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Sample records for early embryonic lethality

  1. Kinase-dead ATM protein causes genomic instability and early embryonic lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Yunyue; Jiang, Wenxia; Liu, Xiangyu; Dubois, Richard L; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Ludwig, Thomas; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Zha, Shan

    2012-08-06

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) kinase orchestrates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage responses by phosphorylating numerous substrates implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint activation. A-T patients and mouse models that express no ATM protein undergo normal embryonic development but exhibit pleiotropic DNA repair defects. In this paper, we report that mice carrying homozygous kinase-dead mutations in Atm (Atm(KD/KD)) died during early embryonic development. Atm(KD/-) cells exhibited proliferation defects and genomic instability, especially chromatid breaks, at levels higher than Atm(-/-) cells. Despite this increased genomic instability, Atm(KD/-) lymphocytes progressed through variable, diversity, and joining recombination and immunoglobulin class switch recombination, two events requiring nonhomologous end joining, at levels comparable to Atm(-/-) lymphocytes. Together, these results reveal an essential function of ATM during embryogenesis and an important function of catalytically inactive ATM protein in DNA repair.

  2. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Keisuke; Zhu, Jianjian; Heneghan, Mallorie B; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Morasso, Maria I; Tessarollo, Lino; Mackem, Susan; Udey, Mark C

    2009-12-31

    EpCAM (CD326) is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts), eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  3. Targeted deletion of p97 (VCP/CDC48) in mouse results in early embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Müller, J M M; Deinhardt, K; Rosewell, I; Warren, G; Shima, D T

    2007-03-09

    The highly conserved AAA ATPase p97 (VCP/CDC48) has well-established roles in cell cycle progression, proteasome degradation and membrane dynamics. Gene disruption in Saccromyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Trypanosoma brucei demonstrated that p97 is essential in unicellular and multicellular organisms. To explore the requirement for p97 in mammalian cell function and embryogenesis, we disrupted the p97 locus by gene targeting. Heterozygous p97+/- mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates, whereas homozygous mutants did not survive to birth and died at a peri-implantation stage. These results show that p97 is an essential gene for early mouse development.

  4. TopBP1 deficiency causes an early embryonic lethality and induces cellular senescence in primary cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon; Ko, Eun; Lee, Kyung Yong; Ko, Min Ji; Park, Seo Young; Kang, Jeeheon; Jeon, Chang Hwan; Lee, Ho; Hwang, Deog Su

    2011-02-18

    TopBP1 plays important roles in chromosome replication, DNA damage response, and other cellular regulatory functions in vertebrates. Although the roles of TopBP1 have been studied mostly in cancer cell lines, its physiological function remains unclear in mice and untransformed cells. We generated conditional knock-out mice in which exons 5 and 6 of the TopBP1 gene are flanked by loxP sequences. Although TopBP1-deficient embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, no homozygous mutant embryos were recovered at E8.5 or beyond, and completely resorbed embryos were frequent at E7.5, indicating that mutant embryos tend to die at the peri-implantation stage. This finding indicated that TopBP1 is essential for cell proliferation during early embryogenesis. Ablation of TopBP1 in TopBP1(flox/flox) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3 cells using Cre recombinase-expressing retrovirus arrests cell cycle progression at the G(1), S, and G(2)/M phases. The TopBP1-ablated mouse cells exhibit phosphorylation of H2AX and Chk2, indicating that the cells contain DNA breaks. The TopBP1-ablated mouse cells enter cellular senescence. Although RNA interference-mediated knockdown of TopBP1 induced cellular senescence in human primary cells, it induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, TopBP1 deficiency in untransformed mouse and human primary cells induces cellular senescence rather than apoptosis. These results indicate that TopBP1 is essential for cell proliferation and maintenance of chromosomal integrity.

  5. Disruption of NBS1 gene leads to early embryonic lethality in homozygous null mice and induces specific cancer in heterozygous mice

    SciT

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Henrie, Melinda

    2002-04-15

    Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive chromosome instability syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition, with cellular features similar to that of ataxia telangiectasia (AT). NBS results from mutations in the mammalian gene Nbs1 that codes for a 95-kDa protein called nibrin, NBS1, or p95. To establish an animal model for NBS, we attempted to generate NBS1 knockout mice. However, NBS1 gene knockouts were lethal at an early embryonic stage. NBS1 homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured in vitro showed retarded growth and subsequently underwent growth arrest within 5 days of culture. Apoptosis, assayed by TUNELmore » staining, was observed in NBSI homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured for four days. NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice were normal, and exhibited no specific phenotype for at least one year. However, fibroblast cells from NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice displayed an enhanced frequency of spontaneous transformation to anchorage-independent growth as compared to NBS1 wild-type(+/+) cells. Furthermore, heterozygous(+/-) mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma after one year compared to wild-type mice, even though no significant differences in the incidence of other tumors such as lung adenocarcinoma and lymphoma were observed. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that NBS1 heterozygosity and reduced NBSI expression induces formation of specific tumors in mice.« less

  6. Heterochromatin position effects on circularized sex chromosomes cause filicidal embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Patrick M; Gomez, Karina; Rominger, Peter; Howard, Dagnie; Kornfeld, Hannah; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-04-01

    Some circularized X-Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster are mitotically unstable and induce early embryonic lethality, but the genetic basis is unknown. Our experiments suggest that a large region of X-linked satellite DNA causes anaphase bridges and lethality when placed into a new heterochromatic environment within certain circularized X-Y chromosomes. These results reveal that repetitive sequences can be incompatible with one another in cis. The lethal phenotype also bears a remarkable resemblance to a case of interspecific hybrid lethality.

  7. Three-dimensional microCT imaging of murine embryonic development from immediate post-implantation to organogenesis: application for phenotyping analysis of early embryonic lethality in mutant animals.

    PubMed

    Ermakova, Olga; Orsini, Tiziana; Gambadoro, Alessia; Chiani, Francesco; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we applied three-dimensional microCT imaging to study murine embryogenesis in the range from immediate post-implantation period (embryonic day 5.5) to mid-gestation (embryonic day 12.5) with the resolution up to 1.4 µm/voxel. Also, we introduce an imaging procedure for non-invasive volumetric estimation of an entire litter of embryos within the maternal uterine structures. This method allows for an accurate, detailed and systematic morphometric analysis of both embryonic and extra-embryonic components during embryogenesis. Three-dimensional imaging of unperturbed embryos was performed to visualize the egg cylinder, primitive streak, gastrulation and early organogenesis stages of murine development in the C57Bl6/N mouse reference strain. Further, we applied our microCT imaging protocol to determine the earliest point when embryonic development is arrested in a mouse line with knockout for tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit Tsen54 gene. Our analysis determined that the embryonic development in Tsen54 null embryos does not proceed beyond implantation. We demonstrated that application of microCT imaging to entire litter of non-perturbed embryos greatly facilitate studies to unravel gene function during early embryogenesis and to determine the precise point at which embryonic development is arrested in mutant animals. The described method is inexpensive, does not require lengthy embryos dissection and can be applicable for detailed analysis of mutant mice at laboratory scale as well as for high-throughput projects.

  8. Haploinsufficiency of E-selectin ligand-1 is Associated with Reduced Atherosclerotic Plaque Macrophage Content while Complete Deficiency Leads to Early Embryonic Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Hui; Guo, Chiao; Wang, Jintao; Kwak, Jeffrey; Bahrou, Kristina L; Eitzman, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    E-selectin-1 (ESL-1), also known as golgi complex-localized glycoprotein-1 (GLG1), homocysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor (CGR-1), and latent transforming growth factor-β complex protein 1 (LTCP-1), is a multifunctional protein with widespread tissue distribution. To determine the functional consequences of ESL-1 deficiency, mice were generated carrying an ESL-1 gene trap. After backcrossing to C57BL6/J for 6 generations, mice heterozygous for the gene trap (ESL-1+/-) were intercrossed to produce ESL-1-/- mice, however ESL-1-/- mice were not viable, even at embryonic day E10.5. To determine the effect of heterozygous ESL-1 deficiency on atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-), ESL-1+/- mice were generated and fed western diet. Compared to ApoE-/-, ESL-1++ mice, atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE-/-, ESL-1+/- contained more collagen and fewer macrophages, suggesting increased plaque stability. In conclusion, heterozygous deficiency of ESL-1 is associated with features of increased atherosclerotic plaque stability while complete deficiency of ESL-1 leads to embryonic lethality. PMID:22939356

  9. Embryonic lethality is not sufficient to explain hourglass-like conservation of vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yui; Uesaka, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Irie, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the general trends in developmental changes during animal evolution, which are often associated with morphological diversification, has long been a central issue in evolutionary developmental biology. Recent comparative transcriptomic studies revealed that gene expression profiles of mid-embryonic period tend to be more evolutionarily conserved than those in earlier or later periods. While the hourglass-like divergence of developmental processes has been demonstrated in a variety of animal groups such as vertebrates, arthropods, and nematodes, the exact mechanism leading to this mid-embryonic conservation remains to be clarified. One possibility is that the mid-embryonic period (pharyngula period in vertebrates) is highly prone to embryonic lethality, and the resulting negative selections lead to evolutionary conservation of this phase. Here, we tested this "mid-embryonic lethality hypothesis" by measuring the rate of lethal phenotypes of three different species of vertebrate embryos subjected to two kinds of perturbations: transient perturbations and genetic mutations. By subjecting zebrafish ( Danio rerio ), African clawed frog ( Xenopus laevis ), and chicken ( Gallus gallus ) embryos to transient perturbations, namely heat shock and inhibitor treatments during three developmental periods [early (represented by blastula and gastrula), pharyngula, and late], we found that the early stages showed the highest rate of lethal phenotypes in all three species. This result was corroborated by perturbation with genetic mutations. By tracking the survival rate of wild-type embryos and embryos with genetic mutations induced by UV irradiation in zebrafish and African clawed frogs, we found that the highest decrease in survival rate was at the early stages particularly around gastrulation in both these species. In opposition to the "mid-embryonic lethality hypothesis," our results consistently showed that the stage with the highest lethality was not around the

  10. Lethal Dysregulation of Energy Metabolism During Embryonic Vitamin E Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Melissa; Choi, Jaewoo; Kim, Hye-Kyeong; Bobe, Gerd; Stevens, J. Frederik; Cadenas, Enrique; Tanguay, Robert; Traber, Maret G.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, VitE) was discovered in 1922 for its role in preventing embryonic mortality. We investigated the underlying mechanisms causing lethality using targeted metabolomics analyses of zebrafish VitE-deficient embryos over five days of development, which coincided with their increased morbidity and mortality. VitE deficiency resulted in peroxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), depleting DHA-containing phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, which also caused choline depletion. This increased lipid peroxidation also increased NADPH oxidation, which depleted glucose by shunting it to the pentose phosphate pathway. VitE deficiency was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction with concomitant impairment of energy homeostasis. The observed morbidity and mortality outcomes could be attenuated, but not fully reversed, by glucose injection into VitE-deficient embryos at developmental day one. Thus, embryonic VitE deficiency in vertebrates leads to a metabolic reprogramming that adversely affects methyl donor status and cellular energy homeostasis with lethal outcomes. PMID:28095320

  11. Sub-lethal and lethal toxicities of elevated CO2 on embryonic, juvenile, and adult stages of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changkeun; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Hong, Seongjin; Noh, Junsung; Lee, Junghyun; Ryu, Jongseong; Kang, Seong-Gil; Khim, Jong Seong

    2018-06-06

    The potential leakage from marine CO 2 storage sites is of increasing concern, but few studies have evaluated the probable adverse effects on marine organisms. Fish, one of the top predators in marine environments, should be an essential representative species used for water column toxicity testing in response to waterborne CO 2 exposure. In the present study, we conducted fish life cycle toxicity tests to fully elucidate CO 2 toxicity mechanism effects. We tested sub-lethal and lethal toxicities of elevated CO 2 concentrations on marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) at different developmental stages. At each developmental stage, the test species was exposed to varying concentrations of gaseous CO 2 (control air, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%), with 96 h of exposure at 0-4 d (early stage), 4-8 d (middle stage), and 8-12 d (late stage). Sub-lethal and lethal effects, including early developmental delays, cardiac edema, tail abnormalities, abnormal pigmentation, and mortality were monitored daily during the 14 d exposure period. At the embryonic stage, significant sub-lethal and lethal effects were observed at pH < 6.30. Hypercapnia can cause long-term and/or delayed developmental embryonic problems, even after transfer back to clean seawater. At fish juvenile and adult stages, significant mortality was observed at pH < 5.70, indicating elevated CO 2 exposure might cause various adverse effects, even during short-term exposure periods. It should be noted the early embryonic stage was found more sensitive to CO 2 exposure than other developmental stages of the fish life cycle. Overall, the present study provided baseline information for potential adverse effects of high CO 2 concentration exposure on fish developmental processes at different life cycle stages in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Placenta Defects and Embryonic Lethality Resulting from Disruption of Mouse Hydroxysteroid (17-β) Dehydrogenase 2 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rantakari, Pia; Strauss, Leena; Kiviranta, Riku; Lagerbohm, Heidi; Paviala, Jenni; Holopainen, Irma; Vainio, Seppo; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Poutanen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxysteroid (17-β) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD17B2) is a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily, known to catalyze the inactivation of 17β-hydroxysteroids to less active 17-keto forms and catalyze the conversion of 20α-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone in vitro. To examine the role of HSD17B2 in vivo, we generated mice deficient in Hsd17b2 [HSD17B2 knockout (KO)] by a targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells. From the homozygous mice carrying the disrupted Hsd17b2, 70% showed embryonic lethality appearing at the age of embryonic d 11.5 onward. The embryonic lethality was associated with reduced placental size measured at embryonic d 17.5. The HSD17B2KO mice placentas presented with structural abnormalities in all three major layers: the decidua, spongiotrophoblast, and labyrinth. Most notable was the disruption of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers, together with liquid-filled cysts in the junctional region and the basal layer. Treatments with an antiestrogen or progesterone did not rescue the embryonic lethality or the placenta defect in the homozygous mice. In hybrid background used, 24% of HSD17B2KO mice survived through the fetal period but were born growth retarded and displayed a phenotype in the brain with enlargement of ventricles, abnormal laminar organization, and increased cellular density in the cortex. Furthermore, the HSD17B2KO mice had unilateral renal degeneration, the affected kidney frequently appearing as a fluid-filled sac. Our results provide evidence for a role for HSD17B2 enzyme in the cellular organization of the mouse placenta. PMID:18048640

  13. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jeremy A; Pellegrini, Manuela; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Guo, Zhi; Filsuf, Darius; Belkina, Natalya V; You, Zhongsheng; Paull, Tanya T; Sleckman, Barry P; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Nussenzweig, André

    2012-08-06

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) is a key deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage signaling kinase that regulates DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. The majority of patients with A-T, a cancer-prone neurodegenerative disease, present with null mutations in Atm. To determine whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice, without displaying dominant-negative interfering activity. Using conditional deletion, we find that the D2899A mutation in adult mice behaves largely similar to Atm-null cells but shows greater deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) as measured by hypersensitivity to poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition and increased genomic instability. These results may explain why missense mutations with no detectable kinase activity are rarely found in patients with classical A-T. We propose that ATM kinase-inactive missense mutations, unless otherwise compensated for, interfere with HR during embryogenesis.

  14. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening.

    PubMed

    Adams, David; Baldock, Richard; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Copp, Andrew J; Dickinson, Mary; Greene, Nicholas D E; Henkelman, Mark; Justice, Monica; Mohun, Timothy; Murray, Stephen A; Pauws, Erwin; Raess, Michael; Rossant, Janet; Weaver, Tom; West, David

    2013-05-01

    Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data.

  15. Embryonic Lethality of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Deficient Mouse Can Be Rescued by a Ketogenic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Krznar, Petra; Hörl, Manuel; Ammar, Zeinab; Montessuit, Sylvie; Pierredon, Sandra; Zamboni, Nicola; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of pyruvate by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is a central step which links cytosolic and mitochondrial intermediary metabolism. To investigate the role of the MPC in mammalian physiology and development, we generated a mouse strain with complete loss of MPC1 expression. This resulted in embryonic lethality at around E13.5. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from mutant mice displayed defective pyruvate-driven respiration as well as perturbed metabolic profiles, and both defects could be restored by reexpression of MPC1. Labeling experiments using 13C-labeled glucose and glutamine demonstrated that MPC deficiency causes increased glutaminolysis and reduced contribution of glucose-derived pyruvate to the TCA cycle. Morphological defects were observed in mutant embryonic brains, together with major alterations of their metabolome including lactic acidosis, diminished TCA cycle intermediates, energy deficit and a perturbed balance of neurotransmitters. Strikingly, these changes were reversed when the pregnant dams were fed a ketogenic diet, which provides acetyl-CoA directly to the TCA cycle and bypasses the need for a functional MPC. This allowed the normal gestation and development of MPC deficient pups, even though they all died within a few minutes post-delivery. This study establishes the MPC as a key player in regulating the metabolic state necessary for embryonic development, neurotransmitter balance and post-natal survival. PMID:27176894

  16. Nonpermissiveness for mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation circumvented by a single backcross to 129/Sv strain: establishment of ES cell lines bearing the Omd conditional lethal mutation.

    PubMed

    Kress, C; Vandormael-Pournin, S; Baldacci, P; Cohen-Tannoudji, M; Babinet, C

    1998-12-01

    The inbred mouse strain DDK carries a conditional early embryonic lethal mutation that is manifested when DDK females are crossed to males of other inbred strains but not in the corresponding reciprocal crosses. It has been shown that embryonic lethality could be assigned to a single genetic locus called Ovum mutant (Om), on Chromosome (Chr) 11 near Syca 1. In the course of our study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethality, we were interested in deriving an embryonic stem cell bearing the Om mutation in the homozygous state (Omd/Omd). However, it turned out that DDK is nonpermissive for ES cell establishment, with a standard protocol. Here we show that permissiveness could be obtained using Omd/Omd blastocysts with a 75% 129/Sv and 25% DDK genetic background. Several germline-competent Omd/Omd ES cell lines have been derived from blastocysts of this genotype. Such a scenario could be extended to the generation of ES cell lines bearing any mutation present in an otherwise nonpermissive mouse strain.

  17. Ectopic expression of Cripto-1 in transgenic mouse embryos causes hemorrhages, fatal cardiac defects and embryonic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wentao; Jia, Junshuang; Lin, Taoyan; Xiao, Gaofang; Wang, Shengchun; Lin, Xia; Liu, Yu; Chen, Li; Qin, Yujuan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Tingting; Hao, Weichao; Chen, Bangzhu; Xie, Raoying; Cheng, Yushuang; Xu, Kang; Yao, Kaitai; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Dong; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Targeted disruption of Cripto-1 in mice caused embryonic lethality at E7.5, whereas we unexpectedly found that ectopic Cripto-1 expression in mouse embryos also led to embryonic lethality, which prompted us to characterize the causes and mechanisms underlying embryonic death due to ectopic Cripto-1 expression. RCLG/EIIa-Cre embryos displayed complex phenotypes between embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) and E17.5, including fatal hemorrhages (E14.5-E15.5), embryo resorption (E14.5-E17.5), pale body surface (E14.5-E16.5) and no abnormal appearance (E14.5-E16.5). Macroscopic and histological examination revealed that ectopic expression of Cripto-1 transgene in RCLG/EIIa-Cre embryos resulted in lethal cardiac defects, as evidenced by cardiac malformations, myocardial thinning, failed assembly of striated myofibrils and lack of heartbeat. In addition, Cripto-1 transgene activation beginning after E8.5 also caused the aforementioned lethal cardiac defects in mouse embryos. Furthermore, ectopic Cripto-1 expression in embryonic hearts reduced the expression of cardiac transcription factors, which is at least partially responsible for the aforementioned lethal cardiac defects. Our results suggest that hemorrhages and cardiac abnormalities are two important lethal factors in Cripto-1 transgenic mice. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate that sustained Cripto-1 transgene expression after E11.5 causes fatal hemorrhages and lethal cardiac defects, leading to embryonic death at E14.5-17.5. PMID:27687577

  18. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert; Geyer, Stefan H.; Reissig, Lukas; Rose, Julia; Szumska, Dorota; Hardman, Emily; Prin, Fabrice; McGuire, Christina; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; White, Jacqui; Galli, Antonella; Tudor, Catherine; Tuck, Elizabeth; Mazzeo, Cecilia Icoresi; Smith, James C.; Robertson, Elizabeth; Adams, David J.; Mohun, Timothy; Weninger, Wolfgang J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD) programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant and 114 wild type embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all mutant embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates. PMID:27996060

  19. A genetic screen for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    PubMed Central

    Pultz, M A; Zimmerman, K K; Alto, N M; Kaeberlein, M; Lange, S K; Pitt, J N; Reeves, N L; Zehrung, D L

    2000-01-01

    We have screened for zygotic embryonic lethal mutations affecting cuticular morphology in Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera; Chalcidoidea). Our broad goal was to investigate the use of Nasonia for genetically surveying conservation and change in regulatory gene systems, as a means to understand the diversity of developmental strategies that have arisen during the course of evolution. Specifically, we aim to compare anteroposterior patterning gene functions in two long germ band insects, Nasonia and Drosophila. In Nasonia, unfertilized eggs develop as haploid males while fertilized eggs develop as diploid females, so the entire genome can be screened for recessive zygotic mutations by examining the progeny of F1 females. We describe 74 of >100 lines with embryonic cuticular mutant phenotypes, including representatives of coordinate, gap, pair-rule, segment polarity, homeotic, and Polycomb group functions, as well as mutants with novel phenotypes not directly comparable to those of known Drosophila genes. We conclude that Nasonia is a tractable experimental organism for comparative developmental genetic study. The mutants isolated here have begun to outline the extent of conservation and change in the genetic programs controlling embryonic patterning in Nasonia and Drosophila. PMID:10866651

  20. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Maria; Ebner, Thomas; Puchner, Manuela; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Shebl, Omar; Oppelt, Peter; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  1. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maria; Ebner, Thomas; Puchner, Manuela; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Shebl, Omar; Oppelt, Peter; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting. PMID:26644858

  2. Abnormal differentiation, hyperplasia and embryonic/perinatal lethality in BK5-T/t transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Schneider-Broussard, Robin; Hollowell, Debra; McArthur, Mark; Jeter, Collene R.; Benavides, Fernando; DiGiovanni, John; Tang, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    The cell-of-origin has a great impact on the types of tumors that develop and the stem/progenitor cells have long been considered main targets of malignant transformation. The SV40 large T and small t antigens (T/t), have been targeted to multiple differentiated cellular compartments in transgenic mice. In most of these studies, transgenic animals develop tumors without apparent defects in animal development. In this study, we used the bovine keratin 5 (BK5) promoter to target the T/t antigens to stem/progenitor cell-containing cytokeratin 5 (CK5) cellular compartment. A transgene construct, BK5-T/t, was made and microinjected into the male pronucleus of FVB/N mouse oocytes. After implanting ∼1700 embryos, only 7 transgenics were obtained, including 4 embryos (E9.5, E13, E15, and E20) and 3 postnatal animals, which died at P1, P2, and P18, respectively. Immunohistological analysis revealed aberrant differentiation and prominent hyperplasia in several transgenic CK5 tissues, especially the upper digestive organs (tongue, oral mucosa, esophagus, and forestomach) and epidermis, the latter of which also showed focal dysplasia. Altogether, these results indicate that constitutive expression of the T/t antigens in CK5 cellular compartment results in abnormal epithelial differentiation and leads to embryonic/perinatal animal lethality. PMID:19272531

  3. Disruption of TTDA Results in Complete Nucleotide Excision Repair Deficiency and Embryonic Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Arjan F.; Nonnekens, Julie; Steurer, Barbara; Mari, Pierre-Olivier; de Wit, Jan; Lemaitre, Charlène; Marteijn, Jurgen A.; Raams, Anja; Maas, Alex; Vermeij, Marcel; Essers, Jeroen; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Vermeulen, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The ten-subunit transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) plays a crucial role in transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Inactivating mutations in the smallest 8-kDa TFB5/TTDA subunit cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid repair syndrome trichothiodystrophy A (TTD-A). Previous studies have shown that TTDA is the only TFIIH subunit that appears not to be essential for NER, transcription, or viability. We studied the consequences of TTDA inactivation by generating a Ttda knock-out (Ttda−/−) mouse-model resembling TTD-A patients. Unexpectedly, Ttda−/− mice were embryonic lethal. However, in contrast to full disruption of all other TFIIH subunits, viability of Ttda−/− cells was not affected. Surprisingly, Ttda−/− cells were completely NER deficient, contrary to the incomplete NER deficiency of TTD-A patient-derived cells. We further showed that TTD-A patient mutations only partially inactivate TTDA function, explaining the relatively mild repair phenotype of TTD-A cells. Moreover, Ttda−/− cells were also highly sensitive to oxidizing agents. These findings reveal an essential role of TTDA for life, nucleotide excision repair, and oxidative DNA damage repair and identify Ttda−/− cells as a unique class of TFIIH mutants. PMID:23637614

  4. Hypotension, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance in generalized PPARγ-deficient mice rescued from embryonic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Sheng Zhong; Ivashchenko, Christine Y.; Whitesall, Steven E.; D’Alecy, Louis G.; Duquaine, Damon C.; Brosius, Frank C.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Vinson, Charles; Pierre, Melissa A.; Milstone, David S.; Mortensen, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    We rescued the embryonic lethality of global PPARγ knockout by breeding Mox2-Cre (MORE) mice with floxed PPARγ mice to inactivate PPARγ in the embryo but not in trophoblasts and created a generalized PPARγ knockout mouse model, MORE-PPARγ knockout (MORE-PGKO) mice. PPARγ inactivation caused severe lipodystrophy and insulin resistance; surprisingly, it also caused hypotension. Paradoxically, PPARγ agonists had the same effect. We showed that another mouse model of lipodystrophy was hypertensive, ruling out the lipodystrophy as a cause. Further, high salt loading did not correct the hypotension in MORE-PGKO mice. In vitro studies showed that the vasculature from MORE-PGKO mice was more sensitive to endothelial-dependent relaxation caused by muscarinic stimulation, but was not associated with changes in eNOS expression or phosphorylation. In addition, vascular smooth muscle had impaired contraction in response to α-adrenergic agents. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was mildly activated, consistent with increased vascular capacitance or decreased volume. These effects are likely mechanisms contributing to the hypotension. Our results demonstrated that PPARγ is required to maintain normal adiposity and insulin sensitivity in adult mice. Surprisingly, genetic loss of PPARγ function, like activation by agonists, lowered blood pressure, likely through a mechanism involving increased vascular relaxation. PMID:17304352

  5. Embryonic Lethality Due to Arrested Cardiac Development in Psip1/Hdgfrp2 Double-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Dickson, Amy K; Engelman, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) related protein 2 (HRP2) and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 are closely related members of the HRP2 protein family. LEDGF/p75 has been implicated in numerous human pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious disease. Knockout of the Psip1 gene, which encodes for LEDGF/p75 and the shorter LEDGF/p52 isoform, was previously shown to cause perinatal lethality in mice. The function of HRP2 was by contrast largely unknown. To learn about the role of HRP2 in development, we knocked out the Hdgfrp2 gene, which encodes for HRP2, in both normal and Psip1 knockout mice. Hdgfrp2 knockout mice developed normally and were fertile. By contrast, the double deficient mice died at approximate embryonic day (E) 13.5. Histological examination revealed ventricular septal defect (VSD) associated with E14.5 double knockout embryos. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism(s), RNA recovered from ventricular tissue was subjected to RNA-sequencing on the Illumina platform. Bioinformatic analysis revealed several genes and biological pathways that were significantly deregulated by the Psip1 knockout and/or Psip1/Hdgfrp2 double knockout. Among the dozen genes known to encode for LEDGF/p75 binding factors, only the expression of Nova1, which encodes an RNA splicing factor, was significantly deregulated by the knockouts. However the expression of other RNA splicing factors, including the LEDGF/p52-interacting protein ASF/SF2, was not significantly altered, indicating that deregulation of global RNA splicing was not a driving factor in the pathology of the VSD. Tumor growth factor (Tgf) β-signaling, which plays a key role in cardiac morphogenesis during development, was the only pathway significantly deregulated by the double knockout as compared to control and Psip1 knockout samples. We accordingly speculate that deregulated Tgf-β signaling was a contributing factor to the VSD and prenatal lethality of Psip1

  6. Mutation at p53 serine 389 does not rescue the embryonic lethality in mdm2 or mdm4 null mice.

    PubMed

    Iwakuma, Tomoo; Parant, John M; Fasulo, Mark; Zwart, Edwin; Jacks, Tyler; de Vries, Annemieke; Lozano, Guillermina

    2004-10-07

    Mdm2 and its homolog Mdm4 inhibit the function of the tumor suppressor p53. Targeted disruption of either mdm2 or mdm4 genes in mice results in embryonic lethality that is completely rescued by concomitant deletion of p53, suggesting that deletion of negative regulators of p53 results in a constitutively active p53. Thus, these mouse models offer a unique in vivo system to assay the functional significance of different p53 modifications. Phosphorylation of serine 389 in murine p53 occurs specifically after ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage, and phosphorylation of this site enhances p53 activity both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, mice with a serine to alanine substitution at serine 389 (p53S389A) in the endogenous p53 locus were generated. To examine the in vivo significance of serine 389 phosphorylation during embryogenesis, we crossed these mutant mice to mice lacking mdm2 or mdm4. The p53S389A allele did not alter the embryonic lethality of mdm2 or mdm4. Additional crosses to assay the effect of one p53S389A allele with a p53 null allele also did not rescue the lethal phenotypes. In conclusion, the phenotypes due to loss of mdm2 or mdm4 were not even partially rescued by p53S389A, suggesting that p53S389A is functionally wild type during embryogenesis.

  7. Embryonic vaccines against cancer: an early history.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Bradley G; Mitchell, Robert A; Harandi, Amir; Eaton, John W

    2009-06-01

    Almost 100 years have passed since the seminal observations of Schöne showing that vaccination of animals with fetal tissue would prevent the growth of transplantable tumors. Many subsequent reports have affirmed the general idea that immunologic rejection of transplantable tumors, as well as prevention of carcinogenesis, may be affected by vaccination with embryonic/fetal material. Following a decade of intense research on this phenomenon during approximately 1964-1974, interest appears to have waned. This earlier experimental work may be particularly pertinent in view of the rising interest in so-called cancer stem cells. We believe that further work - perhaps involving the use of embryonic stem cells as immunogens - is warranted and that the results reviewed herein support the concept that vaccination against the appearance of cancers of all kinds is a real possibility.

  8. Mutants in the mouse NuRD/Mi2 component P66alpha are embryonic lethal.

    PubMed

    Marino, Susan; Nusse, Roel

    2007-06-13

    The NuRD/Mi2 chromatin complex is involved in histone modifications and contains a large number of subunits, including the p66 protein. There are two mouse and human p66 paralogs, p66alpha and p66beta. The functions of these genes are not clear, in part because there are no mutants available, except in invertebrate model systems. We made loss of function mutants in the mouse p66alpha gene (mp66alpha, official name Gatad2a, MGI:2384585). We found that mp66alpha is essential for development, as mutant embryos die around day 10 of embryogenesis. The gene is not required for normal blastocyst development or for implantation. The phenotype of mutant embryos and the pattern of gene expression in mutants are consistent with a role of mp66alpha in gene silencing. mp66alpha is an essential gene, required for early mouse development. The lethal phenotype supports a role in execution of methylated DNA silencing.

  9. Mutants in the Mouse NuRD/Mi2 Component P66α Are Embryonic Lethal

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Susan; Nusse, Roel

    2007-01-01

    Background The NuRD/Mi2 chromatin complex is involved in histone modifications and contains a large number of subunits, including the p66 protein. There are two mouse and human p66 paralogs, p66α and p66β. The functions of these genes are not clear, in part because there are no mutants available, except in invertebrate model systems. Methodology We made loss of function mutants in the mouse p66α gene (mp66α, official name Gatad2a, MGI:2384585). We found that mp66α is essential for development, as mutant embryos die around day 10 of embryogenesis. The gene is not required for normal blastocyst development or for implantation. The phenotype of mutant embryos and the pattern of gene expression in mutants are consistent with a role of mp66α in gene silencing. Conclusion mp66α is an essential gene, required for early mouse development. The lethal phenotype supports a role in execution of methylated DNA silencing. PMID:17565372

  10. Embryonic lethality in mice lacking mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase is partially prevented by DOPS, a precursor of noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yusuke; Ono, Tetsuya; Takeda, Naoki; Nohmi, Takehiko; Seki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takemi; Noda, Tetsuo; Uehara, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is involved in the repair of G:T and G:U mismatches caused by hydrolytic deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine, respectively. Recent studies have shown that TDG not only has G-T/U glycosylase activities but also acts in the maintaining proper epigenetic status. In order to investigate the function of TDG in vivo, mice lacking Tdg, Tdg (-/-), were generated. Tdg mutant mice died in utero by 11.5 days post coitum (dpc), although there were no significant differences in the spontaneous mutant frequencies between wild type and Tdg (-/-) embryos. On the other hand, the levels of noradrenaline in 10.5 dpc whole embryos, which is necessary for normal embryogenesis, were dramatically reduced in Tdg (-/-) embryos. Consequently, we tested the effect of D, L-threo-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS), a synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, on the survival of the Tdg (-/-) embryos. DOPS was given to pregnant Tdg (+/-) mice from 6.5 dpc through drinking water. Most of the Tdg (-/-) embryos were alive at 11.5 dpc, and they were partially rescued up to 14.5 dpc by the administration of DOPS. In contrast, the administration of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) had marginal effects on Tdg (-/-) embryonic lethality. No embryo was alive without DOPS beyond 11.5 dpc, suggesting that the lethality in (-/-) embryos is partially due to the reduction of noradrenaline. These results suggest that embryonic lethality in Tdg (-/-) embryos is due, in part, to the reduction of noradrenaline levels.

  11. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2007-09-01

    1. It has been proposed that Ca2+ signalling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern-forming events during early vertebrate development. 2. With reference to the embryo of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), herein we review the Ca2+ transients reported from the cleavage to segmentation periods. This time-window includes most of the major pattern-forming events of early development, which transform a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular embryo with established primary germ layers and body axes. 3. Data are presented to support our proposal that intracellular Ca2+ waves are an essential feature of embryonic cytokinesis and that propagating intercellular Ca2+ waves (both long and short range) may play a crucial role in: (i) the establishment of the embryonic periderm and the coordination of cell movements during epiboly, convergence and extension; (ii) the establishment of the basic embryonic axes and germ layers; and (iii) definition of the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen. 4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events.

  12. Cardiac Med1 deletion promotes early lethality, cardiac remodeling, and transcriptional reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Spitler, Kathryn M.; Ponce, Jessica M.; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Hall, Duane D.

    2017-01-01

    The mediator complex, a multisubunit nuclear complex, plays an integral role in regulating gene expression by acting as a bridge between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Genetic deletion of mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in embryonic lethality, due in large part to impaired cardiac development. We first established that Med1 is dynamically expressed in cardiac development and disease, with marked upregulation of Med1 in both human and murine failing hearts. To determine if Med1 deficiency protects against cardiac stress, we generated two cardiac-specific Med1 knockout mouse models in which Med1 is conditionally deleted (Med1cKO mice) or inducibly deleted in adult mice (Med1cKO-MCM mice). In both models, cardiac deletion of Med1 resulted in early lethality accompanied by pronounced changes in cardiac function, including left ventricular dilation, decreased ejection fraction, and pathological structural remodeling. We next defined how Med1 deficiency alters the cardiac transcriptional profile using RNA-sequencing analysis. Med1cKO mice demonstrated significant dysregulation of genes related to cardiac metabolism, in particular genes that are coordinated by the transcription factors Pgc1α, Pparα, and Errα. Consistent with the roles of these transcription factors in regulation of mitochondrial genes, we observed significant alterations in mitochondrial size, mitochondrial gene expression, complex activity, and electron transport chain expression under Med1 deficiency. Taken together, these data identify Med1 as an important regulator of vital cardiac gene expression and maintenance of normal heart function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Disruption of transcriptional gene expression is a hallmark of dilated cardiomyopathy; however, its etiology is not well understood. Cardiac-specific deletion of the transcriptional coactivator mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in dilated cardiomyopathy, decreased cardiac function, and lethality. Med1 deletion disrupted cardiac

  13. Dihydroartemisinin promotes angiogenesis during the early embryonic development of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Qian; Duan, Juan; Tian, Jia-qiang; Wang, Zi-liang; Chen, Tao; Li, Xiao-guang; Chen, Pei-zhan; Wu, Song-jie; Xiang, Li; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the embryotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the main active metabolite of artemisinin, in zebrafish, and explore the corresponding mechanisms. Methods: The embryos of wild type and TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were exposed to DHA. Developmental phenotypes of the embryos were observed. Development of blood vessels was directly observed in living embryos of TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish under fluorescence microscope. The expression of angiogenesis marker genes vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos was detected using real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays. Results: Exposure to DHA (1–10 mg/L) dose-dependently caused abnormal zebrafish embryonic phenotypes in the early developmental stage. Furthermore, exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) resulted in more pronounced embryonic angiogenesis in TG (flk1:GFP) zebrafish line. Exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) significantly increased the mRNA expression of vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos. Knockdown of the flk1 protein partially blocked the effects of DHA on embryogenesis. Conclusion: DHA causes abnormal embryonic phenotypes and promotes angiogenesis in zebrafish early embryonic development, demonstrating the potential embryotoxicity of DHA. PMID:23708556

  14. Expression of inactive glutathione peroxidase 4 leads to embryonic lethality, and inactivation of the Alox15 gene does not rescue such knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Brütsch, Simone Hanna; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Lu; Stender, Hannelore; Neziroglu, Nilgün; Richter, Constanze; Kuhn, Hartmut; Borchert, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (Gpx) and lipoxygenases (Alox) are functional counterplayers in the metabolism of hydroperoxy lipids that regulate cellular redox homeostasis. Gpx4 is a moonlighting protein that has been implicated not only as an enzyme in anti-oxidative defense, gene expression regulation, and programmed cell death, but also as a structural protein in spermatogenesis. Homozygous Gpx4 knock-out mice are not viable, but molecular reasons for intrauterine lethality are not completely understood. This study was aimed at investigating whether the lack of catalytic activity or the impaired function as structural protein is the dominant reason for embryonic lethality. We further explored whether the pro-oxidative enzyme mouse 12/15 lipoxygenase (Alox15) plays a major role in embryonic lethality of Gpx4-deficient mice. To achieve these goals, we first created knock-in mice, which express a catalytically inactive Gpx4 mutant (Sec46Ala). As homozygous Gpx4-knock-out mice Sec46Ala-Gpx4(+/+) knock-in animals are not viable but undergo intrauterine resorption between embryonic day 6 and 7 (E6-7). In contrast, heterozygous knock-in mice (Sec46Ala-Gpx4(-/+)) are viable, fertile and do not show major phenotypic alterations. Interestingly, homozygous Alox15 deficiency did not rescue the U46A-Gpx4(+/+) mice from embryonic lethality. In fact, when heterozygous U46A-Gpx4(-/+) mice were stepwise crossed into an Alox15-deficent background, no viable U46A-Gpx4(+/+)+Alox15(-/-) individuals were obtained. However, we were able to identify U46A-Gpx4(+/+)+Alox15(-/-) embryos in the state of resorption around E7. These data suggest that the lack of catalytic activity is the major reason for the embryonic lethality of Gpx4(-/-) mice and that systemic inactivation of the Alox15 gene does not rescue homozygous knock-in mice expressing catalytically silent Gpx4.

  15. Behavioral development in embryonic and early juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Polo-like kinase 1 is essential for early embryonic development and tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Wood, Jamie L; Minter-Dykhouse, Katherine; Ye, Lin; Saunders, Thomas L; Yu, Xiaochun; Chen, Junjie

    2008-11-01

    Polo-like kinases (Plks) are serine/threonine kinases that are highly conserved in organisms from yeasts to humans. Previous reports have shown that Plk1 is critical for all stages of mitosis and may play a role in DNA replication during S phase. While much work has focused on Plk1, little is known about the physiological function of Plk1 in vivo. To address this question, we generated Plk1 knockout mice. Plk1 homozygous null mice were embryonic lethal, and early Plk1(-/-) embryos failed to survive after the eight-cell stage. Immunocytochemistry studies revealed that Plk1-null embryos were arrested outside the mitotic phase, suggesting that Plk1 is important for proper cell cycle progression. It has been postulated that Plk1 is a potential oncogene, due to its overexpression in a variety of tumors and tumor cell lines. While the Plk1 heterozygotes were healthy at birth, the incidence of tumors in these animals was threefold greater than that in their wild-type counterparts, demonstrating that the loss of one Plk1 allele accelerates tumor formation. Collectively, our data support that Plk1 is important for early embryonic development and may function as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor.

  17. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5μM fluoxetine for 6h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5μM) over 24h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K(+) channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ~30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of Nephrocystin-3 Function Can Cause Embryonic Lethality, Meckel-Gruber-like Syndrome, Situs Inversus, and Renal-Hepatic-Pancreatic Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Carsten; Fliegauf, Manfred; Brüchle, Nadina Ortiz; Frank, Valeska; Olbrich, Heike; Kirschner, Jan; Schermer, Bernhard; Schmedding, Ingolf; Kispert, Andreas; Kränzlin, Bettina; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Becker, Christian; Grimm, Tiemo; Girschick, Gundula; Lynch, Sally A.; Kelehan, Peter; Senderek, Jan; Neuhaus, Thomas J.; Stallmach, Thomas; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Nürnberg, Peter; Gretz, Norbert; Lo, Cecilia; Lienkamp, Soeren; Schäfer, Tobias; Walz, Gerd; Benzing, Thomas; Zerres, Klaus; Omran, Heymut

    2008-01-01

    Many genetic diseases have been linked to the dysfunction of primary cilia, which occur nearly ubiquitously in the body and act as solitary cellular mechanosensory organelles. The list of clinical manifestations and affected tissues in cilia-related disorders (ciliopathies) such as nephronophthisis is broad and has been attributed to the wide expression pattern of ciliary proteins. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms leading to this dramatic diversity of phenotypes. We recently reported hypomorphic NPHP3 mutations in children and young adults with isolated nephronophthisis and associated hepatic fibrosis or tapetoretinal degeneration. Here, we chose a combinatorial approach in mice and humans to define the phenotypic spectrum of NPHP3/Nphp3 mutations and the role of the nephrocystin-3 protein. We demonstrate that the pcy mutation generates a hypomorphic Nphp3 allele that is responsible for the cystic kidney disease phenotype, whereas complete loss of Nphp3 function results in situs inversus, congenital heart defects, and embryonic lethality in mice. In humans, we show that NPHP3 mutations can cause a broad clinical spectrum of early embryonic patterning defects comprising situs inversus, polydactyly, central nervous system malformations, structural heart defects, preauricular fistulas, and a wide range of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). On the functional level, we show that nephrocystin-3 directly interacts with inversin and can inhibit like inversin canonical Wnt signaling, whereas nephrocystin-3 deficiency leads in Xenopus laevis to typical planar cell polarity defects, suggesting a role in the control of canonical and noncanonical (planar cell polarity) Wnt signaling. PMID:18371931

  19. An initiator codon mutation in SDE2 causes recessive embryonic lethality in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Sébastien; Hoze, Chris; Rebours, Emmanuelle; Barbat, Anne; Bizard, Méline; Chamberlain, Amanda; Escouflaire, Clémentine; Vander Jagt, Christy; Boussaha, Mekki; Grohs, Cécile; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Philippe, Maëlle; Vallée, Amélie; Amigues, Yves; Hayes, Benjamin J; Boichard, Didier; Capitan, Aurélien

    2018-04-18

    Researching depletions in homozygous genotypes for specific haplotypes among the large cohorts of animals genotyped for genomic selection is a very efficient strategy to map recessive lethal mutations. In this study, by analyzing real or imputed Illumina BovineSNP50 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) genotypes from more than 250,000 Holstein animals, we identified a new locus called HH6 showing significant negative effects on conception rate and nonreturn rate at 56 d in at-risk versus control mating. We fine-mapped this locus in a 1.1-Mb interval and analyzed genome sequence data from 12 carrier and 284 noncarrier Holstein bulls. We report the identification of a strong candidate mutation in the gene encoding SDE2 telomere maintenance homolog (SDE2), a protein essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. This A-to-G transition changes the initiator ATG (methionine) codon to ACG because the gene is transcribed on the reverse strand. Using RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, we demonstrated that this mutation does not significantly affect SDE2 splicing and expression level in heterozygous carriers compared with control animals. Initiation of translation at the closest in-frame methionine codon would truncate the SDE2 precursor by 83 amino acids, including the cleavage site necessary for its activation. Finally, no homozygote for the G allele was observed in a large population of nearly 29,000 individuals genotyped for the mutation. The low frequency (1.3%) of the derived allele in the French population and the availability of a diagnostic test on the Illumina EuroG10K SNP chip routinely used for genomic evaluation will enable rapid and efficient selection against this deleterious mutation. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  1. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    SciT

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723; Choe, Changyong

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetinemore » (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  2. Tropomodulin3-null mice are embryonic lethal with anemia due to impaired erythroid terminal differentiation in the fetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhenhua; Nowak, Roberta B.; Bacconi, Andrea; Kim, Nancy E.; Liu, Hui; Li, Jie; Wickrema, Amittha; An, Xiu-li

    2014-01-01

    Tropomodulin (Tmod) is a protein that binds and caps the pointed ends of actin filaments in erythroid and nonerythoid cell types. Targeted deletion of mouse tropomodulin3 (Tmod3) leads to embryonic lethality at E14.5-E18.5, with anemia due to defects in definitive erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. Erythroid burst-forming unit and colony-forming unit numbers are greatly reduced, indicating defects in progenitor populations. Flow cytometry of fetal liver erythroblasts shows that late-stage populations are also decreased, including reduced percentages of enucleated cells. Annexin V staining indicates increased apoptosis of Tmod3−/− erythroblasts, and cell-cycle analysis reveals that there are more Ter119hi cells in S-phase in Tmod3−/− embryos. Notably, enucleating Tmod3−/− erythroblasts are still in the process of proliferation, suggesting impaired cell-cycle exit during terminal differentiation. Tmod3−/− late erythroblasts often exhibit multilobular nuclear morphologies and aberrant F-actin assembly during enucleation. Furthermore, native erythroblastic island formation was impaired in Tmod3−/− fetal livers, with Tmod3 required in both erythroblasts and macrophages. In conclusion, disruption of Tmod3 leads to impaired definitive erythropoiesis due to reduced progenitors, impaired erythroblastic island formation, and defective erythroblast cell-cycle progression and enucleation. Tmod3-mediated actin remodeling may be required for erythroblast-macrophage adhesion, coordination of cell cycle with differentiation, and F-actin assembly and remodeling during erythroblast enucleation. PMID:24159174

  3. Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism Are Essential for Early Embryonic Development of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237

  4. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sene, Kagnew Hailesellasse; Porter, Christopher J; Palidwor, Gareth; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Muro, Enrique M; Campbell, Pearl A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5) undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs) over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1), our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2) that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of mESC differentiation, and

  5. Early embryonic androgen exposure induces transgenerational epigenetic and metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2014-08-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study.

  6. Early Embryonic Androgen Exposure Induces Transgenerational Epigenetic and Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Chua, Angela K.; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Ning-Ai

    2014-01-01

    Androgen excess is a central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 6% to 10% of young women. Mammals exposed to elevated androgens in utero develop PCOS-like phenotypes in adulthood, suggesting fetal origins of PCOS. We hypothesize that excess androgen exposure during early embryonic development may disturb the epigenome and disrupt metabolism in exposed and unexposed subsequent generations. Zebrafish were used to study the underlying mechanism of fetal origins. Embryos were exposed to androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) early at 26 to 56 hours post fertilization or late at 21 to 28 days post fertilization. Exposed zebrafish (F0) were grown to adults and crossed to generate unexposed offspring (F1). For both generations, global DNA methylation levels were examined in ovaries using a luminometric methylation assay, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured. We found that early but not late androgen exposure induced changes in global methylation and glucose homeostasis in both generations. In general, F0 adult zebrafish exhibited altered global methylation levels in the ovary; F1 zebrafish had global hypomethylation. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased in F0 but increased in F1; postprandial glucose levels were elevated in both F0 and F1. This androgenized zebrafish study suggests that transient excess androgen exposure during early development can result in transgenerational alterations in the ovarian epigenome and glucose homeostasis. Current data cannot establish a causal relationship between epigenetic changes and altered glucose homeostasis. Whether transgenerational epigenetic alteration induced by prenatal androgen exposure plays a role in the development of PCOS in humans deserves study. PMID:24992182

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of the Herbicide Atrazine in the Early Stages of Development of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Rutkoski, Camila F; Macagnan, Natani; Kolcenti, Cassiane; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Sturza, Paola F; Hartmann, Paulo A; Hartmann, Marilia T

    2018-05-01

    Water sources used as reproductive sites by crying frog, Physalaemus gracilis, are extensively associated with agroecosystems in which the herbicide atrazine is employed. To evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of atrazine commercial formulation, acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed in the embryonic phase and the beginning of the larval phase of P. gracilis. Tests were started on stage 19 of Gosner (Herpetologica 16:183-190, 1960) and performed in 24-well cell culture plates. Acute tests had a duration of 96 h with embryo mortality monitoring every 24 h. Chronic assays contemplated the transition from the embryonic to larval stages and lasted 168 h. Every 24 h the embryos/larvae were observed for mortality, mobility, and malformations. The LC50 of atrazine determined for P. gracilis embryos was 229.34 mg L -1 . The sublethal concentrations did not affect the development of the larvae but were observed effects on mobility and malformations, such as spasmodic contractions, reduced mobility, malformations in mouth and intestine, and edema arising. From 1 mg L -1 atrazine, the exposed larvae began to have changes in mobility and malformations. The atrazine commercial formulation has caused early life effects of P. gracilis that may compromise the survival of this species but at higher concentrations than recorded in the environment, so P. gracilis can be considered tolerant to this herbicide at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  8. Lethally Hot Temperatures During the Early Triassic Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yadong; Joachimski, Michael M.; Wignall, Paul B.; Yan, Chunbo; Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Lina; Lai, Xulong

    2012-10-01

    Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the loss of calcareous algae, the near-absence of fish in equatorial Tethys, and the dominance of small taxa of invertebrates during the thermal maxima. High temperatures drove most Early Triassic plants and animals out of equatorial terrestrial ecosystems and probably were a major cause of the end-Smithian crisis.

  9. Alterations to Juvenile Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swim Performance after Acute Embryonic Exposure to Sub-lethal Exposures of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback and Produced Water.

    PubMed

    Folkerts, Erik J; Blewett, Tamzin A; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a wastewater produced during fracturing activities in an operating well which is hyper saline and chemically heterogeneous in nature, containing both anthropogenic and petrogenic chemicals. Determination of FPW associated toxicity to embryonic fish is limited, while investigation into how embryonic exposures may affect later life stages is not yet studied. Zebrafish embryos (24hrs post fertilization) were acutely exposed to 2.5% and 5% FPW fractions for either 24 or 48hrs and returned to freshwater. After either 24 or 48h exposures, embryos were examined for expression of 3 hypoxia related genes. Erythropoietin (epoa) but not hypoxia inducible factor (hif1aa) nor hemoglobin -ß chain (hbbe1.1) was up-regulated after either 24 or 48h FPW exposure. Surviving embryos were placed in freshwater and grown to a juvenile stage (60days post fertilization). Previously exposed zebrafish were analyzed for both swim performance (U crit and U max ) and aerobic capacity. Fish exposed to both sediment containing (FPW-S) or sediment free (FPW-SF) FPW displayed significantly reduced aerobic scope and U crit /U max values compared to control conditions. Our results collectively suggest that organics present in our FPW sample may be responsible for sub-lethal fitness and metabolic responses. We provide evidence supporting the theory that the cardio-respiratory system is impacted by FPW exposure. This is the first known research associating embryonic FPW exposures to sub-lethal performance related responses in later life fish stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deficiency of Suppressor Enhancer Lin12 1 Like (SEL1L) in Mice Leads to Systemic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Embryonic Lethality*

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Adam B.; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K.; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J.; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C.; Long, Qiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development. PMID:20197277

  11. Deficiency of suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) in mice leads to systemic endoplasmic reticulum stress and embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Adam B; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C; Long, Qiaoming

    2010-04-30

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development.

