the patients, and haemorrhagic manifestations were documented in a few cases. Signs of renal involvement--haematuria, proteinuria, and raised levels of serum creatinine--were found in a majority of patients. Raised awareness in general practice regarding emerging infections and better diagnostic tools are desirable. This study of a Hantavirus outbreak shows that general practitioners are frontline doctors during outbreaks and through early and correct diagnosis they can reduce antibiotic treatment and hospitalization.
Puig, J; Wägner, A; Caballero, A; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J; Webb, S M
Establish the minimal biochemical and radiological examinations necessary and their cost-effectiveness to accurately diagnose the etiology of Cushing's syndrome (CS). In 71 patients with CS followed between 1982 and 1997 biochemical studies (basal ACTH, 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test-HDST-, metyrapone stimulation test-MST-, or inferior petrosal sinus catheterization-IPSC-) and radiological investigations (abdominal CT scan, pituitary CT scan or MRI) were performed. Once pathology confirmed the diagnosis (48 pituitary Cushing's disease-CD, 17 adrenal neoplasms, 2 bilateral macronodular hyperplasia-BMH-, and 4 ectopic ACTH syndrome-ES-), the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the different studies was calculated to establish the most accurate and cost-effective diagnostic protocol. In ACTH-independent CS (ACTH < or = 9 pg/ml; normal 9 to 54) a unilateral tumor was identified on abdominal CT scanning in 17, and BMH in 1; the other BMH had detectable ACTH (43.2 pg/ml). In ACTH-dependent CS, ACTH was > 9 pg/ml and IPSC (performed in 22) correctly identified 20 patients with CD and differentiated them from 2 with an ES (100% specificity and sensitivity). Pituitary MRI or CT did not disclose an adenoma in 41.7% of patients with CD, and was reported to exhibit a microadenoma in 2 of the 4 patients with ES. HDST and MST were of no additional use in the differentiation between CD and ES. Once CS is diagnosed low ACTH and an abdominal CT scan correctly identified all patients of adrenal origin. In ACTH-dependent CS IPSC was the best predictive test to differentiate CD from ES. BMH may behave as ACTH-dependent or independent. The other biochemical and radiological studies performed are not cost-effective and may even be misleading, and should not be routinely performed.
Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose
The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
Valappil, Ashraf V; Thiruvoth, Sohanlal; Peedikayil, Jabir M; Raghunath, Praveenkumar; Thekkedath, Manojan
The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period. Patients who had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive scrub typhus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology (n=28) were included in the scrub typhus meningitis group, while the TBM group included those who satisfied the consensus diagnostic criteria of TBM (n=29). Compared with the TBM group, the mean duration of symptoms was less in patients with scrub typhus meningitis, who also had a lower magnitude of neurological deficits, such as altered mental status and cranial nerve and motor deficits. Patients with scrub typhus meningitis had a lower CSF white blood-cell count (WBC) than the TBM group (130.8±213 195±175 cells/mm 3 , P=0.002), lower CSF protein elevation (125±120 vs. 195.2±108.2mg/dl, P=0.002), and higher CSF sugar (70.1±32.4 vs. 48.7±23.4mg/dl, P=0.006). Features predictive of the diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis included the absence of neurological impairment at presentation, blood serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase>40 international units (IU)/L, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase>60 IU/L, total blood leukocyte count>10,000/mm 3 , CSF protein<100mg/dl, CSF sugar>50mg/dl, CSF WBC<100 cells/mm 3 . All patients with scrub typhus meningitis recovered completely following doxycycline therapy CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, clinical features, including duration of fever, neurological deficits at presentation and laboratory parameters such as CSF pleocytosis,CSF protein elevation, CSF sugar levels and liver enzyme
Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel
The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl, and viremia, as defined by an HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = <0.001 for each factor). Blood serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were not associated with early NS (P = 0.575). For the diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS. PMID:24088852
Dumaresq, Jeannot; Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S W; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel
The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl, and viremia, as defined by an HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = <0.001 for each factor). Blood serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were not associated with early NS (P = 0.575). For the diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS.
Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz; Gish, Robert G
The incidence of cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising. Curative surgical options are available; outcomes are acceptable with early diagnosis. Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are HCC risk markers. A high or increasing serum biomarker level can be predictive of the eventual development of HCC, large tumor size, advanced stage, extrahepatic metastases, portal vein thrombosis, and postoperative HCC recurrence. Based on FDA guidelines for HCC risk assessment, clinicians can consider using either the combination of AFP-L3 with DCP, or the combination of AFP-L3 with AFP and DCP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tuncer, Ersin; Onal, Binnur; Simsek, Gulcin; Elagoz, Sahande; Sahpaz, Ahmet; Kilic, Selcuk; Altuntas, Emine Elif; Ulu Kilic, Aysegul
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis. Tularemia outbreaks occurred in Central Anatolia during 2009 and 2011. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and cytomorphologies of fine needle aspirations (FNAs) from cervical lymph nodes in serologically confirmed tularemia cases. To our knowledge, this is the first large series concerning FNA morphology of Tularemia. FNA smears of 53 patients of the 290, diagnosed by microagglutination tests and PCR, were evaluated at three Pathology centers. FNAs were performed by cytopathologists or ear-nose-throat surgeons. Of all patients, 17 had also lymph node resections. FNAs showed the presence of suppuration and abscess. Rare epithelioid histiocytes and granulomas, seldom phagocytosed bacilli-like microorganisms were observed. On histopathology; granulomas, necrosis, and suppurative inflammation extending extracapsular areas were seen. Tularemia is endemic in certain areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The benefit from cytopathology is limited and cytological suspicion should be confirmed by serology. However FNA cytology is helpful in differential diagnosis of tularemia and other diseases presented with suppurative, granulomatous cervical lymphadenitis. It is also useful in providing the material for PCR and culture in early phase when the serology is negative and the treatment is more effective. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Borisova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.
The goals of this work were investigation of base-cell skin lesions by the method of laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from benign base-cell papilloma and malignant base-cell carcinoma, as well as from healthy skin areas near to the lesions that were used posteriori to reveal changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra. Preliminarily lesions were classified by dermatoscopic method (MoleMax II, DERMA Instruments). All suspicious lesions were excised and were investigated histologically. The experimental set-up consists of a nitrogen laser (337 nm, 14 μJ, 10 Hz), lenses, filters, optical fibers, and a microspectrometer (PC2000, "Ocean Optics"). A computer controls this system. Spectrum of healthy skin consists of one main maximum at 470-500 nm spectral region and secondary maxima at in the regions around 400 and 440 nm. In cases of papilloma and base-cell carcinoma an intensity decrease was observed, related to accumulation of pigments in these cutaneous lesions. An relative increase of the fluorescence peak at 440 nm were registered in the case of base-cell carcinoma, related to metabolism activity increase, and appearance of green fluorescence, related to increase of keratin content in benign papilloma lesions were detected. The results, obtained were used to develop multispectral diagnostic algorithm of these base-cell lesions. An sensitivity of 89,4% and 91,0% and specificity of 99,6% and 97,4% for differentiation between normal skin and papilloma and carcinoma respectively were obtained. The capability of the human skin fluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis and differentiation of cutaneous lesions is shown.
Şafak, Birol; Baykan, Özgür; Kılınç, Osman; Özer Yıldırım, Diğdem
Bloodstream infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Blood cultures and other laboratory tests are used for diagnosis. Among these tests, the mean neutrophil volume (MNV) value is reported as a potential indicator that supports the diagnosis of sepsis. Our study identified the MNV values of patients via microorganisms cultivated from blood cultures and examined the role of these MNV values in the early diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Our study surveyed retrospectively 148 adult patient blood culture samples that had been sent to our laboratory. BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) and BACTEC FX 40 (Becton Dickinson, USA) devices were used in the blood culture isolation procedures. The average MNV value was found to be 159.0 (+11.3) in patients whose sepsis originated from Gram-negative bacteria, and the average MNV value was measured as 152.4 (+14.5) among patients whose sepsis originated from Gram-positive bacteria. When comparing groups of patients having Gram-negative bacteria and patients having Gram-positive bacteria, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.041) in the MNV values was observed. The MNV value was found to be statistically significant in discrimination of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sepsis. Considering these findings, measuring the MNV values can help initiate proper antibiotic treatment more quickly, and we think that this will help lower the mortality rate. However, these findings should be supported with further studies. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spycher, Franziska; Kocher, Gregor J.; Gugger, Mathias; Geiser, Thomas; Ott, Sebastian R.
