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Sample records for early drosophila development

  1. Coordinated Development of Muscles and Tendon-Like Structures: Early Interactions in the Drosophila Leg.

    PubMed

    Soler, Cedric; Laddada, Lilia; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the musculoskeletal system is a remarkable example of tissue assembly. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, precise connectivity between muscles and skeleton (or exoskeleton) via tendons or equivalent structures is fundamental for movement and stability of the body. The molecular and cellular processes underpinning muscle formation are well-established and significant advances have been made in understanding tendon development. However, the mechanisms contributing to proper connection between these two tissues have received less attention. Observations of coordinated development of tendons and muscles suggest these tissues may interact during the different steps in their development. There is growing evidence that, depending on animal model and muscle type, these interactions can take place from progenitor induction to the final step of the formation of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we briefly review and compare the mechanisms behind muscle and tendon interaction throughout the development of vertebrates and Drosophila before going on to discuss our recent findings on the coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures in Drosophila leg. By altering apodeme formation (the functional Drosophila equivalent of tendons in vertebrates) during the early steps of leg development, we affect the spatial localization of subsequent myoblasts. These findings provide the first evidence of the developmental impact of early interactions between muscle and tendon-like precursors, and confirm the appendicular Drosophila muscle system as a valuable model for studying these processes.

  2. Coordinated Development of Muscles and Tendon-Like Structures: Early Interactions in the Drosophila Leg

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Cedric; Laddada, Lilia; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the musculoskeletal system is a remarkable example of tissue assembly. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, precise connectivity between muscles and skeleton (or exoskeleton) via tendons or equivalent structures is fundamental for movement and stability of the body. The molecular and cellular processes underpinning muscle formation are well-established and significant advances have been made in understanding tendon development. However, the mechanisms contributing to proper connection between these two tissues have received less attention. Observations of coordinated development of tendons and muscles suggest these tissues may interact during the different steps in their development. There is growing evidence that, depending on animal model and muscle type, these interactions can take place from progenitor induction to the final step of the formation of the musculoskeletal system. Here, we briefly review and compare the mechanisms behind muscle and tendon interaction throughout the development of vertebrates and Drosophila before going on to discuss our recent findings on the coordinated development of muscles and tendon-like structures in Drosophila leg. By altering apodeme formation (the functional Drosophila equivalent of tendons in vertebrates) during the early steps of leg development, we affect the spatial localization of subsequent myoblasts. These findings provide the first evidence of the developmental impact of early interactions between muscle and tendon-like precursors, and confirm the appendicular Drosophila muscle system as a valuable model for studying these processes. PMID:26869938

  3. Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in

  4. Early development of the Drosophila brain: V. Pattern of postembryonic neuronal lineages expressing DE-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Dumstrei, Karin; Wang, Fay; Nassif, Claude; Hartenstein, Volker

    2003-01-20

    The Drosophila E-cadherin homolog, DE-cadherin, is expressed postembryonically by brain neuroblasts and their lineages of neurons ("secondary lineages"). DE-cadherin appears in neuroblasts as soon as they can be identified by their increase in size and then remains expressed uninterruptedly throughout larval life. DE-cadherin remains transiently expressed in the cell bodies and axons of neurons produced by neuroblast proliferation. In general, axons of neurons belonging to one lineage form tight bundles. The trajectories of these bundles are correlated with the location of the neuronal lineages to which they belong. Thus, axon bundles of lineages that are neighbors in the cortex travel parallel to each other and reach the neuropile at similar positions. It is, therefore, possible to assign coherent groups of neuroblasts and their lineages to the individual neuropile compartments and long axon tracts introduced in the accompanying articles (Nassif et al. [2003] J Comp Neurol 455:417-434; Younossi-Hartenstein et al. [2003] J Comp Neurol 455:435-450). In this study, we have reconstructed the pattern of secondary lineages and their projection in relationship to the compartments and Fasciclin II-positive long axon tracts. Based on topology and axonal trajectory, the lineages of the central brain can be subdivided into 11 groups that can be followed throughout successive larval stages. The map of larval lineages and their axonal projection will be important for future studies on postembryonic neurogenesis in Drosophila. It also lays a groundwork for investigating the role of DE-cadherin in larval brain development. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mei-P26 Cooperates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl to Promote Early Germline Development in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Qiao; Carreira-Rosario, Arnaldo; Maines, Jean Z.; McKearin, Dennis M.; Buszczak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the Drosophila female germline, spatially and temporally specific translation of mRNAs governs both stem cell maintenance and the differentiation of their progeny. However, the mechanisms that control and coordinate different modes of translational repression within this lineage remain incompletely understood. Here we present data showing that Mei-P26 associates with Bam, Bgcn and Sxl and nanos mRNA during early cyst development, suggesting that this protein helps to repress the translation of nanos mRNA. Together with recently published studies, these data suggest that Mei-P26 mediates both GSC self-renewal and germline differentiation through distinct modes of translational repression depending on the presence of Bam. PMID:23526974

  6. Spatial harmonics and pattern specification in early Drosophila development. Part II. The four colour wheels model.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, S A; Goodwin, B C

    1990-06-07

    We review the evidence presented in Part I showing that transcripts and protein products of maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes exhibit increasingly complex, multipeaked longitudinal waveforms in the early Drosophila embryo. The central problem we address in Part II is the use the embryo makes of these wave forms to specify longitudinal pattern. Based on the fact that mutants of many of these genes generate deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications of pattern elements on length scales ranging from about half the egg to within segments, we propose that position is specified by measuring a "phase angle" by use of the ratios of two or more variables. Pictorially, such a phase angle can be thought of as a colour on a colour wheel. Any such model contains a phaseless singularity where all or many phases, or colours, come together. We suppose as well that positional values sufficiently close to the singularity are meaningless, hence a "dead zone". Duplications and deletions are accounted for by deformation of the cycle of morphogen values occurring along the antero-posterior axis. If the cycle of values surrounds the singularity and lies outside the dead zone, pattern is normal. If the curve transects the dead zone, pattern elements are deleted. If the curve lies entirely on one side of the singularity, pattern elements are deleted and others are duplicated with mirror symmetry. The existence of different wavelength transcript patterns in maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes and the roles of those same genes in generating deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications on a variety of length scales lead us to propose that position is measured simultaneously on at least four colour wheels, which cycle different numbers of times along the anterior-posterior axis. These yield progressively finer grained positional information. Normal pattern specification requires a unique angle, outside of the dead zone, from each of the four wheels

  7. P-TEFb, the Super Elongation Complex and Mediator Regulate a Subset of Non-paused Genes during Early Drosophila Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Olle; Shilkova, Olga; Tang, Min; Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Mannervik, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) is a kinase consisting of Cdk9 and Cyclin T that releases RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) into active elongation. It can assemble into a larger Super Elongation Complex (SEC) consisting of additional elongation factors. Here, we use a miRNA-based approach to knock down the maternal contribution of P-TEFb and SEC components in early Drosophila embryos. P-TEFb or SEC depletion results in loss of cells from the embryo posterior and in cellularization defects. Interestingly, the expression of many patterning genes containing promoter-proximal paused Pol II is relatively normal in P-TEFb embryos. Instead, P-TEFb and SEC are required for expression of some non-paused, rapidly transcribed genes in pre-cellular embryos, including the cellularization gene Serendipity-α. We also demonstrate that another P-TEFb regulated gene, terminus, has an essential function in embryo development. Similar morphological and gene expression phenotypes were observed upon knock down of Mediator subunits, providing in vivo evidence that P-TEFb, the SEC and Mediator collaborate in transcription control. Surprisingly, P-TEFb depletion does not affect the ratio of Pol II at the promoter versus the 3’ end, despite affecting global Pol II Ser2 phosphorylation levels. Instead, Pol II occupancy is reduced at P-TEFb down-regulated genes. We conclude that a subset of non-paused, pre-cellular genes are among the most susceptible to reduced P-TEFb, SEC and Mediator levels in Drosophila embryos. PMID:25679530

  8. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  9. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  10. Collective synchronization of divisions in Drosophila development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergassola, Massimo

    Mitoses in the early development of most metazoans are rapid and synchronized across the entire embryo. While diffusion is too slow, in vitro experiments have shown that waves of the cell-cycle regulator Cdk1 can transfer information rapidly across hundreds of microns. However, the signaling dynamics and the physical properties of chemical waves during embryonic development remain unclear. We develop FRET biosensors for the activity of Cdk1 and the checkpoint kinase Chk1 in Drosophila embryos and exploit them to measure waves in vivo. We demonstrate that Cdk1 chemical waves control mitotic waves and that their speed is regulated by the activity of Cdk1 during the S-phase (and not mitosis). We quantify the progressive slowdown of the waves with developmental cycles and identify its underlying control mechanism by the DNA replication checkpoint through the Chk1/Wee1 pathway. The global dynamics of the mitotic signaling network illustrates a novel control principle: the S-phase activity of Cdk1 regulates the speed of the mitotic wave, while the Cdk1 positive feedback ensures an invariantly rapid onset of mitosis. Mathematical modeling captures the speed of the waves and predicts a fundamental distinction between the S-phase Cdk1 trigger waves and the mitotic phase waves, which is illustrated by embryonic ablation experiments. In collaboration with Victoria Deneke1, Anna Melbinger2, and Stefano Di Talia1 1 Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center 2 Department of Physics, University of California San Diego.

  11. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q < 0.05) difference in gene expression. Five major biological processes were affected: ion transport, redox homeostasis, immune response, proteolysis, and cuticle development. This outlines the underlying molecular changes occurring in Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  12. Developing a Drosophila Model of Schwannomatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model system for cancer studies. Reduced redundancy in the Drosophila genome compared with that of...of high-resolution deletion coverage of the Drosophila melanogaster genome . Nat. Genet. 36, 288-292. Pastor-Pareja, J. C., Wu, M. and Xu. T. (2008...microarray analysis of the entire Drosophila melanogaster genome and compared gene expression profiles of wild type, dCap-D3 and rbf1 mutant

  13. Growing Pains: Development of the Larval Nocifensive Response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    SULKOWSKI, MIKOLAJ J.; KUROSAWA, MATHIEU S.; OX, DANIEL N.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to perceive and avoid harmful substances or stimuli is key to an organism’s survival. The neuronal cognate of the perception of pain is known as nociception, and the reflexive motion to avoid pain is termed the nocifensive response. As the nocifensive response is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved behavioral response to nociceptive stimuli, it is amenable to study in relatively simple and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila. Recent studies have taken advantage of the useful properties of Drosophila larvae to begin elucidating the neuronal connectivity and molecular machinery underlying the nocifensive response. However, these studies have primarily utilized the third-instar larval stage, and many mutations that potentially influence nociception survive only until earlier larval stages. Here we characterize the nocifensive responses of Drosophila throughout larval development and find dramatic changes in the nature of the behavior. Notably, we find that prior to the third instar, larvae are unable to perform the characteristic “corkscrew-like roll” behavior. Also, we identify an avoidance behavior consistent with a nocifensive response that is present immediately after larval hatching, representing a paradigm that may be useful in examining mutations with an early lethal phenotype. PMID:22186918

  14. Developing a Drosophila Model of Schwannomatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    the entire Drosophila melanogaster genome and compared...et al., 2009; Hanahan and Weinberg, 2011). Over the last decade, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model system for cancer...studies. Reduced redundancy in the Drosophila genome compared with that of humans, coupled with the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens

  15. Autophagy promotes synapse development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Ganetzky, Barry

    2009-10-05

    Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradation mechanism, mediates many biological processes, including cellular stress responses and neuroprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that autophagy positively regulates development of the Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Autophagy induces an NMJ overgrowth phenotype closely resembling that of highwire (hiw), an E3 ubiquitin ligase mutant. Moreover, like hiw, autophagy-induced NMJ overgrowth is suppressed by wallenda (wnd) and by a dominant-negative c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (bsk(DN)). We show that autophagy promotes NMJ growth by reducing Hiw levels. Thus, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system converge in regulating synaptic development. Because autophagy is triggered in response to many environmental cues, our findings suggest that it is perfectly positioned to link environmental conditions with synaptic growth and plasticity.

  16. Genetic control of Drosophila nerve cord development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skeath, James B.; Thor, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila ventral nerve cord has been a central model system for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms that control CNS development. Studies show that the generation of neural diversity is a multistep process initiated by the patterning and segmentation of the neuroectoderm. These events act together with the process of lateral inhibition to generate precursor cells (neuroblasts) with specific identities, distinguished by the expression of unique combinations of regulatory genes. The expression of these genes in a given neuroblast restricts the fate of its progeny, by activating specific combinations of downstream genes. These genes in turn specify the identity of any given postmitotic cell, which is evident by its cellular morphology and choice of neurotransmitter.

  17. Transcriptomic response of Drosophila melanogaster pupae developed in hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Hateley, Shannon; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-10-01

    Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-treated pupae compared to controls, with 1513 genes showing a significant (q<0.05) difference in gene expression. Five major biological processes were affected: ion transport, redox homeostasis, immune response, proteolysis, and cuticle development. This outlines the underlying molecular and biological changes occurring in Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity; gravity is important for many biological processes on Earth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.

  19. Ferritin Is Required in Multiple Tissues during Drosophila melanogaster Development.

    PubMed

    González-Morales, Nicanor; Mendoza-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Blowes, Liisa M; Missirlis, Fanis; Riesgo-Escovar, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, iron is stored in the cellular endomembrane system inside a protein cage formed by 24 ferritin subunits of two types (Fer1HCH and Fer2LCH) in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In larvae, ferritin accumulates in the midgut, hemolymph, garland, pericardial cells and in the nervous system. Here we present analyses of embryonic phenotypes for mutations in Fer1HCH, Fer2LCH and in both genes simultaneously. Mutations in either gene or deletion of both genes results in a similar set of cuticular embryonic phenotypes, ranging from non-deposition of cuticle to defects associated with germ band retraction, dorsal closure and head involution. A fraction of ferritin mutants have embryonic nervous systems with ventral nerve cord disruptions, misguided axonal projections and brain malformations. Ferritin mutants die with ectopic apoptotic events. Furthermore, we show that ferritin maternal contribution, which varies reflecting the mother's iron stores, is used in early development. We also evaluated phenotypes arising from the blockage of COPII transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, feeding the secretory pathway, plus analysis of ectopically expressed and fluorescently marked Fer1HCH and Fer2LCH. Overall, our results are consistent with insect ferritin combining three functions: iron storage, intercellular iron transport, and protection from iron-induced oxidative stress. These functions are required in multiple tissues during Drosophila embryonic development.

  20. Effects of Spaceflight on Drosophila Neural Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keshishian, Haig S.

    1997-01-01

    The major goal from the animal side, however, has been achieved, namely to develop Drosophila lines where we can assay individual neuromuscular endings directly without dissection. This was achieved by means of using the GAL4-UAS system, where we have succeeded in establishing stocks of flies where the key neuromuscular connections can be assayed directly in undissected larvae by means of the expression of endogenously fluorescent reporters in the specific motor endings. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter allows scoring of neural anatomy en-masse in whole mount using fluorescent microscopy without the need for either dissection or specific labeling. Two stocks have been developed. The first, which we developed first, uses the S65T mutant form, which has a dramatically brighter expression than the native protein. This animal will use GAL4 drivers with expression under the control of the elav gene, and which will ensure expression in all neurons of the embryo and larva. The second transgenic animal we have developed is of a novel kind, and makes use of dicistronic design, so that two copies of the protein will be expressed per insert. We have also developed a tricistronic form, but this has not yet been transformed into flies, and we do not imagine that this third line will be ready in time for the flight.

  1. Analysis of the effects of early nutritional environment on inbreeding depression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, T M; Roff, D A; Rantala, M J

    2011-01-01

    The impact of nutritional deficiencies early in life in determining life-history variation in organisms is well recognized. The negative effects of inbreeding on fitness are also well known. Contrary to studies on vertebrates, studies on invertebrates are not consistent with the observation that inbreeding compromises resistance to parasites and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effect of early nutrition on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that early nutritional environment had no effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time or adult body size but may have played a small role in adult resistance to the bacterial infection. Estimates of heritabilities for development time under the poor nutritional environment were larger than those measured under the standard nutritional conditions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Mohna; Arbet, Scott; Bishop, Clifton P.; Bidwai, Ashok P.

    2016-01-01

    CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2 “interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase. PMID:28036067

  3. Methods to assess Drosophila heart development, function and aging

    PubMed Central

    Ocorr, Karen; Vogler, Georg; Bodmer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the Drosophila heart has become an established model of many different aspects of human cardiac disease. This model has allowed identification of disease-causing mechanisms underlying congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies and has permitted the study underlying genetic, metabolic and age-related contributions to heart function. In this review we discuss methods currently employed in the analysis of the Drosophila heart structure and function, such as optical methods to infer heart function and performance, electrophysiological and mechanical approaches to characterize cardiac tissue properties, and conclude with histological techniques used in the study of heart development and adult structure. PMID:24727147

  4. Nerve-muscle interactions during flight muscle development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, J. J.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    During Drosophila pupal metamorphosis, the motoneurons and muscles differentiate synchronously, providing an opportunity for extensive intercellular regulation during synapse formation. We examined the existence of such interactions by developmentally delaying or permanently eliminating synaptic partners during the formation of indirect flight muscles. When we experimentally delayed muscle development, we found that although adult-specific primary motoneuron branching still occurred, the higher order (synaptic) branching was suspended until the delayed muscle fibers reached a favourable developmental state. In reciprocal experiments we found that denervation caused a decrease in the myoblast pool. Furthermore, the formation of certain muscle fibers (dorsoventral muscles) was specifically blocked. Exceptions were the adult muscles that use larval muscle fibers as myoblast fusion targets (dorsal longitudinal muscles). However, when these muscles were experimentally compelled to develop without their larval precursors, they showed an absolute dependence on the motoneurons for their formation. These data show that the size of the myoblast pool and early events in fiber formation depend on the presence of the nerve, and that, conversely, peripheral arbor development and synaptogenesis is closely synchronized with the developmental state of the muscle.

  5. T-Box Genes in Drosophila Mesoderm Development.

    PubMed

    Reim, I; Frasch, M; Schaub, C

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila there are eight genes encoding transcription factors of the T-box family, which are known to exert a variety of crucial developmental functions during ectodermal patterning processes, neuronal cell specification, mesodermal tissue development, and the development of extraembryonic tissues. In this review, we focus on the prominent roles of Drosophila T-box genes in mesodermal tissues. First, we describe the contributions of brachyenteron (byn) and optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) to the development of the visceral mesoderm. Second, we provide an overview on the functions of the three Dorsocross paralogs (Doc1-3) and the two Tbx20-related paralogs (midline and H15) during Drosophila heart development. Third, we portray the roles of org-1 and midline/H15 in the specification of individual body wall and organ-attached muscles, including the function of org-1 in the transdifferentiation of certain heart-attached muscles during metamorphosis. The functional analysis of these evolutionarily conserved T-box genes, along with their interactions with other types of transcription factors and various signaling pathways, has provided key insights into the regulation of Drosophila visceral mesoderm, muscle, and heart development. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NIP/DuoxA is essential for Drosophila embryonic development and regulates oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaojun; Hu, Jack; Liu, Xiping; Qin, Hanjuan; Percival-Smith, Anthony; Rao, Yong; Li, Shawn S C

    2010-05-11

    NIP/DuoxA, originally cloned as a protein capable of binding to the cell fate determinant Numb in Drosophila, was recently identified as a modulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mammalian systems. Despite biochemical and cellular studies that link NIP/DuoxA to the generation of ROS through the dual oxidase (Duox) enzyme, the in vivo function of NIP/DuoxA has not been characterized to date. Here we report a genetic and functional characterization of nip in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that nip is essential for Drosophila development as nip null mutants die at the 1(st) larval instar. Expression of UAS-nip, but not UAS-Duox, rescued the lethality. To understand the function of nip beyond the early larval stage, we generated GAL4 inducible UAS-RNAi transgenes. da(G32)-GAL4 driven, ubiquitous RNAi-mediated silencing of nip led to profound abnormality in pre-adult development, crinkled wing and markedly reduced lifespan at 29 degrees C. Compared to wild type flies, da-GAL4 induced nip-RNAi transgenic flies exhibited significantly reduced ability to survive under oxidative stress and displayed impaired mitochondrial aconitase function. Our work provides in vivo evidence for a critical role for nip in the development and oxidative stress response in Drosophila.

  7. Calmodulin point mutations affect Drosophila development and behavior.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H B; Heiman, R G; Bolduc, C; Kovalick, G E; Whitley, P; Stern, M; Beckingham, K

    1997-12-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) is recognized as a major intermediary in intracellular calcium signaling, but as yet little is known of its role in developmental and behavioral processes. We have generated and studied mutations to the endogenous Cam gene of Drosophila melanogaster that change single amino acids within the protein coding region. One of these mutations produces a striking pupal lethal phenotype involving failure of head eversion. Various mutant combinations produce specific patterns of ectopic wing vein formation or melanotic scabs on the cuticle. Anaphase chromosome bridging is also seen as a maternal effect during the early embryonic nuclear divisions. In addition, specific behavioral defects such as poor climbing and flightlessness are detected among these mutants. Comparisons with other Drosophila mutant phenotypes suggests potential CAM targets that may mediate these developmental and behavioral effects, and analysis of the CAM crystal structure suggests the structural consequences of the individual mutations.

  8. Calmodulin Point Mutations Affect Drosophila Development and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, H. B.; Heiman, R. G.; Bolduc, C.; Kovalick, G. E.; Whitley, P.; Stern, M.; Beckingham, K.

    1997-01-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) is recognized as a major intermediary in intracellular calcium signaling, but as yet little is known of its role in developmental and behavioral processes. We have generated and studied mutations to the endogenous Cam gene of Drosophila melanogaster that change single amino acids within the protein coding region. One of these mutations produces a striking pupal lethal phenotype involving failure of head eversion. Various mutant combinations produce specific patterns of ectopic wing vein formation or melanotic scabs on the cuticle. Anaphase chromosome bridging is also seen as a maternal effect during the early embryonic nuclear divisions. In addition, specific behavioral defects such as poor climbing and flightlessness are detected among these mutants. Comparisons with other Drosophila mutant phenotypes suggests potential CAM targets that may mediate these developmental and behavioral effects, and analysis of the CAM crystal structure suggests the structural consequences of the individual mutations. PMID:9409836

  9. Effects of hypo-O-GlcNAcylation on Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Mariappa, Daniel; Ferenbach, Andrew T; van Aalten, Daan M F

    2018-05-11

    Post-translational modification of serine/threonine residues in nucleocytoplasmic proteins with GlcNAc ( O -GlcNAcylation) is an essential regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes. In Drosophila , null mutants of the Polycomb gene O -GlcNAc transferase ( OGT ; also known as super sex combs ( sxc )) display homeotic phenotypes. To dissect the requirement for O -GlcNAc signaling in Drosophila development, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to generate rationally designed sxc catalytically hypomorphic or null point mutants. Of the fertile males derived from embryos injected with the CRISPR/Cas9 reagents, 25% produced progeny carrying precise point mutations with no detectable off-target effects. One of these mutants, the catalytically inactive sxc K872M , was recessive lethal, whereas a second mutant, the hypomorphic sxc H537A , was homozygous viable. We observed that reduced total protein O -GlcNAcylation in the sxc H537A mutant is associated with a wing vein phenotype and temperature-dependent lethality. Genetic interaction between sxc H537A and a null allele of Drosophila host cell factor ( dHcf ), encoding an extensively O -GlcNAcylated transcriptional coactivator, resulted in abnormal scutellar bristle numbers. A similar phenotype was also observed in sxc H537A flies lacking a copy of skuld ( skd ), a Mediator complex gene known to affect scutellar bristle formation. Interestingly, this phenotype was independent of OGT Polycomb function or dHcf downstream targets. In conclusion, the generation of the endogenous OGT hypomorphic mutant sxc H537A enabled us to identify pleiotropic effects of globally reduced protein O -GlcNAc during Drosophila development. The mutants generated and phenotypes observed in this study provide a platform for discovery of OGT substrates that are critical for Drosophila development. © 2018 Mariappa et al.

  10. Clonal development and organization of the adult Drosophila central brain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang; Awasaki, Takeshi; Schroeder, Mark David; Long, Fuhui; Yang, Jacob S; He, Yisheng; Ding, Peng; Kao, Jui-Chun; Wu, Gloria Yueh-Yi; Peng, Hanchuan; Myers, Gene; Lee, Tzumin

    2013-04-22

    The insect brain can be divided into neuropils that are formed by neurites of both local and remote origin. The complexity of the interconnections obscures how these neuropils are established and interconnected through development. The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts (NBs) that deposit neurons in regional clusters. By determining individual NB clones and pursuing their projections into specific neuropils, we unravel the regional development of the brain neural network. Exhaustive clonal analysis revealed 95 stereotyped neuronal lineages with characteristic cell-body locations and neurite trajectories. Most clones show complex projection patterns, but despite the complexity, neighboring clones often coinnervate the same local neuropil or neuropils and further target a restricted set of distant neuropils. These observations argue for regional clonal development of both neuropils and neuropil connectivity throughout the Drosophila central brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. T-Box Genes in Drosophila Limb Development.

    PubMed

    Pflugfelder, G O; Eichinger, F; Shen, J

    2017-01-01

    T-box genes are essential for limb development in vertebrates and arthropods. The Drosophila genome encodes eight T-box genes, six of which are expressed in limb ontogenesis. The Tbx20-related gene pair midline and H15 is essential for dorso-ventral patterning of the Drosophila legs. The three Tbx6-related Dorsocross genes are required for epithelial remodeling during wing development. The Drosophila gene optomotor-blind (omb) is the only member of the Tbx2 subfamily in the fly and is predominantly involved in wing development. Omb is essential for wing development and is sufficient to promote the development of a second wing pair. Targeted manipulations of omb expression have shown that the bulk omb requirement for wing development can be deconstructed into a number of individual functions. Even though omb expression in the wing disc is symmetrical with regard to the anterior/posterior (A/P) compartment boundary, anterior and posterior knockdowns have distinct consequences: Anterior Omb is required for the maintenance of a straight A/P lineage restriction boundary. Posterior Omb suppresses formation of an apical epithelial fold along the A/P boundary. Drosophila T-box gene expression is not confined to the ectoderm-derived epithelia of the imaginal discs. Both Doc and Omb are prominently expressed in leg disc muscle precursor cells. Omb is also strongly expressed in a tracheal branch that invades the extracellular matrix of the wing disc. The function of Doc and Omb in the latter tissues is not known, indicative of the many questions still open in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of centrifugation to study early Drosophila embryogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    By the end of 10th nuclear cycle, the somatic nuclei of the Drosophila embryo have migrated to the periphery of the egg. Centrifugation of embryos did not result in the displacement of these nuclei, since cytoskeletal elements anchor them to the cortex. But, mild centrifugal forces displace the centrally located, nascent yolk nuclei. If this increased sensitivity to hypergravity occurs before the beginning of nuclear differentiation during cycle 8, when the nascent yolk and somatic nuclei physically separate, then it would mark the earliest functional difference between these two lineages.

  13. Extracellular matrix and its receptors in Drosophila neural development

    PubMed Central

    Broadie, Kendal; Baumgartner, Stefan; Prokop, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix receptors are intimately involved in most biological processes. The ECM plays fundamental developmental and physiological roles in health and disease, including processes underlying the development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. To understand the principles of ECM-mediated functions in the nervous system, genetic model organisms like Drosophila provide simple, malleable and powerful experimental platforms. This article provides an overview of ECM proteins and receptors in Drosophila. It then focuses on their roles during three progressive phases of neural development: 1) neural progenitor proliferation, 2) axonal growth and pathfinding and 3) synapse formation and function. Each section highlights known ECM and ECM-receptor components and recent studies done in mutant conditions to reveal their in vivo functions, all illustrating the enormous opportunities provided when merging work on the nervous system with systematic research into ECM-related gene functions. PMID:21688401

  14. Upstream paths for Hippo signaling in Drosophila organ development.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2018-03-01

    Organ growth is fundamental to animal development. One of major mechanisms for growth control is mediated by the conserved Hippo signaling pathway initially identified in Drosophila. The core of this pathway in Drosophila consists of a cascade of protein kinases Hippo and Warts that negatively regulate transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki). Activation of Yki promotes cell survival and proliferation to induce organ growth. A key issue in Hippo signaling is to understand how core kinase cascade is activated. Activation of Hippo kinase cascade is regulated in the upstream by at least two transmembrane proteins Crumbs and Fat that act in parallel. These membrane proteins interact with additional factors such as FERM-domain proteins Expanded and Merlin to modulate subcellular localization and function of the Hippo kinase cascade. Hippo signaling is also influenced by cytoskeletal networks and cell tension in epithelia of developing organs. These upstream events in the regulation of Hippo signaling are only partially understood. This review focuses on our current understanding of some upstream processes involved in Hippo signaling in developing Drosophila organs. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(3): 134-142].

  15. Color Processing in the Early Visual System of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schnaitmann, Christopher; Haikala, Väinö; Abraham, Eva; Oberhauser, Vitus; Thestrup, Thomas; Griesbeck, Oliver; Reiff, Dierk F

    2018-01-11

    Color vision extracts spectral information by comparing signals from photoreceptors with different visual pigments. Such comparisons are encoded by color-opponent neurons that are excited at one wavelength and inhibited at another. Here, we examine the circuit implementation of color-opponent processing in the Drosophila visual system by combining two-photon calcium imaging with genetic dissection of visual circuits. We report that color-opponent processing of UV short /blue and UV long /green is already implemented in R7/R8 inner photoreceptor terminals of "pale" and "yellow" ommatidia, respectively. R7 and R8 photoreceptors of the same type of ommatidia mutually inhibit each other directly via HisCl1 histamine receptors and receive additional feedback inhibition that requires the second histamine receptor Ort. Color-opponent processing at the first visual synapse represents an unexpected commonality between Drosophila and vertebrates; however, the differences in the molecular and cellular implementation suggest that the same principles evolved independently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Chowdhury, Debabani Roy; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2013-01-24

    In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof¹/+; mnkp⁶/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using Drosophila as model system and carry out the interaction of MOF

  17. Drosophila MOF controls Checkpoint protein2 and regulates genomic stability during early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Drosophila embryos, checkpoints maintain genome stability by delaying cell cycle progression that allows time for damage repair or to complete DNA synthesis. Drosophila MOF, a member of MYST histone acetyl transferase is an essential component of male X hyperactivation process. Until recently its involvement in G2/M cell cycle arrest and defects in ionizing radiation induced DNA damage pathways was not well established. Results Drosophila MOF is highly expressed during early embryogenesis. In the present study we show that haplo-insufficiency of maternal MOF leads to spontaneous mitotic defects like mitotic asynchrony, mitotic catastrophe and chromatid bridges in the syncytial embryos. Such abnormal nuclei are eliminated and digested in the yolk tissues by nuclear fall out mechanism. MOF negatively regulates Drosophila checkpoint kinase 2 tumor suppressor homologue. In response to DNA damage the checkpoint gene Chk2 (Drosophila mnk) is activated in the mof mutants, there by causing centrosomal inactivation suggesting its role in response to genotoxic stress. A drastic decrease in the fall out nuclei in the syncytial embryos derived from mof1/+; mnkp6/+ females further confirms the role of DNA damage response gene Chk2 to ensure the removal of abnormal nuclei from the embryonic precursor pool and maintain genome stability. The fact that mof mutants undergo DNA damage has been further elucidated by the increased number of single and double stranded DNA breaks. Conclusion mof mutants exhibited genomic instability as evidenced by the occurance of frequent mitotic bridges in anaphase, asynchronous nuclear divisions, disruption of cytoskeleton, inactivation of centrosomes finally leading to DNA damage. Our findings are consistent to what has been reported earlier in mammals that; reduced levels of MOF resulted in increased genomic instability while total loss resulted in lethality. The study can be further extended using Drosophila as model system and carry

  18. Identification of factors that function in Drosophila salivary gland cell death during development using proteomics

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, C K; Balgley, B M; Nelson, C; Hill, J H; Batlevi, Y; Fang, X; Lee, C S; Baehrecke, E H

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce cell death and are used in cancer therapy, but little is known about the relationship between proteasome impairment and cell death under normal physiological conditions. Here, we investigate the relationship between proteasome function and larval salivary gland cell death during development in Drosophila. Drosophila larval salivary gland cells undergo synchronized programmed cell death requiring both caspases and autophagy (Atg) genes during development. Here, we show that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function is reduced during normal salivary gland cell death, and that ectopic proteasome impairment in salivary gland cells leads to early DNA fragmentation and salivary gland condensation in vivo. Shotgun proteomic analyses of purified dying salivary glands identified the UPS as the top category of proteins enriched, suggesting a possible compensatory induction of these factors to maintain proteolysis during cell death. We compared the proteome following ectopic proteasome impairment to the proteome during developmental cell death in salivary gland cells. Proteins that were enriched in both populations of cells were screened for their function in salivary gland degradation using RNAi knockdown. We identified several factors, including trol, a novel gene CG11880, and the cop9 signalsome component cop9 signalsome 6, as required for Drosophila larval salivary gland degradation. PMID:22935612

  19. Early events in speciation: Polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Laura K.; Markow, Therese A.

    2004-01-01

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage. PMID:15184657

  20. Early events in speciation: polymorphism for hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2004-06-15

    Capturing the process of speciation early enough to determine the initial genetic causes of reproductive isolation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. We have found, to our knowledge, the first example of substantial intraspecific polymorphism for genetic factors contributing to hybrid male sterility. Specifically, we show that the occurrence of hybrid male sterility in crosses between Drosophila mojavensis and its sister species, Drosophila arizonae, is controlled by factors present at different frequencies in different populations of D. mojavensis. In addition, we show that hybrid male sterility is a complex phenotype; some hybrid males with motile sperm still cannot sire offspring. Because male sterility factors in hybrids between these species are not yet fixed within D. mojavensis, this system provides an invaluable opportunity to characterize the genetics of reproductive isolation at an early stage.

  1. Nutrient-Dependent Impact of Microbes on Drosophila suzukii Development.

    PubMed

    Bing, XiaoLi; Gerlach, Joseph; Loeb, Gregory; Buchon, Nicolas

    2018-03-20

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness. Field-captured flies were associated with diverse microbiota, which varied significantly with sampling location and season. In contrast, laboratory-reared flies possessed strikingly lower bacterial abundance and diversity. A comparison of conventionally reared (CR) and germ-free (GF) flies revealed that the microbiota of D. suzukii does not alter its development significantly but decreases its life span under conditions of a nutrient-sufficient diet. However, the microbiota is essential for D. suzukii development on strawberry-based or blueberry-based fruit diets. This developmental failure could be rescued by reassociation with single bacterial or fungal species or by the addition of a high quantity of heat-killed microbes. In addition, we found that proteins are limiting with respect to fly development on fruit-based diets and that GF flies show signs of protein starvation. Taken together, our study results demonstrate that the microbiota provides key proteins required for the development of D. suzukii reared on fresh fruit. Our work shows that the impact of microbes on fly fitness depends strongly on nutritional conditions. IMPORTANCE Animals are commonly associated with specific microbes, which play important roles in host development and fitness. However, little information about the function of microbes has been available for the important invasive pest Drosophila suzukii , also known as Spotted

  2. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. Our project aims to develop a tracking microscope that maintains the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva.

  3. Argonaute-1 functions as a mitotic regulator by controlling Cyclin B during Drosophila early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Bag, Indira; Hunt, Clayton R; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Pandita, Tej K; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2014-02-01

    The role of Ago-1 in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis has been thoroughly studied, but little is known about its involvement in mitotic cell cycle progression. In this study, we established evidence of the regulatory role of Ago-1 in cell cycle control in association with the G2/M cyclin, cyclin B. Immunostaining of early embryos revealed that the maternal effect gene Ago-1 is essential for proper chromosome segregation, mitotic cell division, and spindle fiber assembly during early embryonic development. Ago-1 mutation resulted in the up-regulation of cyclin B-Cdk1 activity and down-regulation of p53, grp, mei-41, and wee1. The increased expression of cyclin B in Ago-1 mutants caused less stable microtubules and probably does not produce enough force to push the nuclei to the cortex, resulting in a decreased number of pole cells. The role of cyclin B in mitotic defects was further confirmed by suppressing the defects in the presence of one mutant copy of cyclin B. We identified involvement of 2 novel embryonic miRNAs--miR-981 and miR--317-for spatiotemporal regulation of cyclin B. In summary, our results demonstrate that the haploinsufficiency of maternal Ago-1 disrupts mitotic chromosome segregation and spindle fiber assembly via miRNA-guided control during early embryogenesis in Drosophila. The increased expression of cyclin B-Cdk1 and decreased activity of the Cdk1 inhibitor and cell cycle checkpoint proteins (mei-41 and grp) in Ago-1 mutant embryos allow the nuclei to enter into mitosis prematurely, even before completion of DNA replication. Thus, our results have established a novel role of Ago-1 as a regulator of the cell cycle.

  4. Biochemical defects of mutant nudel alleles causing early developmental arrest or dorsalization of the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    LeMosy, E K; Leclerc, C L; Hashimoto, C

    2000-01-01

    The nudel gene of Drosophila is maternally required both for structural integrity of the egg and for dorsoventral patterning of the embryo. It encodes a structurally modular protein that is secreted by ovarian follicle cells. Genetic and molecular studies have suggested that the Nudel protein is also functionally modular, with a serine protease domain that is specifically required for ventral development. Here we describe biochemical and immunolocalization studies that provide insight into the molecular basis for the distinct phenotypes produced by nudel mutations and for the interactions between these alleles. Mutations causing loss of embryonic dorsoventral polarity result in a failure to activate the protease domain of Nudel. Our analyses support previous findings that catalytic activity of the protease domain is required for dorsoventral patterning and that the Nudel protease is auto-activated and reveal an important role for a region adjacent to the protease domain in Nudel protease function. Mutations causing egg fragility and early embryonic arrest result in a significant decrease in extracellular Nudel protein, due to defects in post-translational processing, stability, or secretion. On the basis of these and other studies of serine proteases, we suggest potential mechanisms for the complementary and antagonistic interactions between the nudel alleles. PMID:10628985

  5. Ecdysone mediates the development of immunity in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kiri Louise; Vlisidou, Isabella; Wood, Will

    2014-05-19

    Beyond their role in cell metabolism, development, and reproduction, hormones are also important modulators of the immune system. In the context of inflammatory disorders, systemic administration of pharmacological doses of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory treatment [1, 2]. However, not all actions of GCs are immunosuppressive, and many studies have suggested that physiological concentrations of GCs can have immunoenhancing effects [3-7]. For a more comprehensive understanding of how steroid hormones regulate immunity and inflammation, a simple in vivo system is required. The Drosophila embryo has recently emerged as a powerful model system to study the recruitment of immune cells to sterile wounds [8] and host-pathogen dynamics [9]. Here we investigate the immune response of the fly embryo to bacterial infections and find that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) can regulate the quality of the immune response and influence the resolution of infection in Drosophila embryos. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Role for Adenosine Deaminase in Drosophila Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Dolezal, Tomas; Dolezelova, Eva; Zurovec, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme present in all organisms that catalyzes the irreversible deamination of adenosine and deoxyadenosine to inosine and deoxyinosine. Both adenosine and deoxyadenosine are biologically active purines that can have a deep impact on cellular physiology; notably, ADA deficiency in humans causes severe combined immunodeficiency. We have established a Drosophila model to study the effects of altered adenosine levels in vivo by genetic elimination of adenosine deaminase-related growth factor-A (ADGF-A), which has ADA activity and is expressed in the gut and hematopoietic organ. Here we show that the hemocytes (blood cells) are the main regulator of adenosine in the Drosophila larva, as was speculated previously for mammals. The elevated level of adenosine in the hemolymph due to lack of ADGF-A leads to apparently inconsistent phenotypic effects: precocious metamorphic changes including differentiation of macrophage-like cells and fat body disintegration on one hand, and delay of development with block of pupariation on the other. The block of pupariation appears to involve signaling through the adenosine receptor (AdoR), but fat body disintegration, which is promoted by action of the hemocytes, seems to be independent of the AdoR. The existence of such an independent mechanism has also been suggested in mammals. PMID:15907156

  7. Nutrient-Dependent Impact of Microbes on Drosophila suzukii Development

    PubMed Central

    Bing, XiaoLi; Gerlach, Joseph; Loeb, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness. Field-captured flies were associated with diverse microbiota, which varied significantly with sampling location and season. In contrast, laboratory-reared flies possessed strikingly lower bacterial abundance and diversity. A comparison of conventionally reared (CR) and germ-free (GF) flies revealed that the microbiota of D. suzukii does not alter its development significantly but decreases its life span under conditions of a nutrient-sufficient diet. However, the microbiota is essential for D. suzukii development on strawberry-based or blueberry-based fruit diets. This developmental failure could be rescued by reassociation with single bacterial or fungal species or by the addition of a high quantity of heat-killed microbes. In addition, we found that proteins are limiting with respect to fly development on fruit-based diets and that GF flies show signs of protein starvation. Taken together, our study results demonstrate that the microbiota provides key proteins required for the development of D. suzukii reared on fresh fruit. Our work shows that the impact of microbes on fly fitness depends strongly on nutritional conditions. PMID:29559576

  8. Effect of the gene transformer of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Sánchez, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The gene transformer (tra) is the key regulatory memory device for sex determination in tephritid insects. The present manuscript addressed the question about the functional conservation of the tephritid Anastrepha Transformer protein to direct somatic sexual development in Drosophila (Drosophilidae). The transformer cDNA of Anastrepha encoding the putative full-length Tra protein was cloned in pUAST and introduced into Drosophila melanogaster. To express this protein, the GAL4-UAS system was used. The Anastrepha Tra protein induced the female-specific splicing of both dsx and fru pre-mRNAs in Drosophila XY male flies, so that these became transformed into females, though this transformation was incomplete (the sexually dimorphic foreleg basitarsus and the external terminalia were monitored). It was found that the degree of female transformation directly depended on the dose of Anastrepha tra and Drosophila transformer-2 (tra-2) genes, and that the Anastrepha Tra-Drosophila Tra2 complex is not as efficient as the Drosophila Tra-Tra2 complex at inducing the female-specific splicing of Drosophila dsx pre-mRNA. This can explain why the Anastrepha Tra protein cannot fully substitute for the endogenous Drosophila Tra protein.