  12. Lethal short-limbed chondrodysplasia in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Heidelberger, K P; Brough, A J; Corbett, D P; Bernstein, J

    1976-01-01

    Nineteen cases of chondrodysplastic short-limbed dwarfism in early infancy were studied in the context of current clinical classification based on established radiographic criteria. The histopathologic findings were sufficiently distinctive in most categories to provide additional diagnostic criteria and to contribute to the understanding and delineation of these disorders. 1. Homozygous achondroplasia is distinguished by markedly disturbed endochondral ossification that differs from the pattern seen in typical heterozygous achondroplasia. The physeal chondrocytes contain abundant granules of glycogen. 2. Achondrogenesis, the severest form of chondrodysplasia, exists in 2 types, in which the histopathologic findings appear to be distinctive and diagnostic. Type 1 is characterized by severe disturbance in endochondral ossification. The zone of resting cartilage contains relatively normal matrix, and the chondrocytes contain intracytoplasmic inclusions. The cartilaginous matrix in type 2 is markedly deficient, and the chondrocytes have a large, primitive, mesenchymatous appearance. 3. Thanatophoric dwarfism is associated with disorganized endochondral ossification similar to that in homozygous achondroplasia, but there is no accumulation of glycogen within chondrocytes. Type 2 thanatophoric dwarfism is differentiated from classical type 1 by the presence of cloverleaf skull and histologically by many bone-lined, penetrating vascular canals in the physis and by hyperactive osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the metaphysis. 4. Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia of Jeune is differentiated histologically into 2 types. Type 1 is characterized by patchy distribution of endochondral ossification in the physis, irregular physeal-metaphyseal junction and large islands of poorly mineralized cartilage in the metaphysis. Type 2 is characterized by uniform distribution of endochondral ossification that is disorganized and is accompanied by advancing cartilage forming latticelike

  13. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis

    SciT

    Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep

    2002-09-24

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significancemore » or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.« less

  14. Glutathione reductase gsr-1 is an essential gene required for Caenorhabditis elegans early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gaffney, Christopher J; Naranjo-Galindo, Francisco José; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Guerrero-Gómez, David; Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Askjaer, Peter; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Cabello, Juan; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant thiol in the vast majority of organisms and is maintained in its reduced form by the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase. In this work, we describe the genetic and functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans gsr-1 gene that encodes the only glutathione reductase protein in this model organism. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we demonstrate that gsr-1 produces two GSR-1 isoforms, one located in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. gsr-1 loss of function mutants display a fully penetrant embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by a progressive and robust cell division delay accompanied by an aberrant distribution of interphasic chromatin in the periphery of the cell nucleus. Maternally expressed GSR-1 is sufficient to support embryonic development but these animals are short-lived, sensitized to chemical stress, have increased mitochondrial fragmentation and lower mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, the embryonic lethality of gsr-1 worms is prevented by restoring GSR-1 activity in the cytoplasm but not in mitochondria. Given the fact that the thioredoxin redox systems are dispensable in C. elegans, our data support a prominent role of the glutathione reductase/glutathione pathway in maintaining redox homeostasis in the nematode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endothelin-1 signalling controls early embryonic heart rate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Karppinen, S; Rapila, R; Mäkikallio, K; Hänninen, S L; Rysä, J; Vuolteenaho, O; Tavi, P

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous activity of embryonic cardiomyocytes originates from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release during early cardiogenesis. However, the regulation of heart rate during embryonic development is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine how endothelin-1 (ET-1) affects the heart rate of embryonic mice, as well as the pathway through which it exerts its effects. The effects of ET-1 and ET-1 receptor inhibition on cardiac contraction were studied using confocal Ca(2+) imaging of isolated mouse embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes and ultrasonographic examination of embryonic cardiac contractions in utero. In addition, the amount of ET-1 peptide and ET receptor a (ETa) and b (ETb) mRNA levels were measured during different stages of development of the cardiac muscle. High ET-1 concentration and expression of both ETa and ETb receptors was observed in early cardiac tissue. ET-1 was found to increase the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in E10.5 embryonic cardiomyocytes in vitro. Non-specific inhibition of ET receptors with tezosentan caused arrhythmia and bradycardia in isolated embryonic cardiomyocytes and in whole embryonic hearts both in vitro (E10.5) and in utero (E12.5). ET-1-mediated stimulation of early heart rate was found to occur via ETb receptors and subsequent inositol trisphosphate receptor activation and increased SR Ca(2+) leak. Endothelin-1 is required to maintain a sufficient heart rate, as well as to prevent arrhythmia during early development of the mouse heart. This is achieved through ETb receptor, which stimulates Ca(2+) leak through IP3 receptors. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The roles of ERAS during cell lineage specification of mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Yu, Yang; Ma, Huai-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Lu, Xukun; Zhai, Yanhua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Wang, Haibin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Eras encodes a Ras-like GTPase protein that was originally identified as an embryonic stem cell-specific Ras. ERAS has been known to be required for the growth of embryonic stem cells and stimulates somatic cell reprogramming, suggesting its roles on mouse early embryonic development. We now report a dynamic expression pattern of Eras during mouse peri-implantation development: its expression increases at the blastocyst stage, and specifically decreases in E7.5 mesoderm. In accordance with its expression pattern, the increased expression of Eras promotes cell proliferation through controlling AKT activation and the commitment from ground to primed state through ERK activation in mouse embryonic stem cells; and the reduced expression of Eras facilitates primitive streak and mesoderm formation through AKT inhibition during gastrulation. The expression of Eras is finely regulated to match its roles in mouse early embryonic development during which Eras expression is negatively regulated by the β-catenin pathway. Thus, beyond its well-known role on cell proliferation, ERAS may also play important roles in cell lineage specification during mouse early embryonic development. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. A missense mutation in PFAS (phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase) is likely causal for embryonic lethality associated with the MH1 haplotype in Montbéliarde dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Michot, Pauline; Fritz, Sébastien; Barbat, Anne; Boussaha, Mekki; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Grohs, Cécile; Hoze, Chris; Le Berre, Laurène; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Desnoes, Olivier; Salvetti, Pascal; Schibler, Laurent; Boichard, Didier; Capitan, Aurélien

    2017-10-01

    A candidate mutation in the sex hormone binding globulin gene was proposed in 2013 to be responsible for the MH1 recessive embryonic lethal locus segregating in the Montbéliarde breed. In this follow-up study, we excluded this candidate variant because healthy homozygous carriers were observed in large-scale genotyping data generated in the framework of the genomic selection program. We fine mapped the MH1 locus in a 702-kb interval and analyzed genome sequence data from the 1,000 bull genomes project and 54 Montbéliarde bulls (including 14 carriers and 40 noncarriers). We report the identification of a strong candidate mutation in the gene encoding phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase (PFAS), a protein involved in de novo purine synthesis. This mutation, located in a class I glutamine amidotransferase-like domain, results in the substitution of an arginine residue that is entirely conserved among eukaryotes by a cysteine (p.R1205C). No homozygote for the cysteine-encoding allele was observed in a large population of more than 25,000 individuals despite a 6.7% allelic frequency and 122 expected homozygotes under neutrality assumption. Genotyping of 18 embryos collected from heterozygous parents as well as analysis on nonreturn rates suggested that most homozygous carriers died between 7 and 35 d postinsemination. The identification of this strong candidate mutation will enable the accurate testing of the reproducers and the efficient selection against this lethal recessive embryonic defect in the Montbéliarde breed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early embryonic sensitivity to cyclophosphamide in cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Gui-An; Guan, Li

    2011-09-01

    hESCs (human embryonic stem cells) can differentiate into tissue derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and mimic the development of the embryo in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an hESC-based assay for the detection of toxicity to cardiac differentiation in embryonic development. First of all, we developed the protocol of cardiac induction from hESCs according to our previous work and distinguished cardiac precursor cells and late mature cardiomyocytes from differentiated cells, demonstrated by the Q-PCR (quantitative real-time PCR), immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis. In order to test whether CPA (cyclophosphamide) induces developmental and cellular toxicity in the human embryo, we exposed the differentiating cells from hESCs to CPA (a well-known proteratogen) at different stages. We have found that a high concentration of CPA could inhibit cardiac differentiation of hESCs. Two separate exposure intervals were used to determine the effects of CPA on cardiac precursor cells and late mature cardiomyocytes respectively. The cardiac precursor cells were sensitive to CPA in non-cytotoxic concentrations for the expression of the cardiac-specific mRNA markers Nkx2.5 (NK2 transcription factor related, locus 5), GATA-4 (GATA binding protein 4 transcription factor) and TNNT2 (troponin T type 2). Non-cytotoxic CPA concentrations did not affect the mRNA markers' expression in late mature cardiomyocytes, indicating that cardiac precursors were more sensitive to CPA than late cardiomyocytes in cardiogenesis. We set up the in vitro developmental toxicity test model so as to reduce the number of test animals and expenses without compromising the safety of consumers and patients. Furthermore, such in vitro methods may be possibly suited to test a large number of chemicals than the classical employed in vivo tests.

  19. Virtual reality imaging techniques in the study of embryonic and early placental health.

    PubMed

    Rousian, Melek; Koster, Maria P H; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; Koning, Anton H J; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2018-04-01

    Embryonic and placental growth and development in the first trimester of pregnancy have impact on the health of the fetus, newborn, child and even the adult. This emphasizes the importance of this often neglected period in life. The development of three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography in combination with virtual reality (VR) opens the possibility of accurate and reliable visualization of embryonic and placental structures with real depth perception. These techniques enable new biometry and volumetry measurements that contribute to the knowledge of the (patho)physiology of embryonic and early placental health. Examples of such measurements are the length of complex structures like the umbilical cord, vitelline duct, limbs and cerebellum or the volume of the whole embryo and brain cavities. Moreover, for the first time, embryos can now be staged in vivo (Carnegie stages) and vasculature volumes of both the embryo and the early placenta can be measured when VR is combined with power Doppler signals. These innovative developments have already been used to study associations between periconceptional maternal factors, such as age, smoking, alcohol use, diet and vitamin status, and embryonic and early placental growth and development. Future studies will also focus on the identification of abnormal embryonic and early placental development already in the earliest weeks of pregnancy, which provides opportunities for early prevention of pregnancy complications. Copyright © 2018 IFPA, Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of early embryonic viability in cattle

    Embryonic mortality (EM) is considered to be the primary factor limiting pregnancy success in cattle and occurs early (< day 28) or late (= day 28) during gestation. The incidence of early EM in cattle is approximately 25% while late EM is approximately 3.2 to 42.7%. In cattle, real time ultrasonog...

  1. Mutations in the Paxillin-binding Site of Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) Destabilize the Pseudokinase Domain and Cause Embryonic Lethality in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Moik, Daniel; Böttcher, Anika; Makhina, Tatiana; Grashoff, Carsten; Bulus, Nada; Zent, Roy; Fässler, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) localizes to focal adhesions (FAs) where it regulates cell spreading, migration, and growth factor receptor signaling. Previous reports showed that overexpressed ILK in which Val386 and Thr387 were substituted with glycine residues (ILK-VT/GG) could neither interact with paxillin nor localize to FA in cells expressing endogenous wild-type ILK, implying that paxillin binding to ILK is required for its localization to FAs. Here, we show that introducing this mutation into the germ line of mice (ILK-VT/GG) caused vasculogenesis defects, resulting in a general developmental delay and death at around embryonic day 12.5. Fibroblasts isolated from ILK-VT/GG mice contained mutant ILK in FAs, showed normal adhesion to and spreading on extracellular matrix substrates but displayed impaired migration. Biochemical analysis revealed that VT/GG substitutions decreased ILK protein stability leading to decreased ILK levels and reduced binding to paxillin and α-parvin. Because paxillin depletion did not affect ILK localization to FAs, the embryonic lethality and the in vitro migration defects are likely due to the reduced levels of ILK-VT/GG and diminished binding to parvins. PMID:23658024

  2. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than −180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Methods Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g−1 dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s−1 or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s−1. Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s−1) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Key Results Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Conclusions Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following

  3. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum.

    PubMed

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N W; Berjak, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than -180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g(-1) dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s(-1) or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s(-1). Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s(-1)) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following cryo-exposure and formation of small

  4. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) as a marker for the diagnosis of subclinical embryonic loss.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Moniz, C; Chitlange, S; Meherji, P

    1992-01-01

    The validation of EPF as a possible correlate of early fertilization has made it possible to study and detect fertilization of the ovum in normal fertile women (during the luteal phase) and also in women with infertility, where the fertilization of the ovum may not be affected but there may be impairment in early embryonic development which results in early embryo loss or subclinical embryo loss. Our results have suggested that using EPF as a marker, we could detect subclinical embryonic loss in 57.8% of the infertile women where more than one menstrual cycle was studied and the blood was collected 4-7 days after ovulation. After the missed period, 80% of the patients who were negative for EPF but positive for hCG had spontaneous abortions. It would be interesting to study how EPF behaves as a marker, to detect subclinical embryonic loss in diverse pathological situations such as recurrent abortions, parental age and translocation carrier parents.

  5. Effect of salinity on the upper lethal temperature tolerance of early-juvenile red drum.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Dusty; Bumguardner, Britt; Cason, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Previous work investigating the temperature tolerance of juvenile red drum ranging 18-50mm TL found evidence for positive size dependence (smaller fish less tolerant to higher temperatures) suggesting smaller size classes (<18mm TL) potentially may succumb to extreme summer water temperatures. Here, we explored the upper lethal temperature tolerance (ULT) in smaller-sized red drum which ranged from 10 to 20mm TL across multiple salinities to further understand the thermal limitations of this propagated game fish. In order to investigate the combined effect of temperature and salinity on ULT, temperature trials were conducted under three levels of salinity which commonly occur along the coast of Texas (25, 35, and 45ppt). The rate of temperature increase (+0.25°C/h) was designed to mimic a natural temperature increase of a summer day in Texas. We determined that the lethal temperature at 50% (LT50) did not differ between the three salinities examined statistically; median lethal temperature for individuals exposed to 25ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, 35ppt ranged from 36.4 to 37.7°C, and 45ppt ranged from 36.1 to 37.4°C. Further, LT50 data obtained here for early-juvenile red drum did not differ from data of a similar experiment examining 25mm TL sized fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Extra-embryonic tissue spreading directs early embryo morphogenesis in killifish

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Germán; Cerda, Mauricio; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Flores, Daniela; Castañeda, Victor; Tada, Masazumi; Härtel, Steffen; Concha, Miguel L.

    2017-01-01

    The spreading of mesenchymal-like cell layers is critical for embryo morphogenesis and tissue repair, yet we know little of this process in vivo. Here we take advantage of unique developmental features of the non-conventional annual killifish embryo to study the principles underlying tissue spreading in a simple cellular environment, devoid of patterning signals and major morphogenetic cell movements. Using in vivo experimentation and physical modelling we reveal that the extra-embryonic epithelial enveloping cell layer, thought mainly to provide protection to the embryo, directs cell migration and the spreading of embryonic tissue during early development. This function relies on the ability of embryonic cells to couple their autonomous random motility to non-autonomous signals arising from the expansion of the extra-embryonic epithelium, mediated by cell membrane adhesion and tension. Thus, we present a mechanism of extra-embryonic control of embryo morphogenesis that couples the mechanical properties of adjacent tissues in the early killifish embryo. PMID:28580937

  7. Sensitivity of seven PCRs for early detection of koi herpesvirus in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L., by lethal and non-lethal sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Bergmann, S M

    2015-03-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes an economically important, highly infectious disease in common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Since the occurrence of mass mortalities worldwide, highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic methods have been developed for KHV detection. The sensitivity and reliability of these assays have essentially focused at the detection of low viral DNA copy numbers during latent or persistent infections. However, the efficacy of these assays has not been investigated with regard to low-level viraemia during acute infection stages. This study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of seven different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect KHV during the first hours and days post-infection (hpi; dpi), using lethal and non-lethal sampling methods. The results highlight the limitations of the assays for detecting virus during the first 4 dpi despite rapid mortality in experimentally infected carp. False-negative results were associated with time post-infection and the tissue sampled. Non-lethal sampling appears effective for KHV screening, with efficient detection in mucus samples obtained from external swabs during this early infection period (<5 dpi), while biopsies from gills and kidney were negative using the same PCR assays. Non-lethal sampling may improve the reliability of KHV detection in subclinical, acutely infected carp. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Lin28/Let-7 System in Early Human Embryonic Tissue and Ectopic Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7–9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans. PMID:24498170

  9. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA Sub-Lethal Exposure to Embryonic Zebrafish Have Different Toxicity Profiles in Terms of Morphometrics, Behavior and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Carrie E.; Annunziato, Kate A.; Bugel, Sean M.; Cooper, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFC) are a class of anthropogenic, persistent and toxic chemicals. PFCs are detected worldwide and consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and industrial uses. Previous zebrafish studies in the literature as well as our own studies have shown that exposure to these chemicals at a low range of concentrations (0.02 µM – 2.0 µM; 20–2000 ppb) resulted in chemical specific developmental defects and reduced post hatch survival. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal embryonic exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) would result in different responses with regard to morphometric, behavior, and gene expression in both yolk sac fry and larval zebrafish. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (0.02, 0.2, 2.0 µM) for the first five days post fertilization (dpf) and analyzed for morphometrics (5 dpf, 14 dpf), targeted gene expression (5 dpf, 14 dpf), and locomotive behavior (14 dpf). All three PFCs commonly resulted in a decrease in total body length, increased tfc3a (muscle development) expression and decreased ap1s (protein transport) expression at 5dpf, and hyperactive locomotor activity 14 dpf. All other endpoints measured at both life-stage time points varied between each of the PFCs. PFOS, PFNA, and PFOA exposure resulted in significantly altered responses in terms of morphometric, locomotion, and gene expression endpoints, which could be manifested in field exposed teleosts. PMID:27058923

  10. Elevated temperature enhances normal early embryonic development in the coral Platygyra acuta under low salinity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Ang, Put

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the possible consequences of climate change on reef building scleractinian corals in a marginal environment, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of changes in salinity and temperature on percent fertilization success and early embryonic development of the coral Platygyra acuta. In the present study, a salinity of 24 psu (ambient 32 psu) reduced fertilization success by 60 %. Normal embryonic development was reduced by >80 % at 26 psu (ambient 33 psu) with 100 % abnormal development at 22 psu under ambient temperature. Elevated temperature (+3 °C) above the ambient spawning temperature did not show any negative effects on fertilization success. However, there was a trend for more abnormal embryos to develop at elevated temperature in the 2 d of the spawning event. The interactive effects between salinity and temperature are statistically significant only on normal embryonic development of P. acuta, but not on its fertilization success. Salinity was revealed to be the main factor affecting both fertilization success and normal embryonic development. Interestingly, the much lower fertilization success (76 %) observed in the second day of spawning (Trial 2) under ambient temperature recovered to 99 % success under elevated (+3 °C) temperature conditions. Moreover, elevated temperature enhanced normal early embryonic development under lowered salinity (26 psu). This antagonistic interactive effect was consistently observed in two successive nights of spawning. Overall, our results indicate that, in terms of its fertilization success and embryonic development, P. acuta is the most tolerant coral species to reduced salinity thus far reported in the literature. Elevated temperature, at least that within the tolerable range of the corals, could apparently alleviate the potential negative effects from salinity stresses. This mitigating role of elevated temperature appears not to have been reported on corals before.

  11. Importance of the pluripotency factor LIN28 in the mammalian nucleolus during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Edgar J; Meglicki, Maciej; Hartung, Kristina Ilka; Borsuk, Ewa; Behr, Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    The maternal nucleolus is required for proper activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) and early embryonic development. Nucleologenesis is characterized by the transformation of a nucleolar precursor body (NPB) to a mature nucleolus during preimplantation development. However, the function of NPBs and the involved molecular factors are unknown. We uncover a novel role for the pluripotency factor LIN28, the biological significance of which was previously demonstrated in the reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we show that LIN28 accumulates at the NPB and the mature nucleolus in mouse preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), where it colocalizes with the nucleolar marker B23 (nucleophosmin 1). LIN28 has nucleolar localization in non-human primate (NHP) preimplantation embryos, but is cytoplasmic in NHP ESCs. Lin28 transcripts show a striking decline before mouse EGA, whereas LIN28 protein localizes to NPBs at the time of EGA. Following knockdown with a Lin28 morpholino, the majority of embryos arrest between the 2- and 4-cell stages and never develop to morula or blastocyst. Lin28 morpholino-injected embryos arrested at the 2-cell stage were not enriched with nucleophosmin at presumptive NPB sites, indicating that functional NPBs were not assembled. Based on these results, we propose that LIN28 is an essential factor of nucleologenesis during early embryonic development.

  12. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    PubMed

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion.

  13. [Establishment of sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, You-Ji; Xie, Yi; Han, Jin-Lan; Wang, Zack; Chen, Tong

    2008-10-14

    To establish a sprouting embryoid body model mimicking early embryonic vasculogenesis in human embryo. Human embryonic stem were (hESCs) were cultured on the mouse embryo fibroblasts and then were induced to differentiate to form three-dimensional EB. The hEBs were cultured in media containing various angiogenesis-related factors: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endostatin, angiostatin, and platelet factor (PF)-4 of different concentrations for 3 days to observe the sprouting of the hEBs. 3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (Dil-AcLDL) was added onto the hEBs foe 4 h Immunofluorescence assay was used to observe if Dil-AcLDL was absorbed and if CD31 was expressed so as to determine the existence of embryonic endothelial cells in the sprouting structures. The ideal culturing condition was analyzed. The differentiated EBs formed sprouting structures in the collagen I matrix containing VEGF and FGF. The sprouts among individual EBs were able to link to each other and form vascular network-like structures. In the presence of VEGF and FGF, the sprouts branching from the EBs assimilated Dil-AcLDL, expressed CD31 and formed a 3-dimensional cylindrical organization. The concentrations of growth factors ideally stimulating sprouting growth were 100 ng/ml of VEGF and 50 ng/ml of FGF. The networks among the EBs were abolished by the angiostatin, endostatin, and PF4. The sprouting from hEBs accumulates embryonic endothelial cells and the sprouting network-like structures are indeed endothelial in nature. Inducing of sprouting EBs is an ideal model that mimics early embryonic vasculogenesis in humans.

  14. Lack of WDR36 leads to preimplantation embryonic lethality in mice and delays the formation of small subunit ribosomal RNA in human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gallenberger, Martin; Meinel, Dominik M; Kroeber, Markus; Wegner, Michael; Milkereit, Philipp; Bösl, Michael R; Tamm, Ernst R

    2011-02-01

    Mutations in WD repeat domain 36 gene (WDR36) play a causative role in some forms of primary open-angle glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness worldwide. WDR36 is characterized by the presence of multiple WD40 repeats and shows homology to Utp21, an essential protein component of the yeast small subunit (SSU) processome required for maturation of 18S rRNA. To clarify the functional role of WDR36 in the mammalian organism, we generated and investigated mutant mice with a targeted deletion of Wdr36. In parallel experiments, we used RNA interference to deplete WDR36 mRNA in mouse embryos and cultured human trabecular meshwork (HTM-N) cells. Deletion of Wdr36 in the mouse caused preimplantation embryonic lethality, and essentially similar effects were observed when WDR36 mRNA was depleted in mouse embryos by RNA interference. Depletion of WDR36 mRNA in HTM-N cells caused apoptotic cell death and upregulation of mRNA for BAX, TP53 and CDKN1A. By immunocytochemistry, staining for WDR36 was observed in the nucleolus of cells, which co-localized with that of nucleolar proteins such as nucleophosmin and PWP2. In addition, recombinant and epitope-tagged WDR36 localized to the nucleolus of HTM-N cells. By northern blot analysis, a substantial decrease in 21S rRNA, the precursor of 18S rRNA, was observed following knockdown of WDR36. In addition, metabolic-labeling experiments consistently showed a delay of 18S rRNA maturation in WDR36-depleted cells. Our results provide evidence that WDR36 is an essential protein in mammalian cells which is involved in the nucleolar processing of SSU 18S rRNA.

  15. Negative regulation of early polyomavirus expression in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cremisi, C; Babinet, C

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma cells are resistant to infection by polyomavirus (Py). We showed that this block was partially removed by inhibiting protein synthesis temporarily. The block was also partially removed when Py was coinfected with simian virus 40. Cycloheximide treatment of cells infected with Py mutants able to grow on PCC4 embryonal carcinoma cells led to 3- to 10-fold increases in the production of T-antigen-positive cells. At 31 degrees C, Py T-antigen expression was enhanced when the cells were treated with cycloheximide. We suggest that a negative labile regulatory protein(s) is synthesized in PCC4 cells, preventing the initiation of early Py transcription by binding to the noncoding sequence, especially the enhancer element B and perhaps also element A, and that the Py mutants retained a binding site(s). PMID:3016339

  16. Targeted disruption of a novel gene contiguous to both glucocerebrodisidase (GC) and thrombospondin 3 (TSP3), results in an embryonic lethal phenotype in the mouse

    SciT

    Bornstein, P.; Shingu, T.; LaMarca, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    We have identified a new murine gene, termed gene X, that spans the 6 kb interval separating GC from TSP3. Mutations in GC result in Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder. Gene X and GC are transcribed convergently; their major polyadenylation sites are separated by only 431 bp. On the other hand, gene X and TSP3 are transcribed divergently and share a bidirectional promoter. The cDNA for gene X encodes a 317 amino acid protein, without either a signal sequence or N-linked glycosylation. Gene X is expressed ubiquitously in tissues of the young adult mouse, but no closemore » homologues have been found in the DNA or protein data bases. A targeted point mutation was introduced into the GC gene (Asn to Ser in exon 9) by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to establish a mouse model for a mild form of Gaucher disease. In the process, a PGK-neomycin gene cassette was inserted in the 3{prime} flanking region of GC as a selectable marker, in a sequence that was subsequently identified as exon 8 of gene X. Mice homozygous for the combined mutation die early in gestation. Since the amino acid mutation in humans is associated with milder type 1 Gaucher disease, we conclude that gene X is essential for embryonic development in mice. The locations of human and murine GC, gene X and TSP3 are similar, but the human genome includes a duplication that has produced GC and gene X pseudogenes. We are currently studying the possible functional interactions of GC, gene X and TSP3 in both mice and humans.« less

  17. High-Frequency Ultrasound for the Study of Early Mouse Embryonic Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Greco, Adelaide; Coda, Anna Rita Daniela; Albanese, Sandra; Ragucci, Monica; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Auletta, Luigi; Gargiulo, Sara; Lamagna, Francesco; Salvatore, Marco; Mancini, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    An accurate diagnosis of congenital heart defects during fetal development is critical for interventional planning. Mice can be used to generate animal models with heart defects, and high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging enables in utero imaging of live mouse embryos. A wide range of physiological measurements is possible using Doppler-HFUS imaging; limitations of any single measurement warrant a multiparameter approach to characterize cardiovascular function. Doppler-HFUS was used to explore the embryonic (heart, aorta) and extraembryonic (umbilical blood flow) circulatory systems to create a database in normal mouse embryos between 9.5 and 16.5 days of gestation. Multivariate analyses were performed to explore correlations between gestational age and embryo echocardiographic parameters. Heart rate and peak velocity in the aorta were positively correlated with gestational time, whereas cardiac cycle length, isovolumetric relaxation time, myocardial performance index, and arterial deceleration time of the umbilical cord were negatively correlated with it. Doppler-HFUS facilitated detailed characterization of the embryonic mouse circulation and represents a useful tool for investigation of the early mouse embryonic cardiovascular system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Selection and dynamics of embryonic stem cell integration into early mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrova, Stoyana; Kalkan, Tuzer; Humphreys, Peter; Riddell, Andrew; Scognamiglio, Roberta; Trumpp, Andreas; Nichols, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The process by which pluripotent cells incorporate into host embryos is of interest to investigate cell potency and cell fate decisions. Previous studies suggest that only a minority of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) inoculum contributes to the adult chimaera. How incoming cells are chosen for integration or elimination remains unclear. By comparing a heterogeneous mix of undifferentiated and differentiating ESCs (serum/LIF) with more homogeneous undifferentiated culture (2i/LIF), we examine the role of cellular heterogeneity in this process. Time-lapse ex vivo imaging revealed a drastic elimination of serum/LIF ESCs during early development in comparison with 2i/LIF ESCs. Using a fluorescent reporter for naive pluripotency (Rex1-GFP), we established that the acutely eliminated serum/LIF ESCs had started to differentiate. The rejected cells were apparently killed by apoptosis. We conclude that a selection process exists by which unwanted differentiating cells are eliminated from the embryo. However, occasional Rex1− cells were able to integrate. Upregulation of Rex1 occurred in a proportion of these cells, reflecting the potential of the embryonic environment to expedite diversion from differentiation priming to enhance the developing embryonic epiblast. PMID:26586221

  19. Neuronal redox imbalance results in altered energy homeostasis and early postnatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Maity-Kumar, Gandhari; Thal, Dietmar R; Baumann, Bernd; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Redox imbalance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Our aim was to develop an animal model that exhibits neuron-specific oxidative stress in the CNS to study the consequences and eventually find clues regarding the pathomechanisms of oxidative insults in neuronal homeostasis. We therefore generated a novel neuron-specific superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-deficient mouse by deleting exon 3 of the SOD2 gene using CamKIIα promoter-driven Cre expression. These neuron-specific SOD2 knockout (SOD2(nko)) mice, although born at normal frequencies, died at the age of 4 weeks with critical growth retardation, severe energy failure, and several neurologic phenotypes. In addition, SOD2(nko) mice exhibited severe neuronal alterations such as reactive astrogliosis, neuronal cell cycle inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. JNK activation and stabilization of p53, as a result of reactive oxygen species accumulation, are most likely the inducers of neuronal apoptosis in SOD2(nko) mice. It is remarkable that hypothalamic regulation of glucose metabolism was affected, which in turn induced necrotic brain lesions in SOD2(nko) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that exclusive deficiency of SOD2 in neurons results in an impaired central regulation of energy homeostasis that leads to persistent hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia-related neuropathology, and an early lethality of the mutant mice. © FASEB.

  20. Stage-dependent remodeling of the nuclear envelope and lamina during rabbit early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Popken, Jens; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Guengoer, Tuna; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2016-04-22

    Utilizing 3D structured illumination microscopy, we investigated the quality and quantity of nuclear invaginations and the distribution of nuclear pores during rabbit early embryonic development and identified the exact time point of nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) association with chromatin during mitosis. Contrary to bovine early embryonic nuclei, featuring almost exclusively nuclear invaginations containing a small volume of cytoplasm, nuclei in rabbit early embryonic stages show additionally numerous invaginations containing a large volume of cytoplasm. Small-volume invaginations frequently emanated from large-volume nuclear invaginations but not vice versa, indicating a different underlying mechanism. Large- and small-volume nuclear envelope invaginations required the presence of chromatin, as they were restricted to chromatin-positive areas. The chromatin-free contact areas between nucleolar precursor bodies (NPBs) and large-volume invaginations were free of nuclear pores. Small-volume invaginations were not in contact with NPBs. The number of invaginations and isolated intranuclear vesicles per nucleus peaked at the 4-cell stage. At this stage, the nuclear surface showed highly concentrated clusters of nuclear pores surrounded by areas free of nuclear pores. Isolated intranuclear lamina vesicles were usually NUP153 negative. Cytoplasmic, randomly distributed NUP153-positive clusters were highly abundant at the zygote stage and decreased in number until they were almost absent at the 8-cell stage and later. These large NUP153 clusters may represent a maternally provided NUP153 deposit, but they were not visible as clusters during mitosis. Major genome activation at the 8- to 16-cell stage may mark the switch from a necessity for a deposit to on-demand production. NUP153 association with chromatin is initiated during metaphase before the initiation of the regeneration of the lamina. To our knowledge, the present study demonstrates for the first time major remodeling

  1. Stage-specific apoptosis, developmental delay, and embryonic lethality in mice homozygous for a targeted disruption in the murine Bloom's syndrome gene.

    PubMed

    Chester, N; Kuo, F; Kozak, C; O'Hara, C D; Leder, P

    1998-11-01

    Bloom's syndrome is a human autosomal genetic disorder characterized at the cellular level by genome instability and increased sister chomatid exchanges (SCEs). Clinical features of the disease include proportional dwarfism and a predisposition to develop a wide variety of malignancies. The human BLM gene has been cloned recently and encodes a DNA helicase. Mouse embryos homozygous for a targeted mutation in the murine Bloom's syndrome gene (Blm) are developmentally delayed and die by embryonic day 13.5. The fact that the interrupted gene is the homolog of the human BLM gene was confirmed by its homologous sequence, its chromosomal location, and by demonstrating high numbers of SCEs in cultured murine Blm-/- fibroblasts. The proportional dwarfism seen in the human is consistent with the small size and developmental delay (12-24 hr) seen during mid-gestation in murine Blm-/- embryos. Interestingly, the growth retardation in mutant embryos can be accounted for by a wave of increased apoptosis in the epiblast restricted to early post-implantation embryogenesis. Mutant embryos do not survive past day 13.5, and at this time exhibit severe anemia. Red blood cells and their precursors from Blm-/- embryos are heterogeneous in appearance and have increased numbers of macrocytes and micronuclei. Both the apoptotic wave and the appearance of micronuclei in red blood cells are likely cellular consequences of damaged DNA caused by effects on replicating or segregating chromosomes.

  2. Optical mapping of conduction in early embryonic quail hearts with light-sheet microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pei; Gu, Shi; Wang, Yves T.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Optical mapping (OM) using fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD) to measure membrane potential is currently the most effective method for electrophysiology studies in early embryonic hearts due to its noninvasiveness and large field-of-view. Conventional OM acquires bright-field images, collecting signals that are integrated in depth and projected onto a 2D plane, not capturing the 3D structure of the sample. Early embryonic hearts, especially at looping stages, have a complicated, tubular geometry. Therefore, conventional OM cannot provide a full picture of the electrical conduction circumferentially around the heart, and may result in incomplete and inaccurate measurements. Here, we demonstrate OM of Hamburger and Hamilton stage 14 embryonic quail hearts using a new commercially-available VSD, Fluovolt, and depth sectioning using a custom built light-sheet microscopy system. Axial and lateral resolution of the system is 14µm and 8µm respectively. For OM imaging, the field-of-view was set to 900µm×900µm to cover the entire heart. 2D over time OM image sets at multiple cross-sections through the looping-stage heart were recorded. The shapes of both atrial and ventricular action potentials acquired were consistent with previous reports using conventional VSD (di-4-ANNEPS). With Fluovolt, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is improved significantly by a factor of 2-10 (compared with di-4-ANNEPS) enabling light-sheet OM, which intrinsically has lower SNR due to smaller sampling volumes. Electrophysiologic parameters are rate dependent. Optical pacing was successfully integrated into the system to ensure heart rate consistency. This will also enable accurately gated reconstruction of full four dimensional conduction maps and 3D conduction velocity measurements.

  3. Early embryonic programming of neuronal left/right asymmetry in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Poole, Richard J; Hobert, Oliver

    2006-12-05

    Nervous systems are largely bilaterally symmetric on a morphological level but often display striking degrees of functional left/right (L/R) asymmetry. How L/R asymmetric functional features are superimposed onto an essentially bilaterally symmetric structure and how nervous-system laterality relates to the L/R asymmetry of internal organs are poorly understood. We address these questions here by using the establishment of L/R asymmetry in the ASE chemosensory neurons of C. elegans as a paradigm. This bilaterally symmetric neuron pair is functionally lateralized in that it senses a distinct class of chemosensory cues and expresses a putative chemoreceptor family in a L/R asymmetric manner. We show that the directionality of the asymmetry of the two postmitotic ASE neurons ASE left (ASEL) and ASE right (ASER) in adults is dependent on a L-/R-symmetry-breaking event at a very early embryonic stage, the six-cell stage, which also establishes the L/R asymmetric placement of internal organs. However, the L/R asymmetry of the ASE neurons per se is dependent on an even earlier anterior-posterior (A/P) Notch signal that specifies embryonic ABa/ABp blastomere identities at the four-cell stage. This Notch signal, which functions through two T box genes, acts genetically upstream of a miRNA-controlled bistable feedback loop that regulates the L/R asymmetric gene-expression program in the postmitotic ASE cells. Our results link adult neuronal laterality to the generation of the A/P axis at the two-cell stage and raise the possibility that neural asymmetries observed across the animal kingdom are similarly established by very early embryonic interactions.

  4. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Dynamic Early Embryonic-like Programs during Chemical Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Fu, Yao; Zhu, Jialiang; Liu, Yifang; Zhang, Qian; Yi, Zexuan; Chen, Shi; Jiao, Zhonggang; Xu, Xiaochan; Xu, Junquan; Duo, Shuguang; Bai, Yun; Tang, Chao; Li, Cheng; Deng, Hongkui

    2018-06-12

    Chemical reprogramming provides a powerful platform for exploring the molecular dynamics that lead to pluripotency. Although previous studies have uncovered an intermediate extraembryonic endoderm (XEN)-like state during this process, the molecular underpinnings of pluripotency acquisition remain largely undefined. Here, we profile 36,199 single-cell transcriptomes at multiple time points throughout a highly efficient chemical reprogramming system using RNA-sequencing and reconstruct their progression trajectories. Through identifying sequential molecular events, we reveal that the dynamic early embryonic-like programs are key aspects of successful reprogramming from XEN-like state to pluripotency, including the concomitant transcriptomic signatures of two-cell (2C) embryonic-like and early pluripotency programs and the epigenetic signature of notable genome-wide DNA demethylation. Moreover, via enhancing the 2C-like program by fine-tuning chemical treatment, the reprogramming process is remarkably accelerated. Collectively, our findings offer a high-resolution dissection of cell fate dynamics during chemical reprogramming and shed light on mechanistic insights into the nature of induced pluripotency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Monoamine Oxidases Regulate Telencephalic Neural Progenitors in Late Embryonic and Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiwu; Scott, Anna L.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Chen, Kevin; Ouyang, Xin; Lathia, Justin D.; Mughal, Mohamed; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.; Shih, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play major roles in regulating a range of brain functions in adults and increasing evidence suggests roles for monoamines in brain development. Here we show that mice lacking the monoamine metabolic enzymes MAO A and MAO B (MAO AB-deficient mice) exhibit diminished proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the developing telencephalon beginning in late gestation [embryonic day (E) 17.5], a deficit that persists in neonatal and adult mice. These mice showed significantly increased monoamine levels and anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Assessments of markers of intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and mitosis showed that NSC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but not in the ventricular zone, are reduced in MAO AB-deficient mice. A developmental time course of monoamines in frontal cortical tissues revealed increased serotonin levels as early as E14.5, and a further large increase was found between E17.5 and postnatal day 2. Administration of an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (parachlorophenylalanine) between E14.5 and E19.5 restored the IPC numbers and SVZ thickness, suggesting the role of serotonin in the suppression of IPC proliferation. Studies of neurosphere cultures prepared from the telencephalon at different embryonic and postnatal ages showed that serotonin stimulates proliferation in wild-type, but not in MAO AB-deficient, NSC. Together, these results suggest that a MAO-dependent long-lasting alteration in the proliferation capacity of NSC occurs late in embryonic development and is mediated by serotonin. Our findings reveal novel roles for MAOs and serotonin in the regulation of IPC proliferation in the developing brain. PMID:20702706

  6. Radiation hazards of radio frequency waves on the early embryonic development of Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkless, Ryan; Al-Quraishi, Muntather; Vagula, Mary C.

    2014-06-01

    With the growing use of wireless devices in almost all day-to-day activities, exposure to radio-frequency radiation has become an immediate health concern. It is imperative that the effects of such radiation not only on humans, but also on other organisms be well understood. In particular, it is critical to understand if RF radiation has any bearing on the gene expression during embryonic development, as this is a crucial and delicate phase for any organism. Owing to possible effects that RF radiation may have on gene expression, it is essential to explore the carcinogenic or teratogenic properties that it may show. This study observed the effects of RF radiation emitted from a cellular telephone on the embryonic development of zebra fish. The expression of the gene shha plays a key role in the early development of the fish. This gene has homologs in humans as well as in other model organisms. Additionally, several biomarkers indicative of cell stress were examined: including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results show a significant decrease in the expression of shha, a significant decrease in LDH activity. There was no significant increase in SOD and LPO activity. No morphological abnormalities were observed in the developing embryos. At present, these results indicate that exposure to cell phone radiation may have a suppressive effect on expression of shha in D. rerio, though such exposure does not appear to cause morphological detriments. More trials are underway to corroborate these results.

  7. Lethal effects of ichthyotoxic raphidophytes, Chattonella marina, C. antiqua, and Heterosigma akashiwo, on post-embryonic stages of the Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii.

    PubMed

    Basti, Leila; Nagai, Kiyohito; Go, Jiyoji; Okano, Sho; Oda, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    contact and physical disturbance of their cells by larval cilia, H. akashiwo, C. marina and C. antiqua became immotile and shed their glycocalyx. The trochophores and larvae were observed trapped in a conglomerate of glycocalyx and mucus, most probably a mixture of larval mucous and raphidophyte tricosyts and mucocytes. All motile stages of pearl oyster larvae showed a typical escape behavior translating into increased swimming in an effort to release themselves from the sticky mucous traps. The larvae subsequently became exhausted, entrapped in more heavy mucous, lost their larval cilia, sank, become immotile, and died. Although other toxic mediators could have been involved, the results of the present study indicate that all three raphidophytes were harmful only for motile stages of pearl oysters, and that the physical disturbance of their cells upon contact with the ciliary structures of pearl oyster larvae initiated the harmful mechanism. The present study is the first report of lethal effects of harmful Chattonella spp. towards larvae of a bivalve mollusc. Blooms of H. akashiwo, C. antiqua and C. marina occur in all major cultivation areas of P. fucata martensii during the developmental period of their larvae. Therefore, exposure of the motile early-life stages of Japanese pearl oysters could adversely affect their population recruitment. In addition, the present study shows that further research with early-life development of pearl oysters and other bivalves could contribute to improving the understanding of the controversial harmful mechanisms of raphidophytes in marine organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early embryonic demise: no evidence of abnormal spiral artery transformation or trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Ball, E; Robson, S C; Ayis, S; Lyall, F; Bulmer, J N

    2006-03-01

    Invasion by extravillous trophoblast of uterine decidua and myometrium and the associated spiral artery 'transformation' are essential for the development of normal pregnancy. Small pilot studies of placental bed and basal plate tissues from miscarriages have suggested that impaired interstitial and endovascular trophoblast invasion may play a role in the pathogenesis of miscarriage. The hypothesis that early miscarriage is associated with reduced extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation was tested in a large series of placental bed biopsies containing decidua and myometrium and at least one spiral artery from early, karyotyped embryonic miscarriages (early miscarriage and also did not differ significantly from normal pregnancy. These findings suggest that failed trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation do not have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of early miscarriage.

  9. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa).

    PubMed

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Hopkins, Gareth R; Mohammadi, Shabnam; M Skinner, Heather; Hansen, Tyler; Brodie, Edmund D; French, Susannah S

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of temperature on the growth and development of embryonic and early larval stages of a western North American amphibian, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). We assigned newt eggs to different temperatures (7, 14, or 21°C); after hatching, we re-assigned the newt larvae into the three different temperatures. Over the course of three to four weeks, we measured total length and developmental stage of the larvae. Our results indicated a strong positive relationship over time between temperature and both length and developmental stage. Importantly, individuals assigned to cooler embryonic temperatures did not achieve the larval sizes of individuals from the warmer embryonic treatments, regardless of larval temperature. Our investigation of growth and development at different temperatures demonstrates carry-over effects and provides a more comprehensive understanding of how organisms respond to temperature changes during early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Florfenicol induces early embryonic death in eggs collected from treated hens.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahrani, S; Naidoo, V

    2015-08-18

    Florfenicol, a commonly used veterinary antibiotic, was reported to have caused a severe drop in egg hatchability following its off-label use on a broiler breeder farm in South Africa. According to the pharmacovigilance report, hatchability dropped by 80 % for up to a week following a five day course at 10 mg/kg (both males and females treated metaphylactically) to manage an Escherichia coli infection. While mammalian toxicity studies indicate the potential for early embryonic death in utero or testicular damage, no literature is available on the avian toxicity of florfenicol. For this study we investigated the effects of florfenicol at various doses from 10 to 90 mg/kg on the egg hatchability in a breeder flock we kept and established under controlled conditions, with the same cockerels and hens being exposed in a phased manner. Following five days of oral exposure, no toxic signs were evident in any of the cockerels or hens treated at doses up to 90 mg/kg. Treatment of only the cockerels had no effect on egg hatchability, while treatment of only the hens at doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg resulted in decreased hatchability of 0 % in comparison to 70 % of the control as early 24 h after treatment. In all cases, decreased hatchability was associated with embryonic death at 5 days of development. The toxic effects of florfenicol were completely reversible with comparable hatchability being present by day 4 post-treatment withdrawal. Toxicity correlated with total egg florfenicol concentrations with an LC50 of 1.07 μg/g. Florfenicol appears to be toxic to the developing chick embryo at around day 5 of incubation, in the absence of related toxicity in the hen or cockerel.

  11. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  12. Function of FEZF1 during early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Su, Pei; Lu, Lisha; Feng, Zicen; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiaxi

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development. FEZF1 is rapidly up-regulated during neural differentiation in hESCs and expressed before PAX6, a well-established marker of early human neural induction. We generated FEZF1-knockout H1 hESC lines using CRISPR-CAS9 technology and found that depletion of FEZF1 abrogates neural differentiation of hESCs. Moreover, loss of FEZF1 impairs the pluripotency exit of hESCs during neural specification, which partially explains the neural induction defect caused by FEZF1 deletion. However, enforced expression of FEZF1 itself fails to drive neural differentiation in hESCs, suggesting that FEZF1 is necessary but not sufficient for neural differentiation from hESCs. Taken together, our findings identify one of the earliest regulators expressed upon neural induction and provide insight into early neural development in human.

  13. Student Learning of Early Embryonic Development via the Utilization of Research Resources from the Nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Fong-Mei; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Squirrell, Jayne M.; White, John G.; Stewart, James

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to gain insights into undergraduate students' understanding of early embryonic development, specifically, how well they comprehend the concepts of volume constancy, cell lineages, body plan axes, and temporal and spatial dimensionality in development. To study student learning, a curriculum was developed incorporating…

  14. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: The current status of heat shock in early embryonic survival and reproductive efficiency

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium entitled “The Current Status of Heat Shock in Early Embryonic Survival and Reproductive Efficiency” was held at the Joint ADSA-CSAS-AMPA-WSAS-ASAS Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, July 15 to 19, 2012. In recent years, data has accumulated suggesting a role for...

  15. Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Report From the 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Miyahira, Andrea K.; Lang, Joshua M.; Den, Robert B.; Garraway, Isla P.; Lotan, Tamara L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Stoyanova, Tanya; Cho, Steve Y.; Simons, Jonathan W.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Soule, Howard R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND The 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting, themed: “Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer,” was held in La Jolla, California from June 25 to 28, 2015. METHODS The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) sponsors an annual, invitation-only, action-tank-structured meeting on a critical topic concerning lethal prostate cancer. The 2015 meeting was attended by 71 basic, translational, and clinical investigators who discussed the current state of the field, major unmet needs, and ideas for addressing earlier diagnosis and treatment of men with lethal prostate cancer for the purpose of extending lives and making progress toward a cure. RESULTS The questions addressed at the meeting included: cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, evaluating, and targeting the microenvironment in the primary tumor, advancing biomarkers for clinical integration, new molecular imaging technologies, clinical trials, and clinical trial design in localized high-risk and oligometastatic settings, targeting the primary tumor in advanced disease, and instituting multi-modal care of high risk and oligometastatic patients. DISCUSSION This article highlights the current status, greatest unmet needs, and anticipated field changes that were discussed at the meeting toward the goal of optimizing earlier interventions to potentiate cures in high-risk and oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. PMID:26477609

  16. Multidisciplinary intervention of early, lethal metastatic prostate cancer: Report from the 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Lang, Joshua M; Den, Robert B; Garraway, Isla P; Lotan, Tamara L; Ross, Ashley E; Stoyanova, Tanya; Cho, Steve Y; Simons, Jonathan W; Pienta, Kenneth J; Soule, Howard R

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting, themed: "Multidisciplinary Intervention of Early, Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer," was held in La Jolla, California from June 25 to 28, 2015. The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) sponsors an annual, invitation-only, action-tank-structured meeting on a critical topic concerning lethal prostate cancer. The 2015 meeting was attended by 71 basic, translational, and clinical investigators who discussed the current state of the field, major unmet needs, and ideas for addressing earlier diagnosis and treatment of men with lethal prostate cancer for the purpose of extending lives and making progress toward a cure. The questions addressed at the meeting included: cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, evaluating, and targeting the microenvironment in the primary tumor, advancing biomarkers for clinical integration, new molecular imaging technologies, clinical trials, and clinical trial design in localized high-risk and oligometastatic settings, targeting the primary tumor in advanced disease, and instituting multi-modal care of high risk and oligometastatic patients. This article highlights the current status, greatest unmet needs, and anticipated field changes that were discussed at the meeting toward the goal of optimizing earlier interventions to potentiate cures in high-risk and oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Essential Role of Chromatin Remodeling Protein Bptf in Early Mouse Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Joseph; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Xiao, Hua; Southon, Eileen; Matta, Jennifer; Tessarollo, Lino; Zhang, Ying E.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Kuehn, Michael R.; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Wu, Carl

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the biological functions of the chromatin remodeling protein Bptf (Bromodomain PHD-finger Transcription Factor), the largest subunit of NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor) in a mammal. Bptf mutants manifest growth defects at the post-implantation stage and are reabsorbed by E8.5. Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf−/− embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. Microarray analysis at early stages of differentiation has identified Bptf-dependent gene targets including homeobox transcriptions factors and genes essential for the development of ectoderm, mesoderm, and both definitive and visceral endoderm. Differentiation of Bptf−/− embryonic stem cell lines into embryoid bodies revealed its requirement for development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, and uncovered many genes whose activation or repression are Bptf-dependent. We also provide functional and physical links between the Bptf-containing NURF complex and the Smad transcription factors. These results suggest that Bptf may co-regulate some gene targets of this pathway, which is essential for establishment of the visceral endoderm. We conclude that Bptf likely regulates genes and signaling pathways essential for the development of key tissues of the early mouse embryo. PMID:18974875

  18. Distinct requirements for C.elegans TAF(II)s in early embryonic transcription.

    PubMed

    Walker, A K; Rothman, J H; Shi, Y; Blackwell, T K

    2001-09-17

    TAF(II)s are conserved components of the TFIID, TFTC and SAGA-related mRNA transcription complexes. In yeast (y), yTAF(II)17 is required broadly for transcription, but various other TAF(II)s appear to have more specialized functions. It is important to determine how TAF(II)s contribute to transcription in metazoans, which have larger and more diverse genomes. We have examined TAF(II) functions in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, which can survive without transcription for several cell generations. We show that taf-10 (yTAF(II)17) and taf-11 (yTAF(II)25) are required for a significant fraction of transcription, but apparently are not needed for expression of multiple developmental and other metazoan-specific genes. In contrast, taf-5 (yTAF(II)48; human TAF(II)130) seems to be required for essentially all early embryonic mRNA transcription. We conclude that TAF-10 and TAF-11 have modular functions in metazoans, and can be bypassed at many metazoan-specific genes. The broad involvement of TAF-5 in mRNA transcription in vivo suggests a requirement for either TFIID or a TFTC-like complex.

  19. Early embryonic survival and embryo development in two lines of rabbits divergently selected for uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Peiró, R; Santacreu, M A; Climent, A; Blasco, A

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study early embryo survival and development in 2 lines divergently selected for high and low uterine capacity throughout 10 generations. A total of 162 female rabbits from the high line and 133 from the low line were slaughtered at 25, 48, or 62 h of gestation. There were no differences in ovulation rate and fertilization rate between lines in any of the 3 stages of gestation. Embryo survival, estimated as the number of normal embryos recovered at a constant ovulation rate, was similar in both lines at 25 and 48 h. Embryo survival was greater in the high line [D (posterior mean of the difference between the high and low lines) = 0.57 embryos] at 62 h of gestation. There was no difference in embryonic stage of development at 25 h, but at 48 and 62 h of gestation, the high line, compared with the low line, had a greater percentage of early morulae (83 vs. 72%) and compacted morulae (55 vs. 38%). Divergent selection for uterine capacity appeared to modify embryo development, at least from 48 h of gestation, and embryo survival from 62 h.

  20. Early effects of embryonic movement: ‘a shot out of the dark’

    PubMed Central

    Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2006-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that studying the embryonic chick in ovo provides a variety of advantages, including the potential to control the embryo's environment and its movement independently of maternal influences. This allowed early workers to identify movement as a pivotal factor in the development of the locomotor apparatus. With an increasing focus on the earliest detectable movements, we have exploited this system by developing novel models and schemes to examine the influence of defined periods of movement during musculoskeletal development. Utilizing drugs with known neuromuscular actions to provoke hyperactivity (4-aminopyridine, AP) and either rigid (decamethonium bromide, DMB) or flaccid (pancuronium bromide, PB) paralysis, we have examined the role of movement in joint, osteochondral and muscle development. Our initial studies focusing on the joint showed that AP-induced hyperactivity had little, if any, effect on the timing or scope of joint cavity elaboration, suggesting that endogenous activity levels provide sufficient stimulus, and additional mobilization is without effect. By contrast, imposition of either rigid or flaccid paralysis prior to cavity formation completely blocked this process and, with time, produced fusion of cartilaginous elements and formation of continuous single cartilaginous rods across locations where joints would ordinarily form. The effect of these distinct forms of paralysis differed, however, when treatment was initiated after formation of an overt cavity; rigid, but not flaccid, paralysis partly conserved precavitated joints. This observation suggests that ‘static’ loading derived from ‘spastic’ rigidity can act to preserve joint cavities. Another facet of these studies was the observation that DMB-induced rigid paralysis produces a uniform and specific pattern of limb deformity whereas PB generated a diverse range of fixed positional deformities. Both also reduced limb growth, with different developmental

  1. The influence of early embryo traits on human embryonic stem cell derivation efficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Thomas; Heindryckx, Björn; Lierman, Sylvie; Van der Jeught, Margot; Menten, Björn; Deforce, Dieter; Cornelissen, Ria; de Sousa Lopes, Susana Chuva; De Sutter, Petra

    2011-05-01

    Despite its prognostic value in in vitro fertilization, early embryo morphology is not reported on in the derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. Standard hESC derivation does rely on blastocyst development and its efficiency is highly correlated to inner cell mass (ICM) quality. Poor-quality embryos (PQEs) donated for hESC derivation may have a range of cleavage-stage abnormalities that are known to compromise further development. This study was implemented to determine whether specific PQEs traits influence the efficiency of good-quality ICMs to derive new hESC lines. We found that although the types of PQEs investigated were all able to make blastocysts with good-quality ICMs, the ICMs were unequal in their ability to derive hESCs. Good-quality ICMs from embryos with multiple poor-quality traits were unable to generate hESC lines, in contrast to good-quality ICMs from embryos with a single poor-quality trait. In addition, our data suggest a direct correlation between the number of ICM cells present in the blastocyst and its capacity to derive new hESC lines. This study is the first to demonstrate that ICM quality alone is an incomplete indicator of hESC derivation and that application of in vitro fertilization-based early embryo scoring can help predict hESC derivation efficiency. Experiments aiming to quantify, improve upon, or compare hESC derivation efficiency should thus take into consideration early embryo morphology scoring for the comparison of groups with equal developmental competence.