Early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death, is important to improve morbidity and mortality. Therefore any suspect solitary pulmonary nodule should prompt the pursuit for a definitive histological diagnosis. We describe the case of a 55-years-old male ex-smoker, who was admitted to our hospital due to recurrent hemoptysis and dry cough. A CT scan showed an irregular nodule of increasing size (28 mm in diameter) in the left lower lobe (LLL). A whole body PET-CT scan (643 MBq F-18 FDG i.v.) was performed and confirmed an avid FDG uptake of the nodule in the LLL, highly suspicious of lung cancer, without any evidence of lymphogenic or hematogenic metastasis. Bronchoscopy was not diagnostic and due to severe adhesions after prior chest trauma and the central location of the nodule, a lobectomy of the LLL was performed. Surprisingly, histology showed a simple aspergilloma located in a circumscribed bronchiectasis with no evidence of malignancy. This is a report of an informative example of an aspergilloma, which presented with symptoms and radiological features of malignant lung cancer. PMID:26029524
Chen, J G; Zhang, Y H; Zhu, J; Lu, J H; Wang, J B; Sun, Y; Xue, X F; Lu, L L; Chen, Y S; Wu, Y; Jiang, X P; Ding, L L; Zhang, Q N; Zhu, Y R
Objective: To evaluate the patients' survival and effectiveness of the live cancer screening for population at high risk for liver cancer in Qidong. Methods: According to the Expert Scheme proposed the Expert Committee of Early Detection and Early Treatment, China Cancer Foundation, diagnostical screening by using combined methods of alpha-fetoprotein and B ultrasound monitoring were carried out biannually in individuals with positive HBsAg who were screened from Qidong area. The evaluation indices of the effectiveness are task completion rate of screening, detection rate of liver cancer, early diagnosis rate, and treatment rate. The deadline of the follow-up for the surviving outcome was March 31, 2016. The life-table method was used to calculate the observed survival, and to make comparison and significant tests between survival rates in Group A (those found via repeated periodic screening) and Group B (those diagnosed without periodic screening). Results: Since 2007, 38 016 target population have been screened, and 3 703(9.74%) individuals with positive HBsAg were found. Except for 29 patients with liver cancer at the initial screening, 3 674 persons in the cohort were followed up; 268 patients with liver cancer were detected from the 33 199 person-times screening, with an annual detection rate of 1.61%. Of them, 186 patients were found in Group A(1.12%), in which 149 patients were the early cases, with an early detection rate of 80.11%; 167 out of 186(89.78%) patients received treatment after diagnosis. The incidence of liver cancer in this HBsAg (+ ) cohort of 25 452 person-years was 1 052.96 per 100 000 annually, 187 cases in males(1 488.45/100 000)and 81 cases in females(628.46/100 000). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival of all patients with liver cancer were 64.55%, 40.50%, 32.54%, and 19.65%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 77.16%, 49.04%, 38.53%, and 24.25% in Group A, and were 36.25%, 21.21%, 21.21%, and 0% in Group B
Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Massad, Eduardo; Higa, Rosângela; Marin, Heimar de Fátima
To develop a decision support system to discriminate the diagnoses of alterations in urinary elimination, according to the nursing terminology of NANDA International (NANDA-I). A fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) was structured considering six possible diagnoses: stress urinary incontinence, reflex urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence, functional urinary incontinence, total urinary incontinence and urinary retention; and 39 signals associated with them. The model was implemented in Microsoft Visual C++(®) Edition 2005 and applied in 195 real cases. Its performance was evaluated through the agreement test, comparing its results with the diagnoses determined by three experts (nurses). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were calculated considering the expert's opinion as a gold standard. In order to compute the Kappa's values we considered two situations, since more than one diagnosis was possible: the overestimation of the accordance in which the case was considered as concordant when at least one diagnoses was equal; and the underestimation of the accordance, in which the case was considered as discordant when at least one diagnosis was different. The overestimation of the accordance showed an excellent agreement (kappa=0.92, p<0.0001); and the underestimation provided a moderate agreement (kappa=0.42, p<0.0001). In general the FCM model showed high sensitivity and specificity, of 0.95 and 0.92, respectively, but provided a low specificity value in determining the diagnosis of urge urinary incontinence (0.43) and a low sensitivity value to total urinary incontinence (0.42). The decision support system developed presented a good performance compared to other types of expert systems for differential diagnosis of alterations in urinary elimination. Since there are few similar studies in the literature, we are convinced of the importance of investing in this kind of modeling, both from the theoretical and from the health applied points of view. In spite of
de Moraes Lopes, Maria Helena Baena; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Silveira, Paulo Sérgio Panse; Massad, Eduardo; Higa, Rosângela; de Fátima Marin, Heimar