  9. MiniCORVET is a Vps8-containing early endosomal tether in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Lőrincz, Péter; Lakatos, Zsolt; Varga, Ágnes; Maruzs, Tamás; Simon-Vecsei, Zsófia; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Benkő, Péter; Csordás, Gábor; Lippai, Mónika; Andó, István; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Takáts, Szabolcs; Juhász, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Yeast studies identified two heterohexameric tethering complexes, which consist of 4 shared (Vps11, Vps16, Vps18 and Vps33) and 2 specific subunits: Vps3 and Vps8 (CORVET) versus Vps39 and Vps41 (HOPS). CORVET is an early and HOPS is a late endosomal tether. The function of HOPS is well known in animal cells, while CORVET is poorly characterized. Here we show that Drosophila Vps8 is highly expressed in hemocytes and nephrocytes, and localizes to early endosomes despite the lack of a clear Vps3 homolog. We find that Vps8 forms a complex and acts together with Vps16A, Dor/Vps18 and Car/Vps33A, and loss of any of these proteins leads to fragmentation of endosomes. Surprisingly, Vps11 deletion causes enlargement of endosomes, similar to loss of the HOPS-specific subunits Vps39 and Lt/Vps41. We thus identify a 4 subunit-containing miniCORVET complex as an unconventional early endosomal tether in Drosophila. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14226.001 PMID:27253064

  10. MiniCORVET is a Vps8-containing early endosomal tether in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lőrincz, Péter; Lakatos, Zsolt; Varga, Ágnes; Maruzs, Tamás; Simon-Vecsei, Zsófia; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Benkő, Péter; Csordás, Gábor; Lippai, Mónika; Andó, István; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Takáts, Szabolcs; Juhász, Gábor

    2016-06-02

    Yeast studies identified two heterohexameric tethering complexes, which consist of 4 shared (Vps11, Vps16, Vps18 and Vps33) and 2 specific subunits: Vps3 and Vps8 (CORVET) versus Vps39 and Vps41 (HOPS). CORVET is an early and HOPS is a late endosomal tether. The function of HOPS is well known in animal cells, while CORVET is poorly characterized. Here we show that Drosophila Vps8 is highly expressed in hemocytes and nephrocytes, and localizes to early endosomes despite the lack of a clear Vps3 homolog. We find that Vps8 forms a complex and acts together with Vps16A, Dor/Vps18 and Car/Vps33A, and loss of any of these proteins leads to fragmentation of endosomes. Surprisingly, Vps11 deletion causes enlargement of endosomes, similar to loss of the HOPS-specific subunits Vps39 and Lt/Vps41. We thus identify a 4 subunit-containing miniCORVET complex as an unconventional early endosomal tether in Drosophila.

  11. Development and Function of the Drosophila Tracheal System.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeo; Kondo, Takefumi

    2018-06-01

    The tracheal system of insects is a network of epithelial tubules that functions as a respiratory organ to supply oxygen to various target organs. Target-derived signaling inputs regulate stereotyped modes of cell specification, branching morphogenesis, and collective cell migration in the embryonic stage. In the postembryonic stages, the same set of signaling pathways controls highly plastic regulation of size increase and pattern elaboration during larval stages, and cell proliferation and reprograming during metamorphosis. Tracheal tube morphogenesis is also regulated by physicochemical interaction of the cell and apical extracellular matrix to regulate optimal geometry suitable for air flow. The trachea system senses both the external oxygen level and the metabolic activity of internal organs, and helps organismal adaptation to changes in environmental oxygen level. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the high plasticity of tracheal development and physiology uncovered through research on Drosophila are discussed. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. HDAC Inhibitors Disrupt Programmed Resistance to Apoptosis During Drosophila Development.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunsik; Marischuk, Khailee; Castelvecchi, Gina D; Bashirullah, Arash

    2017-06-07

    We have previously shown that the ability to respond to apoptotic triggers is regulated during Drosophila development, effectively dividing the fly life cycle into stages that are either sensitive or resistant to apoptosis. Here, we show that the developmentally programmed resistance to apoptosis involves transcriptional repression of critical proapoptotic genes by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Administration of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), like trichostatin A or suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, increases expression of proapoptotic genes and is sufficient to sensitize otherwise resistant stages. Conversely, reducing levels of proapoptotic genes confers resistance to otherwise sensitive stages. Given that resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer cells, and that HDACi have been recently added to the repertoire of FDA-approved agents for cancer therapy, our results provide new insights for how HDACi help kill malignant cells and also raise concerns for their potential unintended effects on healthy cells. Copyright © 2017 Kang et al.

  13. Autophagy promotes caspase-dependent cell death during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Nilufar; McMillan, Stephanie C; Chaudhary, Roopali; Mok, Jane; Reed, Bruce H

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between autophagic cell death and apoptosis is a poorly understood aspect of programmed cell death (PCD). We have examined this relationship by studying the elimination of an extra-embryonic tissue, known as the amnioserosa (AS), during Drosophila development. The AS becomes autophagic during the final stages of embryogenesis; ultimately, however, the elimination of the AS involves caspase-dependent nuclear fragmentation, tissue dissociation and engulfment by phagocytic macrophages. Mutants that are defective in the activation or execution of caspase-dependent PCD fail to degrade and eliminate the AS but show no abatement in AS autophagy. Sustained autophagy does not, therefore, necessarily result in cell death. Surprisingly, the downregulation of autophagy also results in a persistent AS phenotype and reduced cell death. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy results in caspase-dependent premature AS dissociation. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that autophagy is a prerequisite for caspase-dependent cell death in the AS.

  14. Cell death during Drosophila melanogaster early oogenesis is mediated through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Lamark, Trond; Velentzas, Athanassios D; Rusten, Tor Erik; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje; Papassideri, Issidora S; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Stenmark, Harald; Brech, Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Autophagy is a physiological and evolutionarily conserved process maintaining homeostatic functions, such as protein degradation and organelle turnover. Accumulating data provide evidence that autophagy also contributes to cell death under certain circumstances, but how this is achieved is not well known. Herein, we report that autophagy occurs during developmentally-induced cell death in the female germline, observed in the germarium and during middle developmental stages of oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Degenerating germline cells exhibit caspase activation, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and punctate staining of mCherry-DrAtg8a, a novel marker for monitoring autophagy in Drosophila. Genetic inhibition of autophagy, by removing atg1 or atg7 function, results in significant reduction of DNA fragmentation, suggesting that autophagy acts genetically upstream of DNA fragmentation in this tissue. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms that regulate cell death in vivo during development.

  15. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  16. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  17. Zonda is a novel early component of the autophagy pathway in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Melani, Mariana; Valko, Ayelén; Romero, Nuria M.; Aguilera, Milton O.; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Bhujabal, Zambarlal; Perez-Perri, Joel; de la Riva-Carrasco, Rocío V.; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Sorianello, Eleonora; D’Alessio, Cecilia; Juhász, Gabor; Johansen, Terje; Colombo, María I.; Wappner, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved process by which eukaryotic cells undergo self-digestion of cytoplasmic components. Here we report that a novel Drosophila immunophilin, which we have named Zonda, is critically required for starvation-induced autophagy. We show that Zonda operates at early stages of the process, specifically for Vps34-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) deposition. Zonda displays an even distribution under basal conditions and, soon after starvation, nucleates in endoplasmic reticulum–associated foci that colocalize with omegasome markers. Zonda nucleation depends on Atg1, Atg13, and Atg17 but does not require Vps34, Vps15, Atg6, or Atg14. Zonda interacts physically with Atg1 through its kinase domain, as well as with Atg6 and Vps34. We propose that Zonda is an early component of the autophagy cascade necessary for Vps34-dependent PI3P deposition and omegasome formation. PMID:28904211

  18. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Gibson, Matthew C

    2015-11-19

    As a central model for morphogen action during animal development, the bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4)-like ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is proposed to form a long-range signalling gradient that directs both growth and pattern formation during Drosophila wing disc development. While the patterning role of Dpp secreted from a stripe of cells along the anterior-posterior compartmental boundary is well established, the mechanism by which a Dpp gradient directs uniform cell proliferation remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, to determine the precise spatiotemporal requirements for Dpp during wing disc development, we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate a flippase recognition target (FRT)-dependent conditional null allele. By genetically removing Dpp from its endogenous stripe domain, we confirm the requirement of Dpp for the activation of a downstream phospho-Mothers against dpp (p-Mad) gradient and the regulation of the patterning targets spalt (sal), optomotor blind (omb; also known as bifid) and brinker (brk). Surprisingly, however, third-instar wing blade primordia devoid of compartmental dpp expression maintain relatively normal rates of cell proliferation and exhibit only mild defects in growth. These results indicate that during the latter half of larval development, the Dpp morphogen gradient emanating from the anterior-posterior compartment boundary is not directly required for wing disc growth.

  19. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  20. Induction of the early-late Ddc gene during Drosophila metamorphosis by the ecdysone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Reece, Christian; O'Keefe, Sandra L; Hawryluk, Gregory W L; Engstrom, Monica M; Hodgetts, Ross B

    2002-06-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the 'early-late' genes constitute a unique class regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Their induction is comprised of both a primary and a secondary response to ecdysone. Previous work has suggested that the epidermal expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) is likely that of a typical early-late gene. Accumulation of the Ddc transcript is rapidly initiated in the absence of protein synthesis, which implies that the ecdysone receptor plays a direct role in induction. However, full Ddc expression requires the participation of one of the transcription factors encoded by the Broad-Complex. In this paper, we characterize an ecdysone response element (EcRE) that contributes to the primary response. Using gel mobility shift assays and transgenic assays, we identified a single functional EcRE, located at position -97 to -83 bp relative to the transcription initiation site. This is the first report of an EcRE associated with an early-late gene in Drosophila. Competition experiments indicated that the affinity of the Ddc EcRE for the ecdysone receptor complex was at least four-fold less than that of the canonical EcRE of the hsp27 gene. Using in vitro mutagenesis, we determined that the reduced affinity of the EcRE resided at two positions where the nucleotides differed from those found in the canonical sequence. The ecdysone receptor, acting through this EcRE, releases Ddc from a silencing mechanism, whose cis-acting domain we have mapped to the 5'-upstream region between -2067 and -1427 bp. Deletion of this repressive element resulted in precocious expression of Ddc in both epidermis and imaginal discs. Thus, epidermal Ddc induction at pupariation is under the control of an extended genomic region that contains both positive and negative regulatory elements. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  1. Ultra-deep sequencing of ribosome-associated poly-adenylated RNA in early Drosophila embryos reveals hundreds of conserved translated sORFs.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Hu, Chuansheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Hua; Li, Mingfa; Zhao, Xiaodong; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Shao, Zhifeng

    2016-12-01

    There is growing recognition that small open reading frames (sORFs) encoding peptides shorter than 100 amino acids are an important class of functional elements in the eukaryotic genome, with several already identified to play critical roles in growth, development, and disease. However, our understanding of their biological importance has been hindered owing to the significant technical challenges limiting their annotation. Here we combined ultra-deep sequencing of ribosome-associated poly-adenylated RNAs with rigorous conservation analysis to identify a comprehensive population of translated sORFs during early Drosophila embryogenesis. In total, we identify 399 sORFs, including those previously annotated but without evidence of translational capacity, those found within transcripts previously classified as non-coding, and those not previously known to be transcribed. Further, we find, for the first time, evidence for translation of many sORFs with different isoforms, suggesting their regulation is as complex as longer ORFs. Furthermore, many sORFs are found not associated with ribosomes in late-stage Drosophila S2 cells, suggesting that many of the translated sORFs may have stage-specific functions during embryogenesis. These results thus provide the first comprehensive annotation of the sORFs present during early Drosophila embryogenesis, a necessary basis for a detailed delineation of their function in embryogenesis and other biological processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  2. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  3. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  4. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.

  5. Drosophila caspases involved in developmentally regulated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons during early metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyunghee; Wang, Zixing; Sehgal, Ritika; Chen, Chun-Hong; Kikuno, Keiko; Hay, Bruce; Park, Jae H

    2011-01-01

    A great number of obsolete larval neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system are eliminated by developmentally programmed cell death (PCD) during early metamorphosis. To elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal PCD occurring during this period, we undertook genetic dissection of seven currently known Drosophila caspases in the PCD of a group of interneurons (vCrz) that produce corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide in the ventral nerve cord. The molecular death program in the vCrz neurons initiates within 1 hour after pupariation, as demonstrated by the cytological signs of cell death and caspase activation. PCD was significantly suppressed in dronc-null mutants, but not in null mutants of either dredd or strica. A double mutation lacking both dronc and strica impaired PCD phenotype more severely than did a dronc mutation alone, but comparably to a triple dredd/strica/dronc mutation, indicating that dronc is a main initiator caspase, while strica plays a minor role that overlaps with dronc's. As for effector caspases, vCrz PCD requires both ice and dcp-1 functions, as they work cooperatively for a timely removal of the vCrz neurons. Interestingly, the activation of the Ice and Dcp-1 is not solely dependent on Dronc and Strica, implying an alternative pathway to activate the effectors. Two remaining effector caspase genes, decay and damm, found no apparent functions in the neuronal PCD, at least during early metamorphosis. Overall, our work revealed that vCrz PCD utilizes dronc, strica, dcp-1, and ice wherein the activation of Ice and Dcp-1 requires a novel pathway in addition to the initiator caspases.

  6. Wounded cells drive rapid epidermal repair in the early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are protective barriers that display a remarkable ability to repair wounds. Wound repair is often associated with an accumulation of actin and nonmuscle myosin II around the wound, forming a purse string. The role of actomyosin networks in generating mechanical force during wound repair is not well understood. Here we investigate the mechanisms of force generation during wound repair in the epidermis of early and late Drosophila embryos. We find that wound closure is faster in early embryos, where, in addition to a purse string around the wound, actomyosin networks at the medial cortex of the wounded cells contribute to rapid wound repair. Laser ablation demonstrates that both medial and purse-string actomyosin networks generate contractile force. Quantitative analysis of protein localization dynamics during wound closure indicates that the rapid contraction of medial actomyosin structures during wound repair in early embryos involves disassembly of the actomyosin network. By contrast, actomyosin purse strings in late embryos contract more slowly in a mechanism that involves network condensation. We propose that the combined action of two force-generating structures—a medial actomyosin network and an actomyosin purse string—contributes to the increased efficiency of wound repair in the early embryo. PMID:23985320

  7. Drosophila Growth and Development in the Absence of dMyc and dMnt

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Sarah B.; Yost, Cynthia; Anderson, Sarah A. R.; Flynn, Erin M.; Delrow, Jeffrey; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    Myc oncoproteins are essential regulators of the growth and proliferation of mammalian cells. In Drosophila the single ortholog of Myc (dMyc), encoded by the dm gene, influences organismal size and the growth of both mitotic and endoreplicating cells. A null mutation in dm results in attenuated endoreplication and growth arrest early in larval development. Drosophila also contains a single ortholog of the mammalian Mad/Mnt transcriptional repressor proteins (dMnt), which is thought to antagonize dMyc function. Here we show that animals lacking both dMyc and dMnt display increased viability and grow significantly larger and develop further than dMyc single mutants. We observe increased endoreplication and growth of larval tissues in these double mutants and disproportionate growth of the imaginal discs. Gene expression analysis indicates that loss of dMyc leads to decreased expression of genes required for ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. The additional loss of dMnt partially rescues expression of a small number of dMyc and dMnt genes that are primarily involved in rRNA synthesis and processing. Our results indicate that dMnt repression is normally overridden by dMyc activation during larval development. Therefore the severity of the dm null phenotype is likely due to unopposed repression by dMnt on a subset of genes critical for cell and organismal growth. Surprisingly, considerable growth and development can occur in the absence of both dMyc and dMnt. PMID:18241851

  8. Gap-Junctional communication between developing Drosophila muscles is essential for their normal development.

    PubMed

    Todman, M G; Baines, R A; Stebbings, L A; Davies, J A; Bacon, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a family of proteins, known as the innexins, are structural components of invertebrate gap junctions. The shaking-B (shak-B) locus of Drosophila encodes two members of this emerging family, Shak-B(lethal) and Shak-B(neural). This study focuses on the role of Shak-B gap junctions in the development of embryonic and larval muscle. During embryogenesis, shak-B transcripts are expressed in a subset of the somatic muscles; expression is strong in ventral oblique muscles (VO4-6) but only weak in ventral longitudinals (VL3 and 4). Carboxyfluorescein injected into VO4 of wild-type early stage 16 embryos spreads, via gap junctions, to label adjacent muscles, including VL3 and 4. In shak-B2 embryos (in which the shak-B(neural) function is disrupted), dye injected into VO4 fails to spread into other muscles. In the first instar larva, when dye coupling between muscles is no longer present, another effect of the shak-B2 mutation is revealed by whole-cell voltage clamp. In a calcium-free saline, only two voltage-activated potassium currents are present in wild-type muscles; a fast IA and a slow IK current. In shak-B2 larvae, these two currents are significantly reduced in magnitude in VO4 and 5, but remain normal in VL3. Expression of shak-B(neural) in a shak-B2 background fully rescues both dye coupling in embryonic muscle and whole-cell currents in first instar VO4 and 5. Our observations show that Shak-B(neural) is one of a set of embryonic gap-junction proteins, and that it is required for the normal temporal development of potassium currents in some larval muscles.

  9. Mitotic waves in the early embryogenesis of Drosophila: Bistability traded for speed.

    PubMed

    Vergassola, Massimo; Deneke, Victoria E; Di Talia, Stefano

    2018-03-06

    Early embryogenesis of most metazoans is characterized by rapid and synchronous cleavage divisions. Chemical waves of Cdk1 activity were previously shown to spread across Drosophila embryos, and the underlying molecular processes were dissected. Here, we present the theory of the physical mechanisms that control Cdk1 waves in Drosophila The in vivo dynamics of Cdk1 are captured by a transiently bistable reaction-diffusion model, where time-dependent reaction terms account for the growing level of cyclins and Cdk1 activation across the cell cycle. We identify two distinct regimes. The first one is observed in mutants of the mitotic switch. There, waves are triggered by the classical mechanism of a stable state invading a metastable one. Conversely, waves in wild type reflect a transient phase that preserves the Cdk1 spatial gradients while the overall level of Cdk1 activity is swept upward by the time-dependent reaction terms. This unique mechanism generates a wave-like spreading that differs from bistable waves for its dependence on dynamic parameters and its faster speed. Namely, the speed of "sweep" waves strikingly decreases as the strength of the reaction terms increases and scales as the powers 3/4, -1/2, and 7/12 of Cdk1 molecular diffusivity, noise amplitude, and rate of increase of Cdk1 activity in the cell-cycle S phase, respectively. Theoretical predictions are supported by numerical simulations and experiments that couple quantitative measurements of Cdk1 activity and genetic perturbations of the accumulation rate of cyclins. Finally, our analysis bears upon the inhibition required to suppress Cdk1 waves at the cell-cycle pause for the maternal-to-zygotic transition.

  10. The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halfon, M. S.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development. Previously, we showed that the zygotic Toll protein is necessary for normal muscle development; in the absence of zygotic Toll, close to 50% of hemisegments have muscle patterning defects consisting of missing, duplicated and misinserted muscle fibers (Halfon, M.S., Hashimoto, C., and Keshishian, H., Dev. Biol. 169, 151-167, 1995). We have now also analyzed the requirements for easter, spatzle, tube, and pelle, all of which function in the Toll-mediated dorsal-ventral patterning pathway. We find that spatzle, tube, and pelle, but not easter, are necessary for muscle development. Mutations in these genes give a phenotype identical to that seen in Toll mutants, suggesting that elements of the same pathway used for Toll signaling in dorsal-ventral development are used during muscle development. By expressing the Toll cDNA under the control of distinct Toll enhancer elements in Toll mutant flies, we have examined the spatial requirements for Toll expression during muscle development. Expression of Toll in a subset of epidermal cells that includes the epidermal muscle attachment cells, but not Toll expression in the musculature, is necessary for proper muscle development. Our results suggest that signals received by the epidermis early during muscle development are an important part of the muscle patterning process.

  11. Function of Lipid Storage Droplet 1 (Lsd1) in Wing Development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Men, Tran Thanh; Binh, Tran Duy; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Kamei, Kaeko

    2016-04-29

    Perilipins are evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to humans, the lipid storage droplet 1 (Lsd1) is a Drosophila homolog of human perilipin 1. The function of Lsd1 as a regulator of lipolysis in Drosophila has been demonstrated, as the Lsd1 mutant causes an increase of lipid droplet size. However, the functions of this gene during development are still under investigation. In order to determine the function of Lsd1 during development, Lsd1 was knocked down in Drosophila using the GAL4-UAS system. Selective knockdown of Lsd1 in the dorsal wing disc caused an atrophied wing phenotype. The generation of reactive oxygen species in the wing pouch compartment of the Lsd1-knockdown flies was significantly higher than in the control. Immunostaining with caspase-3 antibody revealed a greater number of apoptotic cells in Lsd1-knockdown wing discs than in the control. Cell death by autophagy was also induced in the knockdown flies. Moreover, cells deprived of Lsd1 showed mitochondrial expansion and decreased ATP levels. These results strongly suggest that knockdown of Lsd1 induces mitochondrial stress and the production of reactive oxygen species that result in cell death, via apoptosis and the autophagy pathway. These results highlight the roles of Drosophila Lsd1 during wing development.

  12. Zonda is a novel early component of the autophagy pathway in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Melani, Mariana; Valko, Ayelén; Romero, Nuria M; Aguilera, Milton O; Acevedo, Julieta M; Bhujabal, Zambarlal; Perez-Perri, Joel; de la Riva-Carrasco, Rocío V; Katz, Maximiliano J; Sorianello, Eleonora; D'Alessio, Cecilia; Juhász, Gabor; Johansen, Terje; Colombo, María I; Wappner, Pablo

    2017-11-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved process by which eukaryotic cells undergo self-digestion of cytoplasmic components. Here we report that a novel Drosophila immunophilin, which we have named Zonda, is critically required for starvation-induced autophagy. We show that Zonda operates at early stages of the process, specifically for Vps34-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) deposition. Zonda displays an even distribution under basal conditions and, soon after starvation, nucleates in endoplasmic reticulum-associated foci that colocalize with omegasome markers. Zonda nucleation depends on Atg1, Atg13, and Atg17 but does not require Vps34, Vps15, Atg6, or Atg14. Zonda interacts physically with Atg1 through its kinase domain, as well as with Atg6 and Vps34. We propose that Zonda is an early component of the autophagy cascade necessary for Vps34-dependent PI3P deposition and omegasome formation. © 2017 Melani, Valko, Romero, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Expression of the Drosophila homeobox gene, Distal-less supports an ancestral role in neural development

    PubMed Central

    Plavicki, Jessica S.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Boekhoff-Falk, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background Distal-less (Dll) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in developing appendages of organisms throughout metazoan phylogeny. Based on earlier observations in the limbless nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the primitive chordate amphioxus, it was proposed that Dll had an ancestral function in nervous system development. Consistent with this hypothesis, Dll is necessary for the development of both peripheral and central components of the Drosophila olfactory system. Furthermore, vertebrate homologs of Dll, the Dlx genes, play critical roles in mammalian brain development. Results Using fluorescent immunohistochemistry of fixed samples and multiphoton microscopy of living Drosophila embryos we show that Dll is expressed in the embryonic, larval and adult CNS and PNS in embryonic and larval neurons, brain and ventral nerve cord (VNC) glia, as well as in PNS structures associated with chemosensation. In adult flies, Dll expression is expressed in the optic lobes, central brain regions and the antennal lobes. Conclusions Characterization of Dll expression in the developing nervous system supports a role of Dll in neural development and function and establishes an important basis for determining the specific functional roles of Dll in Drosophila development and for comparative studies of Drosophila Dll functions with those of its vertebrate counterparts. PMID:26472170

  14. Oral magnetite nanoparticles disturb the development of Drosophila melanogaster from oogenesis to adult emergence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Du, Wei; Ouyang, Hong; Chai, Zhifang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2015-05-01

    The potential impacts of nanomaterials (NMs) on fetal development have attracted great concerns because of the increased potential exposure to NMs during pregnancy. Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and developmental transitions may provide an attractive system to study the biological and environmental effects of NMs on the embryonic development. In this study, the effects of three types of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs): UN-MNPs (pristine), CA-MNPs (citric acid modified) and APTS-MNPs (3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane coated) on the development of Drosophila at 300 and 600 μg/g dosage were studied. The uptake of MNPs by female and male flies caused obvious reduction in the female fecundity, and the developmental delay at the egg-pupae and pupae-adult transitions, especially in those treated by the positive APTS-MNPs. Further investigation demonstrates that the parental uptake of MNPs disturbs the oogenesis period, induces ovarian defect, reduces the length of eggs, decreases the number of nurse cells and delays egg chamber development, which may contribute to the decrease of fecundity of female Drosophila and the development delay of their offspring. Using the synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF), the dyshomeostasis of trace elements such as Fe, Ca and Cu along the anterior-posterior axis of the fertilized eggs was found, which may be an important reason for the development delay of Drosophila.

  15. The glial investment of the adult and developing antennal lobe of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oland, Lynne A.; Biebelhausen, John P.; Tolbert, Leslie P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the Drosophila olfactory system, with its unparalleled opportunities for genetic dissection of development and functional organization, has been used to study the development of central olfactory neurons and the molecular basis of olfactory coding. The results of these studies have been interpreted in the absence of a detailed understanding of the steps in maturation of glial cells in the antennal lobe. Here, we present a high-resolution study of the glia associated with olfactory glomeruli in adult and developing antennal lobes. The study provides a basis for comparison of findings in Drosophila with those in the moth Manduca sexta that indicate a critical role for glia in antennal lobe development. Using flies expressing GFP under a Nervana2 driver to visualize glia for confocal microscopy, and probing at higher resolution with the electron microscope, we find that glial development in Drosophila differs markedly from that in moths: glial cell bodies remain in a rind around the glomerular neuropil; glial processes ensheathe axon bundles in the nerve layer but likely contribute little to axonal sorting; their processes insinuate between glomeruli only very late and then form only a sparse, open network around each glomerulus; and glial processes invade the synaptic neuropil. Taking our results in the context of previous studies, we conclude that glial cells in the developing Drosophila antennal lobe are unlikely to play a strong role in either axonal sorting or glomerulus stabilization and that in the adult, glial processes do not electrically isolate glomeruli from their neighbors. PMID:18537134

  16. Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for assessing development under conditions of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. K.; Hilgenfeld, R. B.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    More is known about the regulation of early developmental events in Drosophila than any other animal. In addition, its size and short life cycle make it a facile experimental system. Since developmental perturbations have been demonstrated when both oogenesis and embryogenesis occur in the space environment, there is a strong rationale for using this organism for the elucidation of specific gravity-sensitive developmental events.

  17. Early-onset sleep defects in Drosophila models of Huntington's disease reflect alterations of PKA/CREB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Erin D.; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; Zhang, Jiabin; Chaffee, Ryan P.; Yin, Jerry C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder whose non-motor symptoms include sleep disturbances. Whether sleep and activity abnormalities are primary molecular disruptions of mutant Huntingtin (mutHtt) expression or result from neurodegeneration is unclear. Here, we report Drosophila models of HD exhibit sleep and activity disruptions very early in adulthood, as soon as sleep patterns have developed. Pan-neuronal expression of full-length or N-terminally truncated mutHtt recapitulates sleep phenotypes of HD patients: impaired sleep initiation, fragmented and diminished sleep, and nighttime hyperactivity. Sleep deprivation of HD model flies results in exacerbated sleep deficits, indicating that homeostatic regulation of sleep is impaired. Elevated PKA/CREB activity in healthy flies produces patterns of sleep and activity similar to those in our HD models. We were curious whether aberrations in PKA/CREB signaling were responsible for our early-onset sleep/activity phenotypes. Decreasing signaling through the cAMP/PKA pathway suppresses mutHtt-induced developmental lethality. Genetically reducing PKA abolishes sleep/activity deficits in HD model flies, restores the homeostatic response and extends median lifespan. In vivo reporters, however, show dCREB2 activity is unchanged, or decreased when sleep/activity patterns are abnormal, suggesting dissociation of PKA and dCREB2 occurs early in pathogenesis. Collectively, our data suggest that sleep defects may reflect a primary pathological process in HD, and that measurements of sleep and cAMP/PKA could be prodromal indicators of disease, and serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. PMID:26604145

  18. A steroid-controlled global switch in sensitivity to apoptosis during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunsik; Bashirullah, Arash

    2014-02-01

    Precise control over activation of the apoptotic machinery is critical for development, tissue homeostasis and disease. In Drosophila, the decision to trigger apoptosis--whether in response to developmental cues or to DNA damage--converges on transcription of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) antagonists reaper, hid and grim. Here we describe a parallel process that regulates the sensitivity to, rather than the execution of, apoptosis. This process establishes developmental windows that are permissive or restrictive for triggering apoptosis, where the status of cells determines their capacity to die. We characterize one switch in the sensitivity to apoptotic triggers, from restrictive to permissive, that occurs during third-instar larval (L3) development. Early L3 animals are highly resistant to induction of apoptosis by expression of IAP-antagonists, DNA-damaging agents and even knockdown of the IAP diap1. This resistance to apoptosis, however, is lost in wandering L3 animals after acquiring a heightened sensitivity to apoptotic triggers. This switch in sensitivity to death activators is mediated by a change in mechanisms available for activating endogenous caspases, from an apoptosome-independent to an apoptosome-dependent pathway. This switch in apoptotic pathways is regulated in a cell-autonomous manner by the steroid hormone ecdysone, through changes in expression of critical pro-, but not anti-, apoptotic genes. This steroid-controlled switch defines a novel, physiologically-regulated, mechanism for controlling sensitivity to apoptosis and provides new insights into the control of apoptosis during development. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Model of the Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Drosophila Eye Disc Development.

    PubMed

    Fried, Patrick; Sánchez-Aragón, Máximo; Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Lehtinen, Birgitta; Casares, Fernando; Iber, Dagmar

    2016-09-01

    Patterning and growth are linked during early development and have to be tightly controlled to result in a functional tissue or organ. During the development of the Drosophila eye, this linkage is particularly clear: the growth of the eye primordium mainly results from proliferating cells ahead of the morphogenetic furrow (MF), a moving signaling wave that sweeps across the tissue from the posterior to the anterior side, that induces proliferating cells anterior to it to differentiate and become cell cycle quiescent in its wake. Therefore, final eye disc size depends on the proliferation rate of undifferentiated cells and on the speed with which the MF sweeps across the eye disc. We developed a spatio-temporal model of the growing eye disc based on the regulatory interactions controlled by the signals Decapentaplegic (Dpp), Hedgehog (Hh) and the transcription factor Homothorax (Hth) and explored how the signaling patterns affect the movement of the MF and impact on eye disc growth. We used published and new quantitative data to parameterize the model. In particular, two crucial parameter values, the degradation rate of Hth and the diffusion coefficient of Hh, were measured. The model is able to reproduce the linear movement of the MF and the termination of growth of the primordium. We further show that the model can explain several mutant phenotypes, but fails to reproduce the previously observed scaling of the Dpp gradient in the anterior compartment.

  20. Development of diet-induced insulin resistance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morris, Siti Nur Sarah; Coogan, Claire; Chamseddin, Khalil; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Kolli, Santharam; Keller, Jeffrey N; Bauer, Johannes H

    2012-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly utilized as an alternative to costly rodent models to study human diseases. Fly models exist for a wide variety of human conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease, or cardiac function. Advantages of the fly system are its rapid generation time and its low cost. However, the greatest strength of the fly system are the powerful genetic tools that allow for rapid dissection of molecular disease mechanisms. Here, we describe the diet-dependent development of metabolic phenotypes in adult fruit flies. Depending on the specific type of nutrient, as well as its relative quantity in the diet, flies show weight gain and changes in the levels of storage macromolecules. Furthermore, the activity of insulin-signaling in the major metabolic organ of the fly, the fat body, decreases upon overfeeding. This decrease in insulin-signaling activity in overfed flies is moreover observed when flies are challenged with an acute food stimulus, suggesting that overfeeding leads to insulin resistance. Similar changes were observed in aging flies, with the development of the insulin resistance-like phenotype beginning at early middle ages. Taken together, these data demonstrate that imbalanced diet disrupts metabolic homeostasis in adult D. melanogaster and promotes insulin-resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the fly system may be a useful alternative tool in the investigation of molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and the development of pharmacologic treatment options. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of diet-induced insulin resistance in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Siti Nur Sarah; Coogan, Claire; Chamseddin, Khalil; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Kolli, Santharam; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Bauer, Johannes H.

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly utilized as an alternative to costly rodent models to study human diseases. Fly models exist for a wide variety of human conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s Disease, or cardiac function. Advantages of the fly system are its rapid generation time and its low cost. However, the greatest strength of the fly system are the powerful genetic tools that allow for rapid dissection of molecular disease mechanisms. Here, we describe the diet-dependent development of metabolic phenotypes in adult fruit flies. Depending on the specific type of nutrient, as well as its relative quantity in the diet, flies show weight gain and changes in the levels of storage macromolecules. Furthermore, the activity of insulin-signaling in the major metabolic organ of the fly, the fat body, decreases upon overfeeding. This decrease in insulin-signaling activity in overfed flies is moreover observed when flies are challenged with an acute food stimulus, suggesting that overfeeding leads to insulin resistance. Similar changes were observed in aging flies, with the development of the insulin resistance-like phenotype beginning at early middle ages. Taken together, these data demonstrate that imbalanced diet disrupts metabolic homeostasis in adult D. melanogaster and promotes insulin-resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the fly system may be a useful alternative tool in the investigation of molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and the development of pharmacologic treatment options. PMID:22542511

  2. Comparative gene expression analysis of Dtg, a novel target gene of Dpp signaling pathway in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

    PubMed

    Hodar, Christian; Zuñiga, Alejandro; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Travisany, Dante; Chacon, Carlos; Pino, Michael; Maass, Alejandro; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2014-02-10

    In the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, Dpp, a secreted molecule that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of growth factors, activates a set of downstream genes to subdivide the dorsal region into amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis. Here, we examined the expression pattern and transcriptional regulation of Dtg, a new target gene of Dpp signaling pathway that is required for proper amnioserosa differentiation. We showed that the expression of Dtg was controlled by Dpp and characterized a 524-bp enhancer that mediated expression in the dorsal midline, as well as, in the differentiated amnioserosa in transgenic reporter embryos. This enhancer contained a highly conserved region of 48-bp in which bioinformatic predictions and in vitro assays identified three Mad binding motifs. Mutational analysis revealed that these three motifs were necessary for proper expression of a reporter gene in transgenic embryos, suggesting that short and highly conserved genomic sequences may be indicative of functional regulatory regions in D. melanogaster genes. Dtg orthologs were not detected in basal lineages of Dipterans, which unlike D. melanogaster develop two extra-embryonic membranes, amnion and serosa, nevertheless Dtg orthologs were identified in the transcriptome of Musca domestica, in which dorsal ectoderm patterning leads to the formation of a single extra-embryonic membrane. These results suggest that Dtg was recruited as a new component of the network that controls dorsal ectoderm patterning in the lineage leading to higher Cyclorrhaphan flies, such as D. melanogaster and M. domestica. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. MAPK Target Sites of Eyes Absent Are Not Required for Eye Development or Survival in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jusiak, Barbara; Abulimiti, Abuduaini; Haelterman, Nele; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a highly conserved transcription cofactor and protein phosphatase that plays an essential role in eye development and survival in Drosophila. Ectopic eye induction assays using cDNA transgenes have suggested that mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activates Eya by phosphorylating it on two consensus target sites, S402 and S407, and that this activation potentiates the ability of Eya to drive eye formation. However, this mechanism has never been tested in normal eye development. In the current study, we generated a series of genomic rescue transgenes to investigate how loss- and gain-of-function mutations at these two MAPK target sites within Eya affect Drosophila survival and normal eye formation: eya+GR, the wild-type control; eyaSAGR, which lacks phosphorylation at the two target residues; and eyaSDEGR, which contains phosphomimetic amino acids at the same two residues. Contrary to the previous studies in ectopic eye development, all eya genomic transgenes tested rescue both eye formation and survival equally effectively. We conclude that, in contrast to ectopic eye formation, MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Eya on S402 and S407 does not play a role in normal development. This is the first study in Drosophila to evaluate the difference in outcomes between genomic rescue and ectopic cDNA-based overexpression of the same gene. These findings indicate similar genomic rescue strategies may prove useful for re-evaluating other long-standing Drosophila developmental models. PMID:23251383

  4. Regulation of axonal development by the nuclear protein hindsight (pebbled) in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carlos; Sierralta, Jimena

    2010-08-15

    The molecules and networks involved in the process of acquisition and maintenance of the form of a mature neuron are not completely known. Using a misexpression screen we identified the gene hindsight as a gene involved in the process of acquisition of the neuronal morphogenesis in the Drosophila adult nervous system. hindsight encodes a transcription factor known for its role in early developmental processes such as embryonic germ band retraction and dorsal closure, as well as in the establishment of cell morphology, planar cell polarity, and epithelial integrity during retinal development. We describe here a novel function for HNT by showing that both loss and gain of function of HNT affects the pathfinding of the photoreceptors axons. By manipulating the timing and level of HNT expression, together with the number of cells manipulated we show here that the function of HNT in axonal guidance is independent of the HNT functions previously reported in retinal cells. Based on genetic interaction experiments we show that part of HNT function in axonal development is exerted through the regulation of genes involved in the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Potential Role for Drosophila Mucins in Development and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Zulfeqhar A.; Härd, Torleif; Uv, Anne; van Dijk-Härd, Iris F.

    2008-01-01

    Vital vertebrate organs are protected from the external environment by a barrier that to a large extent consists of mucins. These proteins are characterized by poorly conserved repeated sequences that are rich in prolines and potentially glycosylated threonines and serines (PTS). We have now used the characteristics of the PTS repeat domain to identify Drosophila mucins in a simple bioinformatics approach. Searching the predicted protein database for proteins with at least 4 repeats and a high ST content, more than 30 mucin-like proteins were identified, ranging from 300–23000 amino acids in length. We find that Drosophila mucins are present at all stages of the fly life cycle, and that their transcripts localize to selective organs analogous to sites of vertebrate mucin expression. The results could allow for addressing basic questions about human mucin-related diseases in this model system. Additionally, many of the mucins are expressed in selective tissues during embryogenesis, thus revealing new potential functions for mucins as apical matrix components during organ morphogenesis. PMID:18725942

  6. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development.

    PubMed

    Martín, Iker; Ruiz, María F; Sánchez, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila

  7. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. Results The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. Conclusions The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex

  8. Drosophila melanogaster and the development of biology in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Arias, Alfonso Martinez

    2008-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila has played a central role in the development of biology during the 20th century. First chosen as a convenient organism to test evolutionary theories soon became the central element in an elaborate, fruitful, and insightful research program dealing with the nature and function of the gene. Through the activities of TH Morgan and his students, Drosophila did more than any other organism to lay down the foundations of genetics as a discipline and a tool for biology. In the last third of the century, a judicious blend of classical genetics and molecular biology focused on some mutants affecting the pattern of the Drosophila larva and the adult, and unlocked the molecular mechanisms of development. Surprisingly, many of the genes identified in this exercise turned to be conserved across organisms. This observation provided a vista of universality at a fundamental level of biological activity. At the dawn of the 21st century, Drosophila continues to be center stage in the development of biology and to open new ways of seeing cells and to understand the construction and the functioning of organisms.

  9. Modeling congenital disease and inborn errors of development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Matthew J.; Letsou, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fly models that faithfully recapitulate various aspects of human disease and human health-related biology are being used for research into disease diagnosis and prevention. Established and new genetic strategies in Drosophila have yielded numerous substantial successes in modeling congenital disorders or inborn errors of human development, as well as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Moreover, although our ability to generate sequence datasets continues to outpace our ability to analyze these datasets, the development of high-throughput analysis platforms in Drosophila has provided access through the bottleneck in the identification of disease gene candidates. In this Review, we describe both the traditional and newer methods that are facilitating the incorporation of Drosophila into the human disease discovery process, with a focus on the models that have enhanced our understanding of human developmental disorders and congenital disease. Enviable features of the Drosophila experimental system, which make it particularly useful in facilitating the much anticipated move from genotype to phenotype (understanding and predicting phenotypes directly from the primary DNA sequence), include its genetic tractability, the low cost for high-throughput discovery, and a genome and underlying biology that are highly evolutionarily conserved. In embracing the fly in the human disease-gene discovery process, we can expect to speed up and reduce the cost of this process, allowing experimental scales that are not feasible and/or would be too costly in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26935104

  10. Filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization in Drosophila visual circuit development

    PubMed Central

    Özel, Mehmet Neset; Langen, Marion; Hassan, Bassem A; Hiesinger, P Robin

    2015-01-01

    Filopodial dynamics are thought to control growth cone guidance, but the types and roles of growth cone dynamics underlying neural circuit assembly in a living brain are largely unknown. To address this issue, we have developed long-term, continuous, fast and high-resolution imaging of growth cone dynamics from axon growth to synapse formation in cultured Drosophila brains. Using R7 photoreceptor neurons as a model we show that >90% of the growth cone filopodia exhibit fast, stochastic dynamics that persist despite ongoing stepwise layer formation. Correspondingly, R7 growth cones stabilize early and change their final position by passive dislocation. N-Cadherin controls both fast filopodial dynamics and growth cone stabilization. Surprisingly, loss of N-Cadherin causes no primary targeting defects, but destabilizes R7 growth cones to jump between correct and incorrect layers. Hence, growth cone dynamics can influence wiring specificity without a direct role in target recognition and implement simple rules during circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10721.001 PMID:26512889

  11. Septate Junction Proteins Play Essential Roles in Morphogenesis Throughout Embryonic Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sonia; Ward, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The septate junction (SJ) is the occluding junction found in the ectodermal epithelia of invertebrate organisms, and is essential to maintain chemically distinct compartments in epithelial organs, to provide the blood–brain barrier in the nervous system, and to provide an important line of defense against invading pathogens. More than 20 genes have been identified to function in the establishment or maintenance of SJs in Drosophila melanogaster. Numerous studies have demonstrated the cell biological function of these proteins in establishing the occluding junction, whereas very few studies have examined further developmental roles for them. Here we examined embryos with mutations in nine different core SJ genes and found that all nine result in defects in embryonic development as early as germ band retraction, with the most penetrant defect observed in head involution. SJ genes are also required for cell shape changes and cell rearrangements that drive the elongation of the salivary gland during midembryogenesis. Interestingly, these developmental events occur at a time prior to the formation of the occluding junction, when SJ proteins localize along the lateral membrane and have not yet coalesced into the region of the SJ. Together, these observations reveal an underappreciated role for a large group of SJ genes in essential developmental events during embryogenesis, and suggest that the function of these proteins in facilitating cell shape changes and rearrangements is independent of their role in the occluding junction. PMID:27261004

  12. Spire, an actin nucleation factor, regulates cell division during Drosophila heart development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Johnson, Tamara L; Stoller-Conrad, Jessica R; Schulz, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila dorsal vessel is a beneficial model system for studying the regulation of early heart development. Spire (Spir), an actin-nucleation factor, regulates actin dynamics in many developmental processes, such as cell shape determination, intracellular transport, and locomotion. Through protein expression pattern analysis, we demonstrate that the absence of spir function affects cell division in Myocyte enhancer factor 2-, Tinman (Tin)-, Even-skipped- and Seven up (Svp)-positive heart cells. In addition, genetic interaction analysis shows that spir functionally interacts with Dorsocross, tin, and pannier to properly specify the cardiac fate. Furthermore, through visualization of double heterozygous embryos, we determines that spir cooperates with CycA for heart cell specification and division. Finally, when comparing the spir mutant phenotype with that of a CycA mutant, the results suggest that most Svp-positive progenitors in spir mutant embryos cannot undergo full cell division at cell cycle 15, and that Tin-positive progenitors are arrested at cell cycle 16 as double-nucleated cells. We conclude that Spir plays a crucial role in controlling dorsal vessel formation and has a function in cell division during heart tube morphogenesis.