  2. Chronology of early embryonic development and embryo uterine migration in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Picha, Y; Tibary, A; Memon, M; Kasimanickam, R; Sumar, J

    2013-03-01

    The objectives were to: (1) describe the chronology of early embryonic development from ovulation to entry into the uterus; and (2) to determine the timing of embryo migration to the left uterine horn when ovulation occurred from the right ovary. The experiment was conducted in Peru. Females (n = 132) were randomly assigned to 15 experimental groups. All females were mated to an intact male, given 50 μg GnRH im (Cystorelin) and ovulation time determined by transrectal ultrasonography, conducted every 6 hours, starting 24 hours postmating. Animals were slaughtered at a specific intervals postovulation and reproductive tracts were recovered and subjected to oviductal and uterine flushing for females slaughtered between 1 and 6 days postovulation (dpo; Day 0 = ovulation) and uterine flushing for females slaughtered from 7 to 15 dpo for recovery of oocytes/embryos. Season of mating did not influence the interval from mating to ovulation (winter: 29 ± 6 hours vs. summer: 30 ± 6 hours; P = 0.49). Ovulation rates for females mated during winter and summer were 92% versus 100%, respectively (P = 0.05). Fertilization rates for winter and summer mated females were 72% and 82% (P = 0.29). Unfertilized ova were not retained in the uterine tube. All embryos collected were in the uterine tube ipsilateral to the side of ovulation between 1 and 5 dpo. Embryos reached the uterus on 6 dpo. Embryos began to elongate on 9 dpo; at this time, 83% of embryos derived from right-ovary ovulations were collected from the left uterine horn. Embryos occupied the entire uterine cavity by 10 dpo. In conclusion, we characterized early embryo development and location of embryo during its early developmental stages in alpaca. This was apparently the first report regarding chronology of embryo development and migration to the left horn in alpaca which merits further investigation regarding its role in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lethal Ultra-Early Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of De Novo Aneurysm 5 Months After Primary Aneurysmatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Walter, Johannes; Unterberg, Andreas W; Zweckberger, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 1% of all patients surviving rupture of a cerebral aneurysm suffer from a second aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage later in their lives, 61% of which are caused by rupture of a de novo aneurysm. Latency between bleedings is usually many years, and younger patients tend to achieve better outcomes from a second subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report an unusual case of lethal ultra-early rupture of a de novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery only 5 months after the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage and complete coiling in a young, healthy male patient. Despite complete aneurysm obliteration, young age, and good recovery, patients may be subjected to secondary subarachnoid hemorrhages from de novo aneurysms after only a few months of the initial bleeding. Early-control magnetic resonance angiography might hence be advisable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Single-cell transcriptome of early embryos and cultured embryonic stem cells of cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Sasaki, Kotaro; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Saitou, Mitinori

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the development of pluripotency and specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been studied predominantly using mice as a model organism. However, divergences among mammalian species for such processes have begun to be recognized. Between humans and mice, pre-implantation development appears relatively similar, but the manner and morphology of post-implantation development are significantly different. Nevertheless, the embryogenesis just after implantation in primates, including the specification of PGCs, has been unexplored due to the difficulties in analyzing the embryos at relevant developmental stages. Here, we present a comprehensive single-cell transcriptome dataset of pre- and early post-implantation embryo cells, PGCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of cynomolgus monkeys as a model of higher primates. The identities of each transcriptome were also validated rigorously by other way such as immunofluorescent analysis. The information reported here will serve as a foundation for our understanding of a wide range of processes in the developmental biology of primates, including humans. PMID:28649393

  5. Changing Nuclear Landscape and Unique PML Structures During Early Epigenetic Transitions of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butler, John T.; Hall, Lisa L.; Smith, Kelly P.; Lawrence, Jeanne B.

    2010-01-01

    The complex nuclear structure of somatic cells is important to epigenomic regulation, yet little is known about nuclear organization of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here we surveyed several nuclear structures in pluripotent and transitioning hESC. Observations of centromeres, telomeres, SC35 speckles, Cajal Bodies, lamin A/C and emerin, nuclear shape and size demonstrate a very different “nuclear landscape” in hESC. This landscape is remodeled during a brief transitional window, concomitant with or just prior to differentiation onset. Notably, hESC initially contain abundant signal for spliceosome assembly factor, SC35, but lack discrete SC35 domains; these form as cells begin to specialize, likely reflecting cell-type specific genomic organization. Concomitantly, nuclear size increases and shape changes as lamin A/C and emerin incorporate into the lamina. During this brief window, hESC exhibit dramatically different PML-defined structures, which in somatic cells are linked to gene regulation and cancer. Unlike the numerous, spherical somatic PML bodies, hES cells often display ~1–3 large PML structures of two morphological types: long linear “rods” or elaborate “rosettes”, which lack substantial SUMO-1, Daxx, and Sp100.These occur primarily between Day 0–2 of differentiation and become rare thereafter. PML rods may be “taut” between other structures, such as centromeres, but clearly show some relationship with the lamina, where PML often abuts or fills a “gap” in early lamin A/C staining. Findings demonstrate that pluripotent hES cells have a markedly different overall nuclear architecture, remodeling of which is linked to early epigenomic programming and involves formation of unique PML-defined structures. PMID:19449340

  6. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) as a marker for detecting subclinical embryonic loss in clomiphene citrate-treated women.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Moniz, C L; Gokral, J S; Meherji, P K

    1995-05-01

    A discrepancy exists between the apparently normal ovulation and the pregnancy rates in women treated with clomiphene citrate (CC). Our previous studies have indicated that immuno-suppressive "early pregnancy factor" (EPF) is a novel marker to detect subclinical embryonic loss in infertile women. In the present study EPF was used as a marker to detect subclinical embryonic loss in women treated with CC with/without gonadotropins. In some of the women treated with CC, conception was assisted by artificial insemination with husband's semen (AIH). Our results have indicated that fertilization occurred (EPF + ve) in 47.7% (52/109) of women treated with CC with/without gonadotropins; 13.46% (7/52) retained the fetus and continued pregnancy till full term, whereas 78.9% (41/52) did not retain the fetuses. In the group where after stimulation, conception was assisted by AIH, fertilization was observed in 38.24% (26/68), retention in 11.54% (3/26) but subclinical embryonic loss was observed in 80.8% (21/26) cases. Thus, our results have indicated that subclinical embryonic loss may account for some of the discrepancy observed between the apparently normal ovulation and the pregnancy rates in women treated with clomiphene citrate.

  7. Microalbuminuria and early renal response to lethal dose Shiga toxin type 2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Federico; Oltra, Gisela; Gerhardt, Elizabeth; Hermes, Ricardo; Cohen, Lilian; Damiano, Alicia E; Ibarra, Cristina; Lago, Nestor R; Zotta, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) constitutes the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in children. Approximately 2%-4% of patients die during the acute phase, and one-third of the 96% who survive are at risk of chronic renal sequelae. Little information is available about the direct effect of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) on the onset of proteinuria and the evolution of toxin-mediated glomerular or tubular injury. In this work, rats were injected intraperitoneally with recombinant Escherichia coli culture supernatant containing Stx2 (sStx2; 20 μg/kg body weight) to induce HUS. Functional, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry studies were carried out to determine alterations in slit diaphragm proteins and the proximal tubule endocytic system at 48 hours post-inoculation. We detected a significant increase in microalbuminuria, without changes in the proteinuria values compared to the control rats. In immunoperoxidase studies, the renal tubules and glomerular mesangium showed an increased expression of transforming growth factor β(1)(TGF-β(1)). The expression of megalin was decreased by immunoperoxidase and the cytoplasm showed a granular pattern of megalin expression by immunofluorescence techniques. Western blot analysis performed in the renal cortex from sStx2-treated and control rats using anti-nephrin and anti-podocalyxin antibodies showed a decreased expression of these proteins. We suggest that the alterations in slit diaphragm proteins and megalin expression could be related to the development of microalbuminuria in response to lethal doses of Stx2.

  8. Early treatment with intravenous lipid emulsion in a potentially lethal hydroxychloroquine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ten Broeke, R; Mestrom, E; Woo, L; Kreeftenberg, H

    2016-06-01

    This case report describes the possible benefit of intravenous lipid emulsion in two patients surviving a severe intoxication with hydroxychloroquine in a dose that was previously considered to be lethal. The first case involves a 25-year-old female who ingested 17.5 grams of hydroxychloroquine, approximately one hour before presentation. An ECG showed QRS widening and the lab results showed hypokalaemia. She became unconscious, and developed hypotension and eventually apnoea. After intubation, supportive care consisted of norepinephrine and supplementation of potassium. Moreover, sodium bicarbonate and intravenous lipid emulsion were started to prevent cardiac toxicity. After these interventions, haemodynamic stability was established within a few hours. Although cardiomyopathy was confirmed, the patient recovered after two weeks. The second case concerns a 25-year-old male who took 5 grams of hydroxychloroquine. At presentation, two hours after intake, he showed QTc prolongation and hypokalaemia. The patient was treated with the usual supportive care and, although presentation to hospital was later, with intravenous lipid emulsion. Also this patient recovered. In conclusion, these cases show the benefit of supplemental intravenous lipid emulsion to prevent cardiac toxicity after a severe intoxication with hydroxychloroquine.

  9. Development and morphogenesis of human wrist joint during embryonic and early fetal period

    PubMed Central

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Álvarez, Pablo; Prados, José C; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Aránega, Antonia; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    The development of the human wrist joint has been studied widely, with the main focus on carpal chondrogenesis, ligaments and triangular fibrocartilage. However, there are some discrepancies concerning the origin and morphogenetic time-table of these structures, including nerves, muscles and vascular elements. For this study we used serial sections of 57 human embryonic (n = 30) and fetal (n = 27) specimens from O’Rahilly stages 17–23 and 9–14 weeks, respectively. The following phases in carpal morphogenesis have been established: undifferentiated mesenchyme (stage 17), condensated mesenchyme (stages 18 and 19), pre-chondrogenic (stages 19 and 20) and chondrogenic (stages 21 and over). Carpal chondrification and osteogenic processes are similar, starting with capitate and hamate (stage 19) and ending with pisiform (stage 22). In week 14, a vascular bud penetrates into the lunate cartilaginous mold, early sign of the osteogenic process that will be completed after birth. In stage 18, median, ulnar and radial nerves and thenar eminence appear in the hand plate. In stage 21, there are indications of the interosseous muscles, and in stage 22 flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus and lumbrical muscles, transverse carpal ligament and collateral ligaments emerge. In stage 23, the articular disc, radiocarpal and ulnocarpal ligaments and deep palmar arterial arch become visible. Radiate carpal and interosseous ligaments appear in week 9, and in week 10, dorsal radiocarpal ligament and articular capsule are evident. Finally, synovial membrane is observed in week 13. We have performed a complete analysis of the morphogenesis of the structures of the human wrist joint. Our results present new data on nervous and arterial elements and provide the basis for further investigations on anatomical pathology, comparative morphology and evolutionary anthropology. PMID:22428933

  10. Mapping conduction velocity of early embryonic hearts with a robust fitting algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shi; Wang, Yves T; Ma, Pei; Werdich, Andreas A; Rollins, Andrew M; Jenkins, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac conduction maturation is an important and integral component of heart development. Optical mapping with voltage-sensitive dyes allows sensitive measurements of electrophysiological signals over the entire heart. However, accurate measurements of conduction velocity during early cardiac development is typically hindered by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements of action potentials. Here, we present a novel image processing approach based on least squares optimizations, which enables high-resolution, low-noise conduction velocity mapping of smaller tubular hearts. First, the action potential trace measured at each pixel is fit to a curve consisting of two cumulative normal distribution functions. Then, the activation time at each pixel is determined based on the fit, and the spatial gradient of activation time is determined with a two-dimensional (2D) linear fit over a square-shaped window. The size of the window is adaptively enlarged until the gradients can be determined within a preset precision. Finally, the conduction velocity is calculated based on the activation time gradient, and further corrected for three-dimensional (3D) geometry that can be obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We validated the approach using published activation potential traces based on computer simulations. We further validated the method by adding artificially generated noise to the signal to simulate various SNR conditions using a curved simulated image (digital phantom) that resembles a tubular heart. This method proved to be robust, even at very low SNR conditions (SNR = 2-5). We also established an empirical equation to estimate the maximum conduction velocity that can be accurately measured under different conditions (e.g. sampling rate, SNR, and pixel size). Finally, we demonstrated high-resolution conduction velocity maps of the quail embryonic heart at a looping stage of development. PMID:26114034

  11. An early-biomarker algorithm predicts lethal graft-versus-host disease and survival

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Matthew J.; Özbek, Umut; Holler, Ernst; Major-Monfried, Hannah; Reddy, Pavan; Aziz, Mina; Hogan, William J.; Ayuk, Francis; Efebera, Yvonne A.; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Bunworasate, Udomsak; Qayed, Muna; Ordemann, Rainer; Wölfl, Matthias; Mielke, Stephan; Chen, Yi-Bin; Devine, Steven; Jagasia, Madan; Kitko, Carrie L.; Litzow, Mark R.; Kröger, Nicolaus; Locatelli, Franco; Morales, George; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Reshef, Ran; Rösler, Wolf; Weber, Daniela; Yanik, Gregory A.; Levine, John E.; Ferrara, James L.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. No laboratory test can predict the risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) or severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) prior to the onset of GVHD symptoms. METHODS. Patient blood samples on day 7 after HCT were obtained from a multicenter set of 1,287 patients, and 620 samples were assigned to a training set. We measured the concentrations of 4 GVHD biomarkers (ST2, REG3α, TNFR1, and IL-2Rα) and used them to model 6-month NRM using rigorous cross-validation strategies to identify the best algorithm that defined 2 distinct risk groups. We then applied the final algorithm in an independent test set (n = 309) and validation set (n = 358). RESULTS. A 2-biomarker model using ST2 and REG3α concentrations identified patients with a cumulative incidence of 6-month NRM of 28% in the high-risk group and 7% in the low-risk group (P < 0.001). The algorithm performed equally well in the test set (33% vs. 7%, P < 0.001) and the multicenter validation set (26% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). Sixteen percent, 17%, and 20% of patients were at high risk in the training, test, and validation sets, respectively. GVHD-related mortality was greater in high-risk patients (18% vs. 4%, P < 0.001), as was severe gastrointestinal GVHD (17% vs. 8%, P < 0.001). The same algorithm can be successfully adapted to define 3 distinct risk groups at GVHD onset. CONCLUSION. A biomarker algorithm based on a blood sample taken 7 days after HCT can consistently identify a group of patients at high risk for lethal GVHD and NRM. FUNDING. The National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. PMID:28194439

  12. AMPA receptor desensitization mutation results in severe developmental phenotypes and early postnatal lethality

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Louisa A.; Russell, Theron A.; Xu, Jian; Wood, Lydia; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) recep-tors desensitize rapidly and completely in the continued presence of their endogenous ligand glutamate; however, it is not clear what role AMPA receptor desensitization plays in the brain. We generated a knock-in mouse in which a single amino acid residue, which controls desensitization, was mutated in the GluA2 (GluR2) receptor subunit (GluA2L483Y). This mutation was homozygous lethal. However, mice carrying a single mutated allele, GluA2L483Y/wt, survived past birth, but displayed severe and progressive neurological deficits including seizures and, ultimately, increased mortality. The expression of the AMPA receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 was decreased, whereas NMDA receptor protein expression was increased in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Despite this, basal synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus were largely unaffected, suggesting that neurons preferentially target receptors to synapses to normalize synaptic weight. We found no gross neuroanatomical alterations in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Moreover, there was no accumulation of AMPA receptor subunits in intracellular compartments, suggesting that folding and assembly of AMPA receptors are not affected by this mutation. Interestingly, EPSC paired pulse ratios in the CA1 were enhanced without a change in synaptic release probability, demonstrating that postsynaptic receptor properties can contribute to facilitation. The dramatic phenotype observed in this study by the introduction of a single amino acid change demonstrates an essential role in vivo for AMPA receptor desensitization. PMID:20439731

  13. A model for early onset of protection against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Röhrs, Susanne; Kalthoff, Donata; Beer, Martin

    2014-05-07

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 sporadically cause severe disease in humans and involve the risk of inducing a pandemic by gaining the ability for human-to-human transmission. In naïve poultry, primarily gallinaceous birds, the virus induces fatal disease and the used inactivated vaccines occasionally are unable to provide efficient and early onset of protection. Therefore, optimized vaccines must be developed and evaluated in model systems. In our study, we tested a novel H5 neuraminidase-deleted influenza A virus variant to analyze the induction of a very early onset of immunity. Ferrets, mice and chickens were each immunized with a single vaccine dose seven, three and one day before lethal challenge infection, respectively. Sound protection was conferred in 100% of animals immunized seven days prior to challenge infection. In these animals, no clinical signs were observed, and no challenge virus RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR analyses of swabs, nasal washings, and organ samples. Moreover, the attenuated modified-live virus variant protected all chickens, mice, and ferrets as early as three days after vaccination against severe clinical signs. Chickens and ferrets developed hemagglutinin-specific antibodies after seven days, but no neuraminidase-specific antibodies, making this kind of neuraminidase-negative strain suitable for the DIVA ("differentiating vaccinated from infected animals") strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Acetyl CoA Levels during the Early Embryonic Development of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Yugo; Pham, Uyen; Hu, Wanzhou; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Gout, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous and fundamental intracellular cofactor. CoA acts as a carrier of metabolically important carboxylic acids in the form of CoA thioesters and is an obligatory component of a multitude of catabolic and anabolic reactions. Acetyl CoA is a CoA thioester derived from catabolism of all major carbon fuels. This metabolite is at a metabolic crossroads, either being further metabolised as an energy source or used as a building block for biosynthesis of lipids and cholesterol. In addition, acetyl CoA serves as the acetyl donor in protein acetylation reactions, linking metabolism to protein post-translational modifications. Recent studies in yeast and cultured mammalian cells have suggested that the intracellular level of acetyl CoA may play a role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis, by affecting protein acetylation reactions. Yet, how the levels of this metabolite change in vivo during the development of a vertebrate is not known. We measured levels of acetyl CoA, free CoA and total short chain CoA esters during the early embryonic development of Xenopus laevis using HPLC. Acetyl CoA and total short chain CoA esters start to increase around midblastula transition (MBT) and continue to increase through stages of gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis. Pre-MBT embryos contain more free CoA relative to acetyl CoA but there is a shift in the ratio of acetyl CoA to CoA after MBT, suggesting a metabolic transition that results in net accumulation of acetyl CoA. At the whole-embryo level, there is an apparent correlation between the levels of acetyl CoA and levels of acetylation of a number of proteins including histones H3 and H2B. This suggests the level of acetyl CoA may be a factor, which determines the degree of acetylation of these proteins, hence may play a role in the regulation of embryogenesis. PMID:24831956

  15. Early first trimester maternal 'high fish and olive oil and low meat' dietary pattern is associated with accelerated human embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Francesca; Rousian, Melek; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Koning, Anton H J; Willemsen, Sten P; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Cetin, Irene; Steegers, Eric A P

    2018-04-20

    Maternal dietary patterns were associated with embryonic growth and congenital anomalies. We aim to evaluate associations between early first trimester maternal dietary patterns and embryonic morphological development among pregnancies with non-malformed outcome. A total of 228 strictly dated, singleton pregnancies without congenital malformations were enrolled in a periconceptional hospital-based cohort. Principal component analysis was performed to extract early first trimester maternal dietary patterns from food frequency questionnaires. Serial transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) scans were performed between 6 +0 and 10 +2 gestational weeks and internal and external morphological criteria were used to define Carnegie stages in a virtual reality system. Associations between dietary patterns and Carnegie stages were investigated using linear mixed models. A total of 726 3D US scans were included (median: three scans per pregnancy). The 'high fish and olive oil and low meat' dietary pattern was associated with accelerated embryonic development in the study population (β = 0.12 (95%CI: 0.00; 0.24), p < 0.05). Weak adherence to this dietary pattern delayed embryonic development by 2.1 days (95%CI: 1.6; 2.6) compared to strong adherence. The 'high vegetables, fruit and grain' dietary pattern accelerated embryonic development in the strictly dated spontaneous pregnancy subgroup without adjustment for energy intake. Early first trimester maternal dietary patterns impacts human embryonic morphological development among pregnancies without congenital malformations. The clinical meaning of delayed embryonic development needs further investigation.

  16. Generation of the Dimensional Embryology Application (App) for Visualization of Early Chick and Frog Embryonic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Rebecca L.; Bilitski, James; Zerbee, Alyssa; Symans, Alexandra; Chop, Alexandra; Seitz, Brianne; Tran, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The study of embryonic development of multiple organisms, including model organisms such as frogs and chicks, is included in many undergraduate biology programs, as well as in a variety of graduate programs. As our knowledge of biological systems increases and the amount of material to be taught expands, the time spent instructing students about…

  17. Fucoidan promotes early step of cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells and long-term maintenance of beating areas.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Sofiane; Letourneur, Didier; Aid-Launais, Rachida; Di Stefano, Antonio; Vainchenker, William; Norol, Françoise; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Somatic stem cells require specific niches and three-dimensional scaffolds provide ways to mimic this microenvironment. Here, we studied a scaffold based on Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide known to influence morphogen gradients during embryonic development, to support human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiation toward the cardiac lineage. A macroporous (pore 200 μm) Fucoidan scaffold was selected to support hESCs attachment and proliferation. Using a protocol based on the cardiogenic morphogen bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) and transforming growth factor (TGFβ) followed by tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), an effector of cardiopoietic priming, we examined the cardiac differentiation in the scaffold compared to culture dishes and embryoid bodies (EBs). At day 8, Fucoidan scaffolds supported a significantly higher expression of the 3 genes encoding for transcription factors marking the early step of embryonic cardiac differentiation NKX2.5 (p<0.05), MEF2C (p<0.01), and GATA4 (p<0.01), confirmed by flow cytometry analysis for MEF2C and NKX2.5. The ability of Fucoidan scaffolds to locally concentrate and slowly release TGFβ and TNFα was confirmed by Luminex technology. We also found that Fucoidan scaffolds supported the late stage of embryonic cardiac differentiation marked by a significantly higher atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) expression (p<0.001), although only rare beating areas were observed. We postulated that absence of mechanical stress in the soft hydrogel impaired sarcomere formation, as confirmed by molecular analysis of the cardiac muscle myosin MYH6 and immunohistological staining of sarcomeric α-actinin. Nevertheless, Fucoidan scaffolds contributed to the development of thin filaments connecting beating areas through promotion of smooth muscle cells, thus enabling maintenance of beating areas for up to 6 months. In conclusion, Fucoidan scaffolds appear as a very promising biomaterial to control cardiac differentiation from hESCs that

  18. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    PubMed

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at p<0.05. The high sensitivity of the 7-day-old test organisms to both chemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment.

  19. Ca2+ signaling and early embryonic patterning during the blastula and gastrula periods of zebrafish and Xenopus development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2006-11-01

    It has been proposed that Ca(2+) signaling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern forming events during early vertebrate development [L.F. Jaffe, Organization of early development by calcium patterns, BioEssays 21 (1999) 657-667; M.J. Berridge, P. Lipp, M.D. Bootman, The versatility and universality of calcium signaling, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1 (2000) 11-21; S.E. Webb, A.L. Miller, Calcium signalling during embryonic development, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 4 (2003) 539-551]. With reference to the embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the frog, Xenopus laevis, we review the Ca(2+) signals reported during the Blastula and Gastrula Periods. This developmental window encompasses the major pattern forming events of epiboly, involution, and convergent extension, which result in the establishment of the basic germ layers and body axes [C.B. Kimmel, W.W. Ballard, S.R. Kimmel, B. Ullmann, T.F. Schilling, Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish, Dev. Dyn. 203 (1995) 253-310]. Data will be presented to support the suggestion that propagating waves (both long and short range) of Ca(2+) release, followed by sequestration, may play a crucial role in: (1) Coordinating cell movements during these pattern forming events and (2) Contributing to the establishment of the basic embryonic axes, as well as (3) Helping to define the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen [E. Gilland, A.L. Miller, E. Karplus, R. Baker, S.E. Webb, Imaging of multicellular large-scale rhythmic calcium waves during zebrafish gastrulation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 157-161; J.B. Wallingford, A.J. Ewald, R.M. Harland, S.E. Fraser, Calcium signaling during convergent extension in Xenopus, Curr. Biol. 11 (2001) 652-661]. The various potential targets of these Ca(2+) transients will also be discussed, as well as how they might integrate with other known pattern forming

  20. Fine-tuning of chromatin composition and Polycomb recruitment by two Mi2 homologues during C. elegans early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Käser-Pébernard, Stéphanie; Pfefferli, Catherine; Aschinger, Caroline; Wicky, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex promotes cell fate decisions throughout embryonic development. Its core enzymatic subunit, the SNF2-like ATPase and Helicase Mi2, is well conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdom and can be found in multiple and highly homologous copies in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. However, the reasons for such duplications and their implications for embryonic development are unknown. Here we studied the two C. elegans Mi2 homologues, LET-418 and CHD-3, which displayed redundant activities during early embryonic development. At the transcriptional level, these two Mi2 homologues redundantly repressed the expression of a large gene population. We found that LET-418 physically accumulated at TSS-proximal regions on transcriptionally active genomic targets involved in growth and development. Moreover, LET-418 acted redundantly with CHD-3 to block H3K4me3 deposition at these genes. Our study also revealed that LET-418 was partially responsible for recruiting Polycomb to chromatin and for promoting H3K27me3 deposition. Surprisingly, CHD-3 displayed opposite activities on Polycomb, as it was capable of moderating its LET-418-dependent recruitment and restricted the amount of H3K27me3 on the studied target genes. Although closely homologous, LET-418 and CHD-3 showed both redundant and opposite functions in modulating the chromatin environment at developmental target genes. We identified the interplay between LET-418 and CHD-3 to finely tune the levels of histone marks at developmental target genes. More than just repressors, Mi2-containing complexes appear as subtle modulators of gene expression throughout development. The study of such molecular variations in vertebrate Mi2 counterparts might provide crucial insights to our understanding of the epigenetic control of early development.

  1. Triennial Reproduction Symposium: influence of follicular characteristics at ovulation on early embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; Smith, M F; MacNeil, M D; Day, M L; Bridges, G A; Perry, G A; Abreu, F M; Atkins, J A; Pohler, K G; Jinks, E M; Madsen, C A

    2013-07-01

    Reproductive failure in livestock can result from failure to fertilize the oocyte or embryonic loss during gestation. Although fertilization failure occurs, embryonic mortality represents a greater contribution to reproductive failure. Reproductive success varies among species and production goals but is measured as a binomial trait (i.e., pregnancy), derived by the success or failure of multiple biological steps. This review focuses primarily on follicular characteristics affecting oocyte quality, fertilization, and embryonic health that lead to pregnancy establishment in beef cattle. When estrous cycles are manipulated with assisted reproductive technologies and ovulation is induced, duration of proestrus (i.e., interval from induced luteolysis to induced ovulation), ovulatory follicle growth rate, and ovulatory follicle size are factors that affect the maturation of the follicle and oocyte at induced ovulation. The most critical maturational component of the ovulatory follicle is the production of sufficient estradiol to prepare follicular cells for luteinization and progesterone synthesis and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. The exact roles of estradiol in oocyte maturation remain unclear, but cows that have lesser serum concentrations of estradiol have decreased fertilization rates and decreased embryo survival on d 7 after induced ovulation. When length of proestrus is held constant, perhaps the most practical follicular measure of fertility is ovulatory follicle size because it is an easily measured attribute of the follicle that is highly associated with its ability to produce estradiol.

  2. Trivalent pneumococcal protein recombinant vaccine protects against lethal Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia and correlates with phagocytosis by neutrophils during early pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Surendran, Naveen; Verhoeven, David; Klapa, Jessica; Ochs, Martina; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-02-18

    Due to the fact that current polysaccharide-based pneumococcal vaccines have limited serotype coverage, protein-based vaccine candidates have been sought for over a decade to replace or complement current vaccines. We previously reported that a trivalent Pneumococcal Protein recombinant Vaccine (PPrV), showed protection against pneumonia and sepsis in an infant murine model. Here we investigated immunological correlates of protection of PPrV in the same model. C57BL/6J infant mice were intramuscularly vaccinated at age 1-3 weeks with 3 doses of PPrV, containing pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and detoxified pneumolysin mutant PlyD1. 3-4 weeks after last vaccination, serum and lung antibody levels to PPrV components were measured, and mice were intranasally challenged with a lethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) serotype 6A. Lung Spn bacterial burden, number of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, phagocytosed Spn by granulocytes, and levels of cytokines and chemokines were determined at 6, 12, 24, and 48h after challenge. PPrV vaccination conferred 83% protection against Spn challenge. Vaccinated mice had significantly elevated serum and lung antibody levels to three PPrV components. In the first stage of pathogenesis of Spn induced pneumonia (6-24h after challenge), vaccinated mice had lower Spn bacterial lung burdens and more phagocytosed Spn in the granulocytes. PPrV vaccination led to lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TFN-α, and other cytokines and chemokines (IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ, MIP-1b, MIP-2 and KC, and G-CSF), presumably due to a lower lung bacterial burden. Trivalent PPrV vaccination results in increased serum and lung antibody levels to the vaccine components, a reduction in Spn induced lethality, enhanced early clearance of Spn in lungs due to more rapid and thorough phagocytosis of Spn by neutrophils, and correspondingly a reduction in lung inflammation

  3. Identification of positional candidates for bovine placental genes responsible for early embryonic death during cloning-attempted pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahisa; Muramatsu, Youji; Taniguchi, Yukio; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    Our previous study detected 291 and 77 genes showing early embryonic death-associated elevation and reduction of expression, respectively, in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloned embryo. In this study, we mapped the 10 genes showing the elevation and the 10 genes doing the reduction most significantly, using somatic cell hybrid and bovine draft genome sequence. We then compared the mapped positions for these genes with the genomic locations of bovine quantitative trait loci for still-birth and/or abortion. Among the mapped genes, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), spectrin, beta, nonerythrocytic 1 (SPTBNI), and an unknown novel gene containing AU277832 expressed sequence tag were intriguing, in that the mapped positions were consistent with the genomic locations of bovine still-birth and/or abortion quantitative trait loci, and thus identified as positional candidates for bovine placental genes responsible for the early embryonic death during the pregnancy attempted by somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloning.

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    PubMed

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  5. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state

    PubMed Central

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A.; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O.; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state. PMID:23029181

  6. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  7. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling. PMID:26020623

  8. Cell Cycle Control in the Early Embryonic Development of Aquatic Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Joseph C.; Clowdus, Emily A.; Sansam, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle is integrated with many aspects of embryonic development. Not only is proper control over the pace of cell proliferation important, but also the timing of cell cycle progression is coordinated with transcription, cell migration, and cell differentiation. Due to the ease with which the embryos of aquatic organisms can be observed and manipulated, they have been a popular choice for embryologists throughout history. In the cell cycle field, aquatic organisms have been extremely important because they have played a major role in the discovery and analysis of key regulators of the cell cycle. In particular, the frog Xenopus laevis has been instrumental for understanding how the basic embryonic cell cycle is regulated. More recently, the zebrafish has been used to understand how the cell cycle is remodeled during vertebrate development and how it is regulated during morphogenesis. This review describes how some of the unique strengths of aquatic species have been leveraged for cell cycle research and suggests how species such as Xenopus and zebrafish will continue to reveal the roles of the cell cycle in human biology and disease. PMID:26475527

  9. Early embryonic development of the head region of Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2010-09-01

    We report our investigations on the embryonic development of Gryllus assimilis, with particular attention to the head. Significant findings revealed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images include: (1) the pre-antennal lobes represent the anterior-most segment that does not bear any appendages; (2) each of the lobes consists of central and marginal regions; (3) the central region thereof develops into the protocerebrum and the optic lobes, whereas the marginal region thereof becomes the anterior portion of the head capsule; (4) the initial position of the antennal segment is posterior to the mouth region; (5) appendage anlagen are transitorily present in the intercalary segment, and they later vanish together with the segment itself; (6) a bulged sternum appears to develop from the ventral surface of the mandibular, maxillary and labial segments. Embryonic features are then compared across the Insecta and further extended to the embryos of a spider (Araneae, Chelicerata). Striking similarities shared by the anterior-most region of the insect and spider embryos lead the authors to conclude that such comparison should be further undertaken to cover the entire Euarthropoda. This will help us to understand the embryology and evolution of the arthropod head. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FGF/EGF signaling regulates the renewal of early nephron progenitors during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aaron C; Adams, Derek; de Caestecker, Mark; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert; Oxburgh, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that nephron progenitor cells of the embryonic kidney are arranged in a series of compartments of an increasing state of differentiation. The earliest progenitor compartment, distinguished by expression of CITED1, possesses greater capacity for renewal and differentiation than later compartments. Signaling events governing progression of nephron progenitor cells through stages of increasing differentiation are poorly understood, and their elucidation will provide key insights into normal and dysregulated nephrogenesis, as well as into regenerative processes that follow kidney injury. In this study, we found that the mouse CITED1(+) progenitor compartment is maintained in response to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ligands that activate both FGF and EGF receptors. This RTK signaling function is dependent on RAS and PI3K signaling but not ERK. In vivo, RAS inactivation by expression of sprouty 1 (Spry1) in CITED1(+) nephron progenitors results in loss of characteristic molecular marker expression and in increased death of progenitor cells. Lineage tracing shows that surviving Spry1-expressing progenitor cells are impaired in their subsequent epithelial differentiation, infrequently contributing to epithelial structures. These findings demonstrate that the survival and developmental potential of cells in the earliest embryonic nephron progenitor cell compartment are dependent on FGF/EGF signaling through RAS.

  11. Knockdown of Fanconi anemia genes in human embryonic stem cells reveals early developmental defects in the hematopoietic lineage.

    PubMed

    Tulpule, Asmin; Lensch, M William; Miller, Justine D; Austin, Karyn; D'Andrea, Alan; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Shimamura, Akiko; Daley, George Q

    2010-04-29

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pediatric bone marrow failure and congenital anomalies. The effect of FA gene deficiency on hematopoietic development in utero remains poorly described as mouse models of FA do not develop hematopoietic failure and such studies cannot be performed on patients. We have created a human-specific in vitro system to study early hematopoietic development in FA using a lentiviral RNA interference (RNAi) strategy in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We show that knockdown of FANCA and FANCD2 in hESCs leads to a reduction in hematopoietic fates and progenitor numbers that can be rescued by FA gene complementation. Our data indicate that hematopoiesis is impaired in FA from the earliest stages of development, suggesting that deficiencies in embryonic hematopoiesis may underlie the progression to bone marrow failure in FA. This work illustrates how hESCs can provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of genetic disease.

  12. Nitric oxide synthase during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: Gene expression, enzyme activity, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Ryo; Kuwamoto, Marina; Yamahama, Yumi; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for embryonic diapause or the breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori, we biochemically analyzed nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the embryogenesis of B. mori. The gene expression and enzyme activity of B. mori NOS (BmNOS) were examined in diapause, non-diapause, and HCl-treated diapause eggs. In the case of HCl-treated diapause eggs, the gene expression and enzyme activity of BmNOS were induced by HCl treatment. However, in the case of diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryogenesis, changes in the BmNOS activity and gene expressions did not coincide except 48-60 h after oviposition in diapause eggs. The results imply that changes in BmNOS activity during the embryogenesis of diapause and non-diapause eggs are regulated not only at the level of transcription but also post-transcription. The distribution and localization of BmNOS were also investigated with an immunohistochemical technique using antibodies against the universal NOS; the localization of BmNOS was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of yolk cells in diapause eggs and HCl-treated diapause eggs. These data suggest that BmNOS has an important role in the early embryonic development of the B. mori. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. Muscular dystrophy begins early in embryonic development deriving from stem cell loss and disrupted skeletal muscle formation

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Deborah; Stadler, Lukas Kurt Josef; Larner, Dean; Smith, Janet

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Examination of embryonic myogenesis of two distinct, but functionally related, skeletal muscle dystrophy mutants (mdx and cav-3−/−) establishes for the first time that key elements of the pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C (LGMD-1c) originate in the disruption of the embryonic cardiac and skeletal muscle patterning processes. Disruption of myogenesis occurs earlier in mdx mutants, which lack a functional form of dystrophin, than in cav-3−/− mutants, which lack the Cav3 gene that encodes the protein caveolin-3; this finding is consistent with the milder phenotype of LGMD-1c, a condition caused by mutations in Cav3, and the earlier [embryonic day (E)9.5] expression of dystrophin. Myogenesis is severely disrupted in mdx embryos, which display developmental delays; myotube morphology and displacement defects; and aberrant stem cell behaviour. In addition, the caveolin-3 protein is elevated in mdx embryos. Both cav-3−/− and mdx mutants (from E15.5 and E11.5, respectively) exhibit hyperproliferation and apoptosis of Myf5-positive embryonic myoblasts; attrition of Pax7-positive myoblasts in situ; and depletion of total Pax7 protein in late gestation. Furthermore, both cav-3−/− and mdx mutants have cardiac defects. In cav-3−/− mutants, there is a more restricted phenotype comprising hypaxial muscle defects, an excess of malformed hypertrophic myotubes, a twofold increase in myonuclei, and reduced fast myosin heavy chain (FMyHC) content. Several mdx mutant embryo pathologies, including myotube hypotrophy, reduced myotube numbers and increased FMyHC, have reciprocity with cav-3−/− mutants. In double mutant (mdxcav-3+/−) embryos that are deficient in dystrophin (mdx) and heterozygous for caveolin-3 (cav-3+/−), whereby caveolin-3 is reduced to 50% of wild-type (WT) levels, these phenotypes are severely exacerbated: intercostal muscle fibre density is reduced by 71%, and Pax7-positive

  14. Hemodynamic flow visualization of early embryonic great vessels using μPIV.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Selda; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Kowalski, William J; Pekkan, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is an evolving quantitative methodology to closely and accurately monitor the cardiac flow dynamics and mechanotransduction during vascular morphogenesis. While PIV technique has a long history, contemporary developments in advanced microscopy have significantly expanded its power. This chapter includes three new methods for μPIV acquisition in selected embryonic structures achieved through advanced optical imaging: (1) high-speed confocal scanning of transgenic zebrafish embryos, where the transgenic erythrocytes act as the tracing particles; (2) microinjection of artificial seeding particles in chick embryos visualized with stereomicroscopy; and (3) real-time, time-resolved optical coherence tomography acquisition of vitelline vessel flow profiles in chick embryos, tracking the erythrocytes.

  15. Zeb1-Hdac2-eNOS circuitry identifies early cardiovascular precursors in naive mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cencioni, Chiara; Spallotta, Francesco; Savoia, Matteo; Kuenne, Carsten; Guenther, Stefan; Re, Agnese; Wingert, Susanne; Rehage, Maike; Sürün, Duran; Siragusa, Mauro; Smith, Jacob G; Schnütgen, Frank; von Melchner, Harald; Rieger, Michael A; Martelli, Fabio; Riccio, Antonella; Fleming, Ingrid; Braun, Thomas; Zeiher, Andreas M; Farsetti, Antonella; Gaetano, Carlo

    2018-03-29

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is a late event during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and occurs after release from serum and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Here we show that after release from pluripotency, a subpopulation of mESC, kept in the naive state by 2i/LIF, expresses endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endogenously synthesizes NO. This eNOS/NO-positive subpopulation (ESNO+) expresses mesendodermal markers and is more efficient in the generation of cardiovascular precursors than eNOS/NO-negative cells. Mechanistically, production of endogenous NO triggers rapid Hdac2 S-nitrosylation, which reduces association of Hdac2 with the transcriptional repression factor Zeb1, allowing mesendodermal gene expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that the interaction between Zeb1, Hdac2, and eNOS is required for early mesendodermal differentiation of naive mESC.

  16. The fine structure of human germ layers in vivo: clues to the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sathananthan, Henry; Selvaraj, Kamala; Clark, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The fine structure of the three germ layers in human ectopic embryos (stage 7) have been documented by digital light and electron microscopy. The formation of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm and notochordal cells, and also the extraembryonic membranes, amnion and yolk sac, are imaged. The germ layers give rise to all the cells and tissues of the human body. Possible clues to the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro were obtained, since these events are more or less mimicked in cultures of ESC derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. The findings are discussed with reference to previous studies on the fine structure of ESC using the same technique. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Characterizing early embryonic development of Brown Tsaiya Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in comparison with Taiwan Country Chicken (Gallus gallus domestics)

    PubMed Central

    Lumsangkul, Chompunut; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Chang, Shen-Chang; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2018-01-01

    Avian embryos are among the most convenient and the primary representatives for the study of classical embryology. It is well-known that the hatching time of duck embryos is approximately one week longer than that of chicken embryos. However, the key features associated with the slower embryonic development in ducks have not been adequately described. This study aimed to characterize the pattern and the speed of early embryogenesis in Brown Tsaiya Ducks (BTD) compared with those in Taiwan Country Chicken (TCC) by using growth parameters including embryonic crown-tail length (ECTL), primitive streak formation, somitogenesis, and other development-related parameters, during the first 72 h of incubation. Three hundred and sixty eggs from BTD and TCC, respectively, were incubated at 37.2°C, and were then dissected hourly to evaluate their developmental stages. We found that morphological changes of TCC embryos shared a major similarity with that of the Hamburger and Hamilton staging system during early chick embryogenesis. The initial primitive streak in TCC emerged between 6 and 7 h post-incubation, but its emergence was delayed until 10 to 13 h post-incubation in BTD. Similarly, the limb primordia (wing and limb buds) were observed at 51 h post-incubation in TCC embryos compared to 64 h post-incubation in BTD embryos. The allantois first appeared around 65 to 68 h in TCC embryos, but it was not observed in BTD embryos. At the 72 h post-incubation, 40 somites were clearly formed in TCC embryos while only 32 somites in BTD embryos. Overall, the BTD embryos developed approximately 16 h slower than the chicken embryo during the first 72 h of development. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe two distinct developmental time courses between TCC and BTD, which would facilitate future embryogenesis-related studies of the two important avian species in Taiwan. PMID:29742160

  18. The Potential Role of As-sumo-1 in the Embryonic Diapause Process and Early Embryo Development of Artemia sinica

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Bing; Yao, Feng; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development of Artemia sinica, environmental stresses induce the embryo diapause phenomenon, required to resist apoptosis and regulate cell cycle activity. The small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO), a reversible post-translational protein modifier, plays an important role in embryo development. SUMO regulates multiple cellular processes, including development and other biological processes. The molecular mechanism of diapause, diapause termination and the role of As-sumo-1 in this processes and in early embryo development of Artemia sinica still remains unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the sumo-1 homolog, sumo ligase homolog, caspase-1 homolog and cyclin B homolog from Artemia sinica were cloned. The mRNA expression patterns of As-sumo-1, sumo ligase, caspase-1, cyclin B and the location of As-sumo-1 were investigated. SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E proteins were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo of A. sinica. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to verify the function of sumo-1 in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-sumo-1 was 476 bp, encoding a 92 amino acid protein. The As-caspases-1 cDNA was 966 bp, encoding a 245 amino-acid protein. The As-sumo ligase cDNA was 1556 bp encoding, a 343 amino acid protein, and the cyclin B cDNA was 739 bp, encoding a 133 amino acid protein. The expressions of As-sumo-1, As-caspase-1 and As-cyclin B were highest at the 10 h stage of embryonic development, and As-sumo ligase showed its highest expression at 0 h. The expression of As-SUMO-1 showed no tissue or organ specificity. Western blotting showed high expression of As-SUMO-1, p53, Mdm2, Caspase-1, Cyclin B and Cyclin E at the 10 h stage. The siRNA caused abnormal development of the embryo, with increased malformation and mortality. As-SUMO-1 is a crucial regulation and modification protein resumption of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of A. sinica. PMID:24404204

  19. The first whole transcriptomic exploration of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos using single and bulked embryonic RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Sun; Seo, Minseok; Choi, Hee Jung; Kim, Sang Kyung; Kim, Heebal; Han, Jae Yong

    2018-04-01

    The chicken is a valuable model organism, especially in evolutionary and embryology research because its embryonic development occurs in the egg. However, despite its scientific importance, no transcriptome data have been generated for deciphering the early developmental stages of the chicken because of practical and technical constraints in accessing pre-oviposited embryos. Here, we determine the entire transcriptome of pre-oviposited avian embryos, including oocyte, zygote, and intrauterine embryos from Eyal-giladi and Kochav stage I (EGK.I) to EGK.X collected using a noninvasive approach for the first time. We also compare RNA-sequencing data obtained using a bulked embryo sequencing and single embryo/cell sequencing technique. The raw sequencing data were preprocessed with two genome builds, Galgal4 and Galgal5, and the expression of 17,108 and 26,102 genes was quantified in the respective builds. There were some differences between the two techniques, as well as between the two genome builds, and these were affected by the emergence of long intergenic noncoding RNA annotations. The first transcriptome datasets of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos based on bulked and single embryo sequencing techniques will serve as a valuable resource for investigating early avian embryogenesis, for comparative studies among vertebrates, and for novel gene annotation in the chicken genome.

  20. RBP-Jκ-Dependent Notch Signaling Is Dispensable for Mouse Early Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Souilhol, Céline; Cormier, Sarah; Tanigaki, Kenji; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system which has been shown to be essential in cell fate specification and in numerous aspects of embryonic development in all metazoans thus far studied. We recently demonstrated that several components of the Notch signaling pathway, including the four Notch receptors and their five ligands known in mammals, are expressed in mouse oocytes, in mouse preimplantation embryos, or both. This suggested a possible implication of the Notch pathway in the first cell fate specification of the dividing mouse embryo, which results in the formation of the blastocyst. To address this issue directly, we generated zygotes in which both the maternal and the zygotic expression of Rbpsuh, a key element of the core Notch signaling pathway, were abrogated. We find that such zygotes give rise to blastocysts which implant and develop normally. Nevertheless, after gastrulation, these embryos die around midgestation, similarly to Rbpsuh-null mutants. This demonstrates that the RBP-Jκ-dependent pathway, otherwise called the canonical Notch pathway, is dispensable for blastocyst morphogenesis and the establishment of the three germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations which have challenged this conclusion. PMID:16782866

  1. RBP-Jkappa-dependent notch signaling is dispensable for mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Souilhol, Céline; Cormier, Sarah; Tanigaki, Kenji; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-07-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system which has been shown to be essential in cell fate specification and in numerous aspects of embryonic development in all metazoans thus far studied. We recently demonstrated that several components of the Notch signaling pathway, including the four Notch receptors and their five ligands known in mammals, are expressed in mouse oocytes, in mouse preimplantation embryos, or both. This suggested a possible implication of the Notch pathway in the first cell fate specification of the dividing mouse embryo, which results in the formation of the blastocyst. To address this issue directly, we generated zygotes in which both the maternal and the zygotic expression of Rbpsuh, a key element of the core Notch signaling pathway, were abrogated. We find that such zygotes give rise to blastocysts which implant and develop normally. Nevertheless, after gastrulation, these embryos die around midgestation, similarly to Rbpsuh-null mutants. This demonstrates that the RBP-Jkappa-dependent pathway, otherwise called the canonical Notch pathway, is dispensable for blastocyst morphogenesis and the establishment of the three germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations which have challenged this conclusion.

  2. Efficient embryonic culture method for the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata, and its early developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Atsushi; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenesis of snake embryos is an elusive yet fascinating research target for developmental biologists. However, few data exist on development of early snake embryo due to limited availability of pregnant snakes, and the need to harvest early stage embryos directly from pregnant snakes before oviposition without knowing the date of fertilization. We established an ex vivo culture method for early snake embryos using the Japanese striped snake, Elaphe quadrivirgata. This method, which we named "sausage-style (SS) culture", allows us to harvest snake embryos at specific stages for each experiment. Using this SS culture system, we calculated somite formation rate at early stages before oviposition. The average somite formation rate between 6/7 and 12/13 somite stages was 145.9 min, between 60/70 and 80/91 somite stages 42.4 min, and between 113-115 and 126/127 somite stages 71 min. Thus, somite formation rate that we observed during early snake embryogenesis was changed over time. We also describe a developmental staging series for E. quadrivirgata. This is the first report of a developmental series of early snake embryogenesis prior to oviposition by full-color images with high-resolution. We propose that the SS culture system is an easy method for treating early snake embryos ex vivo. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. DNA damage in bovine sperm does not block fertilization and early embryonic development but induces apoptosis after the first cleavages.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, A N; Bevers, M M; Schoevers, E; Roelen, B A J; Colenbrander, B; Gadella, B M

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate whether and at what level damage of paternal DNA influences fertilization of oocytes and early embryonic development. We hypothesized that posttesticular sperm DNA damage will only marginally affect sperm physiology due to the lack of gene expression, but that it will affect embryo development at the stage that embryo genome (including the paternal damaged DNA) expression is initiated. To test this, we artificially induced sperm DNA damage by irradiation with x- or gamma rays (doses of 0-300 Gy). Remarkably, sperm cells survived the irradiation quite well and, when compared with nonirradiated cells, sperm motility and integrity of plasma membrane, acrosome, and mitochondria were not altered by this irradiation treatment. In contrast, a highly significant logarithmic relation between irradiation dose and induced DNA damage to sperm cells was found by both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the acridin orange assay. Despite the DNA damage, irradiated sperm cells did not show any sign of apoptosis (nuclear fragmentation, depolarization of inner mitochondrial membranes, or phospholipid scrambling) and were normally capable of fertilizing oocytes, as there was no reduction in cleavage rates when compared with nonirradiated sperm samples up to irradiation doses of less than 10 Gy. Further embryonic development was completely blocked as the blastocyst rates at days 7 and 9 dropped from 28% (nonirradiated sperm) to less than 3% by greater than 2.5-Gy-irradiated sperm. This block in embryonic development was accompanied with the initiation of apoptosis after the second or third cleavage. Specific signs of apoptosis, such as nuclear fragmentation and aberrations in spindle formation, were observed in all embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization with irradiated sperm (irradiation doses >1.25 Gy). The results show that sperm DNA damage does not impair fertilization of the

  4. Tyrosine pathway regulation is host-mediated in the pea aphid symbiosis during late embryonic and early larval development.

    PubMed

    Rabatel, Andréane; Febvay, Gérard; Gaget, Karen; Duport, Gabrielle; Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Bendridi, Nadia; Rey, Marjolaine; Rahbé, Yvan; Charles, Hubert; Calevro, Federica; Colella, Stefano

    2013-04-10

    Nutritional symbioses play a central role in insects' adaptation to specialized diets and in their evolutionary success. The obligatory symbiosis between the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola, is no exception as it enables this important agricultural pest insect to develop on a diet exclusively based on plant phloem sap. The symbiotic bacteria provide the host with essential amino acids lacking in its diet but necessary for the rapid embryonic growth seen in the parthenogenetic viviparous reproduction of aphids. The aphid furnishes, in exchange, non-essential amino acids and other important metabolites. Understanding the regulations acting on this integrated metabolic system during the development of this insect is essential in elucidating aphid biology. We used a microarray-based approach to analyse gene expression in the late embryonic and the early larval stages of the pea aphid, characterizing, for the first time, the transcriptional profiles in these developmental phases. Our analyses allowed us to identify key genes in the phenylalanine, tyrosine and dopamine pathways and we identified ACYPI004243, one of the four genes encoding for the aspartate transaminase (E.C. 2.6.1.1), as specifically regulated during development. Indeed, the tyrosine biosynthetic pathway is crucial for the symbiotic metabolism as it is shared between the two partners, all the precursors being produced by B. aphidicola. Our microarray data are supported by HPLC amino acid analyses demonstrating an accumulation of tyrosine at the same developmental stages, with an up-regulation of the tyrosine biosynthetic genes. Tyrosine is also essential for the synthesis of cuticular proteins and it is an important precursor for cuticle maturation: together with the up-regulation of tyrosine biosynthesis, we observed an up-regulation of cuticular genes expression. We were also able to identify some amino acid transporter genes which are essential for the switch

  5. Anterograde Tracing Method using DiI to Label Vagal Innervation of the Embryonic and Early Postnatal Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle C.; Fox, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The mouse is an extremely valuable model for studying vagal development in relation to strain differences, genetic variation, gene manipulations, or pharmacological manipulations. Therefore, a method using 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was developed for labeling vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in embryonic and postnatal mice. DiI labeling was adapted and optimized for this purpose by varying several facets of the method. For example, insertion and crushing of DiI crystals into the nerve led to faster DiI diffusion along vagal axons and diffusion over longer distances as compared with piercing the nerve with a micropipette tip coated with dried DiI oil. Moreover, inclusion of EDTA in the fixative reduced leakage of DiI out of nerve fibers that occurred with long incubations. Also, mounting labeled tissue in PBS was superior to glycerol with n-propyl gallate, which resulted in reduced clarity of DiI labeling that may have been due to DiI leaking out of fibers. Optical sectioning of flattened wholemounts permitted examination of individual tissue layers of the GI tract wall. This procedure aided identification of nerve ending types because in most instances each type innervates a different tissue layer. Between embryonic day 12.5 and postnatal day 8, growth of axons into the GI tract, formation and patterning of fiber bundles in the myenteric plexus and early formation of putative afferent and efferent nerve terminals were observed. Thus, the DiI tracing method developed here has opened up a window for investigation during an important phase of vagal development. PMID:17418900

  6. Teratogenic effects of 4-nonylphenol on early embryonic and larval development of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Chaube, Radha; Gautam, Geeta J; Joy, Keerikattil P

    2013-05-01

    Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEs), which are widely used in detergents, paints, herbicides, insecticides, and in many other formulations, have been widely detected in aquatic environments. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is an important APE detected at microgram levels per litre (0.1-336 μg/L) in water. The objective of the present study was to evaluate NP's toxic effects at low and high sublethal concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg/L) on embryonic development of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis at different time intervals. The data show that fertilization rate was decreased and cleavage and blastula were severely affected leading to complete mortality of embryos. NP exposure resulted in various body malformations in larvae, such as vertebral deformations, e.g., fin blistering/necrosis, axial deformities (lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis) of the spine in the abdominal and caudal region, tail curved completely backward, shortened body, severe spinal and yolk sac malformations, C-shaped severe spinal curvature, cranial malformation with undeveloped head, and failure of eye development. The level of body malformations increased with the concentration and exposure time. After 72 h of exposure, all larvae were dead at both concentrations. Scanning electron microscope study showed that epidermal cells (keratinocytes) were severely damaged in both low- and high-dose treatments throughout development, leading to development of numerous depressions representing sinking holes on the skin. Mucous glands increased significantly in treatment groups compared with control groups. The present study highlights the severe teratogenic effects of NP. The prevalence of the contaminant, if not checked, can lead to decreased population and ultimate disappearance of the species.

  7. Embryo-endometrial interactions during early development after embryonic diapause in the marsupial tammar wallaby.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Shaw, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    The marsupial tammar wallaby has the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal. Reproduction in the tammar is seasonal, regulated by photoperiod and also lactation. Reactivation is triggered by falling daylength after the austral summer solstice in December. Young are born late January and commence a 9-10-month lactation. Females mate immediately after birth. The resulting conceptus develops over 6- 7 days to form a unilaminar blastocyst of 80-100 cells and enters lactationally, and later seasonally, controlled diapause. The proximate endocrine signal for reactivation is an increase in progesterone which alters uterine secretions. Since the diapausing blastocyst is surrounded by the zona and 2 other acellular coats, the mucoid layer and shell coat, the uterine signals that maintain or terminate diapause must involve soluble factors in the secretions rather than any direct cellular interaction between uterus and embryo. Our studies suggest involvement of a number of cytokines in the regulation of diapause in tammars. The endometrium secretes platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukaemia inhibitory factor, which increase after reactivation. Receptors for PAF are low on the blastocyst during diapause but are upregulated at reactivation. Conversely, there is endometrial expression of the muscle segment homeobox gene MSX2 throughout diapause, but it is rapidly downregulated at reactivation. These patterns are consistent with those observed in diapausing mice and mink after reactivation, despite the very different patterns of endocrine control of diapause in these 3 divergent species. These common patterns suggest a similar underlying mechanism for diapause, perhaps common to all mammals, but which is activated in only a few.