Purpose To develop a decision support system to discriminate the diagnoses of alterations in urinary elimination, according to the nursing terminology of NANDA International (NANDA-I). Methods A fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) was structured considering six possible diagnoses: stress urinary incontinence, reflex urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence, functional urinary incontinence, total urinary incontinence and urinary retention; and 39 signals associated with them. The model was implemented in Microsoft Visual C++® Edition 2005 and applied in 195 real cases. Its performance was evaluated through the agreement test, comparing its results with the diagnoses determined by three experts (nurses). The sensitivity and specificity of the model were calculated considering the expert’s opinion as a gold standard. In order to compute the Kappa’s values we considered two situations, since more than one diagnosis was possible: the overestimation of the accordance in which the case was considered as concordant when at least one diagnoses was equal; and the underestimation of the accordance, in which the case was considered as discordant when at least one diagnosis was different. Results The overestimation of the accordance showed an excellent agreement (kappa = 0.92, p < 0.0001); and the underestimation provided a moderate agreement (kappa = 0.42, p < 0.0001). In general the FCM model showed high sensitivity and specificity, of 0.95 and 0.92, respectively, but provided a low specificity value in determining the diagnosis of urge urinary incontinence (0.43) and a low sensitivity value to total urinary incontinence (0.42). Conclusions The decision support system developed presented a good performance compared to other types of expert systems for differential diagnosis of alterations in urinary elimination. Since there are few similar studies in the literature, we are convinced of the importance of investing in this kind of modeling, both from the theoretical and from
Zhang, Xirong; Duan, Haifeng; Yu, Yong; Ma, Chunling; Ren, Zhanli; Lei, Yuxin
Purpose To investigate the value of spectral CT in the differential diagnosis of benign from malignant pleural effusion. Method and materials 14 patients with benign pleural effusion and 15 patients with malignant pleural effusion underwent non-contrast spectral CT imaging. These patients were later verified by the combination of disease history, clinical signs and other information with the consensus of surgeons and radiologists. Various Spectral CT image parameters measured for the effusion were as follows: CT numbers of the polychromatic 140kVp images, monochromatic images at 40keV and 100keV, the material density contents from the water, fat and blood-based material decomposition images, the effective atomic number and the spectral curve slope. These values were statistically compared with t test and logistic regression analysis between benign and malignant pleural effusion. Results The CT value of benign and malignant pleural effusion in the polychromatic 140kVp images showed no differences (12.61±3.39HU vs. 14.71±5.03HU) (P>0.05), however, they were statistically different on the monochromatic images at 40keV (43.15±3.79 vs. 39.42±2.60, p = 0.005) and 100keV (9.11±1.38 vs. 6.52±2.04, p<0.001). There was difference in the effective atomic number value between the benign (7.87±0.08) and malignant pleural effusion (7.90±0.02) (P = 0.02). Using 6.32HU as the threshold for CT value measurement at 100keV, one could obtain sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 66.7% with area-under-curve of 0.843 for differentiating benign from malignant effusion. In addition, age and disease history were potential confounding factors for differentiating malignant pleural effusion from benign, since the older age (61.13±12.51 year-old vs48.57±12.33 year-old) as well as longer disease history (70.00±49.28 day vs.28.36±21.64 day) were more easily to be found in the malignant pleural effusion group than those in the benign pleural effusion group. By combining above five
Zhang, Xirong; Duan, Haifeng; Yu, Yong; Ma, Chunling; Ren, Zhanli; Lei, Yuxin; He, Taiping; Zhang, Ming
To investigate the value of spectral CT in the differential diagnosis of benign from malignant pleural effusion. 14 patients with benign pleural effusion and 15 patients with malignant pleural effusion underwent non-contrast spectral CT imaging. These patients were later verified by the combination of disease history, clinical signs and other information with the consensus of surgeons and radiologists. Various Spectral CT image parameters measured for the effusion were as follows: CT numbers of the polychromatic 140kVp images, monochromatic images at 40keV and 100keV, the material density contents from the water, fat and blood-based material decomposition images, the effective atomic number and the spectral curve slope. These values were statistically compared with t test and logistic regression analysis between benign and malignant pleural effusion. The CT value of benign and malignant pleural effusion in the polychromatic 140kVp images showed no differences (12.61±3.39HU vs. 14.71±5.03HU) (P>0.05), however, they were statistically different on the monochromatic images at 40keV (43.15±3.79 vs. 39.42±2.60, p = 0.005) and 100keV (9.11±1.38 vs. 6.52±2.04, p<0.001). There was difference in the effective atomic number value between the benign (7.87±0.08) and malignant pleural effusion (7.90±0.02) (P = 0.02). Using 6.32HU as the threshold for CT value measurement at 100keV, one could obtain sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 66.7% with area-under-curve of 0.843 for differentiating benign from malignant effusion. In addition, age and disease history were potential confounding factors for differentiating malignant pleural effusion from benign, since the older age (61.13±12.51 year-old vs48.57±12.33 year-old) as well as longer disease history (70.00±49.28 day vs.28.36±21.64 day) were more easily to be found in the malignant pleural effusion group than those in the benign pleural effusion group. By combining above five factors, one could obtain sensitivity
