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Sample records for early drinking milestones

  1. Exposure to Alcohol Content in Movies and Initiation of Early Drinking Milestones.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kristina M; Janssen, Tim; Barnett, Nancy P; Rogers, Michelle L; Hayes, Kerri L; Sargent, James

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. [Autism and Early Neurodevelopmental Milestones].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Xavier; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder, also referred to in this study as autism, is a neurodevelopmental chronic disease that manifests early in childhood by impairment in social interaction, communication and repetitive behavior. Since there are no specific biomarkers available, the diagnosis is based exclusively on clinical criteria. The purpose of the present study is to determine which are the early psychomotor development or neurodevelopmental milestones that present a significant correlation with the severity of the main symptoms of autism, development quotients, and adaptive function. We performed a retrospective study on a sample of 1572 individuals with a diagnosis of autism that were monitored at Hospital Pediátrico do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, in the Neurodevelopment and Autism Unit. We analyzed six early psychomotor developmental milestones: age of acquisition of 'walking', 'first words', 'first phrases', 'daytime control of bladder sphincter', 'night-time control of bladder sphincter', and age of first complaints. Afterwards, we divided the sample in three subgroups regarding clinical severity, according to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and we analyzed significant differences among each other concerning the six milestones established beforehand. The milestone 'age of first phrases' was, from the six milestones, the one with a stronger correlation with the variables of clinical manifestations of autism, development/intelligence quotients, and adaptive function. In division of the sample into subgroups of clinical severity, it was the most severe that showed later ages of acquisition of the neurodevelopmental milestones and earlier ages of first complaints. This study proves the clinical utility to know the age of achievement of early psychomotor developmental skills, since they act as predictors of clinical severity of autism, cognition, and adaptive function of a wide population with autism. Therefore, this data contribute for prognostic

  3. [Early mobilization. Competencies, responsibilities, milestones].

    PubMed

    Nydahl, P; Dewes, M; Dubb, R; Filipovic, S; Hermes, C; Jüttner, F; Kaltwasser, A; Klarmann, S; Klas, K; Mende, H; Rothaug, O; Schuchhardt, D

    2016-03-01

    Early mobilization is an evident, interprofessional concept to improve the outcome of intensive care patients. It reduces psychocognitive deficits and delirium and attenuates a general deconditioning, including atrophy of the respiratory pump and skeletal muscles. In this regard the interdisciplinary approach of early mobilization, taking into account different levels of mobilization, appears to be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to explore opinions on collaboration and tasks between different professional groups. During the 25th Bremen Conference on Intensive Medicine and Nursing on 20 February 2015, a questionnaire survey was carried out among the 120 participants of the German Early Mobilization Network meeting. In all, 102 questionnaires were analyzed. Most participants reported on the interdisciplinarity of the approach, but none of the tasks and responsibilities concerning early mobilization can be assigned to a single professional group. The practical implementation of mobilizing orally intubated patients may require two registered nurses as well as a physical therapist. Implementation in daily practice seems to be heterogeneous. There is no consensus regarding collaboration, competencies, and responsibilities with respect to early mobilization of intensive care patients. The approach to date has been characterized by a lack of interprofessional communication, which may lead to an inefficient use of the broad and varied base of knowledge and experienceof the different professions.

  4. Early Warning Look Ahead Metrics: The Percent Milestone Backlog Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Stephen A.; Anderson, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    All complex development projects experience delays and corresponding backlogs of their project control milestones during their acquisition lifecycles. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate (FPD) teamed with The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to develop a collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics that would provide GSFC leadership with some independent indication of the programmatic health of GSFC flight projects. As part of the collection of Early Warning Look Ahead metrics, the Percent Milestone Backlog metric is particularly revealing, and has utility as a stand-alone execution performance monitoring tool. This paper describes the purpose, development methodology, and utility of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric. The other four Early Warning Look Ahead metrics are also briefly discussed. Finally, an example of the use of the Percent Milestone Backlog metric in providing actionable insight is described, along with examples of its potential use in other commodities.

  5. An ADH1B variant and peer drinking in progression to adolescent drinking milestones: evidence of a gene-by-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Olfson, Emily; Edenberg, Howard J; Nurnberger, John; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Almasy, Laura A; Chorlian, David; Dick, Danielle M; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Tischfield, Jay A; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Wetherill, Leah; Foroud, Tatiana M; Rice, John; Goate, Alison; Bierut, Laura J

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent drinking is an important public health concern, one that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The functional variant rs1229984 in alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) has been associated at a genome-wide level with alcohol use disorders in diverse adult populations. However, few data are available regarding whether this variant influences early drinking behaviors and whether social context moderates this effect. This study examines the interplay between rs1229984 and peer drinking in the development of adolescent drinking milestones. One thousand five hundred and fifty European and African American individuals who had a full drink of alcohol before age 18 were selected from a longitudinal study of youth as part of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Cox proportional hazards regression, with G × E product terms in the final models, was used to study 2 primary outcomes during adolescence: age of first intoxication and age of first DSM-5 alcohol use disorder symptom. The minor A allele of rs1229984 was associated with a protective effect for first intoxication (HR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.76) and first DSM-5 symptom (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.77) in the final models. Reporting that most or all best friends drink was associated with a hazardous effect for first intoxication (HR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.01) and first DSM-5 symptom (HR = 2.17, 95% 1.88 to 2.50) in the final models. Furthermore, there was a significant G × E interaction for first intoxication (p = 0.002) and first DSM-5 symptom (p = 0.01). Among individuals reporting none or few best friends drinking, the ADH1B variant had a protective effect for adolescent drinking milestones, but for those reporting most or all best friends drinking, this effect was greatly reduced. Our results suggest that the risk factor of best friends drinking attenuates the protective effect of a well-established ADH1B variant for 2 adolescent drinking

  6. Early milestones in the understanding of echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Alan D

    2018-04-23

    Almost 80 years ago, Griffin and Galambos discovered the phenomenon of echolocation in bats. Since then, the field has grown exponentially as new generations of investigators have joined the chase and technological advances have revolutionized working with ultrasound in the laboratory and in the field. Today our understanding of the diversity of behavioral and neural adaptations for echolocation constitutes one of the paramount triumphs of neuroethology. At the invitation of the editor in chief, I here review some of the important milestones in the discovery and early understanding of echolocation in bats through about the mid-1980s.

  7. History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers.

    PubMed

    Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

    2011-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  8. Associations of Early Developmental Milestones with Adult Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether age at attainment of 20 developmental milestones within the areas of language, walking, eating, dressing, social interaction, and toilet training was associated with adult intelligence. Mothers of 821 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 20 developmental milestones at a 3-year examination, and all…

  9. Genetic analysis of motor milestones attainment in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Peter, I; Vainder, M; Livshits, G

    1999-03-01

    The age of attainment for four motor developmental traits, such as turning over, sitting up without support, pulling up to a standing position and walking without support, was examined in 822 children, including 626 siblings from families with 2 to 6 children, 68 pairs of dizygotic twins and 30 pairs of monozygotic twins. Correlation analysis, carried out separately for each type of sibship, showed the highest pairwise correlations in monozygotic twins and the lowest correlation in non-twin siblings for all motor milestones. Variance component analysis was used to decompose the different independent components forming the variation of the studied trait, such as genetic effect, common twin environment, common sib environment and residual factors. The results revealed that the major proportion of the total variance after adjustment for gestation age for the attainment of each motor skill, except pulling up to standing position, is explained by the common twin environment (50.5 to 66.6%), whilst a moderate proportion is explained by additive genetic factors (22.2 to 33.5%). Gestational age was found to be an important predictor of appearance of all motor milestones, affecting delay of 4.5 to 8.6 days for the attainment of the motor abilities for each week of earlier gestation. The age of attainment of the standing position was affected only by shared sibs environment (33.3% of the total variance) and showed no influence of either genetic or common twin environment. Phenotypic between trait correlations were high and significant for all studied traits (range between 0.40 and 0.67, P < 0.01 in all instances). Genetic cross correlations, however, were not easily interpreted and did not show clear variance trends among the different groups of children.

  10. Influence of supine sleep positioning on early motor milestone acquisition.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette; Barr, Ronald G

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether supine sleep-positioned infants have delayed motor skills at age 4 and 6 months, and if delays are associated with decreased exposure to prone position. One 4 and one 6-month-old sample of healthy infants born at term were recruited. Motor assessments included the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS) and Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Parents completed an infant behavior diary for 3 consecutive days. Seventy-one 4-month-old infants were assessed (38 males; mean age 4.4 mo, standard deviation [SD] 0.2). Mean motor scores were close to normative standards (AIMS 47.7, SD 19.6; PDMS gross motor quotient [GMQ] 96.3, SD 6.5; PDMS fine motor quotient [FMQ] 99.2, SD 4.8). No infant scored below cut-off values used to identify motor delay. Milestones less likely to be achieved included extended arm support in prone, hands to feet in supine, and sitting with arm support. Exposure to 'tummy time' while awake was correlated with AIMS scores (r = 0.38, p < 0.01). F i fty 6-month-old infants were assessed (21 males; mean age 6.4 mo, SD 0.4). Mean scores were shifted down for all scales, and as much as 1 SD for PDMS (AIMS 44.5, SD 21.6; PDMS GMQ 85.7, SD 7.6; PDMS FMQ 88.9, SD 9.0). Only 22% of 6-month-olds could sit without arm support versus 50% expected in a normative sample. Remarkably, 22% of our sample exhibited gross motor delays (quotient <78). Tummy time (awake) was significantly associated with the AIMS (r = 0.64) and PDMS GMQ (r = 0.55) and FMQ (r = 0.33) quotients, even after adjusting for confounders. Typically developing infants who were sleep-positioned in supine had delayed motor development by age 6 months, and this was significantly associated with limited exposure to awake prone positioning. This has important implications for interpreting motor assessments of infants at risk and for preventing inappropriate referrals.

  11. Level-2 Milestone 4797: Early Users on Max, Sequoia Visualization Cluster

    SciT

    Cupps, Kim C.

    This report documents the fact that an early user has run successfully on Max, the Sequoia visualization cluster, ASC L2 milestone 4797: Early Users on Sequoia Visualization System (Max), due December 31, 2013. The Max visualization and data analysis cluster will provide Sequoia users with compute cycles and an interactive option for data exploration and analysis. The system will be integrated in the first quarter of FY14 and the system is expected to be moved to the classified network by the second quarter of FY14. The goal of this milestone is to have early users running their visualization and datamore » analysis work on the Max cluster on the classified network.« less

  12. Preemie Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... were born early.​ How to Adjust Your Baby's Age If your baby was born early, she has 2 important days to mark on ... Development Milestones Matter: 10 to Watch for by Age 5 Motor Delays: Early Identification and Evaluation (AAP Clinical Report)​ Article Body ...

  13. Developmental Milestones

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 years 4 years 5 years Milestone Tracker App Milestones in Action: Photos & Videos 2 months 4 ... milestone checklists (PDF) Download the Milestone Tracker mobile app View the Milestones in Action photo and video ...

  14. Contextual Influences on Early Drinking: Characteristics of Drinking and Non-Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Abar, Caitlin C.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Hayes, Kerri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research characterizing the adolescent drinking context is limited, often relies on samples of current drinkers reporting on recent/last or typical drinking experiences, and provides little information about the context of very early use. The present study uses repeated monthly assessments to describe the context of drinking days and matched non-drinking days to determine the unique risk associated with different drinking-related characteristics. Additionally, we used latent class analysis to empirically identify key configurations of drinking-related characteristics and both family- and non-family-related environmental characteristics (social context, physical location, source of alcohol). Data included 688 days (344 drinking days, 344 non-drinking days) from 164 middle-school students enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (62% female; 26% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Results supported four patterns: (1) heavier drinking occurring in a peer context, lighter drinking occurring in (2) a family context or (3) a peer context, and (4) drinking alcohol obtained at home without permission. Latent classes varied as a function of gender, age, peer norms, and parenting behaviors as well as alcohol type and perceived alcohol availability. Findings indicated that highly endorsed contexts were not necessarily the riskiest ones, and simply targeting an oft-reported source of alcohol, physical location, or social context may not be an effective strategy for reducing underage drinking. Additionally, although greater monitoring and anticipated parent reaction to drinking are typically protective against adolescent drinking, we found they were associated with parent-sanctioned drinking, suggesting the role of parenting practices must be considered in the context of drinking pattern. PMID:27269292

  15. Toddlers’ Fine Motor Milestone Achievement Is Associated with Early Touchscreen Scrolling

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Rachael; Saez de Urabain, Irati R.; Cheung, Celeste H. M.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Smith, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen technologies provide an intuitive and attractive source of sensory/cognitive stimulation for young children. Despite fears that usage may have a negative impact on toddlers’ cognitive development, empirical evidence is lacking. The current study presents results from the UK Toddler Attentional Behaviours and LEarning with Touchscreens (TABLET) project, examining the association between toddlers’ touchscreen use and the attainment of developmental milestones. Data were gathered in an online survey of 715 parents of 6- to 36-month-olds to address two research questions: (1) How does touchscreen use change from 6 to 36 months? (2) In toddlers (19–36 months, i.e., above the median age, n = 366), how does retrospectively reported age of first touchscreen usage relate to gross motor (i.e., walking), fine motor (i.e., stacking blocks), and language (i.e., producing two-word utterances) milestones? In our sample, the proportion of children using touchscreens, as well as the average daily usage time, increased with age (youngest quartile, 6–11 months: 51.22% users, 8.53 min per day; oldest quartile, 26–36 months: 92.05% users, average use of 43.95 min per day). In toddlers, aged 19–36 months, age of first touchscreen use was significantly associated with fine motor (stacking blocks), p = 0.03, after controlling for covariates age, sex, mother’s education (a proxy for socioeconomic status) as well as age of early fine motor milestone achievement (pincer grip). This effect was only present for active scrolling of the touchscreen p = 0.04, not for video watching. No significant relationships were found between touchscreen use and either gross motor or language milestones. Touchscreen use increases rapidly over the first 3 years of life. In the current study, we find no evidence to support a negative association between the age of first touchscreen usage and developmental milestones. Indeed, earlier touchscreen use, specifically scrolling of the screen

  16. From Early to Current Developments in Online Learning at Nova Southeastern University: Reflections on Historical Milestones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dringus, Laurie P.; Scigliano, John A.

    2000-01-01

    Traces the major historical milestones achieved by Nova Southeastern University in its pioneering of graduate level online learning programs. Highlights include delivery systems; Web-based electronic classrooms; overview of the technology, including telecommunications through UNIX; evaluation and research; and technology used in the School of…

  17. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of drinking in early pregnancy among women who stopped drinking on pregnancy recognition.

    PubMed

    Parackal, S M; Parackal, M K; Harraway, J A

    2013-04-01

    Women of child bearing age that regularly drink alcohol are at risk for drinking in early pregnancy. Evidence indicates a majority of women stop alcohol consumption on pregnancy recognition. However, there is a dearth of studies reporting on patterns and correlates of drinking in early pregnancy prior to stopping on pregnancy recognition, which the current study aims to address. In 2005, a New Zealand nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 1,256 women aged 16-40 years. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire using a web-assisted telephone interviewing system. Of the 1,256 women who participated, 127 (10 %) were currently pregnant and 425 women (34 %) were previously pregnant. Half of currently pregnant women and 37 % of previously pregnant women reported that they ceased drinking on recognising pregnancy. Women categorised as "risky drinkers" and those aged 16-24 years had higher odds to drink and binge drink in early pregnancy, compared with non-risky drinkers and women of other age categories respectively. A majority of women stop alcohol consumption on pregnancy recognition but prior to this, drink at levels posing a risk for the developing foetus. Women most at risk for drinking and binge drinking in early pregnancy were younger in age and exhibited risky drinking behaviour prior to pregnancy. A targeted intervention to reduce the risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy is warranted for sexually active younger women in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  19. Relationship between early motor milestones and severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Uljarević, Mirko; Hedley, Darren; Alvares, Gail A; Varcin, Kandice J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2017-06-01

    This study explored the relationships between the later age of achievement of early motor milestones, current motor atypicalities (toe walking), and the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of 147 children and adolescents with ASD (M age  = 8.09 years, SD = 4.28; 119 males) completed an early developmental milestones questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of Insistence on Sameness (IS) and Repetitive Mannerisms (RM). Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test whether RM and IS behaviors were predicted by early motor milestones, or current toe walking. The final model predicting RM accounted for 15% of the variance (F = 3.02, p = .009), with toe walking as a unique and independent predictor of RM scores (t = 3.568, p = .001). The final model predicting IS accounted for 19.1% of variance in IS scores (F = 4.045, p = .001), with chronological age (CA) (t = 2.92, p = .004), age when first standing (t = 2.09, p = .038), and toe walking (t = 2.53, p = .013) as unique independent predictors. Toe walking (t = 2.4, p = .018) and age when first sitting (t = 2.08, p = .04) predicted the severity of RRBs on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (F = 2.334, p = .036). Our study replicates previous findings on the relationship between concurrent motor impairments and RRBs, and provides the first evidence for the association between RRBs and age of attainment of early motor milestones. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1163-1168. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 18 Percent of Pregnant Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    National Survey on Drug Use and Health The NSDUH Report Data Spotlight September 9, 2013 18 Percent of Pregnant VA60 Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy Women who drink alcohol while pregnant increase the risk that their infants will have physical, learning, and/ ...

  1. Exact milestoning

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Rivas, Juan M.; Elber, Ron

    2015-01-01

    A new theory and an exact computer algorithm for calculating kinetics and thermodynamic properties of a particle system are described. The algorithm avoids trapping in metastable states, which are typical challenges for Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on rough energy landscapes. It is based on the division of the full space into Voronoi cells. Prior knowledge or coarse sampling of space points provides the centers of the Voronoi cells. Short time trajectories are computed between the boundaries of the cells that we call milestones and are used to determine fluxes at the milestones. The flux function, an essential component of the new theory, provides a complete description of the statistical mechanics of the system at the resolution of the milestones. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the exact Milestoning approach by comparing numerical results obtained on a model system using exact Milestoning with the results of long trajectories and with a solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. The theory uses an equation that resembles the approximate Milestoning method that was introduced in 2004 [A. K. Faradjian and R. Elber, J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10880-10889 (2004)]. However, the current formulation is exact and is still significantly more efficient than straightforward MD simulations on the system studied. PMID:25747056

  2. Teaching Preschoolers to Count: Effective Strategies for Achieving Early Mathematics Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi-Vessels, Jill L.; Brown, E. Todd; Molfese, Victoria J.; Do, Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Attention to early childhood mathematics instructional strategies has sharpened due to the relatively poor mathematics performance of U.S. students in comparison to students from other countries and research evidence that early mathematics skills impact later achievement. Early Childhood counting skills form the foundation for subsequent…

  3. Energy drink consumption in children and early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Vinelli, Angela; Lazzarin, Gianna; Terraneo, Alberto; Scafato, Emauele; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of energy drink consumption in children and very young adolescents and to study the sociodemographic and environmental-behavioral factors associated with regular, at least once a week, energy drink consumption in early adolescence. This survey was conducted during the 2011-2012 school year in the Province of Rovigo, in the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy), and involved a sample of 916 students. The usage of energy drinks increased significantly with age, from 17.8 % among sixth graders to 56.2 % among eighth graders. Among the male student population, 16.5 % of those in the eighth grade and 6.21 % of those in the sixth grade, respectively, drank them at least once a week. The independent variables conferring a higher likelihood of being at least once-a-week energy drink consumers were smoking and alcohol consumption. Awareness of the damage caused by energy drinks emerged as a protective factor that reduced the likelihood of young students consuming such drinks. This study showed that energy drink consumption is rising steadily in children and early adolescents. Energy drink consumption was found associated with the abuse of other substances, such as tobacco and alcohol.

  4. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    SciT

    Bertsch, A. D.

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  5. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  6. Early developmental milestones and age of independent walking in orphans compared with typical home-raised infants.

    PubMed

    Chaibal, Supattra; Bennett, Surussawadi; Rattanathanthong, Korrawan; Siritaratiwat, Wantana

    2016-10-01

    Early gross motor development is a major indicator of global milestones in the first year of life, affecting the walking ability of a child. There has been limited research reporting on early motor development and the age of independent walking of orphaned infants compared to typical home-raised infants. The purpose of this study was to compare the mean scores of early gross motor movement at 4, 6 and 8months of age and at the age of walking attainment of typically raised infants and orphaned infants. In addition, we looked to compare the walking age between these same infants. This cross-sectional study recruited 59 typical home-raised infants and 62 orphans. Their gross motor development was assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). The age of walking attainment was also prospectively monitored and ascertained. The Student's independent t-test was used to analyse the differences of the AIMS scores at 4, 6 and 8months of age and at the age of independent walking between the two groups. The orphans showed significantly lower AIMS scores at 4, 6 and 8months of age and the age of independent walking (P-value<0.05). The orphan group had a 5-month older mean age of walking attainment (15.0±4.2months) compared with typical home-raised infants (9.9±1.4months). Orphans have delays in early gross motor development and walk independently at an older age, compared with home-raised infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  8. Early Developmental Processes and the Continuity of Risk for Underage Drinking and Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Masten, Ann S.; Mattson, Margaret E.; Moss, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental pathways to underage drinking emerge before the second decade of life. Nonetheless, many scientists, as well as the general public, continue to focus on proximal influences surrounding the initiation of drinking in adolescence, such as the social, behavioral, and genetic variables relating to availability and ease of acquisition of the drug, social reinforcement for its use, and individual differences in drug response. Over the past 20 years, a considerable body of evidence has accumulated on the early predictors and pathways of youthful alcohol use and abuse, often much earlier than the time of first drink. These early developmental influences involve numerous risk, vulnerability, promotive and protective processes. Some of these factors are not directly related to alcohol use per se, while others involve learning and expectancies about later drug use that are shaped by social experience. The salience of these factors-- identifiable in early childhood-- for understanding the course and development of adult alcohol and other drug use disorders is evident from the large and growing body of findings on their ability to predict these adult clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the evidence on early pathways toward and away from underage drinking, with a particular focus on the risk and protective factors, mediators and moderators of risk for underage drinking that become evident during the preschool and early school years. It is guided by a developmental perspective on the aggregation of risk and protection, and examines the contributions of biological, psychological, and social processes within the context of normal development. Implications of this evidence for policy, intervention, and future research are discussed. PMID:18381493

  9. THE LINK BETWEEN EARLY ONSET DRINKING AND EARLY ONSET ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING IN YOUNG MALES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. Objectives The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. Methods The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population based sample of 625 males at ages of 16–19 years old. Results Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Conclusion Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24766089

  10. The link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving in young males.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2014-05-01

    Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population-based sample of 625 males at aged 16-19. Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving.

  11. Drinking Over the Lifespan: Focus on Early Adolescents and Youth.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth.

  12. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  13. Are infants with torticollis at risk of a delay in early motor milestones compared with a control group of healthy infants?

    PubMed

    Ohman, Anna; Nilsson, Staffan; Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena; Beckung, Eva

    2009-07-01

    Recently it has been claimed that infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) are at risk of a delay in early motor milestones. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether infants with CMT are indeed at risk in comparison with a control group of healthy infants. A second aim was to investigate whether the time spent in a prone position and plagiocephaly had any influence on motor development. Eighty-two infants with CMT (35 females and 47 males) were compared with 40 healthy infants (18 females and 22 males). Motor development was assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor scale (AIMS). Multiple regression showed that infants in the CMT group had a significantly lower AIMS score than the control group at 2 months (p=0.03) and 6 months of age (p=0.05). Infants who spent at least three occasions daily in a prone position when awake had significantly higher AIMS scores than infants who spent less time prone at 2 months (p=0.001), 6 months (p<0.001), and 10 months of age (p<0.001). The CMT group achieved early motor milestones significantly later than the control group until the age of 10 months, but the risk of delay seems to be more strongly associated with little or no time prone when awake than with CMT.

  14. Milestoning with coarse memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawk, Alexander T.

    2013-04-01

    Milestoning is a method used to calculate the kinetics of molecular processes occurring on timescales inaccessible to traditional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the method, the phase space of the system is partitioned by milestones (hypersurfaces), trajectories are initialized on each milestone, and short MD simulations are performed to calculate transitions between neighboring milestones. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process from the observed statistics of transition. The procedure is typically justified by the assumption that trajectories lose memory between crossing successive milestones. Here we present Milestoning with Coarse Memory (MCM), a generalization of Milestoning that relaxes the memory loss assumption of conventional Milestoning. In the method, milestones are defined and sample transitions are calculated in the standard Milestoning way. Then, after it is clear where trajectories sample milestones, the milestones are broken up into distinct neighborhoods (clusters), and each sample transition is associated with two clusters: the cluster containing the coordinates the trajectory was initialized in, and the cluster (on the terminal milestone) containing trajectory's final coordinates. Long trajectories of the system are then reconstructed with a semi-Markov process in an extended state space built from milestone and cluster indices. To test the method, we apply it to a process that is particularly ill suited for Milestoning: the dynamics of a polymer confined to a narrow cylinder. We show that Milestoning calculations of both the mean first passage time and the mean transit time of reversal—which occurs when the end-to-end vector reverses direction—are significantly improved when MCM is applied. Finally, we note the overhead of performing MCM on top of conventional Milestoning is negligible.

  15. Motives to drink or not to drink: longitudinal relations among personality, motives, and alcohol use across adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristen G; Briggs, Kristen E L; White, Helene R

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent selective intervention programs for alcohol have focused on the identification of youth at risk as a function of personality and associated alcohol-related cognitions. Research into the role of personality, drinking motivations, and alcohol-related outcomes has generally focused exclusively on motives to drink. We expand on this literature by focusing on both motives to drink and motives not to drink across time from adolescence to early adulthood in a community sample. Using 3 waves of data from 3 cohorts from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project (n = 1,380; 49.4% women), we modeled the influence of baseline alcohol consumption, disinhibition (DIS), and harm avoidance (ages 15, 18, and 21 years) on drinking motives and motives not to drink 3 years later (ages 18, 21, and 24 years) and alcohol use and drinking-related problems 7 years subsequently (ages 25, 28, and 31 years). Path analytic models were relatively invariant across cohort. Across cohorts, DIS and baseline alcohol consumption related to later positive reinforcement drinking motives, but less consistency was found for the prediction of negative reinforcement motives to drink. While positive reinforcement motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems 7 years later, negative reinforcement motives were generally associated with problems alone. Positive reinforcement motives for drinking mediated relations between baseline consumption and later consumption. However, results were mixed when considering DIS as a predictor and drinking problems as an outcome. Similarly, personality and baseline consumption related to later motives not to drink and such motives predicted subsequent alcohol-related problems. However, mediation was not generally supported for pathways through motives to abstain. The results of this study replicate and extend previous longitudinal findings with youth and add to the growing literature on motivations not to engage in alcohol use

  16. Motives to drink or not to drink: Longitudinal relations among personality, motives and alcohol use across adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Briggs, Kristen E.L.; White, Helene R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent selective intervention programs for alcohol have focused on the identification of youth at risk as a function of personality and associated alcohol-related cognitions. Research into the role of personality, drinking motivations, and alcohol-related outcomes has generally focused exclusively on motives to drink. We expand on this literature by focusing on both motives to drink and motives not drink across time from adolescence to early adulthood in a community sample. Methods Using three waves of data from three cohorts from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project (n = 1380; 49.4% women), we modeled the influence of baseline alcohol consumption, disinhibition and harm avoidance (ages 15, 18 and 21 years) on drinking motives and motives not to drink three years later (ages 18, 21 and 24 years) and alcohol use and drinking-related problems seven years subsequently (ages 25, 28, 31 years). Results Path analytic models were relatively invariant across cohort. Across cohorts, disinhibition and baseline alcohol consumption related to later positive reinforcement drinking motives, but less consistency was found for the prediction of negative reinforcement motives to drink. While positive reinforcement motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems seven years later, negative reinforcement motives were generally associated with problems alone. Positive reinforcement motives for drinking mediated relations between baseline consumption and later consumption. However, results were mixed when considering disinhibition as a predictor and drinking problems as an outcome. Similarly, personality and baseline consumption related to later motives not to drink and such motives predicted subsequent alcohol-related problems. However, mediation was not generally supported for pathways through motives to abstain. Conclusions The results of this study replicate and extend previous longitudinal findings with youth and add to the growing

  17. Correlates of age at attainment of developmental milestones in HIV-infected infants receiving early antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Eshelman, Christal; Wamalwa, Dalton; Langat, Agnes; Tapia, Ken; Okinyi, Helen Moraa; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Infant HIV-1 infection is associated with impaired neurologic and motor development. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has the potential to improve developmental outcomes but the relative contributions of pre-ART disease status, growth, treatment regimen and ART response during infancy are unknown. Kenyan ART-naive infants <5-months old initiated ART and had monthly assessment of age of full neck control, unsupported walking and monosyllabic speech during 24 months of follow-up. Pre-ART and post-ART correlates of age at milestone attainment were evaluated using t tests or multivariate linear regression. Among 99 infants, pre-ART correlates of later milestone attainment included: underweight and stunted (neck control, walking and speech, all P values <0.05), missed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (P = 0.04) (neck control), previous hospitalization, World Health Organization (WHO) Stage III/IV, low CD4 count, and wasting (speech and walking, all P values <0.05), and low maternal CD4 (speech, P = 0.04). Infants initiated ART at a median of 14 days following enrollment. Infants receiving nevirapinevs lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART attained later speech (18.1 vs. 15.5 months, P = 0.003) [corrected]. Adjusting for pre-ART level, lower 6-month gain in CD4% was associated with later walking (0.18 months earlier per unit increase in CD4%; P = 0.004) and speech (0.12 months earlier per unit increase in CD4%; P = 0.05), and lower 6-month gains in weight-for-age (P = 0.009), height-for-age (P = 0.03) and weight-for-height (P = 0.02) were associated with later walking. In HIV-infected infants, compromised pre-ART immune and growth status, poor post-ART immune and growth responses, and use of nevirapine- vs. lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART were each associated with later milestone attainment [corrected]. The long-term consequences of these delays are unknown.

  18. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  19. Identification and prediction of drinking trajectories in early and mid-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A; Meeus, Wim H J; Deković, Maja; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger siblings). Latent Class Growth Analyses were performed to identify drinking trajectories. Four drinking trajectories emerged for early adolescents: abstainers, light drinkers, increasers, and heavy drinkers. For mid-adolescents, we identified a fifth group (stable drinkers) in addition to the four trajectories identified for early adolescents. Our results showed that being a boy, having a best friend or father who drinks heavily, and having parents who are permissive toward adolescents' alcohol creates increased risk for both siblings to attend the more heavy drinking trajectories.

  20. The Impact of Alcohol-Specific Rules, Parental Norms about Early Drinking and Parental Alcohol Use on Adolescents' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim; Dekovic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent…

  1. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  2. Early adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and its relationship to underage drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rebecca L; Ellickson, Phyllis L; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Two in-school surveys of 1786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during 6th grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at 7th grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at grade 6 was strongly predictive of grade 7 drinking and grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence.

  3. Does Religious Involvement Protect against Early Drinking? A Behavior Genetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescent involvement in religious organizations has been hypothesized to protect against early age at first drink. However, the correlation between adolescent religiosity and later age at first drink may be confounded by environmental or genetic differences between families. This study tests whether, after controlling for shared…

  4. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  5. Heavy drinking from the freshman year into early young adulthood: the roles of stress, tension-reduction drinking motives, gender and personality.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, P C; Sher, K J

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress (defined alternatively as negative life events and emotional distress) and heavy drinking across late adolescence and early young adulthood, as well as the roles of tension-reduction drinking motives and gender as moderators of that relationship. The role of personality variables (neuroticism, behavioral undercontrol and extraversion) as moderators also was explored. The data were obtained from 485 individuals (255 women) participating in a five-wave longitudinal study that spanned 7 years. The effects on heavy drinking of stress (either negative life events or emotional distress), tension-reduction drinking motives, gender and personality were analyzed each year with hierarchical multiple regression. Stress (negative life events) was positively related to heavy drinking, but only for men with stronger tension-reduction drinking motives at Year 4 (age 21). The relationship between tension-reduction drinking motives and heavy drinking was positive, developmentally graded, and moderated by gender, after the freshman year, the role of tension-reduction drinking motives in heavy drinking became less important for women, relative to men, a trend that grew stronger after the college years. Behavioral undercontrol played a limited role in the relationship of gender and tension-reduction drinking motives to heavy drinking. The findings have implications for theories of stress-related and stress-motivated drinking. Such theories should consider developmental processes, particularly the transition to adult drinking status at age 21 and the roles of tension-reduction drinking motives, gender and behavioral undercontrol.

  6. Longitudinal Comparison of Early Speech and Language Milestones in Children with Cleft Palate: A Comparison of US and Slovak Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Nancy J.; Oravkinova, Zuzana; McBee, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare early speech and language development of children with and without cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) in the US and Slovakia from 6 to 24 months of age. Thirty-two children from the US (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) and Slovakia (eight with CLP and eight noncleft) participated in this study. The children…

  7. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  8. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  9. Even in early childhood offspring alcohol expectancies correspond to parental drinking.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Research has found that children as young as preschoolers have an idea about the valence (positive vs. negative) and activation (arousal vs. sedation) of emotional change when adults drink alcohol. The development of alcohol expectancies at such a young age may be due to observed parental alcohol use. Three measures of alcohol use (frequency, quantity and binge drinking) assessed among 115 fathers and 149 mothers were correlated with four alcohol expectancy factors (crossing valence and activation) of their offspring, aged three to six (70 boys and 82 girls). For both arousal and sedation expectancies and across alcohol use measures of both fathers and mothers, the greater parental alcohol use was, the higher their sons' negative and the lower positive alcohol expectancies were. For negative expectancies (particularly sedation, i.e., drinking when feeling sad or depressed), there was a stronger and more consistent association with paternal than with maternal drinking. For daughters, there was no consistent association between any expectancy factor and any parental drinking behavior. Already among preschoolers, parental drinking was found to be correlated with their sons' alcohol expectancies in the sense that they may observe and associate positive emotional consequences (feeling joyful, happy, calm, relaxed etc.) with moderate parental drinking and negative emotional consequences (feeling angry, nervous, sad, depressed etc.) with excessive drinking. This may be important for prevention, as expectancies have been found to be predominant predictors of early alcohol initiation and development of risky drinking in adolescence and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Milestones in Rotorcraft Aeromechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this paper is milestones in rotorcraft aeromechanics. Aeromechanics covers much of what the engineer needs: performance, loads, vibration, stability, flight dynamics, noise. These topics cover many of the key performance attributes, and many of the often-encountered problems in rotorcraft designs. A milestone is a critical achievement, a turning point, an event marking a significant change or stage in development. The milestones identified and discussed include the beginnings of aeromechanics with autogyro analysis, ground resonance, aeromechanics books, unsteady aerodynamics and airloads, nonuniform inflow and wakes, beams and dynamics, comprehensive analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and rotor airloads tests. The focus on milestones limits the scope of the history, but allows the author to acknowledge his choices for key steps in the development of the science and engineering of rotorcraft.

  11. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  12. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9-10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks was

  13. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche12

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Noel T; Jacobs, David R; MacLehose, Richard F; Demerath, Ellen W; Kelly, Scott P; Dreyfus, Jill G; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early menarche has been linked to risk of several chronic diseases. Prospective research on whether the intake of soft drinks containing caffeine, a modulator of the female reproductive axis, is associated with risk of early menarche is sparse. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that consumption of caffeinated soft drinks in childhood is associated with higher risk of early menarche. Design: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited and enrolled 2379 (1213 African American, 1166 Caucasian) girls aged 9–10 y (from Richmond, CA; Cincinnati, OH; and Washington, DC) and followed them for 10 y. After exclusions were made, there were 1988 girls in whom we examined prospective associations between consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated sugar- and artificially sweetened soft drinks and early menarche (defined as menarche age <11 y). We also examined associations between intakes of caffeine, sucrose, fructose, and aspartame and early menarche. Results: Incident early menarche occurred in 165 (8.3%) of the girls. After adjustment for confounders and premenarcheal percentage body fat, greater consumption of caffeinated soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.79). Consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks was also positively associated with risk of early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.88). Consumption of noncaffeinated soft drinks was not significantly associated with early menarche (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.25); nor was consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (RR for 1 serving/d increment: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). Consistent with the beverage findings, intakes of caffeine (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37) and aspartame (RR for 1-SD increment: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.31) were positively associated with risk of early menarche. Conclusion: Consumption of

  14. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  15. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... the spirit of making both good eating and reading a part of every healthy childhood, the following ...

  16. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars-A Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Spencer, Andrew John; Thomson, William Murray; Golley, Rebecca K; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Levy, Steven M; Scott, Jane A

    2017-10-23

    Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No) at age 6-9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars). Household income quartiles, mother's sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6-9 months). Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI) for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2-3.1) and 1.8 (1.2-2.6) against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2-2.3). The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5-0.8). Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  17. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Diep H.; Do, Loc G.; Spencer, Andrew John; Golley, Rebecca K.; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J.; Levy, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No) at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars). Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months). Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI) for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1) and 1.8 (1.2–2.6) against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3). The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8). Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars. PMID:29065527

  18. Comparison of developmental milestone attainment in early treated HIV-infected infants versus HIV-unexposed infants: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Wamalwa, Dalton; Langat, Agnes; Tapia, Kenneth; Adhiambo, Judith; Chebet, Daisy; Okinyi, Helen Moraa; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-01-17

    Infant HIV infection is associated with delayed milestone attainment. The extent to which effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents these delays is not well defined. Ages at attainment of milestones were compared between HIV-infected (initiated ART by age <5 months), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. Kaplan Meier analyses were used to estimate and compare (log-rank tests) ages at milestones between groups. Adjusted analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models. Seventy-three HIV-infected on ART (median enrollment age 3.7 months) and 92 HUU infants (median enrollment age 1.6 months) were followed prospectively. HIV-infected infants on ART had delays in developmental milestone attainment compared to HUU: median age at attainment of sitting with support, sitting unsupported, walking with support, walking unsupported, monosyllabic speech and throwing toys were each delayed (all p-values <0.0005). Compared with HUU, the subset of HIV-infected infants with both virologic suppression and immune recovery at 6 months had delays for speech (delay: 2.0 months; P = 0.0002) and trend to later walking unsupported. Among HIV-infected infants with poor 6-month post-ART responses (lacking viral suppression and immune recovery) there were greater delays versus HUU for: walking unsupported (delay: 4.0 months; P = 0.0001) and speech (delay: 5.0 months; P < 0.0001). HIV infected infants with viral suppression on ART had better recovery of developmental milestones than those without suppression, however, deficits persisted compared to uninfected infants. Earlier ART may be required for optimized cognitive outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected infants. NCT00428116 ; January 22, 2007.

  19. On the assumptions underlying milestoning.

    PubMed

    Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Venturoli, Maddalena; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Elber, Ron

    2008-11-07

    Milestoning is a procedure to compute the time evolution of complicated processes such as barrier crossing events or long diffusive transitions between predefined states. Milestoning reduces the dynamics to transition events between intermediates (the milestones) and computes the local kinetic information to describe these transitions via short molecular dynamics (MD) runs between the milestones. The procedure relies on the ability to reinitialize MD trajectories on the milestones to get the right kinetic information about the transitions. It also rests on the assumptions that the transition events between successive milestones and the time lags between these transitions are statistically independent. In this paper, we analyze the validity of these assumptions. We show that sets of optimal milestones exist, i.e., sets such that successive transitions are indeed statistically independent. The proof of this claim relies on the results of transition path theory and uses the isocommittor surfaces of the reaction as milestones. For systems in the overdamped limit, we also obtain the probability distribution to reinitialize the MD trajectories on the milestones, and we discuss why this distribution is not available in closed form for systems with inertia. We explain why the time lags between transitions are not statistically independent even for optimal milestones, but we show that working with such milestones allows one to compute mean first passage times between milestones exactly. Finally, we discuss some practical implications of our results and we compare milestoning with Markov state models in view of our findings.