  8. Inducible overexpression of RUNX1b/c in human embryonic stem cells blocks early hematopoiesis from mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Teng, Jiawen; Liu, Hongwei; Pan, X; Zhou, Y; Huang, Shu; Lai, Mowen; Bian, Guohui; Mao, Bin; Sun, Wencui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Yang, Shengyong; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Ma, Feng

    2017-08-01

    RUNX1 is absolutely required for definitive hematopoiesis, but the function of RUNX1b/c, two isoforms of human RUNX1, is unclear. We established inducible RUNX1b/c-overexpressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, in which RUNX1b/c overexpression prevented the emergence of CD34+ cells from early stage, thereby drastically reducing the production of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Simultaneously, the expression of hematopoiesis-related factors was downregulated. However, such blockage effect disappeared from day 6 in hESC/AGM-S3 cell co-cultures, proving that the blockage occurred before the generation of hemogenic endothelial cells. This blockage was partially rescued by RepSox, an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, indicating a close relationship between RUNX1b/c and TGF-β pathway. Our results suggest a unique inhibitory function of RUNX1b/c in the development of early hematopoiesis and may aid further understanding of its biological function in normal and diseased models. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; Młocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed.

  10. High resolution ultrasound-guided microinjection for interventional studies of early embryonic and placental development in vivo in mice

    PubMed Central

    Slevin, John C; Byers, Lois; Gertsenstein, Marina; Qu, Dawei; Mu, Junwu; Sunn, Nana; Kingdom, John CP; Rossant, Janet; Adamson, S Lee

    2006-01-01

    similar in sham experiments, 54% (33/61), for which procedures were identical but no microinjection was performed, suggesting that surgery and manipulation of the uterus were the main causes of embryonic death. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided microinjection into the ectoplacental cone region at E6.5 or E7.5 and the amniotic cavity at E7.5 was achieved with a 7 day postnatal survival of ≥60%. Target accuracy of these sites and of the exocoelomic cavity at E7.5 was ≥51%. We suggest that this approach may be useful for exploring gene function during early placental and embryonic development. PMID:16504164

  11. Early pregnancy factor as a marker for assessing embryonic viability in threatened and missed abortions.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Moniz, C L; Bordekar, A D; Gupta, S M; Naik, K

    1994-01-01

    It is now well recognized that the presence of early pregnancy factor (EPF) can signify the occurrence of fertilization, continuation of pregnancy and the existence of a viable embryo. With this in view, a study was undertaken to observe the potential of EPF as a marker in assessing embryo viability in cases complicated with vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy. The results indicated that the sensitivity of EPF as a marker in predicting threatened or missed abortion was 78.9% and the specificity 95.6%. The positive predictive value was observed to be 93.8% and the negative predictive value 84.6%. Our studies have shown that since EPF is present in viable but absent in non-viable pregnancies, it could be a useful marker of prognostic value in threatened abortions.

  12. New insights into human primordial germ cells and early embryonic development from single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Otte, Jörg; Wruck, Wasco; Adjaye, James

    2017-08-01

    Human preimplantation developmental studies are difficult to accomplish due to associated ethical and moral issues. Preimplantation cells are rare and exist only in transient cell states. From a single cell, it is very challenging to analyse the origination of the heterogeneity and complexity inherent to the human body. However, recent advances in single-cell technology and data analysis have provided new insights into the process of early human development and germ cell specification. In this Review, we examine the latest single-cell datasets of human preimplantation embryos and germ cell development, compare them to bulk cell analyses, and interpret their biological implications. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Differential gene expression during early embryonic development in diapause and non-diapause eggs of multivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Murthy, Geetha N; Awasthi, Arvind K; Rao, Guruprasad; Vijayaprakash, Nanjappa B

    2010-11-01

    ) revealed differential levels of expression in both the eggs at all stages of embryonic development. The present study thus provides an overview of the differential expression levels of metabolic enzyme and Hsp genes in non-diapause and diapause induced eggs of multivoltine silkworm B. mori within 48 h after oviposition, confirming the major role of in early embryogenesis.

  14. Terrestrial origin of viviparity in mesozoic marine reptiles indicated by early triassic embryonic fossils.

    PubMed

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction.

  15. Behavioral alterations of zebrafish larvae after early embryonic exposure to ketamine.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Antunes, Luís M; Coimbra, Ana M; Valentim, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    Ketamine has been associated with pediatric risks that include neurocognitive impairment and long-term behavioral disorders. However, the neurobehavioral effects of ketamine exposure in early development remain uncertain. This study aimed to test stage- and dose-dependent effects of ketamine exposure on certain brain functions by evaluating alterations in locomotion, anxiety-like and avoidance behaviors, as well as socialization. Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of ketamine (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg mL -1 ) for 20 min during the 256-cell (2.5 h post fertilization-hpf), 50% epiboly (5.5 hpf), and 1-4 somites (10.5 hpf) stages. General exploratory activities, natural escape-like responses, and social interactions were analyzed under continuous light or under a moving light stimulus. A dose-dependent decrease in the overall mean speed was perceived in the embryos exposed during the 256-cell stage. These results were related to previously observed head and eye malformations, following ketamine exposure at this stage and may indicate possible neurobehavioral disorders when ketamine exposure is performed at this stage. Results also showed that ketamine exposure during the 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages induced a significant increment of the anxiety-like behavior and a decrease in avoidance behavior in all exposed groups. Overall, the results validate the neurodevelopmental risks of early-life exposure to ketamine.

  16. Immunohistochemical Markers of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Early Embryonic Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, L.; Ravarino, A.; Fanos, V.; Naccarato, A.G.; Senes, G.; Gerosa, C.; Bevilacqua, G.; Faa, G.; Ambu, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development. To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation. PMID:26972711

  17. Terrestrial Origin of Viviparity in Mesozoic Marine Reptiles Indicated by Early Triassic Embryonic Fossils

    PubMed Central

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-yong; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Chen, Guan-bao

    2014-01-01

    Viviparity in Mesozoic marine reptiles has traditionally been considered an aquatic adaptation. We report a new fossil specimen that strongly contradicts this traditional interpretation. The new specimen contains the oldest fossil embryos of Mesozoic marine reptile that are about 10 million years older than previous such records. The fossil belongs to Chaohusaurus (Reptilia, Ichthyopterygia), which is the oldest of Mesozoic marine reptiles (ca. 248 million years ago, Early Triassic). This exceptional specimen captures an articulated embryo in birth position, with its skull just emerged from the maternal pelvis. Its headfirst birth posture, which is unlikely to be a breech condition, strongly indicates a terrestrial origin of viviparity, in contrast to the traditional view. The tail-first birth posture in derived ichthyopterygians, convergent with the conditions in whales and sea cows, therefore is a secondary feature. The unequivocally marine origin of viviparity is so far not known among amniotes, a subset of vertebrate animals comprising mammals and reptiles, including birds. Therefore, obligate marine amniotes appear to have evolved almost exclusively from viviparous land ancestors. Viviparous land reptiles most likely appeared much earlier than currently thought, at least as early as the recovery phase from the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:24533127

  18. Localization of DNA methyltransferase-1 during oocyte differentiation, in vitro maturation and early embryonic development in cow

    PubMed Central

    Lodde, V.; Modina, S.C.; Franciosi, F.; Zuccari, E.; Tessaro, I.; Luciano, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1) is involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns and is crucial for normal mammalian development. The aim of the present study was to assess the localization of Dnmt1 in cow, during the latest phases of oocyte differentiation and during the early stages of segmentation. Dnmt1 expression and localization were assessed in oocytes according to the chromatin configuration, which in turn provides an important epigenetic mechanism for the control of global gene expression and represents a morphological marker of oocyte differentiation. We found that the initial chromatin condensation was accompanied by a slight increase in the level of global DNA methylation, as assessed by 5-methyl-cytosine immunostaining followed by laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis (LSCM). RT-PCR confirmed the presence of Dnmt1 transcripts throughout this phase of oocyte differentiation. Analogously, Dnmt1 immunodetection and LSCM indicated that the protein was always present and localized in the cytoplasm, regardless the chromatin configuration and the level of global DNA methylation. Moreover, our data indicate that while Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes, it enters the nuclei of 8–16 cell stage embryos. As suggested in mouse, the functional meaning of the presence of Dnmt1 in the bovine embryo nuclei could be the maintainement of the methylation pattern of imprinted genes. In conclusion, the present work provides useful elements for the study of Dnmt1 function during the late stage of oocyte differentiation, maturation and early embryonic development in mammals. PMID:22073356

  19. Effects of breed, parity, and folic Acid supplement on the expression of folate metabolism genes in endometrial and embryonic tissues from sows in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Maud; Guay, Frédéric; Beaudry, Danièle; Matte, Jacques; Blouin, Richard; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Lessard, Martin; Palin, Marie-France

    2002-10-01

    Folic acid and glycine are factors of great importance in early gestation. In sows, folic acid supplement can increase litter size through a decrease in embryonic mortality, while glycine, the most abundant amino acid in the sow oviduct, uterine, and allantoic fluids, is reported to act as an organic osmoregulator. In this study, we report the characterization of cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT), T-protein, and vT-protein (variant T-protein) mRNA expression levels in endometrial and embryonic tissues in gestating sows on Day 25 of gestation according to the breed, parity, and folic acid + glycine supplementation. Expression levels of cSHMT, T-protein, and vT-protein mRNA in endometrial and embryonic tissues were performed using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We also report, for the first time, an alternative splicing event in the porcine T-protein gene. Results showed that a T-protein splice variant, vT-protein, is present in all the tested sow populations. Further characterizations revealed that this T-protein splice variant contains a coding intron that can adopt a secondary structure. Results demonstrated that cSHMT mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in sows receiving the folic acid + glycine supplementation, independently of the breed or parity and in both endometrial and embryonic tissues. Upon receiving the same treatment, the vT-protein and T-protein mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the endometrial tissue of Yorkshire-Landrace sows only. These results indicate that modulation of specific gene expression levels in endometrial and embryonic tissues of sows in early gestation could be one of the mechanism involved with the role of folic acid on improving swine reproduction traits.

  20. Single-cell multi-omics sequencing of mouse early embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Jingyun; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Boqiang; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2017-08-01

    Single-cell epigenome sequencing techniques have recently been developed. However, the combination of different layers of epigenome sequencing in an individual cell has not yet been achieved. Here, we developed a single-cell multi-omics sequencing technology (single-cell COOL-seq) that can analyze the chromatin state/nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, copy number variation and ploidy simultaneously from the same individual mammalian cell. We used this method to analyze the reprogramming of the chromatin state and DNA methylation in mouse preimplantation embryos. We found that within < 12 h of fertilization, each individual cell undergoes global genome demethylation together with the rapid and global reprogramming of both maternal and paternal genomes to a highly opened chromatin state. This was followed by decreased openness after the late zygote stage. Furthermore, from the late zygote to the 4-cell stage, the residual DNA methylation is preferentially preserved on intergenic regions of the paternal alleles and intragenic regions of maternal alleles in each individual blastomere. However, chromatin accessibility is similar between paternal and maternal alleles in each individual cell from the late zygote to the blastocyst stage. The binding motifs of several pluripotency regulators are enriched at distal nucleosome depleted regions from as early as the 2-cell stage. This indicates that the cis-regulatory elements of such target genes have been primed to an open state from the 2-cell stage onward, long before pluripotency is eventually established in the ICM of the blastocyst. Genes may be classified into homogeneously open, homogeneously closed and divergent states based on the chromatin accessibility of their promoter regions among individual cells. This can be traced to step-wise transitions during preimplantation development. Our study offers the first single-cell and parental allele-specific analysis of the genome-scale chromatin state and DNA

  1. Single-cell multi-omics sequencing of mouse early embryos and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Jingyun; Wu, Xinglong; Hu, Boqiang; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell epigenome sequencing techniques have recently been developed. However, the combination of different layers of epigenome sequencing in an individual cell has not yet been achieved. Here, we developed a single-cell multi-omics sequencing technology (single-cell COOL-seq) that can analyze the chromatin state/nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, copy number variation and ploidy simultaneously from the same individual mammalian cell. We used this method to analyze the reprogramming of the chromatin state and DNA methylation in mouse preimplantation embryos. We found that within < 12 h of fertilization, each individual cell undergoes global genome demethylation together with the rapid and global reprogramming of both maternal and paternal genomes to a highly opened chromatin state. This was followed by decreased openness after the late zygote stage. Furthermore, from the late zygote to the 4-cell stage, the residual DNA methylation is preferentially preserved on intergenic regions of the paternal alleles and intragenic regions of maternal alleles in each individual blastomere. However, chromatin accessibility is similar between paternal and maternal alleles in each individual cell from the late zygote to the blastocyst stage. The binding motifs of several pluripotency regulators are enriched at distal nucleosome depleted regions from as early as the 2-cell stage. This indicates that the cis-regulatory elements of such target genes have been primed to an open state from the 2-cell stage onward, long before pluripotency is eventually established in the ICM of the blastocyst. Genes may be classified into homogeneously open, homogeneously closed and divergent states based on the chromatin accessibility of their promoter regions among individual cells. This can be traced to step-wise transitions during preimplantation development. Our study offers the first single-cell and parental allele-specific analysis of the genome-scale chromatin state and DNA

  2. Early events in xenograft development from the human embryonic stem cell line HS181--resemblance with an initial multiple epiblast formation.

    PubMed

    Gertow, Karin; Cedervall, Jessica; Jamil, Seema; Ali, Rouknuddin; Imreh, Marta P; Gulyas, Miklos; Sandstedt, Bengt; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Xenografting is widely used for assessing in vivo pluripotency of human stem cell populations. Here, we report on early to late events in the development of mature experimental teratoma from a well-characterized human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line, HS181. The results show an embryonic process, increasingly chaotic. Active proliferation of the stem cell derived cellular progeny was detected already at day 5, and characterized by the appearance of multiple sites of engraftment, with structures of single or pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounding small cavities. The striking histological resemblance to developing embryonic ectoderm, and the formation of epiblast-like structures was supported by the expression of the markers OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-4 and KLF4, but a lack of REX1. The early neural marker NESTIN was uniformly expressed, while markers linked to gastrulation, such as BMP-4, NODAL or BRACHYURY were not detected. Thus, observations on day 5 indicated differentiation comparable to the most early transient cell populations in human post implantation development. Confirming and expanding on previous findings from HS181 xenografts, these early events were followed by an increasingly chaotic development, incorporated in the formation of a benign teratoma with complex embryonic components. In the mature HS181 teratomas not all types of organs/tissues were detected, indicating a restricted differentiation, and a lack of adequate spatial developmental cues during the further teratoma formation. Uniquely, a kinetic alignment of rare complex structures was made to human embryos at diagnosed gestation stages, showing minor kinetic deviations between HS181 teratoma and the human counterpart.

  3. Two independent forms of endocytosis maintain embryonic cell surface homeostasis during early development

    PubMed Central

    Covian-Nares, J. Fernando; Smith, Robert M.; Vogel, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells have multiple forms of endocytosis which maintain cell surface homeostasis. One explanation for this apparent redundancy is to allow independent retrieval of surface membranes derived from different types of vesicles. Consistent with this hypothesis we find that sea urchin eggs have at least two types of compensatory endocytosis. One is associated with retrieving cortical vesicle membranes, and formed large endosomes by a mechanism that was inhibited by agatoxin, cadmium, staurosporine and FK506. The second type is thought to compensate for constitutive exocytosis, and formed small endosomes using a mechanism that was insensitive to the above mentioned reagents, but was inhibited by phenylarsine oxide (PAO), and by microinjection of mRNA encoding Src kinase. Both mechanisms could act concurrently, and account for all of the endocytosis occurring during early development. Inhibition of either form did not trigger compensation by the other form, and phorbol ester treatment rescued the endocytotic activity blocked by agatoxin, but not the retrieval blocked by PAO. PMID:18281031

  4. Early embryonic brain development in rats requires the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Alonso, M I; Santiago, C; Moro, J A; De la Mano, A; Carretero, R; Gato, A

    2009-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid has shown itself to be an essential brain component during development. This is particularly evident at the earliest stages of development where a lot of research, performed mainly in chick embryos, supports the evidence that cerebrospinal fluid is involved in different mechanisms controlling brain growth and morphogenesis, by exerting a trophic effect on neuroepithelial precursor cells (NPC) involved in controlling the behaviour of these cells. Despite it being known that cerebrospinal fluid in mammals is directly involved in corticogenesis at fetal stages, the influence of cerebrospinal fluid on the activity of NPC at the earliest stages of brain development has not been demonstrated. Here, using "in vitro" organotypic cultures of rat embryo brain neuroepithelium in order to expose NPC to or deprive them of cerebrospinal fluid, we show that the neuroepithelium needs the trophic influence of cerebrospinal fluid to undergo normal rates of cell survival, replication and neurogenesis, suggesting that NPC are not self-sufficient to induce their normal activity. This data shows that cerebrospinal fluid is an essential component in chick and rat early brain development, suggesting that its influence could be constant in higher vertebrates.

  5. In vivo loss of function study reveals the short stature homeobox-containing (shox) gene plays indispensable roles in early embryonic growth and bone formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Rie; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    Congenital loss of the SHOX gene is considered to be a genetic cause of short stature phenotype in Turner syndrome and Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis patients. Though SHOX expression initiates during early fetal development, little is known about the embryonic roles of SHOX. The evolutionary conservation of the zebrafish shox gene and the convenience of the early developmental stages for analyses make zebrafish a preferred model. Here, we characterized structure, expression, and developmental roles of zebrafish shox through a loss-of-function approach. We found a previously undiscovered Shox protein that has both a homeodomain and an OAR-domain in zebrafish. The shox transcript emerged during the segmentation period and it increased in later stages. The predominant domains of shox expression were mandibular arch, pectoral fin, anterior notochord, rhombencephalon, and mesencephalon, suggesting that Shox is involved in bone and neural development. Translational blockade of Shox mRNA by an antisense morpholino oligo delayed embryonic growth, which was restored by the co-overexpression of morpholino-resistant Shox mRNA. At later stages, impaired Shox expression markedly delayed the calcification process in the anterior vertebral column and craniofacial bones. Our data demonstrate evolutionarily conserved Shox plays roles in early embryonic growth and in later bone formation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Physiological roles of glucocorticoids during early embryonic development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K S; Matrone, G; Livingstone, D E W; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Mullins, J J; Tucker, C S; Hadoke, P W F; Kenyon, C J; Denvir, M A

    2013-01-01

    While glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to be present in the zebrafish embryo, little is known about their physiological roles at this stage. We hypothesised that GCs play key roles in stress response, hatching and swim activity during early development. To test this, whole embryo cortisol (WEC) and corticosteroid-related genes were measured in embryos from 6 to 120 h post fertilisation (hpf) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Stress response was assessed by change in WEC following stirring, hypoxia or brief electrical impulses applied to the bathing water. The impact of pharmacological and molecular GC manipulation on the stress response, spontaneous hatching and swim activity at different stages of development was also assessed. WEC levels demonstrated a biphasic pattern during development with a decrease from 0 to 36 hpf followed by a progressive increase towards 120 hpf. This was accompanied by a significant and sustained increase in the expression of genes encoding cyp11b1 (GC biosynthesis), hsd11b2 (GC metabolism) and gr (GC receptor) from 48 to 120 hpf. Metyrapone (Met), an inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by cyp11b1), and cyp11b1 morpholino (Mo) knockdown significantly reduced basal and stress-induced WEC levels at 72 and 120 hpf but not at 24 hpf. Spontaneous hatching and swim activity were significantly affected by manipulation of GC action from approximately 48 hpf onwards. We have identified a number of key roles of GCs in zebrafish embryos contributing to adaptive physiological responses under adverse conditions. The ability to alter GC action in the zebrafish embryo also highlights its potential value for GC research. PMID:24167225

  7. Ovulation, Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development in the Menstruating Fruit Bat, Carollia perspicillata

    PubMed Central

    Rasweiler IV, John J.; Badwaik, Nilima K.; Mechineni, Kiranmayi V.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize periovulatory events, reproductive tracts were collected at 12 hr intervals from captive-bred, short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata, on days 1-3 post coitum and examined histologically. Most bats bred readily. Graafian follicles developed large antra and exhibited preovulatory expansion of the cumulus oophorus. Ovulation had occurred in some on the morning, and in most by the evening, of day 1. The single ovum was released as a secondary oocyte and fertilized in the oviductal ampulla. Ovulated secondary oocytes were loosely associated with their cumulus cells, which were lost around the initiation of fertilization. Supernumerary spermatozoa were occasionally noted attached to the zonae pellucidae of oviductal ova, but never within the perivitelline space. By day 2, most ova had reached the pronuclear stage and by day 3, early cleavage stages. Several lines of evidence indicate that C. perspicillata is a spontaneous ovulator with a functional luteal phase. Most newly-mated females had recently-formed, but regressing corpora lutea, and thickened (albeit menstrual) uteri despite having been housed with males only for brief periods (< 23 days). Menstruation is usually periovulatory in this species. Furthermore, the interval between successive estrus periods in most mated females that failed to establish ongoing pregnancies at the first was 21 – 27 days. Menstruation involved substantial endometrial desquamation, plus associated bleeding, and generally extended to the evening of day 3, the last time point studied. In nearly all females with a recent corpus luteum (n=24/25; 96%), the preovulatory or newly-ruptured follicle was in the opposite ovary. PMID:21337714

  8. Comparison of the early response of human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Suchorska, Wiktoria Maria; Augustyniak, Ewelina; Łukjanow, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    Despite the well-demonstrated efficacy of stem cell (SC) therapy, this approach has a number of key drawbacks. One important concern is the response of pluripotent SCs to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), given that SCs used in regenerative medicine will eventually be exposed to IR for diagnostic or treatment‑associated purposes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine and compare early IR‑induced responses of pluripotent SCs to assess their radioresistance and radiosensitivity. In the present study, 3 cell lines; human embryonic SCs (hESCs), human induced pluripotent SCs (hiPSCs) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs); were exposed to IR at doses ranging from 0 to 15 gray (Gy). Double strand breaks (DSBs), and the gene expression of the following DNA repair genes were analyzed: P53; RAD51; BRCA2; PRKDC; and XRCC4. hiPSCs demonstrated greater radioresistance, as fewer DSBs were identified, compared with hESCs. Both pluripotent SC lines exhibited distinct gene expression profiles in the most common DNA repair genes that are involved in homologous recombination, non‑homologous end‑joining and enhanced DNA damage response following IR exposure. Although hESCs and hiPSCs are equivalent in terms of capacity for pluripotency and differentiation into 3 germ layers, the results of the present study indicate that these 2 types of SCs differ in gene expression following exposure to IR. Consequently, further research is required to determine whether hiPSCs and hESCs are equally safe for application in clinical practice. The present study contributes to a greater understanding of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms activated in pluripotent SCs and may aid in the future development of safe SC‑based clinical protocols.

  9. Pipette-based Method to Study Embryoid Body Formation Derived from Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Partially Recapitulating Early Embryonic Development Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Brungs, Sonja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2016-06-01

    The in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells partially recapitulates early in vivo embryonic development. More recently, embryonic development under the influence of microgravity has become a primary focus of space life sciences. In order to integrate the technique of pluripotent stem cell differentiation with simulated microgravity approaches, the 2-D clinostat compatible pipette-based method was experimentally investigated and adapted for investigating stem cell differentiation processes under simulated microgravity conditions. In order to keep residual accelerations as low as possible during clinorotation, while also guaranteeing enough material for further analysis, stem cells were exposed in 1-mL pipettes with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells inside the pipettes resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies at normal gravity (1 g) after 24 h and 3 days. Differentiation of the mouse pluripotent stem cells on a 2-D pipette-clinostat for 3 days also resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies. Interestingly, the expression of myosin heavy chain was downregulated when cultivation was continued for an additional 7 days at normal gravity. This paper describes the techniques for culturing and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and exposure to simulated microgravity during culturing or differentiation on a 2-D pipette clinostat. The implementation of these methodologies along with -omics technologies will contribute to understand the mechanisms regulating how microgravity influences early embryonic development.

  10. Organogenesis of heart-vascular system derived from mouse 2 cell stage embryos and from early embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Isamu; Tamagawa, Tomoharu; Tokieda, Yuko; Iguchi, Megumi; Sato, Kahei; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    Regenerative medical treatment with embryonic stem cells (an ES cell) is a goal for organ transplantation. Structures that are tubular in nature (i.e. blood capillaries) were induced from early embryonic stem (EES) cells in vitro using embryotrophic factor (ETFs). In addition, cardiac muscle cells could be identified as well. However, differentiation of EES cells into a complete cardiovascular system was difficult because 3 germ layer primordial organs are directed embryologically in various ways and it is not possible to guide only cardiovascular organs. Thus, we introduced ETFs after the formation of an embryoid body and were successful in cloning cell clusters that beat, thus deriving only cardiovascular organs. The application of this to the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases is promising.

  11. Impaired Embryonic Development in Mice Overexpressing the RNA-Binding Protein TIAR

    PubMed Central

    Kharraz, Yacine; Salmand, Pierre-Adrien; Camus, Anne; Auriol, Jacques; Gueydan, Cyril; Kruys, Véronique; Morello, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Background TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein is a shuttling RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism. While in the nucleus TIAR participates to alternative splicing events, in the cytoplasm TIAR acts as a translational repressor on specific transcripts such as those containing AU-Rich Elements (AREs). Due to its ability to assemble abortive pre-initiation complexes coalescing into cytoplasmic granules called stress granules, TIAR is also involved in the general translational arrest observed in cells exposed to environmental stress. However, the in vivo role of this protein has not been studied so far mainly due to severe embryonic lethality upon tiar invalidation. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine potential TIAR tissue-specificity in various cellular contexts, either embryonic or adult, we constructed a TIAR transgenic allele (loxPGFPloxPTIAR) allowing the conditional expression of TIAR protein upon Cre recombinase activity. Here, we report the role of TIAR during mouse embryogenesis. We observed that early TIAR overexpression led to low transgene transmission associated with embryonic lethality starting at early post-implantation stages. Interestingly, while pre-implantation steps evolved correctly in utero, in vitro cultured embryos were very sensitive to culture medium. Control and transgenic embryos developed equally well in the G2 medium, whereas culture in M16 medium led to the phosphorylation of eIF2α that accumulated in cytoplasmic granules precluding transgenic blastocyst hatching. Our results thus reveal a differential TIAR-mediated embryonic response following artificial or natural growth environment. Conclusions/Significance This study reports the importance of the tightly balanced expression of the RNA-binding protein TIAR for normal embryonic development, thereby emphasizing the role of post-transcriptional regulations in early embryonic programming. PMID:20596534

  12. Fertilization and early embryonic development in heifers and lactating cows in summer and lactating and dry cows in winter.

    PubMed

    Sartori, R; Sartor-Bergfelt, R; Mertens, S A; Guenther, J N; Parrish, J J; Wiltbank, M C

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments in two seasons evaluated fertilization rate and embryonic development in dairy cattle. Experiment 1 (summer) compared lactating Holstein cows (n = 27; 97.3 +/- 4.1 d postpartum [dppl; 40.0 +/- 1.5 kg milk/d) to nulliparous heifers (n = 28; 11 to 17 mo old). Experiment 2 (winter) compared lactating cows (n = 27; 46.4 +/- 1.6 dpp; 45.9 +/- 1.4 kg milk/d) to dry cows (n = 26). Inseminations based on estrus included combined semen from four high-fertility bulls. Embryos and oocytes recovered 5 d after ovulation were evaluated for fertilization, embryo quality (1 = excellent to 5 = degenerate), nuclei/embryo, and accessory sperm. In experiment 1, 21 embryos and 17 unfertilized oocytes (UFO) were recovered from lactating cows versus 32 embryos and no UFO from heifers (55% vs. 100% fertilization). Embryos from lactating cows had inferior quality scores (3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), fewer nuclei/embryo (19.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 36.8 +/- 3.0) but more accessory sperm (37.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 22.4 +/- 5.5/embryo) than embryos from heifers. Sperm were attached to 80% of UFO (17.8 +/- 12.1 sperm/UFO). In experiment 2, lactating cows yielded 36 embryos and 5 UFO versus 34 embryos and 4 UFO from dry cows (87.8 vs. 89.5% fertilization). Embryo quality from lactating cows was inferior to dry cows (3.1 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.3), but embryos had similar numbers of nuclei (27.2 +/- 2.7 vs. 30.6 +/- 2.1) and accessory sperm (42.0 +/- 9.4 vs. 36.5 +/- 6.3). From 53% of the flushings from lactating cows and 28% from dry cows, only nonviable embryos were collected. Thus, embryos of lactating dairy cows were detectably inferior to embryos from nonlactating females as early as 5 d after ovulation, with a surprisingly high percentage of nonviable embryos. In addition, fertilization rate was reduced only in summer, apparently due to an effect of heat stress on the oocyte.

  13. Aberrant activation of the human sex-determining gene in early embryonic development results in postnatal growth retardation and lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Kido, Tatsuo; Sun, Zhaoyu; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

    2017-06-23

    Sexual dimorphisms are prevalent in development, physiology and diseases in humans. Currently, the contributions of the genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in these processes are uncertain. Using a transgene activation system, the human sex-determining gene hSRY is activated in the single-cell embryos of the mouse. Pups with hSRY activated (hSRY ON ) are born of similar sizes as those of non-activated controls. However, they retard significantly in postnatal growth and development and all die of multi-organ failure before two weeks of age. Pathological and molecular analyses indicate that hSRY ON pups lack innate suckling activities, and develop fatty liver disease, arrested alveologenesis in the lung, impaired neurogenesis in the brain and occasional myocardial fibrosis and minimized thymus development. Transcriptome analysis shows that, in addition to those unique to the respective organs, various cell growth and survival pathways and functions are differentially affected in the transgenic mice. These observations suggest that ectopic activation of a Y-located SRY gene could exert male-specific effects in development and physiology of multiple organs, thereby contributing to sexual dimorphisms in normal biological functions and disease processes in affected individuals.

  14. Profiles of mRNA expression of related genes in the duck hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis during embryonic and early post-hatch development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Liu, Hongxiang; Song, Chi; Xu, Wenjuan; Ji, Gaige; Zhu, Chunhong; Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the ontogeny of body and liver weight and the pattern of related gene mRNA expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis (HPGA) of two different duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were compared during embryonic and post-hatch development. Duck hypothalamic growth hormone release hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SS), pituitary growth hormone (GH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) mRNA were first detected on the 13th embryonic day. During early duck development, SS maintained a lower expression status, whereas the other four genes exhibited highly significant variations in an age-specific manner. Highly significant breed specificity was observed with respect to hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression, which showed a significant breed-age interaction effect. Compared with previous studies on chickens, significant species differences were observed regarding the mRNA expression of bird embryonic HPGA-related genes. During early development, highly significant breed and age specificity were observed with respect to developmental changes in body and liver weight, and varying degrees of significant linear correlation were found between these performances and the mRNA expression of HPGA-related genes in the duck HPGA. These results suggest that different genetic backgrounds may lead to differences in duck growth and HPGA-related gene mRNA expression, and the differential mRNA expression of related genes in the duck HPGA may be particularly important in the early growth of ducks. Furthermore, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression presented highly significant breed specificity, and evidence suggests the involvement of hepatic IGF-1 in mediating genetic effects on embryo and offspring growth in ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The C. elegans homolog of Drosophila Lethal giant larvae functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity in the early embryo.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Alexander; Morton, Diane; Kemphues, Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    Polarity is essential for generating cell diversity. The one-cell C. elegans embryo serves as a model for studying the establishment and maintenance of polarity. In the early embryo, a myosin II-dependent contraction of the cortical meshwork asymmetrically distributes the highly conserved PDZ proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6, as well as an atypical protein kinase C (PKC-3), to the anterior. The RING-finger protein PAR-2 becomes enriched on the posterior cortex and prevents these three proteins from returning to the posterior. In addition to the PAR proteins, other proteins are required for polarity in many metazoans. One example is the conserved Drosophila tumor-suppressor protein Lethal giant larvae (Lgl). In Drosophila and mammals, Lgl contributes to the maintenance of cell polarity and plays a role in asymmetric cell division. We have found that the C. elegans homolog of Lgl, LGL-1, has a role in polarity but is not essential. It localizes asymmetrically to the posterior of the early embryo in a PKC-3-dependent manner, and functions redundantly with PAR-2 to maintain polarity. Furthermore, overexpression of LGL-1 is sufficient to rescue loss of PAR-2 function. LGL-1 negatively regulates the accumulation of myosin (NMY-2) on the posterior cortex, representing a possible mechanism by which LGL-1 might contribute to polarity maintenance.

  16. Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination.

    PubMed

    Obroucheva, Natalie V; Lityagina, Snezhana V; Novikova, Galina V; Sin'kevich, Irina A

    2012-01-01

    In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuolar status and water transport. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds sampled in Moscow were stratified in cold wet sand for 4 months. Vacuole presence and development in embryonic axes were examined by vital staining, light and electron microscopy. Aquaporins and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase were identified immunochemically. Water channel operation was tested by water inflow rate. Vacuolar acid invertase was estimated in terms of activity and electrophoretic properties. Throughout the long recalcitrant period after seed shedding, cells of embryonic axes maintained active vacuoles and a high water content. Preservation of enzyme machinery in vacuoles was evident from retention of invertase activity, substrate specificity, molecular mass and subunit composition. Plasmalemma and tonoplast aquaporins and the E subunit of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase were also present. In non-dormant seeds prior to growth initiation, vacuoles enlarged at first in hypocotyls, and then in radicles, with their biogenesis being similar. Vacuolation was accompanied by increasing invertase activity, leading to sugar accumulation and active osmotic functioning. After growth initiation, vacuole enlargement was favoured by enhanced water inflow through water channels formed by aquaporins. Maintenance of high water content and desiccation sensitivity, as well as preservation of active vacuoles in embryonic axes after shedding, can be considered a specific feature of recalcitrant seeds, overlooked when studying tropical recalcitrants due

  17. Vacuolar status and water relations in embryonic axes of recalcitrant Aesculus hippocastanum seeds during stratification and early germination

    PubMed Central

    Obroucheva, Natalie V.; Lityagina, Snezhana V.; Novikova, Galina V.; Sin'kevich, Irina A.

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims In tropical recalcitrant seeds, their rapid transition from shedding to germination at high hydration level is of physiological interest but difficult to study because of the time constraint. In recalcitrant horse chestnut seeds produced in central Russia, this transition is much longer and extends through dormancy and dormancy release. This extended time period permits studies of the water relations in embryonic axes during the long recalcitrant period in terms of vacuolar status and water transport. Methodology Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds sampled in Moscow were stratified in cold wet sand for 4 months. Vacuole presence and development in embryonic axes were examined by vital staining, light and electron microscopy. Aquaporins and vacuolar H+-ATPase were identified immunochemically. Water channel operation was tested by water inflow rate. Vacuolar acid invertase was estimated in terms of activity and electrophoretic properties. Principal results Throughout the long recalcitrant period after seed shedding, cells of embryonic axes maintained active vacuoles and a high water content. Preservation of enzyme machinery in vacuoles was evident from retention of invertase activity, substrate specificity, molecular mass and subunit composition. Plasmalemma and tonoplast aquaporins and the E subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase were also present. In non-dormant seeds prior to growth initiation, vacuoles enlarged at first in hypocotyls, and then in radicles, with their biogenesis being similar. Vacuolation was accompanied by increasing invertase activity, leading to sugar accumulation and active osmotic functioning. After growth initiation, vacuole enlargement was favoured by enhanced water inflow through water channels formed by aquaporins. Conclusions Maintenance of high water content and desiccation sensitivity, as well as preservation of active vacuoles in embryonic axes after shedding, can be considered a specific feature of recalcitrant

  18. Critical early roles for col27a1a and col27a1b in zebrafish notochord morphogenesis, vertebral mineralization and post-embryonic axial growth.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Helena E; Lang, Michael R; Pace, James M; Parichy, David M

    2009-12-29

    Fibrillar collagens are well known for their links to human diseases, with which all have been associated except for the two most recently identified fibrillar collagens, type XXIV collagen and type XXVII collagen. To assess functions and potential disease phenotypes of type XXVII collagen, we examined its roles in zebrafish embryonic and post-embryonic development. We identified two type XXVII collagen genes in zebrafish, col27a1a and col27a1b. Both col27a1a and col27a1b were expressed in notochord and cartilage in the embryo and early larva. To determine sites of type XXVII collagen function, col27a1a and col27a1b were knocked down using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Knockdown of col27a1a singly or in conjunction with col27a1b resulted in curvature of the notochord at early stages and formation of scoliotic curves as well as dysmorphic vertebrae at later stages. These defects were accompanied by abnormal distributions of cells and protein localization in the notochord, as visualized by transmission electron microscopy, as well as delayed vertebral mineralization as detected histologically. Together, our findings indicate a key role for type XXVII collagen in notochord morphogenesis and axial skeletogenesis and suggest a possible human disease phenotype.

  19. Behavioural responses to novelty or to a predator stimulus are not altered in adult zebrafish by early embryonic alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Diane; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) may vary in symptoms and severity. In the milder and more prevalent forms of the disease, behavioural abnormalities may include impaired social behaviour, e.g. difficulty interpreting social cues. FASD patients remain often undiagnosed due to lack of biomarkers, and treatment is unavailable because the mechanisms of the disease are not yet understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate addressing these problems. More recently, short exposure of the zebrafish embryo to low concentrations of alcohol was shown to lead to significant and lasting impairment of behaviour in response to social stimuli. The impairment may be the result of abnormal social behaviour or altered fear/anxiety. The goal of the current study was to investigate the latter. Methods Here, we employed the alcohol exposure regimen used previously (exposure of 24th hour post-fertilization embryos to 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 vol/vol % alcohol for 2 hours), allowed the fish to reach adulthood, and measured the behavioural responses of these adults to a novel tank (anxiety related behaviours) as well as to an animated image of a sympatric predator of zebrafish (fear related behaviours). Results We found behavioural responses of embryonic alcohol exposed adult fish to remain statistically indistinguishable from those of controls, suggesting unaltered anxiety and fear in the embryonic alcohol treated fish. Conclusions Given that motor and perceptual function was previously shown to be also unaltered in the adults after embryonic alcohol exposure, our current results suggest that the impaired response of these fish to social stimuli may be the result of abnormal social behaviour. PMID:27790739

  20. Beta-hydroxybutyrate increases reactive oxygen species in late but not in early postimplantation embryonic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, H; Eriksson, U J; Melefors, O; Welsh, N

    1998-02-01

    Embryonic dysmorphogenesis has been blocked by antioxidant treatment in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that embryonic excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has a role in the teratogenic process of diabetic pregnancy. We report that the basal levels of ROS in dispersed rat embryonic cells in vitro, as determined by fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein (DCF), were not different in cells from control and diabetic pregnancy at day 10 or 12. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) and succinic acid monomethyl ester both augmented DCF fluorescence in cells from day 12 embryos of normal and diabetic rats but not from day 10 embryos. Cells of day 10 and day 12 embryos from normal and diabetic rats responded to increasing glucose concentrations with a dosage-dependent alleviation of DCF fluorescence. Day 10 embryonic cells exhibited high glucose utilization rates and high pentose phosphate shunt rates, but low mitochondrial oxidation rates. Moreover, in vitro culture of embryos between gestational days 9 and 10 in the presence of 20% oxygen induced an increased and glucose-sensitive oxidation of glucose compared with embryos not cultured in vitro. At gestation day 12, however, pentose phosphate shunt rates showed a decrease, whereas the mitochondrial beta-HB oxidation rates were increased compared with those at gestation day 10. This was paralleled by a lower expression of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase- and phosphofructokinase-mRNA levels at day 12 than at day 10. On the other hand, H-ferritin mRNA expression at day 12 was high compared with day 10. None of the mRNA species investigated were affected by the diabetic state of the mother. It was concluded that beta-HB-induced stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative events may lead to the generation of ROS at gestational day 12, but probably not at day 10, when only a minute amount of mitochondrial activity occurs. Thus our results do not support the notion of diabetes-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress before the development of

  1. Effects of temperature on the embryonic and early larval development in tropical species of black sea urchin, Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778).

    PubMed

    Sarifudin, M; Rahman, M A; Yusoff, F M; Arshad, Aziz; Tan, Soon Guan

    2016-07-01

    Influence of temperature on the embryonic and early development and growth performance of larva in tropical sea urchin, Diadema setosum was investigated in water temperature ranging between 16 and 34?C under controlled laboratory conditions. The critical lower and higher temperature for embryonic development was found at 16 and 34?C, respectively. Embryos reared in both of these two temperatures exhibited 100% abnormality within 48 hrs post-insemination. The time required to reach these embryonic and larval stages increased with temperature from 28 followed by 31, 25, 22 and 19?C in that order. The developmental times of 2-cell stage until 4-arm pluteus larva showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among the tested temperatures. The larvae in the state of prism and 2-arm pluteus, survived at temperature ranging from 19 to 31?C, while the 4-arm pluteus larvae survived at temperature between 22? to 31?C. However, larval development within a temperature range of 22? to 31?C was acceptable since no abnormalities occurred. The morphometric characteristics from prism to 4-arm pluteus larvae in all the temperatures differed significantly (P > 0.05). Among them, 28?C was found to be the best temperature with respect of the highest larval growth and development at all stages. The findings of the study will not only be helpful to understand the critical limits of temperature, but also to identify the most appropriate temperature for optimum growth and development of embryos and larvae, as well as to facilitate the development of captive breeding and mass seed production of D. setosum and other important sea urchins for commercial aquaculture.

  2. Expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factors I and II during embryonic and early larval development of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haishen; Qi, Qian; Hu, Jian; Si, Yufeng; He, Feng; Li, Jifang

    2015-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important proteins involved in fish growth and development. Here, we report the isolation of IGF-II and expression analysis of IGFs in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, aiming to clarify their function in embryonic and larval development of fish. The deduced IGF-II gene is 808 bp in full length, which encodes a protein of 219 amino acids and is 93% similar with that of Paralichthys olicaceus in amino acid sequence. The tissue abundance and the expression pattern of IGFs in a turbot at early development stages were investigated via reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction. Result showed that the IGF-I and IGF-II genes were widely expressed in tissues of S. maximus. IGF-I was detected in all tissues except intestines with the highest level in liver, while IGF-II transcript presented in all tissues except muscle. At the stages of embryonic and larval development, the mRNA levels of IGFs sharply increased from the stage of unfertilized egg to post larva, followed by a decrease with larval development. However, there was an increase in IGF-I at the embryonic stage and IGF-II at the gastrula stage, respectively. These results suggested that IGFs play important roles in cell growth and division of the turbot. Our study provides reference data for further investigation of growth regulation in turbot, which can guarantee better understanding of the physiological role that IGFs play in fish.

  3. Huntingtin protein is essential for mitochondrial metabolism, bioenergetics and structure in murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ismailoglu, Ismail; Chen, Qiuying; Popowski, Melissa; Yang, Lili; Gross, Steven S; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2014-07-15

    Mutations in the Huntington locus (htt) have devastating consequences. Gain-of-poly-Q repeats in Htt protein causes Huntington's disease (HD), while htt(-/-) mutants display early embryonic lethality. Despite its importance, the function of Htt remains elusive. To address this, we compared more than 3700 compounds in three syngeneic mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines: htt(-/-), extended poly-Q (Htt-Q140/7), and wild-type mESCs (Htt-Q7/7) using untargeted metabolite profiling. While Htt-Q140/7 cells did not show major differences in cellular bioenergetics, we find extensive metabolic aberrations in htt(-/-) mESCs, including (i) complete failure of ATP production despite preservation of the mitochondrial membrane potential; (ii) near-maximal glycolysis, with little or no glycolytic reserve; (iii) marked ketogenesis; (iv) depletion of intracellular NTPs; (v) accelerated purine biosynthesis and salvage; and (vi) loss of mitochondrial structural integrity. Together, our findings reveal that Htt is necessary for mitochondrial structure and function from the earliest stages of embryogenesis, providing a molecular explanation for htt(-/-) early embryonic lethality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Huntingtin Protein is Essential for Mitochondrial Metabolism, Bioenergetics and Structure in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismailoglu, Ismail; Chen, Qiuying; Popowski, Melissa; Yang, Lili; Gross, Steven S.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Huntington locus (htt) have devastating consequences. Gain-of-poly-Q repeats in Htt protein causes Huntington's disease (HD), while htt-/- mutants display early embryonic lethality. Despite its importance, the function of Htt remains elusive. To address this, we compared more than 3,700 compounds in three syngeneic mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines: htt-/-, extended poly-Q (Htt-Q140/7), and wildtype mESCs (Htt-Q7/7) using untargeted metabolite profiling. While Htt-Q140/7 cells, did not show major differences in cellular bioenergetics, we find extensive metabolic aberrations in htt-/- mESCs, including: (i) complete failure of ATP production despite preservation of the mitochondrial membrane potential; (ii) near-maximal glycolysis, with little or no glycolytic reserve; (iii) marked ketogenesis; (iv) depletion of intracellular NTPs; (v) accelerated purine biosynthesis and salvage; and (vi) loss of mitochondrial structural integrity. Together, our findings reveal that Htt is necessary for mitochondrial structure and function from the earliest stages of embryogenesis, providing a molecular explanation for htt-/- early embryonic lethality. PMID:24780625

  5. Transitions in early embryonic atrioventricular valvular function correspond with changes in cushion biomechanics that are predictable by tissue composition.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Jonathan T; McQuinn, Tim C; Sedmera, David; Turner, Debi; Markwald, Roger R

    2007-05-25

    Endocardial cushions are critical to maintain unidirectional blood flow under constantly increasing hemodynamic forces, but the interrelationship between endocardial cushion structure and the mechanics of atrioventricular junction function is poorly understood. Atrioventricular (AV) canal motions and blood velocities of embryonic chicks at Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stages 17, 21, and 25 were quantified using ultrasonography. Similar to the embryonic zebrafish heart, the HH17 AV segment functions like a suction pump, with the cushions expanding in a wave during peak myocardial contraction and becoming undetectable during the relaxation phase. By HH25, the AV canal contributes almost nothing to the piston-like propulsion of blood, but the cushions function as stoppers apposing blood flow with near constant thickness. Using a custom built mesomechanical testing system, we quantified the nonlinear pseudoelastic biomechanics of developing AV cushions, and found that both AV cushions increased in effective modulus between HH17 and HH25. Enzymatic digestion of major structural constituent collagens or glycosaminoglycans resulted in distinctly different stress-strain curves suggestive of their individual contributions. Mixture theory using histologically determined volume fractions of cells, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans showed good prediction of cushion material properties regardless of stage and cushion position. These results have important implications in valvular development, as biomechanics may play a larger role in stimulating valvulogenic events than previously thought.

  6. [Correlation of the DNA fragmentation index and malformation rate of optimized sperm with embryonic development and early spontaneous abortion in IVF-ET].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Jie; Jin, Fan; Zhou, Li-Ming

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and malformation rate (SMR) of optimized sperm on embryonic development and early spontaneous abortion in conventional in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). We selected 602 cycles of conventional IVF-ET for pure oviductal infertility that had achieved clinical pregnancies, including 505 cycles with ongoing pregnancy and 97 cycles with early spontaneous abortion. On the day of ovum retrieval, we examined the DNA integrity and morphology of the rest of the optimized sperm using the SCD and Diff-Quik methods, established the joint predictor (JP) by logistic equation, and assessed the value of DFI and SMR in predicting early spontaneous abortion using the ROC curve. The DFI, SMR, and high-quality embryo rate were (15.91±3.69)%, (82.85±10.24)%, and 46.53% (342/735) in the early spontaneous abortion group and (9.30±4.22)%, (77.32±9.19)%, and 56.43% (2263/4010) respectively in the ongoing pregnancy group, all with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05 ). Both the DFI and SMR were the risk factors of early spontaneous abortion (OR = 5.96 and 1.66; both P< 0.01). The areas under the ROC curve for DFI, SMR and JP were 0.893±0.019, 0.685±0.028, and 0.898±0.018, respectively. According to the Youden index, the optimal cut-off values of the DFI and SMR obtained for the prediction of early spontaneous abortion were approximately 15% and 80%. The DFI was correlated positively with SMR (r= 0.31, P<0.01) but the high-quality embryo rate negatively with both the DFI (r= -0.45, P<0.01) and SMR (r= -0.22, P<0.01). The DFI and SMR of optimized sperm are closely associated with embryonic development in IVF. The DFI has a certain value for predicting early spontaneous abortion with a threshold of approximately 15%, but SMR may have a lower predictive value.

  7. Defective ciliogenesis, embryonic lethality and severe impairment of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway caused by inactivation of the mouse complex A intraflagellar transport gene Ift122/Wdr10, partially overlapping with the DNA repair gene Med1/Mbd4

    PubMed Central

    Cortellino, Salvatore; Wang, Chengbing; Wang, Baolin; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Caretti, Elena; Champeval, Delphine; Calmont, Amelie; Jarnik, Michal; Burch, John; Zaret, Kenneth; Larue, Lionel; Bellacosa, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Primary cilia are assembled and maintained by evolutionarily conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins that are involved in the coordinated movement of macromolecular cargo from the basal body to the cilium tip and back. The IFT machinery is organized in two structural complexes named complex A and complex B. Recently, inactivation in the mouse germline of Ift genes belonging to complex B revealed a requirement of ciliogenesis, or proteins involved in ciliogenesis, for Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling in mammals. Here we report on a complex A mutant mouse, defective for the Ift122 gene. Ift122-null embryos show multiple developmental defects (exencephaly, situs viscerum inversus, delay in turning, hemorrhage and defects in limb development) that result in lethality. In the node, primary cilia were absent or malformed in homozygous mutant and heterozygous embryos, respectively. Impairment of the Shh pathway was apparent in both neural tube patterning (expansion of motoneurons and rostro-caudal level-dependent contraction or expansion of the dorso-lateral interneurons), and limb patterning (ectrosyndactyly). These phenotypes are distinct from both complex B IFT mutant embryos and embryos defective for the ciliary protein hennin/Arl13b, and suggest reduced levels of both Gli2/Gli3 activator and Gli3 repressor functions. We conclude that complex A and complex B factors play similar but distinct roles in ciliogenesis and Shh/Gli3 signaling. PMID:19000668

  8. UTX regulates mesoderm differentiation of embryonic stem cells independent of H3K27 demethylase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaochen; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Young-Wook; Xiao, Ying; Jin, Qihuang; Liu, Chengyu; Ge, Kai

    2012-09-18

    To investigate the role of histone H3K27 demethylase UTX in embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, we have generated UTX knockout (KO) and enzyme-dead knock-in male ES cells. Deletion of the X-chromosome-encoded UTX gene in male ES cells markedly decreases expression of the paralogous UTY gene encoded by Y chromosome, but has no effect on global H3K27me3 level, Hox gene expression, or ES cell self-renewal. However, UTX KO cells show severe defects in mesoderm differentiation and induction of Brachyury, a transcription factor essential for mesoderm development. Surprisingly, UTX regulates mesoderm differentiation and Brachyury expression independent of its enzymatic activity. UTY, which lacks detectable demethylase activity, compensates for the loss of UTX in regulating Brachyury expression. UTX and UTY bind directly to Brachyury promoter and are required for Wnt/β-catenin signaling-induced Brachyury expression in ES cells. Interestingly, male UTX KO embryos express normal levels of UTY and survive until birth. In contrast, female UTX KO mice, which lack the UTY gene, show embryonic lethality before embryonic day 11.5. Female UTX KO embryos show severe defects in both Brachyury expression and embryonic development of mesoderm-derived posterior notochord, cardiac, and hematopoietic tissues. These results indicate that UTX controls mesoderm differentiation and Brachyury expression independent of H3K27 demethylase activity, and suggest that UTX and UTY are functionally redundant in ES cell differentiation and early embryonic development.

  9. Are High-Lethality Suicide Attempters With Bipolar Disorder a Distinct Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Oquendo, Maria A.; Carballo, Juan Jose; Rajouria, Namita; Currier, Dianne; Tin, Adrienne; Merville, Jessica; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Sher, Leo; Grunebaum, Michael F.; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Because Bipolar Disorder (BD) individuals making highly lethal suicide attempts have greater injury burden and risk for suicide, early identification is critical. BD patients were classified as high- or low-lethality attempters. High-lethality attempts required inpatient medical treatment. Mixed effects logistic regression models and permutation analyses examined correlations between lethality, number, and order of attempts. High-lethality attempters reported greater suicidal intent and more previous attempts. Multiple attempters showed no pattern of incremental lethality increase with subsequent attempts, but individuals with early high-lethality attempts more often made high-lethality attempts later. A subset of high-lethality attempters make only high-lethality attempts. However, presence of previous low-lethality attempts does not indicate that risk for more lethal, possibly successful, attempts is reduced. PMID:19590998

  10. A Role for Caenorhabditis elegans Importin IMA-2 in Germ Line and Embryonic Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Geles, Kenneth G.; Johnson, Jeffrey J.; Jong, Sena; Adam, Stephen A.

    2002-01-01

    The importin α family of nuclear-cytoplasmic transport factors mediates the nuclear localization of proteins containing classical nuclear localization signals. Metazoan animals express multiple importin α proteins, suggesting their possible roles in cell differentiation and development. Adult Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites express three importin α proteins, IMA-1, IMA-2, and IMA-3, each with a distinct expression and localization pattern. IMA-2 was expressed exclusively in germ line cells from the early embryonic through adult stages. The protein has a dynamic pattern of localization dependent on the stage of the cell cycle. In interphase germ cells and embryonic cells, IMA-2 is cytoplasmic and nuclear envelope associated, whereas in developing oocytes, the protein is cytoplasmic and intranuclear. During mitosis in germ line cells and embryos, IMA-2 surrounded the condensed chromosomes but was not directly associated with the mitotic spindle. The timing of IMA-2 nuclear localization suggested that the protein surrounded the chromosomes after fenestration of the nuclear envelope in prometaphase. Depletion of IMA-2 by RNA-mediated gene interference (RNAi) resulted in embryonic lethality and a terminal aneuploid phenotype. ima-2(RNAi) embryos have severe defects in nuclear envelope formation, accumulating nucleoporins and lamin in the cytoplasm. We conclude that IMA-2 is required for proper chromosome dynamics in germ line and early embryonic mitosis and is involved in nuclear envelope assembly at the conclusion of mitosis. PMID:12221121

  11. A model of early human embryonic stem cell differentiation reveals inter- and intracellular changes on transition to squamous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Galat, Vasiliy; Malchenko, Sergey; Galat, Yekaterina; Ishkin, Alex; Nikolsky, Yuri; Kosak, Steven T; Soares, Bento Marcelo; Iannaccone, Philip; Crispino, John D; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2012-05-20

    The molecular events leading to human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation are the subject of considerable scrutiny. Here, we characterize an in vitro model that permits analysis of the earliest steps in the transition of hESC colonies to squamous epithelium on basic fibroblast growth factor withdrawal. A set of markers (GSC, CK18, Gata4, Eomes, and Sox17) point to a mesendodermal nature of the epithelial cells with subsequent commitment to definitive endoderm (Sox17, Cdx2, nestin, and Islet1). We assayed alterations in the transcriptome in parallel with the distribution of immunohistochemical markers. Our results indicate that the alterations of tight junctions in pluripotent culture precede the beginning of differentiation. We defined this cell population as "specified," as it is committed toward differentiation. The transitional zone between "specified" pluripotent and differentiated cells displays significant up-regulation of keratin-18 (CK18) along with a decrease in the functional activity of gap junctions and the down-regulation of 2 gap junction proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and connexin 45 (Cx45), which is coincidental with substantial elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. These findings reveal a set of cellular changes that may represent the earliest markers of in vitro hESC transition to an epithelial phenotype, before the induction of gene expression networks that guide hESC differentiation. Moreover, we hypothesize that these events may be common during the primary steps of hESC commitment to functionally varied epithelial tissue derivatives of different embryological origins.