  13. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L.; Ortiz, Paola A.; Ying, Chong T.; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the adult midgut, are specified by a Notch signaling-dependent mechanism. In a second step that occurs during the late larval period, enterocytes and endocrine cells of a transient pupal midgut are selected from within the clusters of adult midgut progenitors. As in the embryo, activation of the Notch pathway triggers enterocyte differentiation, and inhibits cells from further proliferation or choosing the endocrine fate. The third step of entero-endocrine cell development takes place at a mid-pupal stage. Before this time point, the epithelial layer destined to become the adult midgut is devoid of endocrine cells. However, precursors of the intestinal midgut stem cells (pISCs) are already present. After an initial phase of symmetric divisions which causes an increase in their own population size, pISCs start to spin off cells that become postmitotic and express the endocrine fate marker, Prospero. Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. PMID:21382366

  14. Mapping Heart Development in Flies: Src42A Acts Non-Autonomously to Promote Heart Tube Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vanderploeg, Jessica; Jacobs, J. Roger

    2017-01-01

    Congenital heart defects, clinically identified in both small and large animals, are multifactorial and complex. Although heritable factors are known to have a role in cardiovascular disease, the full genetic aetiology remains unclear. Model organism research has proven valuable in providing a deeper understanding of the essential factors in heart development. For example, mouse knock-out studies reveal a role for the Integrin adhesion receptor in cardiac tissue. Recent research in Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly), a powerful experimental model, has demonstrated that the link between the extracellular matrix and the cell, mediated by Integrins, is required for multiple aspects of cardiogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that Integrins signal to the heart cells through Src42A kinase. Using the powerful genetics and cell biology analysis possible in Drosophila, we demonstrate that Src42A acts in early events of heart tube development. Careful examination of mutant heart tissue and genetic interaction data suggests that Src42A’s role is independent of Integrin and the Integrin-related Focal Adhesion Kinase. Rather, Src42A acts non-autonomously by promoting programmed cell death of the amnioserosa, a transient tissue that neighbors the developing heart. PMID:29056682

  15. The Development of Motor Coordination in Drosophila Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Sarah; Evers, Jan Felix; Fiala, André; Bate, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We use non-invasive muscle imaging to study onset of motor activity and emergence of coordinated movement in Drosophila embryos. Earliest movements are myogenic and neurally controlled muscle contractions first appear with the onset of bursting activity 17 hours after egg laying. Initial episodes of activity are poorly organised and coordinated crawling sequences only begin to appear after a further hour of bursting. Thus network performance improves during this first period of activity. The embryo continues to exhibit bursts of crawling like sequences until shortly before hatching, while other reflexes also mature. Bursting does not begin as a reflex response to sensory input but appears to reflect the onset of spontaneous activity in the motor network. It does not require GABA-ergic transmission, and using a light activated channel to excite the network we demonstrate activity dependent depression that may cause burst termination. PMID:18927150

  16. Development of a two photon microscope for tracking Drosophila larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagyozov, Doycho; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Gershow, Marc

    Current in vivo methods for measuring neural activity in Drosophila larva require immobilization of the animal. Although we can record neural signals while stimulating the sensory organs, we cannot read the behavioral output because we have prevented the animal from moving. Many research questions cannot be answered without observation of neural activity in behaving (freely-moving) animals. We incorporated a Tunable Acoustic Gradient (TAG) lens into a two-photon microscope to achieve a 70kHz axial scan rate, enabling volumetric imaging at tens of hertz. We then implemented a tracking algorithm based on a Kalman filter to maintain the neurons of interest in the field of view and in focus during the rapid three dimensional motion of a free larva. Preliminary results show successful tracking of a neuron moving at speeds reaching 500 μm/s. NIH Grant 1DP2EB022359 and NSF Grant PHY-1455015.

  17. Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate generates chromosomal aberrations and impedes progeny development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Dontarie M; Hepburn, Dion D D; Hannah, Meredith; Vincent, John B; O'Donnell, Janis

    2006-11-07

    Chromium picolinate, [Cr(pic)(3)], is a popular nutritional supplement found in a variety of consumer products. Despite its popularity, safety concerns over its use have arisen. The supplement has been shown to generate clastogenic damage, mitochondrial damage, oxidative damage, and mutagenic effects in cultured cells and oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in rats. Recently [Cr(pic)(3)] has been demonstrated to generate heritable genetic change and delays in progeny development in Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the damage to chromosomes of cultured cells and of animal models, similar chromosome damage appeared to be a likely source of the mutagenic effects of the supplement in Drosophila. The current three-part study examines the effects of several chromium-containing supplements and their components on hatching and eclosion rates and success of development of first generation progeny of adult Drosophila fed food containing these compounds. It further examines the effects of the compounds on longevity of virgin male and female adults. Finally, the chromosomes in the salivary glands of Drosophila late in the third instar larval stage, which were the progeny of Drosophila whose diets were supplemented with nutritional levels of [Cr(pic)(3)], are shown to contain on average over one chromosomal aberration per two identifiable chromosomal arms. No aberrations were observed in chromosomes of progeny of untreated flies. The results suggest that human consumption of the supplement should be a matter of concern and continued investigation to provide insight into the requirements of chromium-containing supplements to give rise to genotoxic effects.

  18. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  19. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.

  20. Temporal and spatial expression of Drosophila DLGS97 during neural development.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Valeria; Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Oliva, Carlos; Tello, Judith; Olguín, Patricio; Sierralta, Jimena

    2008-07-01

    The products of the Drosophila discs-large (dlg) gene are members of the MAGUK family of proteins, a group of proteins involved in localization, transport and recycling of receptors and channels in cell junctions, including the synapse. In vertebrates, four genes with multiple splice variants homologous to dlg are described. dlg originates two main proteins, DLGA, similar to the vertebrate neuronal protein PSD95, and DLGS97, similar to the vertebrate neuronal and epithelial protein SAP97. DLGA is expressed in epithelia, neural tissue and muscle. DLGS97 is expressed in neural tissue and muscle but not in epithelia. The distinctive difference between them is the presence in DLGS97 of an L27 domain. The differential expression between these variants makes the study of DLGS97 of key relevance to understand the in vivo role of synaptic MAGUKs in neurons. Here we present the temporal and spatial expression pattern of DLGS97 during embryonic and larval nervous system development, during eye development and in adult brain. Our results show that DLGS97 is expressed zygotically, in neurons in the embryo, larvae and adult, and is absent at all stages in glial cells. During eye development DLGS97 starts to be expressed in photoreceptor cells at early stages of differentiation and localizes basal to the basolateral junctions. In the brain, DLGS97 is expressed in the mushroom bodies and optic lobes at larval and adult stages; and in the antennal lobe in the adult stage. In addition we show that both, dlgS97 and dlgA transcripts, express during development multiple splice variants with differences in the use of exons in two sites.

  1. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  2. Rapid DNA Synthesis During Early Drosophila Embryogenesis Is Sensitive to Maternal Humpty Dumpty Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Lesly, Shera; Bandura, Jennifer L; Calvi, Brian R

    2017-11-01

    Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty ( hd ), and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd 272-9 , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality. Here, we show that expression of an hd transgene in somatic cells of the ovary rescues amplification and eggshell synthesis but not embryo viability. The germline of these mothers remain mutant for the hd 272-9 allele, resulting in reduced maternal Hd protein and embryonic arrest during mitosis of the first few S/M nuclear cleavage cycles with chromosome instability and chromosome bridges. Epistasis analysis of hd with the rereplication mutation plutonium indicates that the chromosome bridges of hd embryos are the result of a failed attempt to segregate incompletely replicated sister chromatids. This study reveals that maternally encoded Humpty dumpty protein is essential for DNA replication and genome integrity during the little-understood embryonic S/M cycles. Moreover, the two hd 272-9 maternal-effect phenotypes suggest that ovarian gene amplification and embryonic cleavage are two time periods in development that are particularly sensitive to mild deficits in DNA replication function. This last observation has broader relevance for interpreting why mild mutations in the human ortholog of humpty dumpty and other DNA replication genes cause tissue-specific malformations of microcephalic dwarfisms. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  4. The effect of space environment on the development and aging of Drosophila Melanogaster (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marco, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment involves the study of the development of eggs of the fly, Drosophila, exposed to microgravity. It is presumed that oogenesis, rather than further states of embryonic development, is sensitive to gravity. This hypothesis will be tested by collecting eggs layered at specific times inflight and postflight from flies exposed to 0 and 1 g. This portion of the experiment is a repetition of an earlier experiment flown in Biorack during the Spacelab D1 Mission. An added feature of the experiment for the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) Mission is to study the effect of microgravity on the life span of Drosophila male flies. Various aspects of the investigation are discussed.

  5. Drosophila Pax6 promotes development of the entire eye-antennal disc, thereby ensuring proper adult head formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinjin; Palliyil, Sneha; Ran, Chen; Kumar, Justin P.

    2017-01-01

    Paired box 6 (Pax6) is considered to be the master control gene for eye development in all seeing animals studied so far. In vertebrates, it is required not only for lens/retina formation but also for the development of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. Although Pax6 plays important roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and patterning during the development of these systems, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, Pax6 also functions in a range of tissues, including the eye and brain. In this report, we describe the function of Pax6 in Drosophila eye-antennal disc development. Previous studies have suggested that the two fly Pax6 genes, eyeless (ey) and twin of eyeless (toy), initiate eye specification, whereas eyegone (eyg) and the Notch (N) pathway independently regulate cell proliferation. Here, we show that Pax6 controls eye progenitor cell survival and proliferation through the activation of teashirt (tsh) and eyg, thereby indicating that Pax6 initiates both eye specification and proliferation. Although simultaneous loss of ey and toy during early eye-antennal disc development disrupts the development of all head structures derived from the eye-antennal disc, overexpression of N or tsh in the absence of Pax6 rescues only antennal and head epidermis development. Furthermore, overexpression of tsh induces a homeotic transformation of the fly head into thoracic structures. Taking these data together, we demonstrate that Pax6 promotes development of the entire eye-antennal disc and that the retinal determination network works to repress alternative tissue fates, which ensures proper development of adult head structures. PMID:28584125

  6. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In 1970, NASA initiated Phase A contracts to study alternate Space Shuttle designs in addition to the two-stage fully-reusable Space Shuttle system already under development. A number of alternate systems were developed to ensure the development of the optimum earth-to-orbit system, including the Stage-and-a-half Chemical Interorbital Shuttle, shown here. The concept would utilize a reusable marned spacecraft with an onboard propulsion system attached to an expendable fuel tank to provide supplementary propellants.

  7. Development in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews some of the major cognitive, social, and emotional achievements of young children and discusses some of their limitations. Divides description of development into intellectual, language, social, and emotional development. Notes that this division represents adult categories of thought and does not represent young children's actual modes of…

  8. The L1-CAM, Neuroglian, functions in glial cells for Drosophila antennal lobe development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weitao; Hing, Huey

    2008-07-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in Drosophila antennal lobe (AL) development, the roles of glia have remained largely mysterious. Here, we show that during Drosophila metamorphosis, a population of midline glial cells in the brain undergoes extensive cellular remodeling and is closely associated with the collateral branches of ORN axons. These glial cells are required for ORN axons to project across the midline and establish the contralateral wiring in the ALs. We find that Neuroglian (Nrg), the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate cell adhesion molecule, L1, is expressed and functions in the midline glial cells to regulate their proper development. Loss of Nrg causes the disruption in glial morphology and the agenesis of the antennal commissural tract. Our genetic analysis further demonstrates that the functions of Nrg in the midline glia require its ankyrin-binding motif. We propose that Nrg is an important regulator of glial morphogenesis and axon guidance in AL development. (Copyright) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Temporal regulation of Drosophila IAP1 determines caspase functions in sensory organ development

    PubMed Central

    Koto, Akiko; Kuranaga, Erina

    2009-01-01

    The caspases comprise a family of cysteine proteases that function in various cellular processes, including apoptosis. However, how the balance is struck between the caspases’ role in cell death and their nonapoptotic functions is unclear. To address this issue, we monitored the protein turnover of an endogenous caspase inhibitor, Drosophila IAP1 (DIAP1). DIAP1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes the ubiquitination of caspases and thereby prevents caspase activation. For this study, we developed a fluorescent probe to monitor DIAP1 turnover in the external sensory organ precursor (SOP) lineage of living Drosophila. The SOP divides asymmetrically to make the shaft, socket, and sheath cells, and the neuron that comprise each sensory organ. We found that the quantity of DIAP1 changed dramatically depending on the cell type and maturity, and that the temporal regulation of DIAP1 turnover determines whether caspases function nonapoptotically in cellular morphogenesis or cause cell death. PMID:19822670

  10. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle taking on fuel from an orbiting Liquid Hydrogen Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  11. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  12. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    In this 1971 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in various space-based applications. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to geosychronous Earth orbits or lunar orbits then return to low Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  13. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  14. Early Program Development

    1963-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1963 shows a proposed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) incorporating the NRX-A1, the first NERVA-type cold flow reactor. The NERVA engine, based on Kiwi nuclear reactor technology, was intended to power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  15. Oral intake of zirconia nanoparticle alters neuronal development and behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Monalisa; Sabat, Debabrat; Ekka, Basanti; Sahu, Swetapadma; P, Unnikannan; Dash, Priyabrat

    2017-08-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) have been extensively used in teeth and bone implants and thus get a chance to interact with the physiological system. The current study investigated the oral administration of various concentrations of ZrO2 NPs synthesized by the hydrothermal method (0.25 to 5.0 mg L-1) on Drosophila physiology and behaviour. The size of the currently studied nanoparticle varies from 10 to 12 nm. ZrO2 NPs accumulated within the gut in a concentration-dependent manner and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) only at 2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1 concentrations. ROS was detected by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20370560 (H2DCF) staining. The ROS toxicity alters the larval gut structure as revealed by DAPI staining. The NP stress of larvae affects the Drosophila development by distressing pupa count and varying the phenotypic changes in sensory organs (eye, thorax bristle, wings). Besides phenotypic changes, flawed climbing behaviour against gravity was seen in ZrO2 NP-treated flies. All together, for the first time, we have reported that a ROS-mediated ZrO2 NP toxicity alters neuronal development and functioning using Drosophila as a model organism. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Development of three Drosophila melanogaster strains with different sensitivity to volatile anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Hu, Zhao-yang; Ye, Qi-quan; Dai, Shuo-hua

    2009-03-05

    The mechanisms of action for volatile anesthetics remain unknown for centuries partly owing to the insufficient or ineffective research models. We designed this study to develop three strains derived from a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster with different sensitivities to volatile anesthetics, which may ultimately facilitate molecular and genetic studies of the mechanism involved. Median effective doses (ED(50)) of sevoflurane in seven-day-old virgin female and male wild-type Drosophila melanogaster were determined. The sensitive males and females of percentile 6 - 10 were cultured for breeding sensitive offspring (S(1)). So did median ones of percentile 48 - 52 for breeding median offspring (M(1)), resistant ones of percentile 91 - 95 for breeding resistant offspring (R(1)). Process was repeated through 31 generations, in the 37th generation, S(37), M(37) and R(37) were used to determine ED(50) for enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane, chloroform and trichloroethylene, then ED(50) values were correlated with minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values in human. From a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster we were able to breed three strains with high, median and low sevoflurane requirements. The ratio of sevoflurane requirements of three strains were 1.20:1.00:0.53 for females and 1.22:1.00:0.72 for males. Strains sensitive, median and resistant to sevoflurane were also sensitive, median and resistant to other volatile anesthetics. For eight anesthetics, ED(50) values in three strains correlated directly with MAC values in human. Three Drosophila melanogaster strains with high, median and low sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, but with same hereditary background were developed. The ED(50) are directly correlated with MAC in human for eight volatile anesthetics.

  17. Early Program Development

    2004-04-15

    This artist's concept illustrates the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) engine's hot bleed cycle in which a small amount of hydrogen gas is diverted from the thrust nozzle, thus eliminating the need for a separate system to drive the turbine. The NERVA engine, based on KIWI nuclear reactor technology, would power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which the Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  18. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In this 1970 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in its lunar and geosynchronous orbit configuration and in its planetary mission configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  19. Sodium Butyrate Improves Locomotor Impairment and Early Mortality in a Rotenone-Induced Drosophila Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Robyn; O’Brien, Liam M.; Ahmad, S. Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the dopaminergic neurons in the nigrastriatal pathway resulting in debilitating motor impairment in both familial and sporadic cases. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been recently implicated as a therapeutic candidate because of their ability to correct the disrupted HDAC activity in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Sodium butyrate (SB), an HDAC inhibitor, reduces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a mutant alpha-synuclein Drosophila transgenic model of familial PD. Chronic exposure to the pesticide rotenone also causes selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and causes locomotor impairment and early mortality in a Drosophila model of chemically-induced PD. This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate on locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced PD model. We show that treatment with 10 mM SB-supplemented food rescued the rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality in flies. Additionally, flies with the genetic knockdown of HDAC activity through Sin3A loss-of-function mutation (Sin3Alof) were resistant to rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality. Furthermore, SB-supplemented Sin3Alof flies had a modest additive effect for improving locomotor impairment. We also show SB-mediated improvement of rotenone-induced locomotor impairment was associated with elevated dopamine levels in the brain. However, the possibility of SB-mediated protective role through mechanisms independent from dopamine system is also discussed. These findings demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors like SB can ameliorate locomotor impairment in a rotenone-induced PD model. PMID:23623990

  20. Early Program Development

    1996-06-20

    Engineers at one of MSFC's vacuum chambers begin testing a microthruster model. The purpose of these tests are to collect sufficient data that will enabe NASA to develop microthrusters that will move the Space Shuttle, a future space station, or any other space related vehicle with the least amount of expended energy. When something is sent into outer space, the forces that try to pull it back to Earth (gravity) are very small so that it only requires a very small force to move very large objects. In space, a force equal to a paperclip can move an object as large as a car. Microthrusters are used to produce these small forces.

  1. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  2. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  3. Investigating the effects of nanoparticles on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogaster and CD-1 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philbrook, Nicola Anne

    Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) are a class of small (≤ 100 nm) materials that are being used for a variety of purposes, including industrial lubricants, food additives, antibacterial agents, as well as delivery systems for drug and gene therapies. Their unique characteristics due to their small size as well as their parent materials allow them to be exploited in convenience applications; however, some of these properties also allow them to interact with and invade biological systems. Few studies have been performed to determine the potential harm that NPs can inflict on reproductive and developmental processes in organisms. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster and CD-1 mice were orally exposed to varying doses of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) NPs, silver (Ag) NPs, or hydroxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes (fCNTs) and Drosophila were also exposed to microparticles (MPs) as a control for particle size. The subsequent effect of these materials on reproduction and development were evaluated. Strikingly, each type of NP studied negatively affected either reproduction or development in one or both of the two model systems. TiO2 NPs significantly negative effected both CD-1 mouse development (100 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg) as well as Drosophila female fecundity (0.005%-0.5% w/v). Ag NPs significantly reduced mouse fetus viability after prenatal exposure to10 mg/kg. Ag NPs also significantly decreased the developmental success of Drosophila when they were directly exposed to these NPs (0.05% - 0.5% w/v) compared to both the vehicle and MP controls. fCNTs significantly increased the presence of morphological defects, resorptions and skeletal abnormalities in CD-1 mice, but had little effect on Drosophila. We speculate that the differences seen in the effects of NP types may be partially due to differences in reproductive physiology as well as each organism's ability to internalize these NPs. Whereas the differing response of each organism to a NP type was likely due in part to

  4. Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Stephen; Dierick, Herman A; Bejsovec, Amy

    2002-01-01

    The embryonic cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster is deposited by the epidermal epithelium during stage 16 of development. This tough, waterproof layer is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the larval body. We have characterized mutations in a set of genes required for proper deposition and/or morphogenesis of the cuticle. Zygotic disruption of any one of these genes results in embryonic lethality. Mutant embryos are hyperactive within the eggshell, resulting in a high proportion reversed within the eggshell (the "retroactive" phenotype), and all show poor cuticle integrity when embryos are mechanically devitellinized. This last property results in embryonic cuticle preparations that appear grossly inflated compared to wild-type cuticles (the "blimp" phenotype). We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), encodes a novel protein that shows genetic interaction with the Drosophila E-cadherin, shotgun. We also demonstrate that two other known mutants, grainy head (grh) and retroactive (rtv), show the blimp phenotype when devitellinized, and we describe a new mutation, called zeppelin (zep), that shows the blimp phenotype but does not produce defects in the head cuticle as the other mutations do. PMID:12019232

  5. Drosophila development, physiology, behavior, and lifespan are influenced by altered dietary composition

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, Kiel G.; LePine, Olivia K.; Abbineni, Prabhodh S.; Bridgeman, Justin M.; Mercier, A. Joffre; Tattersall, Glenn J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diet profoundly influences the behavior of animals across many phyla. Despite this, most laboratories using model organisms, such as Drosophila, use multiple, different, commercial or custom-made media for rearing their animals. In addition to measuring growth, fecundity and longevity, we used several behavioral and physiological assays to determine if and how altering food media influence wild-type (Canton S) Drosophila melanogaster, at larval, pupal, and adult stages. Comparing 2 commonly used commercial food media we observed several key developmental and morphological differences. Third-instar larvae and pupae developmental timing, body weight and size, and even lifespan significantly differed between the 2 diets, and some of these differences persisted into adulthood. Diet was also found to produce significantly different thermal preference, locomotory capacity for geotaxis, feeding rates, and lower muscle response to hormonal stimulation. There were no differences, however, in adult thermal preferences, in the number or viability of eggs laid, or in olfactory learning and memory between the diets. We characterized the composition of the 2 diets and found particularly significant differences in cholesterol and (phospho)lipids between them. Notably, diacylglycerol (DAG) concentrations vary substantially between the 2 diets, and may contribute to key phenotypic differences, including lifespan. Overall, the data confirm that 2 different diets can profoundly influence the behavior, physiology, morphology and development of wild-type Drosophila, with greater behavioral and physiologic differences occurring during the larval stages. PMID:28277941

  6. Notch and Delta mRNAs in early-stage and mid-stage Drosophila embryos exhibit complementary patterns of protein producing potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Andrew; Wesley, Uma; Wesley, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Notch and Delta proteins generate Notch signaling that specifies cell fates during animal development. There is an intriguing phenomenon in Drosophila embryogenesis that has not received much attention and whose significance to embryogenesis is unknown. Notch and Delta mRNAs expressed in early-stage embryos are shorter than their counterparts in mid-stage embryos. We show here that the difference in sizes is due to mRNA 3′ processing at alternate polyadenylation sites. While the early-stage Notch mRNA has a lower protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Notch mRNA, the early-stage Delta mRNA has a higher protein-producing potential than the mid-stage Delta mRNA. Our data can explain the complementary patterns of Notch and Delta protein levels in early-stage and mid-stage embryos. Our data also raise the possibility that the manner and regulation of Notch signaling change in the course of embryogenesis and that this change is effected by 3′ UTR and mRNA 3′ processing factors. PMID:20201103

  7. Optomotor-blind negatively regulates Drosophila eye development by blocking Jak/STAT signaling.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chen; Grimm, Stefan; Chao, Ju-Lan; Wang, Shih-Chin; Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Shen, Jie; Eichinger, Fred; Michalopoulou, Theoni; Yao, Chi-Kuang; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Lin, Shih-Han; Sun, Y Henry; Pflugfelder, Gert O

    2015-01-01

    Organ formation requires a delicate balance of positive and negative regulators. In Drosophila eye development, wingless (wg) is expressed at the lateral margins of the eye disc and serves to block retinal development. The T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb) is expressed in a similar pattern and is regulated by Wg. Omb mediates part of Wg activity in blocking eye development. Omb exerts its function primarily by blocking cell proliferation. These effects occur predominantly in the ventral margin. Our results suggest that the primary effect of Omb is the blocking of Jak/STAT signaling by repressing transcription of upd which encodes the Jak receptor ligand Unpaired.

  8. Optomotor-Blind Negatively Regulates Drosophila Eye Development by Blocking Jak/STAT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Chen; Grimm, Stefan; Chao, Ju-Lan; Wang, Shih-Chin; Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Shen, Jie; Eichinger, Fred; Michalopoulou, Theoni; Yao, Chi-Kuang; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Lin, Shih-Han; Sun, Y. Henry; Pflugfelder, Gert O.

    2015-01-01

    Organ formation requires a delicate balance of positive and negative regulators. In Drosophila eye development, wingless (wg) is expressed at the lateral margins of the eye disc and serves to block retinal development. The T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb) is expressed in a similar pattern and is regulated by Wg. Omb mediates part of Wg activity in blocking eye development. Omb exerts its function primarily by blocking cell proliferation. These effects occur predominantly in the ventral margin. Our results suggest that the primary effect of Omb is the blocking of Jak/STAT signaling by repressing transcription of upd which encodes the Jak receptor ligand Unpaired. PMID:25781970

  9. Different modes of APC/C activation control growth and neuron-glia interaction in the developing Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Neuert, Helen; Yuva-Aydemir, Yeliz; Silies, Marion; Klämbt, Christian

    2017-12-15

    The development of the nervous system requires tight control of cell division, fate specification and migration. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that affects different steps of cell cycle progression, as well as having postmitotic functions in nervous system development. It can therefore link different developmental stages in one tissue. The two adaptor proteins, Fizzy/Cdc20 and Fizzy-related/Cdh1, confer APC/C substrate specificity. Here, we show that two distinct modes of APC/C function act during Drosophila eye development. Fizzy/Cdc20 controls the early growth of the eye disc anlage and the concomitant entry of glial cells onto the disc. In contrast, fzr/cdh1 acts during neuronal patterning and photoreceptor axon growth, and subsequently affects neuron-glia interaction. To further address the postmitotic role of Fzr/Cdh1 in controlling neuron-glia interaction, we identified a series of novel APC/C candidate substrates. Four of our candidate genes are required for fzr/cdh1 -dependent neuron-glia interaction, including the dynein light chain Dlc90F Taken together, our data show how different modes of APC/C activation can couple early growth and neuron-glia interaction during eye disc development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The Drosophila foraging gene human orthologue PRKG1 predicts individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, H Moriah; Vasquez, Oscar E; Unternaehrer, Eva; Sokolowski, Dustin J; Biergans, Stephanie D; Atkinson, Leslie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Silveira, Patricia P; Levitan, Robert; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James; Meaney, Michael J; Fleming, Alison S; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-04-01

    There is variation in the extent to which childhood adverse experience affects adult individual differences in maternal behavior. Genetic variation in the animal foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, contributes to variation in the responses of adult fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster , to early life adversity and is also known to play a role in maternal behavior in social insects. Here we investigate genetic variation in the human foraging gene ( PRKG1 ) as a predictor of individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal behavior in two cohorts. We show that the PRKG1 genetic polymorphism rs2043556 associates with maternal sensitivity towards their infants. We also show that rs2043556 moderates the association between self-reported childhood adversity of the mother and her later maternal sensitivity. Mothers with the TT allele of rs2043556 appeared buffered from the effects of early adversity, whereas mothers with the presence of a C allele were not. Our study used the Toronto Longitudinal Cohort (N=288 mother-16 month old infant pairs) and the Maternal Adversity and Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment Cohort (N=281 mother-18 month old infant pairs). Our findings expand the literature on the contributions of both genetics and gene-environment interactions to maternal sensitivity, a salient feature of the early environment relevant for child neurodevelopment.

  11. Early events in speciation: Cryptic species of Drosophila aldrichi.

    PubMed

    Castro Vargas, Cynthia; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Ramirez Loustalot Laclette, Mariana; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the earliest events in speciation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Thus identifying species whose populations are beginning to diverge can provide useful systems to study the process of speciation. Drosophila aldrichi , a cactophilic fruit fly species with a broad distribution in North America, has long been assumed to be a single species owing to its morphological uniformity. While previous reports either of genetic divergence or reproductive isolation among different D. aldrichi strains have hinted at the existence of cryptic species, the evolutionary relationships of this species across its range have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we show that D. aldrichi actually is paraphyletic with respect to its closest relative, Drosophila wheeleri , and that divergent D. aldrichi lineages show complete hybrid male sterility when crossed. Our data support the interpretation that there are at least two species of D. aldrichi, making these flies particularly attractive for studies of speciation in an ecological and geographical context.

  12. Evolution and inheritance of early embryonic patterning in Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia.

    PubMed

    Lott, Susan E; Ludwig, Michael Z; Kreitman, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Pattern formation in Drosophila is a widely studied example of a robust developmental system. Such robust systems pose a challenge to adaptive evolution, as they mask variation that selection may otherwise act upon. Yet we find variation in the localization of expression domains (henceforth "stripe allometry") in the pattern formation pathway. Specifically, we characterize differences in the gap genes giant and Kruppel, and the pair-rule gene even-skipped, which differ between the sibling species Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia. In a double-backcross experiment, stripe allometry is consistent with maternal inheritance of stripe positioning and multiple genetic factors, with a distinct genetic basis from embryo length. Embryos produced by F1 and F2 backcross mothers exhibit novel spatial patterns of gene expression relative to the parental species, with no measurable increase in positional variance among individuals. Buffering of novel spatial patterns in the backcross genotypes suggests that robustness need not be disrupted in order for the trait to evolve, and perhaps the system is incapable of evolving to prevent the expression of all genetic variation. This limitation, and the ability of natural selection to act on minute genetic differences that are within the "margin of error" for the buffering mechanism, indicates that developmentally buffered traits can evolve without disruption of robustness. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Comparative transcriptomics of early dipteran development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern sequencing technologies have massively increased the amount of data available for comparative genomics. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a powerful basis for comparative studies. In particular, this approach holds great promise for emerging model species in fields such as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Results We have sequenced early embryonic transcriptomes of two non-drosophilid dipteran species: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. Our analysis includes a third, published, transcriptome for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. These emerging models for comparative developmental studies close an important phylogenetic gap between Drosophila melanogaster and other insect model systems. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of early embryonic transcriptomes across species, and use our data for a phylogenomic re-evaluation of dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions We show how comparative transcriptomics can be used to create useful resources for evo-devo, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Our results demonstrate that de novo assembly of short (Illumina) reads yields high-quality, high-coverage transcriptomic data sets. We use these data to investigate deep dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Our results, based on a concatenation of 160 orthologous genes, provide support for the traditional view of Clogmia being the sister group of Brachycera (Megaselia, Episyrphus, Drosophila), rather than that of Culicomorpha (which includes mosquitoes and blackflies). PMID:23432914

  14. No significant regulation of bicoid mRNA by Pumilio or Nanos in the early Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Tammy H; Nomie, Krystle J; Wharton, Robin P

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) is a founding member of the conserved Puf domain class of RNA-binding translational regulators. Pum binds with high specificity, contacting eight nucleotides, one with each of the repeats in its RNA-binding domain. In general, Pum is thought to block translation in collaboration with Nanos (Nos), which exhibits no binding specificity in isolation but is recruited jointly to regulatory sequences containing a Pum binding site in the 3'-UTRs of target mRNAs. Unlike Pum, which is ubiquitous in the early embryo, Nos is tightly restricted to the posterior, ensuring that repression of its best-characterized target, maternal hunchback (hb) mRNA, takes place exclusively in the posterior. An exceptional case of Nos-independent regulation by Pum has been described-repression of maternal bicoid (bcd) mRNA at the anterior pole of the early embryo, dependent on both Pum and conserved Pum binding sites in the 3'-UTR of the mRNA. We have re-investigated regulation of bcd in the early embryo; our experiments reveal no evidence of a role for Pum or its conserved binding sites in regulation of the perdurance of bcd mRNA or protein. Instead, we find that Pum and Nos control the accumulation of bcd mRNA in testes.

  15. Quantitative analysis of bristle number in Drosophila mutants identifies genes involved in neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norga, Koenraad K.; Gurganus, Marjorie C.; Dilda, Christy L.; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Lyman, Richard F.; Patel, Prajal H.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Mackay, Trudy F.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of the function of all genes that contribute to specific biological processes and complex traits is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. One approach is to employ forward genetic screens in genetically tractable model organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, P element-mediated insertional mutagenesis is a versatile tool for the dissection of molecular pathways, and there is an ongoing effort to tag every gene with a P element insertion. However, the vast majority of P element insertion lines are viable and fertile as homozygotes and do not exhibit obvious phenotypic defects, perhaps because of the tendency for P elements to insert 5' of transcription units. Quantitative genetic analysis of subtle effects of P element mutations that have been induced in an isogenic background may be a highly efficient method for functional genome annotation. RESULTS: Here, we have tested the efficacy of this strategy by assessing the extent to which screening for quantitative effects of P elements on sensory bristle number can identify genes affecting neural development. We find that such quantitative screens uncover an unusually large number of genes that are known to function in neural development, as well as genes with yet uncharacterized effects on neural development, and novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the use of quantitative trait analysis for functional genome annotation through forward genetics. Similar analyses of quantitative effects of P element insertions will facilitate our understanding of the genes affecting many other complex traits in Drosophila.

  16. Altered LARK Expression Perturbs Development and Physiology of the Drosophila PDF Clock Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanmei; Howlett, Eric; Stern, Michael; Jackson, F. Rob

    2009-01-01

    The LARK RNA-binding protein (RBP) has well documented roles in the circadian systems of Drosophila and mammals. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Drosophila LARK RBP is associated with many mRNA targets, in vivo, including those that regulate either neurophysiology or development of the nervous system. In the present study, we have employed conditional expression techniques to distinguish developmental and physiological functions of LARK for a defined class of neurons: the Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF)-containing LNv clock neurons. We found that increased LARK expression during development dramatically alters the small LNv class of neurons with no obvious effects on the large LNv cells. Conversely, conditional expression of LARK at the adult stage results in altered clock protein rhythms and circadian locomotor activity, even though neural morphology is normal in such animals. Electrophysiological analyses at the larval neuromuscular junction indicate a role for LARK in regulating neuronal excitability. Altogether, our results demonstrate that LARK activity is critical for neuronal development and physiology. PMID:19303442

  17. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  18. Multiple mechanisms modulate distinct cellular susceptibilities towards apoptosis in the developing Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun; Bergmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Although apoptosis is mechanistically well understood, a comprehensive understanding of how cells modulate their susceptibility towards apoptosis in a developing tissue is lacking. Here, we reveal striking dynamics in the apoptotic susceptibilities of different cell types in the Drosophila retina over a period of only 24 hours. Mitotic cells are extremely susceptible to apoptotic signals, while post-mitotic cells have developed several strategies to promote survival. For example, photoreceptor neurons accumulate the inhibitor of apoptosis, Diap1. In unspecified cells, Cullin-3-mediated degradation keeps Diap1 levels low. These cells depend on EGFR signaling for survival. As development proceeds, developmentally older photoreceptors degrade Diap1 resulting in increased apoptosis susceptibility. Finally, R8 photoreceptors have very efficient survival mechanisms independently of EGFR or Diap1. These examples illustrate how complex cellular susceptibility towards apoptosis is regulated in a developing organ. Similar complexities may regulate apoptosis susceptibilities in mammalian development and tumor cells may take advantage of it. PMID:24981611

  19. The Drosophila blood-brain barrier: development and function of a glial endothelium.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Stefanie; Weiler, Astrid; Volkenhoff, Anne; Babatz, Felix; Klämbt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of neuronal function requires a well-balanced extracellular ion homeostasis and a steady supply with nutrients and metabolites. Therefore, all organisms equipped with a complex nervous system developed a so-called blood-brain barrier, protecting it from an uncontrolled entry of solutes, metabolites or pathogens. In higher vertebrates, this diffusion barrier is established by polarized endothelial cells that form extensive tight junctions, whereas in lower vertebrates and invertebrates the blood-brain barrier is exclusively formed by glial cells. Here, we review the development and function of the glial blood-brain barrier of Drosophila melanogaster. In the Drosophila nervous system, at least seven morphologically distinct glial cell classes can be distinguished. Two of these glial classes form the blood-brain barrier. Perineurial glial cells participate in nutrient uptake and establish a first diffusion barrier. The subperineurial glial (SPG) cells form septate junctions, which block paracellular diffusion and thus seal the nervous system from the hemolymph. We summarize the molecular basis of septate junction formation and address the different transport systems expressed by the blood-brain barrier forming glial cells.

  20. A toxicity assessment of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on development and behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappus, S. Aurosman; Ekka, Basanti; Sahu, Swetapadma; Sabat, Debabrat; Dash, Priyabrat; Mishra, Monalisa

    2017-04-01

    The effects of oral intake of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HApNPs) were investigated on growth, development and behaviour of Drosophila. The Drosophila responses to various concentrations of HApNPs were compared. At lower concentrations, i.e. 5 mg L-1 more amount of oxidative stress was produced than that of highest concentration, i.e. 80 mg L-1. The increased amounts of oxidative stress reflect a higher amount of ROS production and increased cell damage within the larval gut. HApNPs was further shown to interfere with the calcium and phosphorus absorption pathway. Besides all these damage, HApNPs causes developmental delay in the late third instar larvae. The most significant anomaly was observed in pupae count, fly hatching after the feeding of HApNPs. Flies hatched from treated vials have decreased body weight with defective walking behaviour. Hatched flies have a phenotypic defect in the wing, eye and thorax of the bristles. Along with these changes, the adult fly becomes more prone towards stress. The findings hint that HApNPs persuade noxious effects and alter the development, structure, function and behaviour of the fly in a concentration-dependent manner.

  1. Stable Binding of the Conserved Transcription Factor Grainy Head to its Target Genes Throughout Drosophila melanogaster Development

    PubMed Central

    Nevil, Markus; Bondra, Eliana R.; Schulz, Katharine N.; Kaplan, Tommy; Harrison, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that transcription factor binding is temporally dynamic, and that changes in binding determine transcriptional output. Nonetheless, this model is based on relatively few examples in which transcription factor binding has been assayed at multiple developmental stages. The essential transcription factor Grainy head (Grh) is conserved from fungi to humans, and controls epithelial development and barrier formation in numerous tissues. Drosophila melanogaster, which possess a single grainy head (grh) gene, provide an excellent system to study this conserved factor. To determine whether temporally distinct binding events allow Grh to control cell fate specification in different tissue types, we used a combination of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq to elucidate the gene regulatory network controlled by Grh during four stages of embryonic development (spanning stages 5–17) and in larval tissue. Contrary to expectations, we discovered that Grh remains bound to at least 1146 genomic loci over days of development. In contrast to this stable DNA occupancy, the subset of genes whose expression is regulated by Grh varies. Grh transitions from functioning primarily as a transcriptional repressor early in development to functioning predominantly as an activator later. Our data reveal that Grh binds to target genes well before the Grh-dependent transcriptional program commences, suggesting it sets the stage for subsequent recruitment of additional factors that execute stage-specific Grh functions. PMID:28007888

  2. FGF signaling supports Drosophila fertility by regulating development of ovarian muscle tissues

    PubMed Central

    Irizarry, Jihyun; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2015-01-01

    The thisbe (ths) gene encodes a Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and mutant females are viable but sterile suggesting a link between FGF signaling and fertility. Ovaries exhibit abnormal morphology including lack of epithelial sheaths, muscle tissues that surround ovarioles. Here we investigated how FGF influences Drosophila ovary morphogenesis and identified several roles. Heartless (Htl) FGF receptor was found expressed within somatic cells at the larval and pupal stages, and phenotypes were uncovered using RNAi. Differentiation of terminal filament cells was affected, but this effect did not alter ovariole number. In addition, proliferation of epithelial sheath progenitors, the apical cells, was decreased in both htl and ths mutants, while ectopic expression of the Ths ligand led to these cells’ over-proliferation suggesting that FGF signaling supports ovarian muscle sheath formation by controlling apical cell number in the developing gonad. Additionally, live imaging of adult ovaries was used to show that htl RNAi mutants, hypomorphic mutants in which epithelial sheaths are present, exhibit abnormal muscle contractions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that proper formation of ovarian muscle tissues is regulated by FGF signaling in the larval and pupal stages through control of apical cell proliferation and is required to support fertility. PMID:25958090

  3. Sumoylation Modulates the Activity of Spalt-like Proteins during Wing Development in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Jonatan; Talamillo, Ana; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Pérez, Coralia; Hjerpe, Roland; Sutherland, James D.; Herboso, Leire; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Barrio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The Spalt-like family of zinc finger transcription factors is conserved throughout evolution and is involved in fundamental processes during development and during embryonic stem cell maintenance. Although human SALL1 is modified by SUMO-1 in vitro, it is not known whether this post-translational modification plays a role in regulating the activity of this family of transcription factors. Here, we show that the Drosophila Spalt transcription factors are modified by sumoylation. This modification influences their nuclear localization and capacity to induce vein formation through the regulation of target genes during wing development. Furthermore, spalt genes interact genetically with the sumoylation machinery to repress vein formation in intervein regions and to attain the wing final size. Our results suggest a new level of regulation of Sall activity in vivo during animal development through post-translational modification by sumoylation. The evolutionary conservation of this family of transcription factors suggests a functional role for sumoylation in vertebrate Sall members. PMID:20562097

  4. The Him gene inhibits the development of Drosophila flight muscles during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Soler, Cédric; Taylor, Michael V

    2009-07-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis some larval tissues escape the general histolysis and are remodelled to form adult tissues. One example is the dorso-longitudinal muscles (DLMs) of the indirect flight musculature. They are formed by an intriguing process in which residual larval oblique muscles (LOMs) split and fuse with imaginal myoblasts associated with the wing disc. These myoblasts arise in the embryo, but remain undifferentiated throughout embryogenesis and larval life, and thus share characteristics with mammalian satellite cells. However, the mechanisms that maintain the Drosophila myoblasts in an undifferentiated state until needed for LOM remodelling are not understood. Here we show that the Him gene is expressed in these myoblasts, but is undetectable in developing DLM fibres. Consistent with this, we found that Him could inhibit DLM development: it inhibited LOM splitting and resulted in fibre degeneration. We then uncovered a balance between mef2, a positive factor required for proper DLM development, and the inhibitory action of Him. Mef2 suppressed the inhibitory effect of Him on DLM development, while Him could suppress the premature myosin expression induced by mef2 in myoblasts. Furthermore, either decreased Him function or increased mef2 function disrupted DLM development. These findings, together with the co-expression of Him and Mef2 in myoblasts, indicate that Him may antagonise mef2 function during normal DLM development and that Him participates in a balance of signals that controls adult myoblast differentiation and remodelling of these muscle fibres. Lastly, we provide evidence for a link between Notch function and Him and mef2 in this balance.