the study for the presence or absence of ectopic bone formation at the indicated time points post injury (Table 1.). 8 Table 1. Incidence of HO at...7, 10, 14, and 21 days post injury 42 Palovarotene Suppresses Early Chondrogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation In this set of studies we...using MicroCT imaging to quantitate total new bone and ectopic bone (non-associated with cortical margins) volume. In a second study arm, serum was
Min, Qinghua; Shao, Kangwei; Zhai, Lulan; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Caisong; Yuan, Lixin; Yang, Jun
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is different from conventional diagnostic methods and has the potential to delineate the microscopic anatomy of a target tissue or organ. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the value of DW-MRI in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast masses, which would help the clinical surgeon to decide the scope and pattern of operation. A total of 52 female patients with palpable solid breast masses received breast MRI scans using routine sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging at b values of 400, 600, and 800 s/mm(2), respectively. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were plotted, with a smaller ROI for the highest signal and a larger ROI for the overall lesion. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated at three different b values for all detectable lesions and from two different ROIs. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio of DW-MRI were determined for comparison with histological results. A total of 49 (49/52, 94.2%) lesions were detected using DW-MRI, including 20 benign lesions (two lesions detected in the same patient) and 29 malignant lesions. Benign lesion had a higher mean ADC value than their malignant counterparts, regardless of b value. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the smaller-range ROI was more effective in differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The area under the ROC curve was the largest at a b value of 800 s/mm(2). With a threshold ADC value at 1.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, DW-MRI achieved a sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 90.0%, positive predictive value of 92.3%, and positive likelihood ratio of 8.3 for differentiating benign and malignant lesions. DW-MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions, with an optimal b value of 800 s/mm(2). A smaller-range ROI focusing on the
Sugimoto, Kaoru; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Asashima, Makoto
The notochord is essential for normal vertebrate development, serving as both a structural support for the embryo and a signaling source for the patterning of adjacent tissues. Previous studies on the notochord have mostly focused on its formation and function in early organogenesis but gene regulation in the differentiation of notochord cells itself remains poorly defined. In the course of screening for genes expressed in developing notochord, we have isolated Xenopus homolog of Btg2 (XBtg2). The mammalian Btg2 genes, Btg2/PC3/TIS21, have been reported to have multiple functions in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation but their roles in early development are still unclear. Here we characterized XBtg2 in early Xenopus laevis embryogenesis with focus on notochord development. Translational inhibition of XBtg2 resulted in a shortened and bent axis phenotype and the abnormal structures in the notochord tissue, which did not undergo vacuolation. The XBtg2-depleted notochord cells expressed early notochord markers such as chordin and Xnot at the early tailbud stage, but failed to express differentiation markers of notochord such as Tor70 and 5-D-4 antigens in the later stages. These results suggest that XBtg2 is required for the differentiation of notochord cells such as the process of vacuolar formation after determination of notochord cell fate.
Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma
Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as
Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Sharma, Brijesh; Gupta, B B
Tuberculous and Cryptococcal meningitis are common in HIV patients. A highly specific and sensitive rapid test for diagnosis of Tuberculous meningitis especially in setting of HIV is not available in developing countries where the burden of disease is high. We measured ADA (adenosine deaminase) levels using spectrophotometric method in the CSF of HIV patients with meningitis to differentiate Tuberculous meningitis from meningitis due to other causes. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ADA values between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and nontuberculous (non-TB) meningitis patients and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis curve was drawn from these values. Levels of ADA in the CSF of patients with TBM were significantly higher than those in patients with meningitis due to other causes. CSF ADA level determination with a cut-off value of 6 IU/L was found to be highly specific and fairly sensitive test for the diagnosis of TBM in HIV positive patients.