  12. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  13. Interkinetic and migratory behavior of a cohort of neocortical neurons arising in the early embryonic murine cerebral wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    1996-01-01

    Neocortical neuronogenesis occurs in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) where nuclei of proliferative cells undergo interkinetic nuclear movement. A fraction of daughter cells exits the cell cycle as neurons (the quiescent, or Q, fraction), whereas a complementary fraction remains in the cell cycle (the proliferative, or P, fraction). By means of sequential thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine injections in mouse on embryonic day 14, we have monitored the proliferative and post-mitotic migratory behaviors of 1 and 2 hr cohorts of PVE cells defined by the injection protocols. Soon after mitosis, the Q fraction partitions into a rapidly exiting (up to 50 microns/hr) subpopulation (Qr) and a more slowly exiting (6 microns/hr) subpopulation (Qs). Qr and Qs are separated as two distributions on exit from the ventricular zone with an interpeak distance of approximately 40 microns. Cells in Qr and Qs migrate through the intermediate zone with no significant change in the interpeak distance, suggesting that they migrate at approximately the same velocities. The rate of migration increases with ascent through the intermediate zone (average 2-6.4 microns/hr) slowing only transiently on entry into the developing cortex. Within the cortex, Qr and Qs merge to form a single distribution most concentrated over layer V.

  14. Cloning, expression pattern, and potential role of apoptosis inhibitor 5 in the termination of embryonic diapause and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Yao, Feng; Jing, Ting; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhao, Wei; Zou, Xiangyang; Sui, Linlin; Hou, Lin

    2017-09-10

    During the embryonic development of Artemia sinica, the diapause phenomenon can be induced by high salinity or low temperature conditions. The diapause embryo at the gastrula stage is maintained under the threat of apoptosis to guarantee the embryo's normal development. In this process, apoptosis inhibitor proteins play vital roles in protecting embryos against apoptosis. Apoptosis inhibitor5 (API5) plays a pivotal role in regulating the cell cycle and preventing programmed cell death after growth factor starvation. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA representing the api5 gene from A. sinica (As-api5), which encodes a 372-amino acid protein. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that As-api5 expression is not tissue or organ specific. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses of the developmental expression of As-api5 showed that it reached its highest level at 10h, after which its expression decreased. High salinity and low temperature treatments increased the expression of As-api5. Western blotting was used to assess the abundance of As-API5 and related proteins (As-CyclinA, As-CyclinE, As-E2F1, As-CDK2, As-APAF1, and As-Caspase9). Downregulation of As-api5 expression using a short interfering RNA resulted in increased mortality and embryo malformation of A. sinica. Taken together, the results indicated that API5 plays a crucial role in embryonic diapause termination and early embryo development of A. sinica. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. VISUALIZATION OF TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND METABOLISM OF BENZO[A]PYRENE IN EARLY EMBRYONIC MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are highly sensitive to exposure to persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). The factors that contribute to this are unknown, but may include the distribution of PBTs to sensitive tissues during critical stages of development. Multiphoton laser scannin...

  16. Cryo-survival, fertilization and early embryonic development of vitrified oocytes derived from mice of different reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Suzuki, Joao; Yu, Xiaomin; Kan, Frederick W. K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of female reproductive age on oocyte cryo-survival, fertilization and the subsequent embryonic development following vitrification using the mouse model in order to address the question of how maternal reproductive age is related to fertility preservation. Methods Oocytes were collected from mice of different reproductive age: (1) 8–10 weeks, (2) 16–20 weeks, (3) 32–36 weeks, and (4) 44–48 weeks. Following vitrification and warming, the oocytes in each group were assessed for cryo-survival, fertilization and embryonic development as well as for the quality of blastocysts. Fresh oocytes without undergoing vitrification were used in each age group as controls. Results The mean number of oocytes retrieved following superovulation was found to reduce significantly (P < 0.05) in mice from 32–36 weeks of age (18.1 ± 8.5) compared with 8–10 weeks of age (26.8 ± 9.8) and 16–20 weeks of age (23.9 ± 4.2) respectively. The cryo-survival rate of oocytes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in mice of 44–48 weeks of age (90.4% ± 7.9) compared with the other 3 groups (98.8% ± 2.1, 98.0% ± 3.3 and 98.5% ± 2.2, respectively). The cleavage rate of vitrified oocytes declined significantly following the increase in maternal age in mice of 32–36 weeks of age (69.7% ± 20.8) forward (63.6% ± 9.2). However, no significant difference in the cleavage rate was found among the control groups of different maternal ages. The rate of embryo development to the blastocyst stage in the vitrified oocytes also significantly declined following the increase in maternal age (71.8% ± 8.8, 66.4% ± 10.7, 64.2% ± 17.4 and 4.1% ± 8.3 respectively). There were no such differences in the rates of embryo development to the blastocyst stage among the control groups following the increase in maternal age (75.9% ± 12.2, 79.5% ± 28.9, 70.2% ± 17.4 and 69.3% ± 19

  17. A Model of Early Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Reveals Inter- and Intracellular Changes on Transition to Squamous Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Malchenko, Sergey; Galat, Yekaterina; Ishkin, Alex; Nikolsky, Yuri; Kosak, Steven T.; Soares, Bento Marcelo; Iannaccone, Philip; Crispino, John D.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular events leading to human embryonic stem cell (hESC) differentiation are the subject of considerable scrutiny. Here, we characterize an in vitro model that permits analysis of the earliest steps in the transition of hESC colonies to squamous epithelium on basic fibroblast growth factor withdrawal. A set of markers (GSC, CK18, Gata4, Eomes, and Sox17) point to a mesendodermal nature of the epithelial cells with subsequent commitment to definitive endoderm (Sox17, Cdx2, nestin, and Islet1). We assayed alterations in the transcriptome in parallel with the distribution of immunohistochemical markers. Our results indicate that the alterations of tight junctions in pluripotent culture precede the beginning of differentiation. We defined this cell population as “specified,” as it is committed toward differentiation. The transitional zone between “specified” pluripotent and differentiated cells displays significant up-regulation of keratin-18 (CK18) along with a decrease in the functional activity of gap junctions and the down-regulation of 2 gap junction proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and connexin 45 (Cx45), which is coincidental with substantial elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. These findings reveal a set of cellular changes that may represent the earliest markers of in vitro hESC transition to an epithelial phenotype, before the induction of gene expression networks that guide hESC differentiation. Moreover, we hypothesize that these events may be common during the primary steps of hESC commitment to functionally varied epithelial tissue derivatives of different embryological origins. PMID:21861759

  18. Paternal poly (ADP-ribose) metabolism modulates retention of inheritable sperm histones and early embryonic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Motomasa; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L; Leu, N Adrian; Rao, Shilpa; Li, Fan; Gregory, Brian D; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Schultz, Richard M; Meyer, Ralph G

    2014-05-01

    To achieve the extreme nuclear condensation necessary for sperm function, most histones are replaced with protamines during spermiogenesis in mammals. Mature sperm retain only a small fraction of nucleosomes, which are, in part, enriched on gene regulatory sequences, and recent findings suggest that these retained histones provide epigenetic information that regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in embryo development after fertilization. We addressed this tantalizing hypothesis by analyzing two mouse models exhibiting abnormal histone positioning in mature sperm due to impaired poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism during spermiogenesis and identified altered sperm histone retention in specific gene loci genome-wide using MNase digestion-based enrichment of mononucleosomal DNA. We then set out to determine the extent to which expression of these genes was altered in embryos generated with these sperm. For control sperm, most genes showed some degree of histone association, unexpectedly suggesting that histone retention in sperm genes is not an all-or-none phenomenon and that a small number of histones may remain associated with genes throughout the genome. The amount of retained histones, however, was altered in many loci when PAR metabolism was impaired. To ascertain whether sperm histone association and embryonic gene expression are linked, the transcriptome of individual 2-cell embryos derived from such sperm was determined using microarrays and RNA sequencing. Strikingly, a moderate but statistically significant portion of the genes that were differentially expressed in these embryos also showed different histone retention in the corresponding gene loci in sperm of their fathers. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of a linkage between sperm histone retention and gene expression in the embryo.

  19. Paternal Poly (ADP-ribose) Metabolism Modulates Retention of Inheritable Sperm Histones and Early Embryonic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Leu, N. Adrian; Rao, Shilpa; Li, Fan; Gregory, Brian D.; Zalenskaya, Irina A.; Schultz, Richard M.; Meyer, Ralph G.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the extreme nuclear condensation necessary for sperm function, most histones are replaced with protamines during spermiogenesis in mammals. Mature sperm retain only a small fraction of nucleosomes, which are, in part, enriched on gene regulatory sequences, and recent findings suggest that these retained histones provide epigenetic information that regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in embryo development after fertilization. We addressed this tantalizing hypothesis by analyzing two mouse models exhibiting abnormal histone positioning in mature sperm due to impaired poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism during spermiogenesis and identified altered sperm histone retention in specific gene loci genome-wide using MNase digestion-based enrichment of mononucleosomal DNA. We then set out to determine the extent to which expression of these genes was altered in embryos generated with these sperm. For control sperm, most genes showed some degree of histone association, unexpectedly suggesting that histone retention in sperm genes is not an all-or-none phenomenon and that a small number of histones may remain associated with genes throughout the genome. The amount of retained histones, however, was altered in many loci when PAR metabolism was impaired. To ascertain whether sperm histone association and embryonic gene expression are linked, the transcriptome of individual 2-cell embryos derived from such sperm was determined using microarrays and RNA sequencing. Strikingly, a moderate but statistically significant portion of the genes that were differentially expressed in these embryos also showed different histone retention in the corresponding gene loci in sperm of their fathers. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of a linkage between sperm histone retention and gene expression in the embryo. PMID:24810616

  20. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  1. The effect of excess expression of GFP in a novel heart-specific green fluorescence zebrafish regulated by nppa enhancer at early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Deng, Yun; Dong, Wei; Yuan, Wuzhou; Wan, Yongqi; Mo, Xiaoyan; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Zequn; Wang, Yuequn; Ocorr, Karen; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shuo; Wu, Xiushan

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the impalpable effect of GFP in homozygous heart-specific GFP-positive zebrafish during the early stage, the researchers analyzed the heart function of morphology and physiology at the first 3 days after fertilization. This zebrafish line was produced by a large-scale Tol2 transposon mediated enhancer trap screen that generated a transgenic zebrafish with a heart-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged under control of the nppa enhancer. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the nppa:GFP line faithfully recapitulated both the spatial and temporal expressions of the endogenous nppa. Green fluorescence was intensively and specifically expressed in the myocardial cells located both in the heart chambers and in the atrioventricular canal. The embryonic heart of nppa:GFP line developed normally compared with those in the wild type. There was no difference between the nappa:GFP and wild type lines with respect to heart rate, overall size, ejection volume, and fractional shortening. Thus the excess expression of GFP in this transgenic line seemed to exert no detrimental effects on zebrafish hearts during the early stages.

  2. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Germline Mutations in ATM and BRCA1/2 Distinguish Risk for Lethal and Indolent Prostate Cancer and are Associated with Early Age at Death

    PubMed Central

    Na, Rong; Zheng, S. Lilly; Han, Misop; Yu, Hongjie; Jiang, Deke; Shah, Sameep; Ewing, Charles M.; Zhang, Liti; Novakovic, Kristian; Petkewicz, Jacqueline; Gulukota, Kamalakar; Helseth, Donald L.; Quinn, Margo; Humphries, Elizabeth; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Wu, Yishuo; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Khandekar, Janardan; Hulick, Peter J.; Shevrin, Daniel H.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Shen, Zhoujun; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Carducci, Michael A.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Denmeade, Sam R.; McGuire, Michael; Walsh, Patrick C.; Helfand, Brian T.; Brendler, Charles B.; Ding, Qiang; Xu, Jianfeng; Isaacs, William B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Objective To directly assess whether germline mutations in these three genes distinguish lethal from indolent PCa and whether they confer any effect on age at death. Design, setting, and participants A retrospective case-case study of 313 patients who died of PCa and 486 patients with low-risk localized PCa of European, African, and Chinese descent. Germline DNA of each of the 799 patients was sequenced for these three genes. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Mutation carrier rates and their effect on lethal PCa were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact test and Cox regression analysis, respectively. Results and limitations The combined BRCA1/2 and ATM mutation carrier rate was significantly higher in lethal PCa patients (6.07%) than localized PCa patients (1.44%), p = 0.0007. The rate also differed significantly among lethal PCa patients as a function of age at death (10.00%, 9.08%, 8.33%, 4.94%, and 2.97% in patients who died ≤60 yr, 61–65 yr, 66–70 yr, 71–75 yr, and over 75 yr, respectively, p = 0.046) and time to death after diagnosis (12.26%, 4.76%, and 0.98% in patients who died ≤5 yr, 6–10 yr, and > 10 yr after a PCa diagnosis, respectively, p = 0.0006). Survival analysis in the entire cohort revealed mutation carriers remained an independent predictor of lethal PCa after adjusting for race and age, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–3.66, p = 0.004). A limitation of this study is that other DNA repair genes were not analyzed. Conclusions Mutation status of BRCA1/2 and ATM distinguishes risk for lethal and indolent PCa and is associated with earlier age at death and shorter survival time. Patient summary Prostate cancer patients with inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM are more likely to die of prostate cancer and do so at an earlier age. PMID

  4. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    SciT

    Sui, Lina, E-mail: linasui@vub.ac.be; Mfopou, Josue K.; Geens, Mieke

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study,more » we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.« less

  5. Contractile properties of early human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes: beta-adrenergic stimulation induces positive chronotropy and lusitropy but not inotropy.

    PubMed

    Pillekamp, Frank; Haustein, Moritz; Khalil, Markus; Emmelheinz, Markus; Nazzal, Rewa; Adelmann, Roland; Nguemo, Filomain; Rubenchyk, Olga; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Matzkies, Matthias; Reppel, Michael; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brockmeier, Konrad; Hescheler, Juergen

    2012-08-10

    Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) provide the unique opportunity to study the very early development of the human heart. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium and beta-adrenergic stimulation on the contractile properties of early hESC-CMs. Beating clusters containing hESC-CMs were co-cultured in vitro with noncontractile slices of neonatal murine ventricles. After 5-7 days, when beating clusters had integrated morphologically into the damaged tissue, isometric force measurements were performed during spontaneous beating as well as during electrical field stimulation. Spontaneous beating stopped when extracellular calcium ([Ca²⁺](ec)) was removed or after administration of the Ca²⁺ channel blocker nifedipine. During field stimulation at a constant rate, the developed force increased with incremental concentrations of [Ca²⁺](ec). During spontaneous beating, rising [Ca²⁺](ec) increased beating rate and developed force up to a [Ca²⁺](ec) of 2.5 mM. When [Ca²⁺](ec) was increased further, spontaneous beating rate decreased, whereas the developed force continued to increase. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced a dose-dependent increase of the frequency of spontaneous beating; however, it did not significantly change the developed force during spontaneous contractions or during electrical stimulation at a constant rate. Force developed by early hESC-CMs depends on [Ca²⁺](ec) and on the L-type Ca²⁺ channel. The lack of an inotropic reaction despite a pronounced chronotropic response after beta-adrenergic stimulation most likely indicates immaturity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. For cell-replacement strategies, further maturation of cardiac cells has to be achieved either in vitro before or in vivo after transplantation.

  6. Early Permian mafic dikes in the Nagqu area, central Tibet, China, associated with embryonic oceanic crust of the Meso-Tethys Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.; Fan, W. M.; Shi, R. D.; Gong, X. H.

    2017-12-01

    During the latest Carboniferous to early Permian, a mantle plume initiated continental rifting along the northern Gondwana margin, which subsequently developed into the Meso-Tethys Ocean. However, the nature and timing of the embryonic oceanic crust of the Meso-Tethys Ocean remains poorly understood. Here, we present for the first time a combined analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for mafic rocks from the Nagqu area, central Tibet. Zircons from the mafic rocks yield a concordant age of ca. 277.8±1.8 Ma, which is slightly younger than the age of mantle plume activity (ca. 300-279 Ma), as represented by the large igneous province (LIP) on the northern Gondwana margin. Geochemical features suggest that the Nagqu mafic rocks, which display normal mid ocean ridge basalt (N-MORB) affinities, are different from those of the LIP, which display oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type affinities. The Nagqu mafic rocks result from a relatively high degree of melting of depleted asthenospheric mantle. Combined with observations from previous studies, we suggest that the late early Permian Nagqu magmatism fully records processes of early stage rifting and incipient formation of oceanic crust. Moreover, the patterns of magmatism are consistent with patterns of rift-related sedimentation that records the transition from predominantly continental to marine deposition in the region during the Carboniferous-Permian. We therefore suggest that rifting of the eastern Cimmerian and northern Gondwana continents started at ca. 277.8 Ma, and the rifting culminated in the opening of the Meso-Tethys Ocean.

  7. Non-Lethal Weapons Program

    ), 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), practice non-lethal control techniques during a non-lethal Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Non-Lethal Weapons Program Search Search JNLWP: Search Search JNLWP: Search Non-Lethal Weapons Program U.S. Department of Defense Non-Lethal

  8. A Non-Reciprocal Autosomal Translocation 64,XX, t(4;10)(q21;p15) in an Arabian Mare with Repeated Early Embryonic Loss.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Das, P J; Avila, F; Thwaits, B K; Chowdhary, B P; Raudsepp, T

    2016-02-01

    Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Early embryonic expression of FGF4/6/9 gene and its role in the induction of mesenchyme and notochord in Ciona savignyi embryos.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kaoru S; Satoh, Nori; Satou, Yutaka

    2002-04-01

    In early Ciona savignyi embryos, nuclear localization of beta-catenin is the first step of endodermal cell specification, and triggers the activation of various target genes. A cDNA for Cs-FGF4/6/9, a gene activated downstream of beta-catenin signaling, was isolated and shown to encode an FGF protein with features of both FGF4/6 and FGF9/20. The early embryonic expression of Cs-FGF4/6/9 was transient and the transcript was seen in endodermal cells at the 16- and 32-cell stages, in notochord and muscle cells at the 64-cell stage, and in nerve cord and muscle cells at the 110-cell stage; the gene was then expressed again in cells of the nervous system after neurulation. When the gene function was suppressed with a specific antisense morpholino oligo, the differentiation of mesenchyme cells was completely blocked, and the fate of presumptive mesenchyme cells appeared to change into that of muscle cells. The inhibition of mesenchyme differentiation was abrogated by coinjection of the morpholino oligo and synthetic Cs-FGF4/6/9 mRNA. Downregulation of beta-catenin nuclear localization resulted in the absence of mesenchyme cell differentiation due to failure of the formation of signal-producing endodermal cells. Injection of synthetic Cs-FGF4/6/9 mRNA in beta-catenin-downregulated embryos evoked mesenchyme cell differentiation. These results strongly suggest that Cs-FGF4/6/9 produced by endodermal cells acts an inductive signal for the differentiation of mesenchyme cells. On the other hand, the role of Cs-FGF4/6/9 in the induction of notochord cells is partial; the initial process of the induction was inhibited by Cs-FGF4/6/9 morpholino oligo, but notochord-specific genes were expressed later to form a partial notochord.

  10. Remodelling of the bovine placenta: Comprehensive morphological and histomorphological characterization at the late embryonic and early accelerated fetal growth stages.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Consuelo Amor S; Kind, Karen L; Derks, Anna; Xiang, Ruidong; Faulkner, Nicole; Mohrdick, Melina; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Kruk, Zbigniew; Grutzner, Frank; Roberts, Claire T; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Placental function impacts growth and development with lifelong consequences for performance and health. We provide novel insights into placental development in bovine, an important agricultural species and biomedical model. Concepti with defined genetics and sex were recovered from nulliparous dams managed under standardized conditions to study placental gross morphological and histomorphological parameters at the late embryo (Day48) and early accelerated fetal growth (Day153) stages. Placentome number increased 3-fold between Day48 and Day153. Placental barrier thickness was thinner, and volume of placental components, and surface areas and densities were higher at Day153 than Day48. We confirmed two placentome types, flat and convex. At Day48, there were more convex than flat placentomes, and convex placentomes had a lower proportion of maternal connective tissue (P < 0.01). However, this was reversed at Day153, where convex placentomes were lower in number and had greater volume of placental components (P < 0.01- P < 0.001) and greater surface area (P < 0.001) than flat placentomes. Importantly, embryo (r = 0.50) and fetal (r = 0.30) weight correlated with total number of convex but not flat placentomes. Extensive remodelling of the placenta increases capacity for nutrient exchange to support rapidly increasing embryo-fetal weight from Day48 to Day153. The cellular composition of convex placentomes, and exclusive relationships between convex placentome number and embryo-fetal weight, provide strong evidence for these placentomes as drivers of prenatal growth. The difference in proportion of maternal connective tissue between placentome types at Day48 suggests that this tissue plays a role in determining placentome shape, further highlighting the importance of early placental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Embryonic death and the creation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Landry, Donald W; Zucker, Howard A

    2004-11-01

    The creation of human embryonic stem cells through the destruction of a human embryo pits the value of a potential therapeutic tool against that of an early human life. This contest of values has resulted in a polarized debate that neglects areas of common interest and perspective. We suggest that a common ground for pursuing research on human embryonic stem cells can be found by reconsidering the death of the human embryo and by applying to this research the ethical norms of essential organ donation.

  12. Modeling synthetic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Le Meur, Nolwenn; Gentleman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Synthetic lethality defines a genetic interaction where the combination of mutations in two or more genes leads to cell death. The implications of synthetic lethal screens have been discussed in the context of drug development as synthetic lethal pairs could be used to selectively kill cancer cells, but leave normal cells relatively unharmed. A challenge is to assess genome-wide experimental data and integrate the results to better understand the underlying biological processes. We propose statistical and computational tools that can be used to find relationships between synthetic lethality and cellular organizational units. Results In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified multi-protein complexes and pairs of multi-protein complexes that share an unusually high number of synthetic genetic interactions. As previously predicted, we found that synthetic lethality can arise from subunits of an essential multi-protein complex or between pairs of multi-protein complexes. Finally, using multi-protein complexes allowed us to take into account the pleiotropic nature of the gene products. Conclusions Modeling synthetic lethality using current estimates of the yeast interactome is an efficient approach to disentangle some of the complex molecular interactions that drive a cell. Our model in conjunction with applied statistical methods and computational methods provides new tools to better characterize synthetic genetic interactions. PMID:18789146

  13. Novel Metrics to Characterize Embryonic Elongation of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emmanuel; Rocheleau-Leclair, Olivier; Jenna, Sarah

    2016-03-28

    Dissecting the signaling pathways that control the alteration of morphogenic processes during embryonic development requires robust and sensitive metrics. Embryonic elongation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a late developmental stage consisting of the elongation of the embryo along its longitudinal axis. This developmental stage is controlled by intercellular communication between hypodermal cells and underlying body-wall muscles. These signaling mechanisms control the morphology of hypodermal cells by remodeling the cytoskeleton and the cell-cell junctions. Measurement of embryonic lethality and developmental arrest at larval stages as well as alteration of cytoskeleton and cell-cell adhesion structures in hypodermal and muscle cells are classical phenotypes that have been used for more than 25 years to dissect these signaling pathways. Recent studies required the development of novel metrics specifically targeting either early or late elongation and characterizing morphogenic defects along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo. Here, we provide detailed protocols enabling the accurate measurement of the length and the width of the elongating embryos as well as the length of synchronized larvae. These methods constitute useful tools to identify genes controlling elongation, to assess whether these genes control both early and late phases of this stage and are required evenly along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo.

  14. Embryonic demise caused by targeted disruption of a cysteine protease Dub-2.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Heyjin; Yang, Sunmee; Lim, Soo-Bin; Lee, Wonwoo; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Lim, Jung-Jin; Jun, Kisun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Chung, Young

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of biological metabolisms are regulated by the mechanisms of ubiquitination, wherein this process is balanced with the action of deubiquitination system. Dub-2 is an IL-2-inducible, immediate-early gene that encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme with growth regulatory activity. DUB-2 presumably removes ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated target proteins regulating ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, but its specific target proteins are unknown yet. To elucidate the functional role of Dub-2, we generated genetically modified mice by introducing neo cassette into the second exon of Dub-2 and then homologous recombination was done to completely abrogate the activity of DUB-2 proteins. We generated Dub-2+/- heterozygous mice showing a normal phenotype and are fertile, whereas new born mouse of Dub-2-/- homozygous alleles could not survive. In addition, Dub-2-/- embryo could not be seen between E6.5 and E12.5 stages. Furthermore, the number of embryos showing normal embryonic development for further stages is decreased in heterozygotes. Even embryonic stem cells from inner cell mass of Dub-2-/- embryos could not be established. Our study suggests that the targeted disruption of Dub-2 may cause embryonic lethality during early gestation, possibly due to the failure of cell proliferation during hatching process.

  15. Nuclei fluorescence microscopic observation on early embryonic development of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2015-05-01

    Sperm genetic material of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. The nuclear phase changes during early embryonic development of diploid, haploid, and mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment were observed under fluorescent microscope with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The parameters of hydrostatic pressure treatment were 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase stage. The data showed that developmental timing sequence of diploid and haploid fertilized eggs was similar. The cell cycle was about 48 minutes, including interphase (about 21 minutes), prophase (about 3 minutes), prometaphase (about 6 minutes), metaphase (about 6 minutes), anaphase (around 9 minutes), and telophase (about 3 minutes). After entering the fertilized egg, ultraviolet-inactivated sperm formed a male pronucleus and became a dense chromatin body in the cytoplasm. Dense chromatin body did not participate in nuclear division and unchanged all the time. For hydrostatic pressure-treated embryos, the first nuclear division and cytokinesis after treatment proceeded normally after about 15 minutes recovery. During the second mitosis, having undergone interphase, prophase, and prometaphase stage, chromosomes began to slowly spread around and scattered in the cell but not entered into metaphase and anaphase. The second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The occurrence frequency of developmentally delayed embryos also showed that the second cleavage of about 80% treated eggs was inhibited. The inhibition of the second cleavage resulted to chromosome set doubling. So chromosome set doubling for mitogynogenetic flounder diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, performed at prometaphase stage, was mainly due to inhibition of the second mitosis rather than the first one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression profiling of the solute carrier gene family in chicken intestine from the late embryonic to early post-hatch stages.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Gilbert, E R; Zhang, Y; Crasta, O; Emmerson, D; Webb, K E; Wong, E A

    2008-08-01

    Intestinal development during late embryogenesis and early post-hatch has a long-term influence on digestive and absorptive capacity in chickens. The objective of this research was to obtain a global view of intestinal solute carrier (SLC) gene family member expression from late embryogenesis until 2 weeks post-hatch with a focus on SLC genes involved in uptake of sugars and amino acids. Small intestine samples from male chicks were collected on embryonic days 18 (E18) and 20 (E20), day of hatch and days 1, 3, 7 and 14 post-hatch. The expression profiles of 162 SLC genes belonging to 41 SLC families were determined using Affymetrix chicken genome microarrays. The majority of SLC genes showed little or no difference in level of expression during E18-D14. A number of well-known intestinal transporters were upregulated between E18 and D14 including the amino acid transporters rBAT, y(+)LAT-2 and EAAT3, the peptide transporter PepT1 and the sugar transporters SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5. The amino acid transporters CAT-1 and CAT-2 were downregulated. In addition, several glucose and amino acid transporters that are novel to our understanding of nutrient absorption in the chicken intestine were discovered through the arrays (SGLT6, SNAT1, SNAT2 and AST). These results represent a comprehensive characterization of the expression profiles of the SLC family of genes at different stages of development in the chicken intestine and lay the ground work for future nutritional studies.

  17. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Orally Administered Botanical Composition, UP446-Part III: Effects on Fertility and Early Embryonic Development to Implantation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jia, Qi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, high prevalence of adverse effects associated to the use of traditional medicines during pregnancy is becoming alarming due to the self-medication of oral supplements by expecting mothers without supervision. Many expectant mothers use alternative and complementary medicines as a supplement to conventional pregnancy management with an inherent belief of considering herbal remedies as harmless. To the contrary, herbal remedies could incur a potential teratogenic risk both to the child bearing mother and the developing fetuses when consumed before or at the time of gestation. Here, we describe the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, on fertility and early embryonic development to implantation in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Besides body weight and food consumption, reproductive functions, sperm motility and morphology, estrus cycle, and fertility rate were monitored. There were no statistically significant differences in reproductive function in all UP446 treated groups in both genders. Test substance impacts on reproductive parameters were very minimal. Neither sperm motility nor morphology was affected as a result of oral UP446 administrations in males. There were no treatment-related effects on estrus cycle stages in females. No significant changes in necropsy or histopathology were observed for all the groups. Therefore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 1000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, in both genders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Generation of embryos directly from embryonic stem cells by tetraploid embryo complementation reveals a role for GATA factors in organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S A

    2005-12-01

    Gene targeting in ES (embryonic stem) cells has been used extensively to study the role of proteins during embryonic development. In the traditional procedure, this requires the generation of chimaeric mice by introducing ES cells into blastocysts and allowing them to develop to term. Once chimaeric mice are produced, they are bred into a recipient mouse strain to establish germline transmission of the allele of interest. Although this approach has been used very successfully, the breeding cycles involved are time consuming. In addition, genes that are essential for organogenesis often have roles in the formation of extra-embryonic tissues that are essential for early stages of post-implantation development. For example, mice lacking the GATA transcription factors, GATA4 or GATA6, arrest during gastrulation due to an essential role for these factors in differentiation of extra-embryonic endoderm. This lethality has frustrated the study of these factors during the development of organs such as the liver and heart. Extraembryonic defects can, however, be circumvented by generating clonal mouse embryos directly from ES cells by tetraploid complementation. Here, we describe the usefulness and efficacy of this approach using GATA factors as an example.

  19. Influences of Reduced Expression of Maternal Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 on Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajeet P.; Castranio, Trisha; Scott, Greg; Guo, Dayong; Harris, Marie A.; Ray, Manas; Harris, Stephan E.; Mishina, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was originally found by its osteoinductive ability, and recent genetic analyses have revealed that it plays critical roles during early embryogenesis, cardiogenesis, decidualization as well as skeletogenesis. During a course of evaluation of the conditional allele for Bmp2, we found that the presence of a neo cassette, a selection marker needed for gene targeting events in embryonic stem cells, in the 3’ untranslated region of exon 3 of Bmp2, reduced the expression levels of Bmp2 both in embryonic and maternal tissues. Some of the embryos that were genotyped as transheterozygous for the floxed allele with the neo cassette over the conventional null allele (fn/−) showed a lethal phenotype including defects in cephalic neural tube closure and ventral abdominal wall closure. Embryos exhibiting these abnormalities were increased when genotypes of the pregnant females were different; when expression levels of Bmp2 in maternal tissues were lower, a larger proportion of fn/− embryos exhibit these abnormalities. These results suggest that the expression levels of Bmp2 together in both in embryonic and maternal tissues influence the normal neural tube closure and body wall closure with different thresholds. PMID:18769073

  20. Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Matthew L; Fagan, B Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H; Pevny, Larysa H; Samulski, R Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.

  1. Changes in the antioxidant metabolism in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Bufo arenarum: differential responses to pesticide in early embryos and autonomous-feeding larvae.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ana; Anguiano, Liliana; Lascano, Cecilia; Sotomayor, Verónica; Rosenbaum, Enrique; Venturino, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    Amphibians may be critically challenged by aquatic contaminants during their embryonic development. Many classes of compounds, including organophosphorus pesticides, are able to cause oxidative stress that affects the delicate cellular redox balance regulating tissue modeling. We determined the progression of antioxidant defenses during the embryonic development of the South American common toad, Bufo arenarum. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were high in the unfertilized eggs, and remained constant during the first stages of development. SOD showed a significant increase when the gills were completely active and opercular folds began to form. Reductase (GR) activity was low in the oocytes and increased significantly when gills and mouth were entirely developed and the embryos presented a higher exposure to pro-oxidant conditions suggesting an environmental control. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also initially low, and rose continuously pointing out an increasing participation of GSH-related enzymes in the control of oxidative stress. GSH peroxidases and GSH-S-transferases showed relatively high and constant activities, probably related to lipid peroxide control. B. arenarum embryos have plenty of yolk platelets containing lipids, which provide the energy and are actively transferred to the newly synthesized membranes during the early embryonic development. Exposure to the pro-oxidant pesticide malathion during 48 h did not significantly affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes in early embryos, but decreased the activities of CAT, GR, and the pool of GSH in larvae. Previous work indicated that lipid peroxide levels were kept low in malathion-exposed larvae, thus we conclude that oxidative stress is overcome by the antioxidant defenses. The increase in the antioxidant metabolism observed in the posthatching phase of development of B. arenarum embryo, thus constitutes a defense against natural and human-generated pro

  2. Oocyte exposure to ZnO nanoparticles inhibits early embryonic development through the γ-H2AX and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Weidong; Hao, Yanan; Yu, Shuai; Li, Lan; Chu, Meiqiang; Min, Lingjiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Shen, Wei

    2017-06-27

    The impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles on embryonic development following oocyte stage exposure are unknown and the underlying mechanisms are sparsely understood. In the current investigation, intact nanoparticles were detected in ovarian tissue in vivo and cultured cells in vitro under zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure during the oocyte stage inhibited embryonic development. Notably, in vitro culture data closely matched in vivo embryonic data, in that the impairments caused by Zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment passed through cell generations; and both gamma-H2AX and NF-kappaB pathways were involved in zinc oxide nanoparticles caused embryo-toxicity. Copper oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been used to confirm that particles are important for the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles emanate from both intact nanoparticles and Zn2+. Our investigation along with others suggests that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to the female reproductive system [ovaries (oocytes)] and subsequently embryo-toxic and that precaution should be taken regarding human exposure to their everyday use.

  3. Oocyte exposure to ZnO nanoparticles inhibits early embryonic development through the γ-H2AX and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Weidong; Hao, Yanan; Yu, Shuai; Li, Lan; Chu, Meiqiang; Min, Lingjiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles on embryonic development following oocyte stage exposure are unknown and the underlying mechanisms are sparsely understood. In the current investigation, intact nanoparticles were detected in ovarian tissue in vivo and cultured cells in vitro under zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure during the oocyte stage inhibited embryonic development. Notably, in vitro culture data closely matched in vivo embryonic data, in that the impairments caused by Zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment passed through cell generations; and both gamma-H2AX and NF-kappaB pathways were involved in zinc oxide nanoparticles caused embryo-toxicity. Copper oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been used to confirm that particles are important for the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles emanate from both intact nanoparticles and Zn2+. Our investigation along with others suggests that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to the female reproductive system [ovaries (oocytes)] and subsequently embryo-toxic and that precaution should be taken regarding human exposure to their everyday use. PMID:28487501

  4. Embryonic development during chronic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Abbott, U. K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments carried out on chicken eggs indicate that the embryo is affected during very early development, especially over the first four days, and during hatching. In the first four days, the brain develops as well as the anlage for all other organs. In addition, the heart commences to function and the extraembryonic membranes that compartmentalize the egg contents form. The latter require an appreciable extension and folding of tissue which may be disrupted by the mechanical load. Observations of embryonic abnormalities that occur during chronic acceleration suggest an inhibition of development of the axial skeleton, which is rarely seen otherwise, a general retardation of embryonic growth, and circulatory problems. The final stages of development (after 18 days) involve the uptake of fluids, the transition to aerial respiration, and the reorientation of the embryo into a normal hatching position. At 4 G mortality is very high during this period, with a majority of embryos failing to reorient into the normal hatching position.

  5. Lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in a hypomorphic Med30 mouse mutant is ameliorated by ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Philippe; Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Yen-Hui; Tobita, Kimimasa; Downes, Michael R.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Sun, Lei; Xia, Yu; Ding, Ning; Spaeth, Jason M.; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Boyer, Thomas G.; Lo, Cecilia Wen Ya; Yen, Jeffrey; Evans, Ronald M.; Beutler, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies of subunits of the transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator generally result in embryonic lethality, precluding study of its physiological function. Here we describe a missense mutation in Med30 causing progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice that, although viable during lactation, show precipitous lethality 2–3 wk after weaning. Expression profiling reveals pleiotropic changes in transcription of cardiac genes required for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial integrity. Weaning mice to a ketogenic diet extends viability to 8.5 wk. Thus, we establish a mechanistic connection between Mediator and induction of a metabolic program for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, in which lethal cardiomyopathy is mitigated by dietary intervention. PMID:22106289

  6. The effects of neonicotinoid exposure on embryonic development and organ mass in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Gobeli, Amanda; Crossley, Dane; Johnson, Jeff; Reyna, Kelly

    2017-05-01

    Since their emergence in the early 1990s, neonicotinoid use has increased exponentially to make them the world's most prevalent insecticides. Although there has been considerable research concerning the lethality of neonicotinoids, their sub-lethal and developmental effects are still being explored, especially with regard to non-mammalian species. The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the morphological and physiological development of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Bobwhite eggs (n=390) were injected with imidacloprid concentrations of 0 (sham), 10, 50, 100, and 150mg/kg of egg mass, which was administered at day 0 (pre-incubation), 3, 6, 9, or 12 of growth. Embryos were dissected, weighed, staged, and examined for any overt structural deformities after 19days of incubation. The mass of the embryonic heart, liver, lungs and kidneys was also recorded. The majority of treatments produced no discernible differences in embryo morphology; however, in some instances, embryos were subject to increased frequency of anatomical deformity and altered organ masses. Some impacts were more pronounced in specific dosing periods, implying that there may be critical windows of development when embryos are more susceptible to neonicotinoid exposure. This investigation suggests that imidacloprid has the potential to impact bobwhite quail embryonic development and chick survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute toxicity of arsenic and oxidative stress responses in the embryonic development of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum.

    PubMed

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Ferrari, Ana; Bongiovanni, Guillermina Azucena; Venturino, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic (As), a natural element of ecological relevance, is found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 mg/L and 15 mg/L. The autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the acute toxicity of As and the biochemical responses elicited by the exposure to As in water during its embryonic development. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value averaged 24.3 mg/L As and remained constant along the embryonic development. However, As toxicity drastically decreased when embryos were exposed from heartbeat-stage on day 4 of development, suggesting the onset of detoxification mechanisms. Given the environmental concentrations of As in Argentina, there is a probability of exceeding lethal levels at 1% of sites. Arsenic at sublethal concentrations caused a significant decrease in the total antioxidant potential but generated an increase in endogenous glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. This protective response might prevent a deeper decline in the antioxidant system and further oxidative damage. Alternatively, it might be linked to As conjugation with GSH for its excretion. The authors conclude that toad embryos are more sensitive to As during early developmental stages and that relatively high concentrations of this toxic element are required to elicit mortality, but oxidative stress may be an adverse effect at sublethal concentrations. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Flt1/VEGFR1 heterozygosity causes transient embryonic edema.

    PubMed

    Otowa, Yasunori; Moriwaki, Kazumasa; Sano, Keigo; Shirakabe, Masanori; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Shibuya, Masabumi; Rossant, Janet; Suda, Toshio; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hirashima, Masanori

    2016-06-02

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is a major player in vascular development and a potent vascular permeability factor under physiological and pathological conditions by binding to a decoy receptor Flt1 and its primary receptor Flk1. In this study, we show that Flt1 heterozygous (Flt1(+/-)) mouse embryos grow up to adult without life-threatening abnormalities but exhibit a transient embryonic edema around the nuchal and back regions, which is reminiscent of increased nuchal translucency in human fetuses. Vascular permeability is enhanced and an intricate infolding of the plasma membrane and huge vesicle-like structures are seen in Flt1(+/-) capillary endothelial cells. Flk1 tyrosine phosphorylation is elevated in Flt1(+/-) embryos, but Flk1 heterozygosity does not suppress embryonic edema caused by Flt1 heterozygosity. When Flt1 mutants are crossed with Aspp1(-/-) mice which exhibit a transient embryonic edema with delayed formation and dysfunction of lymphatic vessels, only 5.7% of Flt1(+/-); Aspp1(-/-) mice survive, compared to expected ratio (25%). Our results demonstrate that Flt1 heterozygosity causes a transient embryonic edema and can be a risk factor for embryonic lethality in combination with other mutations causing non-lethal vascular phenotype.

  9. Effects of nonylphenol on early embryonic development, pigmentation and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-induced metamorphosis in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Kang, Han Seung; Gye, Myung Chan

    2010-11-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in many aquatic species. In an effort to highlight the developmental toxicity of NP in amphibians, we examined the effects of NP on the embryonic survival, tadpole growth, melanophore development and metamorphosis of a native Korean amphibian species, Bombina orientalis (Anura). When treated to fertilized eggs, 1 μM NP significantly decreased embryonic survival at 48 h post fertilization (p.f.), suggesting that 1 μM NP can exert systemic toxicity in B. orientalis embryos. In the surviving embryos, there were no significant differences in malformation rates between NP-treated embryos and controls at 240 h p.f., suggesting no or low teratogenicity of NP in B. orientalis embryos. Below LC(50) NP significantly decreased body growth and development of melanophores at 0.1 μM, suggesting that NP far below the LC(50) targets multiple developmental events in tadpoles of this frog species. In metamorphosis assay using the premetamorphic tadpoles (corresponding to Nieuwkoop Faber stage 53 in Xenopus laevis) exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced tail resorption was significantly decreased by 1 μM NP. However, NP (0.1 and 1 μM)-only treatment did not affected total body T3 and T4 levels, suggesting that NP at tested concentrations inhibits thyroid hormones action but not the synthesis of hormones during metamorphosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Loss of maternal CTCF is associated with peri-implantation lethality of Ctcf null embryos.

    PubMed

    Moore, James M; Rabaia, Natalia A; Smith, Leslie E; Fagerlie, Sara; Gurley, Kay; Loukinov, Dmitry; Disteche, Christine M; Collins, Steven J; Kemp, Christopher J; Lobanenkov, Victor V; Filippova, Galina N

    2012-01-01

    CTCF is a highly conserved, multifunctional zinc finger protein involved in critical aspects of gene regulation including transcription regulation, chromatin insulation, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and higher order chromatin organization. Such multifunctional properties of CTCF suggest an essential role in development. Indeed, a previous report on maternal depletion of CTCF suggested that CTCF is essential for pre-implantation development. To distinguish between the effects of maternal and zygotic expression of CTCF, we studied pre-implantation development in mice harboring a complete loss of function Ctcf knockout allele. Although we demonstrated that homozygous deletion of Ctcf is early embryonically lethal, in contrast to previous observations, we showed that the Ctcf nullizygous embryos developed up to the blastocyst stage (E3.5) followed by peri-implantation lethality (E4.5-E5.5). Moreover, one-cell stage Ctcf nullizygous embryos cultured ex vivo developed to the 16-32 cell stage with no obvious abnormalities. Using a single embryo assay that allowed both genotype and mRNA expression analyses of the same embryo, we demonstrated that pre-implantation development of the Ctcf nullizygous embryos was associated with the retention of the maternal wild type Ctcf mRNA. Loss of this stable maternal transcript was temporally associated with loss of CTCF protein expression, apoptosis of the developing embryo, and failure to further develop an inner cell mass and trophoectoderm ex vivo. This indicates that CTCF expression is critical to early embryogenesis and loss of its expression rapidly leads to apoptosis at a very early developmental stage. This is the first study documenting the presence of the stable maternal Ctcf transcript in the blastocyst stage embryos. Furthermore, in the presence of maternal CTCF, zygotic CTCF expression does not seem to be required for pre-implantation development.

  11. Identification of cells expressing OLFM4 and LGR5 mRNA by in situ hybridization in the yolk sac and small intestine of embryonic and early post-hatch chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Wong, E A

    2018-02-01

    The chicken yolk sac (YS) and small intestine are essential for nutrient absorption during the pre-hatch and post-hatch periods, respectively. Absorptive enterocytes and secretory cells line the intestinal villi and originate from stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. Similarly, in the YS, there are absorptive and secretory cells that presumably originate from a stem cell population. Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and olfactomedin 4 (Olfm4) are 2 widely used markers for intestinal stem cells. The objective of this study was to map the distribution of putative stem cells expressing LGR5 and OLFM4 mRNA in the chicken small intestine from the late embryonic period to early post hatch and the YS during embryogenesis. At embryonic d 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19, the YS was collected (n = 3), and small intestine was collected at embryonic d 19, d of hatch (doh), and d 1, 4, and 7 post hatch (n = 3). Cells expressing OLFM4 and LGR5 mRNA were identified by in situ hybridization. In the YS, cells expressing only LGR5 and not OLFM4 mRNA were localized to the vascular endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. In the small intestine, cells in the intestinal crypt expressed both LGR5 and OLFM4 mRNA. Staining for OLFM4 mRNA was more intense than LGR5 mRNA, demonstrating that Olfm4 is a more robust marker for stem cells than Lgr5. At embryonic d 19 and doh, cells staining for OLFM4 mRNA were already present in the rudimentary crypts, with the greatest staining in the duodenal crypts. The intensity of OLFM4 mRNA staining increased from doh to d 7 post hatch. Dual label staining at doh for the peptide transporter PepT1 and Olfm4 revealed a population of cells above the crypts that did not express Olfm4 or PepT1 mRNA. These cells are likely progenitor transit amplifying cells. Thus, avians and mammals share similarity in the ontogeny of stem cells in the intestinal crypts. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. The Lethality Test System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. M.; Sims, J. R.; Parker, J. V.

    1986-11-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS) under construction at Los Alamos is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/sec. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage light gas gun capable of 7 km/sec. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92 percent of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1-1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  13. Maternal topoisomerase II alpha, not topoisomerase II beta, enables embryonic development of zebrafish top2a-/- mutants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic alterations in human topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) are linked to cancer susceptibility. TOP2A decatenates chromosomes and thus is necessary for multiple aspects of cell division including DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation. Topoisomerase II alpha is also required for embryonic development in mammals, as mouse Top2a knockouts result in embryonic lethality as early as the 4-8 cell stage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended developmental capability of zebrafish top2a mutants arises from maternal expression of top2a or compensation from its top2b paralogue. Results Here, we describe bloody minded (blm), a novel mutant of zebrafish top2a. In contrast to mouse Top2a nulls, zebrafish top2a mutants survive to larval stages (4-5 day post fertilization). Developmental analyses demonstrate abundant expression of maternal top2a but not top2b. Inhibition or poisoning of maternal topoisomerase II delays embryonic development by extending the cell cycle M-phase. Zygotic top2a and top2b are co-expressed in the zebrafish CNS, but endogenous or ectopic top2b RNA appear unable to prevent the blm phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that maternal top2a enables zebrafish development before the mid-zygotic transition (MZT) and that zebrafish top2a and top2b are not functionally redundant during development after activation of the zygotic genome. PMID:22111588

  14. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  15. Seismic air gun exposure during early-stage embryonic development does not negatively affect spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii larvae (Decapoda:Palinuridae)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan D.; McCauley, Robert D.; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine seismic surveys are used to explore for sub-seafloor oil and gas deposits. These surveys are conducted using air guns, which release compressed air to create intense sound impulses, which are repeated around every 8–12 seconds and can travel large distances in the water column. Considering the ubiquitous worldwide distribution of seismic surveys, the potential impact of exposure on marine invertebrates is poorly understood. In this study, egg-bearing female spiny lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) were exposed to signals from three air gun configurations, all of which exceeded sound exposure levels (SEL) of 185 dB re 1 μPa2·s. Lobsters were maintained until their eggs hatched and the larvae were then counted for fecundity, assessed for abnormal morphology using measurements of larval length and width, tested for larval competency using an established activity test and measured for energy content. Overall there were no differences in the quantity or quality of hatched larvae, indicating that the condition and development of spiny lobster embryos were not adversely affected by air gun exposure. These results suggest that embryonic spiny lobster are resilient to air gun signals and highlight the caution necessary in extrapolating results from the laboratory to real world scenarios or across life history stages. PMID:26947006

  16. Partial albumen removal early during embryonic development of layer-type chickens has negative consequences on laying performance in adult life.

    PubMed

    Willems, E; Wang, Y; Willemsen, H; Lesuisse, J; Franssens, L; Guo, X; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Everaert, N

    2013-07-01

    To examine the importance of albumen as a protein source during embryonic development on the posthatch performance of laying hens, 3 mL of the albumen was removed. At hatch, no difference in BW could be observed. Chicks from the albumen-deprived group had a lower residual yolk weight due to higher yolk utilization. During the rearing phase (hatch to 17 wk of age), the BW of the albumen-deprived pullets was lower compared with the control and sham pullets. The feed intake of the albumen-deprived pullets was also lower than the control pullets. However, during the laying phase (18 to 55 wk of age) these hens exceeded the control and sham hens in BW, although this was not accompanied by a higher feed intake. The albumen-deprived hens exhibited a lower egg production capacity as demonstrated by the reduced egg weight, laying rate, and egg mass and increased number of second grade eggs. In addition, the eggs laid by the albumen-deprived hens had a higher proportional yolk and lower proportional albumen weight. In conclusion, prenatal protein deprivation by albumen removal caused a long-lasting programming effect, possibly by differences in energy allocation, in favor of growth and maintenance and impairing reproductive performance.

  17. Maternal Gdf3 is an obligatory cofactor in Nodal signaling for embryonic axis formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bisgrove, Brent W; Su, Yi-Chu

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish Gdf3 (Dvr1) is a member of the TGFβ superfamily of cell signaling ligands that includes Xenopus Vg1 and mammalian Gdf1/3. Surprisingly, engineered homozygous mutants in zebrafish have no apparent phenotype. Elimination of Gdf3 in oocytes of maternal-zygotic mutants results in embryonic lethality that can be fully rescued with gdf3 RNA, demonstrating that Gdf3 is required only early in development, beyond which mutants are viable and fertile. Gdf3 mutants are refractory to Nodal ligands and Nodal repressor Lefty1. Signaling driven by TGFβ ligand Activin and constitutively active receptors Alk4 and Alk2 remain intact in gdf3 mutants, indicating that Gdf3 functions at the same pathway step as Nodal. Targeting gdf3 and ndr2 RNA to specific lineages indicates that exogenous gdf3 is able to fully rescue mutants only when co-expressed with endogenous Nodal. Together, these findings demonstrate that Gdf3 is an essential cofactor of Nodal signaling during establishment of the embryonic axis. PMID:29140249

  18. Autophagy in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tra, Thien; Gong, Lan; Kao, Lin-Pin; Li, Xue-Lei; Grandela, Catarina; Devenish, Rodney J.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Prescott, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy (macroautophagy) is a degradative process that involves the sequestration of cytosolic material including organelles into double membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos and cavitation of embryoid bodies. The precise roles of autophagy during early human embryonic development, remain however largely uncharacterized. Since human embryonic stem cells constitute a unique model system to study early human embryogenesis we investigated the occurrence of autophagy in human embryonic stem cells. We have, using lentiviral transduction, established multiple human embryonic stem cell lines that stably express GFP-LC3, a fluorescent marker for the autophagosome. Each cell line displays both a normal karyotype and pluripotency as indicated by the presence of cell types representative of the three germlayers in derived teratomas. GFP expression and labelling of autophagosomes is retained after differentiation. Baseline levels of autophagy detected in cultured undifferentiated hESC were increased or decreased in the presence of rapamycin and wortmannin, respectively. Interestingly, autophagy was upregulated in hESCs induced to undergo differentiation by treatment with type I TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431542 or removal of MEF secreted maintenance factors. In conclusion we have established hESCs capable of reporting macroautophagy and identify a novel link between autophagy and early differentiation events in hESC. PMID:22110659

  19. The FHA domain determines Drosophila Chk2/Mnk localization to key mitotic structures and is essential for early embryonic DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Takada, Saeko; Collins, Eric R; Kurahashi, Kayo

    2015-05-15

    DNA damage responses, including mitotic centrosome inactivation, cell-cycle delay in mitosis, and nuclear dropping from embryo cortex, maintain genome integrity in syncytial Drosophila embryos. A conserved signaling kinase, Chk2, known as Mnk/Loki, is essential for the responses. Here we demonstrate that functional EGFP-Mnk expressed from a transgene localizes to the nucleus, centrosomes, interkinetochore/centromere region, midbody, and pseudocleavage furrows without DNA damage and in addition forms numerous foci/aggregates on mitotic chromosomes upon DNA damage. We expressed EGFP-tagged Mnk deletion or point mutation variants and investigated domain functions of Mnk in vivo. A triple mutation in the phosphopeptide-binding site of the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain disrupted normal Mnk localization except to the nucleus. The mutation also disrupted Mnk foci formation on chromosomes upon DNA damage. FHA mutations and deletion of the SQ/TQ-cluster domain (SCD) abolished Mnk transphosphorylations and autophosphorylations, indicative of kinase activation after DNA damage. A potent NLS was found at the C-terminus, which is required for normal Mnk function. We propose that the FHA domain in Mnk plays essential dual functions in mediating embryonic DNA damage responses by means of its phosphopeptide-binding ability: activating Mnk in the nucleus upon DNA damage and recruiting Mnk to multiple subcellular structures independently of DNA damage. © 2015 Takada et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Increased Regurgitant Flow Causes Endocardial Cushion Defects in an Avian Embryonic Model of Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Stephanie M; McPheeters, Matthew T; Wang, Yves T; Ma, Pei; Gu, Shi; Strainic, James; Snyder, Christopher; Rollins, Andrew M; Watanabe, Michiko; Jenkins, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationship between changes in endocardial cushion and resultant congenital heart diseases (CHD) has yet to be established. It has been shown that increased regurgitant flow early in embryonic heart development leads to endocardial cushion defects, but it remains unclear how abnormal endocardial cushions during the looping stages might affect the fully septated heart. The goal of this study was to reproducibly alter blood flow in vivo and then quantify the resultant effects on morphology of endocardial cushions in the looping heart and on CHDs in the septated heart. Methods Optical pacing was applied to create regurgitant flow in embryonic hearts, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was utilized to quantify regurgitation and morphology. Embryonic quail hearts were optically paced at 3 Hz (180bpm, well above intrinsic rate 60–110bpm) at stage 13 of development (3–4 wks human) for 5 min. Pacing fatigued the heart and led to at least 1 hr of increased regurgitant flow. Resultant morphological changes were quantified with OCT imaging at stage 19 (cardiac looping – 4–5 wks human) or stage 35 (4 chambered heart – 8 wks human). Results All paced embryos imaged at stage 19 displayed structural changes in cardiac cushions. The amount of regurgitant flow immediately after pacing was inversely correlated with cardiac cushion size 24-hrs post pacing (p-value < 0.01). The embryos with the most regurgitant flow and smallest cushions after pacing had a decreased survival rate at 8 days (p<0.05), indicating that those most severe endocardial cushion defects were lethal. Of the embryos that survived to stage 35, 17/18 exhibited CHDs including valve defects, ventricular septal defects, hypoplastic ventricles, and common AV canal. Conclusion The data illustrate a strong inverse relationship in which regurgitant flow precedes abnormal and smaller cardiac cushions, resulting in the development of CHDs. PMID:28211263

  1. The birth of embryonic pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Boroviak, Thorsten; Nichols, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Formation of a eutherian mammal requires concurrent establishment of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. The functions of the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm are to enable implantation in the maternal uterus, axis specification and delivery of nutrients. The pluripotent epiblast represents the founding cell population of the embryo proper, which is protected from ectopic and premature differentiation until it is required to respond to inductive cues to form the fetus. While positional information plays a major role in specifying the trophoblast lineage, segregation of primitive endoderm from epiblast depends upon gradual acquisition of transcriptional identity, directed but not initiated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling. Following early cleavage divisions and formation of the blastocyst, cells of the inner cell mass lose totipotency. Developing epiblast cells transiently attain the state of naive pluripotency and competence to self-renew in vitro as embryonic stem cells and in vivo by means of diapause. This property is lost after implantation as the epiblast epithelializes and becomes primed in preparation for gastrulation and subsequent organogenesis. PMID:25349450

  2. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Proteinuria and Perinatal Lethality in Mice Lacking NEPH1, a Novel Protein with Homology to NEPHRIN

    PubMed Central

    Donoviel, Dorit B.; Freed, Deon D.; Vogel, Hannes; Potter, David G.; Hawkins, Edith; Barrish, James P.; Mathur, Brian N.; Turner, C. Alexander; Geske, Robert; Montgomery, Charles A.; Starbuck, Michael; Brandt, Mary; Gupta, Anupma; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Zambrowicz, Brian P.; Powell, David R.