  20. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P < 0.01). The absence of an interaction between either current life stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    PubMed

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-07-01

    The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on child motor function at age 5. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function at age 5. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Growth trajectories of alcohol information processing and associations with escalation of drinking in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; O'Connor, Roisin M; Read, Jennifer P; Eiden, Rina D; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W; Wieczorek, William F

    2014-09-01

    This longitudinal study provided a comprehensive examination of age-related changes in alcohol outcome expectancies, subjective evaluation of alcohol outcomes, and automatic alcohol associations in early adolescence. A community sample (52% female, 75% White/non-Hispanic) was assessed annually for 3 years (mean age at the first assessment = 11.6 years). Results from growth modeling suggested that perceived likelihood of positive outcomes increased and that subjective evaluations of these outcomes were more positive with age. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes declined with age. Automatic alcohol associations were assessed with an Implicit Association Task (IAT), and were predominantly negative, but these negative associations weakened with age. High initial levels of perceived likelihood of positive outcomes at age 11 were associated with escalation of drinking. Perceived likelihood of negative outcomes was associated with low risk for drinking at age 11, but not with changes in drinking. Increases in positive evaluations of positive outcomes were associated with increases in alcohol use. Overall, findings suggest that at age 11, youth maintain largely negative attitudes and perceptions about alcohol, but with the transition into adolescence, there is a shift toward a more neutral or ambivalent view of alcohol. Some features of this shift are associated with escalation of drinking. Our findings point to the importance of delineating multiple aspects of alcohol information processing for extending cognitive models of alcohol use to the early stages of drinking.

  3. An early warning and control system for urban, drinking water quality protection: China's experience.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dibo; Song, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Guangxin; Zhang, Hongjian; Loaiciga, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    An event-driven, urban, drinking water quality early warning and control system (DEWS) is proposed to cope with China's urgent need for protecting its urban drinking water. The DEWS has a web service structure and provides users with water quality monitoring functions, water quality early warning functions, and water quality accident decision-making functions. The DEWS functionality is guided by the principles of control theory and risk assessment as applied to the feedback control of urban water supply systems. The DEWS has been deployed in several large Chinese cities and found to perform well insofar as water quality early warning and emergency decision-making is concerned. This paper describes a DEWS for urban water quality protection that has been developed in China.

  4. Progressing from Light Experimentation to Heavy Episodic Drinking in Early and Middle Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Turrisi, Rob; Jaccard, James; Wood, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined psychological variables related to changes in drinking patterns from light experimentation with alcohol to heavy episodic drinking in early and middle adolescence. The present study examined parental and peer influences, gender and grade level as predictors of such changes in adolescent alcohol consumption. Method Approximately 1,420 light drinkers were analyzed from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Heavy episodic drinking activity was assessed 1 year later. Results Gender differences in transitions to heavy episodic drinking were observed, with males being more likely than females to make a transition. Parent parameter setting and communication variables, as well as peer variables at different grade levels, buffered these gender differences. Conclusions Adolescents who are light experimenters represent a high-risk group as a consequence of their initial consumption tendencies. Some of these adolescents graduated beyond simple experimentation and moved into patterns of consumption that could be considered dangerous. Our analyses implicated an array of parental-based buffers: parent involvement in the adolescent’s life, development of good communication patterns and expressions of warmth and affection. Minimizing associations with peers who consume alcohol may also have a buffering effect. There was evidence that these buffers may dampen gender differences not so much by affecting female drinking tendencies as by keeping males at reduced levels of alcohol consumption comparable to those of females. PMID:15376824

  5. 10 CFR 603.570 - Determining milestone payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pre-Award Business Evaluation Accounting, Payments, and Recovery of Funds § 603.570 Determining... share for early milestones if a project involves a start-up company with limited resources. (c) For an...

  6. Electronic Nose: A Promising Tool For Early Detection Of Alicyclobacillus spp In Soft Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concina, I.; Bornšek, M.; Baccelliere, S.; Falasconi, M.; Sberveglieri, G.

    2009-05-01

    In the present work we investigate the potential use of the Electronic Nose EOS835 (SACMI scarl, Italy) to early detect Alicyclobacillus spp in two flavoured soft drinks. These bacteria have been acknowledged by producer companies as a major quality control target microorganisms because of their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce taint compounds in final product. Electronic Nose was able to distinguish between uncontaminated and contaminated products before the taint metabolites were identifiable by an untrained panel. Classification tests showed an excellent rate of correct classification for both drinks (from 86% uo to 100%). High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed no presence of the main metabolite at a level of 200 ppb, thus confirming the skill of the Electronic Nose technology in performing an actual early diagnosis of contamination.

  7. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  8. Milestones in welding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolby, Richard E.

    2013-09-01

    Sir Alan's PhD thesis describes his research into cracking during arc welding of armour steels. Throughout his career, he had a strong interest in defects of all types, how they formed in metallic structures and how the larger ones could be detected and sized by non-destructive techniques. He was also vitally concerned with how defects impacted on the engineering integrity of welded structures, particularly the risk of fracture in nuclear plant. This study presents a view of some of the major milestones in global welding technology that took place over the 60 or more years of Sir Alan's career and highlights those where he had a personal and direct involvement.

  9. Long-Term Neurotoxic Effects of Early Life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; White, Roberta F.; Vieira, Veronica M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Getz, Kelly D.; Webster, Thomas F.; Ozonoff, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983 widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. Objectives A retrospective cohort study (“the Cape Cod Health Study”) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the impact of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurological outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiological research in this unique setting. Methods Subjects were identified by cross-matching birth certificate and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (N= 1,689), neuropsychological tests (N=63), vision exam (N=63), and magnetic resonance imaging (N=42). Early life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed subjects while considering the impact of confounding variables. Results The study found evidence that early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from

  10. Alcohol use in motion pictures and its relation with early-onset teen drinking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation

  11. Educational differences in continuing or restarting drinking in early and late pregnancy: role of psychological and physical problems.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela; Kunst, Anton E; Feldmann, Reinhold; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-01-01

    Many women continue drinking alcohol during pregnancy. This study aimed to describe educational differences in continued drinking in early and late pregnancy and to examine the contribution of psychological and physical factors to the explanation of educational differences. We examined 4,885 women enrolled in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Information on alcohol intake during pregnancy was based on self-reports at the 16th week of gestation and at 3 months postpartum. Only women who reported alcohol intake before pregnancy were included. Explanatory factors were alcohol intake before pregnancy, psychological problems, and physical problems. The risk of continued drinking in early pregnancy was increased in higher educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% CI [1.25, 1.60]); in addition, in late pregnancy, higher educated women had an increased risk of restarting (OR = 1.67, 95% CI [1.37, 2.04]) and continuing drinking (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.36, 2.30]). The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and all physical and psychological problems together explained 17.1% and 8.8% of the educational differences in continued drinking in early pregnancy, respectively. Higher educated women are more likely to continue drinking during pregnancy. The intensity of alcohol intake before pregnancy and physical and psychological problems contributed to the explanation of continued drinking. However, other factors may play a greater role, such as cultural factors and social norms.

  12. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    PubMed

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising/internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.02, CI 1.00-1.05) than for late binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.21, CI 1.04-1.42). No associations were observed for any of the above cutoff outcomes. Exposure to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy is associated with elevated externalising scores, particularly so in late pregnancy. No increased risk for any of the above cutoff scale scores was observed.

  13. Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. OBJECTIVES: To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children’s Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. RESULTS: The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children. PMID:24855426

  14. Early warning risk assessment for drinking water production: decoding subtle evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Christoph; Lischeid, Gunnar; Böttcher, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing demands for high quality water for drinking water supply all over the world there is acute need for methods to detect possible threats to groundwater resources early. Especially drinking water production in complex geologic settings has a particularly high risk for unexpected degradation of the groundwater quality due to the unknown interplay between anthropogenically induced hydraulic changes and geochemical processes. This study investigates the possible benefit of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for groundwater and drinking water management using common sets of physicochemical monitoring data. The approach was used to identify the prevailing processes driving groundwater quality shifts and related threats, which might be masked in anthropogenically impacted aquifer systems. The approach was applied to a data set from a waterworks located in the state of Brandenburg, NE Germany, which has been operating since nearly four decades. The region faces confronting and increasing demands due to rising peri-urban settlements. The PCA subdivided the data set according to different strengths of effects induced by differing geochemical processes at different sites in the capture zone of the waterworks and varying in time. Thus a spatial assessment of these processes could be performed as well as a temporal assessment of long-term groundwater quality shifts in the extracted water. The analysis revealed that over the period of 16 years of water withdrawal the geochemistry of the extracted groundwater had become increasingly more dissimilar compared to the characteristics found at the majority of observation wells. This component could be identified as highly mineralized CaSO4 dominated water from unexamined deeper zones of the aquifer system. Due to the complex geochemical and hydraulic interactions in the system, this process was masked and was not evident in the data set without validation by the applied statistical analysis. The findings give a

  15. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time. PMID:27274416

  16. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  17. Older and wiser? Men’s and women’s accounts of drinking in early mid-life

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Lyons, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    Most qualitative research on alcohol focuses on younger rather than older adults. To explore older people’s relationship with alcohol, we conducted eight focus groups with 36 men and women aged 35 to 50 years in Scotland, UK. Initially, respondents suggested that older drinkers consume less alcohol, no longer drink to become drunk and are sociable drinkers more interested in the taste than the effects of alcohol. However, as discussions progressed, respondents collectively recounted recent drunken escapades, challenged accounts of moderate drinking, and suggested there was still peer pressure to drink. Some described how their drinking had increased in mid-life but worked hard discursively to emphasise that it was age and stage appropriate (i.e. they still met their responsibilities as workers and parents). Women presented themselves as staying in control of their drinking while men described going out with the intention of getting drunk (although still claiming to meet their responsibilities). While women experienced peer pressure to drink, they seemed to have more options for socialising without alcohol than did men. Choosing not to drink alcohol is a behaviour that still requires explanation in early mid-life. Harm reduction strategies should pay more attention to drinking in this age group. PMID:22034902

  18. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... hour or less is better. Avoid programming with violent content. Redirect the child to reading or play activities. Control the type of games the child plays. Alternative Names Growth milestones for ...

  20. Association between pubertal stage at first drink and neural reward processing in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Puberty is a critical time period during human development. It is characterized by high levels of risk-taking behavior, such as increased alcohol consumption, and is accompanied by various neurobiological changes. Recent studies in animals and humans have revealed that the pubertal stage at first drink (PSFD) significantly impacts drinking behavior in adulthood. Moreover, neuronal alterations of the dopaminergic reward system have been associated with alcohol abuse or addiction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of PSFD on neuronal characteristics of reward processing linked to alcohol-related problems. One hundred sixty-eight healthy young adults from a prospective study covering 25 years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. PSFD was determined according to the age at menarche or Tanner stage of pubertal development, respectively. Alcohol-related problems in early adulthood were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). During reward anticipation, decreased fMRI activation of the frontal cortex and increased preparatory EEG activity (contingent negative variation) occurred with pubertal compared to postpubertal first alcohol intake. Moreover, alcohol-related problems during early adulthood were increased in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners, which was mediated by neuronal activation of the right medial frontal gyrus. At reward delivery, increased fMRI activation of the left caudate and higher feedback-related EEG negativity were detected in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners. Together with animal findings, these results implicate PSFD as a potential modulator of psychopathology, involving altered reward anticipation. Both PSFD timing and reward processing might thus be potential targets for early prevention and intervention. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  2. A randomized placebo controlled trial of preoperative carbohydrate drinks and early postoperative nutritional supplement drinks in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lidder, P; Thomas, S; Fleming, S; Hosie, K; Shaw, S; Lewis, S

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence that preoperative carbohydrate drinks and postoperative nutritional supplements improve the outcome of colorectal surgery. There is little information on their individual contribution. A prospective four-arm double-blind controlled trial was carried out in which patients were randomized to carbohydrate or placebo drinks preoperatively and a polymeric supplement or placebo drink postoperatively. The primary outcome was insulin resistance (using the short insulin tolerance test and HOMA-IR). Secondary outcomes included handgrip strength, pulmonary function, intestinal permeability and postoperative complications. A total of 120 patients were randomized to four demographically well matched groups. Patients who received preoperative and postoperative supplements had better glucose homeostasis (P = 0.004), peak expiratory flow rate (P = 0.035), handgrip strength (P = 0.002) and less insulin resistance (P = 0.001) compared with those who only received placebo drinks. Oral nutritional supplements given preoperatively and postoperatively improve postoperative handgrip strength, pulmonary function and insulin resistance. A weaker effect was seen in patients who received supplements either preoperatively or postoperatively. Oral nutritional supplements should be given both preoperatively and postoperatively. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten; Tabor, Ann; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2015-12-08

    Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy. Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Self-reported information on each woman's socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, and lifestyle factors including alcohol habits was obtained from an electronic questionnaire filled out as part of the individual medical record. Descriptive analysis was conducted and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the potential associated risk factors (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)). Questionnaires from 3,238 women were included. A majority of 70 %, reported weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The prevalence decreased to 3 % during early pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4.48, CI: 3.14 - 6.40), (2-7 units aOR 10.23, CI: 7.44-14.06), (≥8 units aOR 33.18, CI: 19.53-56.36)). Multiparity and the use of assisted reproductive technology were associated with lower odds of

  4. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems – Interference Corrections (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification event detection in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification eve...

  5. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems – Interference Corrections (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrification event detection in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification eve...

  6. Developing Fluorescence Sensor Systems for Early Detection of Nitrification Events in Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events ...

  7. Differences in folic acid use, prenatal care, smoking, and drinking in early pregnancy by occupation.

    PubMed

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Langlois, Peter H; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Mitchell, Laura E

    2012-10-01

    To describe differences in four high risk periconceptional behaviors (lack of folic acid supplementation, lack of early prenatal care, smoking, and drinking) by maternal occupation. Analyses were conducted among women in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who delivered liveborn infants without birth defects. Periconceptional occupational data were collected using a computer-assisted telephone interview and occupational coding was performed using the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification System. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prevalence of behaviors differed between occupational groups. Subjects included 5153 women employed during early pregnancy from 1997 to 2007. Compared to women in management, business, science, and arts occupations, women in other occupations (e.g., service occupations) were significantly more likely to engage in all four high risk behaviors. Specifically, women in food preparation/serving-related occupations were significantly more likely to engage in all four behaviors compared to women in all other occupational groups (odds ratios: 1.8-3.0), while women in education/training/library occupations were significantly less likely to do so (odds ratios: 0.2-0.5). We identified several occupational groups with an increased prevalence of high-risk maternal behaviors during pregnancy. Our findings could aid in developing interventions targeted towards women in these occupational groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Astronomy Education Milestone in Hermanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    A milestone in astronomy awareness and education in South Africa was achieved during October when Hermanus Centre members, together with science teachers and learners from Hermanus High and Qhayiya Secondary School, saw "first light" on the 1,2m MONET North telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas via the internet from the Hermanus High School's computer room.

  9. 25 Legal and Legislative Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This timeline reflects some of the most significant legal and legislative milestones that have influenced higher education over the 25 years that "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education," formerly "Black Issues in Higher Education," has been in print. The legal battles have primarily involved the settlement of desegregation cases and the use of race…

  10. Causal effects of transitions to adult roles on early adult smoking and drinking: Evidence from three cohorts.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Transitions into work and family roles have become increasingly delayed as participation in tertiary education widens. Such transitions may have adverse or beneficial effects on health behaviours such as smoking and drinking (alcohol). Role socialisation effects may reduce smoking or drinking, but clustering of transitions may lead to role overload, weakening or reversing any role socialisation effects. Effects of transitions were examined in three UK cohorts: the 1958 National Child Development Study, the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study, and the West of Scotland: Twenty-07 Youth Cohort (from around Glasgow, growing up in the same time period as the 1970 cohort). Latent class analysis was employed to identify heterogeneous patterns of transition timing for leaving education, entering employment, starting cohabitation, having a first child, and leaving the parental home. Propensity weighting was then used to estimate causal effects of transition patterns (relative to tertiary education) on smoking and heavy drinking in early adulthood (ages 22-26), adjusting for background confounders (gender, parental socioeconomic position, family structure, parental and adolescent health behaviours, adolescent distress and school performance). Three groups made early (age 16) transitions from education to employment and then either delayed other transitions, made other transitions quickly, or staggered transitions with cohabitation beginning around ages 19-21; a fourth group transitioned from education to employment around ages 17-18. Compared to those in tertiary education with similar background characteristics, those in these groups generally had higher levels of smoking, especially where transitions were more clustered, but less heavy drinking (except those who delayed other transitions after moving into employment). Results partially supported role socialisation effects for drinking, and role overload effects for smoking. Wider participation in tertiary education could have

  11. Longitudinal study shows that addictive Internet use during adolescence was associated with heavy drinking and smoking cigarettes in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Hye; Lee, Hae Kook

    2017-03-01

    Existing studies showing an association between substance use disorders and Internet addiction have been limited due their cross-sectional design. This longitudinal study investigated the association between addictive Internet use during adolescence and heavy drinking and cigarette smoking in early adulthood. We focused on middle school students from the Korea Youth Panel Study who were 15 in 2003:1804 who did not drink alcohol and 2277 who did not smoke. Multivariate logistic analysis investigated the relationships between Internet use at the age of 15, with regard to location, time spent and reason for use, and drinking and smoking at the age of 20. Using the Internet for chatting, games and adult websites at the age of 15 had a significant association with heavy drinking at the age of 20. The Internet café as the location for Internet use at the age of 15 was associated with smoking behaviour at the age of 20. This study confirmed significant associations between addictive use of the Internet at the age of 15 and heavy drinking and cigarette smoking at the age of 20. The findings demonstrated the negative effects of addictive Internet use, one of the biggest problems with adolescents. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Milestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-09-01

    Tami Bond, environmental engineer and professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been selected as a 2014 MacArthur Fellow.

  13. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Willingness to Drink as a Function of Peer Offers and Peer Norms in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina M; Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Abar, Caitlin C; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the effect of subjective peer norms on adolescents’ willingness to drink and whether this association was moderated by sensitivity to peer approval, prior alcohol use, and gender. Method: The sample was 1,023 middle-school students (52% female; 76% White; 12% Hispanic; Mage = 12.22 years) enrolled in a prospective study of drinking initiation and progression. Using web-based surveys, participants reported on their willingness to drink alcohol if offered by (a) a best friend or (b) a classmate, peer norms for two referent groups (close friends and classmates), history of sipping or consuming a full drink of alcohol, and sensitivity to peer approval (extreme peer orientation). Items were re-assessed at two follow-ups (administered 6 months apart). Results: Multilevel models revealed that measures of peer norms were significantly associated with both willingness outcomes, with the greatest prediction by descriptive norms. The association between norms and willingness was magnified for girls, those with limited prior experience with alcohol, and youths with low sensitivity to peer approval. Conclusions: Social norms appear to play a key role in substance use decisions and are relevant when considering more reactive behaviors that reflect willingness to drink under conducive circumstances. Prevention programs might target individuals with higher willingness, particularly girls who perceive others to be drinking and youths who have not yet sipped alcohol but report a higher perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption among both friends and peers. PMID:24766752

  15. Long-term Neurotoxic Effects of Early-life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Vieira, Veronica M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Getz, Kelly D; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2016-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983, widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. A retrospective cohort study (the Cape Cod Health Study) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the effects of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurologic outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiologic research in this unique setting. Participants were identified by cross-matching birth certificates and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (n = 1689), neuropsychological tests (n = 63), vision examinations (n = 63), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 42). Early-life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among individuals with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed individuals while considering the effect of confounding variables. The study found evidence that early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from the historical

  16. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  17. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values <.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Conclusions Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657

  18. ASDS Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery Fellowship Milestones.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Abigail; Arndt, Kenneth A; Avram, Mathew M; Brown, Mariah R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Fabi, Sabrina G; Friedmann, Daniel P; Geronemus, Roy G; Goldberg, David J; Goldman, Mitchel P; Green, Jeremy B; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Jones, Derek H; Kilmer, Suzanne L; McDaniel, David H; Obagi, Suzan; Ortiz, Arisa E; Rohrer, Thomas E; Taylor, Mark B; Torres, Abel; Weinkle, Susan H; Weiss, Margaret A; Weiss, Eduardo T; Weiss, Robert A; Poon, Emily; Alam, Murad

    2016-10-01

    The American Council of Graduate Medical Education, which oversees much of postgraduate medical education in the United States, has championed the concept of "milestones," standard levels of achievement keyed to particular time points, to assess trainee performance during residency. To develop a milestones document for the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery (CDS) fellowship program. An ad hoc milestone drafting committee was convened that included members of the ASDS Accreditation Work Group and program directors of ASDS-approved Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery (CDC) fellowship training programs. Draft milestones were circulated through email in multiple rounds until consensus was achieved. Thirteen milestones were developed in the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competency areas, with 8 of these being patient-care milestones. Additional instructions for milestone administration more specific to the CDS fellowship than general ACGME instructions were also approved. Implementation of semiannual milestones was scheduled for the fellowship class entering in July 2018. Milestones are now available for CDS fellowship directors to implement in combination with other tools for fellow evaluation.

  19. Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration.

    PubMed

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R; Boxall, J

    2014-07-01

    To characterize bacterial communities during the early stages of biofilm formation and their role in water discolouration in a fully representative, chlorinated, experimental drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Biofilm development was monitored in an experimental DWDS over 28 days; subsequently the system was disturbed by raising hydraulic conditions to simulate pipe burst, cleaning or other system conditions. Biofilm cell cover was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and a fingerprinting technique used to assess changes in bacterial community. Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). Cell coverage increased over time accompanied by an increase in bacterial richness and diversity. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were observed along with an increase in cell coverage, bacterial richness and diversity. Species related to Pseudomonas spp. and Janthinobacterium spp. dominated the process of initial attachment. Based on fingerprinting results, the hydraulic regimes did not affect the bacteriological composition of biofilms, but they did influence their mechanical stability. This study gives a better insight into the early stages of biofilm formation in DWDS and will contribute to the improvement of management strategies to control the formation of biofilms and the risk of discolouration. © 2014 The Authors. published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Bacterial community dynamics during the early stages of biofilm formation in a chlorinated experimental drinking water distribution system: implications for drinking water discolouration

    PubMed Central

    Douterelo, I; Sharpe, R; Boxall, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims To characterize bacterial communities during the early stages of biofilm formation and their role in water discolouration in a fully representative, chlorinated, experimental drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). Methods and Results Biofilm development was monitored in an experimental DWDS over 28 days; subsequently the system was disturbed by raising hydraulic conditions to simulate pipe burst, cleaning or other system conditions. Biofilm cell cover was monitored by fluorescent microscopy and a fingerprinting technique used to assess changes in bacterial community. Selected samples were analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Fingerprinting analysis revealed significant changes in the bacterial community structure over time (P < 0·05). Cell coverage increased over time accompanied by an increase in bacterial richness and diversity. Conclusions Shifts in the bacterial community structure were observed along with an increase in cell coverage, bacterial richness and diversity. Species related to Pseudomonas spp. and Janthinobacterium spp. dominated the process of initial attachment. Based on fingerprinting results, the hydraulic regimes did not affect the bacteriological composition of biofilms, but they did influence their mechanical stability. Significance and Importance of the Study This study gives a better insight into the early stages of biofilm formation in DWDS and will contribute to the improvement of management strategies to control the formation of biofilms and the risk of discolouration. PMID:24712449

  1. Fluorescence Sensors for Early Detection of Nitrification in Drinking Water Distribution Systems - Interference Corrections and Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T. D.; Pifer, A.; Chowdhury, Z.; Wahman, D.; Zhang, W.; Fairey, J.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of nitrification events in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems remains an ongoing challenge for many drinking water utilities, including Dallas Water Utilities (DWU) and the City of Houston (CoH). Each year, these utilities experience nitrification events that necessitate extensive flushing, resulting in the loss of billions of gallons of finished water. Biological techniques used to quantify the activity of nitrifying bacteria are impractical for real-time monitoring because they require significant laboratory efforts and/or lengthy incubation times. At present, DWU and CoH regularly rely on physicochemical parameters including total chlorine and monochloramine residual, and free ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate as indicators of nitrification, but these metrics lack specificity to nitrifying bacteria. To improve detection of nitrification in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems, we seek to develop a real-time fluorescence-based sensor system to detect the early onset of nitrification events by measuring the fluorescence of soluble microbial products (SMPs) specific to nitrifying bacteria. Preliminary data indicates that fluorescence-based metrics have the sensitivity to detect these SMPs in the early stages of nitrification, but several remaining challenges will be explored in this presentation. We will focus on benchtop and sensor results from ongoing batch and annular reactor experiments designed to (1) identify fluorescence wavelength pairs and data processing techniques suitable for measurement of SMPs from nitrification and (2) assess and correct potential interferences, such as those from monochloramine, pH, iron, nitrite, nitrate and humic substances. This work will serve as the basis for developing fluorescence sensor packages for full-scale testing and validation in the DWU and CoH systems. Findings from this research could be leveraged to identify nitrification events in their early stages, facilitating proactive

  2. EARLY WARNING IN DRINKING WATER INTAKE PROTECTION: CORRELATING CHEMICAL DATA AND BIOLOGICAL WARNING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WRK Water Works is responsible for the abstraction and partial purifcation of surface water for the drinking water production of some 2m people in the Netherlands. Two water winning stations, one at a side canal of the Rhine, the other at IJsselmeer lake provide an annual tot...

  3. USEPA Harmful Algal Bloom Research Update – Focus on Early Stage Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation has three parts: (1) A review of data generated during through-plant sampling at seven Lake Erie drinking water facilities during the 2014 HAB bloom season; (2) A review of data generated during follow-up experiments to evaluate the impact of potassium permanga...

  4. Establishment and Early Succession of Bacterial Communities in Monochloramine-Treated Drinking Water Biofilms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine is increasingly used as a drinking water disinfectant because it forms lower levels of regulated disinfection by-products. While its use has been shown to increase nitrifying bacteria, little is known about the bacterial succession within biofilms in monochloramin...

  5. Establishment and Early Succession of Bacterial Communities in Monochloramine-treated Drinking Water Biofilms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of monochloramine as drinking water disinfectant is increasing because it forms lower levels of traditional disinfection by-products compared to free-chlorine. However, little is known about the bacterial succession within biofilms in monochloramine-treated systems. The d...

  6. Genetic and environmental sources of covariation between early drinking and adult functioning.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jordan Sparks; Malone, Stephen M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2017-08-01

    The vast majority of individuals initiate alcohol consumption for the first time in adolescence. Given the widespread nature of its use and evidence that adolescents may be especially vulnerable to its effects, there is concern about the long-term detrimental impact of adolescent drinking on adult functioning. While some researchers have suggested that genetic processes may confound the relationship, the mechanisms linking drinking and later adjustment remain unclear. The current study utilized a genetically informed sample and biometric modeling to examine the nature of the familial influences on this association and identify the potential for genetic confounding. The sample was drawn from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS), a longitudinal study consisting of 2,764 twins assessed in 2 cohorts at regular follow-ups from age 17 to age 29 (older cohort) or age 11 to age 29 (younger cohort). A broad range of adult measures was included assessing substance use, antisocial behavior, personality, socioeconomic status, and social functioning. A bivariate Cholesky decomposition was used to examine the common genetic and environmental influences on adolescent drinking and each of the measures of adult adjustment. The results revealed that genetic factors and nonshared environmental influences were generally most important in explaining the relationship between adolescent drinking and later functioning. While the presence of nonshared environmental influences on the association are not inconsistent with a causal impact of adolescent drinking, the findings suggest that many of the adjustment issues associated with adolescent alcohol consumption are best understood as genetically influenced vulnerabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. 48 CFR 307.7106 - Acquisition milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition milestones. 307.7106 Section 307.7106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION... to track progress of the acquisition. The milestone schedule signatories (see the Requirements and...

  8. 48 CFR 307.7106 - Acquisition milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition milestones. 307.7106 Section 307.7106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION... to track progress of the acquisition. The milestone schedule signatories (see the Requirements and...

  9. In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth and increase the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water is capable of altering lung growth and postnatal lung mechanics. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 10 (current World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum contaminant level) or 100μg/L arsenic from gestational day 8 to birth. Birth outcomes and somatic growth were monitored. Plethysmography and the forced oscillation technique were used to collect measurements of lung volume, lung mechanics, pressure-volume curves and the volume dependence of lung mechanics in male and female offspring at two, four, six and eight weeks of age. Results In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water resulted in low birth weight and impaired parenchymal lung mechanics during infancy. Male offspring were more susceptible to the effects of arsenic on growth and lung mechanics than females. All alterations to lung mechanics following in utero arsenic exposure were recovered by adulthood. Conclusions Exposure to arsenic at the current WHO maximum contaminant level in utero impaired somatic growth and the development of the lungs resulting in alterations to lung mechanics during infancy. Deficits in growth and lung development in early life may contribute to the increased susceptibility of developing chronic respiratory disease in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23419080

  10. In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Larcombe, Alexander N; Sly, Peter D; Zosky, Graeme R

    2013-02-18

    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth and increase the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water is capable of altering lung growth and postnatal lung mechanics. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 10 (current World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum contaminant level) or 100 μg/L arsenic from gestational day 8 to birth. Birth outcomes and somatic growth were monitored. Plethysmography and the forced oscillation technique were used to collect measurements of lung volume, lung mechanics, pressure-volume curves and the volume dependence of lung mechanics in male and female offspring at two, four, six and eight weeks of age. In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water resulted in low birth weight and impaired parenchymal lung mechanics during infancy. Male offspring were more susceptible to the effects of arsenic on growth and lung mechanics than females. All alterations to lung mechanics following in utero arsenic exposure were recovered by adulthood. Exposure to arsenic at the current WHO maximum contaminant level in utero impaired somatic growth and the development of the lungs resulting in alterations to lung mechanics during infancy. Deficits in growth and lung development in early life may contribute to the increased susceptibility of developing chronic respiratory disease in arsenic exposed human populations.

  11. Milestones in the history of personality disorders

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model. PMID:24174889

  12. Early warning of limit-exceeding concentrations of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in drinking water reservoirs by inferential modelling.

    PubMed

    Recknagel, Friedrich; Orr, Philip T; Bartkow, Michael; Swanepoel, Annelie; Cao, Hongqing

    2017-11-01

    An early warning scheme is proposed that runs ensembles of inferential models for predicting the cyanobacterial population dynamics and cyanotoxin concentrations in drinking water reservoirs on a diel basis driven by in situ sonde water quality data. When the 10- to 30-day-ahead predicted concentrations of cyanobacteria cells or cyanotoxins exceed pre-defined limit values, an early warning automatically activates an action plan considering in-lake control, e.g. intermittent mixing and ad hoc water treatment in water works, respectively. Case studies of the sub-tropical Lake Wivenhoe (Australia) and the Mediterranean Vaal Reservoir (South Africa) demonstrate that ensembles of inferential models developed by the hybrid evolutionary algorithm HEA are capable of up to 30days forecasts of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins using data collected in situ. The resulting models for Dolicospermum circinale displayed validity for up to 10days ahead, whilst concentrations of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and microcystins were successfully predicted up to 30days ahead. Implementing the proposed scheme for drinking water reservoirs enhances current water quality monitoring practices by solely utilising in situ monitoring data, in addition to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin measurements. Access to routinely measured cyanotoxin data allows for development of models that predict explicitly cyanotoxin concentrations that avoid to inadvertently model and predict non-toxic cyanobacterial strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vocational education paths, youth activities, and underage drinking in Russia: How early does the trouble start?

    PubMed

    Lushin, Viktor; Jaccard, James; Ivaniushina, Valeria; Alexandrov, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Working-class educational paths tend to be associated with elevated drinking. Little research has examined whether disproportionate alcohol use among vocationally oriented youth begins before or after the start of their vocational education. The present study analyzes a large sample of Russian middle-school students (N=1269; mean age=14.9), comparing the patterns of drinking among middle-schoolers oriented towards vocational educational, and their peers who do not plan a vocational education path. Results suggest that the orientation towards vocational education is associated with disproportionately high alcohol involvement among Russian middle-school students, even before they enter vocational schools. We studied if such difference could be partially explained by how youth orient towards extracurricular activities: discretionary peer time in risky contexts, reading for pleasure, working for pay, and religious activities. Reading demonstrated the strongest (negative) association with alcohol use, while religious activity unexpectedly revealed a positive (though weak) association with drinking. Research and policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. There is variability in the attainment of developmental milestones in the CDKL5 disorder.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Stephanie; Leonard, Helen; Ho, Gladys; Williams, Simon; de Klerk, Nick; Forbes, David; Christodoulou, John; Downs, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with the CDKL5 disorder have been described as having severely impaired development. A few individuals have been reported having attained more milestones including walking and running. Our aim was to investigate variation in attainment of developmental milestones and associations with underlying genotype. Data was sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database, and individuals were included if they had a pathogenic or probably pathogenic CDKL5 mutation and information on early development. Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses investigated the occurrence of developmental milestones. Mutations were grouped by their structural/functional consequence, and Cox regression was used to investigate the relationship between genotype and milestone attainment. The study included 109 females and 18 males. By 5 years of age, only 75% of the females had attained independent sitting and 25% independent walking whilst a quarter of the males could sit independently by 1 year 3 months. Only one boy could walk independently. No clear relationship between mutation group and milestone attainment was present, although females with a late truncating mutation attained the most milestones. Attainment of developmental milestones is severely impaired in the CDKL5 disorder, with the majority who did attain skills attaining them at a late age. It appears as though males are more severely impaired than the females. Larger studies are needed to further investigate the role of genotype on clinical variability.

  15. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  16. Early life stress is a risk factor for excessive alcohol drinking and impulsivity in adults and is mediated via a CRF/GABA(A) mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Warnock, Kaitlin T; Wang, Hong; June, Harry L; Bell, Kimberly A; Rabe, Holger; Tiruveedhula, Veera Venkata Naga Phani Babu; Cook, James; Lüddens, Hartmut; Aurelian, Laure; June, Harry L

    2016-01-01

    Childhood stress and trauma are associated with substance use disorders in adulthood, but the neurological changes that confer increased vulnerability are largely unknown. In this study, maternal separation (MS) stress, restricted to the pre-weaning period, was used as a model to study mechanisms of protracted effects of childhood stress/traumatic experiences on binge drinking and impulsivity. Using an operant self-administration model of binge drinking and a delay discounting assay to measure impulsive-like behavior, we report that early life stress due to MS facilitated acquisition of binge drinking and impulsivity during adulthood in rats. Previous studies have shown heightened levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) after MS, and here, we add that MS increased expression levels of GABA(A) α2 subunit in central stress circuits. To investigate the precise role of these circuits in regulating impulsivity and binge drinking, the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and the novel GABA(A) α2 subunit ligand 3-PBC were infused into the central amygdala (CeA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Antalarmin and 3-PBC at each site markedly reduced impulsivity and produced profound reductions on binge-motivated alcohol drinking, without altering responding for sucrose. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that low concentrations of 3-PBC directly reversed the effect of relatively high concentrations of ethanol on α2β3γ2 GABA(A) receptors, by a benzodiazepine site-independent mechanism. Together, our data provide strong evidence that maternal separation, i.e. early life stress, is a risk factor for binge drinking, and is linked to impulsivity, another key risk factor for excessive alcohol drinking. We further show that pharmacological manipulation of CRF and GABA receptor signaling is effective to reverse binge drinking and impulsive-like behavior in MS rats. These results provide novel insights into the role of the brain stress systems in the

  17. Changes in the Associations of Heavy Drinking and Drug Use with Intimate Partner Violence in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Alan; Washburn, Isaac J.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that the disinhibitory effects induced by alcohol consumption contribute to domestic violence has gained support from meta-analyses of mainly cross-sectional studies that examined the association between alcohol abuse and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, findings from multilevel analyses of longitudinal data investigating the time-varying effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) on physical IPV have been equivocal. This 12-year prospective study used multilevel analysis to examine the effects of HED and illicit drug use on perpetration of both physical and psychological IPV during early adulthood. Participants were 157 romantic couples who were assessed biennially 2 to 6 times for substance misuse and IPV. The analyses found no significant main effect of either HED or drug use on perpetration of IPV but there were significant interactions of both HED and drug use with age. Moreover, the developmental trends in substance use effects on IPV typically varied by gender and type of IPV. PMID:25678737

  18. Advances in on-line drinking water quality monitoring and early warning systems.

    PubMed

    Storey, Michael V; van der Gaag, Bram; Burns, Brendan P

    2011-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in recent years in technologies to monitor drinking water quality for source water protection, treatment operations, and distribution system management, in the event of accidental (or deliberate) contamination. Reports prepared through the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) and United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) agree that while many emerging technologies show promise, they are still some years from being deployed on a large scale. Further underpinning their viability is a need to interpret data in real time and implement a management strategy in response. This review presents the findings of an international study into the state of the art in this field. These results are based on visits to leading water utilities, research organisations and technology providers throughout Europe, the United States and Singapore involved in the development and deployment of on-line monitoring technology for the detection of contaminants in water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The study on achievement of motor milestones and associated factors among children in rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arti; Kalaivani, Mani; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Sanjay K.; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nearly 14% of children worldwide do not reach their developmental potential in early childhood. The early identification of delays in achieving milestones is critical. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed normal age ranges for the achievement of motor milestones by healthy children. This study aimed to assess the gross motor developmental achievements and associated factors among children in rural India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with rural children in North India. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. The median age at the time of the highest observed milestone was calculated and compared with the WHO windows of achievement. Results: Overall, 221 children aged 4–18 months were included in the study. The median age of motor development exhibited a 0.1–2.1-month delay compared to the WHO median age of motor milestone achievement. The prevalence of the gross motor milestone achievements for each of the six milestones ranged from 91.6% to 98.4%. Developmental delay was observed in 6.3% of the children. After adjusting for different variables, children with birth order of second or more were found to be significantly associated with the timely achievement of gross motor milestones. Conclusion: The apparently healthy children of the rural area of Haryana achieved gross motor milestones with some delay with respect to the WHO windows of achievement. Although the median value of this delay was low, awareness campaigns should be implemented to promote timely identification of children with development delays. PMID:27843845

  20. How Trajectories of Reasons for Alcohol Use Relate to Trajectories of Binge Drinking: National Panel Data Spanning Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental changes in both alcohol use behaviors and self-reported reasons for alcohol use were investigated. Participants were surveyed every two years from ages 18 to 30 as part of the Monitoring the Future national study (analytic weighted sample size N=9,308; 53% women, 40% college attenders). Latent growth models were used to examine correlations among trajectories of binge drinking and trajectories of self-reported reasons for alcohol use across young adulthood. Results revealed developmental changes in reasons for use and correlations between the patterns of within-person change in frequency of binge drinking and within-person change in reasons for use. In particular, an increase in binge drinking between ages 18 and 22 was most positively correlated with slopes of using alcohol to get high and because of boredom. Continued binge drinking between ages 22 and 30 was most strongly correlated with using alcohol to get away from problems. Almost no moderation by gender, race, college attendance, employment, or marital status was found. Binge drinking and reasons for alcohol use traveled together, illustrating the ongoing and dynamic connections between changes in binge drinking and changes in reasons for use across late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:21219061

  1. Milestone-specific, Observed data points for evaluating levels of performance (MODEL) assessment strategy for anesthesiology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Christopher J; Fitzgerald, Brian M; Kraus, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesiology residency programs will be expected to have Milestones-based evaluation systems in place by July 2014 as part of the Next Accreditation System. The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium (SAUSHEC) anesthesiology residency program developed and implemented a Milestones-based feedback and evaluation system a year ahead of schedule. It has been named the Milestone-specific, Observed Data points for Evaluating Levels of performance (MODEL) assessment strategy. The "MODEL Menu" and the "MODEL Blueprint" are tools that other anesthesiology residency programs can use in developing their own Milestones-based feedback and evaluation systems prior to ACGME-required implementation. Data from our early experience with the streamlined MODEL blueprint assessment strategy showed substantially improved faculty compliance with reporting requirements. The MODEL assessment strategy provides programs with a workable assessment method for residents, and important Milestones data points to programs for ACGME reporting.