  5. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  6. mus304 encodes a novel DNA damage checkpoint protein required during Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Michael H.; Sekelsky, Jeff J.; Tsang, Garson; Hawley, R. Scott; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2000-01-01

    Checkpoints block cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells exposed to DNA damaging agents. We show that several Drosophila homologs of checkpoint genes, mei-41, grapes, and 14-3-3ε, regulate a DNA damage checkpoint in the developing eye. We have used this assay to show that the mutagen-sensitive gene mus304 is also required for this checkpoint. mus304 encodes a novel coiled-coil domain protein, which is targeted to the cytoplasm. Similar to mei-41, mus304 is required for chromosome break repair and for genomic stability. mus304 animals also exhibit three developmental defects, abnormal bristle morphology, decreased meiotic recombination, and arrested embryonic development. We suggest that these phenotypes reflect distinct developmental consequences of a single underlying checkpoint defect. Similar mechanisms may account for the puzzling array of symptoms observed in humans with mutations in the ATM tumor suppressor gene. PMID:10733527

  7. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  8. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  9. Size-dependent regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning in the early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Mayra; Nahmad, Marcos; Reeves, Gregory T.; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2013-01-01

    How natural variation in embryo size affects patterning of the Drosophila embryo dorsal-ventral (DV) axis is not known. Here we examined quantitatively the relationship between nuclear distribution of the Dorsal transcription factor, boundary positions for several target genes, and DV axis length. Data were obtained from embryos of a wild-type background as well as from mutant lines inbred to size select embryos of smaller or larger sizes. Our data show that the width of the nuclear Dorsal gradient correlates with DV axis length. In turn, for some genes expressed along the DV axis, the boundary positions correlate closely with nuclear Dorsal levels and with DV axis length; while the expression pattern of others is relatively constant and independent of the width of the Dorsal gradient. In particular, the patterns of snail (sna) and ventral nervous-system defective (vnd) correlate with nuclear Dorsal levels and exhibit scaling to DV length; while the pattern of intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind) remains relatively constant with respect to changes in Dorsal and DV length. However, in mutants that exhibit an abnormal expansion of the Dorsal gradient which fails to scale to DV length, only sna follows the Dorsal distribution and exhibits overexpansion; in contrast, vnd and ind do not overexpand suggesting some additional mechanism acts to refine the dorsal boundaries of these two genes. Thus, our results argue against the idea that the Dorsal gradient works as a global system of relative coordinates along the DV axis and suggest that individual targets respond to changes in embryo size in a gene-specific manner. PMID:23800450

  10. Arm-Gal4 inheritance influences development and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Slade, F A; Staveley, B E

    2015-10-19

    The UAS-Gal4 ectopic expression system is a widely used and highly valued tool that allows specific gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Yeast transcription factor Gal4 can be directed using D. melanogaster transcriptional control elements, and is often assumed to have little effect on the organism. By evaluation of the consequences of maternal and paternal inheritance of a Gal4 transgene under the transcriptional regulation of armadillo control elements (arm-Gal4), we demonstrated that Gal4 expression could be detrimental to development and longevity. Male progeny expressing arm-Gal4 in the presence of UAS-lacZ transgene had reduced numbers and size of ommatidia, compared to flies expressing UAS-lacZ transgene under the control of other Gal4 transgenes. Aged at 25°C, the median life span of male flies with maternally inherited elav-Gal4 was 70 days, without a responding transgene or with UAS-lacZ. The median life span of maternally inherited arm-Gal4 male flies without a responding transgene was 48 days, and 40 days with the UAS-lacZ transgene. A partial rescue of this phenotype was observed with the expression of UAS-lacZ under paternal arm-Gal4 control, having an average median lifespan of 60 days. This data suggests that arm-Gal4 has detrimental effects on Drosophila development and lifespan that are directly dependent upon parental inheritance, and that the benign responder and reporter gene UAS-lacZ may influence D. melanogaster development. These findings should be taken into consideration during the design and execution of UAS-Gal4 expression experiments.

  11. Spatial Reorganization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum during Mitosis Relies on Mitotic Kinase Cyclin A in the Early Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Zane J.; Mclaurin, Justin D.; Eritano, Anthony S.; Johnson, Brittany M.; Sims, Amanda Q.; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope. PMID:25689737

  12. Hydroxyurea-mediated neuroblast ablation establishes birthdates of secondary lineages and addresses neuronal interactions in the developing Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila brain is comprised of neurons formed by approximately 100 lineages, each of which is derived from a stereotyped, asymmetrically dividing neuroblast. Lineages serve as structural and developmental units of Drosophila brain anatomy and reconstruction of lineage projection patterns represents a suitable map of Drosophila brain circuitry at the level of neuron populations (“macro-circuitry”). Two phases of neuroblast proliferation, the first in the embryo and the second during the larval phase (following a period of mitotic quiescence), produce primary and secondary lineages, respectively. Using temporally controlled pulses of hydroxyurea (HU) to ablate neuroblasts and their corresponding secondary lineages during the larval phase, we analyzed the effect on development of primary and secondary lineages in the late larval and adult brain. Our findings indicate that timing of neuroblast re-activation is highly stereotyped, allowing us to establish “birth dates” for all secondary lineages. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that, whereas the trajectory and projection pattern of primary and secondary lineages is established in a largely independent manner, the final branching pattern of secondary neurons is dependent upon the presence of appropriate neuronal targets. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the degree of neuronal plasticity during Drosophila brain development. PMID:25773365

  13. Developing a new bait for spotted wing Drosophila in organic cherry production

    Studies conducted at the USDA Laboratory in Wapato, WA and at Oregon State University were initiated in 2011 to improve the efficacy of an organically-certified formulation of the insecticide spinosad (Entrust®) for control of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Our initial approach was...

  14. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  15. VARIATIONS AT A QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS (QTL) AFFECT DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR IN LEAD-EXPOSED DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Helmut V. B.; Possidente, Debra; Averill, Sarah; Despain, Tamira Palmetto; Buytkins, Joel; Thomas, Valerie; Goebel, W. Paul; Shipp-Hilts, Asante; Wilson, Diane; Hollocher, Kurt; Possidente, Bernard; Lnenicka, Greg; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2009-01-01

    We developed Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study correlated behavioral, neuronal and genetic effects of the neurotoxin lead, known to affect cognitive and behavioral development in children. We showed that, as in vertebrates, lead affects both synaptic development and complex behaviors (courtship, fecundity, locomotor activity) in Drosophila. By assessing differential behavioral responses to developmental lead exposure among recombinant inbred Drosophila lines (RI), derived from parental lines Oregon R and Russian 2b, we have now identified a genotype by environment interaction (GEI) for a behavioral trait affected by lead. Drosophila Activity Monitors (TriKinetics, Waltham, MA), which measure activity by counting the number of times a single fly in a small glass tube walks through an infrared beam aimed at the middle of the tube, were used to measure activity of flies, reared from eggs to 4 days of adult age on either control or lead-contaminated medium, from each of 75 RI lines. We observed a significant statistical association between the effect of lead on average daytime activity across lines and one marker locus, 30AB, on chromosome 2; we define this as a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) associated with behavioral effects of developmental lead exposure. When 30AB was from Russian 2b, lead significantly increased locomotor activity, whereas, when 30AB was from Oregon R, lead decreased it. 30AB contains about 125 genes among which are likely “candidate genes” for the observed lead-dependent behavioral changes. Drosophila are thus a useful, underutilized model for studying behavioral, synaptic and genetic changes following chronic exposure to lead or other neurotoxins during development. PMID:19428504

  16. Conserved neural circuit structure across Drosophila larval development revealed by comparative connectomics.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Stephan; Andrade, Ingrid; Fetter, Richard D; Cardona, Albert; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M

    2017-10-23

    During postembryonic development, the nervous system must adapt to a growing body. How changes in neuronal structure and connectivity contribute to the maintenance of appropriate circuit function remains unclear. Previously , we measured the cellular neuroanatomy underlying synaptic connectivity in Drosophila (Schneider-Mizell et al., 2016). Here, we examined how neuronal morphology and connectivity change between first instar and third instar larval stages using serial section electron microscopy. We reconstructed nociceptive circuits in a larva of each stage and found consistent topographically arranged connectivity between identified neurons. Five-fold increases in each size, number of terminal dendritic branches, and total number of synaptic inputs were accompanied by cell type-specific connectivity changes that preserved the fraction of total synaptic input associated with each pre-synaptic partner. We propose that precise patterns of structural growth act to conserve the computational function of a circuit, for example determining the location of a dangerous stimulus.

  17. Structure and Development of the Subesophageal Zone of the Drosophila Brain. II. Sensory Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Kendroud, Sarah; Bohra, Ali Asgar; Kuert, Philipp A.; Nguyen, Bao; Guillermin, Oriane; Sprecher, Simon G.; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Hartenstein, Volker

    2018-01-01

    The subesophageal zone (SEZ) of the Drosophila brain processes mechanosensory and gustatory sensory input from sensilla located on the head, mouth cavity and trunk. Motor output from the SEZ directly controls the movements involved in feeding behavior. In an accompanying paper (Hartenstein et al., 2017) we analyzed the systems of fiber tracts and secondary lineages to establish reliable criteria for defining boundaries between the four neuromeres of the SEZ, as well as discrete longitudinal neuropil domains within each SEZ neuromere. Here we use this anatomical framework to systematically map the sensory projections entering the SEZ throughout development. Our findings show a continuity between larval and adult sensory neuropils. Gustatory axons from internal and external taste sensilla of the larva and adult form two closely related sensory projections, (1) the anterior central sensory center (ACSC) located deep in the ventromedial neuropil of the tritocerebrum and mandibular neuromere, and (2) the anterior ventral sensory center (AVSC), occupying a superficial layer within the ventromedial tritocerebrum. Additional, presumed mechanosensory terminal axons entering via the labial nerve define the ventromedial sensory center (VMSC) in the maxilla and labium. Mechanosensory afferents of the massive array of chordotonal organs (Johnston’s organ) of the adult antenna project into the centrolateral neuropil column of the anterior SEZ, creating the antenno-mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC). Dendritic projections of dye back-filled motor neurons extend throughout a ventral layer of the SEZ, overlapping widely with the AVSC and VMSC. Our findings elucidate fundamental structural aspects of the developing sensory systems in Drosophila. PMID:28875566

  18. Mechanisms Underlying the Risk to Develop Drug Addiction, Insights From Studies in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ryvkin, Julia; Bentzur, Assa; Zer-Krispil, Shir; Shohat-Ophir, Galit

    2018-01-01

    The ability to adapt to environmental changes is an essential feature of biological systems, achieved in animals by a coordinated crosstalk between neuronal and hormonal programs that allow rapid and integrated organismal responses. Reward systems play a key role in mediating this adaptation by reinforcing behaviors that enhance immediate survival, such as eating or drinking, or those that ensure long-term survival, such as sexual behavior or caring for offspring. Drugs of abuse co-opt neuronal and molecular pathways that mediate natural rewards, which under certain circumstances can lead to addiction. Many factors can contribute to the transition from drug use to drug addiction, highlighting the need to discover mechanisms underlying the progression from initial drug use to drug addiction. Since similar responses to natural and drug rewards are present in very different animals, it is likely that the central systems that process reward stimuli originated early in evolution, and that common ancient biological principles and genes are involved in these processes. Thus, the neurobiology of natural and drug rewards can be studied using simpler model organisms that have their systems stripped of some of the immense complexity that exists in mammalian brains. In this paper we review studies in Drosophila melanogaster that model different aspects of natural and drug rewards, with an emphasis on how motivational states shape the value of the rewarding experience, as an entry point to understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the vulnerability of drug addiction.

  19. gone early, a Novel Germline Factor, Ensures the Proper Size of the Stem Cell Precursor Pool in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Shinya; Gupta, Swati; Suzuki, Emiko; Hiromi, Yasushi; Asaoka, Miho

    2014-01-01

    In order to sustain lifelong production of gametes, many animals have evolved a stem cell–based gametogenic program. In the Drosophila ovary, germline stem cells (GSCs) arise from a pool of primordial germ cells (PGCs) that remain undifferentiated even after gametogenesis has initiated. The decision of PGCs to differentiate or remain undifferentiated is regulated by somatic stromal cells: specifically, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling activated in the stromal cells determines the fraction of germ cells that remain undifferentiated by shaping a Decapentaplegic (Dpp) gradient that represses PGC differentiation. However, little is known about the contribution of germ cells to this process. Here we show that a novel germline factor, Gone early (Goe), limits the fraction of PGCs that initiate gametogenesis. goe encodes a non-peptidase homologue of the Neprilysin family metalloendopeptidases. At the onset of gametogenesis, Goe was localized on the germ cell membrane in the ovary, suggesting that it functions in a peptidase-independent manner in cell–cell communication at the cell surface. Overexpression of Goe in the germline decreased the number of PGCs that enter the gametogenic pathway, thereby increasing the proportion of undifferentiated PGCs. Inversely, depletion of Goe increased the number of PGCs initiating differentiation. Excess PGC differentiation in the goe mutant was augmented by halving the dose of argos, a somatically expressed inhibitor of EGFR signaling. This increase in PGC differentiation resulted in a massive decrease in the number of undifferentiated PGCs, and ultimately led to insufficient formation of GSCs. Thus, acting cooperatively with a somatic regulator of EGFR signaling, the germline factor goe plays a critical role in securing the proper size of the GSC precursor pool. Because goe can suppress EGFR signaling activity and is expressed in EGF-producing cells in various tissues, goe may function by attenuating EGFR

  20. Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sonoshita, M; Cagan, R L

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development. Flies offer rapid, efficient platforms by which novel classes of drugs can be identified as candidate anticancer leads. Further, we discuss the use of Drosophila as a platform to develop therapies for individual patients by modeling the tumor's genetic complexity. Drosophila provides both a classical and a novel tool to identify new therapeutics, complementing other more traditional cancer tools. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. From Embryo to Adult: piRNA-Mediated Silencing throughout Germline Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pauline P.; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Boivin, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    In metazoan germ cells, transposable element activity is repressed by small noncoding PIWI-associated RNAs (piRNAs). Numerous studies in Drosophila have elucidated the mechanism of this repression in the adult germline. However, when and how transposable element repression is established during germline development has not been addressed. Here, we show that homology-dependent trans silencing is active in female primordial germ cells from late embryogenesis through pupal stages, and that genes related to the adult piRNA pathway are required for silencing during development. In larval gonads, we detect rhino-dependent piRNAs indicating de novo biogenesis of functional piRNAs during development. Those piRNAs exhibit the molecular signature of the “ping-pong” amplification step. Moreover, we show that Heterochromatin Protein 1a is required for the production of piRNAs coming from telomeric transposable elements. Furthermore, as in adult ovaries, incomplete, bimodal, and stochastic repression resembling variegation can occur at all developmental stages. Clonal analysis indicates that the repression status established in embryonic germ cells is maintained until the adult stage, suggesting the implication of a cellular memory mechanism. Taken together, data presented here show that piRNAs and their associated proteins are epigenetic components of a continuous repression system throughout germ cell development. PMID:27932388

  2. Male Killing Spiroplasma Preferentially Disrupts Neural Development in the Drosophila melanogaster Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Chong, Trisha; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Male killing bacteria such as Spiroplasma are widespread pathogens of numerous arthropods including Drosophila melanogaster. These maternally transmitted bacteria can bias host sex ratios toward the female sex in order to ‘selfishly’ enhance bacterial transmission. However, little is known about the specific means by which these pathogens disrupt host development in order to kill males. Here we show that a male-killing Spiroplasma strain severely disrupts nervous tissue development in male but not female D. melanogaster embryos. The neuroblasts, or neuron progenitors, form properly and their daughter cells differentiate into neurons of the ventral nerve chord. However, the neurons fail to pack together properly and they produce highly abnormal axons. In contrast, non-neural tissue, such as mesoderm, and body segmentation appear normal during this time, although the entire male embryo becomes highly abnormal during later stages. Finally, we found that Spiroplasma is altogether absent from the neural tissue but localizes within the gut and the epithelium immediately surrounding the neural tissue, suggesting that the bacterium secretes a toxin that affects neural tissue development across tissue boundaries. Together these findings demonstrate the unique ability of this insect pathogen to preferentially affect development of a specific embryonic tissue to induce male killing. PMID:24236124

  3. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…

  4. Early Childhood Diplomacy: Policy Planning for Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…

  5. Snipper, an Eri1 homologue, affects histone mRNA abundance and is crucial for normal Drosophila melanogaster development.

    PubMed

    Alexiadis, Anastasios; Delidakis, Christos; Kalantidis, Kriton

    2017-07-01

    The conserved 3'-5' RNA exonuclease ERI1 is implicated in RNA interference inhibition, 5.8S rRNA maturation and histone mRNA maturation and turnover. The single ERI1 homologue in Drosophila melanogaster Snipper (Snp) is a 3'-5' exonuclease, but its in vivo function remains elusive. Here, we report Snp requirement for normal Drosophila development, since its perturbation leads to larval arrest and tissue-specific downregulation results in abnormal tissue development. Additionally, Snp directly interacts with histone mRNA, and its depletion results in drastic reduction in histone transcript levels. We propose that Snp protects the 3'-ends of histone mRNAs and upon its absence, histone transcripts are readily degraded. This in turn may lead to cell cycle delay or arrest, causing growth arrest and developmental perturbations. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Aging Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2015-01-01

    Summary Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity. PMID:23929099

  7. DNA replication machinery is required for development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kohzaki, Hidetsugu; Asano, Maki; Murakami, Yota

    2018-01-01

     In Drosophila , some factors involved in chromosome replication seem to be involved in gene amplification and endoreplication, which are actively utilized in particular tissue development, but direct evidence has not been shown. Therefore, we examined the effect of depletion of replication factors on these processes. First, we confirmed RNAi knockdown can be used for the depletion of replication factors by comparing the phenotypes of RNAi knockdown and deletion or point mutants of the components of DNA licensing factor, MCM2, MCM4 and Cdt1. Next, we found that tissue-specific RNAi knockdown of replication factors caused tissue-specific defects, probably due to defects in DNA replication. In particular, we found that depletion inhibited gene amplification of the chorion gene in follicle cells and endoreplication in salivary glands, showing that chromosomal DNA replication factors are required for these processes. Finally, using RNAi, we screened the genes for chromosomal DNA replication that affected tissue development. Interestingly, wing specific knockdown of Mcm10 induced wing formation defects. These results suggest that some components of chromosomal replication machinery are directly involved in tissue development.

  8. Genetic variation in social environment construction influences the development of aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, J B

    2017-01-01

    Individuals are not merely subject to their social environments; they choose and create them, through a process called social environment (or social niche) construction. When genotypes differ in social environment-constructing behaviors, different genotypes are expected to experience different social environments. As social experience often affects behavioral development, quantitative genetics and psychology theories predict that genetic variation in social environment construction should have an important role in determining phenotypic variation; however, this hypothesis has not been tested directly. I identify multiple mechanisms of social environment construction that differ among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster and investigate their consequences for the development of aggressive behavior. Male genotypes differed in the group sizes that they preferred and in their aggressive behavior; both of these behaviors influenced social experience, demonstrating that these behaviors function as social environment-constructing traits. Further, the effects of social experience—as determined in part by social environment construction—carried over to affect focal male aggression at a later time and with a new opponent. These results provide manipulative experimental support for longstanding hypotheses in psychology, that genetic variation in social environment construction has a causal role in behavioral development. More broadly, these results imply that studies of the genetic basis of complex traits should be expanded to include mechanisms by which genetic variation shapes the environments that individuals experience. PMID:27848947

  9. Drosophila COP9 signalosome subunit 7 interacts with multiple genomic loci to regulate development

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Ruth; Atar, Shimshi; Atias, Osnat; Oron, Efrat; Segal, Daniel; Hirsch, Joel A.; Tuller, Tamir; Orian, Amir; Chamovitz, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome protein complex has a central role in the regulation of development of multicellular organisms. While the function of this complex in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is well established, results over the past few years have hinted that the COP9 signalosome may function more broadly in the regulation of gene expression. Here, using DamID technology, we show that COP9 signalosome subunit 7 functionally associates with a large number of genomic loci in the Drosophila genome, and show that the expression of many genes within these loci is COP9 signalosome-dependent. This association is likely direct as we show CSN7 binds DNA in vitro. The genes targeted by CSN7 are preferentially enriched for transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and are involved in the regulation of distinct gene ontology groupings including imaginal disc development and cell-cycle control. In accord, loss of CSN7 function leads to cell-cycle delay and altered wing development. These results indicate that CSN7, and by extension the entire COP9 signalosome, functions directly in transcriptional control. While the COP9 signalosome protein complex has long been known to regulate protein degradation, here we expand the role of this complex by showing that subunit 7 binds DNA in vitro and functions directly in vivo in transcriptional control of developmentally important pathways that are relevant for human health. PMID:25106867

  10. Drosophila COP9 signalosome subunit 7 interacts with multiple genomic loci to regulate development.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ruth; Atar, Shimshi; Atias, Osnat; Oron, Efrat; Segal, Daniel; Hirsch, Joel A; Tuller, Tamir; Orian, Amir; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2014-09-01

    The COP9 signalosome protein complex has a central role in the regulation of development of multicellular organisms. While the function of this complex in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is well established, results over the past few years have hinted that the COP9 signalosome may function more broadly in the regulation of gene expression. Here, using DamID technology, we show that COP9 signalosome subunit 7 functionally associates with a large number of genomic loci in the Drosophila genome, and show that the expression of many genes within these loci is COP9 signalosome-dependent. This association is likely direct as we show CSN7 binds DNA in vitro. The genes targeted by CSN7 are preferentially enriched for transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and are involved in the regulation of distinct gene ontology groupings including imaginal disc development and cell-cycle control. In accord, loss of CSN7 function leads to cell-cycle delay and altered wing development. These results indicate that CSN7, and by extension the entire COP9 signalosome, functions directly in transcriptional control. While the COP9 signalosome protein complex has long been known to regulate protein degradation, here we expand the role of this complex by showing that subunit 7 binds DNA in vitro and functions directly in vivo in transcriptional control of developmentally important pathways that are relevant for human health. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Drosophila Importin-α2 Is Involved in Synapse, Axon and Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Timothy J.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear import is required for communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and to enact lasting changes in gene transcription following stimuli. Binding to an Importin-α molecule in the cytoplasm is often required to mediate nuclear entry of a signaling protein. As multiple isoforms of Importin-α exist, some may be responsible for the entry of distinct cargoes rather than general nuclear import. Indeed, in neuronal systems, Importin-α isoforms can mediate very specific processes such as axonal tiling and communication of an injury signal. To study nuclear import during development, we examined the expression and function of Importin-α2 in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Importin-α2 was expressed in the nervous system where it was required for normal active zone density at the NMJ and axonal commissure formation in the central nervous system. Other aspects of synaptic morphology at the NMJ and the localization of other synaptic markers appeared normal in importin-α2 mutants. Importin-α2 also functioned in development of the body wall musculature. Mutants in importin-α2 exhibited errors in muscle patterning and organization that could be alleviated by restoring muscle expression of Importin-α2. Thus, Importin-α2 is needed for some processes in the development of both the nervous system and the larval musculature. PMID:21151903

  12. More oxygen during development enhanced flight performance but not thermal tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Shiehzadegan, Shayan; Le Vinh Thuy, Jacqueline; Szabla, Natalia; Angilletta, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    High temperatures can stress animals by raising the oxygen demand above the oxygen supply. Consequently, animals under hypoxia could be more sensitive to heating than those exposed to normoxia. Although support for this model has been limited to aquatic animals, oxygen supply might limit the heat tolerance of terrestrial animals during energetically demanding activities. We evaluated this model by studying the flight performance and heat tolerance of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) acclimated and tested at different concentrations of oxygen (12%, 21%, and 31%). We expected that flies raised at hypoxia would develop into adults that were more likely to fly under hypoxia than would flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. We also expected flies to benefit from greater oxygen supply during testing. These effects should have been most pronounced at high temperatures, which impair locomotor performance. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence that flies raised at hypoxia flew better when tested at hypoxia or tolerated extreme heat better than did flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. Instead, flies raised at higher oxygen levels performed better at all body temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Moreover, oxygen supply during testing had the greatest effect on flight performance at low temperature, rather than high temperature. Our results poorly support the hypothesis that oxygen supply limits performance at high temperatures, but do support the idea that hyperoxia during development improves performance of flies later in life. PMID:28542380

  13. Conserved Genetic Pathways Controlling the Development of the Diffuse Endocrine System in Vertebrates and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  14. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. More oxygen during development enhanced flight performance but not thermal tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shiehzadegan, Shayan; Le Vinh Thuy, Jacqueline; Szabla, Natalia; Angilletta, Michael J; VandenBrooks, John M

    2017-01-01

    High temperatures can stress animals by raising the oxygen demand above the oxygen supply. Consequently, animals under hypoxia could be more sensitive to heating than those exposed to normoxia. Although support for this model has been limited to aquatic animals, oxygen supply might limit the heat tolerance of terrestrial animals during energetically demanding activities. We evaluated this model by studying the flight performance and heat tolerance of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) acclimated and tested at different concentrations of oxygen (12%, 21%, and 31%). We expected that flies raised at hypoxia would develop into adults that were more likely to fly under hypoxia than would flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. We also expected flies to benefit from greater oxygen supply during testing. These effects should have been most pronounced at high temperatures, which impair locomotor performance. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence that flies raised at hypoxia flew better when tested at hypoxia or tolerated extreme heat better than did flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. Instead, flies raised at higher oxygen levels performed better at all body temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Moreover, oxygen supply during testing had the greatest effect on flight performance at low temperature, rather than high temperature. Our results poorly support the hypothesis that oxygen supply limits performance at high temperatures, but do support the idea that hyperoxia during development improves performance of flies later in life.

  16. DNA Replication Control During Drosophila Development: Insights into the Onset of S Phase, Replication Initiation, and Fork Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Brian L.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2017-01-01

    Proper control of DNA replication is critical to ensure genomic integrity during cell proliferation. In addition, differential regulation of the DNA replication program during development can change gene copy number to influence cell size and gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful organism to study the developmental control of DNA replication in various cell cycle contexts in a variety of differentiated cell and tissue types. Additionally, Drosophila has provided several developmentally regulated replication models to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie replication-based copy number changes in the genome, which include differential underreplication and gene amplification. Here, we review key findings and our current understanding of the developmental control of DNA replication in the contexts of the archetypal replication program as well as of underreplication and differential gene amplification. We focus on the use of these latter two replication systems to delineate many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental control of replication initiation and fork elongation. PMID:28874453

  17. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    PubMed

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of the Cellular Immune System of Drosophila Requires the Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin-Like Protein Torso-Like.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Beadle, Lauren; Crossman, Tova; Johnson, Travis K; Burke, Richard; Warr, Coral G; Whisstock, James C

    2016-10-01

    Pore-forming members of the membrane attack complex/perforin-like (MACPF) protein superfamily perform well-characterized roles as mammalian immune effectors. For example, complement component 9 and perforin function to directly form pores in the membrane of Gram-negative pathogens or virally infected/transformed cells, respectively. In contrast, the only known MACPF protein in Drosophila melanogaster, Torso-like, plays crucial roles during development in embryo patterning and larval growth. Here, we report that in addition to these functions, Torso-like plays an important role in Drosophila immunity. However, in contrast to a hypothesized effector function in, for example, elimination of Gram-negative pathogens, we find that torso-like null mutants instead show increased susceptibility to certain Gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis We further show that this deficit is due to a severely reduced number of circulating immune cells and, as a consequence, an impaired ability to phagocytose bacterial particles. Together these data suggest that Torso-like plays an important role in controlling the development of the Drosophila cellular immune system. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. dSet1 Is the Main H3K4 Di- and Tri-Methyltransferase Throughout Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Hallson, Graham; Hollebakken, Robert E.; Li, Taosui; Syrzycka, Monika; Kim, Inho; Cotsworth, Shawn; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen A.; Sinclair, Donald A. R.; Honda, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the post-translational addition of methyl groups to histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) plays key roles in maintenance and establishment of appropriate gene expression patterns and chromatin states. We report here that an essential locus within chromosome 3L centric heterochromatin encodes the previously uncharacterized Drosophila melanogaster ortholog (dSet1, CG40351) of the Set1 H3K4 histone methyltransferase (HMT). Our results suggest that dSet1 acts as a “global” or general H3K4 di- and trimethyl HMT in Drosophila. Levels of H3K4 di- and trimethylation are significantly reduced in dSet1 mutants during late larval and post-larval stages, but not in animals carrying mutations in genes encoding other well-characterized H3K4 HMTs such as trr, trx, and ash1. The latter results suggest that Trr, Trx, and Ash1 may play more specific roles in regulating key cellular targets and pathways and/or act as global H3K4 HMTs earlier in development. In yeast and mammalian cells, the HMT activity of Set1 proteins is mediated through an evolutionarily conserved protein complex known as Complex of Proteins Associated with Set1 (COMPASS). We present biochemical evidence that dSet1 interacts with members of a putative Drosophila COMPASS complex and genetic evidence that these members are functionally required for H3K4 methylation. Taken together, our results suggest that dSet1 is responsible for the bulk of H3K4 di- and trimethylation throughout Drosophila development, thus providing a model system for better understanding the requirements for and functions of these modifications in metazoans. PMID:22048023

  20. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kumita, Janet R.; Helmfors, Linda; Williams, Jocy; Luheshi, Leila M.; Menzer, Linda; Dumoulin, Mireille; Lomas, David A.; Crowther, Damian C.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    We have created a Drosophila model of lysozyme amyloidosis to investigate the in vivo behavior of disease-associated variants. To achieve this objective, wild-type (WT) protein and the amyloidogenic variants F57I and D67H were expressed in Drosophila melanogaster using the UAS-gal4 system and both the ubiquitous and retinal expression drivers Act5C-gal4 and gmr-gal4. The nontransgenic w1118 Drosophila line was used as a control throughout. We utilized ELISA experiments to probe lysozyme protein levels, scanning electron microscopy for eye phenotype classification, and immunohistochemistry to detect the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. We observed that expressing the destabilized F57I and D67H lysozymes triggers UPR activation, resulting in degradation of these variants, whereas the WT lysozyme is secreted into the fly hemolymph. Indeed, the level of WT was up to 17 times more abundant than the variant proteins. In addition, the F57I variant gave rise to a significant disruption of the eye development, and this correlated to pronounced UPR activation. These results support the concept that the onset of familial amyloid disease is linked to an inability of the UPR to degrade completely the amyloidogenic lysozymes prior to secretion, resulting in secretion of these destabilized variants, thereby leading to deposition and associated organ damage.—Kumita, J. R., Helmfors, L., Williams, J., Luheshi, L. M., Menzer, L., Dumoulin, M., Lomas, D. A., Crowther, D. C., Dobson, C. M., Brorsson, A.-C. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:21965601

  1. Transcriptional Activity and Nuclear Localization of Cabut, the Drosophila Ortholog of Vertebrate TGF-β-Inducible Early-Response Gene (TIEG) Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Belacortu, Yaiza; Weiss, Ron; Kadener, Sebastian; Paricio, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Background Cabut (Cbt) is a C2H2-class zinc finger transcription factor involved in embryonic dorsal closure, epithelial regeneration and other developmental processes in Drosophila melanogaster. Cbt orthologs have been identified in other Drosophila species and insects as well as in vertebrates. Indeed, Cbt is the Drosophila ortholog of the group of vertebrate proteins encoded by the TGF-ß-inducible early-response genes (TIEGs), which belong to Sp1-like/Krüppel-like family of transcription factors. Several functional domains involved in transcriptional control and subcellular localization have been identified in the vertebrate TIEGs. However, little is known of whether these domains and functions are also conserved in the Cbt protein. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the transcriptional regulatory activity of the Drosophila Cbt protein, we performed Gal4-based luciferase assays in S2 cells and showed that Cbt is a transcriptional repressor and able to regulate its own expression. Truncated forms of Cbt were then generated to identify its functional domains. This analysis revealed a sequence similar to the mSin3A-interacting repressor domain found in vertebrate TIEGs, although located in a different part of the Cbt protein. Using β-Galactosidase and eGFP fusion proteins, we also showed that Cbt contains the bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) previously identified in TIEG proteins, although it is non-functional in insect cells. Instead, a monopartite NLS, located at the amino terminus of the protein and conserved across insects, is functional in Drosophila S2 and Spodoptera exigua Sec301 cells. Last but not least, genetic interaction and immunohistochemical assays suggested that Cbt nuclear import is mediated by Importin-α2. Conclusions/Significance Our results constitute the first characterization of the molecular mechanisms of Cbt-mediated transcriptional control as well as of Cbt nuclear import, and demonstrate the existence of

  2. Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

  3. Neurotrophic actions of dopamine on the development of a serotonergic feeding circuit in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, serotonin functions both as a neurotransmitter to regulate larval feeding, and in the development of the stomatogastric feeding circuit. There is an inverse relationship between neuronal serotonin levels during late embryogenesis and the complexity of the serotonergic fibers projecting from the larval brain to the foregut, which correlate with perturbations in feeding, the functional output of the circuit. Dopamine does not modulate larval feeding, and dopaminergic fibers do not innervate the larval foregut. Since dopamine can function in central nervous system development, separate from its role as a neurotransmitter, the role of neuronal dopamine was assessed on the development, and mature function, of the 5-HT larval feeding circuit. Results Both decreased and increased neuronal dopamine levels in late embryogenesis during development of this circuit result in depressed levels of larval feeding. Perturbations in neuronal dopamine during this developmental period also result in greater branch complexity of the serotonergic fibers innervating the gut, as well as increased size and number of the serotonin-containing vesicles along the neurite length. This neurotrophic action for dopamine is modulated by the D2 dopamine receptor expressed during late embryogenesis in central 5-HT neurons. Animals carrying transgenic RNAi constructs to knock down both dopamine and serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system display normal feeding and fiber architecture. However, disparate levels of neuronal dopamine and serotonin during development of the circuit result in abnormal gut fiber architecture and feeding behavior. Conclusions These results suggest that dopamine can exert a direct trophic influence on the development of a specific neural circuit, and that dopamine and serotonin may interact with each other to generate the neural architecture necessary for normal function of the circuit. PMID:22413901

  4. Identification of ER Proteins Involved in the Functional Organisation of the Early Secretory Pathway in Drosophila Cells by a Targeted RNAi Screen

    PubMed Central

    Kondylis, Vangelis; Tang, Yang; Fuchs, Florian; Boutros, Michael; Rabouille, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background In Drosophila, the early secretory apparatus comprises discrete paired Golgi stacks in close proximity to exit sites from the endoplasmic reticulum (tER sites), thus forming tER-Golgi units. Although many components involved in secretion have been identified, the structural components sustaining its organisation are less known. Here we set out to identify novel ER resident proteins involved in the of tER-Golgi unit organisation. Results To do so, we designed a novel screening strategy combining a bioinformatics pre-selection with an RNAi screen. We first selected 156 proteins exhibiting known or related ER retention/retrieval signals from a list of proteins predicted to have a signal sequence. We then performed a microscopy-based primary and confirmation RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells directly scoring the organisation of the tER-Golgi units. We identified 49 hits, most of which leading to an increased number of smaller tER-Golgi units (MG for “more and smaller Golgi”) upon depletion. 16 of them were validated and characterised, showing that this phenotype was not due to an inhibition in secretion, a block in G2, or ER stress. Interestingly, the MG phenotype was often accompanied by an increase in the cell volume. Out of 6 proteins, 4 were localised to the ER. Conclusions This work has identified novel proteins involved in the organisation of the Drosophila early secretory pathway. It contributes to the effort of assigning protein functions to gene annotation in the secretory pathway, and analysis of the MG hits revealed an enrichment of ER proteins. These results suggest a link between ER localisation, aspects of cell metabolism and tER-Golgi structural organisation. PMID:21383842

  5. Identification of ER proteins involved in the functional organisation of the early secretory pathway in Drosophila cells by a targeted RNAi screen.

    PubMed

    Kondylis, Vangelis; Tang, Yang; Fuchs, Florian; Boutros, Michael; Rabouille, Catherine

    2011-02-23

    In Drosophila, the early secretory apparatus comprises discrete paired Golgi stacks in close proximity to exit sites from the endoplasmic reticulum (tER sites), thus forming tER-Golgi units. Although many components involved in secretion have been identified, the structural components sustaining its organisation are less known. Here we set out to identify novel ER resident proteins involved in the of tER-Golgi unit organisation. To do so, we designed a novel screening strategy combining a bioinformatics pre-selection with an RNAi screen. We first selected 156 proteins exhibiting known or related ER retention/retrieval signals from a list of proteins predicted to have a signal sequence. We then performed a microscopy-based primary and confirmation RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells directly scoring the organisation of the tER-Golgi units. We identified 49 hits, most of which leading to an increased number of smaller tER-Golgi units (MG for "more and smaller Golgi") upon depletion. 16 of them were validated and characterised, showing that this phenotype was not due to an inhibition in secretion, a block in G2, or ER stress. Interestingly, the MG phenotype was often accompanied by an increase in the cell volume. Out of 6 proteins, 4 were localised to the ER. This work has identified novel proteins involved in the organisation of the Drosophila early secretory pathway. It contributes to the effort of assigning protein functions to gene annotation in the secretory pathway, and analysis of the MG hits revealed an enrichment of ER proteins. These results suggest a link between ER localisation, aspects of cell metabolism and tER-Golgi structural organisation.

  6. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila models (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Penghe; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Tans, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster shares many similarities with vertebrates in heart development. Comparison of heart structural and functional characteristic between male and female Drosophila melanogaster at different developmental stages is helpful to understand heart morphogenesis and function for different genders. And also, it opens up the possibility to uncover the role of sex-related genes in heart development. In this longitudinal study, we cultured and tracked dozens of individually labeled flies throughout their lifecycle. The heart characteristic was measured at different developmental stages during culturing. The gender of each individual fly was determined by adult stage so that the collected data of early stages could be classified to male or female group. We adapted a high-speed optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system with axial and transverse resolution of 2um and 4um, respectively, to perform non-invasive M-mode imaging at a frame rate of 132Hz in Drosophila heart at third instar larva, early pupa and adult stage. Based on those GPU processed M-mode OCM images, we segmented the fly heart region and then quantified the cardiac structural and functional parameters such as heart rate, heart chamber size and so on. Despite large variances of wild type Drosophila in terms of some cardiac characteristic, our results suggest that the heart rate is lower for male flies than for female flies, especially at third instar larva stage. The end diastolic area (EDA) and end systolic area (ESA) of the heart are both slightly larger in female flies than in male flies at larva and adult stage. In summary, we showed gender differences of wild type drosophila in heart functional and structural characteristic.

  7. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  8. Novel isoforms of Dlg are fundamental for neuronal development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Carolina; Olguín, Patricio; Lafferte, Gabriela; Thomas, Ulrich; Ebitsch, Susanne; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Kukuljan, Manuel; Sierralta, Jimena

    2003-03-15

    Drosophila discs-large (dlg) mutants exhibit multiple developmental abnormalities, including severe defects in neuronal differentiation and synaptic structure and function. These defects have been ascribed to the loss of a single gene product, Dlg-A, a scaffold protein thought to be expressed in many cell types. Here, we describe that additional isoforms arise as a consequence of different transcription start points and alternative splicing of dlg. At least five different dlg gene products are predicted. We identified a subset of dlg-derived cDNAs that include novel exons encoding a peptide homologous to the N terminus of the mammalian protein SAP97/hDLG (S97N). Dlg isoforms containing the S97N domain are expressed at larval neuromuscular junctions and within the CNS of both embryos and larvae but are not detectable in epithelial tissues. Strong hypomorphic dlg alleles exhibit decreased expression of S97N, which may account for neural-specific aspects of the pleiomorphic dlg mutant phenotype. Selective inhibition of the expression of S97N-containing proteins in embryos by double-strand RNA leads to severe defects in neuronal differentiation and axon guidance, without overt perturbations in epithelia. These results indicate that the differential expression of dlg products correlates with distinct functions in non-neural and neural cells. During embryonic development, proteins that include the S97N domain are essential for proper neuronal differentiation and organization, acting through mechanisms that may include the adequate localization of cell fate determinants.

  9. Challenges for modeling global gene regulatory networks during development: insights from Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Bartek; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2010-04-15

    Development is regulated by dynamic patterns of gene expression, which are orchestrated through the action of complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Substantial progress has been made in modeling transcriptional regulation in recent years, including qualitative "coarse-grain" models operating at the gene level to very "fine-grain" quantitative models operating at the biophysical "transcription factor-DNA level". Recent advances in genome-wide studies have revealed an enormous increase in the size and complexity or GRNs. Even relatively simple developmental processes can involve hundreds of regulatory molecules, with extensive interconnectivity and cooperative regulation. This leads to an explosion in the number of regulatory functions, effectively impeding Boolean-based qualitative modeling approaches. At the same time, the lack of information on the biophysical properties for the majority of transcription factors within a global network restricts quantitative approaches. In this review, we explore the current challenges in moving from modeling medium scale well-characterized networks to more poorly characterized global networks. We suggest to integrate coarse- and find-grain approaches to model gene regulatory networks in cis. We focus on two very well-studied examples from Drosophila, which likely represent typical developmental regulatory modules across metazoans. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Drosophila Pelle phosphorylates Dichaete protein and influences its subcellular distribution in developing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim; Shen, Baohe; Manley, James L; Nambu, John R

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila Dichaete gene encodes a member of the Sox family of high mobility group (HMG) domain proteins that have crucial gene regulatory functions in diverse developmental processes. The subcellular localization and transcriptional regulatory activities of Sox proteins can be regulated by several post-translational modifications. To identify genes that functionally interact with Dichaete, we undertook a genetic modifier screen based on a Dichaete gain-of-function phenotype in the adult eye. Mutations in several genes, including decapentaplegic, engrailed and pelle, behaved as dominant modifiers of this eye phenotype. Further analysis of pelle mutants revealed that loss of pelle function results in alterations in the distinctive cytoplasmic distribution of Dichaete protein within the developing oocyte, as well as defects in the elaboration of individual egg chambers. The death domain-containing region of the Pelle protein kinase was found to associate with both Dichaete and mouse Sox2 proteins, and Pelle can phosphorylate Dichaete protein in vitro. Overall, these findings reveal that maternal functions of pelle are essential for proper localization of Dichaete protein in the oocyte and normal egg chamber formation. Dichaete appears to be a novel phosphorylation substrate for Pelle and may function in a Pelle-dependent signaling pathway during oogenesis.

  11. Structure of the Toll-Spatzle complex, a molecular hub in Drosophila development and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Parthier, Christoph; Stelter, Marco; Ursel, Christian; Fandrich, Uwe; Lilie, Hauke; Breithaupt, Constanze; Stubbs, Milton T

    2014-04-29

    Drosophila Toll receptors are involved in embryonic development and the immune response of adult flies. In both processes, the only known Toll receptor ligand is the human nerve growth factor-like cystine knot protein Spätzle. Here we present the crystal structure of a 1:1 (nonsignaling) complex of the full-length Toll receptor ectodomain (ECD) with the Spätzle cystine knot domain dimer. The ECD is divided into two leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, each of which is capped by cysteine-rich domains. Spätzle binds to the concave surface of the membrane-distal LRR domain, in contrast to the flanking ligand interactions observed for mammalian Toll-like receptors, with asymmetric contributions from each Spätzle protomer. The structure allows rationalization of existing genetic and biochemical data and provides a framework for targeting the immune systems of insects of economic importance, as well as a variety of invertebrate disease vectors.