    2001-01-01

    A high-throughput, retrovirus-mediated mutagenesis method based on gene trapping in embryonic stem cells was used to identify a novel mouse gene. The human ortholog encodes a transmembrane protein containing five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains that is structurally related to human NEPHRIN, a protein associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Northern analysis revealed wide expression in humans and mice, with highest expression in kidney. Based on similarity to NEPHRIN and abundant expression in kidney, this protein was designated NEPH1 and embryonic stem cells containing the retroviral insertion in the Neph1 locus were used to generate mutant mice. Analysis of kidney RNA from Neph1−/− mice showed that the retroviral insertion disrupted expression of Neph1 transcripts. Neph1−/− pups were represented at the expected normal Mendelian ratios at 1 to 3 days of age but at only 10% of the expected frequency at 10 to 12 days after birth, suggesting an early postnatal lethality. The Neph1−/− animals that survived beyond the first week of life were sickly and small but without edema, and all died between 3 and 8 weeks of age. Proteinuria ranging from 300 to 2,000 mg/dl was present in all Neph1−/− mice. Electron microscopy demonstrated NEPH1 expression in glomerular podocytes and revealed effacement of podocyte foot processes in Neph1−/− mice. These findings suggest that NEPH1, like NEPHRIN, may play an important role in maintaining the structure of the filtration barrier that prevents proteins from freely entering the glomerular urinary space. PMID:11416156

  4. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  5. Transcriptional activation is a conserved feature of the early embryonic factor Zelda that requires a cluster of four zinc fingers for DNA binding and a low-complexity activation domain.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Danielle C; Bondra, Eliana R; Harrison, Melissa M

    2015-02-06

    Delayed transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome is a nearly universal phenomenon in metazoans. Immediately following fertilization, development is controlled by maternally deposited products, and it is not until later stages that widespread activation of the zygotic genome occurs. Although the mechanisms driving this genome activation are currently unknown, the transcriptional activator Zelda (ZLD) has been shown to be instrumental in driving this process in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we define functional domains of ZLD required for both DNA binding and transcriptional activation. We show that the C-terminal cluster of four zinc fingers mediates binding to TAGteam DNA elements in the promoters of early expressed genes. All four zinc fingers are required for this activity, and splice isoforms lacking three of the four zinc fingers fail to activate transcription. These truncated splice isoforms dominantly suppress activation by the full-length, embryonically expressed isoform. We map the transcriptional activation domain of ZLD to a central region characterized by low complexity. Despite relatively little sequence conservation within this domain, ZLD orthologs from Drosophila virilis, Anopheles gambiae, and Nasonia vitripennis activate transcription in D. melanogaster cells. Transcriptional activation by these ZLD orthologs suggests that ZLD functions through conserved interactions with a protein cofactor(s). We have identified distinct DNA-binding and activation domains within the critical transcription factor ZLD that controls the initial activation of the zygotic genome. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Impaired expression of importin/karyopherin {beta}1 leads to post-implantation lethality

    SciT

    Miura, Katsutaka; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Imaizumi, Takashi

    2006-03-03

    Importin {beta}1 (Imp{beta})/karyopherin {beta}1 (Kpnb1) mediates the nuclear import of a large variety of substrates. This study aimed to investigate the requirement for the Kpnb1 gene in mouse development, using a gene trap line, B6-CB-Ayu8108 {sup GtgeoIMEG} (Ayu8108 {sup geo}), in which the trap vector was inserted into the promoter region of the Kpnb1 gene, but in reverse orientation of the Kpnb1 gene. Ayu8108 {sup geo/geo} homozygous embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage, but died before embryonic day 5.5, and expression of the Kpnb1 gene in homozygous blastocysts was undetectable. We also replaced the {beta}geo gene with Imp{beta} cDNAmore » through Cre-mediated recombination to rescue Imp{beta} expression. Homozygous mice for the rescued allele Ayu8108 {sup Imp{beta}}{sup /Imp{beta}} were born and developed normally. These results demonstrated that the cause of post-implantation lethality of Ayu8108 {sup geo/geo} homozygous embryos was impaired expression of the Kpnb1 gene, indicating indispensable roles of Imp{beta}1 in early development of mice.« less

  7. Development of the embryonic heat shock response and the impact of repeated thermal stress in early stage lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Lindy M; McDougall, Chance S; Stefanovic, Daniel I; Boreham, Douglas R; Somers, Christopher M; Wilson, Joanna Y; Manzon, Richard G

    2017-10-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos were exposed to thermal stress (TS) at different developmental stages to determine when the heat shock response (HSR) can be initiated and if it is altered by exposure to repeated TS. First, embryos were subject to one of three different TS temperatures (6, 9, or 12°C above control) at 4 points in development (21, 38, 60 and 70 days post-fertilisation (dpf)) for 2h followed by a 2h recovery to understand the ontogeny of the HSR. A second experiment explored the effects of repeated TS on the HSR in embryos from 15 to 75 dpf. Embryos were subjected to one of two TS regimes; +6°C TS for 1h every 6 days or +9°C TS for 1h every 6 days. Following a 2h recovery, a subset of embryos was sampled. Our results show that embryos could initiate a HSR via upregulation of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) mRNA at all developmental ages studied, but that this response varied with age and was only observed with a TS of +9 or +12°C. In comparison, when embryos received multiple TS treatments, hsp70 was not induced in response to the 1h TS and 2h recovery, and a downregulation was observed at 39 dpf. Downregulation of hsp47 and hsp90α mRNA was also observed in early age embryos. Collectively, these data suggest that embryos are capable of initiating a HSR at early age and throughout embryogenesis, but that repeated TS can alter the HSR, and may result in either reduced responsiveness or a downregulation of inducible hsps. Our findings warrant further investigation into both the short- and long-term effects of repeated TS on lake whitefish development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    effects include stupor, confusion, and confabulation with concrete and panoramic illusions and hallucinations , and regression to automatic “phantom...scientifically feasible.” (Federation of American Scientists Article, 2) Opponents of non-lethal weapons contend that because certain individuals...3000.3) According to the Federation of American Scientists , these weapons can be placed into two main categories: incapacitants (including military

  9. Gravity and embryonic development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between the developing embryo (both plant and animal) and a gravitational field has long been contemplated. The difficulty in designing critical experiments on the surface of the earth because of its background of 1 g, has been an obstacle to a resolution of the problem. Biological responses to gravity (particularly in plants) are obvious in many cases; however, the influence of gravity as an environmental input to the developing embryo is not as obvious and has proven to be extremely difficult to define. In spite of this, over the years numerous attempts have been made using a variety of embryonic materials to come to grips with the role of gravity in development. Three research tools are available: the centrifuge, the clinostat, and the orbiting spacecraft. Experimental results are now available from all three sources. Some tenuous conclusions are drawn, and an attempt at a unifying theory of gravitational influence on embryonic development is made.

  10. A Synthetic Lethal Screen Identifies a Role for Lin-44/Wnt in C. elegans Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hartin, Samantha N; Hudson, Martin L; Yingling, Curtis; Ackley, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    The C. elegans proteins PTP-3/LAR-RPTP and SDN-1/Syndecan are conserved cell adhesion molecules. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in either ptp-3 or sdn-1 result in low penetrance embryonic developmental defects. Work from other systems has shown that syndecans can function as ligands for LAR receptors in vivo. We used double mutant analysis to test whether ptp-3 and sdn-1 function in a linear genetic pathway during C. elegans embryogenesis. We found animals with LOF in both sdn-1 and ptp-3 exhibited a highly penetrant synthetic lethality (SynLet), with only a small percentage of animals surviving to adulthood. Analysis of the survivors demonstrated that these animals had a synergistic increase in the penetrance of embryonic developmental defects. Together, these data strongly suggested PTP-3 and SDN-1 function in parallel during embryogenesis. We subsequently used RNAi to knockdown ~3,600 genes predicted to encode secreted and/or transmembrane molecules to identify genes that interacted with ptp-3 or sdn-1. We found that the Wnt ligand, lin-44, was SynLet with sdn-1, but not ptp-3. We used 4-dimensional time-lapse analysis to characterize the interaction between lin-44 and sdn-1. We found evidence that loss of lin-44 caused defects in the polarization and migration of endodermal precursors during gastrulation, a previously undescribed role for lin-44 that is strongly enhanced by the loss of sdn-1. PTP-3 and SDN-1 function in compensatory pathways during C. elegans embryonic and larval development, as simultaneous loss of both genes has dire consequences for organismal survival. The Wnt ligand lin-44 contributes to the early stages of gastrulation in parallel to sdn-1, but in a genetic pathway with ptp-3. Overall, the SynLet phenotype provides a robust platform to identify ptp-3 and sdn-1 interacting genes, as well as other genes that function in development, yet might be missed in traditional forward genetic screens.

  11. A Synthetic Lethal Screen Identifies a Role for Lin-44/Wnt in C. elegans Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hartin, Samantha N.; Hudson, Martin L.; Yingling, Curtis; Ackley, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The C. elegans proteins PTP-3/LAR-RPTP and SDN-1/Syndecan are conserved cell adhesion molecules. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in either ptp-3 or sdn-1 result in low penetrance embryonic developmental defects. Work from other systems has shown that syndecans can function as ligands for LAR receptors in vivo. We used double mutant analysis to test whether ptp-3 and sdn-1 function in a linear genetic pathway during C. elegans embryogenesis. Results We found animals with LOF in both sdn-1 and ptp-3 exhibited a highly penetrant synthetic lethality (SynLet), with only a small percentage of animals surviving to adulthood. Analysis of the survivors demonstrated that these animals had a synergistic increase in the penetrance of embryonic developmental defects. Together, these data strongly suggested PTP-3 and SDN-1 function in parallel during embryogenesis. We subsequently used RNAi to knockdown ~3,600 genes predicted to encode secreted and/or transmembrane molecules to identify genes that interacted with ptp-3 or sdn-1. We found that the Wnt ligand, lin-44, was SynLet with sdn-1, but not ptp-3. We used 4-dimensional time-lapse analysis to characterize the interaction between lin-44 and sdn-1. We found evidence that loss of lin-44 caused defects in the polarization and migration of endodermal precursors during gastrulation, a previously undescribed role for lin-44 that is strongly enhanced by the loss of sdn-1. Conclusions PTP-3 and SDN-1 function in compensatory pathways during C. elegans embryonic and larval development, as simultaneous loss of both genes has dire consequences for organismal survival. The Wnt ligand lin-44 contributes to the early stages of gastrulation in parallel to sdn-1, but in a genetic pathway with ptp-3. Overall, the SynLet phenotype provides a robust platform to identify ptp-3 and sdn-1 interacting genes, as well as other genes that function in development, yet might be missed in traditional forward genetic screens. PMID:25938228

  12. EVALUATING THE PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF SUICIDAL INTENT AND MEDICAL LETHALITY IN YOUTH

    PubMed Central

    Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (Mage at hospitalization = 14.83; 51% female; 80% Caucasian) were characterized using the Subjective Intent Rating Scale and Lethality of Attempt Rating Scale. Anderson-Gill recurrent events survival models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess predictive validity. Generalized linear models were used to examine stability of characteristics across attempts. Results Neither intent nor lethality from the most recent attempt predicted future attempts. The highest level of intent and most severe lethality of attempts during the follow-up predicted subsequent attempts, but the degree to which highest intent and most severe lethality contributed to prediction after considering methods of suicide attempts, past number of attempts, or psychiatric diagnoses was mixed. Across successive attempts, there was little consistency in reported characteristics. Intent and lethality were related to each other only for attempts occurring in early adulthood. Conclusions Highest intent and lethality were better predictors of future attempts than intent and lethality of the most recent attempt. However, these characteristics should only be considered as predictors within the context of other factors. For youth, clinicians should not infer true intent from the lethality of attempts, nor assume that characteristics of future suicide attempts will be similar to previous attempts. PMID:22250854

  13. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of spinosad on bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson).

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Winston, Mark L; Franklin, Michelle T; Abbott, Virginia A

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments of new families of pesticides and growing awareness of the importance of wild pollinators for crop pollination have stimulated interest in potential effects of novel pesticides on wild bees. Yet pesticide toxicity studies on wild bees remain rare, and few studies have included long-term monitoring of bumble bee colonies or testing of foraging ability after pesticide exposure. Larval bees feeding on exogenous pollen and exposed to pesticides during development may result in lethal or sub-lethal effects during the adult stage. We tested the effects of a naturally derived biopesticide, spinosad, on bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony health, including adult mortality, brood development, weights of emerging bees and foraging efficiency of adults that underwent larval development during exposure to spinosad. We monitored colonies from an early stage, over a 10-week period, and fed spinosad to colonies in pollen at four levels: control, 0.2, 0.8 and 8.0 mg kg(-1), during weeks 2 through 5 of the experiment. At concentrations that bees would likely encounter in pollen in the wild (0.2-0.8 mg kg(-1)) we detected minimal negative effects to bumble bee colonies. Brood and adult mortality was high at 8.0 mg kg(-1) spinosad, about twice the level that bees would be exposed to in a 'worst case' field scenario, resulting in colony death two to four weeks after initial pesticide exposure. At more realistic concentrations there were potentially important sub-lethal effects. Adult worker bees exposed to spinosad during larval development at 0.8 mg kg(-1) were slower foragers on artificial complex flower arrays than bees from low or no spinosad treated colonies. Inclusion of similar sub-lethal assays to detect effects of pesticides on pollinators would aid in development of environmentally responsible pest management strategies. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry

  14. Six post-implantation lethal knockouts of genes for lipophilic MAPK pathway proteins are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yufen; Wang, Yingchun; Sun, Tong; Wang, Fangfei; Trostinskaia, Anna; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2005-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play an important role in controlling embryonic proliferation and differentiation. It has been demonstrated that sequential lipophilic signal transduction mediators that participate in the MAPK pathway are null post-implantation lethal. It is not clear why the lethality of these null mutants arises after implantation and not before. One hypothesis is that the gene product of these post-implantation lethal null mutants are not present before implantation in normal embryos and do not have function until after implantation. To test this hypothesis, we selected a set of lipophilic genes mediating MAPK signal transduction pathways whose null mutants result in early peri-implantation or placental lethality. These included FRS2alpha, GAB1, GRB2, SOS1, Raf-B, and Raf1. Products of these selected genes were detected and their locations and functions indicated by indirect immunocytochemistry and Western blotting for proteins and RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mRNA transcription. We report here that all six signal mediators are detected at the protein level in preimplantation mouse embryo, placental trophoblasts, and in cultured trophoblast stem cells (TSC). Proteins are all detected in E3.5 embryos at a time when the first known mitogenic intercellular communication has been documented. mRNA transcripts of two post-implantation null mutant genes are expressed in mouse preimplantation embryos and unfertilized eggs. These mRNA transcripts were detected as maternal mRNA in unfertilized eggs that could delay the lethality of null mutants. All of the proteins were detected in the cytoplasm or in the cell membrane. This study of spatial and temporal expression revealed that all of these six null mutants post-implantation genes in MAPK pathway are expressed and, where tested, phosphorylated/activated proteins are detected in the blastocyst. Studies on RNA expression using RT-PCR suggest that maternal RNA could play

  15. Toxicity of o,p′-DDE to medaka d-rR strain after a one-time embryonic exposure by in ovo nanoinjection: An early through juvenile life cycle assessment

    Villalobos, Sergio A.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Pastva, Stephanie D.; Blankenship, Alan L.; Meadows, John C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of o,p′-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl) ethylene) was evaluated in embryos of medaka (Oryzias latipes) following a one time exposure via nanoinjection. Medaka eggs (early gastrula) were injected with 0.5 nl of triolein (vehicle control) or 0.5 nl of 4 graded doses (0.0005-0.5 ng/egg) of o,p′-DDE in triolein. Embryos were allowed to develop, and fry were reared. Embryonic survival was monitored daily during the first 10 d until hatching and thereafter, on a weekly basis until day 59, at which time the fish were monitored for sexual maturity until day 107. In general, o,p′-DDE caused a dose- and time-dependent mortality. No changes in mortality were observed between the last two time points (day 38 and 59, respectively), and hence a 59 day-LD50 of 346 ng o,p′-DDE/egg was derived from the linear dose-response relationship. Prior to late stage death, only isolated cases of cardiovascular lesions and spinal deformities were observed, but were not dose-dependent. The lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL), based on upper 95% CI for regression line=0.0018 mg/kg, and the LOAEL based on exposure doses=0.5 mg/kg. Likewise, the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) based on linear extrapolation to 100% survival=0.0000388 mg/kg, while the NOAEL based on exposure doses=0.05 mg/kg. The nanoinjection medaka model has potential in the study of hormonally active compounds in the environment.

  16. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    PubMed

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  17. Large-scale production of embryonic red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Emmanuel N; Qiu, Caihong; Velho, Michelle; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2006-12-01

    To develop a method to produce in culture large number of erythroid cells from human embryonic stem cells. Human H1 embryonic stem cells were differentiated into hematopoietic cells by coculture with a human fetal liver cell line, and the resulting CD34-positive cells were expanded in vitro in liquid culture using a three-step method. The erythroid cells produced were then analyzed by light microscopy and flow cytometry. Globin expression was characterized by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and by high-performance liquid chromatography. CD34-positive cells produced from human embryonic stem cells could be efficiently differentiated into erythroid cells in liquid culture leading to a more than 5000-fold increase in cell number. The erythroid cells produced are similar to primitive erythroid cells present in the yolk sac of early human embryos and did not enucleate. They are fully hemoglobinized and express a mixture of embryonic and fetal globins but no beta-globin. We have developed an experimental protocol to produce large numbers of primitive erythroid cells starting from undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. As the earliest human erythroid cells, the nucleated primitive erythroblasts, are not very well characterized because experimental material at this stage of development is very difficult to obtain, this system should prove useful to answer a number of experimental questions regarding the biology of these cells. In addition, production of mature red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells is of great potential practical importance because it could eventually become an alternate source of cell for transfusion.

  18. Mechanical signaling coordinates the embryonic heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Kevin K; Rocks, Jason W; Chen, Christina Yingxian; Cho, Sangkyun; Merkus, Koen E; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Robison, Patrick; Tewari, Manorama; Vogel, Kenneth; Majkut, Stephanie F; Prosser, Benjamin L; Discher, Dennis E; Liu, Andrea J

    2016-08-09

    In the beating heart, cardiac myocytes (CMs) contract in a coordinated fashion, generating contractile wave fronts that propagate through the heart with each beat. Coordinating this wave front requires fast and robust signaling mechanisms between CMs. The primary signaling mechanism has long been identified as electrical: gap junctions conduct ions between CMs, triggering membrane depolarization, intracellular calcium release, and actomyosin contraction. In contrast, we propose here that, in the early embryonic heart tube, the signaling mechanism coordinating beats is mechanical rather than electrical. We present a simple biophysical model in which CMs are mechanically excitable inclusions embedded within the extracellular matrix (ECM), modeled as an elastic-fluid biphasic material. Our model predicts strong stiffness dependence in both the heartbeat velocity and strain in isolated hearts, as well as the strain for a hydrogel-cultured CM, in quantitative agreement with recent experiments. We challenge our model with experiments disrupting electrical conduction by perfusing intact adult and embryonic hearts with a gap junction blocker, β-glycyrrhetinic acid (BGA). We find this treatment causes rapid failure in adult hearts but not embryonic hearts-consistent with our hypothesis. Last, our model predicts a minimum matrix stiffness necessary to propagate a mechanically coordinated wave front. The predicted value is in accord with our stiffness measurements at the onset of beating, suggesting that mechanical signaling may initiate the very first heartbeats.

  19. Do embryonic polar bodies commit suicide?

    PubMed

    Fabian, Dušan; Čikoš, Štefan; Rehák, Pavol; Koppel, Juraj

    2014-02-01

    The extrusion and elimination of unnecessary gametic/embryonic material is one of the key events that determines the success of further development in all living organisms. Oocytes produce the first polar body to fulfill the maturation process just before ovulation, and release the second polar body immediately after fertilization. The aim of this study was to compile a physiological overview of elimination of polar bodies during early preimplantation development in mice. Our results show that three-quarters of the first polar bodies were lost even at the zygotic stage; the 4-cell stage embryos contained only one (second) polar body, and the elimination of second polar bodies proceeded continuously during later development. Both first and second polar bodies showed several typical features of apoptosis: phosphatidylserine redistribution (observed for the first time in the first polar body), specific DNA degradation, condensed nuclear morphology, and inability to exclude cationic dye from the nucleus during the terminal stage of the apoptotic process. Caspase-3 activity was recorded only in the second polar body. From the morphological point of view, mouse polar bodies acted very similarly to damaged embryonic cells which have lost contact with their neighboring blastomeres. In conclusion, polar bodies possess all the molecular equipment necessary for triggering and executing an active suicide process. Furthermore, similarly as in dying embryonic cells, stressing external conditions (culture in vitro) might accelerate and increase the incidence of apoptotic elimination of the polar bodies in embryos.

  20. Mechanical signaling coordinates the embryonic heartbeat

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Kevin K.; Rocks, Jason W.; Chen, Christina Yingxian; Cho, Sangkyun; Merkus, Koen E.; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Robison, Patrick; Tewari, Manorama; Vogel, Kenneth; Majkut, Stephanie F.; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Discher, Dennis E.; Liu, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    In the beating heart, cardiac myocytes (CMs) contract in a coordinated fashion, generating contractile wave fronts that propagate through the heart with each beat. Coordinating this wave front requires fast and robust signaling mechanisms between CMs. The primary signaling mechanism has long been identified as electrical: gap junctions conduct ions between CMs, triggering membrane depolarization, intracellular calcium release, and actomyosin contraction. In contrast, we propose here that, in the early embryonic heart tube, the signaling mechanism coordinating beats is mechanical rather than electrical. We present a simple biophysical model in which CMs are mechanically excitable inclusions embedded within the extracellular matrix (ECM), modeled as an elastic-fluid biphasic material. Our model predicts strong stiffness dependence in both the heartbeat velocity and strain in isolated hearts, as well as the strain for a hydrogel-cultured CM, in quantitative agreement with recent experiments. We challenge our model with experiments disrupting electrical conduction by perfusing intact adult and embryonic hearts with a gap junction blocker, β-glycyrrhetinic acid (BGA). We find this treatment causes rapid failure in adult hearts but not embryonic hearts—consistent with our hypothesis. Last, our model predicts a minimum matrix stiffness necessary to propagate a mechanically coordinated wave front. The predicted value is in accord with our stiffness measurements at the onset of beating, suggesting that mechanical signaling may initiate the very first heartbeats. PMID:27457951

  1. Intact calcium signaling in adrenergic-deficient embryonic mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Jessica N; Taylor, David G; Katchman, Alexander N; Ebert, Steven N

    2018-01-22

    Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh -/- ) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). To test this hypothesis, we used ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to measure cytosolic calcium transients, [Ca 2+ ] i in isolated E10.5 mouse hearts. Our results show that spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations were intact and robustly responded to a variety of stimuli including extracellular calcium (5 mM), caffeine (5 mM), and NE (100 nM) in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Further, we show similar patterns of distribution (via immunofluorescent histochemical staining) and activity (via patch-clamp recording techniques) for the major voltage-gated plasma membrane calcium channel responsible for the L-type calcium current, I Ca,L , in adrenergic-deficient and control embryonic cardiac cells. These results demonstrate that despite the absence of vital adrenergic hormones that consistently leads to embryonic lethality in vivo, intracellular and extracellular calcium signaling remain essentially intact and functional in embryonic mouse hearts through E10.5. These findings suggest that adrenergic stimulation is not required for the development of intracellular calcium oscillations or extracellular calcium signaling through I Ca,L and that aberrant calcium signaling does not likely contribute

  2. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  3. Metabolic circadian rhythms in embryonic turtles.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Fiona Kay; Spencer, Ricky-John; Strassmeyer, Alana; Harland, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Oviparous species are model organisms for investigating embryonic development of endogenous physiological circadian rhythms without the influence of maternal biorhythms. Recent studies have demonstrated that heart rates and metabolic rates of embryonic turtles are not constant or always maximal and can be altered in response to the presence of embryos at a more advanced stage of development within the nest. A first step in understanding the physiological mechanisms underpinning these responses in embryonic ectothermic organisms is to develop metabolic profiles (e.g., heart rate) at different temperatures throughout incubation. Heart beat and rhythmic patterns or changes in development may represent important signals or cues within a nest and may be vital to coordinate synchronous hatching well in advance of the final stages of incubation. We developed baseline embryonic heart-rate profiles of embryos of the short-necked Murray River turtle (Emydura macquarii) to determine the stage of embryogenesis that metabolic circadian rhythms become established, if at all. Eggs were incubated at constant temperatures (26°C and 30°C) and heart rates were monitored at 6-h intervals over 24 h every 7-11 days until hatching. Circadian heart rate rhythms were detected at the mid-gestation period and were maintained until hatching. Heart rates throughout the day varied by up to 20% over 24 h and were not related to time of day. This study demonstrated that endogenous metabolic circadian rhythms in developing embryos in turtle eggs establish earlier in embryogenesis than those documented in other vertebrate taxa during embryogenesis. Early establishment of circadian rhythms in heart rates may be critical for communication among embryos and synchrony in hatching and emergence from the nest.

  4. Maternal-Effect Lethal Mutations on Linkage Group II of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kemphues, K. J.; Kusch, M.; Wolf, N.

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of linkage group (LG) II maternal-effect lethal mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans isolated by a new screening procedure. Screens of 12,455 F(1) progeny from mutagenized adults resulted in the recovery of 54 maternal-effect lethal mutations identifying 29 genes. Of the 54 mutations, 39 are strict maternal-effect mutations defining 17 genes. These 17 genes fall into two classes distinguished by frequency of mutation to strict maternal-effect lethality. The smaller class, comprised of four genes, mutated to strict maternal-effect lethality at a frequency close to 5 X 10(-4), a rate typical of essential genes in C. elegans. Two of these genes are expressed during oogenesis and required exclusively for embryogenesis (pure maternal genes), one appears to be required specifically for meiosis, and the fourth has a more complex pattern of expression. The other 13 genes were represented by only one or two strict maternal alleles each. Two of these are identical genes previously identified by nonmaternal embryonic lethal mutations. We interpret our results to mean that although many C. elegans genes can mutate to strict maternal-effect lethality, most genes mutate to that phenotype rarely. Pure maternal genes, however, are among a smaller class of genes that mutate to maternal-effect lethality at typical rates. If our interpretation is correct, we are near saturation for pure maternal genes in the region of LG II balanced by mnC1. We conclude that the number of pure maternal genes in C. elegans is small, being probably not much higher than 12. PMID:3224814

  5. Type 1 and 3 inositol trisphosphate receptors are required for extra-embryonic vascular development.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Keiko; Nakazawa, Maki; Yamagishi, Chihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    The embryonic-maternal interface of the placental labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac are vital during embryogenesis; however, the precise mechanism underlying the vascularization of these structures remains unknown. Herein we focus on the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R), which are intracellular Ca(2+) release channels, in placentation. Double knockout (DKO) of type 1 and 3 IP3Rs (IP3R1 and IP3R3, respectively) in mice resulted in embryonic lethality around embryonic day (E) 11.5. Because IP3R1 and IP3R3 were co-expressed in endothelial cells in the labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac, we investigated extra-embryonic vascular development in IP3R1- and IP3R3-DKO mice. The formation of chorionic plates and yolk sac vessels seemed dysregulated around the timing of the chorio-allantoic attachment, immediately followed by the disorganization of allantoic vessels, the decreased expression of the spongiotrophoblast cell marker Tpbpa and the growth retardation of the embryos in DKO mice. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry demonstrated downregulation of a vascular endothelial marker, CD31, in labyrinth embryonic vessels and poor elongation of extra-embryonic mesoderm into the labyrinth layer in DKO placenta, whereas the branching of the DKO chorionic trophoblast was initiated. In addition, allantoic and yolk sac vessels in extra-embryonic tissues were less remodeled in DKO mice. In vitro endothelial cord formation and migration activities of cultured vascular endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein were downregulated under the inhibition of IP3R. Our results suggest that IP3R1 and IP3R3 are required for extra-embryonic vascularization in the placenta, allantois, and yolk sac. This is the first demonstration of the essential role of IP3/IP3Rs signaling in the development of the vasculature at the embryonic-maternal interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Embryonic duplications in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S M

    1975-02-01

    Twenty-seven embryonic duplications were examined during a 3-year investigation into the causes of perinatal lamb mortality. Twenty of the 27 were anomalous twins with 19 being conjoined (diplopagus 9 and heteropagus 10). The various duplications were: haloacardius acephalus 1, diprosopus 2, dicephalus 2, dipypus 3, diprosopus dipygus 1, syncephalus dipygus 1, pygopagus parasiticus 1, heteropagus dipygus 3, melodidymus 6, polyury 4, penile duplication 2, and bilateral otognathia 1. Four lambs were living and the time of death of the others was: parturient 8, and post-parturient 15. Average dry weight of the lambs was 3.35 kg (range 1.59 to 5.45 kg). Breed distribution was: Merino 77.8%, Crossbred 14.8%, Dorset Horn 3.7%, and Corriedale 3.7%. The caudal region was involved in 10 of the conjoined twins (52.6%), anterior region in 7 (36.9%), and both anterior and caudal regions in 2 (10.5%). Associated defects were present in 70.4% of the 27 lambs, the most common being atresia ani.

  7. MRG15 Regulates Embryonic Development and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Kaoru; Kirtane, Bhakti; Jackson, James G.; Ikeno, Yuji; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Hawks, Christina; Smith, James R.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.

    2005-01-01

    MRG15 is a highly conserved protein, and orthologs exist in organisms from yeast to humans. MRG15 associates with at least two nucleoprotein complexes that include histone acetyltransferases and/or histone deacetylases, suggesting it is involved in chromatin remodeling. To study the role of MRG15 in vivo, we generated knockout mice and determined that the phenotype is embryonic lethal, with embryos and the few stillborn pups exhibiting developmental delay. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that apoptosis in Mrg15−/− embryos is not increased compared with wild-type littermates. However, the number of proliferating cells is significantly reduced in various tissues of the smaller null embryos compared with control littermates. Cell proliferation defects are also observed in Mrg15−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The hearts of the Mrg15−/− embryos exhibit some features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The increase in size of the cardiomyocytes is most likely a response to decreased growth of the cells. Mrg15−/− embryos appeared pale, and microarray analysis revealed that α-globin gene expression was decreased in null versus wild-type embryos. We determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation that MRG15 was recruited to the α-globin promoter during dimethyl sulfoxide-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that MRG15 has an essential role in embryonic development via chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. PMID:15798182

  8. RIPK3 Mediates Necroptosis during Embryonic Development and Postnatal Inflammation in Fadd-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Yu, XianJun; Zhang, HaiWei; Liu, YongBo; Zhang, XiXi; Wu, XiaoXia; Xie, Qun; Li, Ming; Ying, Hao; Zhang, Haibing

    2017-04-25

    RIPK3 mediates cell death and regulates inflammatory responses. Although genetic studies have suggested that RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis leads to embryonic lethality in Fadd or Caspase-8-deficient mice, the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we generated Ripk3 mutant mice by altering the RIPK3 kinase domain (Ripk3 Δ/Δ mice), thus abolishing its kinase activity. Ripk3 Δ/Δ cells were resistant to necroptosis stimulation in vitro, and Ripk3 Δ/Δ mice were protected from necroptotic diseases. Although the Ripk3 Δ/Δ mutation rescued embryonic lethality in Fadd -/- embryos, Fadd -/- Ripk3 Δ/Δ mice died within 1 day after birth due to massive inflammation. These results indicate that Ripk3 ablation rescues embryonic lethality in Fadd-deficient mice by suppressing two RIPK3-mediating processes: necroptosis during embryogenesis and inflammation during postnatal development in Fadd -/- mice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Command and Control for Distributed Lethality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    based systems engineering (MBSE) approach to C2 within the distributed lethality environment requires development of methodologies to provide...lethality environment requires development of methodologies to provide definition and structure for existing operational concepts while providing...2  D.  SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY ............................................................2  E.  STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

  10. EMBRYONIC VASCULAR DISRUPTION ADVERSE OUTCOMES: LINKING HIGH THROUGHPUT SIGNALING SIGNATURES WITH FUNCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) given the knowledge that chemical disruption of early cardiovascular system development leads to broad prenatal defects. High throughput screening (HTS) assays provide potential building blocks for AOP d...

  11. Human embryonic stem cell research: an intercultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Walters, LeRoy

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, researchers discovered that embryonic stem cells could be derived from early human embryos. This discovery has raised a series of ethical and public-policy questions that are now being confronted by multiple international organizations, nations, cultures, and religious traditions. This essay surveys policies for human embryonic stem cell research in four regions of the world, reports on the recent debate at the United Nations about one type of such research, and reviews the positions that various religious traditions have adopted regarding this novel type of research. In several instances the religious traditions seem to have influenced the public-policy debates.

  12. The histone demethylase Fbxl11/Kdm2a plays an essential role in embryonic development by repressing cell-cycle regulators.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Eri; Tokunaga, Akinori; Ozawa, Manabu; Sakamoto, Reiko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2015-02-01

    Methylation and de-methylation of histone lysine residues play pivotal roles in mammalian early development; these modifications influence chromatin architecture and regulate gene transcription. Fbxl11 (F-box and leucine-rich repeat 11)/Kdm2a is a histone demethylase that selectively removes mono- and di-methylation from histone H3K36. Previously, two other histone H3K36 demethylases (Jmjd5 or Fbxl10) were analyzed based on the phenotypes of the corresponding knockout (KO) mice; the results of those studies implicated H3K36 demethylases in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence (Fukuda et al., 2011; Ishimura et al., 2012). To elucidate the physiological role of Fbxl11, we generated and examined Fbxl11 KO mice. Fbxl11 was expressed throughout the body during embryogenesis, and the Fbxl11 KO mice exhibited embryonic lethality at E10.5-12.5, accompanied with severe growth defects leading to reduced body size. Furthermore, knockout of Fbxl11 decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. The lack of Fbxl11 resulted in downregulation of the Polycomb group protein (PcG) Ezh2, PcG mediated H2A ubiquitination and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1. Taken together, our findings suggest that Fbxl11 plays an essential role in embryonic development and homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation and survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship of parthenogenesis in virgin Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens with embryonic mortality and hatchability following mating.

    PubMed

    Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Robertson, M L; Wells, J B; McDaniel, C D

    2012-06-01

    Unfertilized chicken, turkey, and quail eggs are capable of developing embryos by parthenogenesis. However, it is unknown if the physiological mechanisms regulating parthenogenesis in virgin hens may actually work against fertilization, embryonic development, and hatchability of eggs from these same hens following mating. Additionally, because most parthenogenic development closely resembles early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs during the first 2 to 3 d of incubation, it is possible that many unhatched eggs classified as containing early embryonic mortality may actually be unfertilized eggs that contain parthenogens. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship of parthenogenesis before mating with embryonic development and hatchability characteristics after mating. Based upon their ability to produce unfertilized eggs that contain parthenogens, 372 virgin Chinese Painted quail hens were divided into 7 groups, according to their incidence of parthenogenesis: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and greater than 50% parthenogenesis. Males were then placed with these hens so that fertility, embryonic mortality, and hatchability could be evaluated for each hen. Hatchability of eggs set, hatchability of fertile eggs, and late embryonic mortality declined dramatically as the incidence of parthenogenesis increased. On the other hand, early embryonic mortality increased as parthenogenesis increased. Fertility was not different across the 7 parthenogenesis hen groups, perhaps because unfertilized eggs that exhibited parthenogenesis resembled and were therefore classified as early embryonic mortality. In conclusion, virgin quail hens that exhibit parthenogenesis appear to have impaired embryonic development and hatchability following mating. Additional sperm-egg interaction and embryonic research is needed to determine if a large portion of the early embryonic mortality experienced by mated hens that exhibit parthenogenesis as virgin hens is in fact

  14. Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

  15. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    SciT

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specificmore » TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.« less

  16. Lethal and sublethal effects of aniline and chlorinated anilines on zebrafish embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yoshifumi; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Koshio, Masaaki; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2017-07-01

    Environmental risk assessments show increased attention to the sublethal effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) established the "Fish, Short-term Toxicity Test on Embryo and Sac-fry Stages" (OECD test 212) to predict lethal effects. It is still unclear, however, whether this test can predict sublethal effects. Although their sublethal effects are still unknown, chlorinated anilines are widely used in various fields. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to investigate sublethal effects of chlorinated anilines using OECD test 212 with zebrafish, and to examine the correlation of several sublethal effects between embryo and larval stages. Embryos were exposed to aniline and nine chlorinated anilines until 8 days post-fertilization. A delayed lethal effect was observed from three of the 10 anilines tested. In the control group, the swim bladder inflated after hatching, but there was no swim-bladder inflation after exposure to the chlorinated anilines. Fertilized eggs exposed to lower concentrations of test chemicals showed effects during embryogenesis that did not affect mortality rates, such as changes in body curvature and edema. Our results show that chlorinated anilines induce not only lethal effects but also a variety of sublethal effects. Moreover, a detailed estimate of these effects requires study during both embryonic and larval stages. OECD test 212 may therefore prove useful as a method for screening chemicals for lethal and sublethal effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Epigenetic modifications by Trithorax group proteins during early embryogenesis: do members of Trx-G function as maternal effect genes?

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vieyra, Claudia; Matzuk, Martin M

    2007-02-01

    Maternal effect genes encode transcripts that are expressed during oogenesis. These gene products are stored in the oocyte and become functional during resumption of meiosis and zygote genome activation, and in embryonic stem cells. To date, a few maternal effect genes have been identified in mammals. Epigenetic modifications have been shown to be important during early embryonic development and involve DNA methylation and post-translational modification of core histones. During development, two families of proteins have been shown to be involved in epigenetic changes: Trithorax group (Trx-G) and Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins. Trx-G proteins function as transcriptional activators and have been shown to accumulate in the oocyte. Deletion of Trx-G members using conventional knockout technology results in embryonic lethality in the majority of the cases analysed to date. Recent studies using conditional knockout mice have revealed that at least one family member is necessary for zygote genome activation. We propose that other Trx-G members may also regulate embryonic genome activation and that the use of oocyte-specific deletor mouse lines will help clarify their roles in this process.

  18. Lethal and sublethal effects of embryonic and larval exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater pond sediments.

    PubMed

    Brand, Adrianne B; Snodgrass, Joel W; Gallagher, Matthew T; Casey, Ryan E; Van Meter, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Stormwater ponds are common features of modern stormwater management practices. Stormwater ponds often retain standing water for extended periods of time, develop vegetative characteristics similar to natural wetlands, and attract wildlife. However, because stormwater ponds are designed to capture pollutants, wildlife that utilize ponds might be exposed to pollutants and suffer toxicological effects. To investigate the toxicity of stormwater pond sediments to Hyla versicolor, an anuran commonly found using retention ponds for breeding, we exposed embryos and larvae to sediments in laboratory microcosms. Exposure to pond sediments reduced survival of embryos by approximately 50% but did not affect larval survival. Larvae exposed to stormwater pond sediment developed significantly faster (x = 39 days compared to 42 days; p = 0.005) and were significantly larger at metamorphosis (x = 0.49 g compared to 0.36 g; p < 0.001) than controls that were exposed to clean sand. Substantial amounts (712-2215 mg/l) of chloride leached from pond sediments into the water column of treatment microcosms; subsequently, survival of embryos was negatively correlated (r (2) = 0.50; p < 0.001) with water conductivity during development. Our results, along with the limited number of other toxicological studies of stormwater ponds, suggest that road salt contributes to the degradation of stormwater pond habitat quality for amphibian reproduction and that future research should focus on understanding interactions among road salts and other pollutants and stressors characteristic of urban environments.

  19. Bypass of lethality with mosaic mice generated by Cre-loxP-mediated recombination.

    PubMed

    Betz, U A; Vosshenrich, C A; Rajewsky, K; Müller, W

    1996-10-01

    The analysis of gene function based on the generation of mutant mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells is limited if gene disruption results in embryonic lethality. Mosaic mice, which contain a certain proportion of mutant cells in all organs, allow lethality to be circumvented and the potential of mutant cells to contribute to different cell lineages to be analyzed. To generate mosaic animals, we used the bacteriophage P1-derived Cre-loxP recombination system, which allows gene alteration by Cre-mediated deletion of loxP-flanked gene segments. We generated nestin-cre transgenic mouse lines, which expressed the Cre recombinase under the control of the rat nestin promoter and its second intron enhancer. In crosses to animals carrying a loxP-flanked target gene, partial deletion of the loxP-flanked allele occurred before day 10.5 post coitum and was detectable in all adult organs examined, including germ-line cells. Using this approach, we generated mosaic mice containing cells deficient in the gamma-chain of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R gamma); in these animals, the IL-2R gamma-deficient cells were underrepresented in the thymus and spleen. Because mice deficient in DNA polymerase beta die perinatally, we studied the effects of DNA polymerase beta deficiency in mosaic animals. We found that some of the mosaic polymerase beta-deficient animals were viable, but were often reduced in size and weight. The fraction of DNA polymerase beta-deficient cells in mosaic embryos decreased during embryonic development, presumably because wild-type cells had a competitive advantage. The nestin-cre transgenic mice can be used to generate mosaic animals in which target genes are mutated by Cre-mediated recombination of loxP-flanked target genes. By using mosaic animals, embryonic lethality can be bypassed and cell lineages for whose development a given target gene is critical can be identified. In the case of DNA polymerase beta, deficient cells are already

  20. Imprinted expression in cystic embryoid bodies shows an embryonic and not an extra-embryonic pattern

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Tomasz M.; Casari, M. Rita T.; Guenzl, Philipp M.; Wenzel, Daniel; Andergassen, Daniel; Hladik, Anastasiya; Datlinger, Paul; Farlik, Matthias; Theussl, H. -Christian; Penninger, Josef M.; Knapp, Sylvia; Bock, Christoph; Barlow, Denise P.; Hudson, Quanah J.

    2015-01-01

    A large subset of mammalian imprinted genes show extra-embryonic lineage (EXEL) specific imprinted expression that is restricted to placental trophectoderm lineages and to visceral yolk sac endoderm (ysE). Isolated ysE provides a homogenous in vivo model of a mid-gestation extra-embryonic tissue to examine the mechanism of EXEL-specific imprinted gene silencing, but an in vitro model of ysE to facilitate more rapid and cost-effective experiments is not available. Reports indicate that ES cells differentiated into cystic embryoid bodies (EBs) contain ysE, so here we investigate if cystic EBs model ysE imprinted expression. The imprinted expression pattern of cystic EBs is shown to resemble fetal liver and not ysE. To investigate the reason for this we characterized the methylome and transcriptome of cystic EBs in comparison to fetal liver and ysE, by whole genome bisulphite sequencing and RNA-seq. Cystic EBs show a fetal liver pattern of global hypermethylation and low expression of repeats, while ysE shows global hypomethylation and high expression of IAPEz retroviral repeats, as reported for placenta. Transcriptome analysis confirmed that cystic EBs are more similar to fetal liver than ysE and express markers of early embryonic endoderm. Genome-wide analysis shows that ysE shares epigenetic and repeat expression features with placenta. Contrary to previous reports, we show that cystic EBs do not contain ysE, but are more similar to the embryonic endoderm of fetal liver. This explains why cystic EBs reproduce the imprinted expression seen in the embryo but not that seen in the ysE. PMID:25912690

  1. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history. PMID:27185765

  2. Lethality of First Contact Dysentery Epidemics on Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Infectious diseases depopulated many isolated Pacific islands when they were first exposed to global pathogen circulation from the 18th century. Although the mortality was great, the lack of medical observers makes determination of what happened during these historical epidemics largely speculative. Bacillary dysentery caused by Shigella is the most likely infection causing some of the most lethal island epidemics. The fragmentary historical record is reviewed to gain insight into the possible causes of the extreme lethality that was observed during first-contact epidemics in the Pacific. Immune aspects of the early dysentery epidemics and postmeasles infection resulting in subacute inflammatory enteric disease suggest that epidemiologic isolation was the major lethality risk factor on Pacific islands in the 19th century. Other possible risk factors include human leukocyte antigen homogeneity from a founder effect and pathogen-induced derangement of immune tolerance to gut flora. If this analysis is correct, then Pacific islands are currently at no greater risk of emerging disease epidemics than other developing countries despite their dark history. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    PubMed

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PTBP1 Is Required for Embryonic Development before Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Suckale, Jakob; Wendling, Olivia; Masjkur, Jimmy; Jäger, Melanie; Münster, Carla; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A. Francis; Solimena, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is an important cellular regulator of messenger RNAs influencing the alternative splicing profile of a cell as well as its mRNA stability, location and translation. In addition, it is diverted by some viruses to facilitate their replication. Here, we used a novel PTBP1 knockout mouse to analyse the tissue expression pattern of PTBP1 as well as the effect of its complete removal during development. We found evidence of strong PTBP1 expression in embryonic stem cells and throughout embryonic development, especially in the developing brain and spinal cord, the olfactory and auditory systems, the heart, the liver, the kidney, the brown fat and cartilage primordia. This widespread distribution points towards a role of PTBP1 during embryonic development. Homozygous offspring, identified by PCR and immunofluorescence, were able to implant but were arrested or retarded in growth. At day 7.5 of embryonic development (E7.5) the null mutants were about 5x smaller than the control littermates and the gap in body size widened with time. At mid-gestation, all homozygous embryos were resorbed/degraded. No homozygous mice were genotyped at E12 and the age of weaning. Embryos lacking PTBP1 did not display differentiation into the 3 germ layers and cavitation of the epiblast, which are hallmarks of gastrulation. In addition, homozygous mutants displayed malformed ectoplacental cones and yolk sacs, both early supportive structure of the embryo proper. We conclude that PTBP1 is not required for the earliest isovolumetric divisions and differentiation steps of the zygote up to the formation of the blastocyst. However, further post-implantation development requires PTBP1 and stalls in homozygous null animals with a phenotype of dramatically reduced size and aberration in embryonic and extra-embryonic structures. PMID:21423341

  5. PTBP1 is required for embryonic development before gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Suckale, Jakob; Wendling, Olivia; Masjkur, Jimmy; Jäger, Melanie; Münster, Carla; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A Francis; Solimena, Michele

    2011-02-17

    Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is an important cellular regulator of messenger RNAs influencing the alternative splicing profile of a cell as well as its mRNA stability, location and translation. In addition, it is diverted by some viruses to facilitate their replication. Here, we used a novel PTBP1 knockout mouse to analyse the tissue expression pattern of PTBP1 as well as the effect of its complete removal during development. We found evidence of strong PTBP1 expression in embryonic stem cells and throughout embryonic development, especially in the developing brain and spinal cord, the olfactory and auditory systems, the heart, the liver, the kidney, the brown fat and cartilage primordia. This widespread distribution points towards a role of PTBP1 during embryonic development. Homozygous offspring, identified by PCR and immunofluorescence, were able to implant but were arrested or retarded in growth. At day 7.5 of embryonic development (E7.5) the null mutants were about 5x smaller than the control littermates and the gap in body size widened with time. At mid-gestation, all homozygous embryos were resorbed/degraded. No homozygous mice were genotyped at E12 and the age of weaning. Embryos lacking PTBP1 did not display differentiation into the 3 germ layers and cavitation of the epiblast, which are hallmarks of gastrulation. In addition, homozygous mutants displayed malformed ectoplacental cones and yolk sacs, both early supportive structure of the embryo proper. We conclude that PTBP1 is not required for the earliest isovolumetric divisions and differentiation steps of the zygote up to the formation of the blastocyst. However, further post-implantation development requires PTBP1 and stalls in homozygous null animals with a phenotype of dramatically reduced size and aberration in embryonic and extra-embryonic structures.

  6. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Embryonic development of connections in turtle pallium.

    PubMed

    Cordery, P; Molnár, Z

    1999-10-11

    We are interested in similarities and conserved mechanisms in early development of the reptilian and mammalian thalamocortical connections. We set out to analyse connectivity in embryonic turtle brains (Pseudemys scripta elegans, between stages 17 and 25), by using carbocyanine dye tracing. From the earliest stages studied, labelling from dorsal and ventral thalamus revealed backlabelled cells among developing thalamic fibres within the lateral forebrain bundle and striatum, which had similar morphology to backlabelled internal capsule cells in embryonic rat (Molnár and Cordery, 1999). However, thalamic crystal placements did not label cells in the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR) at any stage examined. Crystal placements into both dorsal and lateral cortex labelled cells in the DVR and, reciprocally, DVR crystal placements labelled cells in the dorsal and lateral cortices. Retrograde labelling revealed that thalamic fibres arrive in the DVR and dorsal cortex by stage 19. The DVR received projections from the nucleus rotundus and the dorsal cortex exclusively from the perirotundal complex (including lateral geniculate nucleus). Thalamic fibres show this remarkable degree of specificity from the earliest stage we could examine with selective retrograde labelling (stage 19). Our study demonstrates that axons of similar cells are among the first to reach dorsal and ventral thalamus in mammals and reptiles. Our connectional analysis in turtle suggests that some cells of the mammalian primitive internal capsule are homologous to a cell group within the reptilian lateral forebrain bundle and striatum and that diverse vertebrate brains might use a highly conserved pattern of early thalamocortical development. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Somatic Donor Cell Type Correlates with Embryonic, but Not Extra-Embryonic, Gene Expression in Postimplantation Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogura, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned from three different cell types (cumulus cells, neonatal Sertoli cells and fibroblasts). The embryos retrieved from the uteri were separated into embryonic (epiblast) and extraembryonic (extraembryonic ectoderm and ectoplacental cone) tissues and were subjected to gene microarray analysis. Genotype- and sex-matched embryos produced by in vitro fertilization were used as controls. Principal component analysis revealed that whereas the gene expression patterns in the embryonic tissues varied according to the donor cell type, those in extraembryonic tissues were relatively consistent across all groups. Within each group, the embryonic tissues had more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (>2-fold vs. controls) than did the extraembryonic tissues (P<1.0×10–26). In the embryonic tissues, one of the common abnormalities was upregulation of Dlk1, a paternally imprinted gene. This might be a potential cause of the occasional placenta-only conceptuses seen in SCNT-generated mouse embryos (1–5% per embryos transferred in our laboratory), because dysregulation of the same gene is known to cause developmental failure of embryos derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. There were also some DEGs in the extraembryonic tissues, which might explain the poor development of SCNT-derived placentas at early stages. These findings suggest that SCNT affects the embryonic and extraembryonic development differentially and might cause further deterioration in the embryonic lineage in a donor cell-specific manner. This could explain donor cell-dependent variations in cloning efficiency using SCNT. PMID:24146866

  9. TORC2 signaling antagonizes SKN-1 to induce C. elegans mesendodermal embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Vanessa; Holzem, Christina; Peyman, Tobias; Walz, Gerd; Blackwell, T. Keith; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase controls fundamental metabolic processes to support cell and tissue growth. TOR functions within the context of two distinct complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. TORC2, with its specific component Rictor, has been recently implicated in aging and regulation of growth and metabolism. Here, we identify rict-1/Rictor as a regulator of embryonic development in C. elegans. The transcription factor skn-1 establishes development of the mesendoderm in embryos, and is required for cellular homeostasis and longevity in adults. Loss of maternal skn-1 function leads to misspecification of the mesendodermal precursor and failure to form intestine and pharynx. We found that genetic inactivation of rict-1 suppressed skn-1-associated lethality by restoring mesendodermal specification in skn-1 deficient embryos. Inactivation of other TORC2 but not TORC1 components also partially rescued skn-1 embryonic lethality. The SGK-1 kinase mediated these functions downstream of rict-1/TORC2, as a sgk-1 gain-of-function mutant suppressed the rict-1 mutant phenotype. These data indicate that TORC2 and SGK-1 antagonize SKN-1 during embryonic development. PMID:23973804

  10. Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brade, Thomas; Pane, Luna S.; Moretti, Alessandra; Chien, Kenneth R.; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is a highly specialized organ, comprised of many different cell types arising from distinct embryonic progenitor populations during cardiogenesis. Three precursor populations have been identified to contribute to different myocytic and nonmyocytic cell lineages of the heart: cardiogenic mesoderm cells (CMC), the proepicardium (PE), and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). This review will focus on molecular cues necessary for proper induction, expansion, and lineage-specific differentiation of these progenitor populations during cardiac development in vivo. Moreover, we will briefly discuss how the knowledge gained on embryonic heart progenitor biology can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the management of congenital heart disease as well as for improvement of cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24086063

  11. Lethal violence and psychosis: a clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Nestor, P G; Haycock, J; Doiron, S; Kelly, J; Kelly, D

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between lethal violence and psychosis, the authors examined symptomatology, neuropsychological functioning, and the nature of perpetrator-victim relationships of patients with psychotic disorders who were committed to a forensic psychiatric hospital following violent, primarily criminal behavior. A severely violent group, composed primarily of psychotic patients charged with murder, was compared with a less severely violent group that was composed primarily of psychotic patients involved with property crimes. As compared with the less violent group, the severely violent group was more likely to have delusional beliefs about specific personal targets and to have delusions about significant others being replaced by impostors. These beliefs were accompanied by higher scores on neuropsychological tests of intellectual and academic abilities. A high number of their blood relatives were victims of psychotic murder. These results indicated that a higher incidence of lethal or near lethal acts of violence may characterize intellectually intact but psychotic individuals with organize delusions involving personal, accessible targets.