  2. Developing a comprehensive resident education evaluation system in the era of milestone assessment.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; Choti, Michael A; Mansour, John C

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to move training programs toward competency-based education, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) introduced the Next Accreditation System (NAS), which organizes specific milestones regarding resident skills, knowledge, and abilities along a continuum. In order to foster innovation and creativity, the ACGME has provided programs with minimal guidelines regarding the optimal way to approach these milestones. The education team at UT Southwestern embraced the milestones and developed a process in which performance assessment methods were critically evaluated, mapped onto an extrapolated performance list corresponding to the areas required by the ACGME milestones, and filled gaps in the previous system by modifying evaluation tools and creating new program components. Although the authors are early in the evolution of applying the new milestones system, this approach has thus far allowed them to comprehensively evaluate the residents and the program in an efficient and effective fashion, with notable improvements compared to the prior approach. The authors hope that these experiences can inform others embarking upon similar journeys with the milestones. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of communication networks and water quality early warning detection systems at drinking water utilities in the Ohio River Valley Basin.

    PubMed

    Schulte, J G; Vicory, A H

    2005-01-01

    Source water quality is of major concern to all drinking water utilities. The accidental introduction of contaminants to their source water is a constant threat to utilities withdrawing water from navigable or industrialized rivers. The events of 11 September, 2001 in the United States have heightened concern for drinking water utility security as their source water and finished water may be targets for terrorist acts. Efforts are underway in several parts of the United States to strengthen early warning capabilities. This paper will focus on those efforts in the Ohio River Valley Basin.

  4. Reducing Drinking Among Junior Enlisted Air Force Members in Five Communities: Early Findings of the EUDL Program's Influence on Self-Reported Drinking Behaviors*

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F.; Szoc, Ronald Z.; Thomas, Randall K.; Cambridge, Milton H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18–25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Method: Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. Results: The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. Conclusions: The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities. PMID:20409431

  5. Reducing drinking among junior enlisted Air Force members in five communities: early findings of the EUDL program's influence on self-reported drinking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Spera, Christopher; Franklin, Keita; Uekawa, Kazuaki; Kunz, John F; Szoc, Ronald Z; Thomas, Randall K; Cambridge, Milton H

    2010-05-01

    In the fall of 2006, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention awarded discretionary grants to five communities in four states as part of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws initiative. These 3-year grants were designed to support implementation of a set of interventions using an environmental strategies approach to reduce drinking and associated alcohol-related misconducts among active-duty Air Force members ages 18-25, with a specific focus on the underage population. The current article presents findings from Year 1 of the evaluation. Data on alcohol use were obtained from a large-scale, anonymous survey that fielded in the spring of 2006 (i.e., pretest) and the spring of 2008 (i.e., posttest) from a stratified random sample of Air Force members at five demonstration and five comparison communities. The percentage of junior enlisted personnel at risk for an alcohol problem dropped 6.6% in the Air Force overall during the last 2 years but dropped as much as 13.6% and 9.8% in two Arizona demonstration communities that implemented the intervention. The first-year results suggest that the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws intervention may have been one factor that helped to reduce the percentage of junior enlisted Air Force members at risk for an alcohol problem in the demonstration communities.

  6. Development of systems for detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage in drinking water distribution: a case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Ling, Wencui; Liu, Suoxiang; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2011-01-01

    Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities. An integrated system for the detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing. A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks. Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data), and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals). The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used. Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed. These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system. In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e., 14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas, which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m3 of water. These results indicate the feasibility, efficiency and wider applicability of this system.

  7. Developmental Milestones in Toddlers with Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    The attainment of developmental milestones was examined and compared in 162 infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities, including Down Syndrome (n = 26), Cerebral Palsy (n = 19), Global Developmental Delay (n = 22), Premature birth (n = 66), and Seizure Disorder (n = 29). Toddlers in the Seizures Disorder group began crawling at a…

  8. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  9. 14 CFR 1274.908 - Milestone payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milestone payments. 1274.908 Section 1274.908 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH...) Taxpayer identification number (TIN). (x) While not required, the recipient is strongly encouraged to...

  10. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  11. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems...) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems licensed on... placed in the authorized orbital location or non-geostationary orbit(s) and that in-orbit operation of...

  12. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  13. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  14. 47 CFR 25.164 - Milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Milestones. (a) Licensees of geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems.... (b) Licensees of non-geostationary orbit satellite systems other than DBS and DARS satellite systems... both non-geostationary orbit satellites and geostationary orbit satellites, other than DBS and DARS...

  15. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Romano, Megan E; Gallagher, Lisa G; Winter, Michael R; Martin, Brett R; Vieira, Veronica M; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Ozonoff, David M

    2011-12-02

    Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood. These findings should be confirmed in follow

  16. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    SciT

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  17. Do coaches make a difference off the field? The examination of athletic coach influence on early college student drinking

    PubMed Central

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Coaches can exert a considerable influence on the lives of their athletes. However, little is known about the influence of athletic coaches on athlete drinking behaviors. This study extends research on drinking influences in student-athletes. The relationship between athletic coaches and athlete drinking behaviors were examined. First-year college students (N=362) who had played high school sports were assessed on their relationships with their coaches as well as their alcohol use and problems. Findings revealed significant associations among the approval of and relationship with their athletic coaches and student drinking behaviors. These findings are discussed in the context of involving coaches in comprehensive strategies to reduce athlete drinking. PMID:24639626

  18. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... other parents about sending clear messages about the importance of not drinking Supervising all parties to make ... Read More "Rethinking Drinking" Articles Rethinking Drinking / The Importance of Drinking Patterns / Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use ...

  19. Talking to your teen about drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been drinking. How Problems at Home Might Influence Children to Drink Risky drinking or alcohol use in the home can lead to the same habits in children. At an early age, children become aware of the drinking patterns of their parents. Children are more likely to drink if: Conflict ...

  20. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  1. Gender-specific intervention to reduce underage drinking among early adolescent girls: a test of a computer-mediated, mother-daughter program.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Steven P; Cole, Kristin C A; Fang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a gender-specific, computer-mediated intervention program to prevent underage drinking among early adolescent girls. Study participants were adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants completed pretests online and were randomly divided between intervention and control arms. Intervention-arm girls and their mothers interacted with a computer program aimed to enhance mother-daughter relationships and to teach girls skills for managing conflict, resisting media influences, refusing alcohol and drugs, and correcting peer norms about underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. After intervention, all participants (control and intervention) completed posttest and follow-up measurements. Two months following program delivery and relative to control-arm participants, intervention-arm girls and mothers had improved their mother-daughter communication skills and their perceptions and applications of parental monitoring and rule-setting relative to girls' alcohol use. Also at follow-up, intervention-arm girls had improved their conflict management and alcohol use-refusal skills; reported healthier normative beliefs about underage drinking; demonstrated greater self-efficacy about their ability to avoid underage drinking; reported less alcohol consumption in the past 7 days, 30 days, and year; and expressed lower intentions to drink as adults. Study findings modestly support the viability of a mother-daughter, computer-mediated program to prevent underage drinking among adolescent girls. The data have implications for the further development of gender-specific approaches to combat increases in alcohol and other substance use among American girls.

  2. Gender-Specific Intervention to Reduce Underage Drinking Among Early Adolescent Girls: A Test of a Computer-Mediated, Mother-Daughter Program*

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Cole, Kristin C. A.; Fang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a gender-specific, computer-mediated intervention program to prevent underage drinking among early adolescent girls. Method: Study participants were adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants completed pretests online and were randomly divided between intervention and control arms. Intervention-arm girls and their mothers interacted with a computer program aimed to enhance mother-daughter relationships and to teach girls skills for managing conflict, resisting media influences, refusing alcohol and drugs, and correcting peer norms about underage drinking, smoking, and drug use. After intervention, all participants (control and intervention) completed posttest and follow-up measurements. Results: Two months following program delivery and relative to control-arm participants, intervention-arm girls and mothers had improved their mother-daughter communication skills and their perceptions and applications of parental monitoring and rule-setting relative to girls' alcohol use. Also at follow-up, intervention-arm girls had improved their conflict management and alcohol use-refusal skills; reported healthier normative beliefs about underage drinking; demonstrated greater self-efficacy about their ability to avoid underage drinking; reported less alcohol consumption in the past 7 days, 30 days, and year; and expressed lower intentions to drink as adults. Conclusions: Study findings modestly support the viability of a mother-daughter, computer-mediated program to prevent underage drinking among adolescent girls. The data have implications for the further development of gender-specific approaches to combat increases in alcohol and other substance use among American girls. PMID:19118394

  3. Reduced Social Network Drinking is Associated with Improved Response Inhibition in Women During Early Recovery from Alcohol Use Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Vivia V; Luke, Douglas A; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N

    2016-01-01

    Social support for recovery from alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is associated with improvements in self-reported impulsive behavior in individuals treated for AUDs. We build on these findings using a behavioral task-based measure of response inhibition, a well-defined component of impulsivity, to examine the association of disinhibition with alcohol-specific social network characteristics during early recovery. Women (n = 28) were recruited from treatment for AUD within 3 to 4 weeks of their last drink and were assessed at baseline and again 3 months later. Outcome measures were level of disinhibition at baseline and change in disinhibition from baseline to follow-up, measured using a computer-based continuous performance test. The primary independent variables were level of drinking in the social network at baseline and change in network drinking from baseline to follow-up. The sample [50% black, age M (SD) = 42.3 (9.5)] reported high rates of physical and sexual abuse before age 13 (43%), psychiatric disorder (71%), drug use disorder (78%), and previous treatment (71%). More drinking in participants' social networks was associated with greater disinhibition at baseline (β = 12.5, 95% CI = 6.3, 18.7). A reduction in network drinking from baseline to follow-up was associated with reduced disinhibition (β = -6.0, 95% CI = -11.3, -0.78) independent of IQ, recent alcohol consumption, and self-reported negative urgency. This study extends previous findings of an association between social networks and self-reported impulsivity to a neurobehavioral phenotype, response inhibition, suggesting that abstinence-supporting social networks may play a role in cognitive change during early recovery from AUDs. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Adolescent alcohol use: social determinants and the case for early family-centered prevention. Family-focused prevention of adolescent drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Schor, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the use of alcohol by children and adolescents, yet preventive interventions rarely focus on the family. Early drinking and much subsequent use of alcohol by children and adolescents is sanctioned and sometimes encouraged by their families. Unlike experimentation with alcohol, problem drinking is associated with low levels of family social support and with dysfunctional coping strategies of families that may lead children to use drinking as an adaptive behavior. While risk-factor research has advanced understanding of alcohol use by children and youth, the poor predictive power of individual risks has limited its contribution to successful interventions. On the other hand, protective factors, provided by relationships within and outside the family, can be preventive and health promoting. Parents influence their children's drinking through family interactions, modeling and reinforcing standards, and attitudes that children learn and use to guide their behavior in new situations. Thus, parental influences endure. This article argues that interventions to prevent alcohol abuse should be designed to help parents to carry out their parental functions. This can be accomplished by providing social support, resources, and education for parents, as well as developing extra-familial sources of social support and socialization for children and adolescents. PMID:8982525

  5. Peer Network Drinking Predicts Increased Alcohol Use From Adolescence to Early Adulthood After Controlling for Genetic and Shared Environmental Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Jennifer E.; Emery, Robert E.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently links adolescents' and young adults' drinking with their peers' alcohol intake. In interpreting this correlation, 2 essential questions are often overlooked. First, which peers are more important, best friends or broader social networks? Second, do peers cause increased drinking, or do young people select friends whose drinking habits match their own? The present study combines social network analyses with family (twin and sibling) designs to answer these questions via data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Analysis of peer nomination data from 134 schools (n = 82,629) and 1,846 twin and sibling pairs shows that peer network substance use predicts changes in drinking from adolescence into young adult life even after controlling for genetic and shared environmental selection, as well as best friend substance use. This effect was particularly strong for high-intensity friendships. Although the peer-adolescent drinking correlation is partially explained by selection, the present finding offers powerful evidence that peers also cause increased drinking. PMID:22390657

  6. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea L; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Harty, Seth C; Arnold, L Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16 years) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21 years). Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9 and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8 and 12 years after randomization. Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. A total of 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years at baseline (mean = 8.5, SD = 0.80). Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (mean age 21 years). Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, all P-values <0.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are were associated with higher levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood

  8. Science of health care delivery milestones for undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Havyer, Rachel D; Norby, Suzanne M; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Starr, Stephanie R; Lang, Tara R; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Reed, Darcy A

    2017-08-25

    The changing healthcare landscape requires physicians to develop new knowledge and skills such as high-value care, systems improvement, population health, and team-based care, which together may be referred to as the Science of Health Care Delivery (SHCD). To engender public trust and confidence, educators must be able to meaningfully assess physicians' abilities in SHCD. We aimed to develop a novel set of SHCD milestones based on published Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones that can be used by medical schools to assess medical students' competence in SHCD. We reviewed all ACGME milestones for 25 specialties available in September 2013. We used an iterative, qualitative process to group the ACGME milestones into SHCD content domains, from which SHCD milestones were derived. The SHCD milestones were categorized within the current ACGME core competencies and were also mapped to Association of American Medical Colleges' Entrustable Professional Activities (AAMC EPAs). Fifteen SHCD sub-competencies and corresponding milestones are provided, grouped within ACGME core competencies and mapped to multiple AAMC EPAs. This novel set of milestones, grounded within the existing ACGME competencies, defines fundamental expectations within SHCD that can be used and adapted by medical schools in the assessment of medical students in this emerging curricular area. These milestones provide a blueprint for SHCD content and assessment as ongoing revisions to milestones and curricula occur.

  9. Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

  10. Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase ... people has been quite effective. Next to multivitamins, energy drinks are the most popular dietary supplement consumed ...

  11. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  12. Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing; Shu, Wei-qun

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy.

  13. Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

  14. Internal Medicine Residents' Perspectives on Receiving Feedback in Milestone Format

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Steven; Moriarty, John; Nardino, Robert J.; Chmielewski, Amy; Rosenblum, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In contrast to historical feedback, which was vague or provided residents' numerical scores without clear meaning, milestone-based feedback is focused on specific knowledge, skills, and behaviors that define developmental trajectory. It was anticipated that residents would welcome the more specific and actionable feedback provided by the milestone framework, but this has not been studied. Objective We assessed internal medicine (IM) residents' perceptions of receiving feedback in the milestone framework, particularly assessing perception of the utility of milestone-based feedback compared to non–milestone-based feedback. Methods We surveyed a total of 510 IM residents from 7 institutions. Survey questions assessed resident perception of milestone feedback in identifying strengths, weaknesses, and trajectory of professional development. Postgraduate years 2 and 3 (PGY-2 and PGY-3) residents were asked to compare milestones with prior methods of feedback. Results Of 510 residents, 356 (69.8%) responded. Slightly less than half of the residents found milestone-based feedback “extremely useful” or “very useful” in identifying strengths (44%), weaknesses (43%), specific areas for improvement (45%), and appropriate education progress (48%). Few residents found such feedback “not very useful” or “not at all useful” in these domains. A total of 51% of PGY-2 and PGY-3 residents agreed that receiving milestone-based feedback was more helpful than previous forms of feedback. Conclusions IM residents are aware of the concepts of milestones, and half of the residents surveyed found milestone feedback more helpful than previous forms of feedback. More work needs to be done to understand how milestone-based feedback could be delivered more effectively to enhance resident development. PMID:26221438

  15. Level-2 Milestone 5213. CTS-1 Contract Award Completed

    SciT

    Leininger, Matt

    2015-09-24

    This report documents the fact that the first commodity technology (CT) system contract award, CTS-1, has been completed. The description of the milestone is: Based on Tri-Lab CTS-1 process and review, LLNL successfully awards the procurement for the next-generation Tri-Lab Linux CTS-1. The milestone completion criterion is: Signed contract. The milestone was completed on September 24th. 2015.

  16. Birth Cohort Differences in Sexual Identity Development Milestones among HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-12

    The coming-out process for gay and bisexual men (GBM) involves crossing sexual identity development (SID) milestones: (1) self-awareness of sexual attraction to the same sex, (2) self-acceptance of an identity as gay or bisexual, (3) disclosure of this sexual identity to others, and (4) having sex with someone of the same sex. We examined trends in SID milestones by birth cohort in a 2015 U.S. national sample of GBM (n = 1,023). Birth cohort was independent of when men first felt sexually attracted to someone of the same sex (median age 11 to 12). However, with the exception of age of first same-sex attraction, older cohorts tended to pass other milestones at later ages than younger cohorts. Latent class analysis (LCA) of SID milestone patterns identified three subgroups. The majority (84%) began sexual identity development with same-sex attraction around the onset of puberty (i.e., around age 10) and progressed to self-identification, same-sex sexual activity, and coming out-in that order. The other two classes felt same-sex attraction during teen years (ages 12.5 to 18.0) but achieved the remaining SID milestones later in life. For 13% of men, this was during early adulthood; for 3% of men, this was in middle adulthood. Findings highlight the need to monitor ongoing generational differences in passing SID milestones.

  17. Blood pressure hyperreactivity: an early cardiovascular risk in normotensive men exposed to low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kunrath, Julie; Gurzau, Eugen; Gurzau, Anca; Goessler, Walter; Gelmann, Elyssa R; Thach, Thu-Trang; McCarty, Kathleen M; Yeckel, Catherine W

    2013-02-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water. However, early signs of risk for developing hypertension remain unclear in people exposed to chronic low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic. We evaluated cardiovascular stress reactivity and recovery in healthy, normotensive, middle-aged men living in an arsenic-endemic region of Romania. Unexposed (n = 16) and exposed (n = 19) participants were sampled from communities based on WHO limits for inorganic arsenic in drinking water (<10 μg/l). Water sources and urine samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic arsenic and its metabolites. Functional evaluation of blood pressure included clinical, anticipatory, cold pressor test, and recovery measurements. Blood pressure hyperreactivity was defined as a combined stress-induced change in SBP (> 20 mmHg) and DBP (>15 mmHg). Drinking water inorganic arsenic averaged 40.2 ± 30.4 and 1.0 ± 0.2 μg/l for the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared to the unexposed group, the exposed group expressed a greater probability of blood pressure hyperreactivity to both anticipatory stress (47.4 vs. 12.5%; P = 0.035) and cold stress (73.7 vs. 37.5%; P = 0.044). Moreover, the exposed group exhibited attenuated blood pressure recovery from stress and a greater probability of persistent hypertensive responses (47.4 vs. 12.5%; P = 0.035). Inorganic arsenic exposure increased stress-induced blood pressure hyperreactivity and poor blood pressure recovery, including persistent hypertensive responses in otherwise healthy, clinically normotensive men. Drinking water containing even low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic may act as a sympathetic nervous system trigger for hypertension risk.

  18. Blood pressure hyperreactivity: an early cardiovascular risk in normotensive men exposed to low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic in drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Kunrath, Julie; Gurzau, Eugen; Gurzau, Anca; Goessler, Walter; Gelmann, Elyssa R.; Thach, Thu-Trang; Mccarty, Kathleen M.; Yeckel, Catherine W.

    2012-01-01

    Essential hypertension is associated with chronic exposure to high levels of inorganic arsenic in drinking water. However, early signs of risk for developing hypertension remain unclear in people exposed to chronic low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic. Objective We evaluated cardiovascular stress reactivity and recovery in healthy, normotensive, middle-aged men living in an arsenic-endemic region of Romania. Methods Unexposed (n=16) and exposed (n=19) participants were sampled from communities based on WHO limits for inorganic arsenic in drinking water (<10 μg/l). Water sources and urine samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic arsenic and its metabolites. Functional evaluation of blood pressure included clinical, anticipatory, cold pressor test, and recovery measurements. Results Blood pressure hyperreactivity was defined as a combined stress-induced change in SBP (>20 mmHg) and DBP (>15 mmHg). Drinking water inorganic arsenic averaged 40.2±30.4 and 1.0±0.2 μg/l for the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (P<0.001). Compared to the unexposed group, the exposed group expressed a greater probability of blood pressure hyperreactivity to both anticipatory stress (47.4 vs. 12.5%; P=0.035) and cold stress (73.7 vs. 37.5%; P=0.044). Moreover, the exposed group exhibited attenuated blood pressure recovery from stress and a greater probability of persistent hypertensive responses (47.4 vs. 12.5%; P=0.035). Conclusions Inorganic arsenic exposure increased stress-induced blood pressure hyperreactivity and poor blood pressure recovery, including persistent hypertensive responses in otherwise healthy, clinically normotensive men. Drinking water containing even low-to-moderate inorganic arsenic may act as a sympathetic nervous system trigger for hypertension risk. PMID:23203141

  19. Pediatrics Milestone Project: Next Steps Toward Meaningful Outcomes Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Patricia J.; Englander, Robert; Schumacher, Daniel J.; Burke, Ann; Benson, Bradley J.; Guralnick, Susan; Ludwig, Stephen; Carraccio, Carol

    2010-01-01

    In the September 2010 issue of JGME, the Pediatric Milestones Working Group published “The Pediatrics Milestones: Conceptual Framework, Guiding Principles, and Approach to Development”, a document that describes the construction of the first iteration of the Pediatric Milestones. These Milestones were developed by the Working Group as a group of practical behavioral expectations for each of the 52 sub-competencies. In constructing these Milestones, the authors were cognizant of the need to ground the Milestones themselves in evidence, theories or other conceptual frameworks that would provide the basis for the ontogeny of development for each sub-competency. During this next phase of the Milestones development, the process will continue with consultation with content experts and consideration of assessment of Milestones. We have described possible measurement tools, explored threats to validity, establishment of benchmarks, and possible approaches to reporting of performance. The vision of the Pediatrics Milestone Project is to understand the development of a pediatrician from entry into medical school through the twilight of a physician’s career, and the work will require a collaborative effort of the undergraduate and graduate medical education communities, and the accrediting and certifying bodies. PMID:22132281

  20. Revisiting and Computing Reaction Coordinates with Directional Milestoning

    PubMed Central

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Elber, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The method of Directional Milestoning is revisited. We start from an exact and more general expression and state the conditions and validity of the memory-loss approximation. An algorithm to compute a reaction coordinate from Directional Milestoning data is presented. The reaction coordinate is calculated as a set of discrete jumps between Milestones that maximizes the flux between two stable states. As an application we consider a conformational transition in solvated Adenosine. We compare a long molecular dynamic trajectory with Directional Milestoning and discuss the differences between the maximum flux path and minimum energy coordinates. PMID:21500798

  1. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  2. Milestones toward Majorana-based quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicea, Jason

    Experiments on nanowire-based Majorana platforms now appear poised to move beyond the preliminary problem of zero-mode detection and towards loftier goals of realizing non-Abelian statistics and quantum information applications. Using an approach that synthesizes recent materials growth breakthroughs with tools long successfully deployed in quantum-dot research, I will outline a number of relatively modest milestones that progressively bridge the gap between the current state of the art and these grand longer-term challenges. The intermediate Majorana experiments surveyed in this talk should be broadly adaptable to other approaches as well. Supported by the National Science Foundation (DMR-1341822), Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, and Walter Burke Institute at Caltech.

  3. Campaign 2 Level 2 Milestone Review 2009: Milestone # 3131 Grain Scale Simulation of Pore Collapse

    SciT

    Schwartz, A J

    2009-09-28

    The milestone reviewed on Sept. 16, 2009 was 'High-fidelity simulation of shock initiation of high explosives at the grain scale using coupled hydrodynamics, thermal transport and chemistry'. It is the opinion of the committee that the team has satisfied the milestone. A detailed description of how the goals were met is provided. The milestone leveraged capabilities from ASC Physics and Engineering Materials program combined with experimental input from Campaign 2. A combined experimental-multiscale simulation approach was used to create and validate the various TATB model components. At the lowest length scale, quantum chemical calculations were used to determine equations ofmore » state, thermal transport properties and reaction rates for TATB as it is decomposing. High-pressure experiments conducted in diamond anvil cells, gas guns and the Z machine were used to validate the EOS, thermal conductivity, specific heat and predictions of water formation. The predicted reaction networks and chemical kinetic equations were implemented in Cheetah and validated against the lower length scale data. Cheetah was then used within the ASC code ALE3D for high-resolution, thermo-mechanically coupled simulations of pore collapse at the micron size scale to predict conditions for detonation initiation.« less

  4. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence: A 34-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-07-01

    A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity, mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association. Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year of life. A subsample of the cohort comprising 1155 individuals participated in a follow-up when they were aged 20-34 years and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQ were analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant associations were found for Performance IQ. Correlations were generally small (r < 0.10), but significant interactions were found between parental social status and age of attaining developmental milestones, with associations being significantly stronger in the offspring of lower social status parents. The effects remained significant after adjusting for possible confounding factors. This is the first study to find significant interactions with parental social status, thereby suggesting that associations between early motor development and intelligence are stronger in infants of low social status parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events.

    PubMed

    Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik

    2011-11-15

    The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination events. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an early warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Milestones: Critical Elements in Clinical Informatics Fellowship Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Munger, Benson

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Milestones refer to points along a continuum of a competency from novice to expert. Resident and fellow assessment and program evaluation processes adopted by the ACGME include the mandate that programs report the educational progress of residents and fellows twice annually utilizing Milestones developed by a specialty specific ACGME working group of experts. Milestones in clinical training programs are largely unmapped to specific assessment tools. Residents and fellows are mainly assessed using locally derived assessment instruments. These assessments are then reviewed by the Clinical Competency Committee which assigns and reports trainee ratings using the specialty specific reporting Milestones. Methods and Results The challenge and opportunity facing the nascent specialty of Clinical Informatics is how to optimally utilize this framework across a growing number of accredited fellowships. The authors review how a mapped milestone framework, in which each required sub-competency is mapped to a single milestone assessment grid, can enable the use of milestones for multiple uses including individualized learning plans, fellow assessments, and program evaluation. Furthermore, such a mapped strategy will foster the ability to compare fellow progress within and between Clinical Informatics Fellowships in a structured and reliable fashion. Clinical Informatics currently has far less variability across programs and thus could easily utilize a more tightly defined set of milestones with a clear mapping to sub-competencies. This approach would enable greater standardization of assessment instruments and processes across programs while allowing for variability in how those sub-competencies are taught. Conclusions A mapped strategy for Milestones offers significant advantages for Clinical Informatics programs. PMID:27081414

  7. Who drinks where: youth selection of drinking contexts.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina F; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J; Grube, Joel W

    2015-04-01

    Different drinkers may experience specific risks depending on where they consume alcohol. This longitudinal study examined drinking patterns, and demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with youth drinking in different contexts. We used survey data from 665 past-year alcohol-using youths (ages 13 to 16 at Wave 1) in 50 midsized California cities. Measures of drinking behaviors and drinking in 7 contexts were obtained at 3 annual time points. Other characteristics included gender, age, race, parental education, weekly disposable income, general deviance, and past-year cigarette smoking. Results of multilevel regression analyses show that more frequent past-year alcohol use was associated with an increased likelihood of drinking at parties and at someone else's home. Greater continued volumes of alcohol (i.e., heavier drinking) was associated with increased likelihood of drinking at parking lots or street corners. Deviance was positively associated with drinking in most contexts, and past-year cigarette smoking was positively associated with drinking at beaches or parks and someone else's home. Age and deviance were positively associated with drinking in a greater number of contexts. The likelihood of youth drinking at parties and someone else's home increased over time, whereas the likelihood of drinking at parking lots/street corners decreased. Also, deviant youths progress to drinking in their own home, beaches or parks, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs more rapidly. The contexts in which youths consume alcohol change over time. These changes vary by individual characteristics. The redistribution of drinking contexts over the early life course may contribute to specific risks associated with different drinking contexts. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    Stephen Herring

    2017-12-09

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, lab

  9. Infant Development: Milestones from 7 to 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant development milestones for a 7- to 9-month-old include sitting, standing and laughing. By Mayo ... her own pace. From ages 7 to 9 months, your baby is likely to experience: Advancing motor ...

  10. Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the

  11. Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Romano, Megan E; Gallagher, Lisa G; Winter, Michael R; Martin, Brett R; Vieira, Veronica M; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Ozonoff, David M

    2012-01-20

    While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels. The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the results provide support for an impact

  12. The pathology milestones and the next accreditation system.

    PubMed

    Naritoku, Wesley Y; Alexander, C Bruce; Bennett, Betsy D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen; Brissette, Mark D; Grimes, Margaret M; Hoffman, Robert D; Hunt, Jennifer L; Iezzoni, Julia C; Johnson, Rebecca; Kozel, Jessica; Mendoza, Ricardo M; Post, Miriam D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Procop, Gary W; Steinberg, Jacob J; Thorsen, Linda M; Nestler, Steven P

    2014-03-01

    In the late 1990s, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education developed the Outcomes Project and the 6 general competencies with the intent to improve the outcome of graduate medical education in the United States. The competencies were used as the basis for developing learning goals and objectives and tools to evaluate residents' performance. By the mid-2000s the stakeholders in resident education and the general public felt that the Outcomes Project had fallen short of expectations. To develop a new evaluation method to track trainee progress throughout residency using benchmarks called milestones. A change in leadership at the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education brought a new vision for the accreditation of training programs and a radically different approach to the evaluation of residents. The Pathology Milestones Working Group reviewed examples of developing milestones in other specialties, the literature, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program requirements for pathology to develop pathology milestones. The pathology milestones are a set of objective descriptors for measuring progress in the development of competency in patient care, procedural skill sets, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. The milestones provide a national standard for evaluation that will be used for the assessment of all residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology training programs.

  13. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P < 0.05) without changing respiratory rate. Heat-conditioned chickens exhibited lower levels of glycemia (P < 0.0001) and higher hematocrit and red blood cell counts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the greatest effects of VS, alone or associated with ETC, were the lowering of cholesterol and triglyceride blood concentrations. A significant (P < 0.05) effect of ETC, gender, and ETC×gender on T3:T4 ratio was observed. Finally, some beneficial physiological responses induced by ETC and VS, separately or in association, on chronically heat-stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  14. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-06-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P < 0.05) without changing respiratory rate. Heat-conditioned chickens exhibited lower levels of glycemia ( P < 0.0001) and higher hematocrit and red blood cell counts ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, the greatest effects of VS, alone or associated with ETC, were the lowering of cholesterol and triglyceride blood concentrations. A significant ( P < 0.05) effect of ETC, gender, and ETC×gender on T3:T4 ratio was observed. Finally, some beneficial physiological responses induced by ETC and VS, separately or in association, on chronically heat-stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  15. The effects of early age thermal conditioning and vinegar supplementation of drinking water on physiological responses of female and male broiler chickens reared under summer Mediterranean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Berrama, Zahra; Temim, Soraya; Djellout, Baya; Souames, Samir; Moula, Nassim; Ain Baziz, Hassina

    2018-06-01

    The effects of early age thermal conditioning (ETC), vinegar supplementation (VS) of drinking water, broilers' gender, and their interactions on respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood parameters (biochemical, hematological, and thyroid hormones) of broiler chickens reared under high ambient temperatures were determined. A total of 1100 1-day-old chicks were divided into four treatments: the "control" which were non-conditioned and non-supplemented; "heat-conditioned" which were exposed to 38 ± 1 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age; "vinegar supplemented" which were given drinking water supplemented with 0.2% of commercial vinegar from 28 to 49 days of age; and "combined" which were both heat conditioned and vinegar supplemented. All groups were exposed to the natural fluctuations of summer ambient temperature (average diurnal ambient temperature of about 30 ± 1 °C and average relative humidity of 58 ± 5%). ETC and broiler gender did not affect the respiratory rate or body temperature of chronic heat-exposed chickens. VS changed the body temperature across time (d35, d42, d49) (linear and quadratic effects, P < 0.05) without changing respiratory rate. Heat-conditioned chickens exhibited lower levels of glycemia (P < 0.0001) and higher hematocrit and red blood cell counts (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the greatest effects of VS, alone or associated with ETC, were the lowering of cholesterol and triglyceride blood concentrations. A significant (P < 0.05) effect of ETC, gender, and ETC×gender on T3:T4 ratio was observed. Finally, some beneficial physiological responses induced by ETC and VS, separately or in association, on chronically heat-stressed chickens were observed. However, the expected cumulative positive responses when the two treatments were combined were not evident.

  16. Shortening the Miles to the Milestones: Connecting EPA-Based Evaluations to ACGME Milestone Reports for Internal Medicine Residency Programs.

    PubMed

    Choe, John H; Knight, Christopher L; Stiling, Rebekah; Corning, Kelli; Lock, Keli; Steinberg, Kenneth P

    2016-07-01

    The Next Accreditation System requires internal medicine training programs to provide the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) with semiannual information about each resident's progress in 22 subcompetency domains. Evaluation of resident "trustworthiness" in performing entrustable professional activities (EPAs) may offer a more tangible assessment construct than evaluations based on expectations of usual progression toward competence. However, translating results from EPA-based evaluations into ACGME milestone progress reports has proven to be challenging because the constructs that underlay these two systems differ.The authors describe a process to bridge the gap between rotation-specific EPA-based evaluations and ACGME milestone reporting. Developed at the University of Washington in 2012 and 2013, this method involves mapping EPA-based evaluation responses to "milestone elements," the narrative descriptions within the columns of each of the 22 internal medicine subcompetencies. As faculty members complete EPA-based evaluations, the mapped milestone elements are automatically marked as "confirmed." Programs can maintain a database that tallies the number of times each milestone element is confirmed for a resident; these data can be used to produce graphical displays of resident progress along the internal medicine milestones.Using this count of milestone elements allows programs to bridge the gap between faculty assessments of residents based on rotation-specific observed activities and semiannual ACGME reports based on the internal medicine milestones. Although potentially useful for all programs, this method is especially beneficial to large programs where clinical competency committee members may not have the opportunity for direct observation of all residents.

  17. Guide to DCP Study Close-Out: Milestones and Tasks | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This guide assists Consortium Lead Organization (CLO) planning for DCP study close-out. Study close-out tasks are organized under milestones, which help mark progress toward completion of the close-out process. Once tasks associated with a milestone are underway, planning for the next milestone may begin. Click on a milestone to view the associated close-out tasks. |

  18. A brief history of hepatitis milestones.

    PubMed

    Trepo, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis has been a major plague of mankind. The history of the discovery of causative viruses is one of the most fascinating scientific adventures of this half century. Individualization of several types of hepatitis only emerged after world war two. Their identification has been associated with milestones which revolutionized medicine and public health. The discovery of HBV brought the first ever vaccine not prepared by tissue culture but initially directly from plasma and soon the first vaccine produced by genetic engineering. HBV vaccine proved to be the first "anti-cancer" vaccine by preventing hepatocellular carcinoma and practically eradicating it from childhood in Taiwan. Successful vaccines became also available for HAV and more recently HEV. The discovery of HCV in 1989 opened a new era since it was the first virus was identified by a direct molecular approach. Two billion people are infected with HBV and 350 million are chronic carriers of the virus. The extraordinary effectiveness of HBV vaccination was best illustrated in Taiwan and Singapore where in less than 2 decades HBs Ag carriers dropped from 9,1% to 2,7% and HCC from 27% to 17%. Successful development of nucleos(t)ides analogs make it now possible to fully control disease progression with a daily pill long term therapy. The progress in HCV therapy has been even more spectacular and successful treatment jumped from 6 % with interferon alone in 1986 to more than 80% in 2013 with triple combination therapies. Remarkably chronic hepatitis C is the only chronic disease which is curable. It will be soon possible to eradicate HCV infection with, an all oral, daily single pill (containing several molecules) for 3 to 6 months which will cure over 90% of patients. This unprecedented therapeutic victory benefiting hundred millions of people matches the triumphs over small pox, polio and tuberculosis. The next 10 years should undoubtedly witness cure or full control over all forms of acute and chronic

  19. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  20. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  1. Milestones for the Final Mile: Interspecialty Distinctions in Primary Palliative Care Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Harris, John A; Herrel, Lindsey A; Healy, Mark A; Wancata, Lauren M; Perumalswami, Chithra R

    2016-09-01

    Primary palliative care (PPC) skills are useful in a wide variety of medical and surgical specialties, and the expectations of PPC skill training are unknown across graduate medical education. We characterized the variation and quality of PPC skills in residency outcomes-based Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. We performed a content analysis with structured implicit review of 2015 ACGME milestone documents from 14 medical and surgical specialties chosen for their exposure to clinical situations requiring PPC. For each specialty milestone document, we characterized the variation and quality of PPC skills in residency outcomes-based ACGME milestones. We identified 959 occurrences of 29 palliative search terms within 14 specialty milestone documents. Within these milestone documents, implicit review characterized 104 milestones with direct saliency to PPC skills and 196 milestones with indirect saliency. Initial interrater agreement of the saliency rating among the primary reviewers was 89%. Specialty milestone documents varied widely in their incorporation of PPC skills within milestone documents. PPC milestones were most commonly found in milestone documents for Anesthesiology, Pediatrics, Urology, and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. PPC-relevant milestones were most commonly found in the Interpersonal and Communication Skills core competency with 108 (36%) relevant milestones classified under this core competency. Future revisions of specialty-specific ACGME milestone documents should focus on currently underrepresented, but important PPC skills. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  3. Fine motor and self-care milestones for individuals with Down syndrome using a Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Frank, K; Esbensen, A J

    2015-08-01

    Developmental milestone markers for fine motor and self-care skills among children with Down syndrome (DS) are either minimal, anecdotal or out-of date. Our goal was to produce normative expectations for the development of fine motor and self-care milestones specific to children with DS. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was completed on 274 children with DS seen at a specialty clinic that ranged in age from 4 months to 18 years. Specific skills were assessed at occupational therapy assessments as either present or absent, including fine motor, handwriting, scissor usage, self-feeding and clothing management. Fine motor milestones describing when 10-30% ('early achievers') and 75-95% ('representative achievement') of children with DS had mastered each skill were developed based upon descriptive review. As the fine motor and self-care skills advanced in complexity, the range of ages for documented skill acquisition was observed to increase. Age ranges for the mastery of fine motor developmental milestones for early and representative achievement were developed based upon descriptive analysis of cross-sectional retrospective clinical chart reviews. That the age range for mastering fine motor and self-care skills broadens as children with DS get older is in agreement with what is identified in the DS behavioural phenotype with regard to variable motor skills overall. These fine motor and self-care developmental milestone markers contribute to the field by informing parents, caregivers and healthcare providers of potential fine motor and self-care outcomes and describing normative development for children with DS. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Milestones: a rapid assessment method for the Clinical Competency Committee

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Christopher; Forman, Leanne; Peterson, Stephen J.; Gennarelli, Melissa; Aronow, Wilbert S.; DeLorenzo, Lawrence; Chandy, Dipak; Ahn, Chul; Sule, Sachin; Stallings, Gary W.; Khera, Sahil; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Frishman, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Educational milestones are now used to assess the developmental progress of all U.S. graduate medical residents during training. Twice annually, each program’s Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) makes these determinations and reports its findings to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The ideal way to conduct the CCC is not known. After finding that deliberations reliant upon the new milestones were time intensive, our internal medicine residency program tested an approach designed to produce rapid but accurate assessments. Material and methods For this study, we modified our usual CCC process to include pre-meeting faculty ratings of resident milestones progress with in-meeting reconciliation of their ratings. Data were considered largely via standard report and presented in a pre-arranged pattern. Participants were surveyed regarding their perceptions of data management strategies and use of milestones. Reliability of competence assessments was estimated by comparing pre-/post-intervention class rank lists produced by individual committee members with a master class rank list produced by the collective CCC after full deliberation. Results Use of the study CCC approach reduced committee deliberation time from 25 min to 9 min per resident (p < 0.001). Committee members believed milestones improved their ability to identify and assess expected elements of competency development (p = 0.026). Individual committee member assessments of trainee progress agreed well with collective CCC assessments. Conclusions Modification of the clinical competency process to include pre-meeting competence ratings with in-meeting reconciliation of these ratings led to shorter deliberation times, improved evaluator satisfaction and resulted in reliable milestone assessments. PMID:28144272

  5. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific to each adolescent; and the various social and cultural environments that surround adolescents, including their families, schools, and ... to Action identifies six goals: Foster changes in society that facilitate ... development and that help prevent and reduce underage drinking. Engage ...