To develop a multi-site prospective clinical validation trial of the multigene diagnostic signature for the diagnosis of prostate cancer from non tumor containing biopsy tissue. Prostate cancer now affects one in five men in the U.S. It is diagnosed by examination of a biopsy sample of the prostate gland by a pathologist and treatment decisions such as the choice of surgery are usually not made without direct visualization of the presence of cancer by a pathologist. There are about one million such biopsy procedures in the U.S. every year. However about 1-200,000 are ambiguous owing to the absence of tumor but the presence of small changes such as atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP) or proliferations within otherwise normal glands (PIN, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia) that are highly suspicious for cancer. Studies by the UCI/NCI SPECS project on prostate cancer have led to a new way to diagnosis the presence of prostate cancer in these ambiguous changes. Researchers of the UCI/NCI SPECS project observed that the tissue around a tumor called stroma has many altered gene activities that are caused by molecules secreted by the tumor cells. Indeed these studies revealed that 114 genes exhibited altered activity in stroma near tumor compared to normal stroma. These changes can be used as a “signature” to examine new samples to determine the “presence of-tumor”. Such a test has many applications. Currently ambiguous cases are asked to return for a repeat biopsy in 3 to 12 months – an agonizing period for patients during which they receive no guidance and during which any tumor may continue to grow and spread. Thus, the new test would detect tumor 3 to 12 months prior to conventional practice. This will avoid repeated biopsy procedures. Patients who are positive by the new test may consider whether immediate medical treatment or neo adjuvant treatment is appropriate. In addition the ability to detect presence-of-tumor early will avoid the necessity
Tovoli, Francesco; Granito, Alessandro; Giampaolo, Luca; Frisoni, Magda; Volta, Umberto; Fusconi, Marco; Masi, Chiara; Lenzi, Marco
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). In the last years many efforts have been dedicated to the research of widely accepted criteria for the early diagnosis of SSc. Since studies on the prevalence of early SSc in PBC patients are lacking, our aim was to investigate its hitherto unknown prevalence in a large cohort of PBC patients. We studied 80 PBC patients and 72 patients with other chronic liver diseases. Diagnostic workup included research into signs of connective tissue disease, determination of autoantibody profile, and examination of capillary abnormalities through nailfold videocapillaroscopy. Ten PBC patients (12.5%) satisfied diagnostic criteria for early SSc and 5 (6.3%) had definite SSc. None of the patients in the control group were diagnosed either with early or definite SSc. No differences were observed in terms of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and liver function tests between PBC patients with and without associated SSc. Early SSc is significantly frequent in PBC patients. The detection of early SSc in PBC patients may lead to a prompt treatment of its complications, preventing inabilities and preserving the chance of liver transplantation.
Bustamante, Alejandro; López-Cancio, Elena; Pich, Sara; Penalba, Anna; Giralt, Dolors; García-Berrocoso, Teresa; Ferrer-Costa, Carles; Gasull, Teresa; Hernández-Pérez, María; Millan, Mónica; Rubiera, Marta; Cardona, Pedro; Cano, Luis; Quesada, Helena; Terceño, Mikel; Silva, Yolanda; Castellanos, Mar; Garces, Moisés; Reverté, Silvia; Ustrell, Xavier; Marés, Rafael; Baiges, Joan Josep; Serena, Joaquín; Rubio, Francisco; Salas, Eduardo; Dávalos, Antoni; Montaner, Joan
Stroke diagnosis could be challenging in the acute phase. We aimed to develop a blood-based diagnostic tool to differentiate between real strokes and stroke mimics and between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in the hyperacute phase. The Stroke-Chip was a prospective, observational, multicenter study, conducted at 6 Stroke Centers in Catalonia. Consecutive patients with suspected stroke were enrolled within the first 6 hours after symptom onset, and blood samples were drawn immediately after admission. A 21-biomarker panel selected among previous results and from the literature was measured by immunoassays. Outcomes were differentiation between real strokes and stroke mimics and between ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Predictive models were developed by combining biomarkers and clinical variables in logistic regression models. Accuracy was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curves. From August 2012 to December 2013, 1308 patients were included (71.9% ischemic, 14.8% stroke mimics, and 13.3% hemorrhagic). For stroke versus stroke mimics comparison, no biomarker resulted included in the logistic regression model, but it was only integrated by clinical variables, with a predictive accuracy of 80.8%. For ischemic versus hemorrhagic strokes comparison, NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) >4.9 (odds ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.71; P <0.0001) and endostatin >4.7 (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.45; P =0.010), together with age, sex, blood pressure, stroke severity, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension, were included in the model. Predictive accuracy was 80.6%. The studied biomarkers were not sufficient for an accurate differential diagnosis of stroke in the hyperacute setting. Additional discovery of new biomarkers and improvement on laboratory techniques seem necessary for achieving a molecular diagnosis of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Iskandar, Agustin; Arthamin, Maimun Z; Indriana, Kristin; Anshory, Muhammad; Hur, Mina; Di Somma, Salvatore
Neonatal sepsis remains worldwide one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both term and preterm infants. Lower mortality rates are related to timely diagnostic evaluation and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy. Blood culture, as gold standard examination for sepsis, has several limitations for early diagnosis, so that sepsis biomarkers could play an important role in this regard. This study was aimed to compare the value of the two biomarkers presepsin and procalcitonin in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. This was a prospective cross-sectional study performed, in Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang, Indonesia, in 51 neonates that fulfill the criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with blood culture as diagnostic gold standard for sepsis. At reviewer operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses, using a presepsin cutoff of 706,5 pg/mL, the obtained area under the curve (AUCs) were: sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 68.8%, positive predictive value = 85.7%, negative predictive value = 68.8%, positive likelihood ratio = 2.75, negative likelihood ratio = 0.21, and accuracy = 80.4%. On the other hand, with a procalcitonin cutoff value of 161.33 pg/mL the obtained AUCs showed: sensitivity = 68.6%, specificity = 62.5%, positive predictive value = 80%, negative predictive value = 47.6%, positive likelihood ratio = 1.83, the odds ratio negative = 0.5, and accuracy = 66.7%. In early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, compared with procalcitonin, presepsin seems to provide better early diagnostic value with consequent possible faster therapeutical decision making and possible positive impact on outcome of neonates.