  12. Lethal and sublethal measures of chronic copper toxicity in the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E; Kuhne, Wendy; Soteropoulos, Diana; Lance, Stacey L

    2015-03-01

    Many metals are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms at high concentrations and for some metals, such as copper (Cu), even low-level chronic contamination may be cause for conservation concern. Amphibian susceptibility to Cu has been examined in only a few species, and susceptibility is highly variable. The lethal and sublethal effects were examined of chronic aqueous Cu exposure on embryonic and larval eastern narrowmouth toads, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Copper levels as low as 10 μg Cu/L reduced embryonic and larval survival. Embryonic survivorship varied within- and between-source populations, with embryos derived from uncontaminated-wetland parents having greater survival at lower Cu levels than embryos from parents from a metal-contaminated constructed wetland. At 30 μg/L, embryos from the contaminated site had greater survival. Overall survival from oviposition to metamorphosis was 68.9% at 0 μg/L and 5.4% at 10 μg/L. Similarly, embryos exposed to ≥50 μg/L demonstrated developmental delays in transition from embryo to free-swimming larva. These results demonstrate a negative population-specific response to environmentally relevant levels of Cu. © 2014 SETAC.

  13. Lethal Injection for Execution: Chemical Asphyxiation?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmers, Teresa A; Sheldon, Jonathan; Lubarsky, David A; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Waterman, Linda; Weisman, Richard; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2007-01-01

    Background Lethal injection for execution was conceived as a comparatively humane alternative to electrocution or cyanide gas. The current protocols are based on one improvised by a medical examiner and an anesthesiologist in Oklahoma and are practiced on an ad hoc basis at the discretion of prison personnel. Each drug used, the ultrashort-acting barbiturate thiopental, the neuromuscular blocker pancuronium bromide, and the electrolyte potassium chloride, was expected to be lethal alone, while the combination was intended to produce anesthesia then death due to respiratory and cardiac arrest. We sought to determine whether the current drug regimen results in death in the manner intended. Methods and Findings We analyzed data from two US states that release information on executions, North Carolina and California, as well as the published clinical, laboratory, and veterinary animal experience. Execution outcomes from North Carolina and California together with interspecies dosage scaling of thiopental effects suggest that in the current practice of lethal injection, thiopental might not be fatal and might be insufficient to induce surgical anesthesia for the duration of the execution. Furthermore, evidence from North Carolina, California, and Virginia indicates that potassium chloride in lethal injection does not reliably induce cardiac arrest. Conclusions We were able to analyze only a limited number of executions. However, our findings suggest that current lethal injection protocols may not reliably effect death through the mechanisms intended, indicating a failure of design and implementation. If thiopental and potassium chloride fail to cause anesthesia and cardiac arrest, potentially aware inmates could die through pancuronium-induced asphyxiation. Thus the conventional view of lethal injection leading to an invariably peaceful and painless death is questionable. PMID:17455994

  14. Lethality In Mice Following Localized Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, Angela; Gomer, Charles J.; Murphree, A. L.

    1989-06-01

    Porphyrin photodynamic therapy directed specifically to the hind leg of various strains of mice was found to induce a high percentage of lethality at dosages which would be required to achieve cures in tumor bearing mice. Toxicity was observed in both pigmented and albino mouse strains. An inverse relationship between light dose rate and lethality was documented. Anti-coagulant drugs and anti-inflammatory agents which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase had protective effects. The response induced by localized PDT appears to mimic that of a classical traumatic shock syndrome and may be limited to PDT in small animals such as mice.

  15. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuzhi; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Schipma, Matthew J; Liu, Jing; Shete, Varsha; Liu, Ning; Sato, Tatsuya; Thorp, Edward B; Barger, Philip M; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Ardehali, Hossein; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex consisting of about 30 subunits, is a key component of the polymerase II mediated gene transcription. Germline deletion of the Mediator subunit 1 (Med1) of the Mediator in mice results in mid-gestational embryonic lethality with developmental impairment of multiple organs including heart. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 in mice (csMed1-/-) during late gestational and early postnatal development by intercrossing Med1fl/fl mice to α-MyHC-Cre transgenic mice results in lethality within 10 days after weaning due to dilated cardiomyopathy-related ventricular dilation and heart failure. The csMed1-/- mouse heart manifests mitochondrial damage, increased apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Global gene expression analysis revealed that loss of Med1 in heart down-regulates more than 200 genes including Acadm, Cacna1s, Atp2a2, Ryr2, Pde1c, Pln, PGC1α, and PGC1β that are critical for calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulated energy metabolism. Many genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and proper mitochondrial function such as genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits of the mitochondrial complex II are also down-regulated in csMed1-/- heart contributing to myocardial injury. Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cardiac specific deletion of Med1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-inducible Cre approach (TmcsMed1-/-), results in rapid development of cardiomyopathy and death within 4 weeks. We found that the key findings of the csMed1-/- studies described above are highly reproducible in TmcsMed1-/- mouse heart

  16. Lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism: a severe lethal condition resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Merrer, M L; Briard, M L; Girard, S; Mulliez, N; Moraine, C; Imbert, M C

    1988-01-01

    We report eight cases of a lethal association of failure to thrive, facial dysmorphism, ambiguous genitalia, syndactyly, postaxial polydactyly, and internal developmental anomalies (Hirschsprung's disease, cardiac and renal malformation). This syndrome is likely to be autosomal recessive and resembles Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO) syndrome. However, the lethality, the common occurrence of polydactyly, and the sexual ambiguity distinguishes this condition from SLO syndrome. A review of published reports supports the separate classification of this syndrome for which we propose the name lethal acrodysgenital dwarfism. Images PMID:2831368

  17. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale…

  18. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry. PMID:16129826

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Amish lethal microcephaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs in approximately 1 in 500 newborns in the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania. It has not been found outside this population. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why ... in the SLC25A19 gene cause Amish lethal microcephaly . The SLC25A19 ...

  20. The phylogenetic roots of human lethal violence.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José María; Verdú, Miguel; González-Megías, Adela; Méndez, Marcos

    2016-10-13

    The psychological, sociological and evolutionary roots of conspecific violence in humans are still debated, despite attracting the attention of intellectuals for over two millennia. Here we propose a conceptual approach towards understanding these roots based on the assumption that aggression in mammals, including humans, has a significant phylogenetic component. By compiling sources of mortality from a comprehensive sample of mammals, we assessed the percentage of deaths due to conspecifics and, using phylogenetic comparative tools, predicted this value for humans. The proportion of human deaths phylogenetically predicted to be caused by interpersonal violence stood at 2%. This value was similar to the one phylogenetically inferred for the evolutionary ancestor of primates and apes, indicating that a certain level of lethal violence arises owing to our position within the phylogeny of mammals. It was also similar to the percentage seen in prehistoric bands and tribes, indicating that we were as lethally violent then as common mammalian evolutionary history would predict. However, the level of lethal violence has changed through human history and can be associated with changes in the socio-political organization of human populations. Our study provides a detailed phylogenetic and historical context against which to compare levels of lethal violence observed throughout our history.

  1. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  2. The critical regulator of embryonic hematopoiesis, SCL, is vital in the adult for megakaryopoiesis, erythropoiesis, and lineage choice in CFU-S12.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A; Curtis, David J; Metcalf, Donald; Elefanty, Andrew G; Sourris, K; Robb, Lorraine; Gothert, Joachim R; Jane, Stephen M; Begley, C Glenn

    2003-02-04

    Gene targeting studies have shown that the transcription factor SCL is critically important for embryonic hematopoiesis, but the early lethality of SCL null mice has precluded the genetic analysis of its function in the adult. We have now generated a conditional knockout of SCL by using CreLox technology and an IFN-inducible Cre transgenic mouse. Deletion of SCL in adult mice perturbed megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis with the loss of early progenitor cells in both lineages. This led to a blunted response to the hematopoietic stress induced by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, with a persistently low platelet count and hematocrit compared with controls. In contrast, progenitors of granulocyte and macrophage lineages were not affected, even in the setting of stress. Immature progenitor cells (day 12 colony-forming unit spleen) with multilineage capacity were still present in the SCL null bone marrow, but these progenitors had lost the capacity to generate erythroid and megakaryocyte cells, and colonies were composed of only myeloid cells. These results suggest that SCL is critical for megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis, but is dispensable for production of myeloid cells during adult hematopoiesis.

  3. Correlation of Versican Expression, Accumulation, and Degradation during Embryonic Development by Quantitative Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jessica M.; Washington, Ida M.; Birkland, Timothy; Chang, Mary Y.; Frevert, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Versican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is important in embryonic development, and disruption of the versican gene is embryonically lethal in the mouse. Although several studies show that versican is increased in various organs during development, a focused quantitative study on versican expression and distribution during lung and central nervous system development in the mouse has not previously been performed. We tracked changes in versican (Vcan) gene expression and in the accumulation and degradation of versican. Vcan expression and quantitative immunohistochemistry performed from embryonic day (E) 11.5 to E15.5 showed peak Vcan expression at E13.5 in the lungs and brain. Quantitative mRNA analysis and versican immunohistochemistry showed differences in the expression of the versican isoforms in the embryonic lung and head. The expression of Vcan mRNA and accumulation of versican in tissues was complementary. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated co-localization of versican accumulation and degradation, suggesting distinct roles of versican deposition and degradation in embryogenesis. Very little versican mRNA or protein was found in the lungs of 12- to 16-week-old mice but versican accumulation was significantly increased in mice with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. These data suggest that versican plays an important role in fundamental, overlapping cellular processes in lung development and infection. PMID:26385570

  4. NFκB signaling regulates embryonic and adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Yonggang; HU, Wenhui

    2013-01-01

    Both embryonic and adult neurogenesis involves the self-renewal/proliferation, survival, migration and lineage differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. Such dynamic process is tightly regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors and complex signaling pathways. Misregulated neurogenesis contributes much to a large range of neurodevelopmental defects and neurodegenerative diseases. The signaling of NFκB regulates many genes important in inflammation, immunity, cell survival and neural plasticity. During neurogenesis, NFκB signaling mediates the effect of numerous niche factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules, but also crosstalks with other signaling pathways such as Notch, Shh, Wnt/β-catenin. This review summarizes current progress on the NFκB signaling in all aspects of neurogenesis, focusing on the novel role of NFκB signaling in initiating early neural differentiation of neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells. PMID:24324484

  5. The ‘Ventral Organs’ of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) Are Neurogenic Niches of Late Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Nervous System Development

    PubMed Central

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions – traditionally designated as ‘ventral organs’ – detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons – as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient

  6. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Clarkson, Edward D; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-01

    Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc) route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  7. Derivation, propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Conley, Brock J; Young, Julia C; Trounson, Alan O; Mollard, Richard

    2004-04-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are in vitro cultivated pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the embryonic blastocyst. Attesting to their pluripotency, ES cells can be differentiated into representative derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm) both in vitro and in vivo. Although mouse ES cells have been studied for many years, human ES cells have only more recently been derived and successfully propagated. Many biochemical differences and culture requirements between mouse and human ES cells have been described, yet despite these differences the study of murine ES cells has provided important insights into methodologies aimed at generating a greater and more in depth understanding of human ES cell biology. One common feature of both mouse and human ES cells is their capacity to undergo controlled differentiation into spheroid structures termed embryoid bodies (EBs). EBs recapitulate several aspects of early development, displaying regional-specific differentiation programs into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, EB formation has been utilised as an initial step in a wide range of studies aimed at differentiating both mouse and human ES cells into a specific and desired cell type. Recent reports utilising specific growth factor combinations and cell-cell induction systems have provided alternative strategies for the directed differentiation of cells into a desired lineage. According to each one of these strategies, however, a relatively high cell lineage heterogeneity remains, necessitating subsequent purification steps including mechanical dissection, selective media or fluorescent or magnetic activated cell sorting (FACS and MACS, respectively). In the future, the ability to specifically direct differentiation of human ES cells at 100% efficiency into a desired lineage will allow us to fully explore the potential of these cells in the analysis of early human development, drug

  8. Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    will be analyzed. If the patient requires a BSL-4 patient care room, he or she must be transported to the US Army Medical Research Institute of...consists of a physician, a registered nurse, and 4 to 6 medics who can manage one patient (Figure 2). The team can provide emer- gency care, such as airway...CLINICAL DECISIONS Section Editor: Colleen Swartz, RN, MSN, CCRN Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections Q If a trauma patient is

  9. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) Reference Book

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Array (DSLA) 7 Navy Anti- Swimmer Grenade 7 CP DEVELOPMENTAL NLW Improved Flash Bang Grenade (IFBG) 8 Airburst Non-Lethal Munitions (ANLM) 8...to take all feasible precautions to avoid the incidence of permanent blindness to unenhanced vision training . Frequently Asked Questions iv v...deliver an electro-muscular disruption charge out to 35 feet to disable resistant individuals. This device enhances force protection and mission

  11. Complement component 5 promotes lethal thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Yoshioka, Kengo; Mizuno, Masashi; Shimizu, Mie; Nagano, Fumihiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Imai, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular histones promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis; this is followed by induction of coagulation disorder, which results in exhaustion of coagulation factors. Complement component 5 (C5) is known to be associated with platelet aggregation and coagulation system activation. To date, the pathological mechanism underlying liver injury has remained unclear. Here, we investigated whether C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice received single tail vein injections of purified, unfractionated histones obtained from calf thymus (45–75 μg/g). Subsequently, the mice were monitored for survival for up to 72 h. Based on the survival data, the 45 μg/g dose was used for analysis of blood cell count, liver function, blood coagulation ability, and promotion of platelet aggregation and platelet/leukocyte aggregate (PLA) production by extracellular histones. C5-deficient mice were protected from lethal thrombosis and had milder thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, and liver injury with embolism and lower PLA production than C5-sufficient mice. These results indicate that C5 is associated with coagulation disorders, PLA production, and embolism-induced liver injury. In conclusion, C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. PMID:28205538

  12. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin. PMID:26018668

  13. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  14. Relationship between delayed embryonic development and metabolic factors and fat deposition in fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Arnab; Meenakumari, K J; Krishna, Amitabh

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in the fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx, which breeds twice in quick succession at Varanasi, India. Its gestation period varies significantly in the two successive pregnancies of the year owing to delayed embryonic development during the first (winter) pregnancy. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of metabolic factors in delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat C. sphinx. Variation in bodyweight, fat deposition, oxygen (O(2)) consumption rate, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body temperature (Tb) and hepatic succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, along with circulating levels of thyroid hormones (tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine), were examined as metabolic factors during the two successive pregnancies in C. sphinx. The increase in bodyweight observed in November was due to accumulation of white adipose tissue in the posterior abdominal region. A significant decline in O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity was found in early winter in November-December, which coincides closely with the period of fat accumulation and with the period of delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. A significantly higher O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity was noted during the second pregnancy in, when embryonic development was relatively faster. Thyroid hormone levels were high during the period of embryonic delay compared with levels during the remaining months. The results of the present study suggest that the delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx during early winter may be due to a low O(2) consumption rate, BMR, Tb and SDH activity in November-December. The energy saved by suppressing embryonic development in this species may be advantageous for fat accumulation. Increased thyroid hormone levels during the early winter period might facilitate fat accumulation in C. sphinx.

  15. PLU-1/JARID1B/KDM5B is required for embryonic survival and contributes to cell proliferation in the mammary gland and in ER+ breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Steven; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Hall, Debbie; Santangelo, Samantha; Rosewell, Ian; Guenatri, Mounia; Beatson, Richard; Scibetta, Angelo G; Burchell, Joy M; Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce

    2011-05-01

    The four members of the JARID1/KDM5 family of proteins, a sub-group of the larger ARID (AT rich DNA binding domain) family, have been shown to demethylate trimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me3), a chromatin mark associated with actively transcribed genes. In some lower organisms a single homologue of JARID1 is found, and functions of the four proteins found in mice and humans may be specific or overlapping. To investigate the function of the Jarid1B protein we examined the effects of deletion of the gene in mice. Systemic knock out of Jarid1b resulted in early embryonic lethality, whereas mice not expressing the related Jarid1A gene are viable and fertile. A second mouse strain expressing a Jarid1b gene with the ARID domain deleted was viable and fertile but displayed a mammary phenotype, where terminal end bud development and side branching was delayed at puberty and in early pregnancy. Since development of terminal end buds are completely dependent on signalling from the estrogen receptor (ERα), we investigated the expression of a target gene (progesterone receptor) in the ∆ARID mouse and found levels to be reduced as compared to wild-type. JARID1B is widely expressed in ER+ breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines, and interaction with ERα was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitations in cells transfected with tagged ERα and JARID1B genes. Down-regulation of expression of JARID1B using shRNAi in MCF-7 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in E2 stimulated tumour growth in nude mice. The data demonstrate a specific role for Jarid1B in early embryonic development, in the development and differentiation of the normal mammary gland, and in estrogen induced growth of ER+ breast cancer.

  16. Measurement of wall shear stress in chick embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhenhe; Dou, Shidan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Suo, Yanyan; Wang, Fengwen

    2015-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. To study the mechanism, WSS measurement is a step with significant importance. WSS is caused by blood flow imposed on the inner surface of the heart wall and it can be determined by calculating velocity gradients of blood flow in a direction perpendicular to the wall. However, the WSS of the early stage embryonic heart is difficult to measure since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is uniquely suitable for the study of early stage embryonic heart development. In this paper, we introduce a method to measure the WSS of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. After phase synchronization, OFT boundary segmentation, and OFT center line calculation, Doppler angle of the blood flow in the OFT can be achieved (This method has been described in previous publications). Combining with the Doppler OCT results, we calculate absolute blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT. The boundary of the OFT was segmented at each cross-sectional structural image, then geometrical center of the OFT can be calculated. Thus, the gradients of blood flow in radial direction can be calculated. This velocity gradient near the wall is termed wall shear rate and the WSS value is proportional to the wall shear rate. Based on this method, the WSS at different heart beating phase are compare. The result demonstrates that OCT is capable of early stage chicken embryonic heart WSS study.

  17. Kcnh1 Voltage-gated Potassium Channels Are Essential for Early Zebrafish Development*

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Rayk; Rivera-Milla, Eric; Sahoo, Nirakar; Ebert, Christina; Bollig, Frank; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Schönherr, Roland; Englert, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The Kcnh1 gene encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel highly expressed in neurons and involved in tumor cell proliferation, yet its physiological roles remain unclear. We have used the zebrafish as a model to analyze Kcnh1 function in vitro and in vivo. We found that the kcnh1 gene is duplicated in teleost fish (i.e. kcnh1a and kcnh1b) and that both genes are maternally expressed during early development. In adult zebrafish, kcnh1a and kcnh1b have distinct expression patterns but share expression in brain and testis. Heterologous expression of both genes in Xenopus oocytes revealed a strong conservation of characteristic functional properties between human and fish channels, including a unique sensitivity to intracellular Ca2+/calmodulin and modulation of voltage-dependent gating by extracellular Mg2+. Using a morpholino antisense approach, we demonstrate a strong kcnh1 loss-of-function phenotype in developing zebrafish, characterized by growth retardation, delayed hindbrain formation, and embryonic lethality. This late phenotype was preceded by transcriptional up-regulation of known cell-cycle inhibitors (p21, p27, cdh2) and down-regulation of pro-proliferative factors, including cyclin D1, at 70% epiboly. These results reveal an unanticipated basic activity of kcnh1 that is crucial for early embryonic development and patterning. PMID:22927438

  18. Multi-locus phylogeny of lethal amanitas: Implications for species diversity and historical biogeography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lethal amanitas (Amanita section Phalloideae) are a group of wild, fatal mushrooms causing many poisoning cases worldwide. However, the diversity and evolutionary history of these lethal mushrooms remain poorly known due to the limited sampling and insufficient gene fragments employed for phylogenetic analyses. In this study, five gene loci (nrLSU, ITS, rpb2, ef1-α and β-tubulin) with a widely geographic sampling from East and South Asia, Europe, North and Central America, South Africa and Australia were analysed with maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Biochemical analyses were also conducted with intention to detect amatoxins and phalloidin in 14 representative samples. Result Lethal amanitas were robustly supported to be a monophyletic group after excluding five species that were provisionally defined as lethal amanitas based on morphological studies. In lethal amanitas, 28 phylogenetic species were recognised by integrating molecular phylogenetic analyses with morphological studies, and 14 of them represented putatively new species. The biochemical analyses indicated a single origin of cyclic peptide toxins (amatoxins and phalloidin) within Amanita and suggested that this kind of toxins seemed to be a synapomorphy of lethal amanitas. Molecular dating through BEAST and biogeographic analyses with LAGRANGE and RASP indicated that lethal amanitas most likely originated in the Palaeotropics with the present crown group dated around 64.92 Mya in the early Paleocene, and the East Asia–eastern North America or Eurasia–North America–Central America disjunct distribution patterns were primarily established during the middle Oligocene to Miocene. Conclusion The cryptic diversity found in this study indicates that the species diversity of lethal amanitas is strongly underestimated under the current taxonomy. The intercontinental sister species or sister groups relationships among East Asia and eastern North America or

  19. Targeted Disruption of Mouse Yin Yang 1 Transcription Factor Results in Peri-Implantation Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Mary E.; Zhang, Xiaolin; McGinnis, Lynda; Biggers, John; Li, En; Shi, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor and a target of viral oncoproteins. To determine the biological role of YY1 in mammalian development, we generated mice deficient for YY1 by gene targeting. Homozygosity for the mutated YY1 allele results in embryonic lethality in the mouse. YY1 mutants undergo implantation and induce uterine decidualization but rapidly degenerate around the time of implantation. A subset of YY1 heterozygote embryos are developmentally retarded and exhibit neurulation defects, suggesting that YY1 may have additional roles during later stages of mouse embryogenesis. Our studies demonstrate an essential function for YY1 in the development of the mouse embryo. PMID:10490658

  20. Synthetic Lethal Networks for Precision Oncology: Promises and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shen, John Paul; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-19

    Synthetic lethal interactions, in which the simultaneous loss-of-function of two genes produces a lethal phenotype, are being explored as a means to therapeutically exploit cancer-specific vulnerabilities and expand the scope of precision oncology. Currently, three FDA approved drugs work by targeting the synthetic lethal interaction between BRCA1/2 and PARP. This review examines additional efforts to discover networks of synthetic lethal interactions and discusses both challenges and opportunities regarding the translation of new synthetic lethal interactions into the clinic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Mechanisms of embryonic stomach development.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Kyle W; Wells, James M

    2017-06-01

    The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach. Here we will review the literature that has shaped our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate gastric organogenesis. Further we will discuss how developmental paradigms have guided recent efforts to differentiate stomach tissue from pluripotent stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Embryonic stem cells. Future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Groebner, M; David, R; Franz, W M

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are able to differentiate into any cell type, and therefore represent an excellent source for cellular replacement therapies in the case of widespread diseases, for example heart failure, diabetes, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. A major prerequisite for their efficient and safe clinical application is the availability of pure populations for direct cell transplantation or tissue engineering as well as the immunological compatibility of the transplanted cells. The expression of human surface markers under the control of cell type specific promoters represents a promising approach for the selection of cardiomyocytes and other cell types for therapeutic applications. The first human clinical trial using ES cells will start in the United States this year.

  3. Developmental staging of male murine embryonic gonad by SAGE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Li, Yunmin; Alba, Diana; Vong, Queenie P.; Wu, Shao-Ming; Baxendale, Vanessa; Rennert, Owen M.; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2012-01-01

    Despite the identification of key genes such as Sry integral to embryonic gonadal development, the genomic classification and identification of chromosomal activation of this process is still poorly understood. To better understand the genetic regulation of gonadal development, we performed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to profile the genes and novel transcripts, and an average of 152,000 tags from male embryonic gonads at E10.5 (embryonic day 10.5), E11.5, E12.5, E13.5, E15.5 and E17.5 were analyzed. A total of 275,583 non-singleton tags that do not map to any annotated sequence were identified in the six gonad libraries, and 47,255 tags were mapped to 24,975 annotated sequences, among which 987 sequences were uncharacterized. Utilizing an unsupervised pattern identification technique, we established molecular staging of male gonadal development. Rather than providing a static descriptive analysis, we developed algorithms to cluster the SAGE data and assign SAGE tags to a corresponding chromosomal position; these data are displayed in chromosome graphic format. A prominent increase in global genomic activity from E10.5 to E17.5 was observed. Important chromosomal regions related to the developmental processes were identified and validated based on established mouse models with developmental disorders. These regions may represent markers for early diagnosis for disorders of male gonad development as well as potential treatment targets. PMID:19376482

  4. Hematopoietic cell differentiation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew and potentially differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature hematopoietic cells in the presence of a suitable culture system. Establishment of pluripotent stem cells provides a comprehensive model to study early hematopoietic development and has emerged as a powerful research tool to explore regenerative medicine. Nowadays, HSC transplantation and hematopoietic cell transfusion have successfully cured some patients, especially in malignant hematological diseases. Owing to a shortage of donors and a limited number of the cells, hematopoietic cell induction from pluripotent stem cells has been regarded as an alternative source of HSCs and mature hematopoietic cells for intended therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells are therefore extensively utilized to facilitate better understanding in hematopoietic development by recapitulating embryonic development in vivo, in which efficient strategies can be easily designed and deployed for the generation of hematopoietic lineages in vitro. We hereby review the current progress of hematopoietic cell induction from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23796405

  5. Rac1 modulates cardiomyocyte adhesion during mouse embryonic development

    SciT

    Abu-Issa, Radwan, E-mail: rabuissa@umich.edu

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Conditional knockout of Rac1 using Nkx2.5 Cre line is lethal at E13.5. • The myocardium of the mutant is thin and disorganized. • The phenotype is not due to cardiomyocyte low proliferation or apoptosis. • The phenotype is due to specific defect in cardiomyocyte adhesion. - Abstract: Rac1, a member of the Rho subfamily of small GTPases, is involved in morphogenesis and differentiation of many cell types. Here we define a role of Rac1 in cardiac development by specifically deleting Rac1 in the pre-cardiac mesoderm using the Nkx2.5-Cre transgenic driver line. Rac1-conditional knockout embryos initiate heart development normallymore » until embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5); their cardiac mesoderm is specified, and the heart tube is formed and looped. However, by E12.5-E13.5 the mutant hearts start failing and embryos develop edema and hemorrhage which is probably the cause for the lethality observed soon after. The hearts of Rac1-cKO embryos exhibit disorganized and thin myocardial walls and defects in outflow tract alignment. No significant differences of cardiomyocyte death or proliferation were found between developing control and mutant embryos. To uncover the role of Rac1 in the heart, E11.5 primary heart cells were cultured and analyzed in vitro. Rac1-deficient cardiomyocytes were less spread, round and loosely attached to the substrate and to each other implying that Rac1-mediated signaling is required for appropriate cell–cell and/or cellmatrix adhesion during cardiac development.« less

  6. GLUT3 gene expression is critical for embryonic growth, brain development and survival.

    PubMed

    Carayannopoulos, Mary O; Xiong, Fuxia; Jensen, Penny; Rios-Galdamez, Yesenia; Huang, Haigen; Lin, Shuo; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-04-01

    Glucose is the primary energy source for eukaryotic cells and the predominant substrate for the brain. GLUT3 is essential for trans-placental glucose transport and highly expressed in the mammalian brain. To further elucidate the role of GLUT3 in embryonic development, we utilized the vertebrate whole animal model system of Danio rerio as a tractable system for defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms altered by impaired glucose transport and metabolism related to perturbed expression of GLUT3. The comparable orthologue of human GLUT3 was identified and the expression of this gene abrogated during early embryonic development. In a dose-dependent manner embryonic brain development was disrupted resulting in a phenotype of aberrant brain organogenesis, associated with embryonic growth restriction and increased cellular apoptosis. Rescue of the morphant phenotype was achieved by providing exogenous GLUT3 mRNA. We conclude that GLUT3 is critically important for brain organogenesis and embryonic growth. Disruption of GLUT3 is responsible for the phenotypic spectrum of embryonic growth restriction to demise and neural apoptosis with microcephaly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. GLUT3 Gene Expression is Critical for Embryonic Growth, Brain Development and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Carayannopoulos, Mary O.; Xiong, Fuxia; Jensen, Penny; Rios-Galdamez, Yesenia; Huang, Haigen; Lin, Shuo; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary energy source for eukaryotic cells and the predominant substrate for the brain. GLUT3 is essential for trans-placental glucose transport and highly expressed in the mammalian brain. To further elucidate the role of GLUT3 in embryonic development, we utilized the vertebrate whole animal model system of Danio rerio as a tractable system for defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms altered by impaired glucose transport and metabolism related to perturbed expression of GLUT3. The comparable orthologue of human GLUT3 was identified and the expression of this gene abrogated during early embryonic development. In a dose-dependent manner embryonic brain development was disrupted resulting in a phenotype of aberrant brain organogenesis, associated with embryonic growth restriction and increased cellular apoptosis. Rescue of the morphant phenotype was achieved by providing exogenous GLUT3 mRNA. We conclude that GLUT3 is critically important for brain organogenesis and embryonic growth. Disruption of GLUT3 is responsible for the phenotypic spectrum of embryonic growth restriction to demise and neural apoptosis with microcephaly. PMID:24529979

  8. Optical tracking of embryonic vertebrates behavioural responses using automated time-resolved video-microscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walpitagama, Milanga; Kaslin, Jan; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) biotest performed on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained significant popularity as a rapid and inexpensive alternative approach in chemical hazard and risk assessment. The FET was designed to evaluate acute toxicity on embryonic stages of fish exposed to the test chemical. The current standard, similar to most traditional methods for evaluating aquatic toxicity provides, however, little understanding of effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of chemical stressors. We postulate that significant environmental effects such as altered motor functions, physiological alterations reflected in heart rate, effects on development and reproduction can occur at sub-lethal concentrations well below than LC10. Behavioral studies can, therefore, provide a valuable integrative link between physiological and ecological effects. Despite the advantages of behavioral analysis development of behavioral toxicity, biotests is greatly hampered by the lack of dedicated laboratory automation, in particular, user-friendly and automated video microscopy systems. In this work we present a proof-of-concept development of an optical system capable of tracking embryonic vertebrates behavioral responses using automated and vastly miniaturized time-resolved video-microscopy. We have employed miniaturized CMOS cameras to perform high definition video recording and analysis of earliest vertebrate behavioral responses. The main objective was to develop a biocompatible embryo positioning structures that were suitable for high-throughput imaging as well as video capture and video analysis algorithms. This system should support the development of sub-lethal and behavioral markers for accelerated environmental monitoring.

  9. Lethal Forethought: Delayed Reward Discounting Differentiates High- and Low-Lethality Suicide Attempts in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Szanto, Katalin; Siegle, Greg J.; Wallace, Meredith L.; Forman, Steven D.; Sahakian, Barbara; Reynolds, Charles F.; Clark, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision to commit suicide may be impulsive, but lethal suicidal acts often involve planning and forethought. People who attempt suicide make disadvantageous decisions in other contexts, but nothing is known about the way they decide about the future. Can the willingness to postpone future gratification differentiate between individuals prone to serious, premeditated and less serious, unplanned suicidal acts? Methods Four groups of depressed participants aged 60+ made choices between smaller immediate and larger delayed monetary rewards: 15 who made high-lethality suicide attempts, 14 who made low-lethality suicide attempts, 12 who seriously contemplated suicide, and 42 people with depression but no history of suicidal thoughts. The reference group was 31 psychiatrically healthy elders. Results Individuals who had made low-lethality attempts displayed an exaggerated preference for immediate rewards compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy controls. Those who had carried out high-lethality suicide attempts were more willing to delay future rewards, compared to low-lethality attempters. Better planned suicide attempts were also associated with willingness to wait for larger rewards. These effects were unchanged after accounting for education, global cognitive function, substance use disorders, psychotropic medications, and possible brain injury from attempts. Discount rates were correlated with having debt but were not significantly associated with income, hopelessness, depressive severity, premorbid IQ, age at first attempt, or choice of violent means. Conclusions While clinicians often focus on impulsivity in patients at risk for suicide, these data suggest that identifying biological characteristics and treatments for non-impulsive suicidal older people may be even more important. PMID:21329911

  10. Gαs Relays Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Signaling to Stabilize Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin at Endothelial Junctions to Control Mouse Embryonic Vascular Integrity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ximing; Liu, Ke; Fan, Yi; Ding, Zhihao; Chen, Min; Zhu, Minyan; Weinstein, Lee S; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2015-11-20

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), controls vascular stability by stabilizing vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin junctional localization and inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms that link S1PR1 signaling to intracellular effectors remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the heterotrimeric G protein subfamily member Gαs, encoded by GNAS, acts as a relay mediator of S1PR1 signaling to control vascular integrity by stabilizing VE-cadherin at endothelial junctions. The endothelial cell-specific deletion of Gαs in mice causes early embryonic lethality with massive hemorrhage and a disorganized vasculature. The immunostaining results revealed that Gαs deletion remarkably reduces the junctional localization of VE-cadherin, whereas the mural cell coverage of the vessels is not impaired. In addition, we found that Gαs depletion blocks the S1PR1-activation induced VE-cadherin stabilization at junctions, supporting that Gαs acts downstream of S1PR1 signaling. Thus, our results demonstrate that Gαs is an essential mediator to relay S1PR1 signaling and maintain vascular integrity. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defeat mutant KRAS with synthetic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ras proteins are considered as the founding members of a large superfamily of small GTPases that control fundamental cellular functions. Mutationally activated RAS genes were discovered in human cancer cells more than 3 decades ago, but intensive efforts on Ras structure, biochemistry, function and signaling continue even now. Because mutant Ras proteins are inherently difficult to inhibit and have yet been therapeutically conquered, it was designated as “the Everest of oncogenes” in the cancer genome landscape, further promoting a “renaissance” in RAS research. Different paths to directly or indirectly targeting mutant Ras signaling are currently under investigation in the hope of finding an efficacious regimen. Inhibitors directly binding to KRASG12C to block its downstream signaling have been revealed, supporting the notion of Ras' druggability. An alternative indirect approach by targeting synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS is underway. We recently employed a synthetic lethal drug screen plus a combinatorial strategy using a panel of clinical agents and discovered that KRAS-mutant cancers were fragile to the combined inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK). The combined regimen of BI-2536 (a Plk1 inhibitor) and fasudil (a ROCK inhibitor) promoted a significant inhibition of patient-derived lung cancer xenografts and prolonged the survival of LSL-KRASG12D mice. In this commentary, we will summarize the state-of-the art for the direction of synthetic lethality, and also speculate on the future development of this approach. PMID:27463838

  12. Delayed embryonic development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Meenakumari, Karukayil J; Krishna, Amitabh

    2005-01-01

    The unusual feature of the breeding cycle of Cynopterus sphinx at Varanasi is the significant variation in gestation length of the two successive pregnancies of the year. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prolongation of the first pregnancy in C. sphinx is due to delayed embryonic development. The first (winter) pregnancy commences in late October and lasts until late March and has a gestation period of about 150 days. The second (summer) pregnancy commences in April and lasts until the end of July or early August with a gestation period of about 125 days. Changes in the size and weight of uterine cornua during the two successive pregnancies suggest retarded embryonic growth during November and December. Histological analysis during the period of retarded embryonic development in November and December showed a slow gastrulation process. The process of amniogenesis was particularly slow. When the embryos attained the early primitive streak stage, their developmental rate suddenly increased considerably. During the summer pregnancy, on the other hand, the process of gastrulation was much faster and proceeded quickly. A comparison of the pattern of embryonic development for 4 consecutive years consistently showed retarded or delayed embryonic development during November and December. The time of parturition and post-partum oestrus showed only a limited variation from 1 year to another. This suggests that delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx may function to synchronize parturition among females. The period of delayed embryonic development in this species clearly coincides with the period of fat deposition. The significance of this correlation warrants further investigation.

  13. Lethal mobilization of DDT by cowbirds

    Van Velzen, A.C.; Stiles, W.B.; Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an experimental demonstration of lethal mobilization of DDT by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and the effects of food deprivation on the distribution and loss of DDT, DDD, and DDE. The principal experimental group consisted of 20 birds fed a dietary dosage of 100 ppm of DDT for 13 days. After 2 days of full rations of untreated food, they were subjected to food restriction. Food was reduced to 43 percent of normal. Seven of the 20 birds died within 4 days. No birds died in the three control groups, treated as follows: ( 1 ) 20 birds fed 100 ppm DDT for 13 days and full rations of untreated food thereafter, (2) 20 birds fed only untreated food but subjected to food restriction, and (3) 20 birds fed full rations of untreated food throughout. In a pilot study, birds were fed 100, 200, or 300 ppm of DDT and subjected to two periods of food restriction, the first of these immediately after dosage ceased and the second 4 months later. DDT-dosed birds from all dosage levels died in each period of food restriction. Before the weight loss that accompanied food restriction, the brains of DDT-dosed birds had concentrations of DDT and DDD that were far below the lethal range. Concentrations increased rapidly to lethal levels. In these birds, DDT in carcasses decreased while DDD increased. DDT-dosed birds that died during food restriction lost 16 percent of their total body burden of DDT + DDD + DDE, 21 percent of their weight, and 81 percent of their fat. The DDT-dosed birds that were subjected to food restriction but survived lost a significantly greater proportion of their body burden of residues than similarly dosed birds not subjected to weight loss. Brain levels of DDT and DDD in birds that died during food restriction soon after dosage did not differ significantly from brain levels of birds that died in a period of food restriction 4 months after dosage. Concentrations of DDE were significantly higher in the latter group, although they were lower

  14. On the mutagenicity of methadone hydrochloride. Induced dominant lethal mutation and spermatocyte chromosomal aberrations in treated males.

    PubMed

    Badr, F M; Rabouh, S A; Badr, R S

    1979-11-01

    The mutagenicity of methadone hydrochloride was tested in male mice using the dominant lethal mutation technique and the spermatocyte test of treated mice. Male mice of C3H inbred strain received one of the following doses, 1, 2, 4 or 6 mg/kg body weight once a day for 3 consecutive days. Another group of mice served as control and received saline instead. Treated males were then mated to virgin females at 3-day intervals for a period of 45 days. Pregnant females were dissected at mid-term and the corpora lutea and intrauterine contents were recorded. The spermatocytes of treated males were examined 45-50 d after treatments with methadone and abnormal pairing configurations were scored. The methadone treatment was found to increase the rate of preimplantation deaths consistently in all post-meiotic stages with all doses used. In addition, the higher doses, 4 and 6 mg, affected spermatogonia stages. Quantitatively, the dose-response relationship cannot be demonstrated though the spectrum of effect increased with higher doses as more spermatogenesis stages became more sensitive to the treatment. In many cases the frequency of live implants showed a positive correlation with preimplantation deaths in contrast with the frequency of early deaths which showed only sporadic variation. The mutation indices based on total embryonic death indicate that methadone hydrochloride affected several stages of germ-cell maturation namely, spermatozoa (M.I. 14-35), late spermatids (M.I. 15-48), early spermatids (M.I. 14-50), late spermatocytes (M.I. 15-43) and spermatogonial stages (M.I. 12-63). Chromosome analysis at diakinesis-metaphase 1 revealed significant increase in the frequency of sex chromosome and autosome univalents with different doses of methadone. The smallest dose applied was quite effective and the data represent direct dose-response relationship. Of the multivalent configuration, the most frequent type was chain quadrivalents. The frequencies of total translocations

  15. Essential functions of the Williams-Beuren syndrome-associated TFII-I genes in embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Enkhmandakh, Badam; Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Erdenechimeg, Lkhamsuren; Ruddle, Frank H; Chimge, Nyam-Osor; Tussie-Luna, Maria Isabel; Roy, Ananda L; Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2009-01-06

    GTF2I and GTF2IRD1 encoding the multifunctional transcription factors TFII-I and BEN are clustered at the 7q11.23 region hemizygously deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a complex multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Although the biochemical properties of TFII-I family transcription factors have been studied in depth, little is known about the specialized contributions of these factors in pathways required for proper embryonic development. Here, we show that homozygous loss of either Gtf2ird1 or Gtf2i function results in multiple phenotypic manifestations, including embryonic lethality; brain hemorrhage; and vasculogenic, craniofacial, and neural tube defects in mice. Further analyses suggest that embryonic lethality may be attributable to defects in yolk sac vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Microarray data indicate that the Gtf2ird1 homozygous phenotype is mainly caused by an impairment of the genes involved in the TGFbetaRII/Alk1/Smad5 signal transduction pathway. The effect of Gtf2i inactivation on this pathway is less prominent, but downregulation of the endothelial growth factor receptor-2 gene, resulting in the deterioration of vascular signaling, most likely exacerbates the severity of the Gtf2i mutant phenotype. A subset of Gtf2ird1 and Gtf2i heterozygotes displayed microcephaly, retarded growth, and skeletal and craniofacial defects, therefore showing that haploinsufficiency of TFII-I proteins causes various developmental anomalies that are often associated with WBS.

  16. Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

    2008-12-01

    Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures.

  17. Primary Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster Does Not Rely on the Male-Specific Lethal Complex.

    PubMed

    Erickson, James W

    2016-02-01

    It has been proposed that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is active in Drosophila melanogaster embryos of both sexes prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Elevated gene expression from the two X chromosomes of female embryos is proposed to facilitate the stable establishment of Sex-lethal (Sxl) expression, which determines sex and represses further activity of the MSL complex, leaving it active only in males. Important supporting data included female-lethal genetic interactions between the seven msl genes and either Sxl or scute and sisterlessA, two of the X-signal elements (XSE) that regulate early Sxl expression. Here I report contrary findings that there are no female-lethal genetic interactions between the msl genes and Sxl or its XSE regulators. Fly stocks containing the msl3(1) allele were found to exhibit a maternal-effect interaction with Sxl, scute, and sisterlessA mutations, but genetic complementation experiments showed that msl3 is neither necessary nor sufficient for the female-lethal interactions, which appear to be due to an unidentified maternal regulator of Sxl. Published data cited as evidence for an early function of the MSL complex in females, including a maternal effect of msl2, have been reevaluated and found not to support a maternal, or other effect, of the MSL complex in sex determination. These findings suggest that the MSL complex is not involved in primary sex determination or in X chromosome dosage compensation prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Using whole mount in situ hybridization to examine thyroid hormone deiodinase expression in embryonic and larval zebrafish: a tool for examining OH-BDE toxicity to early life stages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura J; Kwok, Kevin W H; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their oxidative metabolites (hydroxylated PBDEs; OH-BDEs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants that have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation both in mammals and in fish. The purpose of this study was to determine the precise organ and tissue locations that express genes critical to thyroid hormone regulation in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio), and to determine the effects of an OH-BDE on their expression. While RT-PCR can provide quantitative data on gene expression, it lacks spatial sensitivity to examine localized gene expression; and, isolation of organs from zebrafish embryos is technically difficult, if not impossible. For this reason, the present study used whole mount in situ hybridization to simultaneously localize and quantify gene expression in vivo. While PBDEs and OH-BDEs have been shown to inhibit the activity and expression of deiodionases, a family of enzymes that regulate thyroid hormone concentrations intracellularly, it is unclear whether or not they can affect regional expression of the different isoforms during early development. In this study we investigated deiodinase 1 (Dio1), deiodinase 2 (Dio2), and deiodinase 3 (Dio3) mRNA expression at the following life stages (2, 8, and 1k-cells; 50%-epiboly, 6 and 18-somites, 22, 24, 48, 72 hpf and/or 10 dpf) in zebrafish and found life stage specific expression of these genes that were highly localized. To demonstrate the use of this technique for investigating potential endocrine disrupting effects, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100nM 6-OH-BDE-47. Significant increases in mean intensity of Dio1 and Dio3 expression in the periventricular zone of brain and pronephric duct, respectively (quantified by measuring intensity of coloration using ImageJ analysis software) were observed, suggesting localized response at the HPT axis with the possibility of impacting neurodevelopment. Our results demonstrate effects of OH-BDEs on

  19. Using Whole mount In Situ Hybridization to Examine Thyroid Hormone Deiodinase Expression in Embryonic and Larval Zebrafish: a Tool for examining OH-BDE toxicity to early life stages

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura; Kwok, Kevin WH; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their oxidative metabolites (hydroxylated PBDEs; OH-BDEs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants that have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation both in mammals and in fish. The purpose of this study was to determine the precise organ and tissue locations that express genes critical to thyroid hormone regulation in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio), and to determine the effects of an OH-BDE on their expression. While RT-PCR can provide quantitative data on gene expression, it lacks spatial sensitivity to examine localized gene expression; and, isolation of organs from zebrafish embryos is technically difficult, if not impossible. For this reason, the present study used whole mount in situ hybridization to simultaneously localize and quantify gene expression in vivo. While PBDEs and OH-BDEs have been shown to inhibit the activity and expression of deiodionases, a family of enzymes that regulate thyroid hormone concentrations intracellularly, it is unclear whether or not they can affect regional expression of the different isoforms during early development. In this study we investigated deiodinase 1 (Dio1), deiodinase 2 (Dio2), and deiodinase 3 (Dio3) mRNA expression at the following life stages (2, 8, and 1k-cells; 50%-epiboly, 6 and 18-somites, 22, 24, 48, 72 hpf and/or 10 dpf) in zebrafish and found life stage specific expression of these genes that were highly localized. To demonstrate the use of this technique for investigating potential endocrine disrupting effects, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 nM 6-OH-BDE-47. Significant increases in mean intensity of Dio1 and Dio3 expression in the periventricular zone of brain and pronephric duct, respectively (quantified by measuring intensity of coloration using ImageJ analysis software) were observed, suggesting localized response at the HPT axis with the possibility of impacting neurodevelopment. Our results demonstrate effects of OH-BDEs on

  20. Lysosome and Phagosome Stability in Lethal Cell Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Hal K.; Ericsson, Jan L. E.; Biberfeld, Peter; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1972-01-01

    In two types of cell injury in a tissue culture system, the possibility was tested that lysosome rupture may be a lethal cellular reaction to injury, and thus an important general cause of irreversibility of damage in injured tissue. Prior labeling of secondary lysosomes with the fluorochrome acridine orange, or with ferritin, was used to trace changes in lysosomes after applying an injury. The metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate and cyanide were used together to block the cell's energy supply, or attachment of antiserum and subsequent complement attack were used to damage the surface membrane, producing rapid loss of cell volume control. Living cells were studied by time-lapse phase-contrast cinemicrography and fluorescence microscopy, and samples were fixed at intervals for electron microscopy. The cytolytic action of complement was lethal to sensitized cells within 2 hours, but results showed that lysosomes did not rupture for approximately 4 hours and in fact did not release the fluorescent dye until after reaching the postmortem necrotic phase of injury. Cells treated with metabolic inhibitors also showed irreversible alterations, while lysosomes remained intact and retained the ferritin marker. The fluorochrome marker, acridine orange, escaped from lysosomes early after metabolic injury, but the significance of this observation is not clear. The results are interpreted as evidence against the concept that lysosome rupture threatens the survival of injured cells. The original suicide bag mechanism of cell damage thus is apparently not operative in the systems studied. Lysosomes appear to be relatively stable organelles which, following injury of the types studied, burst only after cell death, acting then as scavengers which help to clear cellular debris. ImagesFigs 5-7Fig 18Fig 19Fig 20Figs 21-23Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Figs 24-27Fig 12Figs 13 and 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 15Fig 16Fig 17 PMID:4340333

  1. Effects of dieldrin treatment on physiological and biochemical aspects of the toad embryonic development

    SciT

    Gauna, L.; Caballero de Castro, A.; Chifflet de Llamas, M.

    1991-04-01

    Dieldrin is a cylclodiene insecticide highly persistent in nature due to its chemical stability. The exposure of toad embryos to Dieldrin induces hyperactivity in the swimming larvae and inhibition of cholinesterases. However, the inhibition of these enzymes during early development is not life threatening. The present report provides a physiological and biochemical study of the noxious effect of Dieldrin on the toad embryonic development.

  2. In vitro fertilization, the Nobel Prize, and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, John; Coutifaris, Christos

    2011-01-07

    Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of human in vitro fertilization. His work not only provided the means to overcome many forms of infertility, but it also enabled research on early stages of human embryos and the derivation of human embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism connecting folate to healthy embryonic development and aging

    Experimental studies demonstrated that maternal environmental factors including diet during early embryonic development can influence the phenotype of offspring as well as the risk of disease development at the later life. DNA methylation, an epigenetic phenomenon, has been suggested as a mechanism ...

  4. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  5. Lethal Progressive Thoracic Insufficiency in a Neonate Due to Jarcho Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhutia, Euden; Maria, Arti; Verma, Arushi; Sethi, Sidharth Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A rare case of Jarcho Levin syndrome (JLS) presenting as a lethal progressive respiratory insufficiency in early neonatal period is reported. The neonate had classical features of this syndrome including vertebral segmentation defects, typical costo-vertebral fusion defects and scoliosis resulting in small thoracic volume and limited chest expansion; all consistent with a clinical diagnosis of JLS with thoracic insufficiency. In addition, our case had a rare association of dextrocardia and acyanotic congenital heart disease. PMID:24741543

  6. The lethal injection quandary: how medicine has dismantled the death penalty.

    PubMed

    Denno, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    On February 20, 2006, Michael Morales was hours away from execution in California when two anesthesiologists declined to participate in his lethal injection procedure, thereby halting all state executions. The events brought to the surface the long-running schism between law and medicine, raising the question of whether any beneficial connection between the professions ever existed in the execution context. History shows it seldom did. Decades of botched executions prove it. This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent--and perhaps more necessary--than many would like to believe. The Article also reports the results of this author's unique nationwide study of lethal injection protocols and medical participation. The study demonstrates that states have continued to produce grossly inadequate protocols that severely restrict sufficient understanding of how executions are performed and heighten the likelihood of unconstitutionality. The analysis emphasizes in particular the utter lack of medical or scientific testing of lethal injection despite the early and continuous involvement of doctors but ongoing detachment of medical societies. Lastly, the Article discusses the legal developments that led up to the current rush of lethal injection lawsuits as well as the strong and rapid reverberations that followed, particularly with respect to medical involvement. This Article concludes with two recommendations. First, much like what occurred in this country when the first state switched to electrocution, there should be a nationwide study of proper lethal injection protocols. An independent commission consisting of a diverse group of qualified individuals, including medical personnel, should conduct a thorough assessment of lethal injection, especially the extent of physician participation. Second, this

  7. Embryonic hematopoiesis under microscopic observation.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Anna; Robin, Catherine

    2017-08-15

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are at the origin of adult hematopoiesis, providing an organism with all blood cell types needed throughout life. During embryonic development a first wave of hematopoiesis (independent of HSCs) allows the survival and growth of the embryo until birth. A second wave of hematopoiesis that will last into adulthood depends on the production of HSCs that begins at mid-gestation in large arteries such as the aorta. HSC production occurs through a hemogenic endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT) process and the formation of hematopoietic clusters in most vertebrate species. Advances in understanding EHT, cluster formation and HSC production were triggered by combined progresses made in the development of in vivo assays, microscopy, imaging and fluorescence tools. Here, we review the current knowledge on developmental hematopoiesis with a focus on the first step of HSC production in the aorta and how microscopic approaches have contributed to a better understanding of the vital process of blood cell formation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Luigi; Naveiras, Olaia; Wenzel, Pamela L.; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon; Mack, Peter J.; Gracia-Sancho, Jorge; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Lensch, M. William; Yoder, Mervin C.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system1,2. After initiation of the heartbeat in vertebrates, cells lining the ventral aspect of the dorsal aorta, the placental vessels, and the umbilical and vitelline arteries initiate expression of the transcription factor Runx1 (refs 3–5), a master regulator of haematopoiesis, and give rise to haematopoietic cells4. It remains unknown whether the biomechanical forces imposed on the vascular wall at this developmental stage act as a determinant of haematopoietic potential6. Here, using mouse embryonic stem cells differentiated in vitro, we show that fluid shear stress increases the expression of Runx1 in CD41+c-Kit+ haematopoietic progenitor cells7,concomitantly augmenting their haematopoietic colony-forming potential. Moreover, we find that shear stress increases haematopoietic colony-forming potential and expression of haematopoietic markers in the paraaortic splanchnopleura/aorta–gonads–mesonephros of mouse embryos and that abrogation of nitric oxide, a mediator of shear-stress-induced signalling8, compromises haematopoietic potential in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role for biomechanical forces in haematopoietic development. PMID:19440194

  9. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  10. Genetic control of cuticle formation during embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Stephen; Dierick, Herman A; Bejsovec, Amy

    2002-01-01

    The embryonic cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster is deposited by the epidermal epithelium during stage 16 of development. This tough, waterproof layer is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the larval body. We have characterized mutations in a set of genes required for proper deposition and/or morphogenesis of the cuticle. Zygotic disruption of any one of these genes results in embryonic lethality. Mutant embryos are hyperactive within the eggshell, resulting in a high proportion reversed within the eggshell (the "retroactive" phenotype), and all show poor cuticle integrity when embryos are mechanically devitellinized. This last property results in embryonic cuticle preparations that appear grossly inflated compared to wild-type cuticles (the "blimp" phenotype). We find that one of these genes, krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv), encodes the Drosophila chitin synthase enzyme and that a closely linked gene, knickkopf (knk), encodes a novel protein that shows genetic interaction with the Drosophila E-cadherin, shotgun. We also demonstrate that two other known mutants, grainy head (grh) and retroactive (rtv), show the blimp phenotype when devitellinized, and we describe a new mutation, called zeppelin (zep), that shows the blimp phenotype but does not produce defects in the head cuticle as the other mutations do. PMID:12019232

  11. Innovative virtual reality measurements for embryonic growth and development.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd-Dikkeboom, C M; Koning, A H J; Hop, W C; van der Spek, P J; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P

    2010-06-01

    Innovative imaging techniques, using up-to-date ultrasonic equipment, necessitate specific biometry. The aim of our study was to test the possibility of detailed human embryonic biometry using a virtual reality (VR) technique. In a longitudinal study, three-dimensional (3D) measurements were performed from 6 to 14 weeks gestational age in 32 pregnancies (n = 16 spontaneous conception, n = 16 IVF/ICSI). A total of 125 3D volumes were analysed in the I-Space VR system, which allows binocular depth perception, providing a realistic 3D illusion. Crown-rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC) were measured as well as arm length, shoulder width, elbow width, hip width and knee width. CRL, BPD, OFD and HC could be measured in more than 96% of patients, and AC in 78%. Shoulder width, elbow width, hip width and knee width could be measured in more than 95% of cases, and arm length in 82% of cases. Growth curves were constructed for all variables. Ear and foot measurements were only possible beyond 9 weeks gestation. This study provides a detailed, longitudinal description of normal human embryonic growth, facilitated by a VR system. Growth curves were created for embryonic biometry of the CRL, BPD, HC and AC early in pregnancy and also of several 'new' biometric measurements. Applying virtual embryoscopy will enable us to diagnose growth and/or developmental delay earlier and more accurately. This is especially important for pregnancies at risk of severe complications, such as recurrent late miscarriage and early growth restriction.