  6. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  7. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... not letting alcohol control your life or your relationships. Tips of Drinking Responsibly The tips in this ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  8. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention (CDC). Fact Sheets: Underage Drinking . Atlanta, GA: CDC, 2016. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ ... Public Health: Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) . Atlanta, GA: CDC, 2016. Available at: http://go.usa.gov/ ...

  9. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... become angry or moody while drinking, for example. Alcoholism Some studies have shown that people who binge- ... 2 weeks — have some of the symptoms of alcoholism. Getting Help If you think you or a ...

  10. Historical milestones of a long pathway.

    PubMed

    Roy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hemodiafiltration (HDF), developed from the combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration, is considered to be the most effective current procedure to remove uremic toxins from the blood of kidney patients. Historically, the clinical use of HDF was for many years limited due to the cost burden related to the large amount of sterile volume replacement fluid needed. The solution offered was on-line preparation of replacement fluid from standard dialysate by means of membrane filtration. Industry opened to this concept quite early and worked on various technical solutions between the early 1980s and the late 1990s before real state-of-the-art systems became commercially available on a broad basis. This article reviews in particular the activities of initially Fresenius and later Fresenius Medical Care in this field and identifies major concepts and prototypes up to today's commercially available high-end product--the 5008 therapy system--where on-line HDF finally became integrated as a standard component. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Director Fred K.Y. Lo. "With this milestone behind us, we now can proceed with increased confidence toward completing ALMA," he added. ALMA, now under construction at an elevation of 16,500 feet in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. Scientists are eager to use this transformational capability to study the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early Universe, to learn long-sought details about how stars are formed, and will trace the motion of gas and dust as it whirls toward the surface of newly-formed stars and planets. "This was fantastic work. Using our two prototype antennas to observe Saturn was the first complete, end-to-end test of the advanced systems we are building for ALMA," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. "ALMA is an extraordinary international endeavor, and the collaboration of partners from around the world is vital to the success of the project," Russell added. "The success of this test is fundamental proof that the hardware and software now under development for ALMA will work to produce a truly revolutionary astronomical tool," said Massimo Tarenghi, Director of the Joint ALMA Office. "This achievement results from the integration of many state-of-the-art components from Europe and North America and bodes well for the success of ALMA in Chile," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. In addition to the leading-edge electronic and electro-optical hardware and custom software that proved itself by producing ALMA's first fringes, the system's antennas are among the most advanced in the world. The stringent requirements for the antennas included extremely precise reflecting surfaces, highly accurate ability to point at desired locations in the

  12. Social Development and Feeding Milestones of Young Down Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cullen, Susan M.

    1981-01-01

    The data revealed that young Down syndrome children attained significantly higher scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and achieved most feeding milestones much earlier if they had no or only mild congenital heart disease, if their parents followed through appropriately with furnished guidance, and if they had "good" muscle tone. (Author)

  13. University Facilitation of School Restructuring: Critical Milestones for Organization Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Betty M.; Allen-Haynes, Leetta

    Critical milestones in the university facilitation of meaningful school reform in schools serving at-risk students--schoolwide assessment, cadre-based planning, and pilot testing of new strategies--are examined in this paper. A training and facilitation mechanism developed by the University of New Orleans' (UNO) Louisiana Accelerated Schools…

  14. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.30 Diligent development milestones. (a) Operators must diligently develop the oil shale resources consistent with the terms and...

  15. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.30 Diligent development milestones. (a) Operators must diligently develop the oil shale resources consistent with the terms and...

  16. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.30 Diligent development milestones. (a) Operators must diligently develop the oil shale resources consistent with the terms and...

  17. Learnings From the Pilot Implementation of Mobile Medical Milestones Application.

    PubMed

    Page, Cristen P; Reid, Alfred; Coe, Catherine L; Carlough, Martha; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Beste, Janalynn; Fagan, Blake; Steinbacher, Erika; Jones, Geoffrey; Newton, Warren P

    2016-10-01

    Implementation of the educational milestones benefits from mobile technology that facilitates ready assessments in the clinical environment. We developed a point-of-care resident evaluation tool, the Mobile Medical Milestones Application (M3App), and piloted it in 8 North Carolina family medicine residency programs. We sought to examine variations we found in the use of the tool across programs and explored the experiences of program directors, faculty, and residents to better understand the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing the new tool. Residents and faculty completed presurveys and postsurveys about the tool and the evaluation process in their program. Program directors were interviewed individually. Interviews and open-ended survey responses were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method, and responses were tabulated under themes. Common perceptions included increased data collection, enhanced efficiency, and increased perceived quality of the information gathered with the M3App. Residents appreciated the timely, high-quality feedback they received. Faculty reported becoming more comfortable with the tool over time, and a more favorable evaluation of the tool was associated with higher utilization. Program directors reported improvements in faculty knowledge of the milestones and resident satisfaction with feedback. Faculty and residents credited the M3App with improving the quality and efficiency of resident feedback. Residents appreciated the frequency, proximity, and specificity of feedback, and faculty reported the app improved their familiarity with the milestones. Implementation challenges included lack of a physician champion and competing demands on faculty time.

  18. Age cohort differences in the developmental milestones of gay men.

    PubMed

    Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p < 0.05), whereas social milestones (e.g., coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.

  19. Apparatus as Milestones in the History of Comparative Psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Putney, R. Thompson

    1994-01-01

    Significant apparatus developments from the history of comparative psychology are reviewed, including the contemporary trend toward computer use in research with nonhuman animals. It is argued that milestone apparatus served not only to open new lines of inquiry but also to shape or delimit the nature of the answers that were obtained.

  20. 43 CFR 3930.30 - Diligent development milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any particular year starting in the 10th lease year. Payments in lieu of production in year 10 of the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diligent development milestones. 3930.30... 2 years of the lease issuance date, submit to the proper BLM office an initial POD that meets the...

  1. The Road Ahead in Education: Milestones for Geriatric Psychiatry Subspecialty Training.

    PubMed

    Swantek, Sandra S; Maixner, Susan M; Llorente, Maria D; Cheong, Josepha A; Edgar, Laura; Thomas, Christopher R; Ahmed, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Milestone Project is the next step in a series of changes revamping the system of graduate medical education. In 2013 the ACGME completed the general psychiatry milestones. The ACGME then pursued creation of milestones for accredited psychiatric subspecialty fellowships. This article documents the work of the geriatric psychiatry subspecialty milestones work group. It reports the history and rationale supporting the milestones, the milestone development process, and the implications for geriatric psychiatry fellowship training. In consultation with the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, and the ACGME Psychiatry Residency Review Committee, the ACGME appointed a working group to create the geriatric psychiatry milestones using the general psychiatry milestones as a guide. The geriatric psychiatry milestones are the result of an iterative process resulting in the definition of the characteristics vital to a fellowship-trained geriatric psychiatrist. It is premature to assess their effect on psychiatric training. The true impact of the milestones will be determined as each training director uses the milestones to re-evaluate their program curriculum and the educational and clinical learning environment. The ACGME is currently collecting the information about the milestone performance of residents and fellows to further refine and determine how the milestones can best be used to assist programs in improving training. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  2. MRT 5711 - Scope Radiochemical Analysis Comparison: Joint LANL-LLNL FY17 L-2 Milestone

    SciT

    Murray, S. D.; Lee, A. S.

    A 2016 Level-1 milestone highlighted surprising differences in fundamental data used by the two US design laboratories. To better understand and ultimately resolve those differences, two Level-2 milestones were developed for execution in FY-17 and FY-18.

  3. Exploration as a Mediator of the Relation between the Attainment of Motor Milestones and the Development of Spatial Cognition and Spatial Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Volman, M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and…

  4. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use.

  5. ALMA Telescope Passes Major Milestone with Successful Antenna Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an immense international telescope project under construction in northern Chile, reached a major milestone on April 30, when two ALMA antennas were linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object for the first time. The milestone achievement, technically termed "First Fringes," came at ALMA’s Operations Support Facility, 9,500 feet above sea level. Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Mars were collected by the two 12-meter diameter ALMA antennas, then processed by state-of-the-art electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of imaging systems that enable radio telescopes to deliver pictures that approach or even exceed the resolving power of visible light telescopes. In such a system, each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of antenna pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly-detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed early in the next decade, ALMA’s 66 antennas will provide over a thousand such antenna pairings, with distances between antennas exceeding ten miles. This will enable ALMA to see with a sharpness surpassing that of the best space telescopes. The antennas will operate at an altitude of 16,500 feet, high above the OSF, in one of the best locations on Earth for millimeter-wavelength astronomy, the Chajnantor Plateau in Chile’s Atacama Desert. Last week’s successful Mars observation was conducted at an observing frequency of 104.2 GHz. Astronomers measured the distinctive varying “fringes” detected by the interferometer as the planet moved across the sky. “This is a great success,” said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Director at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), “not because we observed a

  6. Drinking Levels Defined

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary ... of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL. This typically occurs ...

  7. Some Important Milestones in the Field of Blood Clotting.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2016-01-01

    Several different kinds of 'milestone' in the field of blood coagulation are described from the middle decades of the 20th century. Although viewed from the standpoint of clotting per se, attention is also given to implications for innate immunity. The first milestone considered is the protracted saga of clotting dependence on vitamin K, an adventure that spanned more than five decades beginning in the 1920s. The second has to do with the discovery of a half-dozen 'new' clotting factors during the period immediately following World War II. A third pursues a narrower focus and examines the once mysterious transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin. Finally, the clinical treatment of classical hemophilia had a remarkable turning point in the 1960s as the result of simple but sensible measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Historical milestones and discoveries that shaped the toxicology sciences.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Antoinette N; Gilbert, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the toxic and healing properties of plants, animals, and minerals has shaped civilization for millennia. The foundations of modern toxicology are built upon the significant milestones and discoveries of serendipity and crude experimentation. Throughout the ages, toxicological science has provided information that has shaped and guided society. This chapter examines the development of the discipline of toxicology and its influence on civilization by highlighting significant milestones and discoveries related to toxicology. The examples shed light on the beginnings of toxicology, as well as examine lessons learned and re-learned. This chapter also examines how toxicology and the toxicologist have interacted with other scientific and cultural disciplines, including religion, politics, and the government. Toxicology has evolved to a true scientific discipline with its own dedicated scientists, educational institutes, sub-disciplines, professional societies, and journals. It now stands as its own entity while traversing such fields as chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology. We invite you to join us on a path of discovery and to offer our suggestions as to what are the most significant milestones and discoveries in toxicology. Additional information is available on the history section of Toxipedia (www.toxipedia.org).

  9. The ordering of milestones in language development for children from 1 to 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Luinge, Margreet R; Post, Wendy J; Wit, Hero P; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M

    2006-10-01

    To scale language milestones in a group of 527 children to provide an instrument for screening language development. Procedure The questionnaire regarding these milestones was completed by parental report. It was evaluated whether the scaled milestones satisfied the assumptions of the Mokken item response model. The scalability of the final scale of 14 milestones was strong (H = .95), its reliability was high (rho = .96), and it satisfied the assumptions of the Mokken model. A single, unidimensional scale of diverse milestones was developed. It taps lexical, syntactic, and phonological skills, as well as both receptive and expressive language skills, and is well suited for mapping progress in language ability.

  10. Early Ethanol and Water Consumption: Accumulating Experience Differentially Regulates Drinking Pattern and Bout Parameters in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different origin, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. PMID:24095931

  11. Pediatric Program Director Minimum Milestone Expectations before Allowing Supervision of Others and Unsupervised Practice.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ting T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schwartz, Alan; Guillot, Ann; Burke, Ann E; Trimm, R Franklin; Guralnick, Susan; Mahan, John D; Gifford, Kimberly

    2018-04-25

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires semiannual Milestone reporting on all residents. Milestone expectations of performance are unknown. Determine pediatric program director (PD) minimum Milestone expectations for residents prior to being ready to supervise and prior to being ready to graduate. Mixed methods survey of pediatric PDs on their programs' Milestone expectations before residents are ready to supervise and before they are ready to graduate, and in what ways PDs use Milestones to make supervision and graduation decisions. If programs had no established Milestone expectations, PDs indicated expectations they considered for use in their program. Mean minimum Milestone level expectations adjusted for program size, region, and clustering of Milestone expectations by program were calculated for prior to supervise and prior to graduate. Free-text questions were analyzed using thematic analysis. The response rate was 56.8% (113/199). Most programs had no required minimum Milestone level before residents are ready to supervise (80%; 76/95) or ready to graduate (84%; 80/95). For readiness to supervise, minimum Milestone expectations PDs considered establishing for their program were highest for humanism (2.46, 95% CI: 2.21-2.71) and professionalization (2.37, 2.15-2.60). Minimum Milestone expectations for graduates were highest for help-seeking (3.14, 2.83-3.46). Main themes included the use of Milestones in combination with other information to assess learner performance and Milestones are not equally weighted when making advancement decisions. Most PDs have not established program minimum Milestones, but would vary such expectations by competency. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Driving after drinking among young adults of different race/ethnicities in the United States: unique risk factors in early adolescence?

    PubMed

    Delcher, Chris; Johnson, Rachel; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2013-05-01

    National guidelines for alcohol screening and brief interventions advise practitioners to consider age, drinking frequency, and context to identify at-risk youth. The purpose of this study was to identify the contextual risk and protective factors in high school-aged adolescents associated with future driving after drinking (Drinking Under the Influence [DUI] at age 21) by race/ethnicity. Data included 10,271 adolescents (67% white, 12% Hispanic, 16% black, 3.6% Asian; 49% Male) who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I, II, and III) from 1995 to 2001. A lagged panel design and survey logistic regression was used to examine the association between multiple contextual factors (e.g., demographics, parents, peers, social context) during adolescence and self-reported DUI in young adulthood. As expected, the likelihood of DUI was higher among whites followed by Hispanics, Asians, and blacks in all models. Perception of easy home access to alcohol increased risk for future DUI for whites (OR: 1.25 CI: 1.04-1.49), Hispanics (OR: 2.02 CI: 1.29-3.16), and Asians (OR: 1.90 CI: 1.13-3.22), but not for black youth. Drinking frequency and prior DUI were not risk factors for Hispanics. Risk-taking attitudes, marijuana use, and religious affiliation were risk factors for whites only. Findings suggest that in addition to screening for drinking behaviors, brief interventions and prevention efforts should assess perceived home access to alcohol and other race-specific factors to reduce alcohol-related injuries and harm. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolating the Role of Psychological Dysfunction in Smoking Cessation Failure: Relations of Personality and Psychopathology to Attaining Smoking Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Research exploring psychological dysfunction as a predictor of smoking cessation success may be limited by nonoptimal predictor variables (i.e., categorical psychodiagnostic measures vs. continuous personality-based manifestations of dysfunction) and imprecise outcomes (i.e., summative point prevalence abstinence vs. constituent cessation milestone measures). Accordingly, this study evaluated the unique and overlapping relations of broad-spectrum personality traits (positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint) and past-year psychopathology (anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder) to point prevalence abstinence and three smoking cessation milestones: (1) initiating abstinence; (2) first lapse; and (3) transition from lapse to relapse. Participants were daily smokers (N=1365) enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment study. In single predictor regression models, each manifestation of internalizing dysfunction (lower positive emotionality, higher negative emotionality, and anxiety and mood disorder) predicted failure at one or more cessation milestone. In simultaneous predictor models, lower positive and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted failure to achieve milestones after controlling for psychopathology. Psychopathology did not predict any outcome when controlling for personality. Negative emotionality showed the most robust and consistent effects, significantly predicting failure to initiate abstinence, earlier lapse, and lower point prevalence abstinence rates. Substance use disorder and constraint did not predict cessation outcomes, and no single variable predicted lapse-to-relapse transition. These findings suggest that personality-related manifestations of internalizing dysfunction are more accurate markers of affective sources of relapse risk than mood and anxiety disorders. Further, individuals with high trait negative emotionality may require intensive intervention to promote the initiation and early maintenance of

  14. Analyzing milestoning networks for molecular kinetics: definitions, algorithms, and examples.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Shruthi; Kreuzer, Steven M; Cardenas, Alfredo E; Elber, Ron

    2013-11-07

    Network representations are becoming increasingly popular for analyzing kinetic data from techniques like Milestoning, Markov State Models, and Transition Path Theory. Mapping continuous phase space trajectories into a relatively small number of discrete states helps in visualization of the data and in dissecting complex dynamics to concrete mechanisms. However, not only are molecular networks derived from molecular dynamics simulations growing in number, they are also getting increasingly complex, owing partly to the growth in computer power that allows us to generate longer and better converged trajectories. The increased complexity of the networks makes simple interpretation and qualitative insight of the molecular systems more difficult to achieve. In this paper, we focus on various network representations of kinetic data and algorithms to identify important edges and pathways in these networks. The kinetic data can be local and partial (such as the value of rate coefficients between states) or an exact solution to kinetic equations for the entire system (such as the stationary flux between vertices). In particular, we focus on the Milestoning method that provides fluxes as the main output. We proposed Global Maximum Weight Pathways as a useful tool for analyzing molecular mechanism in Milestoning networks. A closely related definition was made in the context of Transition Path Theory. We consider three algorithms to find Global Maximum Weight Pathways: Recursive Dijkstra's, Edge-Elimination, and Edge-List Bisection. The asymptotic efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed and numerical tests on finite networks show that Edge-List Bisection and Recursive Dijkstra's algorithms are most efficient for sparse and dense networks, respectively. Pathways are illustrated for two examples: helix unfolding and membrane permeation. Finally, we illustrate that networks based on local kinetic information can lead to incorrect interpretation of molecular mechanisms.

  15. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2017-12-27

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Verteporfin: a milestone in opthalmology and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, S B; Mellish, K J

    2001-02-01

    During the past year, a photosensitiser named benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) has been approved in 26 countries under the generic name verteporfin (Visudynetrade mark, Novartis), for the treatment of patients with a certain type of the wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by photodynamic therapy (PDT). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, with approximately half a million new cases of the wet form per year. The approval of Visudynetrade mark therapy represents a major milestone in ophthalmology since AMD was previously untreatable by any modality which would preserve existing vision. It was also a milestone in the development of PDT, not only because it represented the first breakthrough in the use of PDT to treat an otherwise untreatable condition, but also because it represented the first mass market for a PDT treatment where prospects of a substantial financial return on many years of investment appear to be likely. In this article, we look at the background to the development of BPD, primarily for its use in AMD, but also in other applications.

  17. Navigating the Next Accreditation System: A Dashboard for the Milestones.

    PubMed

    Johna, Samir; Woodward, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    In July 2014, all residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) were enrolled in a new system called the Next Accreditation System. Residency programs may not be clear on how best to comply with these new accreditation requirements. Large amounts of data must be collected, evaluated, and submitted twice a year to the council's Web-based data collection system. One challenge is that the new "end-of-rotation" evaluations must reflect specialty-specific milestones, on which many faculty members are not well versed. Like other residency programs, we tried to address the challenges using our local resources. We used our existing electronic goals and objectives for each rotation coupled with appropriate end-of-rotation evaluations reflecting the specialty-specific milestones through a process of editing and mapping. Data extracted from these evaluations were added to an interactive dashboard that also contained evaluations on additional program-specific modifiers of residents' performance. A resident's final overall performance was visually represented on a plot graph. The novel dashboard included features to save evaluations for future comparisons and to track residents' progress during their entire training. It proved simple to use and was able to reduce the time needed for each resident evaluation to 5 to 10 minutes. This tool has made it much easier and less challenging for the members of our Clinical Competency Committee to start deliberation about each resident's performance.

  18. Milestone-Based Assessments Are Superior to Likert-Type Assessments in Illustrating Trainee Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Kathleen W.; Whicker, Shari A.; Bookman, Jack; Narayan, Aditee P.; Staples, Betty B.; Hering, Holly; McGann, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Pediatrics Milestone Project uses behavioral anchors, narrative descriptions of observable behaviors, to describe learner progression through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. Starting June 2014, pediatrics programs were required to submit milestone reports for their trainees semiannually. Likert-type scale assessment tools were not designed to inform milestone reporting, creating a challenge for Clinical Competency Committees. Objective To determine if milestone-based assessments better stratify trainees by training level compared to Likert-type assessments. Methods We compared assessment results for 3 subcompetencies after changing from a 5-point Likert scale to milestone-based behavioral anchors in July 2013. Program leadership evaluated the new system by (1) comparing PGY-1 mean scores on Likert-type versus milestone-based assessments; and (2) comparing mean scores on the Likert-type versus milestone-based assessments across PGY levels. Results Mean scores for PGY-1 residents were significantly higher on the prior year's Likert-type assessments than milestone-based assessments for all 3 subcompetencies (P < .01). Stratification by PGY level was not observed with Likert-type assessments (eg, interpersonal and communication skills 1 [ICS1] mean score for PGY-1, 3.99 versus PGY-3, 3.98; P  =  .98). In contrast, milestone-based assessments demonstrated stratification by PGY level (eg, the ICS1 mean score was 3.06 for PGY-1, 3.83 for PGY-2, and 3.99 for PGY-3; P < .01 for PGY-1 versus PGY-3). Significantly different means by trainee level were noted across 21 subcompetencies on milestone-based assessments (P < .01 for PGY-1 versus PGY-3). Conclusions Initial results indicate milestone-based assessments stratify trainee performance by level better than Likert-type assessments. Average PGY-level scores from milestone-based assessments may ultimately provide guidance for determining whether trainees are

  19. The Milestones Passport: A Learner-Centered Application of the Milestone Framework to Prompt Real-Time Feedback in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Yarris, Lalena M.; Jones, David; Kornegay, Joshua G.; Hansen, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background In July 2013, emergency medicine residency programs implemented the Milestone assessment as part of the Next Accreditation System. Objective We hypothesized that applying the Milestone framework to real-time feedback in the emergency department (ED) could affect current feedback processes and culture. We describe the development and implementation of a Milestone-based, learner-centered intervention designed to prompt real-time feedback in the ED. Methods We developed and implemented the Milestones Passport, a feedback intervention incorporating subcompetencies, in our residency program in July 2013. Our primary outcomes were feasibility, including faculty and staff time and costs, number of documented feedback encounters in the first 2 months of implementation, and user-reported time required to complete the intervention. We also assessed learner and faculty acceptability. Results Development and implementation of the Milestones Passport required 10 hours of program coordinator time, 120 hours of software developer time, and 20 hours of faculty time. Twenty-eight residents and 34 faculty members generated 257 Milestones Passport feedback encounters. Most residents and faculty reported that the encounters required fewer than 5 minutes to complete, and 48% (12 of 25) of the residents and 68% (19 of 28) of faculty reported satisfaction with the Milestones Passport intervention. Faculty satisfaction with overall feedback in the ED improved after the intervention (93% versus 54%, P  =  .003), whereas resident satisfaction with feedback did not change significantly. Conclusions The Milestones Passport feedback intervention was feasible and acceptable to users; however, learner satisfaction with the Milestone assessment in the ED was modest. PMID:26279784

  20. The Milestones Passport: A Learner-Centered Application of the Milestone Framework to Prompt Real-Time Feedback in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Yarris, Lalena M; Jones, David; Kornegay, Joshua G; Hansen, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    In July 2013, emergency medicine residency programs implemented the Milestone assessment as part of the Next Accreditation System. We hypothesized that applying the Milestone framework to real-time feedback in the emergency department (ED) could affect current feedback processes and culture. We describe the development and implementation of a Milestone-based, learner-centered intervention designed to prompt real-time feedback in the ED. We developed and implemented the Milestones Passport, a feedback intervention incorporating subcompetencies, in our residency program in July 2013. Our primary outcomes were feasibility, including faculty and staff time and costs, number of documented feedback encounters in the first 2 months of implementation, and user-reported time required to complete the intervention. We also assessed learner and faculty acceptability. Development and implementation of the Milestones Passport required 10 hours of program coordinator time, 120 hours of software developer time, and 20 hours of faculty time. Twenty-eight residents and 34 faculty members generated 257 Milestones Passport feedback encounters. Most residents and faculty reported that the encounters required fewer than 5 minutes to complete, and 48% (12 of 25) of the residents and 68% (19 of 28) of faculty reported satisfaction with the Milestones Passport intervention. Faculty satisfaction with overall feedback in the ED improved after the intervention (93% versus 54%, P  =  .003), whereas resident satisfaction with feedback did not change significantly. The Milestones Passport feedback intervention was feasible and acceptable to users; however, learner satisfaction with the Milestone assessment in the ED was modest.

  1. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  2. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ... Caffeine Confusion What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide ...

  3. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 34001 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  4. Community Alcohol Outlet Density and Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This study examined how community alcohol outlet density may be associated with drinking among youths. Methods Longitudinal data were collected from 1091 adolescents (aged 14–16 at baseline) recruited from 50 zip codes in California with varying levels of alcohol outlet density and median household income. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the associations between zip code alcohol outlet density and frequency rates of general alcohol use and excessive drinking, taking into account zip code median household income and individual-level variables (age, gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, mobility, and perceived drinking by parents and peers). Findings When all other factors were controlled, higher initial levels of drinking and excessive drinking were observed among youths residing in zip codes with higher alcohol outlet densities. Growth in drinking and excessive drinking was on average more rapid in zip codes with lower alcohol outlet densities. The relation of zip code alcohol outlet density with drinking appeared to be mitigated by having friends with access to a car. Conclusion Alcohol outlet density may play a significant role in initiation of underage drinking during early teen ages, especially when youths have limited mobility. Youth who reside in areas with low alcohol outlet density may overcome geographic constraints through social networks that increase their mobility and the ability to seek alcohol and drinking opportunities beyond the local community. PMID:20078485

  5. Variations in Sexual Identity Milestones among Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals

    PubMed Central

    Martos, Alexander; Nezhad, Sheila; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature covering sexual identity development milestones, we know little about differences or similarities in patterns of identity development among subgroups of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population. For this study, we assessed identity milestones for 396 LGB New Yorkers, ages 18–59. Sexual identity and disclosure milestones, were measured across gender, sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and age cohort subgroups of the LGB sample. Men experienced most sexual identity milestones earlier than women, but they tended to take more time between milestones. LGBs in younger age cohorts experienced sexual identity milestones and disclosure milestones earlier than the older cohorts. Bisexual people experienced sexual identity and disclosure milestones later than gay and lesbian people. Timing of coming out milestones did not differ by race/ethnicity. By comparing differences within subpopulations, the results of this study help build understanding of the varied identity development experiences of people who are often referred to collectively as “the LGB community.” LGB people face unique health and social challenges; a more complete understanding of variations among LGB people allows health professionals and social service providers to provide services that better fit the needs of LGB communities. PMID:27695579

  6. Mapping Direct Observations From Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to the Milestones Across Specialties.

    PubMed

    Baker-Genaw, Kimberly; Kokas, Maria S; Ahsan, Syed F; Darnley-Fisch, Deborah; Drake, Sean; Goyal, Nikhil; Inamdar, Kedar; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Prabhakar, Deepak; Rolland, Laurie; Sangha, Roopina; Shreve, Maria; Woodward, Ann

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about residents' performance on the milestones at the institutional level. Our institution formed a work group to explore this using an institutional-level curriculum and residents' evaluation of the milestones. We assessed whether beginner-level milestones for interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) related to observable behaviors in ICS-focused objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 residents across specialties. The work group compared ICS subcompetencies across 12 programs to identify common beginner-level physician-patient communication milestones. The selected ICS milestone sets were compared for common language with the ICS-OSCE assessment tool-the Kalamazoo Essential Elements of Communication Checklist-Adapted (KEECC-A). To assess whether OSCE scores related to ICS milestone scores, all PGY-1 residents from programs that were part of Next Accreditation System Phase 1 were identified; their OSCE scores from July 2013 to June 2014 and ICS subcompetency scores from December 2014 were compared. The milestones for 10 specialties and the transitional year had at least 1 ICS subcompetency that related to physician-patient communication. The language of the ICS beginner-level milestones appears similar to behaviors outlined in the KEECC-A. All 60 residents with complete data received at least a beginner-level ICS subcompetency score and at least a satisfactory score on all 3 OSCEs. The ICS-OSCE scores for PGY-1 residents appear to relate to beginner-level milestones for physician-patient communication across multiple specialties.

  7. Charting the Road to Competence: Developmental Milestones for Internal Medicine Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael L.; Aagaard, Eva M.; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Chick, Davoren A.; Holmboe, Eric; Kane, Gregory; Smith, Cynthia D.; Iobst, William

    2009-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project requires that residency program directors objectively document that their residents achieve competence in 6 general dimensions of practice. Intervention In November 2007, the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the ACGME initiated the development of milestones for internal medicine residency training. ABIM and ACGME convened a 33-member milestones task force made up of program directors, experts in evaluation and quality, and representatives of internal medicine stakeholder organizations. This article reports on the development process and the resulting list of proposed milestones for each ACGME competency. Outcomes The task force adopted the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition as a framework the internal medicine milestones, and calibrated the milestones with the expectation that residents achieve, at a minimum, the “competency” level in the 5-step progression by the completion of residency. The task force also developed general recommendations for strategies to evaluate the milestones. Discussion The milestones resulting from this effort will promote competency-based resident education in internal medicine, and will allow program directors to track the progress of residents and inform decisions regarding promotion and readiness for independent practice. In addition, the milestones may guide curriculum development, suggest specific assessment strategies, provide benchmarks for resident self-directed assessment-seeking, and assist remediation by facilitating identification of specific deficits. Finally, by making explicit the profession's expectations for graduates and providing a degree of national standardization in evaluation, the milestones may improve public accountability for residency training. PMID:21975701

  8. Early-Years Swimming: Creating Opportunities for Adding Mathematical Capital to Under 5s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on survey data from over 2000 parents, this paper explores the possibility of early-years swimming to add mathematical capital to young children. Using developmental milestones as the basis, it was found that parents reported significantly earlier achievement on many of these milestones. Such data suggest that the early years swim…

  9. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  10. New Milestones Ahead in Complement-Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The complement system is a powerful effector arm of innate immunity that typically confers protection from microbial intruders and accumulating debris. In many clinical situations, however, the defensive functions of complement can turn against host cells and induce or exacerbate immune, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. Although the value of inhibiting complement in a therapeutic context has long been recognized, bringing complement-targeted drugs into clinical use has proved challenging. This important milestone was finally reached a decade ago, yet the clinical availability of complement inhibitors has remained limited. Still, the positive long-term experience with complement drugs and their proven effectiveness in various diseases has reinvigorated interest and confidence in this approach. Indeed, a broad variety of clinical candidates that act at almost any level of the complement activation cascade are currently in clinical development, with several of them being evaluated in phase 2 and phase 3 trials. With antibody-related drugs dominating the panel of clinical candidates, the emergence of novel small-molecule, peptide, protein, and oligonucleotide-based inhibitors offers new options for drug targeting and administration. Whereas all the currently approved and many of the proposed indications for complement-targeted inhibitors belong to the rare disease spectrum, these drugs are increasingly being evaluated for more prevalent conditions. Fortunately, the growing experience from preclinical and clinical use of therapeutic complement inhibitors has enabled a more evidence-based assessment of suitable targets and rewarding indications as well as related technical and safety considerations. This review highlights recent concepts and developments in complement-targeted drug discovery, provides an overview of current and emerging treatment options, and discusses the new milestones ahead on the way to the next generation of clinically available complement

  11. Advanced Initiation Systems Manufacturing Level 2 Milestone Completion Summary

    SciT

    Chow, R; Schmidt, M

    2009-10-01

    Milestone Description - Advanced Initiation Systems Detonator Design and Prototype. Milestone Grading Criteria - Design new generation chip slapper detonator and manufacture a prototype using advanced manufacturing processes, such as all-dry chip metallization and solvent-less flyer coatings. The advanced processes have been developed for manufacturing detonators with high material compatibility and reliability to support future LEPs, e.g. the B61, and new weapons systems. Perform velocimetry measurements to determine slapper velocity as a function of flight distance. A prototype detonator assembly and stripline was designed for low-energy chip slappers. Pictures of the prototype detonator and stripline are shown. All-dry manufacturing processesmore » were used to address compatibility issues. KCP metallized the chips in a physical vapor deposition system through precision-aligned shadow masks. LLNL deposited a solvent-less polyimide flyer with a processes called SLIP, which stands for solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. LANL manufactured the high-surface-area (HSA) high explosive (HE) pellets. Test fires of two chip slapper designs, radius and bowtie, were performed at LLNL in the High Explosives Application Facility (HEAF). Test fires with HE were conducted to establish the threshold firing voltages. pictures of the chip slappers before and after test fires are shown. Velocimetry tests were then performed to obtain slapper velocities at or above the threshold firing voltages. Figure 5 shows the slapper velocity as a function of distance and time at the threshold voltage, for both radius and bowtie bridge designs. Both designs were successful at initiating the HE at low energy levels. Summary of Accomplishments are: (1) All-dry process for chip manufacture developed; (2) Solventless process for slapper materials developed; (3) High-surface area explosive pellets developed; (4) High performance chip slappers developed; (5) Low

  12. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D.; Branzetti, Jeremy B.; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    Background Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. Objective This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. Methods We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Results Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Conclusions Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature. PMID:27413434

  13. Assessing Team Leadership in Emergency Medicine: The Milestones and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Branzetti, Jeremy B; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2016-07-01

    Team leadership is a critical skill for emergency medicine physicians that directly affects team performance and the quality of patient care. There exists a robust body of team science research supporting team leadership conceptual models and behavioral skill sets. However, to date, this work has not been widely incorporated into health care team leadership education. This narrative review has 3 aims: (1) to synthesize the team science literature and to translate important concepts and models to health care team leadership; (2) to describe how team leadership is currently represented in the health care literature and in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones for emergency medicine; and (3) to propose a novel, evidence-based framework for the assessment of team leadership in emergency medicine. We conducted a narrative review of the team science and health care literature. We summarized our findings and identified a list of team leadership behaviors that were then used to create a framework for team leadership assessment. Current health care team leadership measurement tools do not incorporate evidence-based models of leadership concepts from other established domains. The emergency medicine milestones include several team leadership behaviors as part of a larger resident evaluation program. However, they do not offer a comprehensive or cohesive representation of the team leadership construct. Despite the importance of team leadership to patient care, there is no standardized approach to team leadership assessment in emergency medicine. Based on the results of our review, we propose a novel team leadership assessment framework that is supported by the team science literature.

  14. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2016-2017 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2016-2017 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2016-2017 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2016.

  15. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2012-2013 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2012-2013 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2012-2013 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2012.

  16. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2014-2015 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2014-2015 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2014-2015 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2014.

  17. Milestone achievement in emerging adulthood in spina bifida: a longitudinal investigation of parental expectations

    PubMed Central

    Holbein, Christina E; Zebracki, Kathy; Bechtel, Colleen F; Papadakis, Jaclyn Lennon; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess changes over time in parents' expectations of adult milestone achievement (college attendance, full-time job attainment, independent living, marriage, parenthood) for young people with spina bifida, to examine how expectancies relate to actual milestone achievement, and to compare milestone achievement in emerging adults with spina bifida with that of peers with typical development. Method Sixty-eight families of children with spina bifida (mean=8.34y, 37 male, 31 female) and 68 families of children with typical development (mean=8.49y, 37 male, 31 female) participated at Time 1. At all subsequent timepoints, parents of young people with spina bifida were asked to rate their expectations of emerging adulthood milestone achievement. At Time 7, when participants were 22 to 23 years old, milestone achievement was assessed. Results Parents of young people with spina bifida lowered their expectations over time for most milestones; parents of children with higher cognitive ability reported decreases of lower magnitude. Parent expectancies were optimistic and unrelated to actual milestone achievement. Emerging adults with spina bifida were less likely than individuals with typical development to achieve all milestones. Interpretation Optimistic parental expectations may be adaptive for children with spina bifida and their families, although it is important for families to set realistic goals. Healthcare providers serve a key role in helping families of young people with spina bifida prepare for emerging adulthood. PMID:27651215

  18. Milestone achievement in emerging adulthood in spina bifida: a longitudinal investigation of parental expectations.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Christina E; Zebracki, Kathy; Bechtel, Colleen F; Lennon Papadakis, Jaclyn; Franks Bruno, Elizabeth; Holmbeck, Grayson N

    2017-03-01

    To assess changes over time in parents' expectations of adult milestone achievement (college attendance, full-time job attainment, independent living, marriage, parenthood) for young people with spina bifida, to examine how expectancies relate to actual milestone achievement, and to compare milestone achievement in emerging adults with spina bifida with that of peers with typical development. Sixty-eight families of children with spina bifida (mean age 8y 4mo, 37 males, 31 females) and 68 families of children with typical development (mean age 8y 6mo, 37 males, 31 females) participated at Time 1. At all subsequent timepoints, parents of young people with spina bifida were asked to rate their expectations of emerging adulthood milestone achievement. At Time 7, when participants were 22 to 23 years old, milestone achievement was assessed. Parents of young people with spina bifida lowered their expectations over time for most milestones; parents of children with higher cognitive ability reported decreases of lower magnitude. Parent expectancies were optimistic and unrelated to actual milestone achievement. Emerging adults with spina bifida were less likely than individuals with typical development to achieve all milestones. Optimistic parental expectations may be adaptive for children with spina bifida and their families, although it is important for families to set realistic goals. Healthcare providers serve a key role in helping families of young people with spina bifida prepare for emerging adulthood. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Do developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months predict IQ at 5-6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Peyre, Hugo; Charkaluk, Marie-Laure; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck

    2017-03-01

    The present study aims: (i) to determine how well developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months may predict IQ at 5-6 years old, (ii) to identify cognitive domains during the first two years that best predict later IQ and (iii) to determine whether children with IQ in the normal range at 5-6 years old may differ from disabled (IQ < 70) and gifted children (IQ > 130) with regard to their early cognitive development. The main developmental milestones were collected through self-administered questionnaires rated by parents at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months and through parental questionnaires administered by a trained interviewer and questionnaires completed following a medical examination at 12 months. These questionnaires were derived from the Brunet-Lézine Psychomotor Development Scale and they addressed several cognitive domains (gross and fine motor skills, language and socialization). (i) Developmental milestones predict a substantial part of the later IQ variance from 24 months (R 2  ∼ 20%). (ii) Early language skills more strongly predict later IQ than the other cognitive domains. (iii) Several cognitive domains, but particularly language skills, predict disabled children at 5-6 years old (from the age of 8 months) and gifted children (from the age of 12 months). The present study provides valuable information for early developmental assessment and could contribute to a better understanding of intellectual development. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Milestones of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation – From First Human Studies to Current Developments

    PubMed Central

    Juric, Mateja Kralj; Ghimire, Sakhila; Ogonek, Justyna; Weissinger, Eva M.; Holler, Ernst; van Rood, Jon J.; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Dickinson, Anne; Greinix, Hildegard T.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft. Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system allowed improved donor selection, including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow, other stem cell sources like granulocyte-colony stimulating-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. Use of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning regimens has been associated with a marked reduction of non-hematological toxicities and eventually, non-relapse mortality allowing older patients and individuals with comorbidities to undergo allogeneic HSCT and to benefit from GvL or antitumor effects. Whereas in the early years, malignant disease eradication by high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy was the ultimate goal; nowadays, allogeneic HSCT has been recognized as cellular immunotherapy relying prominently on immune mechanisms and to a lesser extent on non-specific direct cellular toxicity. This chapter will summarize the key milestones of HSCT and introduce current developments. PMID:27881982

  1. A Process for Curricular Improvement Based on Evaluation of Student Performance on Milestone Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Hylton, Ann C.; Justice, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify and address areas for curricular improvement by evaluating student achievement of expected learning outcomes and competencies on annual milestone examinations. Design. Students were tested each professional year with a comprehensive milestone examination designed to evaluate student achievement of learning outcomes and professional competencies using a combination of multiple-choice questions, standardized patient assessments (SPAs), and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) questions. Assessment. Based on student performance on milestone examinations, curricular changes were instituted, including an increased emphasis on graded comprehensive cases, OSCE skills days, and use of patient simulation in lecture and laboratory courses. After making these changes, significant improvements were observed in second and third-year pharmacy students’ grades for the therapeutic case and physician interaction/errors and omissions components of the milestone examinations. Conclusion. Results from milestone examinations can be used to identify specific areas in which curricular improvements are needed to foster student achievement of learning outcomes and professional competencies. PMID:28090108

  2. Maternal Drinking Problems and Children's Auditory, Intellectual, and Linguistic Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarnecki, Donna M.; And Others

    This study tested the hypothesis that maternal drinking early in pregnancy affects the development of the child's central auditory processing. A follow-up study of 167 children took place 6 years after their mothers participated in a survey concerning health and drinking practices during the early stages of pregnancy. Indications of problem…

  3. Competent for Unsupervised Practice: Use of Pediatric Residency Training Milestones to Assess Readiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ting T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schwartz, Alan; Guillot, Ann P; Burke, Ann E; Trimm, R Franklin; Guralnick, Susan; Mahan, John D; Gifford, Kimberly A

    2017-03-01

    To describe clinical skills progression during pediatric residency using the distribution of pediatric milestone assessments by subcompetency and year of training and to determine reasonable milestone expectations at time of graduation. Multi-institutional cohort study of the milestones reported to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for all 21 pediatric subcompetencies. Most subcompetencies were measured using five milestone levels (1 = novice, 2 = advanced beginner, 3 = competent, 4 = proficient, 5 = master); 3 subcompetencies had only four levels defined. Milestone assessments for 2,030 pediatric residents in 47 programs during academic year 2013-2014 were obtained. There was significant variation in end-of-year milestone ratings for residents within each level of training, which decreased as training level increased. Most (78.9%; 434/550) graduating third-year pediatric residents received a milestone rating of ≥ 3 in all 21 subcompetencies; fewer (21.1%; 116/550) received a rating of ≥ 4 in all subcompetencies. Across all training levels, professionalism and interpersonal communication skills were rated highest; quality improvement was rated lowest. Trainees entered residency with a wide range of skills. As they advanced, skill variability within a training level decreased. Most graduating pediatric residents were still advancing on the milestone continuum toward proficiency and mastery, and an expectation of milestone ratings ≥ 4 in all categories upon graduation is unrealistic; milestone ratings ≥ 3 upon graduation may be more realistic. Understanding current pediatric residents' and graduates' skills can help to identify key areas that should be specifically targeted during training.