  12. The Drosophila DOCK family protein Sponge is required for development of the air sac primordium

    SciT

    Morishita, Kazushge; Anh Suong, Dang Ngoc; Yoshida, Hideki

    Dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family genes are known as DOCK1-DOCK11 in mammals. DOCK family proteins mainly regulate actin filament polymerization and/or depolymerization and are GEF proteins, which contribute to cellular signaling events by activating small G proteins. Sponge (Spg) is a Drosophila counterpart to mammalian DOCK3/DOCK4, and plays a role in embryonic central nervous system development, R7 photoreceptor cell differentiation, and adult thorax development. In order to conduct further functional analyses on Spg in vivo, we examined its localization in third instar larval wing imaginal discs. Immunostaining with purified anti-Spg IgG revealed that Spg mainly localized in the air sacmore » primordium (ASP) in wing imaginal discs. Spg is therefore predicted to play an important role in the ASP. The specific knockdown of Spg by the breathless-GAL4 driver in tracheal cells induced lethality accompanied with a defect in ASP development and the induction of apoptosis. The monitoring of ERK signaling activity in wing imaginal discs by immunostaining with anti-diphospho-ERK IgG revealed reductions in the ERK signal cascade in Spg knockdown clones. Furthermore, the overexpression of D-raf suppressed defects in survival and the proliferation of cells in the ASP induced by the knockdown of Spg. Collectively, these results indicate that Spg plays a critical role in ASP development and tracheal cell viability that is mediated by the ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Spg mainly localizes in the air sac primordium in wing imaginal discs. • Spg plays a critical role in air sac primordium development. • Spg positively regulates the ERK signal cascade.« less

  13. CLOCK expression identifies developing circadian oscillator neurons in the brains of Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Houl, Jerry H; Ng, Fanny; Taylor, Pete; Hardin, Paul E

    2008-12-18

    The Drosophila circadian oscillator is composed of transcriptional feedback loops in which CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers activate their feedback regulators period (per) and timeless (tim) via E-box mediated transcription. These feedback loop oscillators are present in distinct clusters of dorsal and lateral neurons in the adult brain, but how this pattern of expression is established during development is not known. Since CLK is required to initiate feedback loop function, defining the pattern of CLK expression in embryos and larvae will shed light on oscillator neuron development. A novel CLK antiserum is used to show that CLK expression in the larval CNS and adult brain is limited to circadian oscillator cells. CLK is initially expressed in presumptive small ventral lateral neurons (s-LNvs), dorsal neurons 2 s (DN2s), and dorsal neuron 1 s (DN1s) at embryonic stage (ES) 16, and this CLK expression pattern persists through larval development. PER then accumulates in all CLK-expressing cells except presumptive DN2s during late ES 16 and ES 17, consistent with the delayed accumulation of PER in adult oscillator neurons and antiphase cycling of PER in larval DN2s. PER is also expressed in non-CLK-expressing cells in the embryonic CNS starting at ES 12. Although PER expression in CLK-negative cells continues in ClkJrk embryos, PER expression in cells that co-express PER and CLK is eliminated. These data demonstrate that brain oscillator neurons begin development during embryogenesis, that PER expression in non-oscillator cells is CLK-independent, and that oscillator phase is an intrinsic characteristic of brain oscillator neurons. These results define the temporal and spatial coordinates of factors that initiate Clk expression, imply that circadian photoreceptors are not activated until the end of embryogenesis, and suggest that PER functions in a different capacity before oscillator cell development is initiated.

  14. Comparison of commercial lures and food baits for early detection of fruit infestation risk by Drosophila suzukii

    Drosophila suzukii is one of the most serious invasive pests of berries and cherries worldwide. Several adult monitoring systems are available to time foliar application of insecticides with the expectation of detecting the presence of D.suzukii before they infest susceptible crops. We tested this b...

  15. Midgut-enriched receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP52F is required for Drosophila development during larva-pupa transition.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Abirami; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Chen, Dong-Yuan; Chen, Guang-Chao; Meng, Tzu-Ching

    2013-01-01

    To date our understanding of Drosophila receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPs) in the regulation of signal transduction is limited. Of the seven R-PTPs identified in flies, six are involved in the axon guidance that occurs during embryogenesis. However, whether and how R-PTPs may control key steps of Drosophila development is not clear. In this study we investigated the potential role of Drosophila R-PTPs in developmental processes outside the neuronal system and beyond the embryogenesis stage. Through systematic data mining of available microarray databases, we found the mRNA level of PTP52F to be highly enriched in the midgut of flies at the larva-pupa transition. This finding was confirmed by gut tissue staining with a specific antibody. The unique spatiotemporal expression of PTP52F suggests that it is possibly involved in regulating metamorphosis during the transformation from larva to pupa. To test this hypothesis, we employed RNA interference to examine the defects of transgenic flies. We found that ablation of endogenous PTP52F led to high lethality characterized by the pharate adult phenotype, occurring due to post pupal eclosion failure. These results show that PTP52F plays an indispensable role during the larva-pupa transition. We also found that PTP52F could be reclassified as a member of the subtype R3 PTPs instead of as an unclassified R-PTP without a human ortholog, as suggested previously. Together, these findings suggest that Drosophila R-PTPs may control metamorphosis and other biological processes beyond our current knowledge. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  16. Disease-related amyloidogenic variants of human lysozyme trigger the unfolded protein response and disturb eye development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kumita, Janet R; Helmfors, Linda; Williams, Jocy; Luheshi, Leila M; Menzer, Linda; Dumoulin, Mireille; Lomas, David A; Crowther, Damian C; Dobson, Christopher M; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    We have created a Drosophila model of lysozyme amyloidosis to investigate the in vivo behavior of disease-associated variants. To achieve this objective, wild-type (WT) protein and the amyloidogenic variants F57I and D67H were expressed in Drosophila melanogaster using the UAS-gal4 system and both the ubiquitous and retinal expression drivers Act5C-gal4 and gmr-gal4. The nontransgenic w(1118) Drosophila line was used as a control throughout. We utilized ELISA experiments to probe lysozyme protein levels, scanning electron microscopy for eye phenotype classification, and immunohistochemistry to detect the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. We observed that expressing the destabilized F57I and D67H lysozymes triggers UPR activation, resulting in degradation of these variants, whereas the WT lysozyme is secreted into the fly hemolymph. Indeed, the level of WT was up to 17 times more abundant than the variant proteins. In addition, the F57I variant gave rise to a significant disruption of the eye development, and this correlated to pronounced UPR activation. These results support the concept that the onset of familial amyloid disease is linked to an inability of the UPR to degrade completely the amyloidogenic lysozymes prior to secretion, resulting in secretion of these destabilized variants, thereby leading to deposition and associated organ damage.

  17. New insights into the ecological interaction between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila flies during the development of sour rot.

    PubMed

    Barata, André; Santos, Sara Correia; Malfeito-Ferreira, Manuel; Loureiro, Virgílio

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we studied the ecological interactions between grape berry microorganisms and Drosophila sp. flies involved in sour rot disease during grape ripening. After veráison the total microbial counts of grape berries affected by sour rot increased from about 2 log CFU/g of berries to more than 7 log CFU/g. Berry damage provoked a clear shift in yeast diversity from basidiomycetes to ascomycetous fermentative species. The latter were mostly Pichia terricola, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, and Zygoascus hellenicus. However, these species were not able to produce the metabolites characteristic of sour rot (gluconic and acetic acids) in inoculated berries. On the contrary, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconacetobacter saccharivorans produced high levels of these acids, mainly when berries were incubated in the presence of the insect Drosophila sp. Sour rot was not observed when grape bunches were physically separated from insects, even when berries were artificially injured. The wounds made in berry skin healed in the absence of insects, thus preventing the development of sour rot. Therefore, in the vineyard, the induction of sour rot depends on the contamination of wounded berries by a microbial consortium--yeasts and acetic acid bacteria--transported by drosophilid insects which disseminate sour rot among damaged berries. In the absence of these insects, plant defense mechanisms are effective and lead to skin healing, preventing disease spread. Thus, we showed that Drosophila sp. act as a vector for microorganisms associated with grape sour rot disease.

  18. The Acp26Aa seminal fluid protein is a modulator of early egg hatchability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chapman, T; Herndon, L A; Heifetz, Y; Partridge, L; Wolfner, M F

    2001-08-22

    Drosophila melanogaster male accessory gland proteins (Acps) that are transferred in the ejaculate with sperm mediate post-mating competition for fertilizations between males. The actions of Acps include effects on oviposition and ovulation, receptivity and sperm storage. Two Acps that modulate egg production are Acp26Aa (ovulin) and Acp70A (the sex peptide). Acp26Aa acts specifically on the process of ovulation (the release of mature eggs from the ovaries), which is initiated 1.5 h after mating. In contrast, sperm storage can take as long as 6-9 h to complete. Initial ovulations after matings by virgin females will therefore occur before all sperm are fully stored and the extra eggs initially laid as a result of Acp26Aa transfer are expected to be inefficiently fertilized. Acp26Aa-mediated release of existing eggs should not cause a significant energetic cost or lead to a decrease in female lifespan assuming, as seems likely, that the energetic cost of egg laying comes from de novo egg synthesis (oogenesis) rather than from ovulation. We tested these predictions using Acp26Aa(1) mutant males that lack Acp26Aa but are normal for other Acps and Acp26Aa(2) males that transfer a truncated but fully functional Acp26Aa protein. Females mating with Acp26Aa(2) (truncation) males that received functional Acp26Aa produced significantly more eggs following their first matings than did mates of Acp26Aa(1) (null) males. However, as predicted above, these extra eggs, which were laid as a result of Acp26Aa transfer to virgin females, showed significantly lower egg hatchability. Control experiments indicated that this lower hatchability was due to lower rates of fertilization at early post-mating times. There was no drop in egg hatchability in subsequent non-virgin matings. In addition, as predicted above, females that did or did not receive Acp26Aa did not differ in survival, lifetime fecundity or lifetime progeny, indicating that Acp26Aa transfer does not represent a

  19. Behavioral Teratogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Monalisa; Barik, Bedanta Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Developmental biology is a fascinating branch of science which helps us to understand the mechanism of development, thus the findings are used in various therapeutic approach. Drosophila melanogaster served as a model to find the key molecules that initiate and regulate the mechanism of development. Various genes, transcription factors, and signaling pathways helping in development are identified in Drosophila. Many toxic compounds, which can affect the development, are also recognized using Drosophila model. These compounds, which can affect the development, are named as a teratogen. Many teratogens identified using Drosophila may also act as a teratogen for a human being since 75% of conservation exist between the disease genes present in Drosophila and human. There are certain teratogens, which do not cause developmental defect if exposed during pregnancy, however; behavioral defect appears in later part of development. Such compounds are named as a behavioral teratogen. Thus, it is worthy to identify the potential behavioral teratogen using Drosophila model. Drosophila behavior is well studied in various developmental stages. This chapter describes various methods which can be employed to test behavioral teratogenesis in Drosophila.

  20. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Contributes to the Development of Sour Rot in Grape.

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Guzzon, Raffaele; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ghidoni, Franca; Mazzoni, Valerio; Villegas, Tomas Roman; Dalton, Daniel T; Walton, Vaughn M

    2018-02-09

    This research aimed to more clearly describe the interactions of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) with microorganisms that may contribute to spoilage or quality loss of wine grapes during harvest. Experiments were conducted in controlled laboratory experiments and under field conditions to determine these effects. Laboratory trials determined the role of insect contact and oviposition to vector spoilage bacteria onto wine grapes. In the field, the roles of key organoleptic parameters in grape fruit ripening were assessed to determine their relative contribution to oviposition potential as fruit ripened. Finally, field trials determined the relationships of egg and larval infestation to sour rot levels. Non-ovipositional trials indicated elevated levels of microbiota when D. suzukii was present. D. suzukii oviposition exponentially increased the concentration of acetic acid bacteria. Both incised and sound berries showed a significant increase in concentrations of acetic acid bacteria exposed to D. suzukii. Volatile acidity was higher in treatments infested with D. suzukii. Fruit with only eggs did not develop a significant increase of volatile acidity. Larva-infested grape berries in 9.5% of samples developed higher volatile acidity after 14 d. Sound grape berries were less susceptible to the development of microbiota associated with sour rot and spoilage. D. suzukii oviposition and larval development increase risk of spoilage bacteria vectored by D. suzukii adults. Acetic acid bacteria induced fermentation and produced several volatile compounds contributing to spoilage. Spoilage bacteria may create a positive feedback loop that attracts both D. suzukii and other drosophilids, which may contribute to additional spoilage. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A Baculovirus Immediate-Early Gene, ie1, Promoter Drives Efficient Expression of a Transgene in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Masumoto, Mika; Ohde, Takahiro; Shiomi, Kunihiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Many promoters have been used to drive expression of heterologous transgenes in insects. One major obstacle in the study of non-model insects is the dearth of useful promoters for analysis of gene function. Here, we investigated whether the promoter of the immediate-early gene, ie1, from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) could be used to drive efficient transgene expression in a wide variety of insects. We used a piggyBac-based vector with a 3xP3-DsRed transformation marker to generate a reporter construct; this construct was used to determine the expression patterns driven by the BmNPV ie1 promoter; we performed a detailed investigation of the promoter in transgene expression pattern in Drosophila melanogaster and in B. mori. Drosophila and Bombyx belong to different insect orders (Diptera and Lepidoptera, respectively); however, and to our surprise, ie1 promoter-driven expression was evident in several tissues (e.g., prothoracic gland, midgut, and tracheole) in both insects. Furthermore, in both species, the ie1 promoter drove expression of the reporter gene from a relatively early embryonic stage, and strong ubiquitous ie1 promoter-driven expression continued throughout the larval, pupal, and adult stages by surface observation. Therefore, we suggest that the ie1 promoter can be used as an efficient expression driver in a diverse range of insect species. PMID:23152896

  2. The C. elegans homolog of Drosophila Lethal giant larvae functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity in the early embryo.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Alexander; Morton, Diane; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    Polarity is essential for generating cell diversity. The one-cell C. elegans embryo serves as a model for studying the establishment and maintenance of polarity. In the early embryo, a myosin II-dependent contraction of the cortical meshwork asymmetrically distributes the highly conserved PDZ proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6, as well as an atypical protein kinase C (PKC-3), to the anterior. The RING-finger protein PAR-2 becomes enriched on the posterior cortex and prevents these three proteins from returning to the posterior. In addition to the PAR proteins, other proteins are required for polarity in many metazoans. One example is the conserved Drosophila tumor-suppressor protein Lethal giant larvae (Lgl). In Drosophila and mammals, Lgl contributes to the maintenance of cell polarity and plays a role in asymmetric cell division. We have found that the C. elegans homolog of Lgl, LGL-1, has a role in polarity but is not essential. It localizes asymmetrically to the posterior of the early embryo in a PKC-3-dependent manner, and functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity. Furthermore, overexpression of LGL-1 is sufficient to rescue loss of PAR-2 function. LGL-1 negatively regulates the accumulation of myosin (NMY-2) on the posterior cortex, representing a possible mechanism by which LGL-1 might contribute to polarity maintenance.

  3. Fermitins, the Orthologs of Mammalian Kindlins, Regulate the Development of a Functional Cardiac Syncytium in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Catterson, James H.; Heck, Margarete M. S.; Hartley, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate Kindlins are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins critical for integrin signalling and cell adhesion. Kindlin-2 (KIND2) is associated with intercalated discs in mice, suggesting a role in cardiac syncytium development; however, deficiency of Kind2 leads to embryonic lethality. Morpholino knock-down of Kind2 in zebrafish has a pleiotropic effect on development that includes the heart. It therefore remains unclear whether cardiomyocyte Kind2 expression is required for cardiomyocyte junction formation and the development of normal cardiac function. To address this question, the expression of Fermitin 1 and Fermitin 2 (Fit1, Fit2), the two Drosophila orthologs of Kind2, was silenced in Drosophila cardiomyocytes. Heart development was assessed in adult flies by immunological methods and videomicroscopy. Silencing both Fit1 and Fit2 led to a severe cardiomyopathy characterised by the failure of cardiomyocytes to develop as a functional syncytium and loss of synchrony between cardiomyocytes. A null allele of Fit1 was generated but this had no impact on the heart. Similarly, the silencing of Fit2 failed to affect heart function. In contrast, the silencing of Fit2 in the cardiomyocytes of Fit1 null flies disrupted syncytium development, leading to severe cardiomyopathy. The data definitively demonstrate a role for Fermitins in the development of a functional cardiac syncytium in Drosophila. The findings also show that the Fermitins can functionally compensate for each other in order to control syncytium development. These findings support the concept that abnormalities in cardiomyocyte KIND2 expression or function may contribute to cardiomyopathies in humans. PMID:23690969

  4. The Development of STAR Early Literacy. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…

  5. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  6. Widespread evidence of cooperative DNA binding by transcription factors in Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Kazemian, Majid; Pham, Hannah; Wolfe, Scot A.; Brodsky, Michael H.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription is often combinatorial in nature, with multiple transcription factors (TFs) regulating common target genes, often through direct or indirect mutual interactions. Many individual examples of cooperative binding by directly interacting TFs have been identified, but it remains unclear how pervasive this mechanism is during animal development. Cooperative TF binding should be manifest in genomic sequences as biased arrangements of TF-binding sites. Here, we explore the extent and diversity of such arrangements related to gene regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. We used the DNA-binding specificities of 322 TFs along with chromatin accessibility information to identify enriched spacing and orientation patterns of TF-binding site pairs. We developed a new statistical approach for this task, specifically designed to accurately assess inter-site spacing biases while accounting for the phenomenon of homotypic site clustering commonly observed in developmental regulatory regions. We observed a large number of short-range distance preferences between TF-binding site pairs, including examples where the preference depends on the relative orientation of the binding sites. To test whether these binding site patterns reflect physical interactions between the corresponding TFs, we analyzed 27 TF pairs whose binding sites exhibited short distance preferences. In vitro protein–protein binding experiments revealed that >65% of these TF pairs can directly interact with each other. For five pairs, we further demonstrate that they bind cooperatively to DNA if both sites are present with the preferred spacing. This study demonstrates how DNA-binding motifs can be used to produce a comprehensive map of sequence signatures for different mechanisms of combinatorial TF action. PMID:23847101

  7. Widespread evidence of cooperative DNA binding by transcription factors in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, Majid; Pham, Hannah; Wolfe, Scot A; Brodsky, Michael H; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-09-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene transcription is often combinatorial in nature, with multiple transcription factors (TFs) regulating common target genes, often through direct or indirect mutual interactions. Many individual examples of cooperative binding by directly interacting TFs have been identified, but it remains unclear how pervasive this mechanism is during animal development. Cooperative TF binding should be manifest in genomic sequences as biased arrangements of TF-binding sites. Here, we explore the extent and diversity of such arrangements related to gene regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis. We used the DNA-binding specificities of 322 TFs along with chromatin accessibility information to identify enriched spacing and orientation patterns of TF-binding site pairs. We developed a new statistical approach for this task, specifically designed to accurately assess inter-site spacing biases while accounting for the phenomenon of homotypic site clustering commonly observed in developmental regulatory regions. We observed a large number of short-range distance preferences between TF-binding site pairs, including examples where the preference depends on the relative orientation of the binding sites. To test whether these binding site patterns reflect physical interactions between the corresponding TFs, we analyzed 27 TF pairs whose binding sites exhibited short distance preferences. In vitro protein-protein binding experiments revealed that >65% of these TF pairs can directly interact with each other. For five pairs, we further demonstrate that they bind cooperatively to DNA if both sites are present with the preferred spacing. This study demonstrates how DNA-binding motifs can be used to produce a comprehensive map of sequence signatures for different mechanisms of combinatorial TF action.

  8. The development of a host potential index and its postharvest application to the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Novel methodology is presented for indexing the relative potential of hosts to function as resources. Results from studies examining host selection, utilization, and physiological development of the organism resourcing the host were combined and quantitatively related via a Host Potential Index (HPI...

  9. Global regulation of mRNA translation and stability in the early Drosophila embryo by the Smaug RNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown. Results To gain a panoramic view of Smaug function in the early embryo, we identified mRNAs that are bound to Smaug using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to DNA microarrays. We also identified mRNAs that are translationally repressed by Smaug using polysome gradients and microarrays. Comparison of the bound mRNAs to those that are translationally repressed by Smaug and those that require Smaug for their degradation suggests that a large fraction of Smaug’s target mRNAs are both translationally repressed and degraded by Smaug. Smaug directly regulates components of the TRiC/CCT chaperonin, the proteasome regulatory particle and lipid droplets, as well as many metabolic enzymes, including several glycolytic enzymes. Conclusions Smaug plays a direct and global role in regulating the translation and stability of a large fraction of the mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo, and has unanticipated functions in control of protein folding and degradation, lipid droplet function and metabolism. PMID:24393533

  10. Global regulation of mRNA translation and stability in the early Drosophila embryo by the Smaug RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linan; Dumelie, Jason G; Li, Xiao; Cheng, Matthew Hk; Yang, Zhiyong; Laver, John D; Siddiqui, Najeeb U; Westwood, J Timothy; Morris, Quaid; Lipshitz, Howard D; Smibert, Craig A

    2014-01-07

    Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but has no detectable effect on Hsp83 translation. Smaug is required to destabilize more than one thousand mRNAs in the early embryo, but whether these transcripts represent direct targets of Smaug is unclear and the extent of Smaug-mediated translational repression is unknown. To gain a panoramic view of Smaug function in the early embryo, we identified mRNAs that are bound to Smaug using RNA co-immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to DNA microarrays. We also identified mRNAs that are translationally repressed by Smaug using polysome gradients and microarrays. Comparison of the bound mRNAs to those that are translationally repressed by Smaug and those that require Smaug for their degradation suggests that a large fraction of Smaug's target mRNAs are both translationally repressed and degraded by Smaug. Smaug directly regulates components of the TRiC/CCT chaperonin, the proteasome regulatory particle and lipid droplets, as well as many metabolic enzymes, including several glycolytic enzymes. Smaug plays a direct and global role in regulating the translation and stability of a large fraction of the mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo, and has unanticipated functions in control of protein folding and degradation, lipid droplet function and metabolism.

  11. Control of early seed development.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, A M; Koltunow, A; Payne, T; Luo, M; Tucker, M R; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-01-01

    Seed development requires coordinated expression of embryo and endosperm and has contributions from both sporophytic and male and female gametophytic genes. Genetic and molecular analyses in recent years have started to illuminate how products of these multiple genes interact to initiate seed development. Imprinting or differential expression of paternal and maternal genes seems to be involved in controlling seed development, presumably by controlling gene expression in developing endosperm. Epigenetic processes such as chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation affect imprinting of key seed-specific genes; however, the identity of many of these genes remains unknown. The discovery of FIS genes has illuminated control of autonomous endosperm development, a component of apomixis, which is an important developmental and agronomic trait. FIS genes are targets of imprinting, and the genes they control in developing endosperm are also regulated by DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling genes. These results define some exciting future areas of research in seed development.

  12. The Role of Drosophila Merlin in the Control of Mitosis Exit and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Abstract presented to the 2005 CTF International Consortium for the Molecular Biology of NFl, NF2, and Schwannomatosis ). Experiments are in progress...Drosophila Spermatogenesis. Abstract presented to the 2005 CTF International Consortium for the Molecular Biology of NFl, NF2, and Schwannomatosis . We...and Schwannomatosis . By combining bioinformatics and phylogenetic approaches, we demonstrated a monophyletic origin of the merlin proteins with the

  13. Autophagy in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Christina K; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2009-09-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a bulk cytoplasmic degradation process that is conserved from yeast to mammals. Autophagy is an important cellular response to starvation and stress, and plays critical roles in development, cell death, aging, immunity, and cancer. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to study autophagy in vivo, in the context of a developing organism. Autophagy (atg) genes and their regulators are conserved in Drosophila, and autophagy is induced in response to nutrient starvation and hormones during development. In this review we provide an overview of how Drosophila research has contributed to our understanding of the role and regulation of autophagy in cell survival, growth, nutrient utilization, and cell death. Recent Drosophila research has also provided important mechanistic information about the role of autophagy in protein aggregation disorders, neurodegeneration, aging, and innate immunity. Differences in the role of autophagy in specific contexts and/or cell types suggest that there may be cell-context-specific regulators of autophagy, and studies in Drosophila are well-suited to yield discoveries about this specificity.

  14. Effect of microwave exposure on the ovarian development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2012-06-01

    In the present experiments the effect of GSM radiation on ovarian development of virgin Drosophila melanogaster female insects was studied. Newly emerged adult female flies were collected and divided into separate identical groups. After the a lapse of certain number of hours-different for each group-the insects (exposed and sham-exposed) were dissected and their intact ovaries were collected and photographed under an optical microscope with the same magnification. The size of the ovaries was compared between exposed and sham-exposed virgin female insects, during the time needed for the completion of oogenesis and maturation of the first eggs in the ovarioles. Immediately after the intact ovaries were photographed, they were further dissected into individual ovarioles and treated for TUNEL and acridine-orange assays to determine the degree of DNA damage in the egg chamber cells. The study showed that the ovarian size of the exposed insects is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding sham-exposed insects, due to destruction of egg chambers by the GSM radiation, after DNA damage and consequent cell death induction in the egg chamber cells of the virgin females as shown in previous experiments on inseminated females. The difference in ovarian size between sham-exposed and exposed virgin female flies becomes most evident 39-45 h after eclosion when the first eggs within the ovaries are at the late vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages (mid-late oogenesis). More than 45 h after eclosion, the difference in ovarian size decreases, as the first mature eggs of the sham-exposed insects are leaving the ovaries and are laid.

  15. Parsimony and complexity: Cell fate assignment in the developing Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Mavromatakis, Yannis Emmanuel; Tomlinson, Andrew

    2017-07-03

    The specification of the R7 photoreceptor in the Drosophila eye has become a classic model for understanding how cell fates are assigned in developing systems. R7 is derived from a group of cells that also gives rise to the R1/6 photoreceptor class and the non-photoreceptor cone cells. Our studies examine the signals and cellular information that direct each of these cell types. The cell fates are directed by the combined actions of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) and Notch (N) signaling pathways. The RTK pathway acts to remove the transcription factor Tramtrack (Ttk) which represses the photoreceptor fate. If a cell receives an RTK signal sufficient to remove Ttk then the photoreceptor fate is specified; if not, the cone cell fate results. If Ttk is removed from a cell and its N activity is high then it is specified as an R7, but if its N activity is low then it becomes an R1/6 class photoreceptor. Thus, a remarkably simple molecular code underlies the specification of the fates: 1. Ttk degraded or not: 2. N activity high or low. In the R1/6 and cone cell precursors the molecular codes are achieved with relative simplicity but in the R7 precursor, manifold interactions occur between the RTK and N pathways, and to-date we have identified 4 distinct roles played by N in R7 fate specification. In this review we detail this molecular complexity, and describe how the RTK/N pathway crosstalk eventually leads to the simple molecular code of Tramtrack removed and N activity high. Furthermore, we describe the role played by the transcription factor Lozenge (Lz) in directing retinal precursor fates, and how the RTK/N signals specify different retinal cell types depending on the presence or absence of Lz.

  16. Three-Dimensional Genome Organization and Function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how the metazoan genome is used during development and cell differentiation is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. Early studies in Drosophila suggested that three-dimensional (3D) chromosome organization plays important regulatory roles in this process and recent technological advances started to reveal connections at the molecular level. Here we will consider general features of the architectural organization of the Drosophila genome, providing historical perspective and insights from recent work. We will compare the linear and spatial segmentation of the fly genome and focus on the two key regulators of genome architecture: insulator components and Polycomb group proteins. With its unique set of genetic tools and a compact, well annotated genome, Drosophila is poised to remain a model system of choice for rapid progress in understanding principles of genome organization and to serve as a proving ground for development of 3D genome-engineering techniques. PMID:28049701

  17. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Ethanol Intoxication in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Ulrike; Wolf, Fred W; Rothenfluh, Adrian; Guarnieri, Douglas J

    2004-08-01

    Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been introduced as a model system to study the molecular bases of a variety of ethanol-induced behaviors. It became immediately apparent that the behavioral changes elicited by acute ethanol exposure are remarkably similar in flies and mammals. Flies show signs of acute intoxication, which range from locomotor stimulation at low doses to complete sedation at higher doses and they develop tolerance upon intermittent ethanol exposure. Genetic screens for mutants with altered responsiveness to ethanol have been carried out and a few of the disrupted genes have been identified. This analysis, while still in its early stages, has already revealed some surprising molecular parallels with mammals. The availability of powerful tools for genetic manipulation in Drosophila, together with the high degree of conservation at the genomic level, make Drosophila a promising model organism to study the mechanism by which ethanol regulates behavior and the mechanisms underlying the organism's adaptation to long-term ethanol exposure.

  18. The Role of Drosophila Merlin in the Control of Mitosis Exit and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    identification of new genes may not yield a clear indication of their respective functions , studies on their evolution may allow validation of their...in the elongated Nebenkern (Figure 2H). In addi- tion, Merlin was seen as a bright punctate dot in the acro- somal region, a Golgi apparatus -derived... functions as a tumor suppressor, we have confirmed that Drosophila Merlin plays important roles in the control of mitosis exit and in the

  19. The Role of Drosophila Merlin in the Control of Mitosis Exit and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    schwannomas and is associated with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene called the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene (Chang et al., 2005; Neff...been shown to associate with endocytic compartments and because mutations in the genes , such as clathrin and ff16, that are known to be important... mutations in the Drosophila homologues of the human Neurofibromatosis 2 and yeast CDC42 genes using a simple and efficient reverse-genetic method. Genetics

  20. Development of a tissue-specific ribosome profiling approach in Drosophila enables genome-wide evaluation of translational adaptations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing approaches have revolutionized our understanding of transcriptional expression in diverse systems. However, measurements of transcription do not necessarily reflect gene translation, the process of ultimate importance in understanding cellular function. To circumvent this limitation, biochemical tagging of ribosome subunits to isolate ribosome-associated mRNA has been developed. However, this approach, called TRAP, lacks quantitative resolution compared to a superior technology, ribosome profiling. Here, we report the development of an optimized ribosome profiling approach in Drosophila. We first demonstrate successful ribosome profiling from a specific tissue, larval muscle, with enhanced resolution compared to conventional TRAP approaches. We next validate the ability of this technology to define genome-wide translational regulation. This technology is leveraged to test the relative contributions of transcriptional and translational mechanisms in the postsynaptic muscle that orchestrate the retrograde control of presynaptic function at the neuromuscular junction. Surprisingly, we find no evidence that significant changes in the transcription or translation of specific genes are necessary to enable retrograde homeostatic signaling, implying that post-translational mechanisms ultimately gate instructive retrograde communication. Finally, we show that a global increase in translation induces adaptive responses in both transcription and translation of protein chaperones and degradation factors to promote cellular proteostasis. Together, this development and validation of tissue-specific ribosome profiling enables sensitive and specific analysis of translation in Drosophila. PMID:29194454

  1. The Homothorax homeoprotein activates the nuclear localization of another homeoprotein, Extradenticle, and suppresses eye development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Chi-Yun; Kuo, Tung-Sheng; Jaw, Thomas J.; Kurant, Estee; Chen, Cheng-Tse; Bessarab, Dmitri A.; Salzberg, Adi; Sun, Y. Henry

    1998-01-01

    The Extradenticle (Exd) protein in Drosophila acts as a cofactor to homeotic proteins. Its nuclear localization is regulated. We report the cloning of the Drosophila homothorax (hth) gene, a homolog of the mouse Meis1 proto-oncogene that has a homeobox related to that of exd. Comparison with Meis1 finds two regions of high homology: a novel MH domain and the homeodomain. In imaginal discs, hth expression coincides with nuclear Exd. hth and exd also have virtually identical, mutant clonal phenotypes in adults. These results suggest that hth and exd function in the same pathway. We show that hth acts upstream of exd and is required and sufficient for Exd protein nuclear localization. We also show that hth and exd are both negative regulators of eye development; their mutant clones caused ectopic eye formation. Targeted expression of hth, but not of exd, in the eye disc abolished eye development completely. We suggest that hth acts with exd to delimit the eye field and prevent inappropriate eye development. PMID:9450936

  2. Piwi Is Required in Multiple Cell Types to Control Germline Stem Cell Lineage Development in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xing; Wang, Su; Do, Trieu; Song, Xiaoqing; Inaba, Mayu; Nishimoto, Yoshiya; Liu, Lu-ping; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Li, Hui; McDowell, William; Park, Jungeun; Malanowski, Kate; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Haug, Jeff; Yamashita, Yukiko; Lin, Haifan; Ni, Jian-quan; Xie, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The piRNA pathway plays an important role in maintaining genome stability in the germ line by silencing transposable elements (TEs) from fly to mammals. As a highly conserved piRNA pathway component, Piwi is widely expressed in both germ cells and somatic cells in the Drosophila ovary and is required for piRNA production in both cell types. In addition to its known role in somatic cap cells to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs), this study has demonstrated that Piwi has novel functions in somatic cells and germ cells of the Drosophila ovary to promote germ cell differentiation. Piwi knockdown in escort cells causes a reduction in escort cell (EC) number and accumulation of undifferentiated germ cells, some of which show active BMP signaling, indicating that Piwi is required to maintain ECs and promote germ cell differentiation. Simultaneous knockdown of dpp, encoding a BMP, in ECs can partially rescue the germ cell differentiation defect, indicating that Piwi is required in ECs to repress dpp. Consistent with its key role in piRNA production, TE transcripts increase significantly and DNA damage is also elevated in the piwi knockdown somatic cells. Germ cell-specific knockdown of piwi surprisingly causes depletion of germ cells before adulthood, suggesting that Piwi might control primordial germ cell maintenance or GSC establishment. Finally, Piwi inactivation in the germ line of the adult ovary leads to gradual GSC loss and germ cell differentiation defects, indicating the intrinsic role of Piwi in adult GSC maintenance and differentiation. This study has revealed new germline requirement of Piwi in controlling GSC maintenance and lineage differentiation as well as its new somatic function in promoting germ cell differentiation. Therefore, Piwi is required in multiple cell types to control GSC lineage development in the Drosophila ovary. PMID:24658126

  3. Convergence of topological domain boundaries, insulators, and polytene interbands revealed by high-resolution mapping of chromatin contacts in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Michael R; Haines, Jenna E

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput assays of three-dimensional interactions of chromosomes have shed considerable light on the structure of animal chromatin. Despite this progress, the precise physical nature of observed structures and the forces that govern their establishment remain poorly understood. Here we present high resolution Hi-C data from early Drosophila embryos. We demonstrate that boundaries between topological domains of various sizes map to DNA elements that resemble classical insulator elements: short genomic regions sensitive to DNase digestion that are strongly bound by known insulator proteins and are frequently located between divergent promoters. Further, we show a striking correspondence between these elements and the locations of mapped polytene interband regions. We believe it is likely this relationship between insulators, topological boundaries, and polytene interbands extends across the genome, and we therefore propose a model in which decompaction of boundary-insulator-interband regions drives the organization of interphase chromosomes by creating stable physical separation between adjacent domains. PMID:29148971

  4. Small Molecule Suppressors of Drosophila Kinesin Deficiency Rescue Motor Axon Development in a Zebrafish Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Andrew; Hao, Le T.; Bhoite, Leena; Bradford, Chad L.; Chien, Chi-Bin; Beattie, Christine E.; Manfredi, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common inherited motor neuropathy and the leading hereditary cause of infant mortality. Currently there is no effective treatment for the disease, reflecting a need for pharmacologic interventions that restore performance of dysfunctional motor neurons or suppress the consequences of their dysfunction. In a series of assays relevant to motor neuron biology, we explored the activities of a collection of tetrahydroindoles that were reported to alter the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In Drosophila larvae the compounds suppressed aberrant larval locomotion due to mutations in the Khc and Klc genes, which respectively encode the heavy and light chains of kinesin-1. A representative compound of this class also suppressed the appearance of axonal swellings (alternatively termed axonal spheroids or neuritic beads) in the segmental nerves of the kinesin-deficient Drosophila larvae. Given the importance of kinesin-dependent transport for extension and maintenance of axons and their growth cones, three members of the class were tested for neurotrophic effects on isolated rat spinal motor neurons. Each compound stimulated neurite outgrowth. In addition, consistent with SMA being an axonopathy of motor neurons, the three axonotrophic compounds rescued motor axon development in a zebrafish model of SMA. The results introduce a collection of small molecules as pharmacologic suppressors of SMA-associated phenotypes and nominate specific members of the collection for development as candidate SMA therapeutics. More generally, the results reinforce the perception of SMA as an axonopathy and suggest novel approaches to treating the disease. PMID:24023935

  5. Cross-Talk Between Mitochondrial Fusion and the Hippo Pathway in Controlling Cell Proliferation During Drosophila Development.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiannan; Guo, Ting; Zhou, Xiu; Xi, Yongmei; Yang, Xiaohang; Ge, Wanzhong

    2016-08-01

    Cell proliferation and tissue growth depend on the coordinated regulation of multiple signaling molecules and pathways during animal development. Previous studies have linked mitochondrial function and the Hippo signaling pathway in growth control. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we identify a Drosophila mitochondrial inner membrane protein ChChd3 as a novel regulator for tissue growth. Loss of ChChd3 leads to tissue undergrowth and cell proliferation defects. ChChd3 is required for mitochondrial fusion and removal of ChChd3 increases mitochondrial fragmentation. ChChd3 is another mitochondrial target of the Hippo pathway, although it is only partially required for Hippo pathway-mediated overgrowth. Interestingly, lack of ChChd3 leads to inactivation of Hippo activity under normal development, which is also dependent on the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki). Furthermore, loss of ChChd3 induces oxidative stress and activates the JNK pathway. In addition, depletion of other mitochondrial fusion components, Opa1 or Marf, inactivates the Hippo pathway as well. Taken together, we propose that there is a cross-talk between mitochondrial fusion and the Hippo pathway, which is essential in controlling cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis in Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster, a genetic model system for alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Douglas J; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    In its natural environment, which consists of fermenting plant materials, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encounters high levels of ethanol. Flies are well equipped to deal with the toxic effects of ethanol; they use it as an energy source and for lipid biosynthesis. The primary ethanol-metabolizing pathway in flies involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH); their role in adaptation to ethanol-rich environments has been studied extensively. The similarity between Drosophila and mammals is not restricted to the manner in which they metabolize ethanol; behaviors elicited by ethanol exposure are also remarkably similar in these organisms. Flies show signs of acute intoxication, which range from locomotor stimulation at low doses to complete sedation at higher doses, they develop tolerance upon intermittent ethanol exposure, and they appear to like ethanol, showing preference for ethanol-containing media. Molecular genetic analysis of ethanol-induced behaviors in Drosophila, while still in its early stages, has already revealed some surprising parallels with mammals. The availability of powerful tools for genetic manipulation in Drosophila, together with the high degree of conservation at the genomic level, make Drosophila a promising model organism to study the mechanism by which ethanol regulates behavior and the mechanisms underlying the organism's adaptation to long-term ethanol exposure.

  7. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  8. Drosophila haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Crozatier, Michèle; Meister, Marie

    2007-05-01

    Like in vertebrates, Drosophila haematopoiesis occurs in two waves. It gives rise to three types of haemocytes: plasmatocytes (phagocytosis), crystal cells (melanization) and lamellocytes (encapsulation of parasites). A first population of haemocytes, specified during embryogenesis, gives rise to an invariant number of plasmatocytes and crystal cells. A second population of haemocytes is specified during larval development in a specialized haematopoietic organ, the lymph gland. All three types of haemocytes can be specified in this organ, but lamellocytes only differentiate in response to parasitism. Thus, larval in contrast to embryonic haematopoiesis can be modulated by physiological constraints. Molecular cascades controlling embryonic haematopoiesis are relatively well established and require transactivators such as GATA, FOG and Runx factors, which are also co-opted in mammalian haematopoiesis. Mechanisms involved during larval haematopoiesis are less well understood although a number of chromatin remodelling factors and signalling pathways (JAK/STAT, Toll, Hedgehog, Notch) are required. In healthy larvae a pool of progenitors is maintained within the lymph gland, under the control of a signalling centre which expresses Collier, Serrate, Antennapedia and Hedgehog, and controls haemocyte homeostasis. Its key role in haemocyte homeostasis is reminiscent of interactions described in vertebrates between haematopoietic stem cells and their microenvironment (niche).

  9. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  10. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  11. The Drosophila L1CAM homolog Neuroglian signals through distinct pathways to control different aspects of mushroom body axon development

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Tim; Kang, Yuan Y.; Wuytens, Gunther; Zimmermann, Pascale; Callaerts-Végh, Zsuzsanna; Pollarolo, Giulia; Islam, Rafique; Hortsch, Michael; Callaerts, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The spatiotemporal integration of adhesion and signaling during neuritogenesis is an important prerequisite for the establishment of neuronal networks in the developing brain. In this study, we describe the role of the L1-type CAM Neuroglian protein (NRG) in different steps of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neuron axonogenesis. Selective axon bundling in the peduncle requires both the extracellular and the intracellular domain of NRG. We uncover a novel role for the ZO-1 homolog Polychaetoid (PYD) in axon branching and in sister branch outgrowth and guidance downstream of the neuron-specific isoform NRG-180. Furthermore, genetic analyses show that the role of NRG in different aspects of MB axonal development not only involves PYD, but also TRIO, SEMA-1A and RAC1. PMID:21389050

  12. The Drosophila L1CAM homolog Neuroglian signals through distinct pathways to control different aspects of mushroom body axon development.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Tim; Kang, Yuan Y; Wuytens, Gunther; Zimmermann, Pascale; Callaerts-Végh, Zsuzsanna; Pollarolo, Giulia; Islam, Rafique; Hortsch, Michael; Callaerts, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    The spatiotemporal integration of adhesion and signaling during neuritogenesis is an important prerequisite for the establishment of neuronal networks in the developing brain. In this study, we describe the role of the L1-type CAM Neuroglian protein (NRG) in different steps of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neuron axonogenesis. Selective axon bundling in the peduncle requires both the extracellular and the intracellular domain of NRG. We uncover a novel role for the ZO-1 homolog Polychaetoid (PYD) in axon branching and in sister branch outgrowth and guidance downstream of the neuron-specific isoform NRG-180. Furthermore, genetic analyses show that the role of NRG in different aspects of MB axonal development not only involves PYD, but also TRIO, SEMA-1A and RAC1.

  13. sequoia controls the type I>0 daughter proliferation switch in the developing Drosophila nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Erika; Bivik, Caroline; Starkenberg, Annika; Thor, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    Neural progenitors typically divide asymmetrically to renew themselves, while producing daughters with more limited potential. In the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord, neuroblasts initially produce daughters that divide once to generate two neurons/glia (type I proliferation mode). Subsequently, many neuroblasts switch to generating daughters that differentiate directly (type 0). This programmed type I>0 switch is controlled by Notch signaling, triggered at a distinct point of lineage progression in each neuroblast. However, how Notch signaling onset is gated was unclear. We recently identified Sequoia (Seq), a C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to Drosophila Tramtrack (Ttk) and the positive regulatory domain (PRDM) family, as important for lineage progression. Here, we find that seq mutants fail to execute the type I>0 daughter proliferation switch and also display increased neuroblast proliferation. Genetic interaction studies reveal that seq interacts with the Notch pathway, and seq furthermore affects expression of a Notch pathway reporter. These findings suggest that seq may act as a context-dependent regulator of Notch signaling, and underscore the growing connection between Seq, Ttk, the PRDM family and Notch signaling. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Omoto, Jaison J; Wong, Darren C; Nguyen, Joseph D; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Omoto, Jaison J.; Wong, Darren C.; Nguyen, Joseph D.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  16. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the…

  17. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  18. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  19. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  20. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  1. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyanesh

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs) are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub). Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd) proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila.