Han, Fangfang; Wang, Huafeng; Song, Bowen; Zhang, Guopeng; Lu, Hongbing; Moore, William; Zhao, Hong; Liang, Zhengrong
To distinguish malignant pulmonary nodules from benign ones is of much importance in computer-aided diagnosis of lung diseases. Compared to many previous methods which are based on shape or growth assessing of nodules, this proposed three-dimensional (3D) texture feature based approach extracted fifty kinds of 3D textural features from gray level, gradient and curvature co-occurrence matrix, and more derivatives of the volume data of the nodules. To evaluate the presented approach, the Lung Image Database Consortium public database was downloaded. Each case of the database contains an annotation file, which indicates the diagnosis results from up to four radiologists. In order to relieve partial-volume effect, interpolation process was carried out to those volume data with image slice thickness more than 1mm, and thus we had categorized the downloaded datasets to five groups to validate the proposed approach, one group of thickness less than 1mm, two types of thickness range from 1mm to 1.25mm and greater than 1.25mm (each type contains two groups, one with interpolation and the other without). Since support vector machine is based on statistical learning theory and aims to learn for predicting future data, so it was chosen as the classifier to perform the differentiation task. The measure on the performance was based on the area under the curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristics. From 284 nodules (122 malignant and 162 benign ones), the validation experiments reported a mean of 0.9051 and standard deviation of 0.0397 for the AUC value on average over 100 randomizations.
Liu, Chang; Wang, Guofeng; Xie, Qinglu; Zhang, Yanchao
Effective fault classification of rolling element bearings provides an important basis for ensuring safe operation of rotating machinery. In this paper, a novel vibration sensor-based fault diagnosis method using an Ellipsoid-ARTMAP network (EAM) and a differential evolution (DE) algorithm is proposed. The original features are firstly extracted from vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition. Then, a minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy algorithm is introduced to select the most prominent features so as to decrease feature dimensions. Finally, a DE-based EAM (DE-EAM) classifier is constructed to realize the fault diagnosis. The major characteristic of EAM is that the sample distribution of each category is realized by using a hyper-ellipsoid node and smoothing operation algorithm. Therefore, it can depict the decision boundary of disperse samples accurately and effectively avoid over-fitting phenomena. To optimize EAM network parameters, the DE algorithm is presented and two objectives, including both classification accuracy and nodes number, are simultaneously introduced as the fitness functions. Meanwhile, an exponential criterion is proposed to realize final selection of the optimal parameters. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, the vibration signals of four types of rolling element bearings under different loads were collected. Moreover, to improve the robustness of the classifier evaluation, a two-fold cross validation scheme is adopted and the order of feature samples is randomly arranged ten times within each fold. The results show that DE-EAM classifier can recognize the fault categories of the rolling element bearings reliably and accurately. PMID:24936949
Saha, Debarshi; Kumar, Ankit; Banerjee, Sourjya; Nirupama, M; Sridevi, H B; Garg, Priya; Lobo, Flora D
Lung is the most common site of small cell carcinoma (SCLC) - a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC). SCLC comprises 15-20% of the invasive cancers of the lung. This study was conducted to appraise the accuracy and pitfalls of the diagnosis of PDNEC on cytology along with treatment responses if available. Retrospective study for 2 years yielded 21 cases on cytology. Slides of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes, the tumor, bronchial brush, and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were used. The histological correlation was obtained as were treatment responses. Eighteen SCLCs were confirmed on review. Of these, 13 initial reports were concordant and five, discordant. The rest three cases which initially reported as SCLC were found to be negative (2) and combined SCLC (1). One SCLC with concordant initial and reviewed diagnoses failed to confirm on histopathology. The patients, all heavy smokers, were predominantly males in the seventh to eighth decade age group. The sensitivity and specificity of reviewed diagnoses were better than that of the original. The difference between histopathology and cytology diagnoses (reviewed and original) was statistically insignificant. All patients were categorized as "extensive stage" by positron emission tomography-computerized tomography, and five were treated with etoposide and cisplatin with/without radiotherapy. Age group (61-70) and gender (males) distribution were statistically significant. Intermediate variants of SCLC may be misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. Similarly, combined SCLC may be missed on cytology if the observer does not sustain a high index of suspicion. Unequivocal cytology diagnosis opposed to negative histopathology report demands repeat biopsy.