  4. The association of 2-year-old training milestones with career length and racing success in a sample of Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J C; Rogers, C W; Firth, E C

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that exercise early in life has a positive effect on musculoskeletal health. At present, there is little whole population research investigating the effect of racing as 2-year-olds on future racing career. To investigate the association between attaining training milestones as 2-year-olds with length of career and racing success in Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand. Retrospective data were obtained of the 2001/02-born Thoroughbred foal crop. The 3 training milestones were: registered with a trainer, trialled and raced. The association of the training milestones with career length was measured using the outcomes: number of race starts and number of years raced, in a Cox regression model. Logistic regression models analysed the association of the training milestones with the outcomes: won or placed in a race. Linear regression was performed to assess the association of training milestones with total career earnings. Of 4683 horses in the population; 3152 horses were registered with a trainer, 2661 horses trialled and 2109 horses raced. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (P<0.001) more race starts than those first raced as 3-year-olds or older, this was also true when the 2-year-old year data were omitted. Horses that raced as 2-year-olds had significantly (P<0.001) more years racing. Horses registered with a trainer, trialled or raced as 2-year-olds were more likely to have won or been placed in a race than those that achieved the milestones as 3-year-olds or older. Horses that first trialled and raced as 2-year-olds had greater total earnings than those that first trialled or raced at a later age. Two-year-old training milestones had a strong association with positive racing career outcomes. Horses in training or racing as 2-year-olds may have better musculoskeletal health throughout life than horses that are first in training or racing at a later age. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Milestones in Medical Research, The Human Genome and ClinicalTrials.gov Past Issues / ... 10th anniversary of two important achievements in medical research—the first, a major milestone in understanding the ...

  6. New England's Drinking Water | Drinking Water in New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  7. Developmental milestones at one year for the offspring of mothers with congenital hypothyroidism: a population-based study

    PubMed

    Léger, Juliane; Forhan, Anne; Dos Santos, Sophie; Larroque, Béatrice; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in the offspring. No data are currently available for the offspring of patients treated early for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The aim of this study was to investigate motor and language milestones at one year of age in a population-based registry of children born to young women with CH. We assessed 110 children born to mothers with CH, and 1367 children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study prospectively, at the age of one year, with identical questionnaires. Outcomes were assessed in terms of scores for childhood developmental milestones relating to mobility, motor coordination, communication, motricity and language skills. After adjustment for confounding factors, children born to mothers with CH were found to have a higher risk of poor motor coordination than those of the EDEN cohort (OR: 4.18, 95% CI: 2.52-6.93). No differences were identified for the other four domains investigated. Children born to mothers with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of low motor coordination score than their peers (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.21-3.66). Children born to mothers with TSH ≥ 10 IU/L during the first six months of pregnancy were more likely to have low motricity or communication skills scores than those born to mothers with lower TSH concentrations (56% vs 21% for each score, P  < 0.04). Maternal CH may have slight adverse effects on some developmental milestones in the child at one year of age, particularly for children born to mothers with uncontrolled hypothyroidism. However, it remains unclear whether these adverse effects modify subsequent neurodevelopment. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P < .001) and AmED (P = .002) use. Knowledge about amounts consumed and recommended allowances is associated with less consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  9. Gestational Alcohol Exposure and Other Factors Associated with Continued Teenage Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A longitudinal cohort of adolescents who initiated drinking before age 15 were studied to determine which factors distinguished between early initiators who continued to drink (persisters) from those who stopped drinking (desisters). There were 308 early initiators in the total sample (n = 917); 247 were persisters, and 61 were desisters.…

  10. The Influence of Families on Early Adolescent School Connectedness: Evidence That This Association Varies with Adolescent Involvement in Peer Drinking Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian B.; O'Flaherty, Martin; Toumbourou, John W.; Homel, Ross; Patton, George C.; White, Angela; Williams, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    School connectedness is central to the long term well-being of adolescents, and high quality parent-child relationships facilitate school connectedness. This study examined the extent to which family relationship quality is associated with the school connectedness of pre- and early teenagers, and how this association varies with adolescent…

  11. Automated online optical biosensing system for continuous real-time determination of microcystin-LR with high sensitivity and specificity: early warning for cyanotoxin risk in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han-Chang; Song, Bao-Dong; Long, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; He, Miao; Lv, Qing; Yang, Hai-Yang

    2013-05-07

    The accelerated eutrophication of surface water sources and climate change have led to an annual occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in many drinking water resources. To minimize the health risks to the public, cyanotoxin detection methods that are rapid, sensitive, real time, and high frequency must be established. In this study, an innovative automated online optical biosensing system (AOBS) was developed for the rapid detection and early warning of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most toxic cyanotoxins and most frequently detected in environmental water. In this system, the capturing molecular MC-LR-ovalbumin (MC-LR-OVA) was covalently immobilized onto a biochip surface. By an indirect competitive detection mode, samples containing different concentrations of MC-LR were premixed with a certain concentration of fluorescence-labeled anti-MC-LR-mAb, which binds to MC-LR with high specificity. Then, the sample mixture was pumped onto the biochip surface, and a higher concentration of MC-LR led to less fluorescence-labeled antibody bound onto the biochip surface and thus to lower fluorescence signal. The quantification of MC-LR ranges from 0.2 to 4 μg/L, with a detection limit determined as 0.09 μg/L. The high specificity and selectivity of the sensor were evaluated in terms of its response to a number of potentially interfering cyanotoxins. Potential interference of the environmental sample matrix was assessed by spiked samples, and the recovery of MC-LR ranged from 90 to 120% with relative standard deviation values <8%. The immunoassay performance of the AOBS was validated with respect to that of conventional high-performance liquid chromatography, and the correlation between methods agreed well (R(2) = 0.9762). This system has successfully been applied to long-term, continuous determination and early warning for MC-LR in Lake Tai from June 2011 to May 2012. Thus, the AOBS paves the way for a vital routine online analysis that satisfies the high demand for

  12. Windows of achievement for development milestones of Sri Lankan infants and toddlers: estimation through statistical modelling.

    PubMed

    Thalagala, N

    2015-11-01

    The normative age ranges during which cohorts of children achieve milestones are called windows of achievement. The patterns of these windows of achievement are known to be both genetically and environmentally dependent. This study aimed to determine the windows of achievement for motor, social emotional, language and cognitive development milestones for infants and toddlers in Sri Lanka. A set of 293 milestones identified through a literature review were subjected to content validation using parent and expert reviews, which resulted in the selection of a revised set of 277 milestones. Thereafter, a sample of 1036 children from 2 months to 30 months was examined to see whether or not they had attained the selected milestones. Percentile ages of attaining milestone were determined using a rearranged closed form equation related to the logistic regression. The parameters required for calculations were derived through the logistic regression of milestone achievement statuses against ages of children. These percentile ages were used to define the respective windows of achievement. A set of 178 robust indicators that represent motor, socio emotional, language and cognitive development skills and their windows of achievement relevant to 2 to 24 months of age were determined. Windows of achievement for six gross motor milestones determined in the study were shown to closely overlap a similar set of windows of achievement published by the World Health Organization indicating the validity of some findings. A methodology combining the content validation based on qualitative techniques and age validation based on regression modelling found to be effective for determining age percentiles for realizing milestones and determining respective windows of achievement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ways to Write a Milestone: Approaches to Operationalizing the Development of Competence in Graduate Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Reed, Darcy A; Starr, Stephanie R; Havyer, Rachel D; Lang, Tara R; Norby, Suzanne M

    2017-09-01

    To identify approaches to operationalizing the development of competence in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. The authors reviewed all 25 "Milestone Project" documents available on the ACGME Web site on September 11, 2013, using an iterative process to identify approaches to operationalizing the development of competence in the milestones associated with each of 601 subcompetencies. Fifteen approaches were identified. Ten focused on attributes and activities of the learner, such as their ability to perform different, increasingly difficult tasks (304/601; 51%), perform a task better and faster (171/601; 45%), or perform a task more consistently (123/601; 20%). Two approaches focused on context, inferring competence from performing a task in increasingly difficult situations (236/601; 29%) or an expanding scope of engagement (169/601; 28%). Two used socially defined indicators of competence such as progression from "learning" to "teaching," "leading," or "role modeling" (271/601; 45%). One approach focused on the supervisor's role, inferring competence from a decreasing need for supervision or assistance (151/601; 25%). Multiple approaches were often combined within a single set of milestones (mean 3.9, SD 1.6). Initial ACGME milestones operationalize the development of competence in many ways. These findings offer insights into how physicians understand and assess the developmental progression of competence and an opportunity to consider how different approaches may affect the validity of milestone-based assessments. The results of this analysis can inform the work of educators developing or revising milestones, interpreting milestone data, or creating assessment tools to inform milestone-based performance measures.

  14. Geo-Informatics in India: Major Milestones and Present Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Karnatak, H.; Raju, P. L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Geo-informatics has emerged globally as a useful tool to address spatial problems with significant societal implications that require integrative and innovative approaches for analysis, modelling, managing, and archiving of extensive and diverse data sets. Breakneck technological development and availability of satellite based data and information services in public domain along with real time geo-data n through participatory approaches, in the two last decades have led to a sea-change in our know-how of our natural resources and their effective management at various levels. It has led to a realization that every phenomena and requirement in our day to day life has some spatial, or geographic component that can be predicted and governed more effectively through geoinformatics tool. India also has come a long way in effective utilization of geoinformatics for various applications. This quantum leap owes its foundation in a humble beginning about half century back and almost parallel developments in the country's space programme to a current level where it touches almost all areas of life and living. Though geoinformatics technology (GIT) is believed to reach satisfactory level in the country, Indian geospatial community faces critical challenges with respect to research, education and training along with enhanced the access to the stakeholders and mobilization of the workforce, that are crucial in further penetration of this technology in context to India's development. In this paper we have critically reviewed milestones of GI development and its current utilization status in Indian context.

  15. Fuego/Scefire MPMD Coupling L2 Milestone Executive Summary

    SciT

    Pierce, Flint; Tencer, John; Pautz, Shawn D.

    2017-09-01

    This milestone campaign was focused on coupling Sandia physics codes SIERRA low Mach module Fuego and RAMSES Boltzmann transport code Sceptre(Scefire). Fuego enables simulation of low Mach, turbulent, reacting, particle laden flows on unstructured meshes using CVFEM for abnormal thermal environments throughout SNL and the larger national security community. Sceptre provides simulation for photon, neutron, and charged particle transport on unstructured meshes using Discontinuous Galerkin for radiation effects calculations at SNL and elsewhere. Coupling these ”best of breed” codes enables efficient modeling of thermal/fluid environments with radiation transport, including fires (pool, propellant, composite) as well as those with directed radiantmore » fluxes. We seek to improve the experience of Fuego users who require radiation transport capabilities in two ways. The first is performance. We achieve this through leveraging additional computational resources for Scefire, reducing calculation times while leaving unaffected resources for fluid physics. This approach is new to Fuego, which previously utilized the same resources for both fluid and radiation solutions. The second improvement enables new radiation capabilities, including spectral (banded) radiation, beam boundary sources, and alternate radiation solvers (i.e. Pn). This summary provides an overview of these achievements.« less

  16. The IJHPR publishes its 100th article, and other momentous milestones.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Bruce; Israeli, Avi

    2013-12-19

    The Israel Journal of Health Policy Research (IJHPR) was launched in January 2012 and it is now publishing its 100th article. It was accepted into PubMed after only six months of publication and it has now also been accepted by Thomson Reuters for inclusion in the Web of Science as well as the Social Science Citation Index. It is rare for a new journal to reach these milestones at such an early stage in its development.One of the key factors in the journal's acceptance into these prestigious databases has been its unique national/international approach - exploring both what Israel can learn from health systems in other countries and what other countries can learn from Israeli health care. Another key factor has been its ability to attract high quality contributions from virtually all of the Israeli universities and research centers involved in health policy. A third important factor has been the journal's ability to engage leading international scholars as contributors and/or editorial board members.

  17. National estimates of pubertal milestones among urban and rural Chinese boys.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao; Su, Pu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    To provide up-to-date pubertal characteristics in a representative population of boys from both urban and rural areas of China. The China Puberty Research Collaboration enrolled 15 011 boys of Chinese Han ethnicity aged 6.0-18.9 years in eight regions including both urban and rural areas. Stages of genital and pubic hair development were assessed by trained physicians according to the Tanner method. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Median age for onset of testicular volume of 4 mL or greater was 11.02 years. Median age for onset of genital (G2), pubic hair development (PH2) and spermarche was 11.24 years, 12.67 years and 14.32 years, respectively. Boys with BMI ≥ 85th percentile reached the onset of TV ≥ 4 ml (11.09 years), G2 (11.34 years) and G3 (13.01 years) later than boys with a normal BMI (10.95 years, 11.1 years and 12.88 years, respectively). Urban boys achieved pubertal milestones at an earlier age than rural peers except for G5 (13.4 vs 13.76 years) and PH5 (12.86 years vs 13.14 years). There is an asynchronous pattern in the onset of puberty among Chinese boys. Higher BMI is related to early pubertal onset but fast pubertal progression. Urban boys achieved onset of puberty earlier than rural boys in China.

  18. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Not Have a Problem Because I Only Drink Wine and Beer Problem drinking is not about what ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  19. Drinking Water Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  20. Drinking Water Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  1. Chloramines in Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water. Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water. Chloramines provide longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers.

  2. Local Drinking Water Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States and territories collect data about the performance of your drinking water supplier and share that information with EPA, which posts it to our website and maintains a telephone hotline to answer questions about drinking water.

  3. Level-2 Milestone 3504: Scalable Applications Preparations and Outreach for the Sequoia ID (Dawn)

    SciT

    Futral, W. Scott; Gyllenhaal, John C.; Hedges, Richard M.

    2010-07-02

    This report documents LLNL SAP project activities in anticipation of the ASC Sequoia system, ASC L2 milestone 3504: Scalable Applications Preparations and Outreach for the Sequoia ID (Dawn), due June 30, 2010.

  4. Space The New Medical Frontier / NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... occasion. Photo courtesy of NIH Long-Term Space Research Until the advent of the ISS, research missions ... improving human health." NASA Spinoffs Milestones in Space Research Inspired by the space suits Apollo astronauts wore ...

  5. Milestone Age Affects the Role of Health and Emotions in Life Satisfaction: A Preliminary Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Bhargave, Rajesh; Doniger, Glen M

    2015-01-01

    Jill turns 40. Should this change how she evaluates her life, and would a similar change occur when she turns 41? Milestone age (e.g., 30, 40, 50)--a naturally occurring feature in personal timelines--has received much attention is popular culture, but little attention in academic inquiry. This study examines whether milestone birthdays change the way people evaluate their life. We show that life outlook is impacted by this temporal landmark, which appears to punctuate people's mental maps of their life cycle. At these milestone junctures, people take stock of where they stand and have a more evaluative perspective towards their lives when making life satisfaction judgments. Correspondingly, they place less emphasis on daily emotional experiences. We find that milestone agers (vs. other individuals) place greater weight on health satisfaction and BMI and lesser weight on daily positive emotions in their overall life satisfaction judgments, whereas negative emotions remain influential.

  6. Immunizations and Developmental Milestones for Your Child from Birth Through 6 Years Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... type b n Hib Pneumococcal n PCV Inactivated Poliovirus n IPV Influenza (Flu) Milestones should be achieved ... type b n Hib Pneumococcal n PCV Inactivated Poliovirus n IPV Influenza (Flu) n Influenza, first dose ...

  7. Psychosexual development and satisfaction with timing of developmental milestones among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Vicky; Keim, Madelaine C; Ferrante, Amanda C; Olshefski, Randal S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2018-04-27

    To extend the limited research on psychosexual development among childhood cancer survivors, by not only focusing on the prevalence and age of milestone attainment, but also survivors' attitudes toward the timing of reaching such milestones. Adult survivors of childhood cancer (N = 90; M age  = 29.8, SD = 5.2), recruited from a US pediatric institution, completed online surveys indicating whether they had reached 5 milestones of psychosexual development (ie, first kiss, first boy-/girlfriend, first physical intimacy, sexual debut, first time in love), age at attainment, and perceptions about the timing (ie, right time, wished it had happened earlier, wished they had waited). Almost all survivors had reached each milestone (≥90%), except for sexual debut (83.3%). Survivors reported their first kiss as the earliest milestone at age 14.6 (N = 82, 92%) and falling in love as the latest milestone at age 18.8 (N = 80; 90%). This timing did not differ by sex/cancer-specific factors. Most survivors (~60%) felt they reached each milestone at the right time. Compared with US normative data, both male and female survivors were less likely to have experienced their sexual debut and were approximately 1.5 years older at sexual debut. Nevertheless, 59% of survivors felt that this timing was right and 31% wished they had waited longer. This is the first study to demonstrate that although childhood cancer survivors may delay some aspects of psychosexual development, most are satisfied with this timing. Research and clinical practice should emphasize survivors' perceptions/satisfaction toward psychosexual development rather than focusing only on normative milestone attainment. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A multi-source feedback tool for measuring a subset of Pediatrics Milestones.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Alan; Margolis, Melissa J; Multerer, Sara; Haftel, Hilary M; Schumacher, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot employed a new multisource feedback (MSF) instrument to assess nine Pediatrics Milestones among interns and subinterns in the inpatient context. To report validity evidence for the MSF tool for informing milestone classification decisions. We obtained MSF instruments by different raters per learner per rotation. We present evidence for validity based on the unified validity framework. One hundred and ninety two interns and 41 subinterns at 18 Pediatrics residency programs received a total of 1084 MSF forms from faculty (40%), senior residents (34%), nurses (22%), and other staff (4%). Variance in ratings was associated primarily with rater (32%) and learner (22%). The milestone factor structure fit data better than simpler structures. In domains except professionalism, ratings by nurses were significantly lower than those by faculty and ratings by other staff were significantly higher. Ratings were higher when the rater observed the learner for longer periods and had a positive global opinion of the learner. Ratings of interns and subinterns did not differ, except for ratings by senior residents. MSF-based scales correlated with summative milestone scores. We obtain moderately reliable MSF ratings of interns and subinterns in the inpatient context to inform some milestone assignments.

  9. Educational Milestone Development in the First 7 Specialties to Enter the Next Accreditation System

    PubMed Central

    Swing, Susan R.; Beeson, Michael S.; Carraccio, Carol; Coburn, Michael; Iobst, William; Selden, Nathan R.; Stern, Peter J.; Vydareny, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project introduced 6 general competencies relevant to medical practice but fell short of its goal to create a robust assessment system that would allow program accreditation based on outcomes. In response, the ACGME, the specialty boards, and other stakeholders collaborated to develop educational milestones, observable steps in residents' professional development that describe progress from entry to graduation and beyond. Objectives We summarize the development of the milestones, focusing on 7 specialties, moving to the next accreditation system in July 2013, and offer evidence of their validity. Methods Specialty workgroups with broad representation used a 5-level developmental framework and incorporated information from literature reviews, specialty curricula, dialogue with constituents, and pilot testing. Results The workgroups produced richly diverse sets of milestones that reflect the community's consideration of attributes of competence relevant to practice in the given specialty. Both their development process and the milestones themselves establish a validity argument, when contemporary views of validity for complex performance assessment are used. Conclusions Initial evidence for validity emerges from the development processes and the resulting milestones. Further advancing a validity argument will require research on the use of milestone data in resident assessment and program accreditation. PMID:24404235

  10. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls.

  11. HUBBLE PHOTOGRAPHS WARPED GALAXY AS CAMERA PASSES MILESTONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    observations of ESO 510-G13, WFPC2 passed the milestone of taking its 100,000th image since its installation in the telescope by shuttle astronauts in 1993. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. Conselice (U. Wisconsin/STScI)

  12. Have First-Year Emergency Medicine Residents Achieved Level 1 on Care-Based Milestones?

    PubMed Central

    Weizberg, Moshe; Bond, Michael C.; Cassara, Michael; Doty, Christopher; Seamon, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Background Residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited emergency medicine (EM) residencies were assessed on 23 educational milestones to capture their progression from medical student level (Level 1) to that of an EM attending physician (Level 5). Level 1 was conceptualized to be at the level of an incoming postgraduate year (PGY)-1 resident; however, this has not been confirmed. Objectives Our primary objective in this study was to assess incoming PGY-1 residents to determine what percentage achieved Level 1 for the 8 emergency department (ED) patient care–based milestones (PC 1–8), as assessed by faculty. Secondary objectives involved assessing what percentage of residents had achieved Level 1 as assessed by themselves, and finally, we calculated the absolute differences between self- and faculty assessments. Methods Incoming PGY-1 residents at 4 EM residencies were assessed by faculty and themselves during their first month of residency. Performance anchors were adapted from ACGME milestones. Results Forty-one residents from 4 programs were included. The percentage of residents who achieved Level 1 for each subcompetency on faculty assessment ranged from 20% to 73%, and on self-assessment from 34% to 92%. The majority did not achieve Level 1 on faculty assessment of milestones PC-2, PC-3, PC-5a, and PC-6, and on self-assessment of PC-3 and PC-5a. Self-assessment was higher than faculty assessment for PC-2, PC-5b, and PC-6. Conclusions Less than 75% of PGY-1 residents achieved Level 1 for ED care-based milestones. The majority did not achieve Level 1 on 4 milestones. Self-assessments were higher than faculty assessments for several milestones. PMID:26692971

  13. The influence of paternal and maternal drinking patterns within two-partner families on the initiation and development of adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Koning, Ina M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-11-01

    As it is still unclear to what extent parental drinking is a predictor of children's alcohol use, we tested the association of specific paternal and maternal drinking patterns with both initiation and development of adolescent alcohol use. Longitudinal data (four annual measurements) of parent-child dyads (N=2319) have been used. Parental drinking patterns have been identified using latent class analysis. The association of parental drinking patterns with the initiation and development of 12-15 year olds' drinking have been examined with latent growth curve modeling. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns were related to adolescent drinking. That is, having a heavy drinking father or two heavy episodic drinking parents particularly predicts early and heavier adolescent drinking. When controlled for parenting behaviors and background variables, such as adolescent gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES), these findings remained significant. Interaction analyses revealed that the influence of parental heavy (episodic) drinking differs across gender and is especially strong among adolescents with lower SES. Thus, parental heavy (episodic) drinking, and not so much the frequency of drinking, predicts the initiation and development of alcohol consumption in their offspring. Parents and professionals must be aware that parental heavy drinking affects their offspring, particularly adolescents with lower SES, resulting in earlier and heavier drinking among this high-risk group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of fluoride varnish in preventing early childhood caries in rural areas without access to fluoridated drinking water: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Millán, Patricia; Zaror, Carlos; Espinoza-Espinoza, Gerardo; Vergara-Gonzalez, Carolina; Muñoz, Sergio; Atala-Acevedo, Claudia; Martínez-Zapata, Maria José

    2018-02-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) constitutes a serious public health issue, especially in communities without water fluoridation. We assessed the effectiveness of biannual fluoride varnish applications to prevent ECC in children from nonfluoridated rural areas. A triple-blind randomized control trial with two parallel arms was conducted with 275 two- to three-year-old children without cavitated carious lesions from 28 rural public preschools in Chile. The preschools were located in areas of low socioeconomic status without access to fluoridated water. An oral health education component was administered to children, parents and educators. A new toothbrush and toothpaste for each child was delivered to the parents at baseline and at four follow-up visits. The participants were randomly allocated to receive fluoride varnish or placebo applications every six months. Trained, calibrated dentists blind to the treatment arm performed visual dental assessments at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary endpoint was the development of cavitated carious lesions in children during the 24-month follow-up period using WHO criteria, and the secondary outcomes were an increase in caries measured as a change in the index of decayed, missing or filled teeth (dmft) since the beginning of the study and the development of adverse effects. An intention-to-treat (ITT) approach was used for the primary analysis. We included 131 participants in the intervention group and 144 participants in the placebo group; of these children, 89 (67.9%) in the intervention group and 100 (69.4%) in the control group completed the protocol. The comparative ITT analysis of caries incidence after 24 months of follow-up showed a between-group prevention fraction of 18.9% (-2.9%-36.2%). Caries incidence was 45.0% for the experiment group and 55.6% for the control group (P = .081), with a mean dmft of 1.6 (SD = 2.4) and 2.1 (SD = 2.5), respectively. No adverse effects were reported. In conclusion, biannual fluoride

  15. Comparison of Male vs Female Resident Milestone Evaluations by Faculty During Emergency Medicine Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Arjun; O’Connor, Daniel M.; Qadri, Usama

    2017-01-01

    Importance Although implicit bias in medical training has long been suspected, it has been difficult to study using objective measures, and the influence of sex and gender in the evaluation of medical trainees is unknown. The emergency medicine (EM) milestones provide a standardized framework for longitudinal resident assessment, allowing for analysis of resident performance across all years and programs at a scope and level of detail never previously possible. Objective To compare faculty-observed training milestone attainment of male vs female residency training Design, Setting, and Participants This multicenter, longitudinal, retrospective cohort study took place at 8 community and academic EM training programs across the United States from July 1, 2013, to July 1, 2015, using a real-time, mobile-based, direct-observation evaluation tool. The study examined 33 456 direct-observation subcompetency evaluations of 359 EM residents by 285 faculty members. Main Outcomes and Measures Milestone attainment for male and female EM residents as observed by male and female faculty throughout residency and analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression modeling. Results A total of 33 456 direct-observation evaluations were collected from 359 EM residents (237 men [66.0%] and 122 women [34.0%]) by 285 faculty members (194 men [68.1%] and 91 women [31.9%]) during the study period. Female and male residents achieved similar milestone levels during the first year of residency. However, the rate of milestone attainment was 12.7% (0.07 levels per year) higher for male residents through all of residency (95% CI, 0.04-0.09). By graduation, men scored approximately 0.15 milestone levels higher than women, which is equivalent to 3 to 4 months of additional training, given that the average resident gains approximately 0.52 levels per year using our model (95% CI, 0.49-0.54). No statistically significant differences in scores were found based on faculty evaluator gender

  16. Milestones Towards Hot CMC Structures for Operational Space Rentry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hald, H.; Weihs, H.; Reimer, T.

    2002-01-01

    Hot structures made of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for space reentry vehicles play a key role regarding feasibility of advanced and reusable future space transportation systems. Thus realization of applicable flight hardware concerning hot primary structures like a nose cap or body flaps and thermal protection systems (TPS) requires system competence w.r.t. sophisticated know how in material processing, manufacturing and qualification of structural components and in all aspects from process control, use of NDI techniques, arc jet testing, hot structure testing to flight concept validation. This goal has been achieved so far by DLR while following a dedicated development road map since more than a decade culminating at present in the supply of the nose cap system for NASA's X-38; the flight hardware has been installed successfully in October 2001. A number of unique hardware development milestones had to be achieved in the past to finally reach this level of system competence. It is the intention of this paper to highlight the most important technical issues and achievements from the essential projects and developments to finally provide a comprehensive insight into DLR's past and future development road map w.r.t. CMC hot structures for space reentry vehicles. Based on DLR's C/C-SiC material which is produced with the inhouse developed liquid silicon infiltration process (LSI) the development strategy first concentrated on basic material properties evaluation in various arc jet testing facilities. As soon as a basic understanding of oxidation and erosion mechanisms had been achieved further efforts concentrated on inflight verification of both materials and design concepts for hot structures. Consequently coated and uncoated C/C-SiC specimens were integrated into the ablative heat shield of Russian FOTON capsules and they were tested during two missions in 1992 and 1994. Following on, a hot structure experiment called CETEX which principally was a kind of a

  17. From engineering hydrology to Earth system science: milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2018-03-01

    Hydrology has undergone almost transformative changes over the past 50 years. Huge strides have been made in the transition from early empirical approaches to rigorous approaches based on the fluid mechanics of water movement on and below the land surface. However, progress has been hampered by problems posed by the presence of heterogeneity, including subsurface heterogeneity present at all scales. The inability to measure or map the heterogeneity everywhere prevented the development of balance equations and associated closure relations at the scales of interest, and has led to the virtual impasse we are presently in, in terms of development of physically based models needed for hydrologic predictions. An alternative to the mapping of heterogeneity everywhere is a new Earth system science view, which sees the heterogeneity as the end result of co-evolutionary hydrological, geomorphological, ecological, and pedological processes, each operating at a different rate, which help to shape the landscapes that we find in nature, including the heterogeneity that we do not readily see. The expectation is that instead of specifying exact details of the heterogeneity in our models, we can replace it (without loss of information) with the ecosystem function that they perform. Guided by this new Earth system science perspective, development of hydrologic science is now addressing new questions using novel holistic co-evolutionary approaches as opposed to the physical, fluid mechanics based reductionist approaches that we inherited from the recent past. In the emergent Anthropocene, the co-evolutionary view has expanded further to involve interactions and feedbacks with human-social processes as well. In this paper, I present my own perspective of key milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science from engineering hydrology to Earth system science, drawn from the work of several students and colleagues of mine, and discuss their implication for hydrologic observations

  18. The relationship between social play and developmental milestones in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    PubMed

    Heintz, Matthew R; Murray, Carson M; Markham, A Catherine; Pusey, Anne E; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2017-12-01

    Social play is common among many group-living animals, but the benefits are not well understood. Proposed benefits include increased muscle coordination as the result of increased locomotor versatility and development, and strengthened social bonds through interactions with like-aged individuals. In this study, we used 33 years of long-term behavioral data on infant chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to examine these potential benefits of social play, specifically how the percentage of time engaged in social play relates to motor and social developmental milestones. We predicted that infants who engaged in more social play would achieve motor and social milestones at younger ages. We found that individuals that spent more time engaging in social play achieved the motor milestones of riding dorsally and traveling independently at earlier ages. Additionally, we found that the amount of play was correlated with earlier ages for reaching the social milestones of spatial independence from mother, first grooming of non-maternal kin, and first observed mating attempt. This is the first study in great apes to demonstrate a relationship between play behavior and developmental milestones, supporting the hypotheses that play provides motor, and social benefits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mapping Residency Global Health Experiences to the ACGME Family Medicine Milestones.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Maureen O; Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Peila, Rita; Perez, Marco; Philippe, Neubert

    2017-07-01

    Global health (GH) experiences are a unique part of family medicine (FM) training that offer an opportunity for residents to demonstrate development across a multitude of the milestones recently implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The GH experience presents an opportunity for resident development, and including a component of written reflection can provide tangible evidence of development in areas that can be difficult to assess. A mixed methods approach was used to integrate quantitative (frequency) data with qualitative content from the written reflections of 12 of our FM residents who participated in GH experiences. Written reflections touched on each of the 22 milestones, although some milestones were noted more frequently than others. The most commonly identified milestones fell within the competency areas of systems-based practice, professionalism, and practice-based learning and improvement. Our qualitative approach allowed us to gain an appreciation of the unique experiences that demonstrated growth across the various milestones. We conclude that any program that offers GH experiences should incorporate some form of written reflection to maximize resident growth and offer evaluative faculty a window into that development.

  20. 2014 Report on the Milestones for the US National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Keith N; Aisen, Paul; Albert, Marilyn; Au, Rhoda; Corrada, Maria M; DeKosky, Steven; Drachman, David; Fillit, Howard; Gitlin, Laura; Haas, Magali; Herrup, Karl; Kawas, Claudia; Khachaturian, Ara S; Khachaturian, Zaven S; Klunk, William; Knopman, David; Kukull, Walter A; Lamb, Bruce; Logsdon, Rebecca G; Maruff, Paul; Mesulam, Marsel; Mobley, William; Mohs, Richard; Morgan, David; Nixon, Ralph A; Paul, Steven; Petersen, Ronald; Plassman, Brenda; Potter, William; Reiman, Eric; Reisberg, Barry; Sano, Mary; Schindler, Rachel; Schneider, Lon S; Snyder, Peter J; Sperling, Reisa A; Yaffe, Kristine; Bain, Lisa J; Thies, William H; Carrillo, Maria C

    2014-10-01

    With increasing numbers of people with Alzheimer's and other dementias across the globe, many countries have developed national plans to deal with the resulting challenges. In the United States, the National Alzheimer's Project Act, signed into law in 2011, required the creation of such a plan with annual updates thereafter. Pursuant to this, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease in 2012, including an ambitious research goal of preventing and effectively treating Alzheimer's disease by 2025. To guide investments, activities, and the measurement of progress toward achieving this 2025 goal, in its first annual plan update (2013) HHS also incorporated into the plan a set of short, medium and long-term milestones. HHS further committed to updating these milestones on an ongoing basis to account for progress and setbacks, and emerging opportunities and obstacles. To assist HHS as it updates these milestones, the Alzheimer's Association convened a National Plan Milestone Workgroup consisting of scientific experts representing all areas of Alzheimer's and dementia research. The workgroup evaluated each milestone and made recommendations to ensure that they collectively constitute an adequate work plan for reaching the goal of preventing and effectively treating Alzheimer's by 2025. This report presents these Workgroup recommendations. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ATDM Rover Milestone Report STDA02-1 (FY2017 Q4)

    SciT

    Larsen, Matt; Laney, Dan E.

    We have successfully completed the MS-4/Y1 Milestone STDA02-1 for the Rover Project. This document describes the milestone and provides an overview of the technical details and artifacts of the milestone. This milestone is focused on building a GPU accelerated ray tracing package capable of doing multi-group radiography, both back-lit and with self-emission as well as serving as a volume rendering plot in VisIt and other VTK-based visualization tools. The long term goal is a package with in-situ capability, but for this first version integration into VisIt is the primary goal. Milestone Execution Plan: Create API for GPU Raytracer that supportsmore » multi-group transport (up to hundreds of groups); Implement components into one or more of: VTK-m, VisIt, and a new library/package implementation to be hosted on LLNL Bitbucket (initially), before releasing to the wider community.« less

  2. A survey of early Virginia road stones : sign rocks, milestones, and related objects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    A Virginia law of 1738 required that all crossroads be marked by posts of directions. Most of these signs were made of wood and have not survived. But some roads in Virginia featured more permanent forms of markers: directional signs and mileposts ma...

  3. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth / For ... may recommend a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  4. Common Ground on Curbing Campus Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Robert L.; Wood, Mark D.; Cohen, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the University of Rhode Island (URI) had a reputation as the number one party school in America, and data showed that the number of URI students engaging in binge drinking was significantly higher than the national average. In order to salvage its reputation and the health of its students, administrators undertook a campus…

  5. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  6. Alcohol Drinking Onset: A Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prause, JoAnn; Dooley, David; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) is associated with adult alcohol misuse, but the accuracy of ADO is unclear. Reliability of self-reported ADO was studied in two panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. For the Adult sample (n = 6,215), the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.36. Older respondents had higher reliabilities…

  7. Milestones in the Success of Nursing as an Emerging Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Phyllis R.

    1990-01-01

    Six periods in the evolution of nursing are described: the early period (1860-1900); focus on practice, service, and specialization (1900-49); initiation of research (1950-59); research expansion and theory initiation (1960-79); the integration of practice, research, and theory (1980-89); and the near future (1990-2000). Nursing administration is…

  8. Tri-Lab Co-Design Milestone: In-Depth Performance Portability Analysis of Improved Integrated Codes on Advanced Architecture.

    SciT

    Hoekstra, Robert J.; Hammond, Simon David; Richards, David

    2017-09-01

    This milestone is a tri-lab deliverable supporting ongoing Co-Design efforts impacting applications in the Integrated Codes (IC) program element Advanced Technology Development and Mitigation (ATDM) program element. In FY14, the trilabs looked at porting proxy application to technologies of interest for ATS procurements. In FY15, a milestone was completed evaluating proxy applications in multiple programming models and in FY16, a milestone was completed focusing on the migration of lessons learned back into production code development. This year, the co-design milestone focuses on extracting the knowledge gained and/or code revisions back into production applications.