  2. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gyanesh

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs) are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub). Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd) proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila. PMID:26180635

  3. A Drosophila model for developmental nicotine exposure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known health risks of tobacco smoking, many people including pregnant women continue smoking. The effects of developmental nicotine exposure are known, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism that can be used for uncovering genetic and molecular mechanisms for drugs of abuse. Here I show that Drosophila can be a model to elucidate the mechanisms for nicotine’s effects on a developing organism. Drosophila reared on nicotine food display developmental and behavioral effects similar to those in mammals including decreased survival and weight, increased developmental time, and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine and ethanol. The Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 7 (Dα7) mediates some of these effects. A novel role for Dα7 on ethanol sedation in Drosophila is also shown. Future research taking advantage of the genetic and molecular tools for Drosophila will allow additional discovery of the mechanisms behind the effects of nicotine during development. PMID:28498868

  4. Comparative analysis of behavioral and transcriptional variation underlying CO2 sensory neuron function and development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia Wern; McLaughlin, Joi; Yang, Haining; Leo, Charles; Rambarat, Paula; Okuwa, Sumie; Monroy-Eklund, Anaïs; Clark, Sabrina; Jones, Corbin D; Volkan, Pelin Cayirlioglu

    2017-10-02

    Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO 2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO 2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO 2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles from the developing and adult antennae for subset these species suggest that behavioral differences in some species may be due to differences in the expression of the CO 2 co-receptor Gr63a. Furthermore, these differences in Gr63a expression are correlated with changes in the expression of a few genes known to be involved in the development of the CO 2 circuit, namely dac, an important regulator of sensilla fate for sensilla that house CO 2 ORNs, and mip120, a member of the MMB/dREAM epigenetic regulatory complex that regulates CO 2 receptor expression. In contrast, most of the other known structural, molecular, and developmental components of the peripheral Drosophila CO 2 olfactory system seem to be well-conserved across all examined lineages. These findings suggest that certain components of CO 2 sensory ORN development may be more evolutionarily labile, and may contribute to differences in CO 2 -evoked behavioral responses across species.

  5. Spatio-temporal pattern of neuronal differentiation in the Drosophila visual system: A user’s guide to the dynamic morphology of the developing optic lobe

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Kathy T.; Andrade, Ingrid; Hartenstein, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern. This pattern relies on a protracted sequence of developmental steps, whereby different cell types are born at specific time points and nerve connections are formed in a tightly controlled sequence that has to be coordinated among the different visual neuropils. The developing fly visual system has become a highly regarded and widely studied paradigm to investigate the genetic mechanisms that control the formation of neural circuits. However, these studies are often made difficult by the complex and shifting patterns in which different types of neurons and their connections are distributed throughout development. In the present paper we have reconstructed the three-dimensional architecture of the Drosophila optic lobe from the early larva to the adult. Based on specific markers, we were able to distinguish the populations of progenitors of the four optic neuropils and map the neurons and their connections. Our paper presents sets of annotated confocal z-projections and animated 3D digital models of these structures for representative stages. The data reveal the temporally coordinated growth of the optic neuropils, and clarify how the position and orientation of the neuropils and interconnecting tracts (inner and outer optic chiasm) changes over time. Finally, we have analyzed the emergence of the discrete layers of the medulla and lobula complex using the same markers (DN-cadherin, Brp) employed to systematically explore the structure and development of the

  6. Heritable Endosymbionts of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mateos, Mariana; Castrezana, Sergio J.; Nankivell, Becky J.; Estes, Anne M.; Markow, Therese A.; Moran, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    Although heritable microorganisms are increasingly recognized as widespread in insects, no systematic screens for such symbionts have been conducted in Drosophila species (the primary insect genetic models for studies of evolution, development, and innate immunity). Previous efforts screened relatively few Drosophila lineages, mainly for Wolbachia. We conducted an extensive survey of potentially heritable endosymbionts from any bacterial lineage via PCR screens of mature ovaries in 181 recently collected fly strains representing 35 species from 11 species groups. Due to our fly sampling methods, however, we are likely to have missed fly strains infected with sex ratio-distorting endosymbionts. Only Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, both widespread in insects, were confirmed as symbionts. These findings indicate that in contrast to some other insect groups, other heritable symbionts are uncommon in Drosophila species, possibly reflecting a robust innate immune response that eliminates many bacteria. A more extensive survey targeted these two symbiont types through diagnostic PCR in 1225 strains representing 225 species from 32 species groups. Of these, 19 species were infected by Wolbachia while only 3 species had Spiroplasma. Several new strains of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma were discovered, including ones divergent from any reported to date. The phylogenetic distribution of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in Drosophila is discussed. PMID:16783009

  7. Requirement of the Combination of Mushroom Body ? Lobe and a/ß Lobes for the Retrieval of Both Aversive and Appetitive Early Memories in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Cheng; Ci, Bo; Lianzhang, Wang; Zhong, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies of "Drosophila" mushroom body in formation and retrieval of olfactory memories allow us to delineate the functional logic for memory storage and retrieval. Currently, there is a questionable disassociation of circuits for memory storage and retrieval during "Drosophila" olfactory memory processing. Formation…

  8. Breastfeeding, parenting, and early cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata

    2014-03-01

    To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Inga; Jabłońska, Jadwiga; Zmojdzian, Monika; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Renaud, Yoan; Junion, Guillaume; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Huelsmann, Sven; Jagla, Krzysztof; Jagla, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), maintain normal cellular function by controlling protein homeostasis in stress conditions. However, sHsps are not only activated in response to environmental insults, but also exert developmental and tissue-specific functions that are much less known. Here, we show that during normal development the Drosophila sHsp CryAB [L(2)efl] is specifically expressed in larval body wall muscles and accumulates at the level of Z-bands and around myonuclei. CryAB features a conserved actin-binding domain and, when attenuated, leads to clustering of myonuclei and an altered pattern of sarcomeric actin and the Z-band-associated actin crosslinker Cheerio (filamin). Our data suggest that CryAB and Cheerio form a complex essential for muscle integrity: CryAB colocalizes with Cheerio and, as revealed by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, binds to Cheerio, and the muscle-specific attenuation of cheerio leads to CryAB-like sarcomeric phenotypes. Furthermore, muscle-targeted expression of CryAB(R120G), which carries a mutation associated with desmin-related myopathy (DRM), results in an altered sarcomeric actin pattern, in affected myofibrillar integrity and in Z-band breaks, leading to reduced muscle performance and to marked cardiac arrhythmia. Taken together, we demonstrate that CryAB ensures myofibrillar integrity in Drosophila muscles during development and propose that it does so by interacting with the actin crosslinker Cheerio. The evidence that a DRM-causing mutation affects CryAB muscle function and leads to DRM-like phenotypes in the fly reveals a conserved stress-independent role of CryAB in maintaining muscle cell cytoarchitecture. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Drago, Ilaria; Davis, Ronald L

    2016-09-06

    The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of mobile phone radiation on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, David; Lin, Hana; Ye, Lin; Blank, Martin; Goodman, Reba

    2003-05-01

    In this report we examined the effects of a discontinuous radio frequency (RF) signal produced by a GSM multiband mobile phone (900/1,900 MHz; SAR approximately 1.4 W/kg) on Drosophila melanogaster, during the 10-day developmental period from egg laying through pupation. As found earlier with low frequency exposures, the non-thermal radiation from the GSM mobile phone increased numbers of offspring, elevated hsp70 levels, increased serum response element (SRE) DNA-binding and induced the phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor, ELK-1. The rapid induction of hsp70 within minutes, by a non-thermal stress, together with identified components of signal transduction pathways, provide sensitive and reliable biomarkers that could serve as the basis for realistic mobile phone safety guidelines. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Silencing of the Drosophila ortholog of SOX5 leads to abnormal neuronal development and behavioral impairment.

    PubMed

    Li, Airong; Hooli, Basavaraj; Mullin, Kristina; Tate, Rebecca E; Bubnys, Adele; Kirchner, Rory; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; Hide, Winston; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2017-04-15

    SOX5 encodes a transcription factor that is expressed in multiple tissues including heart, lung and brain. Mutations in SOX5 have been previously found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and developmental delay, intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. To characterize the neuronal role of SOX5, we silenced the Drosophila ortholog of SOX5, Sox102F, by RNAi in various neuronal subtypes in Drosophila. Silencing of Sox102F led to misorientated and disorganized michrochaetes, neurons with shorter dendritic arborization (DA) and reduced complexity, diminished larval peristaltic contractions, loss of neuromuscular junction bouton structures, impaired olfactory perception, and severe neurodegeneration in brain. Silencing of SOX5 in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells resulted in a significant repression of WNT signaling activity and altered expression of WNT-related genes. Genetic association and meta-analyses of the results in several large family-based and case-control late-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) samples of SOX5 variants revealed several variants that show significant association with AD disease status. In addition, analysis for rare and highly penetrate functional variants revealed four novel variants/mutations in SOX5, which taken together with functional prediction analysis, suggests a strong role of SOX5 causing AD in the carrier families. Collectively, these findings indicate that SOX5 is a novel candidate gene for LOAD with an important role in neuronal function. The genetic findings warrant further studies to identify and characterize SOX5 variants that confer risk for AD, ALS and intellectual disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early childhood development: putting knowledge into action.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a select group of grantmakers and national experts who have made a major commitment to improve the health and well being of young children. The roundtable explored the latest research examining early childhood development, as well as public and private programs serving families with young children. The discussion ultimately centered upon the importance of grantmaker involvement to improve early childhood development, including the services delivered to young children and their families, training for professionals, and continued research and evaluation. This report brings together key points from the day's discussion with factual information on demographic, health and human services, and public policy trends drawn from a background paper prepared for the meeting. When available, recent findings, facts, and figures have been incorporated.

  15. QCD development in the early universe

    SciT

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  16. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements.

    PubMed

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-06-28

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  17. Brain development in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti: a comparative immunocytochemical analysis using cross-reacting antibodies from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Keshava; Flister, Susanne; Müller, Pie; Rodrigues, Veronica; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-12-01

    Considerable effort has been directed towards understanding the organization and function of peripheral and central nervous system of disease vector mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti. To date, all of these investigations have been carried out on adults but none of the studies addressed the development of the nervous system during the larval and pupal stages in mosquitoes. Here, we first screen a set of 30 antibodies, which have been used to study brain development in Drosophila, and identify 13 of them cross-reacting and labeling epitopes in the developing brain of Aedes. We then use the identified antibodies in immunolabeling studies to characterize general neuroanatomical features of the developing brain and compare them with the well-studied model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in larval, pupal, and adult stages. Furthermore, we use immunolabeling to document the development of specific components of the Aedes brain, namely the optic lobes, the subesophageal neuropil, and serotonergic system of the subesophageal neuropil in more detail. Our study reveals prominent differences in the developing brain in the larval stage as compared to the pupal (and adult) stage of Aedes. The results also uncover interesting similarities and marked differences in brain development of Aedes as compared to Drosophila. Taken together, this investigation forms the basis for future cellular and molecular investigations of brain development in this important disease vector. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  18. The yan gene is highly conserved in Drosophila and its expression suggests a complex role throughout development.

    PubMed

    Price, M D; Lai, Z

    1999-04-01

    Competence for cell fate determination and cellular differentiation is under tight control of regulatory genes. Yan, a nuclear target of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, is an E twenty six (ETS) DNA-binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of cell differentiation and proliferation in Drosophila. Most members of RTK signaling pathways are highly conserved through evolution, yet no yan orthologues have been identified to date in vertebrates. To investigate the degree of yan conservation during evolution, we have characterized a yan homologue from a sibling species of D. melanogaster, D. virilis. Our results show that the organization, primary structure and expression pattern of yan are highly conserved. Both genes span over 20 kb and contain four exons with introns at identical positions. The areas with highest amino acid similarity include the Pointed and ETS domain but there are other discrete regions with a high degree of similarity. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that yan's closest relative is the human tel gene, a negative regulator of differentiation in hematopoetic precursors. In both species, Yan is dynamically expressed beginning as early as stage 4/5 and persisting throughout embryogenesis. In third instar larvae, Yan is expressed in and behind the morphogenetic furrow of the eye imaginal disc as well as in the laminar precursor cells of the brain. Ovarian follicle cells also contain Yan protein. Conservation of the structure and expression patterns of yan genes strongly suggests that regulatory mechanisms for their expression are also conserved in these two species.

  19. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, K A

    1986-01-01

    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  20. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    2015-08-01

    In insects, humoral response to injury is accomplished by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are secreted in the hemolymph to eliminate the pathogen. Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs), however, are unique immune organs that show constitutive expression of AMPs even in unchallenged conditions and the onset of immune response is developmental stage dependent. Earlier reports have shown ecdysone positively regulates immune response after pathogenic challenge however, a robust response requires prior potentiation by the hormone. Here we provide evidence to show that MTs do not require prior potentiation with ecdysone hormone for expression of AMPs and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone. We show that early gene Broad complex (BR-C) could be regulating the IMD pathway by activating Relish and physically interacting with it to activate AMPs expression. BR-C depletion from Malpighian tubules renders the flies susceptible to infection. We also show that in MTs ecdysone signaling is transduced by EcR-B1 and B2. In the absence of ecdysone signaling the IMD pathway associated genes are down regulated and activation and translocation of transcription factor Relish is also affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resources for Biological Annotation of the Drosophila Genome

    SciT

    Gerald M. Rubin

    2005-08-08

    This project supported seed money for the development of cDNA and genetic resources to support studies of the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Key publications supported by this work that provide additional detail: (1) ''The Drosophila gene collection: identification of putative full-length cDNAs for 70% of D. melanogaster genes''; and (2) ''The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes''.

  2. A novel interplay between the ubiquitin–proteasome system and serine proteases during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Lipinszki, Zoltán; Klement, Eva; Hunyadi-Gulyas, Eva; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Márkus, Róbert; Pál, Margit; Deák, Péter; Udvardy, Andor

    2013-09-15

    The concentrations of the Drosophila proteasomal and extraproteasomal polyubiquitin receptors fluctuate in a developmentally regulated fashion. This fluctuation is generated by a previously unidentified proteolytic activity. In the present paper, we describe the purification, identification and characterization of this protease (endoproteinase I). Its expression increases sharply at the L1-L2 larval stages, remains high until the second half of the L3 stage, then declines dramatically. This sharp decrease coincides precisely with the increase of polyubiquitin receptor concentrations in late L3 larvae, which suggests a tight developmental co-regulation. RNAi-induced down-regulation of endoproteinase I results in pupal lethality. Interestingly, we found a cross-talk between the 26S proteasome and this larval protease: transgenic overexpression of the in vivo target of endoproteinase I, the C-terminal half of the proteasomal polyubiquitin receptor subunit p54/Rpn10 results in transcriptional down-regulation of endoproteinase I and consequently a lower level of proteolytic elimination of the polyubiquitin receptors. Another larval protease, Jonah65A-IV, which degrades only unfolded proteins and exhibits similar cross-talk with the proteasome has also been purified and characterized. It may prevent the accumulation of polyubiquitylated proteins in larvae contrary to the low polyubiquitin receptor concentration.

  3. Multipotent versus differentiated cell fate selection in the developing Drosophila airways

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryo; Hosono, Chie; Samakovlis, Christos; Saigo, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Developmental potentials of cells are tightly controlled at multiple levels. The embryonic Drosophila airway tree is roughly subdivided into two types of cells with distinct developmental potentials: a proximally located group of multipotent adult precursor cells (P-fate) and a distally located population of more differentiated cells (D-fate). We show that the GATA-family transcription factor (TF) Grain promotes the P-fate and the POU-homeobox TF Ventral veinless (Vvl/Drifter/U-turned) stimulates the D-fate. Hedgehog and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cooperate with Vvl to drive the D-fate at the expense of the P-fate while negative regulators of either of these signaling pathways ensure P-fate specification. Local concentrations of Decapentaplegic/BMP, Wingless/Wnt, and Hedgehog signals differentially regulate the expression of D-factors and P-factors to transform an equipotent primordial field into a concentric pattern of radially different morphogenetic potentials, which gradually gives rise to the distal-proximal organization of distinct cell types in the mature airway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09646.001 PMID:26633813

  4. Effect of semolina-jaggery diet on survival and development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; James, Joel; Roy, Debasish; Sen, Soumadeep; Chatterjee, Rishita; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for developmental studies. This study tests the potential of semolina-jaggery (SJ) diet as a new formulation for bulk rearing of flies. Semolina and jaggery are organic products obtained from wheat endosperm and cane sugar, respectively. Semolina is a rich source of carbohydrates and protein. Jaggery has a high content of dietary sugars. Moreover, preparation of semolina jaggery diet is cost-effective and easy. Thus, the current study aimed to compare survival and developmental parameters of flies fed the SJ diet to flies fed the standard cornmeal-sugar-yeast (CSY) diet. SJ diet enhanced survival of flies without affecting fecundity; male flies showed increased resistance to starvation. A higher number of flies emerged at F2 and F3 generation when fed the SJ diet than when fed the control CSY diet. SJ diet did not increase fly body weight and lipid percentage. Therefore, SJ diet can be used for bulk rearing of healthy flies at par with the standard cornmeal-sugar-yeast diet.

  5. Effect of semolina-jaggery diet on survival and development of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Debarati; James, Joel; Roy, Debasish; Sen, Soumadeep; Chatterjee, Rishita; Thirumurugan, Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for developmental studies. This study tests the potential of semolina-jaggery (SJ) diet as a new formulation for bulk rearing of flies. Semolina and jaggery are organic products obtained from wheat endosperm and cane sugar, respectively. Semolina is a rich source of carbohydrates and protein. Jaggery has a high content of dietary sugars. Moreover, preparation of semolina jaggery diet is cost-effective and easy. Thus, the current study aimed to compare survival and developmental parameters of flies fed the SJ diet to flies fed the standard cornmeal-sugar-yeast (CSY) diet. SJ diet enhanced survival of flies without affecting fecundity; male flies showed increased resistance to starvation. A higher number of flies emerged at F2 and F3 generation when fed the SJ diet than when fed the control CSY diet. SJ diet did not increase fly body weight and lipid percentage. Therefore, SJ diet can be used for bulk rearing of healthy flies at par with the standard cornmeal-sugar-yeast diet. PMID:26252611

  6. The Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster under Different Duration Space Flight and Subsequent Adaptation to Earth Gravity.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, Irina V; Belyakin, Stepan N; Sarantseva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    In prospective human exploration of outer space, the need to preserve a species over several generations under changed gravity conditions may arise. This paper demonstrates our results in the creation of the third generation of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (third-stage larvae) during the 44.5-day space flight (Foton-M4 satellite (2014, Russia)), then the fourth generation on Earth and the fifth generation again in conditions of the 12-day space flight (2014, in the Russian Segment of the ISS). The species preserves fertility despite a number of changes in the level of expression and content of cytoskeletal proteins, which are the key components of the cleavage spindle and the contractile ring of cells. The results of transcriptome screening and space analysis of cytoskeletal proteins show that the exposure to weightless conditions leads to the increased transcription of metabolic genes, cuticle components and the decreased transcription of genes involved in morphogenesis, cell differentiation, cytoskeletal organization and genes associated with the plasma membrane. "Subsequent" exposure to the microgravity for 12 days resulted in an even more significant increase/decrease in the transcription of the same genes. On the contrary, the transition from the microgravity conditions to the gravity of Earth leads to the increased transcription of genes whose products are involved in the morphogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, motility of cells and transcription regulation, and to the decreased transcription of cuticle genes and proteolytic processes.

  7. The Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster under Different Duration Space Flight and Subsequent Adaptation to Earth Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Belyakin, Stepan N.; Sarantseva, Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    In prospective human exploration of outer space, the need to preserve a species over several generations under changed gravity conditions may arise. This paper demonstrates our results in the creation of the third generation of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (third-stage larvae) during the 44.5-day space flight (Foton-M4 satellite (2014, Russia)), then the fourth generation on Earth and the fifth generation again in conditions of the 12-day space flight (2014, in the Russian Segment of the ISS). The species preserves fertility despite a number of changes in the level of expression and content of cytoskeletal proteins, which are the key components of the cleavage spindle and the contractile ring of cells. The results of transcriptome screening and space analysis of cytoskeletal proteins show that the exposure to weightless conditions leads to the increased transcription of metabolic genes, cuticle components and the decreased transcription of genes involved in morphogenesis, cell differentiation, cytoskeletal organization and genes associated with the plasma membrane. “Subsequent” exposure to the microgravity for 12 days resulted in an even more significant increase/decrease in the transcription of the same genes. On the contrary, the transition from the microgravity conditions to the gravity of Earth leads to the increased transcription of genes whose products are involved in the morphogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, motility of cells and transcription regulation, and to the decreased transcription of cuticle genes and proteolytic processes. PMID:27861601

  8. Development of synthetic selfish elements based on modular nucleases in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Huen, David S; Russell, Steven; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Selfish genes are DNA elements that increase their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome and can therefore quickly spread within a population. It has been suggested that selfish elements could be exploited to modify the genome of entire populations for medical and ecological applications. Here we report that transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) can be engineered into site-specific synthetic selfish elements (SSEs) and demonstrate their transmission of up to 70% in the Drosophila germline. We show here that SSEs can spread via DNA break-induced homologous recombination, a process known as 'homing' similar to that observed for homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), despite their fundamentally different modes of DNA binding and cleavage. We observed that TALEN and ZFN have a reduced capability of secondary homing compared to HEG as their repetitive structure had a negative effect on their genetic stability. The modular architecture of ZFNs and TALENs allows for the rapid design of novel SSEs against specific genomic sequences making them potentially suitable for the genetic engineering of wild-type populations of animals and plants, in applications such as gene replacement or population suppression of pest species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Development of synthetic selfish elements based on modular nucleases in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Huen, David S.; Russell, Steven; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Selfish genes are DNA elements that increase their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome and can therefore quickly spread within a population. It has been suggested that selfish elements could be exploited to modify the genome of entire populations for medical and ecological applications. Here we report that transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) can be engineered into site-specific synthetic selfish elements (SSEs) and demonstrate their transmission of up to 70% in the Drosophila germline. We show here that SSEs can spread via DNA break-induced homologous recombination, a process known as ‘homing’ similar to that observed for homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), despite their fundamentally different modes of DNA binding and cleavage. We observed that TALEN and ZFN have a reduced capability of secondary homing compared to HEG as their repetitive structure had a negative effect on their genetic stability. The modular architecture of ZFNs and TALENs allows for the rapid design of novel SSEs against specific genomic sequences making them potentially suitable for the genetic engineering of wild-type populations of animals and plants, in applications such as gene replacement or population suppression of pest species. PMID:24803674

  10. Sodium fluoride adversely affects ovarian development and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Salma; Rajak, Prem; Dutta, Moumita; Roy, Sumedha

    2017-11-01

    The study demonstrates the effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure of sodium fluoride (NaF) on reproductive structure and function of female Drosophila melanogaster. As a part of treatment, flies were maintained in food supplemented with sub-lethal concentrations of NaF (10-100 μg/mL). Fecundity, ovarian morphology, presence and profusion of viable cells from ovary and fat body were taken into consideration for evaluating changes in reproductive homeostasis. Wing length (a factor demonstrating body size and reproductive fitness) was also monitored after NaF exposure. Significant reduction in fecundity, alteration in ovarian morphology along with an increase in apoptosis was observed in treated females. Simultaneous decline in viable cell number and larval weight validates the result of MTT assay. Furthermore, altered ovarian Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activities together with increased rate of lipid peroxidation after 20 and 40 μg/mL NaF exposure confirmed the changes in reproduction related metabolism. Enhanced lipid peroxidation known for ROS generation might have induced genotoxicity which is confirmed through Comet assay. The enzyme activities were not dose dependent, rather manifested a bimodal response, which suggests a well-knit interaction among the players inducing stress and the ones that help establish physiological homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A rho-binding protein kinase C-like activity is required for the function of protein kinase N in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Betson, Martha; Settleman, Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    The Rho GTPases interact with multiple downstream effectors to exert their biological functions, which include important roles in tissue morphogenesis during the development of multicellular organisms. Among the Rho effectors are the protein kinase N (PKN) proteins, which are protein kinase C (PKC)-like kinases that bind activated Rho GTPases. The PKN proteins are well conserved evolutionarily, but their biological role in any organism is poorly understood. We previously determined that the single Drosophila ortholog of mammalian PKN proteins, Pkn, is a Rho/Rac-binding kinase essential for Drosophila development. By performing "rescue" studies with various Pkn mutant constructs, we have defined the domains of Pkn required for its role during Drosophila development. These studies suggested that Rho, but not Rac binding is important for Pkn function in development. In addition, we determined that the kinase domain of PKC53E, a PKC family kinase, can functionally substitute for the kinase domain of Pkn during development, thereby exemplifying the evolutionary strategy of "combining" functional domains to produce proteins with distinct biological activities. Interestingly, we also identified a requirement for Pkn in wing morphogenesis, thereby revealing the first postembryonic function for Pkn.

  12. rigor mortis encodes a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein required for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila larval development.

    PubMed

    Gates, Julie; Lam, Geanette; Ortiz, José A; Losson, Régine; Thummel, Carl S

    2004-01-01

    Pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone trigger the major developmental transitions in Drosophila, including molting and puparium formation. The ecdysone signal is transduced by the EcR/USP nuclear receptor heterodimer that binds to specific response elements in the genome and directly regulates target gene transcription. We describe a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein encoded by rigor mortis (rig) that is required for ecdysone responses during larval development. rig mutants display defects in molting, delayed larval development, larval lethality, duplicated mouth parts, and defects in puparium formation--phenotypes that resemble those seen in EcR, usp, E75A and betaFTZ-F1 mutants. Although the expression of these nuclear receptor genes is essentially normal in rig mutant larvae, the ecdysone-triggered switch in E74 isoform expression is defective. rig encodes a protein with multiple WD-40 repeats and an LXXLL motif, sequences that act as specific protein-protein interaction domains. Consistent with the presence of these elements and the lethal phenotypes of rig mutants, Rig protein interacts with several Drosophila nuclear receptors in GST pull-down experiments, including EcR, USP, DHR3, SVP and betaFTZ-F1. The ligand binding domain of betaFTZ-F1 is sufficient for this interaction, which can occur in an AF-2-independent manner. Antibody stains reveal that Rig protein is present in the brain and imaginal discs of second and third instar larvae, where it is restricted to the cytoplasm. In larval salivary gland and midgut cells, however, Rig shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, at times that correlate with the major lethal phase of rig mutants and major switches in ecdysone-regulated gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that rig exerts essential functions during larval development through gene-specific effects on ecdysone-regulated transcription, most likely as a cofactor for one or more

  13. The Combined Effect of Methyl- and Ethyl-Paraben on Lifespan and Preadult Development Period of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Pan, Chenguang; Li, Yajuan; Zhang, Min; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservative substances in foods, pharmaceuticals, industrial products, and cosmetics. But several studies have cautioned that parabens have estrogenic or endocrine-disrupting properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model in vivo to detect the toxic effects of chemistry. The study was designed to assess the potential additive toxic effects of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) mixture (MP + EP) on lifespan and preadult development period in D. melanogaster The data revealed that the MP + EP can reduce the longevity of flies compared with the control group, consistent with a significant reduction in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in superoxide dismutase activities. Furthermore, MP + EP may have a greater toxic effect on longevity of flies than separate using with the same concentration. Additionally, parabens had a nonmonotonic dose-response effect on D. melanogaster preadult development period, showing that MP + EP delayed preadult development period compared with control group while individual MP or EP significantly shortened (P < 0.01) at low concentration (300 mg/l). In conclusion, MP + EP had the potential additive toxicity on lifespan and preadult development period for D. melanogaster. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. The Combined Effect of Methyl- and Ethyl-Paraben on Lifespan and Preadult Development Period of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Pan, Chenguang; Li, Yajuan; Zhang, Min; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservative substances in foods, pharmaceuticals, industrial products, and cosmetics. But several studies have cautioned that parabens have estrogenic or endocrine-disrupting properties. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model in vivo to detect the toxic effects of chemistry. The study was designed to assess the potential additive toxic effects of methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) mixture (MP + EP) on lifespan and preadult development period in D. melanogaster. The data revealed that the MP + EP can reduce the longevity of flies compared with the control group, consistent with a significant reduction in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in superoxide dismutase activities. Furthermore, MP + EP may have a greater toxic effect on longevity of flies than separate using with the same concentration. Additionally, parabens had a nonmonotonic dose–response effect on D. melanogaster preadult development period, showing that MP + EP delayed preadult development period compared with control group while individual MP or EP significantly shortened (P < 0.01) at low concentration (300 mg/l). In conclusion, MP + EP had the potential additive toxicity on lifespan and preadult development period for D. melanogaster. PMID:28076277

  15. Proximal—distal pattern formation in Drosophila: cell autonomous requirement for Distal-less gene activity in limb development

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stephen M.; Jürgens, Gerd

    1989-01-01

    Limb development in the Drosophila embryo requires a pattern-forming system to organize positional information along the proximal–distal axis of the limb. This system must function in the context of the well characterized anterior–posterior and dorsal–ventral pattern-forming systems that are required to organize the body plan of the embryo. By genetic criteria the Distal-less gene appears to play a central role in limb development. Lack-of-function Distal-less mutations cause the deletion of a specific subset of embryonic peripheral sense organs that represent the evolutionary remnants of larval limbs. Distal-less activity is also required in the imaginal discs for the development of adult limbs. This requirement is cell autonomous and region specific within the developing limb primordium. Production of genetically mosaic imaginal discs, in which clones of cells lack Distal-less activity, indicates the existence of an organized proximal–distal positional information in very young imaginal disc primordia. We suggest that this graded positional information may depend on the activity of the Distal-less gene. Images PMID:16453891

  16. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  17. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC 2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  18. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  19. Drosophila and Beer: An Experimental Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvink, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a popular organism for studying genetics and development. Maintaining Drosophila on medium prepared with varying concentrations of beer and evaluating the effects on reproduction, life cycle stages and other factors is one of the exercises that is versatile and applicable to many student levels.

  20. A large-scale, in vivo transcription factor screen defines bivalent chromatin as a key property of regulatory factors mediating Drosophila wing development

    PubMed Central

    Schertel, Claus; Albarca, Monica; Rockel-Bauer, Claudia; Kelley, Nicholas W.; Bischof, Johannes; Hens, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of cell fate. The estimated 755 genes that encode DNA binding domain-containing proteins comprise ∼5% of all Drosophila genes. However, the majority has remained uncharacterized so far due to the lack of proper genetic tools. We generated 594 site-directed transgenic Drosophila lines that contain integrations of individual UAS-TF constructs to facilitate spatiotemporally controlled misexpression in vivo. All transgenes were expressed in the developing wing, and two-thirds induced specific phenotypic defects. In vivo knockdown of the same genes yielded a phenotype for 50%, with both methods indicating a great potential for misexpression to characterize novel functions in wing growth, patterning, and development. Thus, our UAS-TF library provides an important addition to the genetic toolbox of Drosophila research, enabling the identification of several novel wing development-related TFs. In parallel, we established the chromatin landscape of wing imaginal discs by ChIP-seq analyses of five chromatin marks and RNA Pol II. Subsequent clustering revealed six distinct chromatin states, with two clusters showing enrichment for both active and repressive marks. TFs that carry such “bivalent” chromatin are highly enriched for causing misexpression phenotypes in the wing, and analysis of existing expression data shows that these TFs tend to be differentially expressed across the wing disc. Thus, bivalently marked chromatin can be used as a marker for spatially regulated TFs that are functionally relevant in a developing tissue. PMID:25568052

  1. Apical accumulation of the Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila eye development is promoted by the small GTPase Rap1.

    PubMed

    Baril, Caroline; Lefrançois, Martin; Sahmi, Malha; Knævelsrud, Helene; Therrien, Marc

    2014-08-01

    The Ras/MAPK-signaling pathway plays pivotal roles during development of metazoans by controlling cell proliferation and cell differentiation elicited, in several instances, by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). While the internal mechanism of RTK-driven Ras/MAPK signaling is well understood, far less is known regarding its interplay with other co-required signaling events involved in developmental decisions. In a genetic screen designed to identify new regulators of RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling during Drosophila eye development, we identified the small GTPase Rap1, PDZ-GEF, and Canoe as components contributing to Ras/MAPK-mediated R7 cell differentiation. Rap1 signaling has recently been found to participate in assembling cadherin-based adherens junctions in various fly epithelial tissues. Here, we show that Rap1 activity is required for the integrity of the apical domains of developing photoreceptor cells and that reduced Rap1 signaling hampers the apical accumulation of the Sevenless RTK in presumptive R7 cells. It thus appears that, in addition to its role in cell-cell adhesion, Rap1 signaling controls the partitioning of the epithelial cell membrane, which in turn influences signaling events that rely on apico-basal cell polarity. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Comparative Genomics in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Oti, Martin; Pane, Attilio; Sammeth, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Since the pioneering studies of Thomas Hunt Morgan and coworkers at the dawn of the twentieth century, Drosophila melanogaster and its sister species have tremendously contributed to unveil the rules underlying animal genetics, development, behavior, evolution, and human disease. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies launched Drosophila into the post-genomic era and paved the way for unprecedented comparative genomics investigations. The complete sequencing and systematic comparison of the genomes from 12 Drosophila species represents a milestone achievement in modern biology, which allowed a plethora of different studies ranging from the annotation of known and novel genomic features to the evolution of chromosomes and, ultimately, of entire genomes. Despite the efforts of countless laboratories worldwide, the vast amount of data that were produced over the past 15 years is far from being fully explored.In this chapter, we will review some of the bioinformatic approaches that were developed to interrogate the genomes of the 12 Drosophila species. Setting off from alignments of the entire genomic sequences, the degree of conservation can be separately evaluated for every region of the genome, providing already first hints about elements that are under purifying selection and therefore likely functional. Furthermore, the careful analysis of repeated sequences sheds light on the evolutionary dynamics of transposons, an enigmatic and fascinating class of mobile elements housed in the genomes of animals and plants. Comparative genomics also aids in the computational identification of the transcriptionally active part of the genome, first and foremost of protein-coding loci, but also of transcribed nevertheless apparently noncoding regions, which were once considered "junk" DNA. Eventually, the synergy between functional and comparative genomics also facilitates in silico and in vivo studies on cis-acting regulatory elements, like transcription factor binding

  3. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  4. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciT

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.

    of genes. Whereas, 20% of Drosophila genes are annotated as encoding alternatively spliced premRNAs, splice-junction microarray experiments indicate that this number is at least 40% (ref. 7). Determining the diversity of mRNAs generated by alternative promoters, alternative splicing and RNA editing will substantially increase the inferred protein repertoire. Non-coding RNA genes (ncRNAs) including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAS (miRNAs) (reviewed in ref. 10), and longer ncRNAs such as bxd (ref. 11) and rox (ref. 12), have important roles in gene regulation, whereas others such as small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs)and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are important components of macromolecular machines such as the ribosome and spliceosome. The transcription and processing of these ncRNAs must also be fully documented and mapped. As part of the modENCODE project to annotate the functional elements of the D. melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, we used RNA-Seq and tiling microarrays to sample the Drosophila transcriptome at unprecedented depth throughout development from early embryo to ageing male and female adults. We report on a high-resolution view of the discovery, structure and dynamic expression of the D. melanogaster transcriptome.« less

  5. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  6. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins and Pax6 cooperate to inhibit in vivo reprogramming of the developing Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinjin; Ordway, Alison J; Weber, Lena; Buddika, Kasun; Kumar, Justin P

    2018-04-04

    How different cells and tissues commit to and determine their fates has been a central question in developmental biology since the seminal embryological experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch in sea urchins and frogs. Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. The loss of PcG in the developing eye results in a cellular reprogramming event in which the eye is redirected to a wing fate. This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Polycomb proteins or the simultaneous reduction of the Pleiohomeotic repressive complex and Pax6. Interestingly, the requirement for retinal selector genes is limited to Pax6, as the removal of more downstream members does not lead to the eye-wing transformation. We also show that distinct PcG complexes are required during different developmental windows throughout eye formation. These findings build on earlier observations that the eye can be reprogrammed to initiate head epidermis, antennal and leg development. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. A New Strain of Drosophila That Inhibits the Development of Symptoms in Imagoes Infected with Sigma Virus

    PubMed Central

    Herforth, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A strain of Drosophila melanogaster bearing the mutant gene ebony has been found to slow the development of symptoms (carbon dioxide sensitivity) in adult flies inoculated with sigma virus, a member of the rhabdovirus group. This inhibition is made evident by comparing mean incubation times of the virus in ebony and wild-type (Oregon) flies. The increase in mean incubation time in ebony flies has ranged from about 3 to 8 days, depending on the virus strain, amount of virus injected, and the age of the flies at the time of inoculation. This delay in development of symptoms appears to be due to a dominant autosomal gene, although further work is needed to confirm this. When accumulation of infectious virus after inoculation is compared in ebony and Oregon flies, there seems to be no inhibition of multiplication in ebony at the level of the entire fly. The relationship of this work to current theories on the mechanism of symptom production by sigma virus is discussed. PMID:17248809

  8. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  9. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  10. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  11. Drosophila CYP6g1 and its human homolog CYP3A4 confer tolerance to methylmercury during development

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Matthew D.; Lowe, Jessica A.; Mahapatra, Cecon T.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental toxicant that is commonly encountered through dietary fish and seafood. While the fetal nervous system is a well-known primary target for MeHg toxicity, the risks of MeHg exposures that are commonly experienced today through diet and environmental exposure remain uncertain. Despite knowledge of numerous cellular processes that are affected by MeHg, the mechanisms that ultimately influence tolerance or susceptibility to MeHg in the developing fetus are not well understood. Using transcriptomic analyses of developing brains of MeHg tolerant and susceptible strains of Drosophila, we previously identified members of the cytochrome p450 (CYP) family of monooxygenases/oxidoreductases as candidate MeHg tolerance genes. While CYP genes encode Phase I enzymes best known for xenobiotic metabolism in the liver, several classes of CYPs are required for synthesis or degradation of essential endobiotics, such as hormones and fatty acids, that are critical to normal development. We now demonstrate that variation in expression CYP genes can strongly influence MeHg tolerance in the developing fly. Importantly, modulating expression of a single CYP, CYP6g1, specifically in neurons or the fat body (liver equivalent) is sufficient to rescue development in the presence of MeHg. We also demonstrate a conserved function for CYP3A4, a human homolog of CYP6g1, in conferring MeHg tolerance to flies. Finally, we show that pharmacological induction of CYPs with caffeine parallels an increase in tolerance to MeHg in developing flies. These findings establish a previously unidentified role for CYPs in MeHg toxicity and point to a potentially conserved role of CYP genes to influence susceptibility to MeHg toxicity across species. PMID:22699155

  12. [Effects of relic microorganism B. sp. on development, gaseous exchange, spontaneous motor activity, stress resistance and survival of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Brushkov, A V; Bezrukov, V V; Griva, G I; Muradian, Kh K

    2011-01-01

    The effect of relic microorganism B. sp., living in severe environment of Siberian permafrost during thousands and millions of years, on development and stress resistance of Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. In manipulating with such objects with practically "eternal life span", molecular carriers of the unprecedented longevity potential and possibilities of their transmission to other biological objects should primarily be addressed. Here we discuss for the first time the influence of B. sp. application on development, survival, stress resistance and the gross physiological predictors of aging rate in D. melanogaster. To establish optimal and toxic doses, wide range of B. sp. concentrations were tested (1-500 million cells of B. sp. per 1 ml of the flies feeding medium). Surprisingly, no toxic effects of B. sp. could be registered even on such a "sensitive" model as the developing larvae. In fact, the rate of development, survival and body mass gradually increased with elevation of B. sp. concentration. The gain of higher body mass within shorter periods of development could indicate enhanced anabolic and/ or declined catabolic effects of B. sp. Higher motor activity and gaseous exchange rates were observed in imagoes developed on the mediums with B. sp. application. Survival of these flies at the heat shock (30 min at 38 degrees C) and ultraviolet irradiation (60 min, 50W UV lamp) was increased, indicating elevated stress resistance, apparently due to stimulation of DNA-repair and chaperone-mediated protection of macromolecules. Further research is clearly warranted to identify more efficient anti-stress and antiaging preparations and schemes of B. sp. application on models of laboratory mammals and human cell cultures.

  13. p53 is required for brain growth but is dispensable for resistance to nutrient restriction during Drosophila larval development.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Esteban G; Sierralta, Jimena; Glavic, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    Animal growth is influenced by the genetic background and the environmental circumstances. How genes promote growth and coordinate adaptation to nutrient availability is still an open question. p53 is a transcription factor that commands the cellular response to different types of stresses. In adult Drosophila melanogaster, p53 regulates the metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction that supports fly viability. Furthermore, the larval brain is protected from nutrient restriction in a phenomenon called 'brain sparing'. Therefore, we hypothesised that p53 may regulate brain growth and show a protective role over brain development under nutrient restriction. Here, we studied the function of p53 during brain growth in normal conditions and in animals subjected to developmental nutrient restriction. We showed that p53 loss of function reduced animal growth and larval brain size. Endogenous p53 was expressed in larval neural stem cells, but its levels and activity were not affected by nutritional stress. Interestingly, p53 knockdown only in neural stem cells was sufficient to decrease larval brain growth. Finally, we showed that in p53 mutant larvae under nutrient restriction, the energy storage levels were not altered, and these larvae generated adults with brains of similar size than wild-type animals. Using genetic approaches, we demonstrate that p53 is required for proper growth of the larval brain. This developmental role of p53 does not have an impact on animal resistance to nutritional stress since brain growth in p53 mutants under nutrient restriction is similar to control animals.

  14. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of > 95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. PMID:25173815

  15. Drosophila melanogaster cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal protein essential for fly development.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski-Nimmerfall, Elisabeth; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Rendic, Dubravko; Krämer, Helmut; Mach, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes is a lysosomal glycoprotein implicated in cellular growth and differentiation. The genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster encodes a putative orthologue (dCREG), suggesting evolutionarily conserved physiological functions of this protein. In D. melanogaster S2 cells, dCREG was found to localize in lysosomes. Further studies revealed that intracellular dCREG is subject of proteolytic maturation. Processing and turnover could be substantially reduced by RNAi-mediated silencing of cathepsin L. In contrast to mammalian cells, lysosomal delivery of dCREG does not depend on its carbohydrate moiety. Furthermore, depletion of the putative D. melanogaster lysosomal sorting receptor lysosomal enzyme receptor protein did not compromise cellular retention of dCREG. We also investigated the developmental consequences of dCREG ablation in whole D. melanogaster flies. Ubiquitous depletion of dCREG proved lethal at the late pupal stage once a knock-down efficiency of >95% was achieved. These results demonstrate that dCREG is essential for proper completion of fly development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    PubMed

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  17. Using comparative genomics to develop a molecular diagnostic for the identification of an emerging pest Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K A; Unruh, T R; Zhou, L M; Zalom, F G; Shearer, P W; Beers, E H; Walton, V M; Miller, B; Chiu, J C

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Spotted Wing Drosophila) has recently become a serious invasive pest of fruit crops in the USA, Canada, and Europe, leading to substantial economic losses. D. suzukii is a direct pest, ovipositing directly into ripe or ripening fruits; in contrast, other Drosophilids utilize decaying or blemished fruits and are nuisance pests at worst. Immature stages of D. suzukii are difficult to differentiate from other Drosophilids, posing problems for research and for meeting quarantine restrictions designed to prevent the spread of this pest in fruit exports. Here we used a combined phylogenetic and bioinformatic approach to discover genetic markers suitable for a species diagnostic protocol of this agricultural pest. We describe a molecular diagnostic for rapid identification of single D. suzukii larva using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our molecular diagnostic was validated using nine different species of Drosophila for specificity and 19 populations of D. suzukii from different geographical regions to ensure utility within species.