Ahmadi, Abbas; Poorfathollah, Ali-Akbar; Aghaiipour, Mahnaz; Rezaei, Mansour; Nikoo-ghoftar, Mahin; Abdi, Mohammad; Gharib, Alireza; Amini, Amir
C-kit receptor (CD117) and its ligand, stem cell factor, play a key role in normal hematopoiesis. It has been demonstrated that its expression extremely increases in leukemias with myeloid commitment. We analyzed findings on CD117 expression together with other myeloid related markers in 203 de novo acute leukemias, referred to Iranian immunophenotyping centers: Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) and Baghiatallah Hospital (BH). All cases were characterized based on the French American British cooperative group (FAB) and European Group for Immunological Classification of Leukemias (EGIL). The cases comprised of 111 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 86 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 6 acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). CD117 was positive in 75 % of AML and 50 % of AUL, whereas none of the ALL cases was positive for this marker. Although CD117 was positive in 100 % of M5a cases, no M5b positive was found (p = 0.036). The calculated specificity for myeloid involvement was 100 % for CD117 and CD33, and 98 % for CD13 and CD15 (p < 0.001). The calculated sensitivity for myeloid involvement was 83, 76, 64, and 41 % for CD13, CD117, CD33, and CD15, respectively (p < 0.001). We concluded that CD117 expression is a specific and rather sensitive marker for differential diagnosis between AML and ALL, and except for M5 subtypes, it fails to determine FAB subtypes; lack of expression in M5 can identify M5b. Therefore, it should be included in the routine primary panel for diagnosis of acute leukemias.
Veater, James; Mehedi, Farhan; Cheung, Chee Kay; Nabarro, Laura; Osborne, Jane; Wong, Nicholas; Wiselka, Martin; Tang, Julian W
Elderly patients have a long list of differentials for causes of acute confusion and altered consciousness levels, including infectious agents. In addition, elderly, retired patients often have more time to travel for tourism, particularly to exotic, warmer locations. Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy are popular holiday destinations for British and other tourists, especially during the winter months. However, these warm climates allow insect vectors to proliferate, increasing the risk of exposure to endemic vectorborne viral infections whilst on vacation. Such infections may not be routinely considered by geriatric medical teams. An 87-year old gentleman presented with a three-day history of worsening confusion, lethargy, ataxia, and fevers following a trip to Spain, where he may have sustained a sandfly bite. By the time of admission, he had a reduced GCS, was hallucinating, and was incontinent of urine and faeces, though blood pressure and heart rate were normal. He also appeared hyperaesthetic, and found even capillary blood sugar testing extremely painful. He had no history of cognitive defect or other neurological conditions. He had been previously independently active, with frequent trips to Spain where he maintained a holiday home. He probably sustained a sandfly bite during this most recent trip, whilst cleaning out a shed. Acute and convalescent sera demonstrated IgG antibodies to Toscana virus at extremely high titres of ≥1:10,000 by immunofluorescence assay, though no Toscana virus RNA was detectable in these sera by the time of presentation. Toscana virus should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patients presenting with meningo-encephalitis who have recently returned from a Mediterranean country. Testing for Toscana virus infection is performed by serological testing on acute/convalescent paired sera, and/or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) if presenting within 5 days of
TURGUT TURAN, Sevil; ERDOĞAN BAKAR, Emel; ERDEN, Gülsen; KARAKAŞ, Sirel
Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a neuropsychometric battery for the differential diagnosis of specific learning disability (SLD), with specific respect to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to help resolve the conflicting results in the literature by an integrativ