  9. Code Verification Capabilities and Assessments in Support of ASC V&V Level 2 Milestone #6035

    SciT

    Doebling, Scott William; Budzien, Joanne Louise; Ferguson, Jim Michael

    This document provides a summary of the code verification activities supporting the FY17 Level 2 V&V milestone entitled “Deliver a Capability for V&V Assessments of Code Implementations of Physics Models and Numerical Algorithms in Support of Future Predictive Capability Framework Pegposts.” The physics validation activities supporting this milestone are documented separately. The objectives of this portion of the milestone are: 1) Develop software tools to support code verification analysis; 2) Document standard definitions of code verification test problems; and 3) Perform code verification assessments (focusing on error behavior of algorithms). This report and a set of additional standalone documents servemore » as the compilation of results demonstrating accomplishment of these objectives.« less

  10. 2016 CSSE L3 Milestone: Deliver In Situ to XTD End Users

    SciT

    Patchett, John M.; Nouanesengsy, Boonthanome; Fasel, Patricia Kroll

    This report summarizes the activities in FY16 toward satisfying the CSSE 2016 L3 milestone to deliver in situ to XTD end users of EAP codes. The Milestone was accomplished with ongoing work to ensure the capability is maintained and developed. Two XTD end users used the in situ capability in Rage. A production ParaView capability was created in the HPC and Desktop environment. Two new capabilities were added to ParaView in support of an EAP in situ workflow. We also worked with various support groups at the lab to deploy a production ParaView in the LANL environment for both desktopmore » and HPC systems. . In addition, for this milestone, we moved two VTK based filters from research objects into the production ParaView code to support a variety of standard visualization pipelines for our EAP codes.« less

  11. Health-related quality of life, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in young adults with bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Limperg, P F; Haverman, L; Maurice-Stam, H; Coppens, M; Valk, C; Kruip, M J H A; Eikenboom, J; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of bleeding disorders improved in the last decades. However, the effect of growing up with bleeding disorders on developmental, emotional, and social aspects is understudied. Therefore, this study assesses HRQOL, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in Dutch young adults (YA) with bleeding disorders compared to peers. Ninety-five YA (18-30 years) with bleeding disorders (78 men; mean 24.7 years, SD 3.5) and 17 women (mean 25.1 years, SD 3.8) participated and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult version, the Course of Life Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Differences between patients with bleeding disorders and their peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann-Whitney U tests. YA men with bleeding disorders report a slightly lower HRQOL on the total scale, physical functioning, and school/work functioning in comparison to healthy peers (small effect sizes). YA men with severe hemophilia report more problems on the physical functioning scale than non-severe hemophilia. YA men with bleeding disorders achieved more psychosexual developmental milestones than peers, but show a delay in 'paid jobs, during middle and/or high school.' A somewhat lower self-esteem was found in YA men with bleeding disorders in comparison to peers (small effect size). For YA women with bleeding disorders, no differences were found on any of the outcomes in comparison to peers. This study demonstrates some impairments in HRQOL and self-esteem in YA men with bleeding disorders. By monitoring HRQOL, problems can be identified early, especially with regard to their physical and professional/school functioning.

  12. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legal Drinking Age Dangers of Teen Drinking Alcohol Laws by State Stopping Teens’ Easy Access to Alcohol ... drinking is not a serious problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still ...

  13. Level-2 Milestone 3244: Deploy Dawn ID Machine for Initial Science Runs

    SciT

    Fox, D

    2009-09-21

    This report documents the delivery, installation, integration, testing, and acceptance of the Dawn system, ASC L2 milestone 3244: Deploy Dawn ID Machine for Initial Science Runs, due September 30, 2009. The full text of the milestone is included in Attachment 1. The description of the milestone is: This milestone will be a result of work started three years ago with the planning for a multi-petaFLOPS UQ-focused platform (Sequoia) and will be satisfied when a smaller ID version of the final system is delivered, installed, integrated, tested, accepted, and deployed at LLNL for initial science runs in support of SSP mission.more » The deliverable for this milestone will be a LA petascale computing system (named Dawn) usable for code development and scaling necessary to ensure effective use of a final Sequoia platform (expected in 2011-2012), and for urgent SSP program needs. Allocation and scheduling of Dawn as an LA system will likely be performed informally, similar to what has been used for BlueGene/L. However, provision will be made to allow for dedicated access times for application scaling studies across the entire Dawn resource. The milestone was completed on April 1, 2009, when science runs began running on the Dawn system. The following sections describe the Dawn system architecture, current status, installation and integration time line, and testing and acceptance process. A project plan is included as Attachment 2. Attachment 3 is a letter certifying the handoff of the system to a nuclear weapons stockpile customer. Attachment 4 presents the results of science runs completed on the system.« less

  14. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  15. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…

  16. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  17. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  18. Unregulated Drinking Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Doug

    2018-02-01

    (1)One in 9 Americans gets his or her drinking water from a private well. (2) An estimated 20 percent of private wells have contaminants above Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards.(3) Disease outbreaks from private wells are increasing, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  19. Drinking water microbial myths.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  20. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  1. A pilot study of orthopaedic resident self-assessment using a milestones’ survey just prior to milestones implementation

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kendall E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To pilot test if Orthopaedic Surgery residents could self-assess their performance using newly created milestones, as defined by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education.  Methods In June 2012, an email was sent to Program Directors and administrative coordinators of the154 accredited Orthopaedic Surgery Programs, asking them to send their residents a link to an online survey. The survey was adapted from the Orthopaedic Surgery Milestone Project. Completed surveys were aggregated in an anonymous, confidential database. SAS 9.3 was used to perform the analyses. Results Responses from 71 residents were analyzed. First and second year residents indicated through self-assessment that they had substantially achieved Level 1 and Level 2 milestones. Third year residents reported they had substantially achieved 30/41, and fourth year residents, all Level 3 milestones. Fifth year, graduating residents, reported they had substantially achieved 17 Level 4 milestones, and were extremely close on another 15. No milestone was rated at Level 5, the maximum possible.  Earlier in training, Patient Care and Medical Knowledge milestones were rated lower than the milestones reflecting the other four competencies of Practice Based Learning and Improvement, Systems Based Practice, Professionalism, and Interpersonal Communication. The gap was closed by the fourth year. Conclusions Residents were able to successfully self-assess using the 41 Orthopaedic Surgery milestones. Respondents’ rate improved proficiency over time. Graduating residents report they have substantially, or close to substantially, achieved all Level 4 milestonesMilestone self-assessment may be a useful tool as one component of a program’s overall performance assessment strategy. PMID:26752012

  2. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  3. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    relevant to drinking water issues. We provide free and low-cost publications, products, databases , referrals, and more. Free Technical Assistance Calls The NDWC can answer common questions involving issues system troubleshooting. Call our Engineers and technical assistance specialists toll-free at (304) 293

  4. Reducing Underage and Young Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health. PMID:23579934

  5. From Kissing to Coitus? Sex-of-Partner Differences in the Sexual Milestone Achievement of Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiler, Andrew P.; Frankel, Loren B. W.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific information regarding normative patterns of young men's sexual behavior is insufficient, especially regarding the impact of sex of partner. We explored the age at which 255 young adult men achieved several milestones (e.g., first kiss, manual-genital contact, intercourse) as well as the sequence of milestone achievement and stability in…

  6. 20 CFR 411.560 - Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (including a State VR agency acting as an EN) to receive payment based on the same milestone or outcome. If the beneficiary has assigned the ticket to more than one EN (or State VR agency acting as an EN) at different times, and more than one EN (or State VR agency) requests payment for the same milestone, outcome...

  7. 20 CFR 411.560 - Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (including a State VR agency acting as an EN) to receive payment based on the same milestone or outcome. If the beneficiary has assigned the ticket to more than one EN (or State VR agency acting as an EN) at different times, and more than one EN (or State VR agency) requests payment for the same milestone, outcome...

  8. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  9. Effects of Family and Friend Support on LGB Youths' Mental Health and Sexual Orientation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilo, Guy; Savaya, Riki

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social support components and providers on mental health and sexual orientation (SO) milestones of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths. Data were collected on 461 self-identified LGB adolescents and young adults. Family acceptance and support yielded the strongest positive effect on self-acceptance of SO,…

  10. Analyzing Milestones in Smoking Cessation: Illustration in a Nicotine Patch Trial in Adult Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiffman, Saul; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Dang, Qianyu; Paton, Stephanie M.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2006-01-01

    Tests of addiction treatments seldom reveal where treatment exercises its effect (i.e., promoting initial abstinence, preventing lapses, and/or impeding progression from lapse to relapse). The authors illustrate analyses distinguishing effects on these milestones in a randomized trial of high-dose nicotine patch (35 mg; n = 188) versus placebo (n…

  11. Puberty: Maturation, Timing and Adjustment, and Sexual Identity Developmental Milestones among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…

  12. Chronology of Milestones for Libraries and Adult Lifelong Learning and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCook, Kathleen de la Pena; Barber, Peggy

    This chronology highlights milestones for libraries and adult lifelong learning and literacy from 1924-2001, including the following events: William S. Learned's "The American Public Library and the Diffusion of Knowledge" is published (1924); establishment of the ALA (American Library Association) Adult Education Section (1946); the…

  13. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Developmental Milestones and Movement: Results from the Gemini Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lee; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fildes, Alison; López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Variability in the timing of infant developmental milestones is poorly understood. We used a twin analysis to estimate genetic and environmental influences on motor development and activity levels in infancy. Method: Data were from the Gemini Study, a twin birth cohort of 2,402 families with twins born in the United Kingdom in 2007.…

  14. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  15. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  16. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  17. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  18. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  19. 20 CFR 411.540 - How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones? 411.540 Section 411.540 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.540 How are the...

  20. 20 CFR 411.540 - How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones? 411.540 Section 411.540 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.540 How are the...

  1. 20 CFR 411.535 - Under what circumstances will milestones be paid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances will milestones be paid? 411.535 Section 411.535 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.535 Under what circumstances will...

  2. 20 CFR 411.540 - How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones? 411.540 Section 411.540 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.540 How are the...

  3. 20 CFR 411.540 - How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones? 411.540 Section 411.540 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.540 How are the...

  4. 20 CFR 411.540 - How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are the payment amounts calculated for each of the milestones? 411.540 Section 411.540 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.540 How are the...

  5. Drinking reasons, drinking locations, and automobile accident involvement among collegians.

    PubMed

    Pang, M G; Wells-Parker, E; McMillen, D L

    1989-03-01

    Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of five drinking reason factors to drinking locations and consumption variables within a random sample of drinking college students surveyed by telephone. Hypotheses relating self-reported accident involvement after drinking and two specific reason factors - Opposite Sex/Drunkenness and Pleasure - were tested. Both Pleasure and Opposite Sex/Drunkenness were directly related to quantity consumed and to drinking in several away-from-home locations. Opposite Sex/Drunkenness reasons and frequency of drinking in cars significantly contributed to identifying males who reported accident involvement following drinking.

  6. Adaptation and Agency in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    This article condenses the milestones of a long project. The ambition of the project has been to seek a balanced view of early childhood education, where both the adaptive and agentive nature of action is considered. A model based on the relationships between perception and environmental change serves as the project's theoretical foundation. The…

  7. [Studies on markers of exposure and early effect in areas with arsenic pollution: methods and results of the project SEpiAs. Epidemiological studies on population exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentration in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and its inorganic compounds are classified as human carcinogens. Several epidemiological studies conducted in areas of the world characterized by high arsenic concentration in drinking water, even up to 3,000 μg/l, report associations between arsenic exposure and skin, bladder, lung, liver and kidney cancer as well as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and reproductive and developmental effects. Since general population is not exposed to these high arsenic concentrations in the last years attention focused on adverse health effects that low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations (0-150 μg/l) in drinking water could induce. The World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 μg/l for arsenic in drinking water. Almost all epidemiological studies conducted on populations exposed to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water are limited due to problems arising from both individual exposure assessment and low subjects number. The aim of the present review is to collect literature-based evidences regarding adverse health effects associated with exposure to low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water (10-150 μg/l) in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the health outcomes that such exposure can have on general population.

  8. Milestone Ratings and Supervisory Role Categorizations Swim Together, but is the Water Muddy?

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Bartlett, Kathleen W; Elliott, Sean P; Michelson, Catherine; Sharma, Tanvi; Garfunkel, Lynn C; King, Beth; Schwartz, Alan

    2018-06-17

    This single specialty, multi-institutional study aimed to determine: 1) the association between milestone ratings for individual competencies and average milestone ratings (AMRs) and 2) the association between AMRs and recommended supervisory role categorizations made by individual clinical competency committee (CCC) members. During the 2015-16 academic year, CCC members at 14 pediatric residencies reported milestone ratings for 21 competencies and recommended supervisory role categories (may not supervise, may supervise in some settings, may supervise in all settings) for residents they reviewed. An exploratory factor analysis of competencies was conducted. The associations between individual competencies, the AMR, and supervisory role categorizations were determined by computing bivariate correlations. The relationship between AMRs and recommended supervisory role categorizations was examined using an ordinal mixed logistic regression model. 68/155 CCC members completed both milestone assignments and supervision categorizations for 451 residents. Factor analysis of individual competencies controlling for clustering of residents in raters and sites resulted in a single-factor solution (cumulative variance 0.75). All individual competencies had large positive correlations with the AMR (correlation coefficient: 0.84-0.93), except for two professionalism competencies (Prof1: 0.63 and Prof4: 0.65). When combined across training year and time points, the AMR and supervisory role categorization had a moderately positive correlation (0.56). This exploratory study identified a modest correlation between average milestone ratings and supervisory role categorization. Convergence of competencies on a single factor deserves further exploration, with possible rater effects warranting attention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Childhood physical punishment and the onset of drinking problems: evidence from metropolitan China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G.; Anthony, James C.; Huang, Yuequin; Lee, Sing; Liu, Zhaorui; He, Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence in support of a suspected causal association linking childhood physical punishment (CPP) and later alcoholic beverage-related disturbances has been found in metropolitan China. Here, the focus shifts to the CPP association with the estimated risk of starting to drink, having the first drinking problem, and transitioning from first drink to the first drinking problem. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys-metropolitan China study, with representative samples of adult household residents living in two metropolitan cities, Beijing and Shanghai. Recalled information was available for early life experiences (including CPP, other childhood adversities, and parental alcohol and drug problems), as well as the onset age of drinking and drinking problems. Survival analyses were used to estimate the hazard ratio. A structural equation modeling approach was used to control for other inter-correlated childhood adversities. Results Cox proportional hazards modeling discloses statistically robust associations linking CPP with drinking and drinking problems, as well as more rapid transitions from first drink to first drinking problem, even after accounting for other childhood adversities and parental drinking problems. These associations cannot be attributed to a more general noxious family environment. Conclusions These results lay a foundation for future experimental studies on the possible causal relationship linking CPP with the onset of drinking problems and the transition from drinking to drinking problems. PMID:21474254

  10. Risks of underage drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  11. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  12. Longitudinal effects of age at onset and first drinking situations on problem drinking.

    PubMed

    Warner, Lynn A; White, Helene R

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe aspects of the first alcohol-use experience, and examine the predictive relations among age of first use, context of alcohol use initiation, and problem drinking with and without controls for psychosocial risk factors. Data were from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project, a five-wave, prospective study of substance-use behaviors in a community sample. Respondents, who were first interviewed at age 12 (1979-81) and most recently at age 30 or 31 (1999-2000) (N=371), reported on their first drinking experience, and on a range of known risk factors for alcohol abuse. Most alcohol initiation occurred during a family gathering. Regardless of initiation context, youth who drank at an early age were more likely than youth who initiated later to become problem drinkers, although the risk was relatively greater for the youth who first drank outside a family gathering. Based on multivariate logistic regressions, feeling drunk at initiation was the only onset-related variable significantly associated with problem drinking; other significant risks factors included male gender, delinquency, and family history of alcoholism. Because most initiation occurs at a family gathering, alcoholism prevention research may benefit from examining the role that drinking in family contexts could play with regard to socializing young drinkers to less risky drinking behaviors in adulthood. In particular, further research focusing on the subjective effects experienced by youth when they first drink may be merited.

  13. From Theory to Practice: Utilizing Competency-based Milestones to Assess Professional Growth and Development in the Foundational Science Blocks of a Pre-Clerkship Medical School Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pettepher, Cathleen C; Lomis, Kimberly D; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Physicians-in-training require skills and attitudes beyond medical knowledge in order to mature into successful clinicians. However, because assessments in pre-clerkship curricula historically have focused almost exclusively on medical knowledge, faculty contributions to early student development often have been limited. To address this challenge and enhance student progress, we re-designed our pre-clerkship curriculum to include settings in which diverse facets of student performance could be observed and fostered. Concurrently, we transitioned to an assessment strategy focused on competency-based milestones. The implementation of this strategy has allowed pre-clerkship science faculty to provide early-stage students with rich holistic feedback designed to stimulate their professional growth.

  14. From Theory to Practice: Utilizing Competency-based Milestones to Assess Professional Growth and Development in the Foundational Science Blocks of a Pre-Clerkship Medical School Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pettepher, Cathleen C.; Lomis, Kimberly D.; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Physicians-in-training require skills and attitudes beyond medical knowledge in order to mature into successful clinicians. However, because assessments in pre-clerkship curricula historically have focused almost exclusively on medical knowledge, faculty contributions to early student development often have been limited. To address this challenge and enhance student progress, we re-designed our pre-clerkship curriculum to include settings in which diverse facets of student performance could be observed and fostered. Concurrently, we transitioned to an assessment strategy focused on competency-based milestones. The implementation of this strategy has allowed pre-clerkship science faculty to provide early-stage students with rich holistic feedback designed to stimulate their professional growth. PMID:27752401

  15. Parents' drinking motives and problem drinking predict their children's drinking motives, alcohol use and substance misuse.

    PubMed

    Marino, Claudia; Moss, Antony C; Vieno, Alessio; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2018-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the direct and indirect influence of parents' drinking motives and problem drinking on their children's drinking motives, alcohol use and substance misuse. Cross-sectional analysis of parent and child drinking patterns and motives, derived from the nationally representative Drinkaware Monitor panel survey. The sample comprised a total of 148 couples of parents and child. Path analysis revealed that children's alcohol use and substance misuse were influenced by their own drinking motives and parents' problem drinking. Parents' conformity motives were linked to their children's conformity motives. Finally, parental drinking problems mediated the effect of their coping motives on their childrens' alcohol use and substance misuse. In conclusion, parental drinking styles relate to their children's alcohol use and substance misuse through problem drinking and drinking motives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [The occurrence of aeromonads in a drinking water supply system].

    PubMed

    Stelzer, W; Jacob, J; Feuerpfeil, I; Schulze, E

    1992-01-01

    This study concerns with the occurrence of aeromonads, coliforms and colony counts in a drinking water supply. Aeromonas contents were detected in the range of 15.0 to greater than 2,400/100 ml in the raw water samples of the man made lake. After the drinking water treatment process including fast sand filtration and chlorination aeromonads indicated in comparison to total coliforms and colony counts early and significant an after-growth of maximal 240 aeromonads/100 ml in the peripheric drinking water supply. Drinking water samples characterized by a higher water temperature resulted in the highest contents of aeromonads. The Aeromonas-Species Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated most frequently with 56.9 and 37.4 percent, respectively. The role of aeromonads as an indicator of after-growth in drinking water supplies is discussed.

  17. Completion of Level 4 Milestone M4AT-15OR2301039 for the Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements Work Package AT-15OR230103

    SciT

    Britton Jr, Charles L.

    This memorandum constitutes our September 2015 level 4 milestone for the project entitled “Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements” and satisfies the Milestone/Activity (Conclude HFIR field demonstration of JNT prototype). The progress summary describes the work performed to complete the subject milestone.

  18. Zinc and iron supplementation on motor and language milestone scores of infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Siegel, Emily H.; Patel, Shivani; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Tielsch, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of zinc and iron-folic acid supplementation on motor and language milestones in Nepali children. Methods A total of 544 children 4–17 months old residing in Ishwarpur, Nepal were randomized to receive placebo, iron-folic acid, zinc and zinc plus iron-folic acid daily. Data were collected at baseline and at three month intervals for one year. Main effects of zinc and iron folic-acid supplementation were estimated for motor and language milestones. We modeled crude and adjusted mean cumulative changes in scores between visits 1 and 5, and adjusted rates-of-change. Results Adjusted differences in motor milestone scores between visits 1 and 5 and rates-of-change were not significantly different for zinc and non-zinc groups (adj. β=−0.7, 95% CI: −1.4, 0.01; adj. β=−0.1, 95% CI:−0.5, 0.3, respectively). Motor milestones in children receiving and not receiving iron supplements were not significantly different (adj. β=0.1, 95% CI:−0.7, 0.8 from visit 1 to 5; adj. β=0.1, 95% CI:−0.3, 0.5 for rate-of-change). Children receiving zinc had a 0.8 lower mean crude change in language score between visits 1 and 5 compared to children not receiving zinc (95% CI −1.3,−0.3), but significance was lost after adjustment (adj. β=−0.2, 95% CI:−0.6, 0.2, comparing visits 1 to 5; β=−0.1, 95% CI:−0.3, 0.2 for rate-of-change). We observed no significant difference in motor or language milestone scores due to iron supplementation.. Conclusion After one year, neither zinc nor iron-folic acid supplementation in Nepali children improved attainment of motor or language milestones. PMID:23298972

  19. A Milestone-Based Evaluation System-The Cure for Grade Inflation?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lindsay E; Hoffman, Rebecca L; Morris, Jon B; Williams, Noel N; Malachesky, Mark; Huth, Laura E; Kelz, Rachel R

    2015-01-01

    Controversy exists over the optimal use of the Milestones in the process of resident evaluation and feedback. We sought to evaluate the performance of a Milestones-based feedback system in comparison to a traditional model. The traditional evaluation system (TES) consisted of a generic 16-item survey using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5, and a free-text comments section. The Milestones-based evaluation system (MBES) was launched in July 2014, ranging from 0 to 4. Individual milestones were mapped to rotations based on resident educational goals by postgraduate year (PGY). The MBES consisted of a survey with a maximum of 7 items, followed by a free-text comment section. Within each evaluation system, an overall composite score was calculated for each categorical general surgical resident. To scale the 2 systems for comparison, TES scores were adjusted downward by 1 point. Descriptive statistics were performed. Univariate analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A test for trend across PGY was used for the MBES only. In the traditional system, the median score was 3.66 (range: 3.2-4.0). There was no meaningful difference in the median score by PGY. In the new system, the median score was 2.69 (range: 1.5-3.7, p < 0.01). The median score differed across PGY and increased by PGY of training (p < 0.01). There was an increase in differences between median scores by PGY. On using the milestones to facilitate faculty evaluation of resident knowledge and skill, there was a trend in increasing score by PGY of training. In the MBES, scores could be used to better discriminate resident skill and knowledge levels and resulted in improved differentiation in scoring by PGY. The use of the milestones as a basis for evaluation enabled the program to provide more meaningful feedback to residents and represents an improvement in surgical education. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. New England Drinking Water Program | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  1. Evaluation of Practice Trials to Increase Self-Drinking in a Child with a Feeding Disorder.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Milnes, Suzanne M

    2017-06-01

    Self-drinking is an important skill for children to acquire as they transition from infancy to early childhood; however, the literature is limited (e.g., Collins, Gast, Wolery, Holcombe, & Leatherby, 1991; Peterson, Volkert, & Zeleny, 2015). We manipulated the consequences associated with self-drinking relative to those associated with being fed along the dimension of response effort. Results demonstrated that self-drinking increased when the child could either choose to self-feed one drink or be fed one drink and 5 practice trials with an empty cup.

  2. Milestones and entrustable professional activities: The key to practically translating competencies for interprofessional education?

    PubMed

    Wagner, Susan J; Reeves, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education and practice have become foundational for developing interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional collaboration. There has been a plethora of competencies developed in these areas recently, both at individual institutions and nationally; however, their effective integration and thus potential has not been fully realized educationally. Milestones and entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are new concepts and assessment approaches from medical education that provide a way to functionally use and maximize competencies to ensure that competency is attained. They are applicable to learning activities both within the classroom and the clinic, as well as to lifelong learning. This paper defines and describes milestones and EPAs, considers the importance of their application to IPE, and summarizes a future research project that will identify EPAs for an IPE curriculum.

  3. Milestones in software engineering and knowledge engineering history: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    del Águila, Isabel M; Palma, José; Túnez, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of the historical evolution of software engineering, intertwining it with the history of knowledge engineering because "those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." This retrospective represents a further step forward to understanding the current state of both types of engineerings; history has also positive experiences; some of them we would like to remember and to repeat. Two types of engineerings had parallel and divergent evolutions but following a similar pattern. We also define a set of milestones that represent a convergence or divergence of the software development methodologies. These milestones do not appear at the same time in software engineering and knowledge engineering, so lessons learned in one discipline can help in the evolution of the other one.

  4. Creating a culture of professional development: a milestone pathway tool for registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    The nursing shortage continues to be a significant threat to health care. Creating a culture of professional development in health care institutions is one way to combat this shortage. Professional development refers to a constant commitment to maintain one's knowledge and skill base. Increasing professional development opportunities in the health care setting has been shown to affect nurse retention and satisfaction. Several approaches have been developed to increase professional development among nurses. However, for the most part, these are "one size fits all" approaches that direct nurses to progress in lock step fashion in skill and knowledge acquisition within a specialty. This article introduces a milestone pathway tool for registered nurses designed to enhance professional development that is unique to the individual nurse and the specific nursing unit. This tool provides a unit-specific concept map, a milestone pathway template, and a personal professional development plan. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Milestones in Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering History: A Comparative Review

    PubMed Central

    del Águila, Isabel M.; Palma, José; Túnez, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of the historical evolution of software engineering, intertwining it with the history of knowledge engineering because “those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” This retrospective represents a further step forward to understanding the current state of both types of engineerings; history has also positive experiences; some of them we would like to remember and to repeat. Two types of engineerings had parallel and divergent evolutions but following a similar pattern. We also define a set of milestones that represent a convergence or divergence of the software development methodologies. These milestones do not appear at the same time in software engineering and knowledge engineering, so lessons learned in one discipline can help in the evolution of the other one. PMID:24624046

  6. Successful Completion of FY18/Q1 ASC L2 Milestone 6355: Electrical Analysis Calibration Workflow Capability Demonstration.

    SciT

    Copps, Kevin D.

    The Sandia Analysis Workbench (SAW) project has developed and deployed a production capability for SIERRA computational mechanics analysis workflows. However, the electrical analysis workflow capability requirements have only been demonstrated in early prototype states, with no real capability deployed for analysts’ use. This milestone aims to improve the electrical analysis workflow capability (via SAW and related tools) and deploy it for ongoing use. We propose to focus on a QASPR electrical analysis calibration workflow use case. We will include a number of new capabilities (versus today’s SAW), such as: 1) support for the XYCE code workflow component, 2) data managementmore » coupled to electrical workflow, 3) human-in-theloop workflow capability, and 4) electrical analysis workflow capability deployed on the restricted (and possibly classified) network at Sandia. While far from the complete set of capabilities required for electrical analysis workflow over the long term, this is a substantial first step toward full production support for the electrical analysts.« less

  7. The Decision to Incision Curriculum: Teaching Preoperative Skills and Achieving Level 1 Milestones.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Bethany; Morgan, Helen; Kobernik, Emily; Kamdar, Neil; Curran, Diana; Marzano, David; Hammoud, Maya

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a preoperative skills curriculum, and to assess and document competence in associated Obstetrics and Gynecology Level 1 Milestones. The Decision to Incision curriculum was developed by a team of medical educators with the goal of teaching and evaluating 5 skills pertinent to Milestone 1: Preoperative consent, patient positioning, Foley catheter placement, surgical scrub, and preoperative time-out. Competence, overall skill performance, and knowledge were assessed by evaluator rating using checklists before and after the educational intervention. Differences between preintervention and postintervention skills performance and competence were assessed using Wilcoxon rank test and Fisher exact test, respectively. Clinical Simulation Center at an academic medical center. Overall, 29 fourth year medical students matriculating into Obstetrics and Gynecology residencies. The proportion of participants meeting Milestone competence significantly increased in all 5 skills, with competence achieved in 95.6% (95% CI: 92.1-99.0) of posttest skills assessments. Median overall performance also significantly improved for all 5 skills, with 83.6% (95% CI: 77.3-89.9) earning scores of 4 out of 5 or greater on the posttest. For knowledge testing, the proportion of correct responses significantly increased for both topics evaluated, from 45.2% to 99.7% (p < 0.0001) for positioning and from 32.8% to 83.1% (p < 0.0001) for time-out. The decision to incision curriculum significantly improved preoperative skills, including skills that may be required on day 1 of residency. This curriculum also facilitated achievement and documentation of competence in multiple Milestones. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apollo experience report the command and service module milestone review process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brendle, H. L.; York, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sequence of the command and service module milestone review process is given, and the Customer Acceptance Readiness Review and Flight Readiness Review plans are presented. Contents of the System Summary Acceptance Documents for the two formal spacecraft reviews are detailed, and supplemental data required for presentation to the review boards are listed. Typical forms, correspondence, supporting documentation, and minutes of a board meeting are included.

  9. Milestone-compatible neurology resident assessments: A role for observable practice activities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lyell K; Dimberg, Elliot L; Boes, Christopher J; Eggers, Scott D Z; Dodick, David W; Cutsforth-Gregory, Jeremy K; Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Capobianco, David J

    2015-06-02

    Beginning in 2014, US neurology residency programs were required to report each trainee's educational progression within 29 neurology Milestone competency domains. Trainee assessment systems will need to be adapted to inform these requirements. The primary aims of this study were to validate neurology resident assessment content using observable practice activities (OPAs) and to develop assessment formats easily translated to the Neurology Milestones. A modified Delphi technique was used to establish consensus perceptions of importance of 73 neurology OPAs among neurology educators and trainees at 3 neurology residency programs. A content validity score (CVS) was derived for each neurology OPA, with scores ≥4.0 determined in advance to indicate sufficient content validity. The mean CVS for all OPAs was 4.4 (range 3.5-5.0). Fifty-seven (78%) OPAs had a CVS ≥4.0, leaving 16 (22%) below the pre-established threshold for content validity. Trainees assigned a higher importance to individual OPAs (mean CVS 4.6) compared to faculty (mean 4.4, p = 0.016), but the effect size was small (η(2) = 0.10). There was no demonstrated effect of length of education experience on perceived importance of neurology OPAs (p = 0.23). Two sample resident assessment formats were developed, one using neurology OPAs alone and another using a combination of neurology OPAs and the Neurology Milestones. This study provides neurology training programs with content validity evidence for items to include in resident assessments, and sample assessment formats that directly translate to the Neurology Milestones. Length of education experience has little effect on perceptions of neurology OPA importance. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Yang-Mills Theory at 60: Milestones, Landmarks and Interesting Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Ling-Lie

    On the auspicious occasion of celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Yang-Mills theory, and Professor Yang's many other important contributions to physics and mathematics, I will highlight the impressive milestones and landmarks that have been established in the last 60 years, as well as some interesting questions that are worthy of answers from future researches. The paper is written (without equations) for the interest of non-scientists as well as of scientists.

  11. The Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot: Development of Workplace-Based Assessment Content, Instruments, and Processes.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Patricia J; Margolis, Melissa; Poynter, Sue E; Chaffinch, Christa; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Turner, Teri L; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda; Lockridge, Robin; Clyman, Stephen G; Schwartz, Alan

    2016-05-01

    To report on the development of content and user feedback regarding the assessment process and utility of the workplace-based assessment instruments of the Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot (PMAP). One multisource feedback instrument and two structured clinical observation instruments were developed and refined by experts in pediatrics and assessment to provide evidence for nine competencies based on the Pediatrics Milestones (PMs) and chosen to inform residency program faculty decisions about learners' readiness to serve as pediatric interns in the inpatient setting. During the 2012-2013 PMAP study, 18 U.S. pediatric residency programs enrolled interns and subinterns. Faculty, residents, nurses, and other observers used the instruments to assess learner performance through direct observation during a one-month rotation. At the end of the rotation, data were aggregated for each learner, milestone levels were assigned using a milestone classification form, and feedback was provided to learners. Learners and site leads were surveyed and/or interviewed about their experience as participants. Across the sites, 2,338 instruments assessing 239 learners were completed by 630 unique observers. Regarding end-of-rotation feedback, 93% of learners (128/137) agreed the assessments and feedback "helped me understand how those with whom I work perceive my performance," and 85% (117/137) agreed they were "useful for constructing future goals or identifying a developmental path." Site leads identified several benefits and challenges to the assessment process. PM-based instruments used in workplace-based assessment provide a meaningful and acceptable approach to collecting evidence of learner competency development. Learners valued feedback provided by PM-based assessment.

  12. Preparing medical students for obstetrics and gynecology milestone level one: a description of a pilot curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Helen; Marzano, David; Lanham, Michael; Stein, Tamara; Curran, Diana; Hammoud, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Background The implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Milestones in the field of obstetrics and gynecology has arrived with Milestones Level One defined as the level expected of an incoming first-year resident. Purpose We designed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-week elective for fourth-year medical school students, which utilized a multimodal approach to teaching and assessing the Milestones Level One competencies. Methods The 78-hour curriculum utilized traditional didactic lectures, flipped classroom active learning sessions, a simulated paging curriculum, simulation training, embalmed cadaver anatomical dissections, and fresh-frozen cadaver operative procedures. We performed an assessment of student knowledge and surgical skills before and after completion of the course. Students also received feedback on their assessment and management of eight simulated paging scenarios. Students completed course content satisfaction surveys at the completion of each of the 4 weeks. Results Students demonstrated improvement in knowledge and surgical skills at the completion of the course. Paging confidence trended toward improvement at the completion of the course. Student satisfaction was high for all of the course content, and the active learning components of the curriculum (flipped classroom, simulation, and anatomy sessions) had higher scores than the traditional didactics in all six categories of our student satisfaction survey. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates a practical approach for preparing fourth-year medical students for the expectations of Milestones Level One in obstetrics and gynecology. This curriculum can serve as a framework as medical schools and specific specialties work to meet the first steps of the ACGME's Next Accreditation System. PMID:25430640

  13. First Drink to First Drunk: Age of Onset and Delay to Intoxication are Associated with Adolescent Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Connell, Christian; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Background Quickly progressing from initiating alcohol use to drinking to intoxication recently was identified as a novel risk factor for hazardous drinking in college students (Morean, Corbin, & Fromme, 2012). The current study evaluated the risk associated with age of onset (AO) and delay to first intoxication (Delay) in a high school sample. Methods Adolescent drinkers (N=295, age 16.29[1.14], 55.3% female, 80.3% Caucasian, AO = 13.51[2.29] years, Delay = 0.80[1.43] years) completed an anonymous survey about their substance use in February of 2010. Self-report questions assessed AO and age of first intoxication (i.e., “How old were you the first time you tried alcohol/got drunk?”) and past-month alcohol use/binge drinking (i.e., How often did you drink alcohol/drink ≥ 5 drinks?). Results Bivariate correlations indicated that AO was positively correlated with AI and inversely correlated with Delay, the frequency of any drinking, and the frequency of binge drinking. When considered alone, Delay was not significantly correlated with either alcohol use outcome. In contrast, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, when considered in concert, an earlier AO and a shorter Delay were each associated with heavier drinking (any drinking adjusted R2 = .08; binge drinking R2 = .06, p-values < .001) beyond demographic characteristics. Two-way interactions among study variables were non-significant, suggesting that AO and Delay conferred risk similarly by racial/ethnic status, gender, and grade in high school. Conclusions When considered simultaneously, both an early AO and a quick progression to drinking to intoxication appear to be important determinants of high school student drinking. In addition to continuing efforts to postpone AO, efforts designed to delay intoxication may modulate alcohol-related risk associated with early drinking. PMID:25257574

  14. Your Drinking Water Source | Drinking Water in New England ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-07-06

    Local communities are responsible for protecting their community's drinking water, and as a citizen, you can directly affect the success or failure of your community's drinking water protection efforts.

  15. Small Drinking Water System Initiative | Drinking Water in New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-07-06

    Reliable, safe, high quality drinking water is essential to sustaining our communities. Approximately 90% of New England's drinking water systems - about 10,000 systems - are small and most use ground water sources.

  16. Putting the pediatrics milestones into practice: a consensus roadmap and resource analysis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Spector, Nancy D; Calaman, Sharon; West, Daniel C; Cruz, Mario; Frohna, John G; Gonzalez Del Rey, Javier; Gustafson, Kristina K; Poynter, Sue Ellen; Rosenbluth, Glenn; Southgate, W Michael; Vinci, Robert J; Sectish, Theodore C

    2014-05-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has partnered with member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties to initiate the next steps in advancing competency-based assessment in residency programs. This initiative, known as the Milestone Project, is a paradigm shift from traditional assessment efforts and requires all pediatrics residency programs to report individual resident progression along a series of 4 to 5 developmental levels of performance, or milestones, for individual competencies every 6 months beginning in June 2014. The effort required to successfully make this shift is tremendous given the number of training programs, training institutions, and trainees. However, it holds great promise for achieving training outcomes that align with patient needs; developing a valid, reliable, and meaningful way to track residents' development; and providing trainees with a roadmap for learning. Recognizing the resources needed to implement this new system, the authors, all residency program leaders, provide their consensus view of the components necessary for implementing and sustaining this effort, including resource estimates for completing this work. The authors have identified 4 domains: (1) Program Review and Development of Stakeholders and Participants, (2) Assessment Methods and Validation, (3) Data and Assessment System Development, and (4) Summative Assessment and Feedback. This work can serve as a starting point and framework for collaboration with program, department, and institutional leaders to identify and garner necessary resources and plan for local and national efforts that will ensure successful transition to milestones-based assessment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Maternal prepregnancy obesity and achievement of infant motor developmental milestones in the upstate KIDS study.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Amanda; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Kus, Christopher; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Yeung, Edwina H

    2015-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with several poor infant health outcomes; however, studies that investigated motor development have been inconsistent. Thus, maternal prepregnancy weight status and infants' gross motor development were examined. Participants consisted of 4,901 mother-infant pairs from the Upstate KIDS study, a longitudinal cohort in New York. Mothers indicated dates when infants achieved each of six gross motor milestones when infants were 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months old. Failure time modeling under a Weibull distribution was utilized to compare time to achievement across three levels of maternal prepregnancy BMI. Hazard ratios (HR) below one indicate a lower "risk" of achieving the milestone and translate to later achievement. Compared to infants born to thin and normal-weight mothers (BMI < 25), infants born to mothers with obesity (BMI > 30) were slower to sit without support (HR = 0.91, P = 0.03) and crawl on hands and knees (HR = 0.86, P < 0.001), after adjusting for maternal and birth characteristics. Increased gestational age was associated with faster achievement of all milestones, but additional adjustment did not impact results. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with a slightly longer time for infant to sit and crawl, potentially due to a compromised intrauterine environment or reduced physically active play. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Practical Implications for an Effective Radiology Residency Quality Improvement Program for Milestone Assessment.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Ackerman, Susan; Hill, Jeanne; Thacker, Paul; Matheus, Maria; Tipnis, Sameer; Gordon, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    Utilization of a radiology resident-specific quality improvement (QI) program and curriculum based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones can enable a program's assessment of the systems-based practice component and prepare residents for QI implementation post graduation. This article outlines the development process, curriculum, QI committee formation, and resident QI project requirements of one institution's designated radiology resident QI program. A method of mapping the curriculum to the ACGME milestones and assessment of resident competence by postgraduate year level is provided. Sample projects, challenges to success, and lessons learned are also described. Survey data of current trainees and alumni about the program reveal that the majority of residents and alumni responders valued the QI curriculum and felt comfortable with principles and understanding of QI. The most highly valued aspect of the program was the utilization of a resident education committee. The majority of alumni responders felt the residency quality curriculum improved understanding of QI, assisted with preparation for the American Board of Radiology examination, and prepared them for QI in their careers. In addition to the survey results, outcomes of resident project completion and resident scholarly activity in QI are evidence of the success of this program. It is hoped that this description of our experiences with a radiology resident QI program, in accordance with the ACGME milestones, may facilitate the development of successful QI programs in other diagnostic radiology residencies. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stopping eating and drinking.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Judith K

    2009-09-01

    Voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, in which death occurs within one to three weeks of beginning the fast, is increasingly explored in the literature and mainstream media as an option to be discussed with "decisionally capable," suffering patients who want to hasten their dying. The author uses an example from her experience to describe stopping eating and drinking, as well as other clinical practices associated with hastening dying; explores whether this practice can or should be distinguished from suicide; and discusses the ethical and legal implications for nurses.

  20. An Evaluation of a Controlled Drinking Program for Drinking Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Damron, C. Frazier

    1985-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of Behavioral Self-Control Training in reducing alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, drinking-and-driving incidents, and life problems. No significant differences were found between conditions on these variables suggesting that a controlled drinking goal may not be feasible for all drinking-and-driving…

  1. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3)…

  2. Collaborative Negotiations: A Successful Approach for Negotiation Compliance Milestones for the transition of the PFP Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciT

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    The new approach to negotiations was termed collaborative (win-win) rather than positional (win-lose). Collaborative negotiations were conducted to establish milestones for the decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PFP.