  18. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  19. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  20. Phylogeny of the Genus Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Patrick M.; DeSalle, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phylogenetic relationships among taxa is key to designing and implementing comparative analyses. The genus Drosophila, which contains over 1600 species, is one of the most important model systems in the biological sciences. For over a century, one species in this group, Drosophila melanogaster, has been key to studies of animal development and genetics, genome organization and evolution, and human disease. As whole-genome sequencing becomes more cost-effective, there is increasing interest in other members of this morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally diverse genus. Phylogenetic relationships within Drosophila are complicated, and the goal of this paper is to provide a review of the recent taxonomic changes and phylogenetic relationships in this genus to aid in further comparative studies. PMID:29716983

  1. Macrophages and cellular immunity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gold, Katrina S; Brückner, Katja

    2015-12-01

    The invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful model for understanding blood cell development and immunity. Drosophila is a holometabolous insect, which transitions through a series of life stages from embryo, larva and pupa to adulthood. In spite of this, remarkable parallels exist between Drosophila and vertebrate macrophages, both in terms of development and function. More than 90% of Drosophila blood cells (hemocytes) are macrophages (plasmatocytes), making this highly tractable genetic system attractive for studying a variety of questions in macrophage biology. In vertebrates, recent findings revealed that macrophages have two independent origins: self-renewing macrophages, which reside and proliferate in local microenvironments in a variety of tissues, and macrophages of the monocyte lineage, which derive from hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. Like vertebrates, Drosophila possesses two macrophage lineages with a conserved dual ontogeny. These parallels allow us to take advantage of the Drosophila model when investigating macrophage lineage specification, maintenance and amplification, and the induction of macrophages and their progenitors by local microenvironments and systemic cues. Beyond macrophage development, Drosophila further serves as a paradigm for understanding the mechanisms underlying macrophage function and cellular immunity in infection, tissue homeostasis and cancer, throughout development and adult life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Macrophages and cellular immunity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Katrina S.; Brückner, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful model for understanding blood cell development and immunity. Drosophila is a holometabolous insect, which transitions through a series of life stages from embryo, larva and pupa to adulthood. In spite of this, remarkable parallels exist between Drosophila and vertebrate macrophages, both in terms of development and function. More than 90% of Drosophila blood cells (hemocytes) are macrophages (plasmatocytes), making this highly tractable genetic system attractive for studying a variety of questions in macrophage biology. In vertebrates, recent findings revealed that macrophages have two independent origins: self-renewing macrophages, which reside and proliferate in local microenvironments in a variety of tissues, and macrophages of the monocyte lineage, which derive from hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. Like vertebrates, Drosophila possesses two macrophage lineages with a conserved dual ontogeny. These parallels allow us to take advantage of the Drosophila model when investigating macrophage lineage specification, maintenance and amplification, and the induction of macrophages and their progenitors by local microenvironments and systemic cues. Beyond macrophage development, Drosophila further serves as a paradigm for understanding the mechanisms underlying macrophage function and cellular immunity in infection, tissue homeostasis and cancer, throughout development and adult life. PMID:27117654

  3. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  4. The early research and development of ebselen.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008–2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). RESULTS: Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12–2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11–2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13–2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08–2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09–7.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. PMID:28044047

  7. Drosophila as an unconventional substrate for microfabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Angela J.; Parviz, Babak A.

    2007-02-01

    We present the application of Drosophila fruit flies as an unconventional substrate for microfabrication. Drosophila by itself represents a complex system capable of many functions not attainable with current microfabrication technology. By using Drosophila as a substrate, we are able to capitalize on these natural functions while incorporating additional functionality into a superior hybrid system. In the following, development of microfabrication processes for Drosophila substrates is discussed. In particular, results of a study on Drosophila tolerance to vacuum pressure during multiple stages of development are given. A remarkable finding that adult Drosophila may withstand up to 3 hours of exposure to vacuum with measurable survival is noted. This finding opens a number of new opportunities for performing fabrication processes, similar to the ones performed on a silicon wafer, on a fruit fly as a live substrate. As a model microfabrication process, it is shown how a collection of Drosophila can be made to self-assemble into an array of microfabricated recesses on a silicon wafer and how a shadow mask can be used to thermally evaporate 100 nm of indium on flies. The procedure resulted in the production of a number of live flies with a pre-designed metal micropattern on their wings. This demonstration of vacuum microfabrication on a live organism provides the first step towards the development of a hybrid biological/solid-state manufacturing process for complex microsystems.

  8. Using comparative genomics to develop a molecular diagnosis for the identification of an emerging pest Drosophila suzukii

    Drosophilia suzukii (Spotted Wing Drosophila) has recently become a serious invasive pest of fruit crops in the U.S., Canada, and Europe, leading to substantial economic losses. D. suzukii oviposits directly into ripe or ripening fruits making it a direct pest; in contrast, other Drosophilids utili...

  9. Rapid and highly accurate detection of Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays

    Drosophila suzukii, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is currently a major pest that causes severe economic losses to thin-skinned, small fruit growers in North America and Europe. The monitoring and early detection of SWD in the field is of the utmost importance for its proper management. Althou...

  10. p53 is required for brain growth but is dispensable for resistance to nutrient restriction during Drosophila larval development

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Esteban G.; Sierralta, Jimena

    2018-01-01

    Background Animal growth is influenced by the genetic background and the environmental circumstances. How genes promote growth and coordinate adaptation to nutrient availability is still an open question. p53 is a transcription factor that commands the cellular response to different types of stresses. In adult Drosophila melanogaster, p53 regulates the metabolic adaptation to nutrient restriction that supports fly viability. Furthermore, the larval brain is protected from nutrient restriction in a phenomenon called ‘brain sparing’. Therefore, we hypothesised that p53 may regulate brain growth and show a protective role over brain development under nutrient restriction. Results Here, we studied the function of p53 during brain growth in normal conditions and in animals subjected to developmental nutrient restriction. We showed that p53 loss of function reduced animal growth and larval brain size. Endogenous p53 was expressed in larval neural stem cells, but its levels and activity were not affected by nutritional stress. Interestingly, p53 knockdown only in neural stem cells was sufficient to decrease larval brain growth. Finally, we showed that in p53 mutant larvae under nutrient restriction, the energy storage levels were not altered, and these larvae generated adults with brains of similar size than wild-type animals. Conclusions Using genetic approaches, we demonstrate that p53 is required for proper growth of the larval brain. This developmental role of p53 does not have an impact on animal resistance to nutritional stress since brain growth in p53 mutants under nutrient restriction is similar to control animals. PMID:29621246

  11. Evaluation of Drosophila metabolic labeling strategies for in vivo quantitative proteomic analyses with applications to early pupa formation and amino acid starvation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying-Che; Tang, Hong-Wen; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Pu, Tsung-Hsien; Meng, Tzu-Ching; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Chen, Guang-Chao

    2013-05-03

    Although stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics was first developed as a cell culture-based technique, stable isotope-labeled amino acids have since been successfully introduced in vivo into select multicellular model organisms by manipulating the feeding diets. An earlier study by others has demonstrated that heavy lysine labeled Drosophila melanogaster can be derived by feeding with an exclusive heavy lysine labeled yeast diet. In this work, we have further evaluated the use of heavy lysine and/or arginine for metabolic labeling of fruit flies, with an aim to determine its respective quantification accuracy and versatility. In vivo conversion of heavy lysine and/or heavy arginine to several nonessential amino acids was observed in labeled flies, leading to distorted isotope pattern and underestimated heavy to light ratio. These quantification defects can nonetheless be rectified at protein level using the normalization function. The only caveat is that such a normalization strategy may not be suitable for every biological application, particularly when modified peptides need to be individually quantified at peptide level. In such cases, we showed that peptide ratios calculated from the summed intensities of all isotope peaks are less affected by the heavy amino acid conversion and therefore less sequence-dependent and more reliable. Applying either the single Lys8 or double Lys6/Arg10 metabolic labeling strategy to flies, we quantitatively mapped the proteomic changes during the onset of metamorphosis and upon amino acid deprivation. The expression of a number of steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone regulated proteins was found to be changed significantly during larval-pupa transition, while several subunits of the V-ATPase complex and components regulating actomyosin were up-regulated under starvation-induced autophagy conditions.

  12. The genetic basis of Haldane's rule and the nature of asymmetric hybrid male sterility among Drosophila simulans, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1993-05-01

    Haldane's rule (i.e., the preferential hybrid sterility and inviability of heterogametic sex) has been known for 70 years, but its genetic basis, which is crucial to the understanding of the process of species formation, remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility using Drosophila simulans, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia. An introgression of D. sechellia Y chromosome into a fairly homogenous background of D. simulans did not show any effect of the introgressed Y on male sterility. The substitution of D. simulans Y chromosome into D. sechellia, and both reciprocal Y chromosome substitutions between D. simulans and D. mauritiana were unsuccessful. Introgressions of cytoplasm between D. simulans and D. mauritiana (or D. sechellia) also did not have any effect on hybrid male sterility. These results rule out the X-Y interaction hypothesis as a general explanation of Haldane's rule in this species group and indicate an involvement of an X-autosome interaction. Models of symmetrical and asymmetrical X-autosome interaction have been developed which explain the Y chromosome substitution results and suggest that evolution of interactions between different genetic elements in the early stages of speciation is more likely to be of an asymmetrical nature. The model of asymmetrical X-autosome interaction also predicts that different sets of interacting genes may be involved in different pairs of related species and can account for the observation that hybrid male sterility in many partially isolated species is often nonreciprocal or unidirectional.

  13. The Genetic Basis of Haldane's Rule and the Nature of Asymmetric Hybrid Male Sterility among Drosophila Simulans, Drosophila Mauritiana and Drosophila Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, L. W.; Singh, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Haldane's rule (i.e., the preferential hybrid sterility and inviability of heterogametic sex) has been known for 70 years, but its genetic basis, which is crucial to the understanding of the process of species formation, remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility using Drosophila simulans, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia. An introgression of D. sechellia Y chromosome into a fairly homogenous background of D. simulans did not show any effect of the introgressed Y on male sterility. The substitution of D. simulans Y chromosome into D. sechellia, and both reciprocal Y chromosome substitutions between D. simulans and D. mauritiana were unsuccessful. Introgressions of cytoplasm between D. simulans and D. mauritiana (or D. sechellia) also did not have any effect on hybrid male sterility. These results rule out the X-Y interaction hypothesis as a general explanation of Haldane's rule in this species group and indicate an involvement of an X-autosome interaction. Models of symmetrical and asymmetrical X-autosome interaction have been developed which explain the Y chromosome substitution results and suggest that evolution of interactions between different genetic elements in the early stages of speciation is more likely to be of an asymmetrical nature. The model of asymmetrical X-autosome interaction also predicts that different sets of interacting genes may be involved in different pairs of related species and can account for the observation that hybrid male sterility in many partially isolated species is often nonreciprocal or unidirectional. PMID:8514134

  14. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  15. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Multiplexin as a Target of SAGA Deubiquitinase Activity in Glia Required for Precise Axon Guidance During Drosophila Visual Development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingqun; Brennan, Kaelan J; D'Aloia, Mitch R; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Weake, Vikki M

    2016-08-09

    The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex is a transcriptional coactivator with histone acetylase and deubiquitinase activities that plays an important role in visual development and function. In Drosophila melanogaster, four SAGA subunits are required for the deubiquitination of monoubiquitinated histone H2B (ubH2B): Nonstop, Sgf11, E(y)2, and Ataxin 7. Mutations that disrupt SAGA deubiquitinase activity cause defects in neuronal connectivity in the developing Drosophila visual system. In addition, mutations in SAGA result in the human progressive visual disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7). Glial cells play a crucial role in both the neuronal connectivity defect in nonstop and sgf11 flies, and in the retinal degeneration observed in SCA7 patients. Thus, we sought to identify the gene targets of SAGA deubiquitinase activity in glia in the Drosophila larval central nervous system. To do this, we enriched glia from wild-type, nonstop, and sgf11 larval optic lobes using affinity-purification of KASH-GFP tagged nuclei, and then examined each transcriptome using RNA-seq. Our analysis showed that SAGA deubiquitinase activity is required for proper expression of 16% of actively transcribed genes in glia, especially genes involved in proteasome function, protein folding and axon guidance. We further show that the SAGA deubiquitinase-activated gene Multiplexin (Mp) is required in glia for proper photoreceptor axon targeting. Mutations in the human ortholog of Mp, COL18A1, have been identified in a family with a SCA7-like progressive visual disorder, suggesting that defects in the expression of this gene in SCA7 patients could play a role in the retinal degeneration that is unique to this ataxia. Copyright © 2016 Ma et al.

  16. Ecdysone-dependent and ecdysone-independent programmed cell death in the developing optic lobe of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Hirai, Keiichiro; Togane, Yu; Akagawa, Hiromi; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Tsujimura, Hidenobu

    2013-02-01

    The adult optic lobe of Drosophila develops from the primordium during metamorphosis from mid-3rd larval stage to adult. Many cells die during development of the optic lobe with a peak of the number of dying cells at 24 h after puparium formation (h APF). Dying cells were observed in spatio-temporal specific clusters. Here, we analyzed the function of a component of the insect steroid hormone receptor, EcR, in this cell death. We examined expression patterns of two EcR isoforms, EcR-A and EcR-B1, in the optic lobe. Expression of each isoform altered during development in isoform-specific manner. EcR-B1 was not expressed in optic lobe neurons from 0 to 6h APF, but was expressed between 9 and 48 h APF and then disappeared by 60 h APF. In each cortex, its expression was stronger in older glia-ensheathed neurons than in younger ones. EcR-B1 was also expressed in some types of glia. EcR-A was expressed in optic lobe neurons and many types of glia from 0 to 60 h APF in a different pattern from EcR-B1. Then, we genetically analyzed EcR function in the optic lobe cell death. At 0 h APF, the optic lobe cell death was independent of any EcR isoforms. In contrast, EcR-B1 was required for most optic lobe cell death after 24 h APF. It was suggested that cell death cell-autonomously required EcR-B1 expressed after puparium formation. βFTZ-F1 was also involved in cell death in many dying-cell clusters, but not in some of them at 24 h APF. Altogether, the optic lobe cell death occurred in ecdysone-independent manner at prepupal stage and ecdysone-dependent manner after 24 h APF. The acquisition of ecdysone-dependence was not directly correlated with the initiation or increase of EcR-B1 expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Crucial roles of Pox neuro in the developing ellipsoid body and antennal lobes of the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Shilpi; Boll, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis. Although the vast majority of Poxn-neurons express Poxn only during third instar, about half of them are born by the end of embryogenesis, as demonstrated by the absence of BrdU incorporation during larval stages. At late third instar, embryonic Poxn-neurons, which begin to express Poxn during embryogenesis, can be easily distinguished from embryonic-born and larval-born Poxn-neurons, which begin to express Poxn only during third instar, (i) by the absence of Pros, (ii) their overt differentiation of axons and neurites, and (iii) the strikingly larger diameter of their cell bodies still apparent in the adult brain. The embryonic Poxn-neurons are primary neurons that lay out the pioneering tracts for the secondary Poxn-neurons, which differentiate projections and axons that follow those of the primary neurons during metamorphosis. The DC and the VC participate only in two neuropils of the adult brain. The DC forms most, if not all, of the neurons that connect the bulb (lateral triangle) with the ellipsoid body, a prominent neuropil of the central complex, while the VC forms most of the ventral projection neurons of the antennal lobe, which connect it ipsilaterally to the lateral horn, bypassing the mushroom bodies. In addition, Poxn-neurons of the VC are ventral local

  18. Reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia are required for Drosophila peripheral nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Katharine J; Auld, Vanessa J

    2003-09-10

    A major developmental role of peripheral glia is to mediate sensory axon guidance; however, it is not known whether sensory neurons influence peripheral glial development. To determine whether glia and neurons reciprocally interact during embryonic development, we ablated each cell type by overexpressing the apoptosis gene, grim, and observed the effects on peripheral nervous system (PNS) development. When neurons are ablated, glial defects occur as a secondary effect, and vice versa. Therefore glia and neurons are codependent during embryogenesis. To further explore glial-neuronal interactions, we genetically disrupted glial migration or differentiation and observed the secondary effects on sensory neuron development. Glial migration and ensheathment of PNS axons was blocked by overexpression of activated Rho GTPase, a regulator of actin dynamics. Here, sensory axons extended to the CNS without exhibiting gross pathfinding errors. In contrast, disrupting differentiation by expression of dominant-negative Ras GTPase in glia resulted in major sensory axon pathfinding errors, similar to those seen in glial ablations. Glial overexpression of transgenic components of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway yielded similar sensory neuron defects and also downregulated the expression of the glial marker Neuroglian. Mutant analysis also suggested that the EGFR ligands Spitz and Vein play roles in peripheral glial development. The observations support a model in which glia express genes necessary for sensory neuron development, and these genes are potentially under the control of the EGFR/Ras signaling pathway.

  19. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  20. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  1. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  2. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  3. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  4. Developmental expression of Drosophila Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Abreu-Blanco, Maria Teresa; Rosales-Nieves, Alicia E.; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WASP) family proteins participate in many cellular processes involving rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. To the date, four WASP subfamily members have been described in Drosophila: Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy. Wash, WASp, and SCAR are essential during early Drosophila development where they function in orchestrating cytoplasmic events including membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. A mutant for Whamy has not yet been reported. Results We generated monoclonal antibodies that are specific to Drosophila Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy, and use these to describe their spatial and temporal localization patterns. Consistent with the importance of WASP family proteins in flies, we find that Wash, WASp, SCAR, and Whamy are dynamically expressed throughout oogenesis and embryogenesis. For example, we find that Wash accumulates at the oocyte cortex. WASp is highly expressed in the PNS, while SCAR is the most abundantly expressed in the CNS. Whamy exhibits an asymmetric subcellular localization that overlaps with mitochondria and is highly expressed in muscle. Conclusion All four WASP family members show specific expression patterns, some of which reflect their previously known roles and others revealing new potential functions. The monoclonal antibodies developed offer valuable new tools to investigate how WASP family proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:22275148

  5. Manipulation of gene expression by infrared laser heat shock and its application to the study of tracheal development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Miao, Guangxia; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    Induction of gene expression in a specific cell and a defined time window is desirable to investigate gene function at the cellular level during morphogenesis. To achieve this, we attempted to introduce the infrared laser-evoked gene operator system (IR-LEGO, Kamei et al., 2009) in the Drosophila embryo. In this technique, infrared laser light illumination induces genes to be expressed under the control of heat shock promoters at the single cell level. We applied IR-LEGO to a transgenic fly stock, HS-eGFP, in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene is placed under the control of heat shock protein 70 promoter, and showed that eGFP expression can be induced in single cells within 1-2 hr after IR illumination. Furthermore, induction of HS-Branchless transgene encoding the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF) effectively altered the migration and branching patterns of the tracheal system. Our results indicated that IR-LEGO is a promising choice for the timely control of gene expression in a small group of cells in the Drosophila embryo. By using IR-LEGO, we further demonstrated that the tracheal terminal branching program is sensitive to localized expression of exogenous FGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  8. Localised JAK/STAT Pathway Activation Is Required for Drosophila Wing Hinge Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Kirsty; Wells, Richard E.; Strutt, David; Zeidler, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive morphogenetic remodelling takes place during metamorphosis from a larval to an adult insect body plan. These changes are particularly intricate in the generation of the dipteran wing hinge, a complex structure that is derived from an apparently simple region of the wing imaginal disc. Using the characterisation of original outstretched alleles of the unpaired locus as a starting point, we demonstrate the role of JAK/STAT pathway signalling in the process of wing hinge development. We show that differences in JAK/STAT signalling within the proximal most of three lateral folds present in the wing imaginal disc is required for fold morphology and the subsequent differentiation of the first and second auxiliary sclerites as well as the posterior notal wing process. Changes in these domains are consistent with the established fate map of the wing disc. We show that outstretched wing posture phenotypes arise from the loss of a region of Unpaired expression in the proximal wing fold and demonstrate that this results in a decrease in JAK/STAT pathway activity. Finally we show that reduction of JAK/STAT pathway activity within the proximal wing fold is sufficient to phenocopy the outstretched phenotype. Taken together, we suggest that localised Unpaired expression and hence JAK/STAT pathway activity, is required for the morphogenesis of the adult wing hinge, providing new insights into the link between signal transduction pathways, patterning and development. PMID:23741461

  9. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciT

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org; Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral sidemore » of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.« less

  10. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  11. Redefining Leadership: Lessons from an Early Education Leadership Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how experienced early educators developed as change agents in the context of a leadership development program. Unlike in many other professions, experienced early educators lack opportunities to grow throughout their careers and access the supports they need to lead change in their classrooms, organizations, the profession, and…

  12. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  13. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  14. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  15. Early Communication Development and Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…

  16. Dynamic genome wide expression profiling of Drosophila head development reveals a novel role of Hunchback in retinal glia cell development and blood-brain barrier integrity

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Schneider, Julia; Wiegleb, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster head development represents a valuable process to study the developmental control of various organs, such as the antennae, the dorsal ocelli and the compound eyes from a common precursor, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. While the gene regulatory network underlying compound eye development has been extensively studied, the key transcription factors regulating the formation of other head structures from the same imaginal disc are largely unknown. We obtained the developmental transcriptome of the eye-antennal discs covering late patterning processes at the late 2nd larval instar stage to the onset and progression of differentiation at the end of larval development. We revealed the expression profiles of all genes expressed during eye-antennal disc development and we determined temporally co-expressed genes by hierarchical clustering. Since co-expressed genes may be regulated by common transcriptional regulators, we combined our transcriptome dataset with publicly available ChIP-seq data to identify central transcription factors that co-regulate genes during head development. Besides the identification of already known and well-described transcription factors, we show that the transcription factor Hunchback (Hb) regulates a significant number of genes that are expressed during late differentiation stages. We confirm that hb is expressed in two polyploid subperineurial glia cells (carpet cells) and a thorough functional analysis shows that loss of Hb function results in a loss of carpet cells in the eye-antennal disc. Additionally, we provide for the first time functional data indicating that carpet cells are an integral part of the blood-brain barrier. Eventually, we combined our expression data with a de novo Hb motif search to reveal stage specific putative target genes of which we find a significant number indeed expressed in carpet cells. PMID:29360820

  17. Metabolome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    An, Phan Nguyen Thuy; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster embryo has been widely utilized as a model for genetics and developmental biology due to its small size, short generation time, and large brood size. Information on embryonic metabolism during developmental progression is important for further understanding the mechanisms of Drosophila embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the changes in embryos' metabolome that occur at different stages of the Drosophila embryonic development. Time course samples of Drosophila embryos were subjected to GC/MS-based metabolome analysis for profiling of low molecular weight hydrophilic metabolites, including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of Drosophila embryo varied during the course of development and there was a strong correlation between the metabolome and different embryonic stages. Using the metabolome information, we were able to establish a prediction model for developmental stages of embryos starting from their high-resolution quantitative metabolite composition. Among the important metabolites revealed from our model, we suggest that different amino acids appear to play distinct roles in different developmental stages and an appropriate balance in trehalose-glucose ratio is crucial to supply the carbohydrate source for the development of Drosophila embryo.

  18. Metabolome Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster during Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    An, Phan Nguyen Thuy; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster embryo has been widely utilized as a model for genetics and developmental biology due to its small size, short generation time, and large brood size. Information on embryonic metabolism during developmental progression is important for further understanding the mechanisms of Drosophila embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the changes in embryos’ metabolome that occur at different stages of the Drosophila embryonic development. Time course samples of Drosophila embryos were subjected to GC/MS-based metabolome analysis for profiling of low molecular weight hydrophilic metabolites, including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of Drosophila embryo varied during the course of development and there was a strong correlation between the metabolome and different embryonic stages. Using the metabolome information, we were able to establish a prediction model for developmental stages of embryos starting from their high-resolution quantitative metabolite composition. Among the important metabolites revealed from our model, we suggest that different amino acids appear to play distinct roles in different developmental stages and an appropriate balance in trehalose-glucose ratio is crucial to supply the carbohydrate source for the development of Drosophila embryo. PMID:25121768

  19. Characterization of Autophagic Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Kumar, S; Denton, D

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying autophagy during animal development due to the availability of genetic reagents and opportunity for in vivo cell biological analysis. The regulation and mechanism of autophagy are highly evolutionarily conserved and the role of autophagy has been characterized during various stages of Drosophila development as well as following starvation. Studies in Drosophila have revealed novel insights into the role of distinct components of the autophagy machinery. This chapter describes protocols for examining autophagy during Drosophila development. A crucial step in the induction of autophagy is the incorporation of Atg8a into the autophagosome. This can be measured as autophagic puncta using live fluorescent imaging, immunostaining, or immunoblot analysis of LC3/Atg8a processing. The level of autophagy can also be examined using other specific components of the autophagy pathway as markers detected by immunofluorescent imaging. Based on the distinct morphology of autophagy, it can also be examined by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, one of the advantages of using Drosophila as a model is the ability to undertake genetic analysis of individual components of the autophagy machinery. Current approaches that can be used to monitor autophagy, including the overall flux and individual steps in Drosophila melanogaster, will be discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. History and early development of INCAP.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2010-02-01

    Nevin Scrimshaw was the founding Director of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), serving as Director from 1949 to 1961. In this article, he reviews the history of the founding of INCAP, including the role of the Rockefeller and Kellogg Foundations, the Central American governments, and the Pan American Health Organization. The objectives pursued by INCAP in its early years were to assess the nutrition and related health problems of Central America, to carry out research to find practical solutions to these problems, and to provide technical assistance to its member countries to implement solutions. INCAP pursued a strategy of selecting promising Central Americans for advanced education and training in the US who assumed positions of leadership on their return. After this early phase, talented non-Central Americans of diverse origins were brought to INCAP, as well as additional researchers from the region. Growth of INCAP, as reflected in its annual budget and in the physical plant, was rapid and this was accompanied by high scientific productivity. Several field studies were launched that contributed impetus and design elements for the Oriente Longitudinal Study, which is the focus of this supplement.

  1. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  2. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  3. Drosophila glypicans Dally and Dally-like are essential regulators for JAK/STAT signaling and Unpaired distribution in eye development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; You, Jia; Ren, Wenyan; Lin, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is a well-known signaling system that is involved in many biological processes. In Drosophila, this signaling cascade is activated by ligands of the Unpaired (Upd) family. Therefore, the regulation of Upd distribution is one of the key issues in controlling the JAK/STAT signaling activity and function. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are macromolecules that regulate the distribution of many ligand proteins including Wingless, Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic (Dpp). Here we show that during Drosophila eye development, HSPGs are also required in normal Upd distribution and JAK/STAT signaling activity. Loss of HSPG biosynthesis enzyme Brother of tout-velu (Botv), Sulfateless (Sfl), or glypicans Division abnormally delayed (Dally) and Dally-like protein (Dlp) led to reduced levels of extracellular Upd and reduction in JAK/STAT signaling activity. Overexpression of dally resulted in the accumulation of Upd and up-regulation of the signaling activity. Luciferase assay also showed that Dally promotes JAK/STAT signaling activity, and is dependent on its heparin sulfate chains. These data suggest that Dally and Dlp are essential for Upd distribution and JAK/STAT signaling activity. PMID:23313126

  4. Early Numeracy Assessment: The Development of the Preschool Early Numeracy Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The focus of this study was to construct and validate 12 brief early numeracy assessment tasks that measure the skills and concepts identified as key to early mathematics development by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2006) and the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)-as well as critical developmental…

  5. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  6. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    PubMed

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from 1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in micro-g compared to those developing on earth. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  8. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  9. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messonnier, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  10. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  11. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  12. Activities for Career Development in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.

    The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…

  13. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  14. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  15. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  16. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  17. Reading Development Subtypes and Their Early Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Leskinen, Esko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    The present findings are drawn from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD), in which approximately 100 children with familial risk of dyslexia and 100 control children have been followed from birth. In this paper we report data on the reading development of the JLD children and their classmates, a total of 1,750 children from four…

  18. Developing an Engineering Identity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantoya, Michelle L.; Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Hunt, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    This project describes a strategy to introduce young children to engineering in a way that develops their engineering identity. The targeted age group is 3-7 year old students because they rarely experience purposeful engineering instruction. The curriculum was designed around an engineering storybook and included interactive academic discussions…

  19. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  20. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  1. Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between poverty and children's developmental outcomes, the effects of the timing and duration of poverty, and the effects of poverty at the family and neighborhood level, analyzing data from two longitudinal surveys. Found that poverty status was strongly related to low levels of cognitive development, even after…

  2. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  3. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  5. Multistate comparison of attractants and the impact of fruit development stage on trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in raspberry and blueberry

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive pest of maturing and ripe soft-skinned fruits in the United States. D. suzukii monitoring is a necessary component of an effective integrated pest management program, but require a lure that is highly attractive and as specific to D. suzuki...

  6. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. The development of a noninvasive integrated optical pacing and imaging system provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology. PMID:26601299

  7. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  9. Drosophila suzukii population response to environment and management strategies

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, quickly emerged as a devastating invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the Americas and Europe. To better understand the population dynamics of D. suzukii, we reviewed recent work on juvenile development, adult reproduction, and seasonal variation in...

  10. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  11. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  12. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  13. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  14. The effect of TiO{sub 2} and Ag nanoparticles on reproduction and development of Drosophila melanogaster and CD-1 mice

    SciT

    Philbrook, Nicola A., E-mail: 3nap@queensu.ca; Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Botterell Hall, 5th Floor, Queen's University, 18 Stuart Street, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6; Winn, Louise M., E-mail: winnl@queensu.ca

    2011-12-15

    In the last two decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have found applications in a wide variety of consumer goods. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and silver (Ag) NPs are both found in cosmetics and foods, but their increasing use is of concern due to their ability to be taken up by biological systems. While there are some reports of TiO{sub 2} and Ag NPs affecting complex organisms, their effects on reproduction and development have been largely understudied. Here, the effects of orally administered TiO{sub 2} or Ag NPs on reproduction and development in two different model organisms were investigated. TiO{sub 2} NPs reducedmore » the developmental success of CD-1 mice after a single oral dose of 100 or 1000 mg/kg to dams, resulting in a statistically significant increase in fetal deformities and mortality. Similarly, TiO{sub 2} NP addition to food led to a significant progeny loss in the fruit fly, Drosophila, as shown by a decline in female fecundity. Ag NP administration resulted in an increase in the mortality of fetal mice. Similarly in Drosophila, Ag NP feeding led to a significant decrease in developmental success, but unlike TiO{sub 2} NP treatment, there was no decline in fecundity. The distinct response associated with each type of NP likely reflects differences in NP administration as well as the biology of the particular model. Taken together, however, this study warns that these common NPs could be detrimental to the reproductive and developmental health of both invertebrates and vertebrates.« less

  15. Early development of an enterprise health data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa Said; Al-Tuwaijri, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe early development challenges of an enterprise data warehouse within a Saudi Arabian academic healthcare facility. An action case research method was selected for this paper. The study took place between December 2009 and February 2010. Data collection included interviews, meeting observations, and meeting minutes. Early development challenges centered on the development of clear contracts with vendors; development of a clear project plan; a need to fast-track bureaucracy; and educate clinicians and staff about the project; and lack of data standardization.

  16. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  17. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  18. Getting an Early Start on Early Child Development. Education Notes. 30194

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming; Dunkelberg, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The children born this year--2004--will be eleven years old in 2015--the age of primary school completion in most countries. This is the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) generation--for whom the international community has pledged that by 2015, all children will be able to complete primary schooling. Ensuring good early child development is the…

  19. Metabolomic Studies in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cox, James E; Thummel, Carl S; Tennessen, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Metabolomic analysis provides a powerful new tool for studies of Drosophila physiology. This approach allows investigators to detect thousands of chemical compounds in a single sample, representing the combined contributions of gene expression, enzyme activity, and environmental context. Metabolomics has been used for a wide range of studies in Drosophila , often providing new insights into gene function and metabolic state that could not be obtained using any other approach. In this review, we survey the uses of metabolomic analysis since its entry into the field. We also cover the major methods used for metabolomic studies in Drosophila and highlight new directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Early childhood traumatic development and its impact on gender identity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y

    2001-03-01

    The author clarifies issues of gender identity typical to contemporary Western societies. Nowadays, we tend to emphasize self-autonomy as the main target of the individual's development. In adolescence this may cause many questions as to the adolescent's conception of his or her gender and sexual identity. These questions are the outcome of early development, and thus early traumas may impact the entire gender development. In this context, trauma includes not only major violations such as sexual abuse, terror attacks, and so forth, but also comprises events heretofore considered minor.

  2. Identification of Drosophila melanogaster yellow-f and yellow-f2 proteins as dopachrome-conversion enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Fang, Jianmin; Ding, Haizhen; Johnson, Jody K; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the identification of Drosophila yellow-f and yellow-f2 as dopachrome-conversion enzymes responsible for catalysing the conversion of dopachrome into 5,6-dihydroxyindole in the melanization pathway. Drosophila yellow -y gene and yellow -b, -c, -f and -f2 genes were expressed in an insect cell/baculovirus expression system and their corresponding recombinant proteins were screened for dopachrome-conversion enzyme activity. Among the yellow and yellow -related genes, the yellow -f and yellow -f2 genes were identified as the genes coding for Drosophila dopachrome-conversion enzyme based on the high activity of their recombinant proteins in catalysing the production of 5,6-dihydroxyindole from dopachrome. Both yellow-f and yellow-f2 are capable of mediating a decarboxylative structural rearrangement of dopachrome, as well as an isomerization/tautomerization of dopamine chrome and dopa methyl ester chrome. Northern hybridization revealed the transcription of yellow -f in larvae and pupae, but a high abundance of mRNA was observed in later larval and early pupal stages. In contrast, yellow-f2 transcripts were present at all stages, but high abundance of its mRNA was observed in later-stage pupae and adults. These data indicate that yellow-f and yellow-f2 complement each other during Drosophila development and that the yellow-f is involved in larval and pupal melanization, and yellow-f2 plays a major role in melanization reactions in Drosophila during later pupal and adult development. Results from this study provide the groundwork towards a better understanding of the physiological roles of the Drosophila yellow gene family. PMID:12164780

  3. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  4. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  5. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  6. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  7. Professional development session for early career scientists at SITC 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2012 Professional Development Session was held as part of the SITC 27th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, on October 24, 2012. The session was designed as a new opportunity for early career investigators to learn about relevant career development topics in a didactic setting. PMID:25742323

  8. Promising Directions for Research and Development in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David L.

    A survey of research and development studies currently needed in early childhood education stresses child development and its relation to instruction. Topics which have been discussed are perception, oral language, concept formation, learning set, motivation, and the psychology of learning. Universities and public school systems working together…

  9. Instructional Development for Early Career Academics: An Overview of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, the issue of improving teaching in higher education has been seriously addressed. Centres for instructional development, aimed at enhancing teaching, have been set up in many countries. Instructional development for early career academics is perceived to be of particular importance. Given the considerable…

  10. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  11. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  12. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  13. Confocal Imaging of Early Heart Development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Kolker, Sandra J.; Tajchman, Urszula; Weeks, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Xenopus laevis provides a number of advantages for studies on cardiovascular development. The embryos are fairly large, easy to obtain, and can develop at ambient temperature in simple buffer solutions. Although classic descriptions of heart development exist, the ability to use whole mount immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy may enhance the ability to understand both normal and experimentally perturbed cardiovascular development. We have started to examine the early stages of cardiac development in Xenopus, seeking to identify antibodies and fixatives that allow easy examination of the developing heart. We have used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against bovine cardiac troponin T and chicken tropomyosin to visualize cardiac muscle, a goat antibody recognizing bovine type VI collagen to stain the lining of vessels, and the JB3 mAb raised against chicken fibrillin which allows the visualization of a variety of cardiovascular tissues during early development. Results from embryonic stages 24–46 are presented. PMID:10644411

  14. Challenges in early clinical development of adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Della Cioppa, Giovanni; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Lewis, David

    2015-06-08

    A three-step approach to the early development of adjuvanted vaccine candidates is proposed, the goal of which is to allow ample space for exploratory and hypothesis-generating human experiments and to select dose(s) and dosing schedule(s) to bring into full development. Although the proposed approach is more extensive than the traditional early development program, the authors suggest that by addressing key questions upfront the overall time, size and cost of development will be reduced and the probability of public health advancement enhanced. The immunogenicity end-points chosen for early development should be critically selected: an established immunological parameter with a well characterized assay should be selected as primary end-point for dose and schedule finding; exploratory information-rich end-points should be limited in number and based on pre-defined hypothesis generating plans, including system biology and pathway analyses. Building a pharmacodynamic profile is an important aspect of early development: to this end, multiple early (within 24h) and late (up to one year) sampling is necessary, which can be accomplished by sampling subgroups of subjects at different time points. In most cases the final target population, even if vulnerable, should be considered for inclusion in early development. In order to obtain the multiple formulations necessary for the dose and schedule finding, "bed-side mixing" of various components of the vaccine is often necessary: this is a complex and underestimated area that deserves serious research and logistical support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Early Measures of Comprehension: Innovation in Individual Growth and Development Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Rodriguez, Megan I.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Early comprehension is an important, but not well-understood, contribution to early literacy and language development. Specifically, research regarding the nature of skills representative of early comprehension, including how they contribute to later reading success, is needed to support best practices to adequately prepare students. This article…

  16. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  17. The development of self-regulation across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Janelle J; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; McClelland, Megan M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2016-11-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and 7 years, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across 3 diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow 3 distinct developmental patterns of growth. These 3 trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds, with implications for offering individualized support across children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of three and seven, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across three diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow three distinct developmental patterns of growth. These three trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds with implications for offering individualized support across children. PMID:27709999

  19. The drosophila fragile X protein dFMR1 is required during early embryogenesis for pole cell formation and rapid nuclear division cycles.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Girish; Calhoun, Gretchen; Schedl, Paul

    2006-11-01

    The FMR family of KH domain RNA-binding proteins is conserved from invertebrates to humans. In humans, inactivation of the X-linked FMR gene fragile X is the most common cause of mental retardation and leads to defects in neuronal architecture. While there are three FMR family members in humans, there is only a single gene, dfmr1, in flies. As in humans, inactivation of dfmr1 causes defects in neuronal architecture and in behavior. dfmr1 has other functions in the fly in addition to neurogenesis. Here we have analyzed its role during early embryonic development. We found that dfmr1 embryos display defects in the rapid nuclear division cycles that precede gastrulation in nuclear migration and in pole cell formation. While the aberrations in nuclear division are correlated with a defect in the assembly of centromeric/centric heterochromatin, the defects in pole cell formation are associated with alterations in the actin-myosin cytoskeleton.

  20. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs Mediating α-Synuclein Toxicity by Targeting Neuroactive-Ligand Receptor Interaction Pathway in Early Stage of Drosophila Parkinson's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yan; Liang, Xijun; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Dongdong; Wan, Chao; Gan, Zhenji; Yuan, Liudi

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder with pathological features including death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and intraneuronal accumulations of Lewy bodies. As the main component of Lewy bodies, α-synuclein is implicated in PD pathogenesis by aggregation into insoluble filaments. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying α-synuclein induced neurotoxicity in PD are still elusive. MicroRNAs are ~20nt small RNA molecules that fine-tune gene expression at posttranscriptional level. A plethora of miRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in the brain and blood cells of PD patients. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms and their in vivo functions in PD still need further investigation. By using Drosophila PD model expressing α-synuclein A30P, we examined brain miRNA expression with high-throughput small RNA sequencing technology. We found that five miRNAs (dme-miR-133-3p, dme-miR-137-3p, dme-miR-13b-3p, dme-miR-932-5p, dme-miR-1008-5p) were upregulated in PD flies. Among them, miR-13b, miR-133, miR-137 are brain enriched and highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. KEGG pathway analysis using DIANA miR-Path demonstrated that neuroactive-ligand receptor interaction pathway was most likely affected by these miRNAs. Interestingly, miR-137 was predicted to regulate most of the identified targets in this pathway, including dopamine receptor (DopR, D2R), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA-B-R1, GABA-B-R3) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (Nmdar2). The validation experiments showed that the expression of miR-137 and its targets was negatively correlated in PD flies. Further experiments using luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-137 could act on specific sites in 3’ UTR region of D2R, Nmdar2 and GABA-B-R3, which downregulated significantly in PD flies. Collectively, our findings indicate that α-synuclein could induce the dysregulation of miRNAs, which target neuroactive ligand

  1. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs Mediating α-Synuclein Toxicity by Targeting Neuroactive-Ligand Receptor Interaction Pathway in Early Stage of Drosophila Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Liang, Xijun; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Dongdong; Wan, Chao; Gan, Zhenji; Yuan, Liudi

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder with pathological features including death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and intraneuronal accumulations of Lewy bodies. As the main component of Lewy bodies, α-synuclein is implicated in PD pathogenesis by aggregation into insoluble filaments. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying α-synuclein induced neurotoxicity in PD are still elusive. MicroRNAs are ~20nt small RNA molecules that fine-tune gene expression at posttranscriptional level. A plethora of miRNAs have been found to be dysregulated in the brain and blood cells of PD patients. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms and their in vivo functions in PD still need further investigation. By using Drosophila PD model expressing α-synuclein A30P, we examined brain miRNA expression with high-throughput small RNA sequencing technology. We found that five miRNAs (dme-miR-133-3p, dme-miR-137-3p, dme-miR-13b-3p, dme-miR-932-5p, dme-miR-1008-5p) were upregulated in PD flies. Among them, miR-13b, miR-133, miR-137 are brain enriched and highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. KEGG pathway analysis using DIANA miR-Path demonstrated that neuroactive-ligand receptor interaction pathway was most likely affected by these miRNAs. Interestingly, miR-137 was predicted to regulate most of the identified targets in this pathway, including dopamine receptor (DopR, D2R), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA-B-R1, GABA-B-R3) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (Nmdar2). The validation experiments showed that the expression of miR-137 and its targets was negatively correlated in PD flies. Further experiments using luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-137 could act on specific sites in 3' UTR region of D2R, Nmdar2 and GABA-B-R3, which downregulated significantly in PD flies. Collectively, our findings indicate that α-synuclein could induce the dysregulation of miRNAs, which target neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

  2. Characterization of a Drosophila homologue of the human myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor (MLF).

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Takahashi, Y; Hirose, F; Inoue, Y H; Taguchi, O; Nishida, Y; Matsukage, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-12-30

    The transcription factor DREF regulates proliferation-related genes in Drosophila. With two-hybrid screening using DREF as a bait, we have obtained a clone encoding a protein homologous to human myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor 1 (hMLF1). We termed the protein Drosophila MLF (dMLF); it consists of a polypeptide of 309 amino acid residues, whose sequence shares 23.1% identity with hMLF1. High conservation of 54.2% identity over 107 amino acids was found in the central region. The dMLF gene was mapped to 52D on the second chromosome by in situ hybridization. Interaction between dMLF and DREF in vitro could be confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, with the conserved central region appearing to play an important role in this. Northern blot hybridization analysis revealed dMLF mRNA levels to be high in unfertilized eggs, early embryos, pupae and adult males, and relatively low in adult females and larvae. This fluctuation of mRNA during Drosophila development is similar to that observed for DREF mRNA, except in the pupa and adult male. Using a specific antibody against the dMLF, we performed immunofluorescent staining of Drosophila Kc cells and showed a primarily cytoplasmic staining, whereas DREF localizes in the nucleus. However, dMLF protein contains a putative 14-3-3 binding motif involved in the subcellular localization of various regulatory molecules, and interaction with DREF could be regulated through this motif. The transgenic fly data suggesting the genetic interaction between DREF and dMLF support this possibility. Characterization of dMLF in the present study provides the molecular basis for analysis of its significance in Drosophila.

  3. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  4. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  5. New Hampshire Early Childhood Professional Development System: Guide to Early Childhood Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.