  3. Milestones Since Last Workshop [Global Positioning System Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment Workshop V, 10/14/2016

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-14

    Milestones Since Last Workshop - Finalized GPS/GNSS receiver test plan and test procedures - Coordinated government and manufacturer participation and executed Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) - Developed/validated radiated RF test environment - Carr...

  4. 20 CFR 411.580 - Can an EN receive payments for milestones or outcome payment months that occur before the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....580 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.580 Can an EN receive payments for milestones or outcome payment...

  5. 20 CFR 411.580 - Can an EN receive payments for milestones or outcome payment months that occur before the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....580 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.580 Can an EN receive payments for milestones or outcome payment...

  6. 20 CFR 411.580 - Can an EN receive payments for milestones or outcome payment months that occur before the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....580 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.580 Can an EN receive payments for milestones or outcome payment...

  7. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Out More about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... Help Read More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  8. Drinking Water in your Home

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  9. Competency champions in the clinical competency committee: a successful strategy to implement milestone evaluations and competency coaching.

    PubMed

    Ketteler, Erika R; Auyang, Edward D; Beard, Kathy E; McBride, Erica L; McKee, Rohini; Russell, John C; Szoka, Nova L; Nelson, M Timothy

    2014-01-01

    To create a clinical competency committee (CCC) that (1) centers on the competency-based milestones, (2) is simple to implement, (3) creates competency expertise, and (4) guides remediation and coaching of residents who are not progressing in milestone performance evaluations. We created a CCC that meets monthly and at each meeting reviews a resident class for milestone performance, a competency (by a faculty competency champion), a resident rotation service, and any other resident or issue of concern. University surgical residency program. The CCC members include the program director, associate program directors, director of surgical curriculum, competency champions, departmental chair, 2 at-large faculty members, and the administrative chief residents. Seven residents were placed on remediation (later renamed as coaching) during the academic year after falling behind on milestone progression in one or more competencies. An additional 4 residents voluntarily placed themselves on remediation for medical knowledge after receiving in-training examination scores that the residents (not the CCC membership) considered substandard. All but 2 of the remediated/coached residents successfully completed all area milestone performance but some chose to stay on the medical knowledge competency strategy. Monthly meetings of the CCC make milestone evaluation less burdensome. In addition, the expectations of the residents are clearer and more tangible. "Competency champions" who are familiar with the milestones allow effective coaching strategies and documentation of clear performance improvements in competencies for successful completion of residency training. Residents who do not reach appropriate milestone performance can then be placed in remediation for more formal performance evaluation. The function of our CCC has also allowed us opportunity to evaluate the required rotations to ensure that they offer experiences that help residents achieve competency performance necessary

  10. From Animal House to Old School: a multiple mediation analysis of the association between college drinking movie exposure and freshman drinking and its consequences.

    PubMed

    Osberg, Timothy M; Billingsley, Katherine; Eggert, Meredith; Insana, Maribeth

    2012-08-01

    Does exposure to college drinking movies impact upon subsequent college student drinking? If so, what mechanisms mediate such an effect? In the first study to address these questions, we assessed college drinking movie exposure in a sample of 479 college freshmen early in their first semester and examined its relation to subsequent drinking and drinking consequences one month later. Hypothesized mediators of this effect included college alcohol beliefs (beliefs that drinking is central to college life), positive and negative alcohol expectancies, and descriptive and injunctive norms. Using bootstrapping procedures, results indicated that movie exposure exerted direct effects on both drinking and drinking consequences. Movie exposure also had significant indirect effects on drinking through all of the hypothesized mediators, with the exception of negative alcohol expectancies. All mediated movie exposure's effects on drinking consequences, with the exception of injunctive norms. Contrast analyses revealed that college alcohol beliefs had the strongest mediational effects in the relationship between movie exposure and both drinking and consequences. The implications of these findings for precollege alcohol education programs are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Botulism from Drinking Pruno

    PubMed Central

    Mase, Sundari R.; Cole, Barbara; Stiles, John; Rosenberg, Jon; Velasquez, Linda; Radner, Allen; Inami, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation. Pruno, an alcoholic drink made illicitly in prisons, was the novel vehicle for these cases. PMID:19116055

  12. How Giraffes Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  13. How Giraffes Drink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale L.

    2015-12-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  14. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  15. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  16. Use of Key Performance Indicators to Improve Milestone Assessment in Semi-Annual Clinical Competency Committee Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Harendra; Martinelli, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System requires residency programs to semiannually submit composite milestone data on each resident's performance. This report describes and evaluates a new assessment review procedure piloted in our departmental Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) semi-annual meeting in June 2016. Methods: A modified Delphi technique was utilized to develop key performance indicators (KPI) linking milestone descriptors to clinical practice. In addition, the CCC identified six specific milestone sub-competencies that would be prescored with objective data prior to the meeting. Each resident was independently placed on the milestones by 3 different CCC faculty members. Milestone placement data of the same cohort of 42 residents (Clinical Anesthesia Years 1–3) were collected to calculate inter-rater reliability of the assessment procedures before and after the implemented changes. A survey was administrated to collect CCC feedback on the new procedure. Results: The procedure assisted in reducing meeting time from 8 to 3.5 hours. Survey of the CCC members revealed positive perception of the procedure. Higher inter-rater reliability of the milestone placement was obtained using the implemented KPIs (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] single measure range: before=.53–.94, after=.74–.98). Conclusion: We found the new assessment procedure beneficial to the efficiency and transparency of the assessment process. Further improvement of the procedure involves refinement of KPIs and additional faculty development on KPIs to allow non-CCC faculty to provide more accurate resident evaluations. PMID:29766033

  17. Report on milestones for care and support under the U.S. National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Borson, Soo; Boustani, Malaz A; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Burgio, Louis D; Chodosh, Joshua; Fortinsky, Richard H; Gifford, David R; Gwyther, Lisa P; Koren, Mary Jane; Lynn, Joanne; Phillips, Cheryl; Roherty, Martha; Ronch, Judah; Stahl, Claudia; Rodgers, Lauren; Kim, Hye; Baumgart, Matthew; Geiger, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Under the U.S. national Alzheimer's plan, the National Institutes of Health identified milestones required to meet the plan's biomedical research goal (Goal 1). However, similar milestones have not been created for the goals on care (Goal 2) and support (Goal 3). The Alzheimer's Association convened a workgroup with expertise in clinical care, long-term services and supports, dementia care and support research, and public policy. The workgroup reviewed the literature on Alzheimer's care and support; reviewed how other countries are addressing the issue; and identified public policies needed over the next 10 years to achieve a more ideal care and support system. The workgroup developed and recommended 73 milestones for Goal 2 and 56 milestones for Goal 3. To advance the implementation of the U.S. national Alzheimer's plan, the U.S. government should adopt these recommended milestones, or develop similar milestones, to be incorporated into the national plan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Key Performance Indicators to Improve Milestone Assessment in Semi-Annual Clinical Competency Committee Meetings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Arora, Harendra; Martinelli, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System requires residency programs to semiannually submit composite milestone data on each resident's performance. This report describes and evaluates a new assessment review procedure piloted in our departmental Clinical Competency Committee (CCC) semi-annual meeting in June 2016. A modified Delphi technique was utilized to develop key performance indicators (KPI) linking milestone descriptors to clinical practice. In addition, the CCC identified six specific milestone sub-competencies that would be prescored with objective data prior to the meeting. Each resident was independently placed on the milestones by 3 different CCC faculty members. Milestone placement data of the same cohort of 42 residents (Clinical Anesthesia Years 1-3) were collected to calculate inter-rater reliability of the assessment procedures before and after the implemented changes. A survey was administrated to collect CCC feedback on the new procedure. The procedure assisted in reducing meeting time from 8 to 3.5 hours. Survey of the CCC members revealed positive perception of the procedure. Higher inter-rater reliability of the milestone placement was obtained using the implemented KPIs (Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] single measure range: before=.53-.94, after=.74-.98). We found the new assessment procedure beneficial to the efficiency and transparency of the assessment process. Further improvement of the procedure involves refinement of KPIs and additional faculty development on KPIs to allow non-CCC faculty to provide more accurate resident evaluations.

  19. Use of Developmental Milestones in Pediatric Residency Training and Practice: Time to Rethink the Meaning of the Mean

    PubMed Central

    Sices, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objective Pediatricians frequently report the use of developmental milestones in monitoring young children’s development, despite evidence that use of screening tools improves detection of developmental delays. Methods Core texts in the field of pediatrics and developmental-behavioral pediatrics were reviewed for content and presentation on child development. Most texts included and many focused on developmental milestones, many with an emphasis on 50th percentile milestone data. Problems and limitations in the use of 50th percentile milestones to monitor young children’s development and to identify children whose development is suspicious for delay, include questionable utility in clinical decision making and the potential to increase parental anxiety. Results The recommendation is made to reconsider a focus on 50th percentile milestone data in pediatric training and practice, in favor of measures that have better clinical utility and are more psychometrically sound. Conclusion A conceptual approach to the presentation of developmental milestones differentiates the use of the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of age of achievement of skills, based on the clinical purpose of surveillance. PMID:17353732

  20. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  1. Drinking water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (P<0.05) of physico-chemical parameters and total coliform count of drinking water for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  2. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    PubMed

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  3. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  4. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  5. Disordered drinking in developing spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kraly, F S; Coogan, L A; Specht, S M; Trattner, M S; Zayfert, C; Cohen, A; Goldstein, J A

    1985-04-01

    Eating and drinking in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were measured at 5-17 wk of life. The SHR drank significantly more water in 24 h than WKY as early as wk 9, spilled more dry food than did WKY, and exhibited an inverse relation between 24-h water intake and dry food spilled. When eating a meal of dry food after 12 h food deprivation, SHR drank earlier and drank more in a 1-h test than WKY rats. Moreover, SHR exhibited (as early as wk 7) a striking pattern of interrupting eating to drink. This pattern was not present when SHR ate liquid food, and it was attenuated by infusion of water through a cheek fistula. Adult SHR (22 wk) salivated less than WKY in response to intraperitoneal 3.25 mg/kg pilocarpine nitrate. When developing SHR and WKY were maintained on liquid and solid food, SHR gained disproportionately more weight than WKY during development. When young SHR were permitted to drink no more water than WKY rats, the development of hypertension was retarded, and body weight gain was slowed. Because restricted access to food, which produced an equivalent slowing of body weight gain as did restricted access to water, also retarded development of hypertension, it appears that restricted access to water retards development of hypertension due to delayed growth. These results demonstrate that hyperdipsia, apparently caused by deficient salivary function, is not necessary for the development of hypertension in SHR.

  6. Friends' Alcohol-Related Social Networking Site Activity Predicts Escalations in Adolescent Drinking: Mediation by Peer Norms.

    PubMed

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Are there good reasons for fluoride labelling of food and drink?

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Maguire, A

    2018-02-23

    This opinion piece highlights the importance of controlling systemic fluoride intake from food and drink in early childhood to minimise risk of dental fluorosis whilst maximising caries prevention; the wide range of fluoride contents found in a study of commercially-available food and drinks; and the need for comprehensive fluoride labelling on food and drink products in the UK, particularly those used by infants and young children.

  8. Integrating Quality Improvement Education into the Nephrology Curricular Milestones Framework and the Clinical Learning Environment Review

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Lisa K.; Little, Dustin J.; Schexneider, Katherine I.

    2017-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that trainees show progressive milestone attainment in the practice–based learning and systems–based practice competencies. As part of the Clinical Learning Environment Review, sponsoring hospitals must educate trainees in health care quality improvement, provide them with specialty–specific quality data, and ensure trainee participation in quality improvement activities and committees. Subspecialty–specific quality improvement curricula in nephrology training programs have not been reported, although considerable curricular and assessment material exists for specialty residencies, including tools for assessing trainee and faculty competence. Nephrology–specific didactic material exists to assist nephrology fellows and faculty mentors in designing and implementing quality improvement projects. Nephrology is notable among internal medicine subspecialties for the emphasis placed on adherence to quality thresholds—specifically for chronic RRT shown by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Quality Incentive Program. We have developed a nephrology-specific curriculum that meets Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Clinical Learning Environment Review requirements, acknowledges regulatory quality improvement requirements, integrates with ongoing divisional quality improvement activities, and has improved clinical care and the training program. In addition to didactic training in quality improvement, we track trainee compliance with Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes CKD and ESRD quality indicators (emphasizing Quality Improvement Program indicators), and fellows collaborate on a yearly multidisciplinary quality improvement project. Over the past 6 years, each fellowship class has, on the basis of a successful quality improvement project, shown milestone achievement in Systems-Based Practice and Practice-Based Learning. Fellow quality improvement projects have

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Child Behavioral Development Milestone Delays in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Higa Diez, Midory; Kado, Yoko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution is associated with unfavorable neurodevelopment in children. We examined associations between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and child behavioral development milestone delays, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where the participants were recruited in 2001 and followed. Particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations during the 9 months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We analyzed data from singleton births with linked pollution data available (N = 33,911 at the maximum). We used responses to survey questions about age-appropriate behaviors at ages 2.5 and 5.5 years as indicators of behavioral development. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Air pollution exposure during gestation was positively associated with the risk of some developmental milestone delays at both ages. Specifically, air pollution was associated with verbal and fine motor development at age 2.5 years, and with behaviors related to inhibition and impulsivity at 5.5 years. In the fully-adjusted models, odds ratios following one-interquartile-range increase in nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter were 1.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.43) for inability to compose a two-phrase sentence at ages 2.5 and 1.10 (1.05, 1.16) for inability to express emotions at age 5.5 years, respectively. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with behavioral development milestone delays of children in a nationally representative sample in Japan.

  10. Piloting a Structured Practice Audit to Assess ACGME Milestones in Written Handoff Communication in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Shannon K.; Farnan, Jeanne M.; McConville, John F.; Arora, Vineet M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Written communication skills are integral to patient care handoffs. Residency programs require feasible assessment tools that provide timely formative and summative feedback, ideally linked to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones. Objective We describe the use of 1 such tool—UPDATED—to assess written handoff communication skills in internal medicine interns. Methods During 2012–2013, the authors piloted a structured practice audit at 1 academic institution to audit written sign-outs completed by 45 interns, using the UPDATED tool, which scores 7 aspects of sign-out communication linked to milestones. Intern sign-outs were audited by trained faculty members throughout the year. Results were incorporated into intern performance reviews and Clinical Competency Committees. Results A total of 136 sign-outs were audited (averaging 3.1 audits per intern). In the first trimester, 14 interns (31%) had satisfactory audit results. Five interns (11%) had critical deficiencies and received immediate feedback, and the remaining 26 (58%) were assigned future audits due to missing audits or unsatisfactory scores. In the second trimester, 21 interns (68%) had satisfactory results, 1 had critical deficiencies, and 9 (29%) required future audits. Nine of the 10 remaining interns in the final trimester had satisfactory audits. Faculty time was estimated at 10 to 15 minutes per sign-out audited. Conclusions The UPDATED audit is a milestone-based tool that can be used to assess written sign-out communication skills in internal medicine residency programs. Future work is planned to adapt the tool for use by senior supervisory residents to appraise sign-outs in real time. PMID:26221442

  11. Piloting a Structured Practice Audit to Assess ACGME Milestones in Written Handoff Communication in Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon K; Farnan, Jeanne M; McConville, John F; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-06-01

    Written communication skills are integral to patient care handoffs. Residency programs require feasible assessment tools that provide timely formative and summative feedback, ideally linked to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones. We describe the use of 1 such tool-UPDATED-to assess written handoff communication skills in internal medicine interns. During 2012-2013, the authors piloted a structured practice audit at 1 academic institution to audit written sign-outs completed by 45 interns, using the UPDATED tool, which scores 7 aspects of sign-out communication linked to milestones. Intern sign-outs were audited by trained faculty members throughout the year. Results were incorporated into intern performance reviews and Clinical Competency Committees. A total of 136 sign-outs were audited (averaging 3.1 audits per intern). In the first trimester, 14 interns (31%) had satisfactory audit results. Five interns (11%) had critical deficiencies and received immediate feedback, and the remaining 26 (58%) were assigned future audits due to missing audits or unsatisfactory scores. In the second trimester, 21 interns (68%) had satisfactory results, 1 had critical deficiencies, and 9 (29%) required future audits. Nine of the 10 remaining interns in the final trimester had satisfactory audits. Faculty time was estimated at 10 to 15 minutes per sign-out audited. The UPDATED audit is a milestone-based tool that can be used to assess written sign-out communication skills in internal medicine residency programs. Future work is planned to adapt the tool for use by senior supervisory residents to appraise sign-outs in real time.

  12. 1.2.1.1 Harvest, Collection and Storage Quarter 3 Milestone Report

    SciT

    Wendt, Lynn M.; Smith, William A.; Cafferty, Kara G.

    Single pass baling of corn stover is required in order to meet targets for the herbaceous biomass 2017 logistics design case. Single-pass pass stover harvest is based on the grain harvest and generally results in stover with a moisture content of 30-50% wet basis (w.b). Aerobic storage of corn stover with high moisture results in high levels of dry matter loss (DML), up to 25%. Anaerobic storage (ensiling) reduces DML to less than 5%, but additional costs are associated with handling and transporting the extra moisture in the biomass. This milestone provides a best-estimate of costs for using high moisturemore » feedstock within the conventional baled logistics system. The costs of three (3) anaerobic storage systems that reduce dry matter losses (bale wrap, silage tube, and silage drive over pile) are detailed in this milestone and compared to both a conventional dry-baled corn stover case and a high moisture bale case, both stored aerobically. The total logistics cost (harvest, collection, storage, and transportation) of the scenarios are as follows: the conventional multi-pass dry bale case and the single-pass high moisture case stored aerobically were nearly equivalent at $61.15 and $61.24/DMT. The single-pass bale wrap case was the lowest at $57.63/DMT. The bulk anaerobic cases were the most expensive at $84.33 for the silage tube case and $75.97 for the drive over pile, which reflect the additional expense of transporting high-moisture bulk material; however, a reduction in preprocessing costs may occur because these feedstocks are size reduced in the field. In summary, the costs estimates presented in this milestone report can be used to determine if anaerobic storage of high-moisture corn stover is an economical option for dry matter preservation.« less

  13. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  14. Milestones of mathematical model for business process management related to cost estimate documentation in petroleum industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamidullin, R. I.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to milestones of the optimal mathematical model for a business process related to cost estimate documentation compiled during construction and reconstruction of oil and gas facilities. It describes the study and analysis of fundamental issues in petroleum industry, which are caused by economic instability and deterioration of a business strategy. Business process management is presented as business process modeling aimed at the improvement of the studied business process, namely main criteria of optimization and recommendations for the improvement of the above-mentioned business model.

  15. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  16. Insecure Attachment Styles, Relationship-Drinking Contexts, and Marital Alcohol Problems: Testing the Mediating Role of Relationship-Specific Drinking-to-Cope Motives

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one’s partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one’s partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  17. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students

    PubMed Central

    Skewes, Monica C.; DeCou, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Vivian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups. PMID:23986901

  18. Energy drink use, problem drinking and drinking motives in a diverse sample of Alaskan college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.

  19. Late-Life Drinking Problems: The Predictive Roles of Drinking Level vs. Drinking Pattern.

    PubMed

    Holahan, Charles J; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Holahan, Carole K; Hixon, J Gregory; Moos, Rudolf H

    2017-05-01

    Research on late-middle-aged and older adults has focused primarily on average level of alcohol consumption, overlooking variability in underlying drinking patterns. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of an episodic heavy pattern of drinking versus a high average level of drinking as prospective predictors of drinking problems. The sample comprised 1,107 adults ages 55-65 years at baseline. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline, and drinking problems were indexed across 20 years. We used prospective negative binomial regression analyses controlling for baseline drinking problems, as well as for demographic and health factors, to predict the number of drinking problems at each of four follow-up waves (1, 4, 10, and 20 years). Across waves where the effects were significant, a high average level of drinking (coefficients of 1.56, 95% CI [1.24, 1.95]; 1.48, 95% CI [1.11, 1.98]; and 1.85, 95% CI [1.23, 2.79] at 1, 10, and 20 years) and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking (coefficients of 1.61, 95% CI [1.30, 1.99]; 1.61, 95% CI [1.28, 2.03]; and 1.43, 95% CI [1.08, 1.90] at 1, 4, and 10 years) each independently increased the number of drinking problems by more than 50%. Information based only on average consumption underestimates the risk of drinking problems among older adults. Both a high average level of drinking and an episodic heavy pattern of drinking pose prospective risks of later drinking problems among older adults.

  20. Who Will Experience the Most Alcohol Problems in College? The Roles of Middle and High School Drinking Tendencies.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Reavy, Racheal; Cleveland, Michael J; Ackerman, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Previous work examining college drinking tendencies has identified a disproportionately small (20%), but uniquely high-risk group of students who experience nearly 50% of the reported alcohol-related consequences (i.e., the multiple repeated consequences, or MRC, group). With the goal of reducing drinking-related consequences later in college, this study sought to identify potential MRC group members in their first semester by examining: (i) early-risk subgroups based on analysis of early-risk screening constructs (e.g., age of drinking onset, middle school alcohol exposure, high school drinking, and consequences); and (ii) their association with MRC criteria early in the first semester of college. A random sample of 2,021 first-year college student drinkers (56% female) completed a web-based drinking survey in their first semester on campus. Latent class analysis revealed 4 early-risk subgroups: (i) an early-onset risk group who endorsed early age of drinking onset and engaged in heavy middle and high school drinking (10%); (ii) a late-onset risk group who engaged in weekend drinking and drunkenness and experienced 6 or more unique consequences as seniors in high school (32%); (iii) an early-onset limited risk group who only endorsed early age of onset and middle school drinking (3%); and (iv) a minimal risk group who did not engage in any early-risk behaviors (55%). Members of both the early- and late-onset risk groups had significantly higher odds of MRC membership in their first semester of college (9.85 and 6.79 greater, respectively). Results suggest age of onset, middle and high school drinking and drunkenness, and frequency of unique consequences could be particularly useful in brief screening tools. Further, findings support early screening and prevention efforts for MRC membership prior to college matriculation. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Age of Alcohol Drinking Onset Precursors and the Mediation of Alcohol Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnne; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    This study explored early alcohol drinking onset (ADO), its precursors, and the mechanisms by which it leads to later alcohol disorder. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with ADO items from 1982 and 1983 and alcohol symptoms from 1989 and 1994. Drinking began earlier for respondents who were male, younger, non-Hispanic,…

  2. From Engineering Hydrology to Earth System Science: Milestones in the Transformation of Hydrologic Science (Alfred Wegener Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-04-01

    Hydrologic science has undergone almost transformative changes over the past 50 years. Huge strides have been made in the transition from early empirical approaches to rigorous approaches based on the fluid mechanics of water movement on and below the land surface. However, further progress has been hampered by problems posed by the presence of heterogeneity, especially subsurface heterogeneity, at all scales. The inability to measure or map subsurface heterogeneity everywhere prevented further development of balance equations and associated closure relations at the scales of interest, and has led to the virtual impasse we are presently in, in terms of development of physically based models needed for hydrologic predictions. An alternative to the mapping of subsurface heterogeneity everywhere is a new earth system science view, which sees the heterogeneity as the end result of co-evolutionary hydrological, geomorphological, ecological and pedological processes, each operating at a different rate, which have helped to shape the landscapes that we see in nature, including the heterogeneity below that we do not see. The expectation is that instead of specifying exact details of the heterogeneity in our models, we can replace it, without loss of information, with the ecosystem function they perform. Guided by this new earth system science perspective, development of hydrologic science is now guided by altogether new questions and new approaches to address them, compared to the purely physical, fluid mechanics based approaches that we inherited from the past. In the emergent Anthropocene, the co-evolutionary view is expanded further to involve interactions and feedbacks with human-social processes as well. In this lecture, I will present key milestones in the transformation of hydrologic science from Engineering Hydrology to Earth System Science, and what this means for hydrologic observations, theory development and predictions.

  3. Curriculum for the Special Education Early Childhood Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    This document presents Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District's Special Education Early Childhood Center's 1988 curriculum. Sections focus on: (1) the center's program; (2) play observation; (3) eligibility; (4) classroom structure and function; (5) the importance of play; (6) developmental milestones; (7) planning and teaching…

  4. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  5. Highlighting in Early Childhood: Learning Biases through Attentional Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Joseph M.; Yoshida, Hanako

    2017-01-01

    The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However,…

  6. Guidelines for Making a Video Presentation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carolyn S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the production of videotape recordings illustrating developmental milestones of early childhood to serve as a reference point in working with parents or staff caring for young children who have disabilities. Procedures for making a video presentation include the following steps: select a topic (such as motor development,…

  7. Computing Rates of Small Molecule Diffusion Through Protein Channels Using Markovian Milestoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Cameron

    2014-03-01

    Measuring diffusion rates of ligands plays a key role in understanding the kinetic processes inside proteins. For example, although many molecular simulation studies have reported free energy barriers to infer rates for CO diffusion in myoglobin (Mb), they typically do not include direct calculation of diffusion rates because of the long simulation times needed to infer these rates with statistical accuracy. We show in this talk how to apply Markovian milestoning along minimum free-energy pathways to calculate diffusion rates of CO inside Mb. In Markovian milestoning, one partitions a suitable reaction coordinate space into regions and performs restrained molecular dynamics in each region to accumulate kinetic statistics that, when assembled across regions, provides an estimate of the mean first-passage time between states. The mean escape time for CO directly from the so-called distal pocket (DP) through the histidine gate (HG) is estimated at about 24 ns, confirming the importance of this portal for CO. But Mb is known to contain several internal cavities, and cavity-to-cavity diffusion rates are also computed and used to build a complete kinetic network as a Markov state model. Within this framework, the effective mean time of escape to the solvent through HG increases to 30 ns. Our results suggest that carrier protein structure may have evolved under pressure to modulate dissolved gas release rates using a network of ligand-accessible cavities. Support: NIH R01GM100472.

  8. Developmental milestones for productivity occupations in children and youth: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    d'Entremont, Lisette; Gregor, Megan; Kirou, Evangelia; Nelligan, Lindsay; Dennis, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Limited research exists on developmental milestones for productivity occupations throughout the paediatric lifespan, and negative connotations of work for children and youth may have contributed to a paucity of literature on the topic. To ascertain what is currently known about the timing and types of engagement in productivity occupations in children and youth aged 4-19. Literature referencing productive occupations in children and youth aged 4-19 was searched for this integrative review. Search terms were established based on paediatric age and occupational therapy descriptors, and terminology associated with productivity. Sixty-seven peer-reviewed articles were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. Six core productive occupations emerged as avenues for productive engagement: paid work, school-related activities, caring for self and others, household chores, volunteering, and agricultural chores. A timeline was constructed to display common milestones for engagement in these occupations throughout the paediatric lifespan. Paediatric engagement was found to be influenced by personal (age, gender, child and youth perceptions, and safety considerations), and environmental (familial factors, parental perceptions, societal influences, and safety considerations) factors. Approaches to paediatric practice must account for the full spectrum of productive occupations children and youth engage in beyond the school context.

  9. FY17 CSSE L2 Milestone Report: Analyzing Power Usage Characteristics of Workloads Running on Trinity.

    SciT

    Pedretti, Kevin

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a FY17 CSSE L2 milestone to in- vestigate the power usage behavior of ASC workloads running on the ATS-1 Trinity plat- form. Techniques were developed to instrument application code regions of interest using the Power API together with the Kokkos profiling interface and Caliper annotation library. Experiments were performed to understand the power usage behavior of mini-applications and the SNL/ATDM SPARC application running on ATS-1 Trinity Haswell and Knights Landing compute nodes. A taxonomy of power measurement approaches was identified and presented, providing a guide for application developers to follow. Controlledmore » scaling study experiments were performed on up to 2048 nodes of Trinity along with smaller scale ex- periments on Trinity testbed systems. Additionally, power and energy system monitoring information from Trinity was collected and archived for post analysis of "in-the-wild" work- loads. Results were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the workloads to ATS-1 compute node type (Haswell vs. Knights Landing), CPU frequency control, node-level power capping control, OpenMP configuration, Knights Landing on-package memory configuration, and algorithm/solver configuration. Overall, this milestone lays groundwork for addressing the long-term goal of determining how to best use and operate future ASC platforms to achieve the greatest benefit subject to a constrained power budget.« less

  10. Determine Operating Reactor to Use for the 2016 PCI Level 1 Milestone

    SciT

    Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-01-30

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) Level 1 milestone to “Assess the analysis capability for core-wide [pressurized water reactor] PWR Pellet- Clad Interaction (PCI) screening and demonstrate detailed 3-D analysis on selected sub-region” (L1:CASL.P13.03) requires a particular type of nuclear power plant for the assessment. This report documents the operating reactor and cycles chosen for this assessment in completion of the physics integration (PHI) milestone to “Determine Operating Reactor to use for PCI L1 Milestone” (L3:PHI.CMD.P12.02). Watts Bar Unit 1 experienced (at least) one fuel rod failure in each of cycles 6 and 7, andmore » at least one was deemed to be duty related rather than being primarily related to a manufacturing defect or grid effects. This brief report documents that the data required to model cycles 1–12 of Watts Bar Unit 1 using VERA-CS contains sufficient data to model the PHI portion of the PCI challenge problem. A list of additional data needs is also provided that will be important for verification and validation of the BISON results.« less

  11. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  12. Drinking Typography Established by Scheduled Induction Predicts Chronic Heavy Drinking in a Monkey Model of Ethanol Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Kathleen A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L.; Szeliga, Kendall T.; Rogers, Laura S. M.; Gonzales, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Background We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Methods Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Results Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent “spree” drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). Conclusion This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the

  13. Certification of Completion of ASC FY08 Level-2 Milestone ID #2933

    SciT

    Lipari, D A

    2008-06-12

    This report documents the satisfaction of the completion criteria associated with ASC FY08 Milestone ID No.2933: 'Deploy Moab resource management services on BlueGene/L'. Specifically, this milestone represents LLNL efforts to enhance both SLURM and Moab to extend Moab's capabilities to schedule and manage BlueGene/L, and increases portability of user scripts between ASC systems. The completion criteria for the milestone are the following: (1) Batch jobs can be specified, submitted to Moab, scheduled and run on the BlueGene/L system; (2) Moab will be able to support the markedly increased scale in node count as well as the wiring geometry that ismore » unique to BlueGene/L; and (3) Moab will also prepare and report statistics of job CPU usage just as it does for the current systems it supports. This document presents the completion evidence for both of the stated milestone certification methods: Completion evidence for this milestone will be in the form of (1) documentation--a report that certifies that the completion criteria have been met; and (2) user hand-off. As the selected Tri-Lab workload manager, Moab was chosen to replace LCRM as the enterprise-wide scheduler across Livermore Computing (LC) systems. While LCRM/SLURM successfully scheduled jobs on BG/L, the effort to replace LCRM with Moab on BG/L represented a significant challenge. Moab is a commercial product developed and sold by Cluster Resources, Inc. (CRI). Moab receives the users batch job requests and dispatches these jobs to run on a specific cluster. SLURM is an open-source resource manager whose development is managed by members of the Integrated Computational Resource Management Group (ICRMG) within the Services and Development Division at LLNL. SLURM is responsible for launching and running jobs on an individual cluster. Replacing LCRM with Moab on BG/L required substantial changes to both Moab and SLURM. While the ICRMG could directly manage the SLURM development effort, the work to

  14. Age of first intoxication, heavy drinking, driving after drinking and risk of unintentional injury among U.S. college students.

    PubMed

    Hingson, Ralph; Heeren, Timothy; Zakocs, Ronda; Winter, Michael; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    This study explored whether college students who were first intoxicated by alcohol at ages younger than 19 are more likely to become alcohol dependent and frequent heavy drinkers, drive after drinking, ride with intoxicated drivers and be injured after drinking. It also investigated whether these results occur because these students believe they can drink more and still drive legally and safely. In 1999, 14,138 of 23,751 full-time 4-year students from a random sample of 119 college and universities nationwide completed self-administered questionnaires (response rate: 60%). This analysis focused on 12,550 who were aged 19 or older. Respondents were asked the age at which they first got drunk, as well as questions about recent alcohol-related behaviors and consequences. Compared with respondents first drunk at age 19 or older, those first drunk prior to age 19 were significantly more likely to be alcohol dependent and frequent heavy drinkers, to report driving after any drinking, driving after five or more drinks, riding with a driver who was high or drunk and, after drinking, sustaining injuries that required medical attention. Respondents first intoxicated at younger ages believed they could consume more drinks and still drive safely and legally; this contributed to their greater likelihood of driving after drinking and riding with high or drunk drivers. Educational, clinical, environmental and legal interventions are needed to delay age of first intoxication and to correct misperceptions among adolescents first drunk at an early age about how much they can drink and still drive safely and legally.

  15. Milestone Completion Report WBS 1.3.5.05 ECP/VTK-m FY17Q3 [MS-17/02] Faceted Surface Normals STDA05-3.

    SciT

    Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2017-07-01

    The FY17Q3 milestone of the ECP/VTK-m project includes the completion of a VTK-m filter that computes normal vectors for surfaces. Normal vectors are those that point perpendicular to the surface and are an important direction when rendering the surface. The implementation includes the parallel algorithm itself, a filter module to simplify integrating it into other software, and documentation in the VTK-m Users’ Guide. With the completion of this milestone, we are able to necessary information to rendering systems to provide appropriate shading of surfaces. This milestone also feeds into subsequent milestones that progressively improve the approximation of surface direction.

  16. Adolescent Drinking and Driving: Etiology Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyn, Mary Catharine; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    1995-01-01

    A literature review of research on adolescent drinking and driving reveals which subgroups are most likely to drink and drive, where and why drinking and driving occur, peer- and family-related issues, and adolescent expectancies and perceived efficacies associated with drinking and drinking/driving behavior. The use of etiologic data in…

  17. Exploration as a mediator of the relation between the attainment of motor milestones and the development of spatial cognition and spatial language.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Leseman, Paul P M; Volman, M Chiel J M

    2015-09-01

    The embodied-cognition approach views cognition and language as grounded in daily sensorimotor child-environment interactions. Therefore, the attainment of motor milestones is expected to play a role in cognitive-linguistic development. Early attainment of unsupported sitting and independent walking indeed predict better spatial cognition and language at later ages. However, evidence linking these milestones with the development of spatial language and evidence regarding factors that might mediate this relation are scarce. The current study examined whether exploration of spatial-relational object properties (e.g., the possibility of containing or stacking) and exploration of the space through self-locomotion mediate the effect of, respectively, age of sitting and age of walking on spatial cognition and spatial language. Thus, we hypothesized that an earlier age of sitting and walking predicts, respectively, higher levels of spatial-relational object exploration and exploration through self-locomotion, which in turn, predict better spatial cognition and spatial language at later ages. Fifty-nine Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. A combination of tests, observations, and parental reports was used to measure motor development, exploratory behavior (age 20 months), spatial memory (age 24 months), spatial processing (age 32 months), and spatial language (age 36 months). Results show that attainment of sitting predicted spatial memory and spatial language, but spatial-relational object exploration did not mediate these effects. Attainment of independent walking predicted spatial processing and spatial language, and exploration through self-locomotion (partially) mediated these relations. These findings extend previous work and provide partial support for the hypotheses about the mediating role of exploration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Marital Quality and Congruent Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    HOMISH, GREGORY G.; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective This research considered whether changes in marital quality over the early years of marriage were related to patterns of alcohol use among three groups of couples: congruent nondrinkers, congruent drinkers who usually drank with their spouses and congruent drinkers who usually drank apart from their spouses. Method Newlywed couples (N = 418) were assessed for marital satisfaction and drinking behaviors and then were reassessed at their first and second anniversaries, Cross-sectional analyses compared couples at each assessment mid multilevel modeling assessed changes in marital satisfaction over time. Results At each assessment, husbands and wives who usually drank with their partners reported greater levels of marital satisfaction. Over time, marital satisfaction declined for both husbands and wives. When we assessed changes in mental quality based on the three groups, husbands in each group experienced similar declines in marital quality. Among wives, however, the rate of decline was not the same. Although wives in the nondrinking group and wives who usually drank with their husbands had similar initial marital satisfaction, the nondrinkers experienced a greater decline in marital satisfaction than the wives who drank with their husbands. The rate of change for the wives in the nondrinking group was quite similar to wives who more often drank apart from their spouses. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol use may be a part of the couple’s socializing and may increase interaction, thereby increasing marital satisfaction. PMID:16240556

  19. Drinking like an adult? Trajectories of alcohol use patterns before and after college graduation

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Allen, Hannah K.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background College students who engage in high-risk drinking patterns are thought to “mature out” of these patterns as they transition to adult roles. College graduation is an important milestone demarcating this transition. We examine longitudinal changes in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption between the college years and the four years after graduation; and explore variation in these changes by gender and race/ethnicity. Methods Participants were 1128 college graduates enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of health-risk behaviors. Standard measures of alcohol consumption were gathered during eight annual personal interviews (76% to 91% annual follow-up). Graduation dates were culled from administrative data and self-report. Spline models, in which separate trajectories were modeled before and after the “knot” of college graduation, were fit to eight annual observations of past-year alcohol use frequency and quantity (typical number of drinks/drinking day). Results Frequency increased linearly pre-graduation, slightly decreased post-graduation, and then rebounded to pre-graduation levels. Pre-graduation frequency increased more steeply among individuals who drank more heavily at college entry. Quantity decreased linearly during college, followed by quadratic decreases after graduation. Conclusions Results suggest that the post-college “maturing out” phenomenon might be attributable to decreases in alcohol quantity but not frequency. High-frequency drinking patterns that develop during college appear to persist several years post-graduation. PMID:26893253

  20. Drinking Like an Adult? Trajectories of Alcohol Use Patterns Before and After College Graduation.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Allen, Hannah K; Vincent, Kathryn B; Bugbee, Brittany A; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    College students who engage in high-risk drinking patterns are thought to "mature out" of these patterns as they transition to adult roles. College graduation is an important milestone demarcating this transition. We examine longitudinal changes in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption between the college years and the 4 years after graduation and explore variation in these changes by gender and race/ethnicity. Participants were 1,128 college graduates enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of health-risk behaviors. Standard measures of alcohol consumption were gathered during 8 annual personal interviews (76 to 91% annual follow-up). Graduation dates were culled from administrative data and self-report. Spline models, in which separate trajectories were modeled before and after the "knot" of college graduation, were fit to 8 annual observations of past-year alcohol use frequency and quantity (typical number of drinks/drinking day). Frequency increased linearly pregraduation, slightly decreased postgraduation, and then rebounded to pregraduation levels. Pregraduation frequency increased more steeply among individuals who drank more heavily at college entry. Quantity decreased linearly during college, followed by quadratic decreases after graduation. Results suggest that the postcollege "maturing-out" phenomenon might be attributable to decreases in alcohol quantity but not frequency. High-frequency drinking patterns that develop during college appear to persist several years postgraduation. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Adolescent Drinking and Delinquent Activities: Associations and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Angela L.; Mak, Anita S.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of adolescent drinking and delinquent behaviour is required in order to implement early prevention and intervention programs in schools. Broadly based on the common cause model of adolescent deviance, this study investigated and compared, across genders, the prevalence and inter-relationships of various indicators of…

  2. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  3. Seven Research-Based Ways That Families Promote Early Literacy. Research-to-Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspe, Margaret; Lopez, M. Elena

    2017-01-01

    Positive early-literacy experiences--whether at home, in early-childhood programs, schools, or libraries--set children on a trajectory to become confident readers by the time they reach third grade, which is an important milestone on the pathway toward high school graduation. This review outlines seven practices that research shows families use to…

  4. First-Time Mothers' Knowledge and Beliefs Regarding Early Communication Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vicki; Pearce, Wendy M.; Devine, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Limited literature exists in the Australian context about first-time mothers' knowledge of early communication milestones, their strategies to facilitate speech and language development and understanding of the relationship between early communication skills and future development. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to 53 first-time…

  5. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  6. Assessment Report Sandia National Laboratories Fuel Cycle Technologies Quality Assurance Evaluation of FY15 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    SciT

    Appel, Gordon John

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program activities are conducted in accordance with FCT Quality Assurance Program Document (FCT-QAPD) requirements. The FCT-QAPD interfaces with SNL approved Quality Assurance Program Description (SNL-QAPD) as explained in the Sandia National Laboratories QA Program Interface Document for FCT Activities (Interface Document). This plan describes SNL's FY16 assessment of SNL's FY15 FCT M2 milestone deliverable's compliance with program QA requirements, including SNL R&A requirements. The assessment is intended to confirm that SNL's FY15 milestone deliverables contain the appropriate authenticated review documentation and that there is a copy marked with SNL R&A numbers.