    The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…

  6. The Australian Early Development Index: Reshaping Family-Child Relationships in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the cultural significance of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) and discusses changes that the discourse of this instrument makes to the way in which the child is conceptualised. It analyses the technological function of the AEDI to examine how it makes the child a universal resource for human capital. The article…

  7. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  8. Lineage-specific effects of Notch/Numb signaling in post-embryonic development of the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Suewei; Lai, Sen-Lin; Yu, Huang-Hsiang; Chihara, Takahiro; Luo, Liqun; Lee, Tzumin

    2010-01-01

    Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from common precursors in the lAL lineage. Furthermore, Numb is needed in the lateral but not adPN or vPN lineages to prevent the appearance of ectopic neuroblasts and to ensure proper self-renewal of neural progenitors. These lineage-specific outputs of Notch/Numb signaling show that a universal mechanism of binary fate decision can be utilized to govern diverse neural sibling differentiations. PMID:20023159

  9. Lineage-specific effects of Notch/Numb signaling in post-embryonic development of the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suewei; Lai, Sen-Lin; Yu, Huang-Hsiang; Chihara, Takahiro; Luo, Liqun; Lee, Tzumin

    2010-01-01

    Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from common precursors in the lAL lineage. Furthermore, Numb is needed in the lateral but not adPN or vPN lineages to prevent the appearance of ectopic neuroblasts and to ensure proper self-renewal of neural progenitors. These lineage-specific outputs of Notch/Numb signaling show that a universal mechanism of binary fate decision can be utilized to govern diverse neural sibling differentiations.

  10. The sex of specific neurons controls female body growth in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sawala, Annick

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass. We demonstrate that the female sex determination gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), functions in central nervous system (CNS) neurons as part of a relay that specifies the early sex-specific growth trajectories of larval but not imaginal tissues. Neuronal Sxl acts additively in 2 neuronal subpopulations, one of which corresponds to 7 median neurosecretory cells: the insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Surprisingly, however, male-female differences in the production of insulin-like peptides (Ilps) from the IPCs do not appear to be involved in establishing SSD in early larvae, although they may play a later role. These findings support a relay model in which Sxl in neurons and Sxl in local tissues act together to specify the female-specific growth of the larval body. They also reveal that, even though the sex determination pathways in Drosophila and mammals are different, they both modulate body growth via a combination of tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous inputs. PMID:28976974

  11. The sex of specific neurons controls female body growth in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sawala, Annick; Gould, Alex P

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass. We demonstrate that the female sex determination gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), functions in central nervous system (CNS) neurons as part of a relay that specifies the early sex-specific growth trajectories of larval but not imaginal tissues. Neuronal Sxl acts additively in 2 neuronal subpopulations, one of which corresponds to 7 median neurosecretory cells: the insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Surprisingly, however, male-female differences in the production of insulin-like peptides (Ilps) from the IPCs do not appear to be involved in establishing SSD in early larvae, although they may play a later role. These findings support a relay model in which Sxl in neurons and Sxl in local tissues act together to specify the female-specific growth of the larval body. They also reveal that, even though the sex determination pathways in Drosophila and mammals are different, they both modulate body growth via a combination of tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous inputs.

  12. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p < .0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  13. The MAP kinase ERK and its scaffold protein MP1 interact with the chromatin regulator Corto during Drosophila wing tissue development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades (p38, JNK, ERK pathways) are involved in cell fate acquisition during development. These kinase modules are associated with scaffold proteins that control their activity. In Drosophila, dMP1, that encodes an ERK scaffold protein, regulates ERK signaling during wing development and contributes to intervein and vein cell differentiation. Functional relationships during wing development between a chromatin regulator, the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto, ERK and its scaffold protein dMP1, are examined here. Results Genetic interactions show that corto and dMP1 act together to antagonize rolled (which encodes ERK) in the future intervein cells, thus promoting intervein fate. Although Corto, ERK and dMP1 are present in both cytoplasmic and nucleus compartments, they interact exclusively in nucleus extracts. Furthermore, Corto, ERK and dMP1 co-localize on several sites on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that they regulate gene expression directly on chromatin. Finally, Corto is phosphorylated. Interestingly, its phosphorylation pattern differs between cytoplasm and nucleus and changes upon ERK activation. Conclusions Our data therefore suggest that the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto could participate in regulating vein and intervein genes during wing tissue development in response to ERK signaling. PMID:21401930

  14. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  15. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of early Xenopus development by ErbB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuyi; Chang, Chenbei

    2008-01-01

    ErbB signaling has long been implicated in cancer formation and progression and is shown to regulate cell division, migration and death during tumorigenesis. The functions of the ErbB pathway during early vertebrate embryogenesis, however, are not well understood. Here we report characterization of ErbB activities during early frog development. Gain-of-function analyses show that EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB4 induce ectopic tumor-like cell mass that contains increased numbers of mitotic cells. Both the muscle and the neural markers are expressed in these ectopic protrusions. ErbBs also induce mesodermal markers in ectodermal explants. Loss-of-function studies using carboxyl terminal-truncated dominant-negative ErbB receptors demonstrate that blocking ErbB signals leads to defective gastrulation movements and malformation of the embryonic axis with a reduction in the head structures in early frog embryos. These data, together with the observation that ErbBs are expressed early during frog embryogenesis, suggest that ErbBs regulate cell proliferation, movements and embryonic patterning during early Xenopus development. PMID:16258939

  17. The digestive tract of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Far from being a passive tube, it provides the first line of defense against pathogens and maintains energy homeostasis by exchanging neuronal and endocrine signals with other organs. Historically neglected, the gut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently come to the forefront of Drosophila research. Areas as diverse as stem cell biology, neurobiology, metabolism, and immunity are benefitting from the ability to study the genetics of development, growth regulation, and physiology in the same organ. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of the Drosophila digestive tract, with an emphasis on the adult midgut and its functional underpinnings.

  18. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  19. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  20. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  1. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  2. The Ecology of Early Reading Development for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kainz, Kirsten; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated reading development from kindergarten to third grade for 1,913 economically disadvantaged children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Characteristics of the child, the family, classroom instruction, and school composition were used to model influences from multiple levels of children's…

  3. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  4. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  5. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  6. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  7. The Use of Electrophysiology in the Study of Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szucs, Denes

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiology is a timely and important tool in the study of early cognitive development. This commentary polishes the definition of event-related potential (ERP) components; often interpreted as expressions of mental processes. Further, attention is drawn to time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which conveys much more…

  8. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  9. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  10. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  11. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  12. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  13. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  14. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  15. Guidelines for Making a Video Presentation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carolyn S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the production of videotape recordings illustrating developmental milestones of early childhood to serve as a reference point in working with parents or staff caring for young children who have disabilities. Procedures for making a video presentation include the following steps: select a topic (such as motor development,…

  16. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  17. Formative Evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a commentary for the special issue on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a community tool to assess children's school readiness and developmental outcomes at a group level. The EDI is administered by kindergarten teachers, who assess their kindergarten students on 5 developmental domains: physical health and well-being, social…

  18. State Guide to Developing Successful Early Childhood Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF International (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Early education leaders--inside and outside of government--are looking for new ways to improve quality, accountability, and efficiency across many different programs serving young children and their families, and they see investment in data systems as a pivotal part of that effort. However, it can be challenging to develop and implement effective…

  19. Towards Sustainable National Development through Well Managed Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nath M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. The child is the "owner" of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannot be addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of…

  20. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  1. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  2. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  3. A sleep state in Drosophila larvae required for neural stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Szuperak, Milan; Churgin, Matthew A; Borja, Austin J; Raizen, David M; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Sleep during development is involved in refining brain circuitry, but a role for sleep in the earliest periods of nervous system elaboration, when neurons are first being born, has not been explored. Here we identify a sleep state in Drosophila larvae that coincides with a major wave of neurogenesis. Mechanisms controlling larval sleep are partially distinct from adult sleep: octopamine, the Drosophila analog of mammalian norepinephrine, is the major arousal neuromodulator in larvae, but dopamine is not required. Using real-time behavioral monitoring in a closed-loop sleep deprivation system, we find that sleep loss in larvae impairs cell division of neural progenitors. This work establishes a system uniquely suited for studying sleep during nascent periods, and demonstrates that sleep in early life regulates neural stem cell proliferation. PMID:29424688

  4. Fray, a Drosophila serine/threonine kinase homologous to mammalian PASK, is required for axonal ensheathment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiserson, W. M.; Harkins, E. W.; Keshishian, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fray is a serine/threonine kinase expressed by the peripheral glia of Drosophila, whose function is required for normal axonal ensheathment. Null fray mutants die early in larval development and have nerves with severe swelling and axonal defasciculation. The phenotype is associated with a failure of the ensheathing glia to correctly wrap peripheral axons. When the fray cDNA is expressed in the ensheathing glia of fray mutants, normal nerve morphology is restored. Fray belongs to a novel family of Ser/Thr kinases, the PF kinases, whose closest relatives are the PAK kinases. Rescue of the Drosophila mutant phenotype with PASK, the rat homolog of Fray, demonstrates a functional homology among these proteins and suggests that the Fray signaling pathway is widely conserved.

  5. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  6. IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release regulates protein metabolism in Drosophila neuroendocrine cells: implications for development under nutrient stress.

    PubMed

    Megha; Hasan, Gaiti

    2017-04-15

    Successful completion of animal development is fundamentally reliant on nutritional cues. Surviving periods of nutritional insufficiency requires adaptations that are coordinated, in part, by neural circuits. As neuropeptides secreted by neuroendocrine (NE) cells modulate neural circuits, we investigated NE cell function during development under nutrient stress. Starved Drosophila larvae exhibited reduced pupariation if either insulin signaling or IP 3 /Ca 2+ signaling were downregulated in NE cells. Moreover, an IP 3 R (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor) loss-of-function mutant displayed reduced protein synthesis, which was rescued by overexpression of either InR (insulin receptor) or IP 3 R in NE cells of the mutant, suggesting that the two signaling pathways might be functionally compensatory. Furthermore, cultured IP 3 R mutant NE cells, but not neurons, exhibited reduced protein translation. Thus cell-specific regulation of protein synthesis by IP 3 R in NE cells influences protein metabolism. We propose that this regulation helps developing animals survive in poor nutritional conditions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Ectopic expression of the Drosophila Cdk1 inhibitory kinases, Wee1 and Myt1, interferes with the second mitotic wave and disrupts pattern formation during eye development.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Donald M; Jin, Zhigang; Rabinovitch, Simon; Campbell, Shelagh D

    2002-01-01

    Wee1 kinases catalyze inhibitory phosphorylation of the mitotic regulator Cdk1, preventing mitosis during S phase and delaying it in response to DNA damage or developmental signals during G2. Unlike yeast, metazoans have two distinct Wee1-like kinases, a nuclear protein (Wee1) and a cytoplasmic protein (Myt1). We have isolated the genes encoding Drosophila Wee1 and Myt1 and are using genetic approaches to dissect their functions during normal development. Overexpression of Dwee1 or Dmyt1 during eye development generates a rough adult eye phenotype. The phenotype can be modified by altering the gene dosage of known regulators of the G2/M transition, suggesting that we could use these transgenic strains in modifier screens to identify potential regulators of Wee1 and Myt1. To confirm this idea, we tested a collection of deletions for loci that can modify the eye overexpression phenotypes and identified several loci as dominant modifiers. Mutations affecting the Delta/Notch signaling pathway strongly enhance a GMR-Dmyt1 eye phenotype but do not affect a GMR-Dwee1 eye phenotype, suggesting that Myt1 is potentially a downstream target for Notch activity during eye development. We also observed interactions with p53, which suggest that Wee1 and Myt1 activity can block apoptosis. PMID:12072468

  8. Atg6/UVRAG/Vps34-Containing Lipid Kinase Complex Is Required for Receptor Downregulation through Endolysosomal Degradation and Epithelial Polarity during Drosophila Wing Development

    PubMed Central

    Szatmári, Zsuzsanna; Sass, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    Atg6 (Beclin 1 in mammals) is a core component of the Vps34 PI3K (III) complex, which promotes multiple vesicle trafficking pathways. Atg6 and Vps34 form two distinct PI3K (III) complexes in yeast and mammalian cells, either with Atg14 or with UVRAG. The functions of these two complexes are not entirely clear, as both Atg14 and UVRAG have been suggested to regulate both endocytosis and autophagy. In this study, we performed a microscopic analysis of UVRAG, Atg14, or Atg6 loss-of-function cells in the developing Drosophila wing. Both autophagy and endocytosis are seriously impaired and defective endolysosomes accumulate upon loss of Atg6. We show that Atg6 is required for the downregulation of Notch and Wingless signaling pathways; thus it is essential for normal wing development. Moreover, the loss of Atg6 impairs cell polarity. Atg14 depletion results in autophagy defects with no effect on endocytosis or cell polarity, while the silencing of UVRAG phenocopies all but the autophagy defect of Atg6 depleted cells. Thus, our results indicate that the UVRAG-containing PI3K (III) complex is required for receptor downregulation through endolysosomal degradation and for the establishment of proper cell polarity in the developing wing, while the Atg14-containing complex is involved in autophagosome formation. PMID:25006588

  9. Cholinergic Mechanisms, Early Brain Development, and Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Randal G; Stevens, Karen E; Proctor, William R; Leonard, Sherry; Kisley, Michael A; Hunter, Sharon K; Freedman, Robert; Adams, Catherine E

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases are complex illnesses where the onset of diagnostic symptomology is often the end result of a decades-long process of aberrant brain development. The identification of novel treatment strategies aimed at normalizing early brain development and preventing mental illness should be a major therapeutic goal; however, there are few models for how this goal might be achieved. This report uses the attentional deficits of schizophrenia as an example and reviews data from genetic, anatomical, physiological, and pharmacologic studies to hypothesize a developmental model with translational primary prevention implications. Specifically, the model suggests that an early interaction between α7 nicotinic receptor density and choline availability may contribute to the development of schizophrenia-associated attentional deficits. Translational implications, including perinatal dietary choline supplementation, are discussed. It is hoped that presentation of this model will stimulate other efforts to develop empirically-driven primary prevention strategies. PMID:19925602

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies against the Drosophila Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shinobu C.; Zipursky, Stephen L.; Benzer, Seymour; Ferrus, Alberto; Shotwell, Sandra L.

    1982-12-01

    A panel of 148 monoclonal antibodies directed against Drosophila neural antigens has been prepared by using mice immunized with homogenates of Drosophila tissue. Antibodies were screened immunohistochemically on cryostat sections of fly heads. A large diversity of staining patterns was observed. Some antigens were broadly distributed among tissues; others were highly specific to nerve fibers, neuropil, muscle, the tracheal system, cell nuclei, photoreceptors, or other structures. The antigens for many of the antibodies have been identified on immunoblots. Monoclonal antibodies that identify specific molecules within the nervous system should prove useful in the study of the molecular genetics of neural development.

  11. Developing International Collaborations for Early Career Researchers in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Forbes, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration is becoming increasingly vital as the emphasis on unmet need for mental health across cultures and nations grows. Opportunities exist for early career researchers to engage in international collaboration. However, little information is provided about such opportunities in most current psychology training models. The authors are early career researchers in psychology from U.S. and Australia who have developed a collaborative relationship over the past two years. Our goal is to increase awareness of funding opportunities to support international research and to highlight the benefits and challenges associated with international collaboration based on our experience. PMID:27453624

  12. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  13. Functional characterization of the Drosophila MRP (mitochondrial RNA processing) RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Mary D; Bains, Anupinder K; Rajendra, T K; Dominski, Zbigniew; Matera, A Gregory; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    MRP RNA is a noncoding RNA component of RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (MRP), a multi-protein eukaryotic endoribonuclease reported to function in multiple cellular processes, including ribosomal RNA processing, mitochondrial DNA replication, and cell cycle regulation. A recent study predicted a potential Drosophila ortholog of MRP RNA (CR33682) by computer-based genome analysis. We have confirmed the expression of this gene and characterized the phenotype associated with this locus. Flies with mutations that specifically affect MRP RNA show defects in growth and development that begin in the early larval period and end in larval death during the second instar stage. We present several lines of evidence demonstrating a role for Drosophila MRP RNA in rRNA processing. The nuclear fraction of Drosophila MRP RNA localizes to the nucleolus. Further, a mutant strain shows defects in rRNA processing that include a defect in 5.8S rRNA processing, typical of MRP RNA mutants in other species, as well as defects in early stages of rRNA processing.

  14. Dual Role of Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activity in Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Mediated Drosophila Ventral Head Development.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yeon; Stultz, Brian G; Hursh, Deborah A

    2015-12-01

    The Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein encoded by decapentaplegic (dpp) controls ventral head morphogenesis by expression in the head primordia, eye-antennal imaginal discs. These are epithelial sacs made of two layers: columnar disc proper cells and squamous cells of the peripodial epithelium. dpp expression related to head formation occurs in the peripodial epithelium; cis-regulatory mutations disrupting this expression display defects in sensory vibrissae, rostral membrane, gena, and maxillary palps. Here we document that disruption of this dpp expression causes apoptosis in peripodial cells and underlying disc proper cells. We further show that peripodial Dpp acts directly on the disc proper, indicating that Dpp must cross the disc lumen to act. We demonstrate that palp defects are mechanistically separable from the other mutant phenotypes; both are affected by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway but in opposite ways. Slight reduction of both Jun N-terminal kinase and Dpp activity in peripodial cells causes stronger vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena defects than Dpp alone; additionally, strong reduction of Jun N-terminal kinase activity alone causes identical defects. A more severe reduction of dpp results in similar vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena defects, but also causes mutant maxillary palps. This latter defect is correlated with increased peripodial Jun N-terminal kinase activity and can be caused solely by ectopic activation of Jun N-terminal kinase. We conclude that formation of sensory vibrissae, rostral membrane, and gena tissue in head morphogenesis requires the action of Jun N-terminal kinase in peripodial cells, while excessive Jun N-terminal kinase signaling in these same cells inhibits the formation of maxillary palps. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  16. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  18. The FHA domain determines Drosophila Chk2/Mnk localization to key mitotic structures and is essential for early embryonic DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Takada, Saeko; Collins, Eric R; Kurahashi, Kayo

    2015-05-15

    DNA damage responses, including mitotic centrosome inactivation, cell-cycle delay in mitosis, and nuclear dropping from embryo cortex, maintain genome integrity in syncytial Drosophila embryos. A conserved signaling kinase, Chk2, known as Mnk/Loki, is essential for the responses. Here we demonstrate that functional EGFP-Mnk expressed from a transgene localizes to the nucleus, centrosomes, interkinetochore/centromere region, midbody, and pseudocleavage furrows without DNA damage and in addition forms numerous foci/aggregates on mitotic chromosomes upon DNA damage. We expressed EGFP-tagged Mnk deletion or point mutation variants and investigated domain functions of Mnk in vivo. A triple mutation in the phosphopeptide-binding site of the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain disrupted normal Mnk localization except to the nucleus. The mutation also disrupted Mnk foci formation on chromosomes upon DNA damage. FHA mutations and deletion of the SQ/TQ-cluster domain (SCD) abolished Mnk transphosphorylations and autophosphorylations, indicative of kinase activation after DNA damage. A potent NLS was found at the C-terminus, which is required for normal Mnk function. We propose that the FHA domain in Mnk plays essential dual functions in mediating embryonic DNA damage responses by means of its phosphopeptide-binding ability: activating Mnk in the nucleus upon DNA damage and recruiting Mnk to multiple subcellular structures independently of DNA damage. © 2015 Takada et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  20. Characterization of big bang, a novel gene encoding for PDZ domain-containing proteins that are dynamically expressed throughout Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sabrina Y; Renihan, Maia K; Boulianne, Gabrielle L

    2006-06-01

    PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain proteins often function as scaffolding proteins and have been shown to play important roles in diverse cellular processes such as the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity, and signal transduction. Here, we report the identification and cloning of a novel Drosophila melanogaster gene that is predicted to produce several different PDZ domain-containing proteins through alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing. This gene, that we have named big bang (bbg), was first identified as C96-GAL4, a GAL4 enhancer trap line that was generated in our lab. To further characterize bbg, its expression pattern was examined in ovaries, embryos, and late third instar larvae using UAS reporter gene constructs, in situ hybridization, or immunocytochemistry. In addition, the expression of alternatively spliced transcripts was examined in more detail using in situ hybridization. We find that during embryogenesis bbg is predominantly expressed in the developing gut, but it is also expressed in external sensory organs found in the epidermis. In the late third instar larva, bbg is expressed along the presumptive wing margin in the wing disc, broadly in the eye disc, and in other imaginal discs as well as in the brain. The expression patterns observed are dynamic and specific during development, suggesting that like other genes that encode for several different PDZ domain protein isoforms, bbg likely plays important roles in multiple developmental processes.

  1. 4E-BP is a target of the GCN2–ATF4 pathway during Drosophila development and aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Eun; Zeng, Xiaomei

    2017-01-01

    Reduced amino acid availability attenuates mRNA translation in cells and helps to extend lifespan in model organisms. The amino acid deprivation–activated kinase GCN2 mediates this response in part by phosphorylating eIF2α. In addition, the cap-dependent translational inhibitor 4E-BP is transcriptionally induced to extend lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster, but through an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that GCN2 and its downstream transcription factor, ATF4, mediate 4E-BP induction, and GCN2 is required for lifespan extension in response to dietary restriction of amino acids. The 4E-BP intron contains ATF4-binding sites that not only respond to stress but also show inherent ATF4 activity during normal development. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteome through metabolic labeling combined with click chemistry shows that certain stress-responsive proteins are resistant to inhibition by 4E-BP, and gcn2 mutant flies have reduced levels of stress-responsive protein synthesis. These results indicate that GCN2 and ATF4 are important regulators of 4E-BP transcription during normal development and aging. PMID:27979906

  2. Retinal Determination genes function along with cell-cell signals to regulate Drosophila eye development: examples of multi-layered regulation by Master Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Firth, Lucy C.

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that Retinal Determination gene products define the response made to cell-cell signals within the eye developmental field by binding to enhancers of genes that are also regulated by cell-cell signaling pathways. In Drosophila, Retinal Determination genes including Eyeless, teashirt, eyes absent, dachsous and sine oculis, are required for normal eye development and can induce ectopic eyes when mis-expressed. Characterization of the enhancers responsible for eye expression of the hedgehog, shaven, and atonal genes, as well as the dynamics of Retinal Determination gene expression themselves, now suggest a multilayered network whereby transcriptional regulation by either Retinal Determination genes or cell-cell signaling pathways can sometimes be indirect and mediated by other transcription factor intermediates. In this updated view of the interaction between extracellular information and cell intrinsic programs during development, regulation of individual genes might sometimes be several steps removed from either the Retinal Determination genes or cell-cell signaling pathways that nevertheless govern their expression. PMID:21607995

  3. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  4. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  5. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  6. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  7. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  8. Endosperm turgor pressure decreases during early Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Beauzamy, Léna; Fourquin, Chloé; Dubrulle, Nelly; Boursiac, Yann; Boudaoud, Arezki; Ingram, Gwyneth

    2016-09-15

    In Arabidopsis, rapid expansion of the coenocytic endosperm after fertilisation has been proposed to drive early seed growth, which is in turn constrained by the seed coat. This hypothesis implies physical heterogeneity between the endosperm and seed coat compartments during early seed development, which to date has not been demonstrated. Here, we combine tissue indentation with modelling to show that the physical properties of the developing seed are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated endosperm-derived turgor pressure drives early seed expansion. We provide evidence that whole-seed turgor is generated by the endosperm at early developmental stages. Furthermore, we show that endosperm cellularisation and seed growth arrest are associated with a drop in endosperm turgor pressure. Finally, we demonstrate that this decrease is perturbed when the function of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 is lost, suggesting that turgor pressure changes could be a target of genomic imprinting. Our results indicate a developmental role for changes in endosperm turgor pressure in the Arabidopsis seed. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Open-Ended Laboratory Investigations with Drosophila.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Thomas R.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures (including matings performed), and results are presented for an open-ended investigation using the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Once data are collected, students develop hypotheses to explain results as well as devise additional experiments to test their hypotheses. Calculation of chi-square for…

  10. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  11. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Drosophila increase exploration after visually detecting predators.

    PubMed

    de la Flor, Miguel; Chen, Lijian; Manson-Bishop, Claire; Chu, Tzu-Chun; Zamora, Kathya; Robbins, Danielle; Gunaratne, Gemunu; Roman, Gregg

    2017-01-01

    Novel stimuli elicit behaviors that are collectively known as specific exploration. These behaviors allow the animal to become more familiar with the novel objects within its environment. Specific exploration is frequently suppressed by defensive reactions to predator cues. Herein, we examine if this suppression occurs in Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the response of these flies to wild harvested predators. The flies used in our experiments have been cultured and had not lived under predator threat for multiple decades. In a circular arena with centrally-caged predators, wild type Drosophila actively avoided the pantropical jumping spider, Plexippus paykulli, and the Texas unicorn mantis, Phyllovates chlorophaena, indicating an innate defensive reaction to these predators. Interestingly, wild type Drosophila males also avoided a centrally-caged mock spider, and the avoidance of the mock spider became exaggerated when it was made to move within the cage. Visually impaired Drosophila failed to detect and avoid the Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider, while the broadly anosmic orco2 mutants were fully capable of detecting and avoiding Plexippus paykulli, indicating that these flies principally relied upon vison to perceive the predator stimuli. During early exploration of the arena, exploratory activity increased in the presence of Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider. The elevated activity induced by Plexippus paykulli disappeared after the fly had finished exploring, suggesting the flies were capable of habituating the predator cues. Taken together, these results indicate that despite being isolated from predators for decades Drosophila will visually detect these predators, retain innate defensive behaviors, respond by increasing exploratory activity in the arena rather than suppressing activity, and may habituate to normal predator cues.

  13. Drosophila increase exploration after visually detecting predators

    PubMed Central

    Manson-Bishop, Claire; Chu, Tzu-Chun; Zamora, Kathya; Robbins, Danielle; Gunaratne, Gemunu

    2017-01-01

    Novel stimuli elicit behaviors that are collectively known as specific exploration. These behaviors allow the animal to become more familiar with the novel objects within its environment. Specific exploration is frequently suppressed by defensive reactions to predator cues. Herein, we examine if this suppression occurs in Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the response of these flies to wild harvested predators. The flies used in our experiments have been cultured and had not lived under predator threat for multiple decades. In a circular arena with centrally-caged predators, wild type Drosophila actively avoided the pantropical jumping spider, Plexippus paykulli, and the Texas unicorn mantis, Phyllovates chlorophaena, indicating an innate defensive reaction to these predators. Interestingly, wild type Drosophila males also avoided a centrally-caged mock spider, and the avoidance of the mock spider became exaggerated when it was made to move within the cage. Visually impaired Drosophila failed to detect and avoid the Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider, while the broadly anosmic orco2 mutants were fully capable of detecting and avoiding Plexippus paykulli, indicating that these flies principally relied upon vison to perceive the predator stimuli. During early exploration of the arena, exploratory activity increased in the presence of Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider. The elevated activity induced by Plexippus paykulli disappeared after the fly had finished exploring, suggesting the flies were capable of habituating the predator cues. Taken together, these results indicate that despite being isolated from predators for decades Drosophila will visually detect these predators, retain innate defensive behaviors, respond by increasing exploratory activity in the arena rather than suppressing activity, and may habituate to normal predator cues. PMID:28746346

  14. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression

    PubMed Central

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C.; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly’s auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level. PMID:28115690

  15. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    PubMed

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  16. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the ‘germ band’ of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the ‘somites’ unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis, conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. PMID:29237861

  17. The early Cambrian fossil embryo Pseudooides is a direct-developing cnidarian, not an early ecdysozoan.

    PubMed

    Duan, Baichuan; Dong, Xi-Ping; Porras, Luis; Vargas, Kelly; Cunningham, John A; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2017-12-20

    Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the 'germ band' of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the 'somites' unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis , conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated. We recognize H. sichuanensis as a junior synonym of P. prima as a consequence of identifying these two form-taxa as distinct developmental stages of the same organism. Direct development in P. prima parallels the co-occuring olivooids Olivooides, and Quadrapyrgites and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a novel phenotype dataset indicates that, despite differences in their tetra-, penta- and pseudo-hexa-radial symmetry, these hexangulaconulariids comprise a clade of scyphozoan medusozoans, with Arthrochites and conulariids, that all exhibit direct development from embryo to thecate polyp. The affinity of hexangulaconulariids and olivooids to extant scyphozoan medusozoans indicates that the prevalence of tetraradial symmetry and indirect development are a vestige of a broader spectrum of body-plan symmetries and developmental modes that was manifest in their early Phanerozoic counterparts. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  19. Identification of the essential protein domains for Mib2 function during the development of the Drosophila larval musculature and adult flight muscles

    PubMed Central

    Domsch, Katrin; Acs, Andreas; Obermeier, Claudia; Nguyen, Hanh T.

    2017-01-01

    The proper differentiation and maintenance of myofibers is fundamental to a functional musculature. Disruption of numerous mostly structural factors leads to perturbations of these processes. Among the limited number of known regulatory factors for these processes is Mind bomb2 (Mib2), a muscle-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was previously established to be required for maintaining the integrity of larval muscles. In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein. We show that the ankyrin repeats, in its entirety, and the hitherto uncharacterized Mib-specific domains (MIB), are important for the major function of Mib2 in skeletal and visceral muscles in the Drosophila embryo. Furthermore, we characterize novel mib2 alleles that have arisen from a forward genetic screen aimed at identifying regulators of myogenesis. Two of these alleles are viable, but flightless hypomorphic mib2 mutants, and harbor missense mutations in the MIB domain and RING finger, respectively. Functional analysis of these new alleles, including in vivo imaging, demonstrates that Mib2 plays an additional important role in the development of adult thorax muscles, particularly in maintaining the larval templates for the dorsal longitudinal indirect flight muscles during metamorphosis. PMID:28282454

  20. Identification of the essential protein domains for Mib2 function during the development of the Drosophila larval musculature and adult flight muscles.

    PubMed

    Domsch, Katrin; Acs, Andreas; Obermeier, Claudia; Nguyen, Hanh T; Reim, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    The proper differentiation and maintenance of myofibers is fundamental to a functional musculature. Disruption of numerous mostly structural factors leads to perturbations of these processes. Among the limited number of known regulatory factors for these processes is Mind bomb2 (Mib2), a muscle-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was previously established to be required for maintaining the integrity of larval muscles. In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein. We show that the ankyrin repeats, in its entirety, and the hitherto uncharacterized Mib-specific domains (MIB), are important for the major function of Mib2 in skeletal and visceral muscles in the Drosophila embryo. Furthermore, we characterize novel mib2 alleles that have arisen from a forward genetic screen aimed at identifying regulators of myogenesis. Two of these alleles are viable, but flightless hypomorphic mib2 mutants, and harbor missense mutations in the MIB domain and RING finger, respectively. Functional analysis of these new alleles, including in vivo imaging, demonstrates that Mib2 plays an additional important role in the development of adult thorax muscles, particularly in maintaining the larval templates for the dorsal longitudinal indirect flight muscles during metamorphosis.

  1. Microfluidic Devices for Automation of Assays on Drosophila Melanogaster for Applications in Drug Discovery and Biological Studies.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Reza; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam R

    Drug discovery is a long and expensive process, which usually takes 12-15 years and could cost up to ~$1 billion. Conventional drug discovery process starts with high throughput screening and selection of drug candidates that bind to specific target associated with a disease condition. However, this process does not consider whether the chosen candidate is optimal not only for binding but also for ease of administration, distribution in the body, effect of metabolism and associated toxicity if any. A holistic approach, using model organisms early in the drug discovery process to select drug candidates that are optimal not only in binding but also suitable for administration, distribution and are not toxic is now considered as a viable way for lowering the cost and time associated with the drug discovery process. However, the conventional drug discovery assays using Drosophila are manual and required skill operator, which makes them expensive and not suitable for high-throughput screening. Recently, microfluidics has been used to automate many of the operations (e.g. sorting, positioning, drug delivery) associated with the Drosophila drug discovery assays and thereby increase their throughput. This review highlights recent microfluidic devices that have been developed for Drosophila assays with primary application towards drug discovery for human diseases. The microfluidic devices that have been reviewed in this paper are categorized based on the stage of the Drosophila that have been used. In each category, the microfluidic technologies behind each device are described and their potential biological applications are discussed.

  2. Studies Toward Birth and Early Mammalian Development in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Successful reproduction is the hallmark of a species' ability to adapt to its environment and must be realized to sustain life beyond Earth. Before taking this immense step, we need to understand the effects of altered gravity on critical phases of mammalian reproduction, viz., those events surrounding pregnancy, birth and the early development of offspring. No mammal has yet undergone birth in space. however studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing insights into how birth and early postnatal development will proceed in space. In this presentation, I will report the results of behavioral studies of rat mothers and offspring exposed from mid- to late pregnancy to either hypogravity (0-g) or hypergravity (1.5 or 2-g).

  3. Relationship between the neighbourhood built environment and early child development.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Ball, Stephen J; Zubrick, Stephen R; Brinkman, Sally; Turrell, Gavin; Boruff, Bryan; Foster, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between features of the neighbourhood built environment and early child development was investigated using area-level data from the Australian Early Development Census. Overall 9.0% of children were developmentally vulnerable on the Physical Health and Well-being domain, 8.1% on the Social Competence domain and 8.1% on the Emotional Maturity domain. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, Local Communities with the highest quintile of home yard space had significantly lower odds of developmental vulnerability on the Emotional Maturity domain. Residing in a Local Community with fewer main roads was associated with a decrease in the proportion of children developmentally vulnerable on the Social Competence domain. Overall, sociodemographic factors were more important than aspects of the neighbourhood physical environment for explaining variation between Local Communities in the developmental vulnerability of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    PubMed

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  5. Hazards to Early Development: The Biological Embedding of Early Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A

    2017-10-11

    The number of children under 18 years of age has increased worldwide over the past decade. This growth spurt is due, in part, to remarkable progress in child survival. Alas, surviving early hazards, like prematurity or infectious disease, does not guarantee that children's development will not be compromised by other hazards as they grow older. Throughout the world, children continue to be confronted with a large number of biological and psychosocial challenges that greatly limit their developmental potential. The focus of this article is how such adverse experiences impact the developing brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early zebrafish development: It’s in the maternal genes

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Mullins, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The earliest stages of embryonic development in all animals examined rely on maternal gene products that are generated during oogenesis and supplied to the egg. The period of maternal control of embryonic development varies among animals according to the onset of zygotic transcription and the persistence of maternal gene products. This maternal regulation has been little studied in vertebrates, due to the difficulty in manipulating maternal gene function and lack of basic molecular information. However, recent maternal-effect screens in the zebrafish have generated more than 40 unique mutants that are providing new molecular entry points to the maternal control of early vertebrate development. Here we discuss recent studies of 12 zebrafish mutant genes that illuminate the maternal molecular controls on embryonic development, including advances in the regulation of animal-vegetal polarity, egg activation, cleavage development, body plan formation, tissue morphogenesis, microRNA function and germ cell development. PMID:19608405

  7. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  8. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  9. A novel, tissue-specific, Drosophila homeobox gene.

    PubMed

    Barad, M; Jack, T; Chadwick, R; McGinnis, W

    1988-07-01

    The homeobox gene family of Drosophila appears to control a variety of position-specific patterning decisions during embryonic and imaginal development. Most of these patterning decisions determine groups of cells on the anterior-posterior axis of the Drosophila germ band. We have isolated a novel homeobox gene from Drosophila, designated H2.0. H2.0 has the most diverged homeobox so far characterized in metazoa, and, in contrast to all previously isolated homeobox genes, H2.0 exhibits a tissue-specific pattern of expression. The cells that accumulate transcripts for this novel gene correspond to the visceral musculature and its anlagen.

  10. Dissection and staining of Drosophila larval ovaries.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Iris; Gilboa, Lilach

    2011-05-13

    Many organs depend on stem cells for their development during embryogenesis and for maintenance or repair during adult life. Understanding how stem cells form, and how they interact with their environment is therefore crucial for understanding development, homeostasis and disease. The ovary of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has served as an influential model for the interaction of germ line stem cells (GSCs) with their somatic support cells (niche) (1, 2). The known location of the niche and the GSCs, coupled to the ability to genetically manipulate them, has allowed researchers to elucidate a variety of interactions between stem cells and their niches (3-12). Despite the wealth of information about mechanisms controlling GSC maintenance and differentiation, relatively little is known about how GSCs and their somatic niches form during development. About 18 somatic niches, whose cellular components include terminal filament and cap cells (Figure 1), form during the third larval instar (13-17). GSCs originate from primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGCs proliferate at early larval stages, but following the formation of the niche a subgroup of PGCs becomes GSCs (7, 16, 18, 19). Together, the somatic niche cells and the GSCs make a functional unit that produces eggs throughout the lifetime of the organism. Many questions regarding the formation of the GSC unit remain unanswered. Processes such as coordination between precursor cells for niches and stem cell precursors, or the generation of asymmetry within PGCs as they become GSCs, can best be studied in the larva. However, a methodical study of larval ovary development is physically challenging. First, larval ovaries are small. Even at late larval stages they are only 100μm across. In addition, the ovaries are transparent and are embedded in a white fat body. Here we describe a step-by-step protocol for isolating ovaries from late third instar (LL3) Drosophila larvae, followed by staining with fluorescent

  11. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-03-01

    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  12. Biased gene expression in early honeybee larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) develop into either queens or workers depending on nutrition. This nutritional stimulus triggers different developmental trajectories, resulting in adults that differ from each other in physiology, behaviour and life span. Results To understand how these trajectories are established we have generated a comprehensive atlas of gene expression throughout larval development. We found substantial differences in gene expression between worker and queen-destined larvae at 6 hours after hatching. Some of these early changes in gene expression are maintained throughout larval development, indicating that caste-specific developmental trajectories are established much earlier than previously thought. Within our gene expression data we identified processes that potentially underlie caste differentiation. Queen-destined larvae have higher expression of genes involved in transcription, translation and protein folding early in development with a later switch to genes involved in energy generation. Using RNA interference, we were able to demonstrate that one of these genes, hexamerin 70b, has a role in caste differentiation. Both queen and worker developmental trajectories are associated with the expression of genes that have alternative splice variants, although only a single variant of a gene tends to be differentially expressed in a given caste. Conclusions Our data, based on the biases in gene expression early in development together with published data, supports the idea that caste development in the honeybee consists of two phases; an initial biased phase of development, where larvae can still switch to the other caste by differential feeding, followed by commitment to a particular developmental trajectory. PMID:24350621

  13. Early development and replacement of the stickleback dentition

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Nicholas A.; Donde, Nikunj N.; Miller, Craig T.

    2017-01-01

    Teeth have long served as a model system to study basic questions about vertebrate organogenesis, morphogenesis, and evolution. In non-mammalian vertebrates, teeth typically regenerate throughout adult life. Fish have evolved a tremendous diversity in dental patterning in both their oral and pharyngeal dentitions, offering numerous opportunities to study how morphology develops, regenerates, and evolves in different lineages. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a new system to study how morphology evolves, and provide a particularly powerful system to study the development and evolution of dental morphology. Here we describe the oral and pharyngeal dentitions of stickleback fish, providing additional morphological, histological, and molecular evidence for homology of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Focusing on the ventral pharyngeal dentition in a dense developmental time course of lab-reared fish, we describe the temporal and spatial consensus sequence of early tooth formation. Early in development, this sequence is highly stereotypical and consists of seventeen primary teeth forming the early tooth field, followed by the first tooth replacement event. Comparing this detailed morphological and ontogenetic sequence to that described in other fish reveals that major changes to how dental morphology arises and regenerates have evolved across different fish lineages. PMID:27145214

  14. Developing an Early Childhood Teacher Workforce Development Strategy for Rural and Remote Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anne; Jackson-Barrett, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The North West Early Childhood and Primary Teacher Workforce Development Strategy offers students in the Pilbara and Kimberley the opportunity to enrol in a Western Australian University's fully accredited Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood and Primary) part time and externally--so they can continue to live and work in their communities. The…

  15. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  16. Drosophila cellular immunity: a story of migration and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Fauvarque, Marie-Odile; Williams, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Research during the past 15 years has led to significant breakthroughs, providing evidence of a high degree of similarity between insect and mammalian innate immune responses, both humoural and cellular, and highlighting Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for studying the evolution of innate immunity. In a manner similar to cells of the mammalian monocyte and macrophage lineage, Drosophila immunosurveillance cells (haemocytes) have a number of roles. For example, they respond to wound signals, are involved in wound healing and contribute to the coagulation response. Moreover, they participate in the phagocytosis and encapsulation of invading pathogens, are involved in the removal of apoptotic bodies and produce components of the extracellular matrix. There are several reasons for using the Drosophila cellular immune response as a model to understand cell signalling during adhesion and migration in vivo: many genes involved in the regulation of Drosophila haematopoiesis and cellular immunity have been maintained across taxonomic groups ranging from flies to humans, many aspects of Drosophila and mammalian innate immunity seem to be conserved, and Drosophila is a simplified and well-studied genetic model system. In the present Commentary, we will discuss what is known about cellular adhesion and migration in the Drosophila cellular immune response, during both embryonic and larval development, and where possible compare it with related mechanisms in vertebrates.

  17. Reflections on the early development of poxvirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-06

    Poxvirus expression vectors were described in 1982 and quickly became widely used for vaccine development as well as research in numerous fields. Advantages of the vectors include simple construction, ability to accommodate large amounts of foreign DNA and high expression levels. Numerous poxvirus-based veterinary vaccines are currently in use and many others are in human clinical trials. The early reports of poxvirus vectors paved the way for and stimulated the development of other viral vectors and recombinant DNA vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Early career professional development issues for military academic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Warner, Christopher H; Bobo, William V; Flynn, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    Academically motivated graduates of military psychiatric residency programs confront serious challenges. In this article, the authors present a junior faculty development model organized around four overlapping domains: mentorship, scholarship, research, and career planning/development. Using these four domains as a platform for discussion, the authors focus on challenges facing academically oriented early-career military psychiatrists and provide guidance. The authors believe that a proactive stance, skillful mentoring, self-awareness through conscious planning and effort, ability to capitalize on existing opportunities for growth, and attention to detail are all vital to the junior military psychiatrist.

  19. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciT

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  20. Homologous Chromosome Pairing in Drosophila melanogaster Proceeds through Multiple Independent Initiations

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Jennifer C.; Marshall, Wallace F.; Dernburg, Abby; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics by which homologous chromosomes pair is currently unknown. Here, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with three-dimensional optical microscopy to show that homologous pairing of the somatic chromosome arm 2L in Drosophila occurs by independent initiation of pairing at discrete loci rather than by a processive zippering of sites along the length of chromosome. By evaluating the pairing frequencies of 11 loci on chromosome arm 2L over several timepoints during Drosophila embryonic development, we show that all 11 loci are paired very early in Drosophila development, within 13 h after egg deposition. To elucidate whether such pairing occurs by directed or undirected motion, we analyzed the pairing kinetics of histone loci during nuclear cycle 14. By measuring changes of nuclear length and correlating these changes with progression of time during cycle 14, we were able to express the pairing frequency and distance between homologous loci as a function of time. Comparing the experimentally determined dynamics of pairing to simulations based on previously proposed models of pairing motion, we show that the observed pairing kinetics are most consistent with a constrained random walk model and not consistent with a directed motion model. Thus, we conclude that simple random contacts through diffusion could suffice to allow pairing of homologous sites. PMID:9531544