  7. Early intervention for alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Holt, Stephen

    1983-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in clinical practice. There is increasing evidence that problem drinking can be successfully treated by brief intervention. The general practitioner is in a good position to identify patients who drink excessively, and to intervene with brief counselling at an early stage when prognosis is more favourable. A practical strategy is described for diagnosis and intervention that could be readily implemented in clinical practice. PMID:6361249

  8. Rethink Your Drink.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p < .001). Monthly green beverage sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p < .001). Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  9. A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: evidence from a community sample of 16-20 year olds.

    PubMed

    Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eun-Young; Shrestha, Anshu; Lohman, Kurt K; Wolfson, Mark

    2006-07-27

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of underage problem drinking by using an empirically based method to characterize the variation in patterns of drinking in a community sample of underage drinkers. A total of 4056 16-20-year-old current drinkers from 212 communities in the US were surveyed by telephone as part of the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) Program. Latent class models were used to create homogenous groups of drinkers with similar drinking patterns defined by multiple indicators of drinking behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Two types of underage problem drinkers were identified; risky drinkers (30%) and regular drinkers (27%). The most prominent behaviors among both types of underage problem drinkers were binge drinking and getting drunk. Being male, other drug use, early onset drinking and beliefs about friends drinking and getting drunk were all associated with an increased risk of being a problem drinker after adjustment for other factors. Beliefs that most friends drink and current marijuana use were the strongest predictors of both risky problem drinking (OR=4.0; 95% CI=3.1, 5.1 and OR=4.0; 95% CI=2.8, 5.6, respectively) and regular problem drinking (OR=10.8; 95% CI=7.0, 16.7 and OR=10.2; 95% CI=6.9, 15.2). Young adulthood (ages 18-20) was significantly associated with regular problem drinking but not risky problem drinking. The belief that most friends get drunk weekly was the strongest discriminator of risky and regular problem drinking patterns (OR=5.3; 95% CI=3.9, 7.1). These findings suggest that underage problem drinking is most strongly characterized by heavy drinking behaviors which can emerge in late adolescence and underscores its association with perceptions regarding friends drinking behaviors and illicit drug use.

  10. A latent class analysis of underage problem drinking: Evidence from a community sample of 16−20 year olds

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eun-Young; Shrestha, Anshu; Lohman, Kurt K.; Wolfson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed light on the nature of underage problem drinking by using an empirically based method to characterize the variation in patterns of drinking in a community sample of underage drinkers. A total of 4056 16−20-year-old current drinkers from 212 communities in the US were surveyed by telephone as part of the National Evaluation of the Enforcing Underage Drinking Laws (EUDL) Program. Latent class models were used to create homogenous groups of drinkers with similar drinking patterns defined by multiple indicators of drinking behaviors and alcohol-related problems. Two types of underage problem drinkers were identified; risky drinkers (30%) and regular drinkers (27%). The most prominent behaviors among both types of underage problem drinkers were binge drinking and getting drunk. Being male, other drug use, early onset drinking and beliefs about friends drinking and getting drunk were all associated with an increased risk of being a problem drinker after adjustment for other factors. Beliefs that most friends drink and current marijuana use were the strongest predictors of both risky problem drinking (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 3.1, 5.1 and OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 2.8, 5.6, respectively) and regular problem drinking (OR = 10.8; 95% CI = 7.0, 16.7 and OR = 10.2; 95% CI = 6.9, 15.2). Young adulthood (ages 18−20) was significantly associated with regular problem drinking but not risky problem drinking. The belief that most friends get drunk weekly was the strongest discriminator of risky and regular problem drinking patterns (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 3.9, 7.1). These findings suggest that underage problem drinking is most strongly characterized by heavy drinking behaviors which can emerge in late adolescence and underscores its association with perceptions regarding friends drinking behaviors and illicit drug use. PMID:16359829

  11. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drinking Water Policy & Recommendations History of Drinking Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water ... if needed. You may also wish to consider water treatment methods such as reverse osmosis, distillation, and carbon ...

  12. Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water and Drinking Water Contact Us Share Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water Have a question ... Related Information from Other Federal Government Agencies General Information about Lead in Drinking Water How Lead Gets ...

  13. College Drinking: Get the Real Picture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drinking Task Force Recommendations College Drinking: Get the real picture Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents " ... 599,000 injuries, and 97,000 cases of sexual assault or date rape each year. High-risk drinking ...

  14. A qualitative study of the factors that influence mothers when choosing drinks for their young children.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Alexandria; Virgo-Milton, Monica; Boak, Rachel; Gold, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Gussy, Mark; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; de Silva, Andrea M

    2014-07-05

    The consumption of sweetened beverages is a known common risk factor for the development of obesity and dental caries in children and children consume sweet drinks frequently and in large volumes from an early age. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence mothers when choosing drinks for their children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 32) were conducted with a purposive sample of mothers of young children from Victoria's Barwon South Western Region (selected from a larger cohort study to include families consuming different types of water, and different socioeconomic status and size). Inductive thematic analysis was conducted on transcribed interviews. Several themes emerged as influencing child drink choice. Child age: Water was the main beverage for the youngest child however it was seen as more acceptable to give older children sweetened beverages. Child preference and temperament: influencing when and if sweet drinks were given; Family influences such as grandparents increased children's consumption of sweet drinks, often providing children drinks such as fruit juice and soft drinks regardless of maternal disapproval. The Setting: children were more likely to be offered sweetened drinks either as a reward or treat for good behaviour or when out shopping, out for dinner or at parties. Limiting intake of sweet drinks is considered an important step for child general and oral health. However, the choice of drinks for children has influences from social, environmental and behavioural domains, indicating that a multi-strategy approach is required to bring about this change.

  15. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  16. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  17. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  18. School District Variation in Parental Influence on Underage Drinking Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chen, Kuang-Hung; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We examined the relationship between alcohol-specific and nonalcohol-specific parental characteristics with occasional alcohol drinking in early adolescence and probed potential school district variation. A total of 1,581 fourth and sixth graders (age range: 10-12 years) were ascertained from 17 elementary schools in a cohort study conducted in northern Taiwan in 2006, with three waves of follow-up between 2007 and 2009. Information on alcohol-specific and nonalcohol-specific parental attributes was obtained from the first two waves of self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires; occasional drinking, defined by having drunk on three or more occasions in the past year, was assessed at fourth wave. School district characteristics were retrieved from official statistics and self-report. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate strength of association, with stratification by disadvantaged status of school districts. Thirteen percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.1%-15.8%) of young adolescents reported to drink occasionally; higher grade level, childhood drinking experience, lower parental education, maternal drinking, and positive parental attitude toward drinking were significant predictors. Nonalcohol parental predictors, including not living with both parents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.21-4.53) and parental involvement/reinforcement (aOR = .44; 95% CI = .22-.87), were only significant for the children of socioeconomically disadvantaged school districts. As to alcohol-specific parental characteristics, the effects of maternal drinking appear more salient in socioeconomically advantaged school districts (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.66-4.18). Alcohol-specific and nonalcohol-specific parental influence may operate differentially across school districts sub-grouped by socioeconomic attributes. Preventive strategies raising the awareness of underage drinking and strengthening parenting skills should be devised and implemented in the

  19. Effects of alcohol advertising exposure on drinking among youth.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Leslie B; Milici, Frances Fleming; Slater, Michael; Sun, Helen; Strizhakova, Yuliya

    2006-01-01

    To test whether alcohol advertising expenditures and the degree of exposure to alcohol advertisements affect alcohol consumption by youth. Longitudinal panel using telephone surveys. Households in 24 US media markets, April 1999 to February 2001. Individuals aged 15 to 26 years were randomly sampled within households and households within media markets. Markets were systematically selected from the top 75 media markets, representing 79% of the US population. The baseline refusal rate was 24%. Sample sizes per wave were 1872, 1173, 787, and 588. Data on alcohol advertising expenditures on television, radio, billboards, and newspapers were collected. Market alcohol advertising expenditures per capita and self-reported alcohol advertising exposure in the prior month. Self-reported number of alcoholic drinks consumed in the prior month. Youth who saw more alcohol advertisements on average drank more (each additional advertisement seen increased the number of drinks consumed by 1% [event rate ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.02]). Youth in markets with greater alcohol advertising expenditures drank more (each additional dollar spent per capita raised the number of drinks consumed by 3% [event rate ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05]). Examining only youth younger than the legal drinking age of 21 years, alcohol advertisement exposure and expenditures still related to drinking. Youth in markets with more alcohol advertisements showed increases in drinking levels into their late 20s, but drinking plateaued in the early 20s for youth in markets with fewer advertisements. Control variables included age, gender, ethnicity, high school or college enrollment, and alcohol sales. Alcohol advertising contributes to increased drinking among youth.

  20. Milestone Deliverable: FY18-Q1: Deploy production sliding mesh capability with linear solver benchmarking.

    SciT

    Domino, Stefan P.

    2017-12-01

    This milestone was focused on deploying and verifying a “sliding-mesh interface,” and establishing baseline timings for blade-resolved simulations of a sub-MW-scale turbine. In the ExaWind project, we are developing both sliding-mesh and overset-mesh approaches for handling the rotating blades in an operating wind turbine. In the sliding-mesh approach, the turbine rotor and its immediate surrounding fluid are captured in a “disk” that is embedded in the larger fluid domain. The embedded fluid is simulated in a coordinate system that rotates with the rotor. It is important that the coupling algorithm (and its implementation) between the rotating and inertial discrete modelsmore » maintains the accuracy of the numerical methods on either side of the interface, i.e., the interface is “design order.”« less

  1. ASC Tri-lab Co-design Level 2 Milestone Report 2015

    SciT

    Hornung, Rich; Jones, Holger; Keasler, Jeff

    2015-09-23

    In 2015, the three Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories that make up the Advanced Sci- enti c Computing (ASC) Program (Sandia, Lawrence Livermore, and Los Alamos) collaboratively explored performance portability programming environments in the context of several ASC co-design proxy applica- tions as part of a tri-lab L2 milestone executed by the co-design teams at each laboratory. The programming environments that were studied included Kokkos (developed at Sandia), RAJA (LLNL), and Legion (Stan- ford University). The proxy apps studied included: miniAero, LULESH, CoMD, Kripke, and SNAP. These programming models and proxy-apps are described herein. Each lab focused on amore » particular combination of abstractions and proxy apps, with the goal of assessing performance portability using those. Performance portability was determined by: a) the ability to run a single application source code on multiple advanced architectures, b) comparing runtime performance between \

  2. Simulations of thermodynamics and kinetics on rough energy landscapes with milestoning.

    PubMed

    Bello-Rivas, Juan M; Elber, Ron

    2016-03-05

    We investigated by computational means the kinetics and stationary behavior of stochastic dynamics on an ensemble of rough two-dimensional energy landscapes. There are no obvious separations of temporal scales in these systems, which constitute a simple model for the behavior of glasses and some biomaterials. Even though there are significant computational challenges present in these systems due to the large number of metastable states, the Milestoning method is able to compute their kinetic and thermodynamic properties exactly. We observe two clearly distinguished regimes in the overall kinetics: one in which diffusive behavior dominates and another that follows an Arrhenius law (despite the absence of a dominant barrier). We compare our results with those obtained with an exactly-solvable one-dimensional model, and with the results from the rough one-dimensional energy model introduced by Zwanzig. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Space Launch System milestone on This Week @NASA - August 29, 2014

    2014-08-29

    On August 27, NASA announced a milestone in development of the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket. The completion of a rigorous review known as Key Decision Point C, or KDP-C, means NASA can transition from formulation to development of the rocket that will send humans beyond Earth orbit and to Mars. KDP-C outlines a conservative development cost baseline and a launch readiness schedule based on an initial SLS flight no later than November 2018. This marks the country's first commitment to building an exploration class launch vehicle since the Space Shuttle Program. Also, 3-D printed rocket injector test, SLS scale model test, Composite fuel tank tests, Crossing Neptune’s orbit, New Horizons: Continuing Voyager’s legacy and more!

  4. A Multi-center Milestone Study of Clinical Vertebral CT Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Forsberg, Daniel; Seitel, Alexander; Rasoulian, Abtin; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Hammernik, Kerstin; Urschler, Martin; Ibragimov, Bulat; Korez, Robert; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Summers, Ronald M.; Li, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    A multiple center milestone study of clinical vertebra segmentation is presented in this paper. Vertebra segmentation is a fundamental step for spinal image analysis and intervention. The first half of the study was conducted in the spine segmentation challenge in 2014 International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) Workshop on Computational Spine Imaging (CSI 2014). The objective was to evaluate the performance of several state-of-the-art vertebra segmentation algorithms on computed tomography (CT) scans using ten training and five testing dataset, all healthy cases; the second half of the study was conducted after the challenge, where additional 5 abnormal cases are used for testing to evaluate the performance under abnormal cases. Dice coefficients and absolute surface distances were used as evaluation metrics. Segmentation of each vertebra as a single geometric unit, as well as separate segmentation of vertebra substructures, was evaluated. Five teams participated in the comparative study. The top performers in the study achieved Dice coefficient of 0.93 in the upper thoracic, 0.95 in the lower thoracic and 0.96 in the lumbar spine for healthy cases, and 0.88 in the upper thoracic, 0.89 in the lower thoracic and 0.92 in the lumbar spine for osteoporotic and fractured cases. The strengths and weaknesses of each method as well as future suggestion for improvement are discussed. This is the first multi-center comparative study for vertebra segmentation methods, which will provide an up-to-date performance milestone for the fast growing spinal image analysis and intervention. PMID:26878138

  5. Teaching the Healthcare Economics Milestones to Radiology Residents: Our Pilot Curriculum Experience.

    PubMed

    Prober, Allen S; Mehan, William A; Bedi, Harprit S

    2016-07-01

    Since July 2013, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has required radiology residency programs to implement a set of educational milestones to track residents' educational advancement in six core competencies, including Systems-based Practice. The healthcare economics subcompetency of Systems-based Practice has traditionally been relatively neglected, and given the new increased ACGME oversight, will specifically require greater focused attention. A multi-institutional health-care economics pilot curriculum combining didactic and practical components was implemented across five residency programs. The didactic portion included a package of online recorded presentations, reading, and testing materials developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR's) Radiology Leadership Institute. The practical component involved a series of local meetings led by program faculty with the production of a deliverable based on research of local reimbursement for a noncontrast head computed tomography. The capstone entailed the presentation of each program's deliverable during a live teleconference webcast with a Radiology Leadership Institute content expert acting as moderator and discussion leader. The pilot curriculum was well received by residents and faculty moderators, with 100% of survey respondents agreeing that the pilot met its objective of introducing how reimbursement works in American radiology in 2015 and how business terminology applies to their particular institutions. A health-care economics curriculum in the style of a Massive Open Online Course has strong potential to serve as many residency programs' method of choice in meeting the health-care economics milestones. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Puberty, sexual milestones and abuse: how are they related in eating disorder patients?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U; Evans, K; Tiller, J; Treasure, J

    1995-03-01

    In order to assess the relationship pubertal development, sexual milestones and childhood sexual abuse in women with eating disorders, 44 patients with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN), 26 with bulimic anorexia nervosa (BAN), 29 with bulimia nervosa and also with a history of anorexia nervosa (BN/HistAN), and 69 with bulimia nervosa but without a history of anorexia nervosa (BN) completed questionnaires on pubertal and sexual development and unpleasant sexual experiences. Forty-four female college students complete the sexual development questionnaire only. Different eating disorder groups were found to be similar in terms of their pubertal development. All eating disorder groups showed delays in aspects of their psychosexual development (age at first kiss, masturbation, genital fondling and first sexual intercourse) compared with the control group, although to a different degree. The RAN group was delayed on almost all sexual milestones whereas the other groups were delayed on only some. On some variables, most noticeably on first sexual intercourse, restricters also were more delayed than the other eating disorder groups. Similarly, the median number of sexual partners differed significantly between groups (RAN = 1, BAN = 2, BN/HistAN = 4, BN = 4, controls = 5, P < 0.0001). Eating disorder patients, in particular RAN patients, were less positive about sexual relationships than controls, but did not differ from controls in attitudes to masturbation, marriage, children or pregnancy. Of the eating disorder patients 22-31% had been sexually abused during childhood. A history of abuse affected attitudes to masturbation, but did not appear to affect sexual development.

  7. Making Milestones: Development and Implementation of a Formal Socioeconomic Curriculum in a Neurosurgical Residency Training Program.

    PubMed

    Youngerman, Brett E; Zacharia, Brad E; Hickman, Zachary L; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Solomon, Robert A; Benzil, Deborah L

    2016-09-01

    Improved training in the socioeconomic aspects of medicine is a priority of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Neurological Surgeons. There is evidence that young neurosurgeons feel ill equipped in these areas and that additional education would improve patient care. To present our experience with the introduction of a succinct but formal socioeconomic training course to the residency curriculum at our institution. A monthly series of twelve 1-hour interactive modules was designed to address the pertinent Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-American Board of Neurological Surgeons outcomes-based educational milestones. Slide-based lectures provided a comprehensive overview of social, legal, and business issues, and a monthly forum for open discussion allowed residents to draw on their applied experience. Residents took a 20-question pre- and postcourse knowledge assessment, as well as feedback surveys at 6 and 12 months. Residents were able to participate in the lectures, with an overall attendance rate of 91%. Residents felt that the course goals and objectives were well defined and communicated (4.88/5) and rated highly the content, quality, and relevance of the lectures (4.94/5). Performance on the knowledge assessment improved from 58% to 66%. Our experience demonstrates the feasibility of including a formal socioeconomic course in neurosurgical residency training with positive resident feedback and achievement of outcomes-based milestones. Extension to a 2-year curriculum cycle may allow the course to cover more material without compromising other residency training goals. Online modules should also be explored to allow for wider and more flexible participation. ABNS, American Board of Neurological SurgeonsACGME, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  8. Drinking Water and Wastewater Laboratory Networks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This website provides the drinking water sector with an integrated nationwide network of laboratories with the analytical capability to respond to intentional and unintentional drinking water incidents.

  9. Chloramination of Concentrated Drinking Water for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract for presentation on chloraminated drinking water concentrates to create whole DBP mixtures Abstract for presentation on chloraminating drinking water concentrates to create whole DBP mixtures

  10. 20 CFR 411.581 - Can an EN receive milestone and outcome payments for months after a beneficiary takes his or her...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... assigned to an EN (or State VR agency acting as an EN) takes his or her ticket out of assignment (see § 411.145), the EN (or State VR agency) can receive payments under its elected payment system for milestones... EN or State VR agency based on the same milestone or outcome. [73 FR 29351, May 20, 2008] ...

  11. 20 CFR 411.581 - Can an EN receive milestone and outcome payments for months after a beneficiary takes his or her...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assigned to an EN (or State VR agency acting as an EN) takes his or her ticket out of assignment (see § 411.145), the EN (or State VR agency) can receive payments under its elected payment system for milestones... EN or State VR agency based on the same milestone or outcome. [73 FR 29351, May 20, 2008] ...

  12. FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT MILESTONE INC.'S DIRECT MERCURY ANALYZER (DMA)-80

    EPA Science Inventory

    Milestone's Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80) was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in May 2003 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the Demonstration was to...

  13. Summary of FY 17 Assessments Sandia National Laboratories: Evaluation of FY16 SNL FCT M2 Milestone Deliverables

    SciT

    Appel, Gordon John

    This report is the milestone deliverable M4FT-17SN111102091 “Summary of Assessments Performed FY17 by SNL QA POC” for work package FT-17SN11110209 titled “Quality Assurance – SNL”. This report summarizes the FY17 assessment performed on Fuel Cycle Technologies / Spent Fuel and Waste Disposition efforts.

  14. 20 CFR 411.575 - How does the EN request payment for milestones or outcome payment months achieved by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... outcome payment months achieved by a beneficiary who assigned a ticket to the EN? The EN (or State VR... provided as described in the IWP/IPE. (a) Milestone payments. (1) We will pay the EN (or State VR agency... VR agency's) elected payment system in effect at the time the beneficiary assigned a ticket to the EN...

  15. 20 CFR 411.575 - How does the EN request payment for milestones or outcome payment months achieved by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... outcome payment months achieved by a beneficiary who assigned a ticket to the EN? The EN (or State VR... provided as described in the IWP/IPE. (a) Milestone payments. (1) We will pay the EN (or State VR agency... VR agency's) elected payment system in effect at the time the beneficiary assigned a ticket to the EN...

  16. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study

    PubMed Central

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S. Bryn

    2017-01-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that females were more likely than males to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, males reached milestones earlier than females, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. PMID:27148762

  17. Endorsement and Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones Among Sexual Minority Young Adults in the Growing Up Today Study.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-02-01

    This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1,235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, men reached milestones earlier than women, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience.

  18. 20 CFR 411.545 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.545 Section 411.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.545 How... of the Social Security Act for all beneficiaries for months during the preceding calendar year; and...

  19. 20 CFR 411.560 - Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN? 411.560 Section 411.560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.560 Is it...

  20. 20 CFR 411.536 - Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.536 Section 411.536 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...

  1. 20 CFR 411.575 - How does the EN request payment for milestones or outcome payment months achieved by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 411.575 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.575 How does the EN request payment for milestones or... payment for a month if— (i)(A) Social Security disability benefits and Federal SSI cash benefits are not...

  2. 20 CFR 411.560 - Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN? 411.560 Section 411.560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.560 Is it...

  3. 20 CFR 411.536 - Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.536 Section 411.536 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...

  4. 20 CFR 411.536 - Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.536 Section 411.536 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...

  5. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? 411.566 Section 411.566 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.566 May...

  6. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? 411.566 Section 411.566 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.566 May...

  7. 20 CFR 411.575 - How does the EN request payment for milestones or outcome payment months achieved by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 411.575 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.575 How does the EN request payment for milestones or... payment for a month if— (i)(A) Social Security disability benefits and Federal SSI cash benefits are not...

  8. 20 CFR 411.575 - How does the EN request payment for milestones or outcome payment months achieved by a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 411.575 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.575 How does the EN request payment for milestones or... payment for a month if— (i)(A) Social Security disability benefits and Federal SSI cash benefits are not...

  9. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? 411.566 Section 411.566 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.566 May...

  10. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? 411.566 Section 411.566 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.566 May...

  11. 20 CFR 411.560 - Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Is it possible to pay a milestone or outcome payment to more than one EN? 411.560 Section 411.560 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.560 Is it...

  12. 20 CFR 411.545 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.545 Section 411.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.545 How... of the Social Security Act for all beneficiaries for months during the preceding calendar year; and...

  13. 20 CFR 411.536 - Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.536 Section 411.536 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...

  14. 20 CFR 411.545 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.545 Section 411.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.545 How... of the Social Security Act for all beneficiaries for months during the preceding calendar year; and...

  15. 20 CFR 411.536 - Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what circumstances can we make a reconciliation payment under the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.536 Section 411.536 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...

  16. 20 CFR 411.545 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.545 Section 411.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.545 How... of the Social Security Act for all beneficiaries for months during the preceding calendar year; and...

  17. 20 CFR 411.545 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome-milestone payment system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the outcome-milestone payment system? 411.545 Section 411.545 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.545 How... of the Social Security Act for all beneficiaries for months during the preceding calendar year; and...

  18. 20 CFR 411.566 - May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May an EN use outcome or milestone payments to make payments to the beneficiary? 411.566 Section 411.566 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.566 May...

  19. [Teenagers and age of first drinking: A disturbing precocity?].

    PubMed

    Picherot, G; Urbain, J; Dreno, L; Caldagues, E; Caquard, M; Pernel, A-S; Amar, M

    2010-05-01

    Age of first drink in France and Western countries is early. National and international surveys confirm this early onset. Drunkenness, which is the most obvious drinking outcome, seems to rise amongst young adolescents. Consequences of this precocity are considerable. At short-term, drunk teenagers are more frequently victims of accidents. In addition, they are more vulnerable to sexual abuses, as victims but also as perpetrators. At medium- and long-terms, the early development of alcohol use is linked to higher levels of later drinking dependence. Three explanatory ways for this precocity are developed: family's influence, role of advertising and media, and role of peers. When alcohol meets adolescence, it is sometimes a real storm. Prevention is uneasy because of the very commonplace of alcohol at home. It can concern family level or society level. As for tobacco, society intervention is needed to delay age of first drink and limit teenager alcohol use but this should not involved adolescents condemnation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Scoliosis in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: influence of severity of disease and age of reaching motor milestones.

    PubMed

    Engelbert, Raoul H H; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; van der Hulst, Annelies; Witjes, Baukje; Helders, Paul J M; Pruijs, Hans E H

    2003-04-01

    We studied the relationship between the age of reaching motor milestones, especially anti-gravity activities, and the age of development of pathological spinal curvatures in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We hypothesized that earlier achievement of anti-gravity motor milestones predicts a later development of pathological spinal curvatures. Ninety-six children participated in this retrospective study. The severity of the disease was classified according to Sillence into types I-IV. Spinal radiography was performed annually and spinal deformities were measured according to the Cobb angle. Scoliosis was defined as a Cobb angle exceeding 9 degrees. Pathological thoracic kyphosis was defined as a Cobb angle exceeding 40 degrees. The parents were asked to report the age at which the child achieved motor milestones, and data were checked against health care records. Thirty-seven of 96 children (39%) developed a scoliosis of more than 9 degrees. Nine of 96 children (9%) developed a pathological kyphosis. The age of developing scoliosis was significantly lower than the age of development of the pathological kyphosis (P=0.01). Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 53 children, 28 of whom developed scoliosis, and 25 of whom did not. The mean DEXA Z-score of the 28 children with scoliosis was significantly lower than that of the 25 children without (-5.2, SD 1.3 vs -3.2, SD 1.9; P-value <0.001). Children with OI type IV, but particularly OI type III, reached motor milestones much later than children with OI type I. The motor milestone "supported sitting" showed a significant inverse association with time of the first presence of scoliosis with a Cobb angle greater than 9 degrees (linear regression coefficient: -1.3, 95% confidence interval: -2.6 to -0.03). The age of achieving the motor milestones "lifting the head to 45 degrees in prone position", "rolling", and "supported-" and "unsupported standing" were not

  1. Intermittent Access to Ethanol Drinking Facilitates the Transition to Excessive Drinking After Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Vapor Exposure.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, Adam; Kim, Sarah; Cole, Maury; Brennan, Molly; George, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol binge drinking in humans is thought to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unclear is whether drinking patterns (e.g., bingelike or stable drinking) differentially affect the transition to compulsive-like drinking in dependent individuals. We examined whether chronic bingelike drinking facilitates the transition to compulsive-like drinking in rats. Male Wistar rats were given 5 months of intermittent access to ethanol (EtOH) (IAE) or continuous access to EtOH (CAE) in a 2-bottle choice paradigm. Then, rats were given chronic intermittent EtOH (CIE) vapor exposure. Escalation of EtOH intake and compulsive-like responding for EtOH, using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and quinine-adulterated EtOH, were measured. IAE rats escalated EtOH drinking after 2 weeks of 2-bottle choice, whereas CAE rats exhibited stable EtOH drinking for 5 months. After 8 weeks of CIE, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats escalated their EtOH intake. However, IAE rats escalated their EtOH intake weeks sooner than CAE rats and exhibited greater EtOH intake. No differences in compulsive-like responding were found between IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats. However, both IAE + CIE and CAE + CIE rats showed strong compulsive-like responding compared with rats without prior IAE or CAE. Chronic EtOH drinking at stable or escalated levels for several months is associated with more compulsive-like responding for EtOH in rats that are exposed to CIE compared with rats without a prior history of EtOH drinking. Moreover, IAE facilitated the transition to compulsive-like responding for EtOH after CIE exposure, reflected by the escalation of EtOH intake. These results suggest that IAE may facilitate the transition to AUD. This study indicates that despite a moderate level of EtOH drinking, the IAE animal model is highly relevant to early stages of alcohol abuse and suggests that it may be associated with neuroadaptations that produce a faster transition to

  2. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  3. Timing of motor milestones achievement and development of overweight in childhood: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Schmidt Morgen, C; Andersen, A M N; Due, P; Neelon, S B; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A

    2014-08-01

    Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass. To investigate whether increased birth weight and body mass index (BMI) at 5 months is associated with the achievement of the ability to sit up and walk and whether delayed achievement of these milestones is associated with overweight at age 7 years. We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort on 25,148 children born between 1998 and 2003. Follow-up took place from 2003 to 2010. Mean age at follow-up was 7.04 years. We used logistic and linear regression analyses. Birth weight and BMI at 5 months were marginally associated with earlier achievement of the ability to sit up and walk (regression coefficients between -0.027 months; [CI -0.042; -0.013] and -0.092 months [CI -0.118; -0.066]). Age in months of sitting and walking were not associated with overweight at age 7 years (ORs between 0.97 [CI 0.95-1.00] and 1.00 [CI 0.96-1.04]). Later achievement of sitting and walking predicted lower BMI at age 7 years (ln-BMI -z-scores between -0.023 [CI -0.029; -0.017] and -0.005 [CI -0.015; 0.005)). All observed associations were of negligible magnitude and we conclude that birth weight or BMI at age 5 months and motor milestones appear largely independent of each other and that timing of achievement of motor milestones seems not to be associated with later overweight or increased BMI. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Age of drinking onset and unintentional injury involvement after drinking

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons who begin drinking at younger ages are more likely to report unintentional injuries under the influence of alcohol. A national survey conducted for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1992, as...

  6. THE COST OF POSITIONAL NEGOTIATIONS VERSUS COLLABORATIVE OR RELATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS FOR NEGOTIATING COMPLIANCE MILESTONES AT HANFORD WA

    SciT

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    The Hanford site is subject to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), an order on consent signed by the DOE, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). Under the HFFCCO, negotiations for transition milestones begin within six months after the issuance of a shutdown order. In the case of the PFP, the Nuclear Materials disposition and stabilization activities, a DOE responsibility, were necessary as precursor activities to Transition. This situation precipitated a crisis in the negotiations between the agencies, and formal negotiations initiated in 1997 ended in failure. The negotiationsmore » reached impasse on several key regulatory and operational issues. The 1997 negotiation was characterized by a strongly positional style. DOE and the regulatory personnel took hard lines early in the negotiations and were unable to move to resolution of key issues after a year and a half. This resulted in unhappy stakeholders, poor publicity, and work delays as well as wounded relationships between DOE and the regulatory community. The PFP is a former plutonium metal production facility. The operating mission of the PFP ended with a DOE Headquarters shutdown letter in October of 1996. Generally, the receipt of a shutdown letter initiates the start of Transition (as the first step of Decommissioning) of a facility. In the 2000-2001 PFP negotiations, a completely different approach was suggested and eventually initiated: Collaborative or Relational Negotiations. The relational negotiation style resulted in agreement between the agencies on all key issues within 6 months of initiation. All parties were very pleased with the results and all parties were relieved that protracted negotiations sessions were not needed with the new style of working together collaboratively to serve each other's interests without compromising each party's needs. The characteristics of collaborative negotiations included

  7. Adolescent Energy Drink Use Related to Intake of Fried and High-sugar Foods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ronald D; Odum, Mary; Housman, Jeff M

    2017-07-01

    We assessed the relationship between energy drinks, fried food, and high-sugar food consumption. Secondary analyses including Mann-Whitney U, Cohen's d and effect sizes were used to examine 7-day intakes of energy drinks, fried foods, and high-sugar foods among teenagers (N = 1570) who participated in the 2014 FLASHE Study. Energy drink consumption during the past 7 days was reported by 14.4% (N = 226) of participants. Those who reported consumption of energy drinks in the past 7 days were more likely to eat various fried and high-sugar foods than those who did not report past 7-day energy drink consumption. These foods include candy (p < .001), cake (p = .011), desserts (p < .001), sugary cereal (p < .001), fried potatoes (p < .001), fried chicken (p < .001), and chips (p < .001). Energy drink consumption among adolescents may be linked to other high-risk nutrition intake behaviors, specifically increased consumption of fried and high-sugar foods. This study adds to the growing number of recent studies highlighting the multiple behavioral risks associated with early energy drink use. Health promotion and nutrition education efforts should focus on delaying early consumption of energy drinks among adolescents.

  8. First drink to first drunk: age of onset and delay to intoxication are associated with adolescent alcohol use and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Connell, Christian; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2014-10-01

    Quickly progressing from initiating alcohol use to drinking to intoxication recently was identified as a novel risk factor for hazardous drinking in college students (ME Morean et al. [2012] Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 36, 1991-1999). The current study evaluated the risk associated with age of onset (AO) and delay to first intoxication (Delay) in a high school sample. Adolescent drinkers (N = 295, age 16.29 [1.14], 55.3% female, 80.3% Caucasian, AO = 13.51 [2.29] years, Delay = 0.80 [1.43] years) completed an anonymous survey about their substance use in February of 2010. Self-report questions assessed AO and age of first intoxication (AI) (i.e., "How old were you the first time you tried alcohol/got drunk?") and past-month alcohol use/binge drinking (i.e., How often did you drink alcohol/drink ≥5 drinks?). Bivariate correlations indicated that AO was positively correlated with AI and inversely correlated with Delay, the frequency of any drinking, and the frequency of binge drinking. When considered alone, Delay was not significantly correlated with either alcohol use outcome. In contrast, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that when considered in concert, an earlier AO and a shorter Delay were each associated with heavier drinking (any drinking adjusted R(2)  = 0.08; binge drinking R(2)  = 0.06, p-values <0.001) beyond demographic characteristics. Two-way interactions among study variables were nonsignificant, suggesting that AO and Delay conferred risk similarly by racial/ethnic status, gender, and grade in high school. When considered simultaneously, both an early AO and a quick progression to drinking to intoxication appear to be important determinants of high school student drinking. In addition to continuing efforts to postpone AO, efforts designed to delay intoxication may modulate alcohol-related risk associated with early drinking. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Pain Control and Functional Milestones in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Liposomal Bupivacaine versus Femoral Nerve Block.

    PubMed

    Yu, Stephen; Szulc, Alessandra; Walton, Sharon; Bosco, Joseph; Iorio, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) affects rehabilitation, length of stay, and functional outcomes, pain management for patients undergoing TKA has yet to be standardized. Femoral nerve blocks (FNBs) are commonly used as an adjunct; however, these can result in transient quadriceps weakness and have been associated with in-hospital falls. Periarticular infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine has been recently introduced as a long-acting analgesic that can be administered without affecting motor function. (1) Does periarticular liposomal bupivacaine compared with FNB result in improved pain control as measured by pain scores and narcotic consumption? (2) How do liposomal bupivacaine and FNB compare in terms of gait and stairclimbing milestones and the proportion of patients who experienced a fall in the hospital? Between September 2013 and October 2014, a retrospective analysis was conducted involving 24 surgeons who performed a total of 1373 unilateral, primary TKAs. From September 2013 to April 2014, the routine approach to TKA pain management pathway consisted of preoperative administration of oral analgesics, intraoperative anesthesia (preferred spinal or general), an ultrasound-guided FNB, intraoperative analgesic cocktail injection, patient-controlled analgesia, and oral and IV narcotics for pain as needed. A total of 583 patients were included in this study group. Starting May 2014, FNBs were discouraged and there was department-wide adoption of liposomal bupivacaine. Liposomal bupivacaine became routinely used in all patients undergoing TKA with no other changes made to the multimodal analgesia protocol at that time, and 527 patients in this study group were compared with the FNB cohort. Chart review on a total of 1110 patients was conducted by a research assistant who was not participating in patient care. During the inpatient stay, pain scores during 8-hour intervals, narcotic use, and physical therapy milestones were compared. With

  10. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  11. Drinking Age 21: Facts, Myths and Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents justification for a legal drinking age of 21 in all states. The introduction reviews the history of the raising and lowering of the drinking age and the rise in highway accidents and deaths resulting from lowered drinking ages. The federal response of mandating a 21-year-old drinking age for states with the threat of loss of…

  12. A Typology of Adolescent Drinking-Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    Study examined data from students reporting driving within one hour of drinking two or more drinks. Three-cluster typology included: Marginals engage in least amount of delinquent behaviors, alcohol use, and drinking-driving; Heavy Drinkers are heaviest drinkers, most frequent drinking-drivers, and have greatest driving exposure; Delinquents…

  13. Decision Making and Binge Drinking: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Goudriaan, Anna E.; Grekin, Emily R.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavioral decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is found to be diminished in individuals with substance dependence and other types of disinhibitory psychopathology. However, little is known regarding the relation between heavy alcohol use and decision-making skills in young adults. This study therefore investigated whether binge drinking is related to disadvantageous decision making, as measured by the IGT. We also examined the relation between decision making and impulsivity. Methods: Latent class growth analysis was used to classify college students into 4 groups (each group n = 50, 50% male), based on their binge drinking trajectories over a 2-year time period (precollege through second year of college). Participants were 200 college students, divided in 4 subgroups: (1) low binge drinkers, (2) stable moderate binge drinkers, (3) increasing binge drinkers, and (4) stable high binge drinkers. A measure of decision making, the IGT, impulsivity questionnaires, and multiple indicators of heavy alcohol use were included. Results: The stable high binge-drinking group made less advantageous choices on the IGT than the low binge-drinking group. Impulsivity was not related to decision-making performance. Decision-making performance did not differ by gender, but deck preferences and decision time patterns did differ; women preferred low frequency, high amount punishments to a greater extent than men. Conclusions: Although disadvantageous decision making is related to binge-drinking patterns in emerging adulthood, this relation is independent of impulsivity. Additionally, the association appears attributable to those who engage in heavy (binge) drinking at an early age, but not to age of onset of drinking in general. PMID:17403069

  14. TENORM: Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has specific regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that limit the amount of radioactivity allowed in community water systems. Learn about methods used to treat these water supplies to remove radioactivity and manage wastes.

  15. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  16. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  17. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  18. Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Baken, Kirsten A; Sjerps, Rosa M A; Schriks, Merijn; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2018-06-13

    Cramer class I substances and 4 μg/L for Cramer class III substances in drinking water were derived based on these CEC. These levels are in line with previously reported generic drinking water target levels based on original TTC values and are shown to be protective for health effects of the majority of contaminants of emerging concern evaluated in the present study. Since the human health impact of many chemicals appearing in the water cycle has been studied insufficiently, generic drinking water target levels are useful for early warning and prioritization of CEC with unknown toxicity in drinking water and its sources for future monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  20. [Soft-drinks and health].

    PubMed

    Amato, D; Maravilla, A; García-Contreras, F; Paniagua, R

    1997-01-01

    To analyze published papers about soft drinks use, and to describe possible health benefits, risks, and damages related to soft drink consumption. INFORMATION SOURCE: A search was done in the MEDLINE compact disks, from January 1970 to January 1997, with the keywords soft drink, beverages, carbonated beverages, cola, Coca-Cola and sweetening-agents. Ninety nine papers reporting health-related damages or benefits in clinical or experimental studies were reviewed. All articles with a clear description of at least one beneficial or harmful effect related to soft drink consumption were considered. There were reports on 25 harmful effects and of 7 possibly beneficial effects. Data are classified in prophylactic and therapeutic uses, dental caries and other dental disorders, mineral metabolism disorders, acid-peptic disease, neoplasm, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, effects on central nervous system, reproduction, allergy, and miscellaneous. High prevalence of exposure and excessive consumption of soft drinks may represent a public health problem in Mexico. Data analysis shows that soft drink consumption may not be as harmless as generally believed. Many of the reports are anecdotal, without a suitable methodological design. A wide field for research is present in this area.