  12. [Embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning].

    PubMed

    Sunde, A; Eftedal, I

    2001-08-30

    Increased interest in the therapeutic use of human stem cells has emerged following significant progress in ongoing research. The cloning of a sheep, the isolation of human embryonic stem cells, and the discovery that adult stem cells may be reprogrammed taken together give substance to hopes that novel principles of treatment may be developed for a variety of serious conditions. Embryonic stem cells are derived from pre-embryos at the blastocyst stage and may give rise to all bodily tissues and cells. Animal models have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells when transplanted into adult hosts may differentiate and develop into cells and tissues applicable for treatment of a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal injuries, cardiac stroke and cancer. Transplanted embryonic stem cells are exposed to immune reactions similar to those acting on organ transplants, hence immunosuppression of the recipient is generally required. It is, however, possible to obtain embryonic stem cells that are genetically identical to the patient's own cells by means of therapeutic cloning techniques. The nucleus from a somatic cell is transferred into an egg after removal of the egg's own genetic material. Under specific condition the egg will use genetic information from the somatic cell in organising the formation of a blastocyst which in turn generates embryonic stem cells. These cells have a genetic composition identical to that of the patient and are suitable for stem cell therapy.

  13. The thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein TRAP220 is required at distinct embryonic stages in placental, cardiac, and hepatic development.

    PubMed

    Landles, Christian; Chalk, Sara; Steel, Jennifer H; Rosewell, Ian; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Lalani, El-Nasir; Parker, Malcolm G

    2003-12-01

    Recent work indicates that thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 220 (TRAP220), a subunit of the multiprotein TRAP coactivator complex, is essential for embryonic survival. We have generated TRAP220 conditional null mice that are hypomorphic and express the gene at reduced levels. In contrast to TRAP220 null mice, which die at embryonic d 11.5 (E11.5), hypomorphic mice survive until E13.5. The reduced expression in hypomorphs results in hepatic necrosis, defects in hematopoiesis, and hypoplasia of the ventricular myocardium, similar to that observed in TRAP220 null embryos at an earlier stage. The embryonic lethality of null embryos at E11.5 is due to placental insufficiency. Tetraploid aggregation assays partially rescues embryonic development until E13.5, when embryonic loss occurs due to hepatic necrosis coupled with poor myocardial development as observed in hypomorphs. These findings demonstrate that, for normal placental function, there is an absolute requirement for TRAP220 in extraembryonic tissues at E11.5, with an additional requirement in embryonic tissues for hepatic and cardiovascular development thereafter.

  14. Epigenetic modulation by TFII-I during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg; Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Enkhmandakh, Badam

    2012-10-01

    TFII-I transcription factors play an essential role during early vertebrate embryogenesis. Genome-wide mapping studies by ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip revealed that TFII-I primes multiple genomic loci in mouse embryonic stem cells and embryonic tissues. Moreover, many TFII-I-bound regions co-localize with H3K4me3/K27me3 bivalent chromatin within the promoters of lineage-specific genes. This minireview provides a summary of current knowledge regarding the function of TFII-I in epigenetic control of stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Survival of priceless cells: active and passive protection of embryonic stem cells against immune destruction.

    PubMed

    Utermöhlen, Olaf; Krönke, Martin

    2007-06-15

    This review focuses on our current knowledge of the mechanisms employed by embryonic stem (ES) cells to avoid destruction by cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ES cells have been found to shield themselves against cytotoxic effector cells by expressing CD95L and serine protease inhibitor SPI-6 mediating apoptosis of the cytotoxic cells and inactivation of granzyme B, respectively. These findings are discussed in view of their implications for using ES cell-derived transplants in regenerative medicine as well as for our understanding of early embryonic stages during invasion and implantation.

  16. Investigating the Flow and Biomechanics of the Embryonic Zebrafish Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brennan; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi

    2010-11-01

    Understanding flow and kinematic characteristics of the embryonic heart is a prerequisite to devise early intervention or detection methods in the context of congenital heart defects. In this study, the kinematics and fluid dynamics of the embryonic zebrafish heart were analyzed through the early stages of cardiac development (24-48 hours post-fertilization) in vivo using optical microscopy and high-speed video. Endocardial walls and individual blood cells were segmented from raw images and were tracked through the cardiac cycle. Particle tracking velocimetry analysis yielded quantitative blood cell velocity field, chamber volume, and flow rate information. It was seen that the pumping mechanism starts as a combined peristaltic and suction pump while the heart is in the tube configuration and transforms into a positive displacement pump after cardiac looping. Strong two-phase nature of the fluid is evident. This work provides us new understanding of the spatio-temporal characteristics of kinematics and blood cell velocity field inside the developing heart.

  17. Embryonic Origins of the Mouse Superior Olivary Complex

    PubMed Central

    Howell, David M.; Spirou, George A.; Mathers, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Many areas of the central nervous system are organized into clusters of cell groups, with component cell groups exhibiting diverse but related functions. One such cluster, the superior olivary complex (SOC), is located in the ventral auditory brainstem in mammals. The SOC is an obligatory contact point for most projection neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus and plays central roles in many aspects of monaural and binaural information processing. Despite their important interrelated functions, little is known about the embryonic origins of SOC nuclei, due in part to a paucity of developmental markers to distinguish individual cell groups. In this report, we present a collection of novel markers for the developing SOC nuclei in mice, including the transcription factors FoxP1, MafB, and Sox2, and the lineage-marking transgenic line En1-Cre. We use these definitive markers to examine the rhombic lip and rhombomeric origins of SOC nuclei and demonstrate that they can serve to uniquely identify SOC nuclei and subnuclei in newborn pups. The markers are also useful in identifying distinct nuclear domains within the presumptive SOC as early as embryonic day (E) 14.5, well before morphological distinction of individual nuclei is evident. These findings indicate that the mediolateral and dorsoventral position of SOC nuclei characteristic of the adult brainstem is established during early neurogenesis. PMID:23303740

  18. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  19. Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael

    1997-12-01

    Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

  20. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    PubMed

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Controversies in cancer stem cells: targeting embryonic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Naoko; Ivy, S Percy

    2010-06-15

    Selectively targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; from this point onward referred to as CSCs) with novel agents is a rapidly emerging field of oncology. Our knowledge of CSCs and their niche microenvironments remains a nascent field. CSC's critical dependence upon self-renewal makes these regulatory signaling pathways ripe for the development of experimental therapeutic agents. Investigational agents targeting the Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt pathways are currently in late preclinical development stages, with some early phase 1-2 testing in human subjects. This series of articles will provide an overview and summary of the current state of knowledge of CSCs, their interactive microenvironment, and how they may serve as important targets for antitumor therapies. We also examine the scope and stage of development of early experimental agents that specifically target these highly conserved embryonic signaling pathways. (c) 2010 AACR.

  2. Assessment of diclofenac LC50 reference values in juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praskova, E; Voslarova, E; Siroka, Z; Plhalova, L; Macova, S; Marsalek, P; Pistekova, V; Svobodova, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the acute toxicity of diclofenac to juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity tests were performed on the aquarium fish Danio rerio, which is one of the model organisms most commonly used in toxicity testing. The tests were performed using a semi-static method according to OECD guideline No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test). Embryo toxicity tests were performed in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) in compliance with OECD No. 212 methodology (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages). The results were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 programme to determine 96hLC50 and 144hLC50 (median lethal concentration, 50% mortality after a 96 h or 144 h interval, respectively) values of diclofenac. The statistical significance of the difference between LC50 values in juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test implemented in the Unistat 5.1 programme. The LC50 mean value of diclofenac was 166.6 +/- 9.8 mg/L in juvenile Danio rerio, and 6.11 +/- 2.48 mg/L in embryonic stages of Danio rerio. The study demonstrated a statistically higher sensitivity to diclofenac (P < 0.05) in embryonic stages compared to the juvenile fish.

  3. Microfluidic-based patterning of embryonic stem cells for in vitro development studies.

    PubMed

    Suri, Shalu; Singh, Ankur; Nguyen, Anh H; Bratt-Leal, Andres M; McDevitt, Todd C; Lu, Hang

    2013-12-07

    In vitro recapitulation of mammalian embryogenesis and examination of the emerging behaviours of embryonic structures require both the means to engineer complexity and accurately assess phenotypes of multicellular aggregates. Current approaches to study multicellular populations in 3D configurations are limited by the inability to create complex (i.e. spatially heterogeneous) environments in a reproducible manner with high fidelity thus impeding the ability to engineer microenvironments and combinations of cells with similar complexity to that found during morphogenic processes such as development, remodelling and wound healing. Here, we develop a multicellular embryoid body (EB) fusion technique as a higher-throughput in vitro tool, compared to a manual assembly, to generate developmentally relevant embryonic patterns. We describe the physical principles of the EB fusion microfluidic device design; we demonstrate that >60 conjoined EBs can be generated overnight and emulate a development process analogous to mouse gastrulation during early embryogenesis. Using temporal delivery of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) to embryoid bodies, we recapitulate embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) during mouse embryo development with induced mesoderm differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells leading to expression of Brachyury-T-green fluorescent protein (T-GFP), an indicator of primitive streak development and mesoderm differentiation during gastrulation. The proposed microfluidic approach could be used to manipulate hundreds or more of individual embryonic cell aggregates in a rapid fashion, thereby allowing controlled differentiation patterns in fused multicellular assemblies to generate complex yet spatially controlled microenvironments.

  4. Microfluidic-based patterning of embryonic stem cells for in vitro development studies

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Shalu; Singh, Ankur; Nguyen, Anh H.; Bratt-Leal, Andres M.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro recapitulation of mammalian embryogenesis and examination of the emerging behaviours of embryonic structures require both the means to engineer complexity and accurately assess phenotypes of multicellular aggregates. Current approaches to study multicellular populations in 3D configurations are limited by the inability to create complex (i.e. spatially heterogeneous) environments in a reproducible manner with high fidelity thus impeding the ability to engineer microenvironments and combinations of cells with similar complexity to that found during morphogenic processes such as development, remodelling and wound healing. Here, we develop a multicellular embryoid body (EB) fusion technique as a higher-throughput in vitro tool, compared to a manual assembly, to generate developmentally relevant embryonic patterns. We describe the physical principles of the EB fusion microfluidic device design; we demonstrate that >60 conjoined EBs can be generated overnight and emulate a development process analogous to mouse gastrulation during early embryogenesis. Using temporal delivery of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) to embryoid bodies, we recapitulate embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) during mouse embryo development with induced mesoderm differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells leading to expression of Brachyury-T-green fluorescent protein (T-GFP), an indicator of primitive streak development and mesoderm differentiation during gastrulation. The proposed microfluidic approach could be used to manipulate hundreds or more of individual embryonic cell aggregates in a rapid fashion, thereby allowing controlled differentiation patterns in fused multicellular assemblies to generate complex yet spatially controlled microenvironments. PMID:24113509

  5. Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases Neurogenic Activity in the Brain Ventricular-Subventricular Zone of Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Maria I.; Lamus, Francisco; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, Jose A.; de la Mano, Anibal; Fernández, Jose M. F.; Desmond, Mary E.; Gato, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a very intensive process during early embryonic brain development, becoming dramatically restricted in the adult brain in terms of extension and intensity. We have previously demonstrated the key role of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in developing brain neurogenic activity. We also showed that cultured adult brain neural stem cells (NSCs) remain competent when responding to the neurogenic influence of embryonic CSF. However, adult CSF loses its neurogenic inductive properties. Here, by means of an organotypic culture of adult mouse brain sections, we show that local administration of embryonic CSF in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche is able to trigger a neurogenic program in NSCs. This leads to a significant increase in the number of non-differentiated NSCs, and also in the number of new neurons which show normal migration, differentiation and maturation. These new data reveal that embryonic CSF activates adult brain NSCs, supporting the previous idea that it contains key instructive components which could be useful in adult brain neuroregenerative strategies. PMID:29311854

  6. Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Increases Neurogenic Activity in the Brain Ventricular-Subventricular Zone of Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Maria I; Lamus, Francisco; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, Jose A; de la Mano, Anibal; Fernández, Jose M F; Desmond, Mary E; Gato, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a very intensive process during early embryonic brain development, becoming dramatically restricted in the adult brain in terms of extension and intensity. We have previously demonstrated the key role of embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in developing brain neurogenic activity. We also showed that cultured adult brain neural stem cells (NSCs) remain competent when responding to the neurogenic influence of embryonic CSF. However, adult CSF loses its neurogenic inductive properties. Here, by means of an organotypic culture of adult mouse brain sections, we show that local administration of embryonic CSF in the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche is able to trigger a neurogenic program in NSCs. This leads to a significant increase in the number of non-differentiated NSCs, and also in the number of new neurons which show normal migration, differentiation and maturation. These new data reveal that embryonic CSF activates adult brain NSCs, supporting the previous idea that it contains key instructive components which could be useful in adult brain neuroregenerative strategies.

  7. Differentiation and Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Basma, Hesham; Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Liu, Liping; Ito, Ryotaro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ellis, Ewa; Carson, Steven D.; Sato, Shintaro; Chen, Yong; Muirhead, David; Navarro-Álvarez, Nalu; Wong, Ron; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Platt, Jeffrey L.; Mercer, David F.; Miller, John D.; Strom, Stephen C.; Kobayashi, Noaya; Fox, Ira J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims The ability to obtain unlimited numbers of human hepatocytes would improve development of cell-based therapies for liver diseases, facilitate the study of liver biology and improve the early stages of drug discovery. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, can potentially differentiate into any cell type and could therefore be developed as a source of human hepatocytes. Methods To generate human hepatocytes, human embryonic stem cells were differentiated by sequential culture in fibroblast growth factor 2 and human Activin-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and dexamethasone. Functional hepatocytes were isolated by sorting for surface asialoglycoprotein receptor expression. Characterization was performed by real-time PCR, imunohistochemistry, immunoblot, functional assays and transplantation. Results Embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes expressed liver-specific genes but not genes representing other lineages, secreted functional human liver-specific proteins similar to those of primary human hepatocytes and demonstrated human hepatocyte cytochrome P450 metabolic activity. Serum from rodents given injections of embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes contained significant amounts of human albumin and alpha-1-antitrypsin. Colonies of cytokeratin-18 and human albumin-expressing cells were present in the livers of recipient animals. Conclusion Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into cells with many characteristics of primary human hepatocytes. Hepatocyte-like cells can be enriched and recovered based on asialoglycoprotein receptor expression and could potentially be used in drug discovery research and developed as therapeutics. PMID:19026649

  8. Zika Virus Selectively Kills Aggressive Human Embryonal CNS Tumor Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kaid, Carolini; Goulart, Ernesto; Caires-Júnior, Luiz C; Araujo, Bruno H S; Soares-Schanoski, Alessandra; Bueno, Heloisa M S; Telles-Silva, Kayque A; Astray, Renato M; Assoni, Amanda F; Júnior, Antônio F R; Ventini, Daniella C; Puglia, Ana L P; Gomes, Roselane P; Zatz, Mayana; Okamoto, Oswaldo K

    2018-06-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is largely known for causing brain abnormalities due to its ability to infect neural progenitor stem cells during early development. Here, we show that ZIKV is also capable of infecting and destroying stem-like cancer cells from aggressive human embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). When evaluating the oncolytic properties of Brazilian Zika virus strain (ZIKV BR ) against human breast, prostate, colorectal, and embryonal CNS tumor cell lines, we verified a selective infection of CNS tumor cells followed by massive tumor cell death. ZIKV BR was more efficient in destroying embryonal CNS tumorspheres than normal stem cell neurospheres. A single intracerebroventricular injection of ZIKV BR in BALB/c nude mice bearing orthotopic human embryonal CNS tumor xenografts resulted in a significantly longer survival, decreased tumor burden, fewer metastasis, and complete remission in some animals. Tumor cells closely resembling neural stem cells at the molecular level with activated Wnt signaling were more susceptible to the oncolytic effects of ZIKV BR Furthermore, modulation of Wnt signaling pathway significantly affected ZIKV BR -induced tumor cell death and viral shedding. Altogether, these preclinical findings indicate that ZIKV BR could be an efficient agent to treat aggressive forms of embryonal CNS tumors and could provide mechanistic insights regarding its oncolytic effects. Significance: Brazilian Zika virus strain kills aggressive metastatic forms of human CNS tumors and could be a potential oncolytic agent for cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 78(12); 3363-74. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Embryonic toxico-pathological effects of meglumine antimoniate using a chick embryo model.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Sharifi, Iraj; Tavakkoli, Hadi; Derakhshanfar, Amin; Keyhani, Ali Reza; Salari, Zohreh; Mosallanejad, Seyedeh Saedeh; Bamorovat, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the diverse and neglected tropical diseases. Embryo-toxicity of drugs has always been a major concern. Chick embryo is a preclinical model relevant in the assessment of adverse effects of drugs. The current study aimed to assess embryonic histopathological disorders and amniotic fluid biochemical changes following meglumine antimoniate treatment. The alteration of vascular branching pattern in the chick's extra-embryonic membrane and exploration of molecular cues to early embryonic vasculogenesis and angiogenesis were also quantified. Embryonated chicken eggs were treated with 75 or 150 mg/kg of meglumine antimoniate. Embryo malformations, growth retardation and haemorrhages on the external body surfaces were accompanied by histopathological lesions in the brain, kidney, liver and heart in a dose-dependent manner. Significant rise occurred in the biochemical indices of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and amylase in the amniotic fluid. Quantification of the extra-embryonic membrane vasculature showed that the anti-angiogenic and anti-vasculogenic effects of the drug were revealed by a significant decrease in fractal dimension value and mean capillary area. The relative expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA also significantly reduced. Concerns of a probable teratogenicity of meglumine antimoniate were established by data presented in this study. It is concluded that tissue lesions, amniotic fluid disturbance, altered early extra-embryonic vascular development and gene expression as well as the consecutive cascade of events, might eventually lead to developmental defects in embryo following meglumine antimoniate treatment. Therefore, the use of meglumine antimoniate during pregnancy should be considered as potentially embryo-toxic. Hence, physicians should be aware of such teratogenic effects and limit the use of this drug

  10. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  11. PARP inhibition as a prototype for synthetic lethal screens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    Although DNA damaging chemotherapy and radiation therapy remain the main stay of current treatments for cancer patient, these therapies usually have toxic side effect and narrow therapeutic window. One of the challenges in cancer drug discovery is how to identify drugs that selectively kill cancer cells while leaving the normal cell intact. Recently, synthetic lethality has been applied to cancer drug discovery in various settings, and has become a promising approach for identifying novel agents for the treatment of cancer. A prototypical example is the synthetic lethal interaction between PARP inhibition and BRCA deficiency. PARP inhibitors represent the most advanced clinical agents targeting specifically DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. In this chapter, I will review the molecular mechanism for this synthetic lethality and the clinical applications for PARP inhibitors. I will also discuss the formats of synthetic lethal screens, current progress on the utilization of these screens, and some of the advantages and challenges of synthetic lethal screens in cancer drug discovery.

  12. Scaffolding for Three-Dimensional Embryonic Vasculogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Aday, Sezin; Ferreira, Lino S.

    Biomaterial scaffolds have great potential to support efficient vascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Vascular cell fate-specific biochemical and biophysical cues have been identified and incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to efficiently direct embryonic vasculogenesis. The resulting vascular-like tissue can be used for regenerative medicine applications, further elucidation of biophysical and biochemical cues governing vasculogenesis, and drug discovery. In this chapter, we give an overview on the following: (1) developmental cues for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into vascular cells, (2) 3D vascular differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs), (3) preparation of 3D scaffolds for the vascular differentiation of hESCs, and (4) the most significant studies combining scaffolding and hESCs for development of vascular-like tissue.

  13. CNS embryonal tumours: WHO 2016 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pickles, J C; Hawkins, C; Pietsch, T; Jacques, T S

    2018-02-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) present a significant clinical challenge. Many of these neoplasms affect young children, have a very high mortality and therapeutic strategies are often aggressive with poor long-term outcomes. There is a great need to accurately diagnose embryonal tumours, predict their outcome and adapt therapy to the individual patient's risk. For the first time in 2016, the WHO classification took into account molecular characteristics for the diagnosis of CNS tumours. This integration of histological features with genetic information has significantly changed the diagnostic work-up and reporting of tumours of the CNS. However, this remains challenging in embryonal tumours due to their previously unaccounted tumour heterogeneity. We describe the recent revisions made to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours and review the main changes, while highlighting some of the more common diagnostic testing strategies. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  14. Embryonic origin of the gnathostome vertebral skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is a key component of the jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) body plan, but the primitive embryonic origin of this skeleton remains unclear. In tetrapods, all vertebral components (neural arches, haemal arches and centra) derive from paraxial mesoderm (somites). However, in teleost fishes, vertebrae have a dual embryonic origin, with arches derived from somites, but centra formed, in part, by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord. Here, we test the embryonic origin of the vertebral skeleton in a cartilaginous fish (the skate, Leucoraja erinacea) which serves as an outgroup to tetrapods and teleosts. We demonstrate, by cell lineage tracing, that both arches and centra are somite-derived. We find no evidence of cellular or matrix contribution from the notochord to the skate vertebral skeleton. These findings indicate that the earliest gnathostome vertebral skeleton was exclusively of somitic origin, with a notochord contribution arising secondarily in teleosts. PMID:29167367

  15. Epigenomic Analysis of Multi-lineage Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Schultz, Matthew D.; Lister, Ryan; Hou, Zhonggang; Rajagopal, Nisha; Ray, Pradipta; Whitaker, John W.; Tian, Shulan; Hawkins, R. David; Leung, Danny; Yang, Hongbo; Wang, Tao; Lee, Ah Young; Swanson, Scott A.; Zhang, Jiuchun; Zhu, Yun; Kim, Audrey; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Kuan, Samantha; Yen, Chia-an; Klugman, Sarit; Yu, Pengzhi; Suknuntha, Kran; Propson, Nicholas E.; Chen, Huaming; Edsall, Lee E.; Wagner, Ulrich; Li, Yan; Ye, Zhen; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Xuan, Zhenyu; Chung, Wen-Yu; Chi, Neil C.; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica E.; Slukvin, Igor; Stewart, Ron; Zhang, Michael Q.; Wang, Wei; Thomson, James A.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Ren, Bing

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to play crucial roles in mammalian development, but their precise functions are only partially understood. To investigate epigenetic regulation of embryonic development, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells into mesendoderm, neural progenitor cells, trophoblast-like cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, and systematically characterized DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and the transcriptome in each lineage. We found that promoters that are active in early developmental stages tend to be CG rich and mainly engage H3K27me3 upon silencing in non-expressing lineages. By contrast, promoters for genes expressed preferentially at later stages are often CG poor and primarily employ DNA methylation upon repression. Interestingly, the early developmental regulatory genes are often located in large genomic domains that are generally devoid of DNA methylation in most lineages, which we termed DNA methylation valleys (DMVs). Our results suggest that distinct epigenetic mechanisms regulate early and late stages of ES cell differentiation. PMID:23664764

  16. Normal embryonic and germ cell development in mice lacking alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferase IX (Fut9) which show disappearance of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takashi; Kaneko, Mika; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Togayachi, Akira; Nishihara, Shoko; Abe, Kuniya; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2004-05-01

    Stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), an antigenic epitope defined as a Lewis x carbohydrate structure, is expressed during the 8-cell to blastocyst stages in mouse embryos and in primordial germ cells, undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, and embryonic carcinoma cells. For many years, SSEA-1 has been implicated in the development of mouse embryos as a functional carbohydrate epitope in cell-to-cell interaction during morula compaction. In a previous study, alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferase IX (Fut9) exhibited very strong activity for the synthesis of Lewis x compared to other alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferases in an in vitro substrate specificity assay. Fut4 and Fut9 transcripts were expressed in mouse embryos. The Fut9 transcript was detected in embryonic-day-13.5 gonads containing primordial germ cells, but the Fut4 transcript was not. In order to identify the role of SSEA-1 and determine the key enzyme for SSEA-1 synthesis in vivo, we have generated Fut9-deficient (Fut9(-/-)) mice. Fut9(-/-) mice develop normally, with no gross phenotypic abnormalities, and are fertile. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an absence of SSEA-1 expression in early embryos and primordial germ cells of Fut9(-/-) mice. Therefore, we conclude that expression of the SSEA-1 epitope in the developing mouse embryo is not essential for embryogenesis in vivo.

  17. Rancher-reported efficacy of lethal and non-lethal livestock predation mitigation strategies for a suite of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Scasta, J D; Stam, B; Windh, J L

    2017-10-26

    Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type. Ranchers perceive they were most effective at mitigating predation by foxes and coyotes, moderately effective at mitigating large carnivores, and the least effective at mitigating birds. Ranchers also reported that avian predators seem to be the most challenging predator type. The general perception was lethal mitigation strategies were more effective than non-lethal strategies, with guard animals showing the most potential among the non-lethal options. In general, ranchers did not perceive non-lethal strategies as a proxy for lethal strategies. However, a few ranchers reported being successful with non-lethal options such as herding, fencing, and stalling at night but more details about such successful applications are needed. Innovation in current or novel non-lethal mitigation strategies, and examples of efficacy, are needed to justify producer adoption.

  18. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Non-Lethal Endotoxin Injection: A Rat Model of Hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Marjory B; Turk, James R; Guerrero, Abraham; Narayanan, Padma K; Nolan, John P; Besteman, Elizabeth G; Wilson, Dennis W; Thomas, Roberta A; Fishman, Cindy E; Thompson, Karol L; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Pierson, Jennifer B; Paulman, April; Chiang, Alan Y; Schultze, Albert E

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation co-activates coagulation, which unchecked culminates in a lethal syndrome of multi-organ microvascular thrombosis known as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We studied an endotoxin-induced inflammatory state in rats to identify biomarkers of hemostatic imbalance favoring hypercoagulability. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS at 15 mg/kg body weight resulted in peripheral leukopenia and widespread neutrophilic sequestration characteristic of an acute systemic inflammatory response. Early indicators of hemostatic pathway activation developed within 4 hours, including increased circulating concentrations of procoagulant extracellular vesicles (EVs), EVs expressing endothelial cell and platelet membrane markers, and high concentration of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and D-dimers. Inflammation persisted throughout the 48-hour observation period; however, increases were found in a subset of serum microRNA (miRNA) that coincided with gradual resolution of hemostatic protein abnormalities and reduction in EV counts. Dose-adjusted LPS treatment in rats provides a time-course model to develop biomarker profiles reflecting procoagulant imbalance and rebalance under inflammatory conditions.

  20. Diffusion and scaling during early embryonic pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William; de Ruyter van Steveninck, Rob R; Tank, David W; Wieschaus, Eric F

    2005-12-20

    Development of spatial patterns in multicellular organisms depends on gradients in the concentration of signaling molecules that control gene expression. In the Drosophila embryo, Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen controls cell fate along 70% of the anteroposterior axis but is translated from mRNA localized at the anterior pole. Gradients of Bcd and other morphogens are thought to arise through diffusion, but this basic assumption has never been rigorously tested in living embryos. Furthermore, because diffusion sets a relationship between length and time scales, it is hard to see how patterns of gene expression established by diffusion would scale proportionately as egg size changes during evolution. Here, we show that the motion of inert molecules through the embryo is well described by the diffusion equation on the relevant length and time scales, and that effective diffusion constants are essentially the same in closely related dipteran species with embryos of very different size. Nonetheless, patterns of gene expression in these different species scale with egg length. We show that this scaling can be traced back to scaling of the Bcd gradient itself. Our results, together with constraints imposed by the time scales of development, suggest that the mechanism for scaling is a species-specific adaptation of the Bcd lifetime.

  1. Diffusion and scaling during early embryonic pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William; van Steveninck, Rob R. de Ruyter; Tank, David W.; Wieschaus, Eric F.

    2005-01-01

    Development of spatial patterns in multicellular organisms depends on gradients in the concentration of signaling molecules that control gene expression. In the Drosophila embryo, Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen controls cell fate along 70% of the anteroposterior axis but is translated from mRNA localized at the anterior pole. Gradients of Bcd and other morphogens are thought to arise through diffusion, but this basic assumption has never been rigorously tested in living embryos. Furthermore, because diffusion sets a relationship between length and time scales, it is hard to see how patterns of gene expression established by diffusion would scale proportionately as egg size changes during evolution. Here, we show that the motion of inert molecules through the embryo is well described by the diffusion equation on the relevant length and time scales, and that effective diffusion constants are essentially the same in closely related dipteran species with embryos of very different size. Nonetheless, patterns of gene expression in these different species scale with egg length. We show that this scaling can be traced back to scaling of the Bcd gradient itself. Our results, together with constraints imposed by the time scales of development, suggest that the mechanism for scaling is a species-specific adaptation of the Bcd lifetime. PMID:16352710

  2. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  3. Embryonic Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the mammalian blastocyst. Traditionally, these cells have been derived and cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) supportive layers, which allow their continuous growth in an undifferentiated state. However, for any future industrial or clinical application hESCs should be cultured in reproducible, defined, and xeno-free culture system, where exposure to animal pathogens is prevented. From their derivation in 1998 the methods for culturing hESCs were significantly improved. This chapter wills discuss hESC characterization and the basic methods for their derivation and maintenance.

  4. Chromatin in embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Meshorer, E

    2007-03-01

    Chromatin, the basic regulatory unit of the eukaryotic genetic material, is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Cellular differentiation involves large changes in gene expression concomitant with alterations in genome organization and chromatin structure. Such changes are particularly evident in self-renewing pluripotent embryonic stem cells, which begin, in terms of cell fate, as a tabula rasa, and through the process of differentiation, acquire distinct identities. Here I describe the changes in chromatin that accompany neuronal differentiation, particularly of embryonic stem cells, and discuss how chromatin serves as the master regulator of cellular destiny.

  5. Lethal and teratogenic effects of phenol on Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Paisio, Cintia Elizabeth; Agostini, Elizabeth; González, Paola Solange; Bertuzzi, Mabel Lucía

    2009-08-15

    Phenol and their derivatives are used in several industries and they have a high potential toxicity for animal and plant species. They were found in variable concentrations, as high as 1000 mg/L, in industrial wastewater and, they are often discharged into the environment. Amphibian embryos are useful indicators of environmental pollution. However, to our knowledge, there are not studies focussed on the toxic effects of phenol on Bufo arenarum, which is an anuran widely distributed in South America. Therefore, the effect of phenol on the survival and morphogenesis of these amphibian embryos was evaluated by means of AMPHITOX test. Embryos at 25 stage of development (acute test) and embryos at 2-4 blastomers stage (early life stage test), were exposed to phenol solutions in concentrations ranging from 25 to 250 mg/L, which were frequently found in the environment. Mortality and malformations were registered each 24h. LC(50), LC(99), NOEC, TC(50) and TI(50) values were 183.70, 250, 60, 113 mg/L and 1.62, respectively, at 96 h of treatment. Mortality and the percentage of malformations increased with increasing phenol concentrations. Teratogenic effects more frequently produced by phenol were: axial flexure, persistent yolk plug and different abnormalities which caused death of blastulae. Moreover, other malformations were registered, such as irregular form, acephalism, edema, axial shortening and underdevelopment of gills, among others. Larvae of B. arenarum, at early embryonic stages (blastulae), showed higher sensitivity to phenol than tadpoles at stage 25. Results confirm high susceptibility of amphibians to phenol and that environmental concentrations of this pollutant might be harmful to these populations.

  6. Inactivation of the survival motor neuron gene, a candidate gene for human spinal muscular atrophy, leads to massive cell death in early mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Schrank, Bertold; Götz, Rudolf; Gunnersen, Jennifer M.; Ure, Janice M.; Toyka, Klaus V.; Smith, Austin G.; Sendtner, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive human disease of spinal motor neurons leading to muscular weakness with onset predominantly in infancy and childhood. With an estimated heterozygote frequency of 1/40 it is the most common monogenic disorder lethal to infants; milder forms represent the second most common pediatric neuromuscular disorder. Two candidate genes—survival motor neuron (SMN) and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein have been identified on chromosome 5q13 by positional cloning. However, the functional impact of these genes and the mechanism leading to a degeneration of motor neurons remain to be defined. To analyze the role of the SMN gene product in vivo we generated SMN-deficient mice. In contrast to the human genome, which contains two copies, the mouse genome contains only one SMN gene. Mice with homozygous SMN disruption display massive cell death during early embryonic development, indicating that the SMN gene product is necessary for cellular survival and function. PMID:9275227

  7. Metabolic synthetic lethality in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zecchini, Vincent; Frezza, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Our understanding of cancer has recently seen a major paradigm shift resulting in it being viewed as a metabolic disorder, and altered cellular metabolism being recognised as a hallmark of cancer. This concept was spurred by the findings that the oncogenic mutations driving tumorigenesis induce a reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism that is required for unrestrained growth and proliferation. The recent discovery that mutations in key mitochondrial enzymes play a causal role in tumorigenesis suggested that dysregulation of metabolism could also be a driver of tumorigenesis. These mutations induce profound adaptive metabolic alterations that are a prerequisite for the survival of the mutated cells. Because these metabolic events are specific to cancer cells, they offer an opportunity to develop new therapies that specifically target tumour cells without affecting healthy tissue. Here, we will describe recent developments in metabolism-based cancer therapy, in particular focusing on the concept of metabolic synthetic lethality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    PubMed

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  9. Human cooperation by lethal group competition

    PubMed Central

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival (“looting”). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as “all-out war” (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together. PMID:23459158

  10. Lethal endomyocarditis caused by chronic "Krokodil" intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Antonella; Trotta, Silvia; Colucci, Anna Pia; Aventaggiato, Lucia; Marzullo, Andrea; Solarino, Biagio

    2018-03-19

    "Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive necrotic ulcerative lesions on the forearms, and autopsy showed a hypertrophic heart with ample endocardial vegetation on the aortic valve and patency of the foramen ovale. Histopathological examination of the heart showed ulcero-vegetative lesions of the aortic valve with an abscess on the annulus and extension to the periaortic adipose tissue, as well as diffuse myocardial interstitial inflammatory neutrophilic infiltrates. Toxicological analysis demonstrated a desomorphine metabolite in urine. On the basis of all these findings the cause of death was ruled to be congestive heart failure caused by endocarditis and myocarditis, correlated with chronic abuse of krokodil.

  11. Zebrafish Caudal Haematopoietic Embryonic Stromal Tissue (CHEST) Cells Support Haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Anja; Aggio, Julian; Campbell, Clyde; Wright, Francis; Marquez, Gabriel; Traver, David; Stachura, David L

    2017-03-16

    Haematopoiesis is an essential process in early vertebrate development that occurs in different distinct spatial locations in the embryo that shift over time. These different sites have distinct functions: in some anatomical locations specific hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are generated de novo. In others, HSPCs expand. HSPCs differentiate and renew in other locations, ensuring homeostatic maintenance. These niches primarily control haematopoiesis through a combination of cell-to-cell signalling and cytokine secretion that elicit unique biological effects in progenitors. To understand the molecular signals generated by these niches, we report the generation of caudal hematopoietic embryonic stromal tissue (CHEST) cells from 72-hours post fertilization (hpf) caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT), the site of embryonic HSPC expansion in fish. CHEST cells are a primary cell line with perivascular endothelial properties that expand hematopoietic cells in vitro. Morphological and transcript analysis of these cultures indicates lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid differentiation, indicating that CHEST cells are a useful tool for identifying molecular signals critical for HSPC proliferation and differentiation in the zebrafish. These findings permit comparison with other temporally and spatially distinct haematopoietic-supportive zebrafish niches, as well as with mammalian haematopoietic-supportive cells to further the understanding of the evolution of the vertebrate hematopoietic system.

  12. Embryonic chirality and the evolution of spiralian left–right asymmetries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The group Spiralia includes species with one of the most significant cases of left–right asymmetries in animals: the coiling of the shell of gastropod molluscs (snails). In this animal group, an early event of embryonic chirality controlled by cytoskeleton dynamics and the subsequent differential activation of the genes nodal and Pitx determine the left–right axis of snails, and thus the direction of coiling of the shell. Despite progressive advances in our understanding of left–right axis specification in molluscs, little is known about left–right development in other spiralian taxa. Here, we identify and characterize the expression of nodal and Pitx orthologues in three different spiralian animals—the brachiopod Novocrania anomala, the annelid Owenia fusiformis and the nemertean Lineus ruber—and demonstrate embryonic chirality in the biradial-cleaving spiralian embryo of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. We show asymmetric expression of nodal and Pitx in the brachiopod and annelid, respectively, and symmetric expression of Pitx in the nemertean. Our findings indicate that early embryonic chirality is widespread and independent of the cleavage programme in the Spiralia. Additionally, our study illuminates the evolution of nodal and Pitx signalling by demonstrating embryonic asymmetric expression in lineages without obvious adult left–right asymmetries. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821523

  13. Autonomous assembly of epithelial structures by subrenal implantation of dissociated embryonic inner-ear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Kaiqing; Zhu, Helen He; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-05-27

    Microenvironment and cell-cell interactions play an important role during embryogenesis and are required for the stemness and differentiation of stem cells. The inner-ear sensory epithelium, containing hair cells and supporting cells, is derived from the stem cells within the otic vesicle at early embryonic stages. However, whether or not such microenvironment or cell-cell interactions within the embryonic otic tissue have the capacity to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and to autonomously reassemble the cells into epithelial structures is unknown. Here, we report that on enzymatic digestion and dissociation to harvest all the single cells from 13.5-day-old rat embryonic (E13.5) inner-ear tissue as well as on implantation of these cells under renal capsules; the dissociated cells are able to reassemble themselves to form epithelial structures as early as 7 days after implantation. By 25 days after implantation, more mature epithelial structures are formed. Immunostaining with cell-type-specific markers reveals that hair cells and supporting cells are not only formed, but are also well aligned with the hair cells located in the apical layer surrounded by the supporting cells. These findings suggest that microenvironment and cell-cell interactions within the embryonic inner-ear tissue have the autonomous signals to induce the formation of sensory epithelial structures. This method may also provide a useful system to study the potential of stem cells to differentiate into hair cells in vivo.

  14. Embryonic cholecystitis and defective gallbladder contraction in the Sox17-haploinsufficient mouse model of biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Ko; Igarashi, Hitomi; Imaimatsu, Kenya; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Hirate, Yoshikazu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Saijoh, Yukio; Kanai-Azuma, Masami

    2017-01-01

    The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids into the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in Sox17+/− embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders. The embryonic hepatitis showed positive correlations with the severity of cholecystitis in individual Sox17+/− embryos. Embryonic hepatitis could be induced by conditional deletion of Sox17 in the primordial gallbladder epithelia but not in fetal liver hepatoblasts. The Sox17+/− gallbladder also showed a drastic reduction in sonic hedgehog expression, leading to aberrant smooth muscle formation and defective contraction of the fetal gallbladder. The defective gallbladder contraction positively correlated with the severity of embryonic hepatitis in Sox17+/− embryos, suggesting a potential contribution of embryonic cholecystitis and fetal gallbladder contraction in the early pathogenesis of congenital biliary atresia. PMID:28432216

  15. Different effects of enhanced and reduced expression of pub gene on the formation of embryoid bodies by cultured embryonic mouse stem cell.

    PubMed

    Novosadova, E V; Manuilova, E S; Arsen'eva, E L; Khaidarova, N V; Dolotov, O V; Inozemtseva, L S; Kozachenkov, K Yu; Tarantul, V Z; Grivennikov, I A

    2005-07-01

    The effects of pub gene on proliferation and initial stages of differentiation of embryonic mouse stem cells were studied in vitro. To this end we used enhanced expression of human pub gene (hpub) and suppression of expression of mouse endogenous pub gene with RNA-interference in embryonic stem cells. Proliferative activity of genetically modified polyclonal lines of the embryonic stem cells transfected with plasmids carrying expressing hpub gene or plasmids generating small interference RNA to this gene did not differ from that of the control cells. Inhibition of expression of endogenous pub gene in embryonic stem cells using small interference RNA 2-fold decreased the formation of embryoid bodies, at the same time additional expression of exogenous hpub gene almost 2-fold increased their number in comparison with the control. It was hypothesized that pub gene participates in early stages of differentiation of embryonic stem cells leading to the formation of embryoid bodies.

  16. Mitochondrial functionality in reproduction: from gonads and gametes to embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ramalho-Santos, João; Varum, Sandra; Amaral, Sandra; Mota, Paula C; Sousa, Ana Paula; Amaral, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are multitasking organelles involved in ATP synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, calcium signalling and apoptosis; and mitochondrial defects are known to cause physiological dysfunction, including infertility. The goal of this review was to identify and discuss common themes in mitochondrial function related to mammalian reproduction. The scientific literature was searched for studies reporting on the several aspects of mitochondrial activity in mammalian testis, sperm, oocytes, early embryos and embryonic stem cells. ATP synthesis and ROS production are the most discussed aspects of mitochondrial function. Metabolic shifts from mitochondria-produced ATP to glycolysis occur at several stages, notably during gametogenesis and early embryo development, either reflecting developmental switches or substrate availability. The exact role of sperm mitochondria is especially controversial. Mitochondria-generated ROS function in signalling but are mostly described when produced under pathological conditions. Mitochondria-based calcium signalling is primarily important in embryo activation and embryonic stem cell differentiation. Besides pathologically triggered apoptosis, mitochondria participate in apoptotic events related to the regulation of spermatogonial cell number, as well as gamete, embryo and embryonic stem cell quality. Interestingly, data from knock-out (KO) mice is not always straightforward in terms of expected phenotypes. Finally, recent data suggests that mitochondrial activity can modulate embryonic stem cell pluripotency as well as differentiation into distinct cellular fates. Mitochondria-based events regulate different aspects of reproductive function, but these are not uniform throughout the several systems reviewed. Low mitochondrial activity seems a feature of 'stemness', being described in spermatogonia, early embryo, inner cell mass cells and embryonic stem cells.

  17. Pre-treatment with low-dose endotoxin prolongs survival from experimental lethal endotoxic shock: Benefit for lethal peritonitis by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kopanakis, Konstantinos; Tzepi, Ira-Maria; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Netea, Mihai G; Georgitsi, Marianna; Lymperi, Maria; Droggiti, Dionyssia-Irini; Liakakos, Theodoros; Machairas, Anastasios; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2013-06-01

    Although LPS tolerance is well-characterized, it remains unknown if it is achieved even with single doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and if it offers protection against lethal bacterial infections. To this end, C57B6 mice were assigned to groups A (sham); B (saline i.p followed after 24h by i.p 30mg/kg LPS); and C (3mg/kg LPS i.p followed after 24h by i.p 30mg/kg LPS). Survival was monitored and animals were sacrificed early after lethal challenge for measurement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in serum; isolation of splenocytes and cytokine stimulation; and flow-cytometry for apoptosis and TREM-1. Experiments were repeated with mice infected i.p by Escherichia coli after challenging with saline or LPS. Mortality of group B was 72.2% compared with 38.9% of group C (p: 0.020). Serum TNFα of group C was lower than group B. Expression of TREM-1 of group C on monocytes/neutrophils was greater than group B. Release of TNFα, of IFNγ and of IL-17 from splenocytes of group C was lower than group B and the opposite happened for IL-10 showing evidence of cellular reprogramming. In parallel, apoptosis of circulating lymphocytes and of splenocytes of group C was greater compared with group B. Pre-treatment of mice challenged by E. coli with low dose LPS led to 0% mortality compared with 90% of saline pre-treated mice; in these mice, splenocytes improved over-time their capacity for release of IFNγ. It is concluded that single low doses of LPS lead to early reprogramming of the innate immune response and prolong survival after lethal E. coli challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is "non-lethal"?

    PubMed

    David, Siddarth

    2017-01-01

    The use of pellet guns during the recent unrest in Kashmir as a method of crowd control has been questioned because of several deaths and numerous injuries. Across the world, these rubber pellets have been shown to inflict serious injuries, permanent disability, and death. The volatility of mob violence, inaccuracies in aim of the pellets, over-use of the pellet guns, and the perception of their harmlessness enhances the destructive potential of these so-called non-lethal weapons. There is also the larger ethical question whether any form of pain, however minimal, could be inflicted to control violent crowds.

  19. Gene expression dynamics during embryonic development in rainbow trout

    The supply of maternal RNAs in fertilized egg and activation of embryonic genome during maternal-zygotic transition (MZT) are important for normal embryonic development. In order to identify genes and gene products that are essential in the regulation of embryonic development in rainbow trout, RNA-S...

  20. Therapeutic approaches for treating hemophilia A using embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuda, Shogo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shima, Midori; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked rescessive bleeding disorder that results from F8 gene aberrations. Previously, we established embryonic stem (ES) cells (tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18) that secrete human factor VIII (hFVIII) by introducing the human F8 gene in mouse Ainv18 ES cells. Here, we explored the potential of cell transplantation therapy for hemophilia A using the ES cells. Transplant tet-226aa/N6-Ainv18 ES cells were injected into the spleens of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-pretreated wild-type mice, and CCl4-pretreated hemophilia A mice. F8 expression was induced by doxycycline in drinking water, and hFVIII-antigen production was assessed in all cell transplantation experiments. Injecting the ES cells into SCID mice resulted in an enhanced expression of the hFVIII antigen; however, teratoma generation was confirmed in the spleen. Transplantation of ES cells into wild-type mice after CCl4-induced liver injury facilitated survival and engraftment of transplanted cells without teratoma formation, resulting in hFVIII production in the plasma. Although CCl4 was lethal to most hemophilia A mice, therapeutic levels of FVIII activity, as well as the hFVIII antigen, were detected in surviving hemophilia A mice after cell transplantation. Immunolocalization results for hFVIII suggested that transplanted ES cells might be engrafted at the periportal area in the liver. Although the development of a safer induction method for liver regeneration is required, our results suggested the potential for developing an effective ES-cell transplantation therapeutic model for treating hemophilia A in the future. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. miR-203 modulates epithelial differentiation of human embryonic stem cells towards epidermal stratification.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Xavier; Denis, Jérôme Alexandre; Saidani, Manoubia; Lemaitre, Gilles; Peschanski, Marc; Baldeschi, Christine

    2011-08-15

    The molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of human basal keratinocyte stem cells towards the epidermis are well characterized, whereas the earliest process leading to the specification of embryonic stem cells into keratinocytes is still not well understood. MicroRNAs are regulators of many cellular events, but evidence for microRNA acting on the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into a specific lineage has been elusive. By using our recent protocol for obtaining functional keratinocytes from hESC, we attempted to analyze the role of microRNAs in the early stages of epidermal differentiation. Thus, we identified a set of 5 microRNAs, namely miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-203, miR-205 and miR-429, that are specifically overexpressed during the early stages of the differentiation process. Interestingly, our functional analyses revealed an instrumental role of miR-203, which had been previously shown to play a key role during the formation of the pluristratified epidermis by basal keratinocyte stem cells, in the early keratinocyte commitment. These results highlight the determinant and unique role of miR-203 during the entire process of epidermal development by extending its spectrum of action from the early commitment of embryonic stem cells to ultimate differentiation of the organ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lethal and sub-lethal responses of native freshwater mussels exposed to granular Bayluscide®, a sea lamprey larvicide

    Newton, Teresa; Boogaard, Michael A.; Gray, Brian R.; Hubert, Terrance D.; Schloesser, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) poses a substantial threat to fish communities in the Great Lakes. Efforts to control sea lamprey populations typically involve treating tributary streams with lampricides on a recurring cycle. The presence of a substantial population of larval sea lampreys in the aquatic corridor between Lakes Huron and Erie prompted managers to propose a treatment using the granular formulation of Bayluscide® that targets larval sea lampreys that reside in sediments. However, these treatments could cause adverse effects on native freshwater mussels—imperiled animals that also reside in sediments. We estimated the risk of mortality and sub-lethal effects among eight species of adult and sub-adult mussels exposed to Bayluscide® for durations up to 8 h to mimic field applications. Mortality was appreciable in some species, especially in sub-adults (range, 23–51%). The lethal and sub-lethal effects were positively associated with the duration of exposure in most species and life stage combinations. Estimates of the median time of exposure that resulted in lethal and sub-lethal effects suggest that sub-adults were often affected by Bayluscide® earlier than adults. Siphoning activity and burrowing position of mussels during exposure may have moderated the uptake of Bayluscide® and may have influenced lethal and sub-lethal responses. Given that the various species and life stages were differentially affected, it will be difficult to predict the effects of Bayluscide® treatments on mussels.

  3. The miR-290-295 cluster as multi-faceted players in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Ai, Wen-Bing; Wan, Lin-Yan; Tan, Xiao; Wu, Jiang-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that embryonic stem cell specific microRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the early development of embryo. Among them, the miR-290-295 cluster is the most highly expressed in the mouse embryonic stem cells and involved in various biological processes. In this paper, we reviewed the research progress of the function of the miR-290-295 cluster in embryonic stem cells. The miR-290-295 cluster is involved in regulating embryonic stem cell pluripotency maintenance, self-renewal, and reprogramming somatic cells to an embryonic stem cell-like state. Moreover, the miR-290-295 cluster has a latent pro-survival function in embryonic stem cells and involved in tumourigenesis and senescence with a great significance. Elucidating the interaction between the miR-290-295 cluster and other modes of gene regulation will provide us new ideas on the biology of pluripotent stem cells. In the near future, the broad prospects of the miRNA cluster will be shown in the stem cell field, such as altering cell identities with high efficiency through the transient introduction of tissue-specific miRNA cluster.

  4. RISC-mediated control of selected chromatin regulators stabilizes ground state pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Luca; Luzi, Ettore; Bressan, Dario; Ucciferri, Nadia; Bertacchi, Michele; Brandi, Rossella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; D'Onofrio, Mara; Cremisi, Federico

    2016-05-06

    Embryonic stem cells are intrinsically unstable and differentiate spontaneously if they are not shielded from external stimuli. Although the nature of such instability is still controversial, growing evidence suggests that protein translation control may play a crucial role. We performed an integrated analysis of RNA and proteins at the transition between naïve embryonic stem cells and cells primed to differentiate. During this transition, mRNAs coding for chromatin regulators are specifically released from translational inhibition mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). This suggests that, prior to differentiation, the propensity of embryonic stem cells to change their epigenetic status is hampered by RNA interference. The expression of these chromatin regulators is reinstated following acute inactivation of RISC and it correlates with loss of stemness markers and activation of early cell differentiation markers in treated embryonic stem cells. We propose that RISC-mediated inhibition of specific sets of chromatin regulators is a primary mechanism for preserving embryonic stem cell pluripotency while inhibiting the onset of embryonic developmental programs.

  5. Induced Wnt5a expression perturbs embryonic outgrowth and intestinal elongation, but is well-tolerated in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Elvira R M; Raghoebir, Lalini; Franken, Patrick F; Helvensteijn, Werner; van Gurp, Léon; Meijlink, Frits; van der Valk, Martin A; Rottier, Robbert J; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2012-09-01

    Wnt5a is essential during embryonic development, as indicated by mouse Wnt5a knockout embryos displaying outgrowth defects of multiple structures including the gut. The dynamics of Wnt5a involvement in these processes is unclear, and perinatal lethality of Wnt5a knockout embryos has hampered investigation of Wnt5a during postnatal stages in vivo. Although in vitro studies have suggested a relevant role for Wnt5a postnatally, solid evidence for a significant impact of Wnt5a within the complexity of an adult organism is lacking. We generated a tightly-regulated inducible Wnt5a transgenic mouse model and investigated the effects of Wnt5a induction during different time-frames of embryonic development and in adult mice, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract. When induced in embryos from 10.5 dpc onwards, Wnt5a expression led to severe outgrowth defects affecting the gastrointestinal tracts, limbs, facial structures and tails, closely resembling the defects observed in Wnt5a knockout mice. However, Wnt5a induction from 13.5 dpc onwards did not cause this phenotype, indicating that the most critical period for Wnt5a in embryonic development is prior to 13.5 dpc. In adult mice, induced Wnt5a expression did not reveal abnormalities, providing the first in vivo evidence that Wnt5a has no major impact on mouse intestinal homeostasis postnatally. Protein expression of Wnt5a receptor Ror2 was strongly reduced in adult intestine compared to embryonic stages. Moreover, we uncovered a regulatory process where induction of Wnt5a causes downregulation of its receptor Ror2. Taken together, our results indicate a role for Wnt5a during a restricted time-frame of embryonic development, but suggest no impact during homeostatic postnatal stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity testing of crude oil and related compounds using early life stages of the crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Pollino, Carmel A; Holdway, Douglas A

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons to marine aquatic organisms has been widely investigated; however, the effects on freshwater environments have largely been ignored. In the Australian freshwater environment, the potential impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons are virtually unknown. The toxicity of crude oil and related compounds were measured in the sensitive early life stages of the crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis). Waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons crossed the chorion of embryonic rainbowfish, reducing survival and hatchability. Acute exposures resulted in developmental abnormalities at and above 0.5 mg/L total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deformities included pericardial edema, disturbed axis formation, and abnormal jaw development. When assessing the acute toxicities of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil, dispersants, dispersant-oil mixtures, and naphthalene to larval rainbowfish, the lowest to highest 96-h median lethal concentrations for day of hatch larvae were naphthalene (0.51 mg/L), dispersed crude oil WAF (DCWAF)-9527 (0.74 mg/L TPH), WAF (1.28 mg/L TPH), DCWAF-9500 (1.37 mg/L TPH), Corexit 9500 (14.5 mg/L TPH), and Corexit 9527 (20.1 mg/L). Using naphthalene as a reference toxicant, no differences were found between the sensitivities of larval rainbowfish collected from adults exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons during embryonic development and those collected from unexposed adults.

  7. Involvement of retinol dehydrogenase 10 in embryonic patterning and rescue of its loss of function by maternal retinaldehyde treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rhinn, Muriel; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Niederreither, Karen; Dollé, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active vitamin A metabolite, is a key signaling molecule in vertebrate embryos. Morphogenetic RA gradients are thought to be set up by tissue-specific actions of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and catabolizing enzymes. According to the species, two enzymatic pathways (β-carotene cleavage and retinol oxidation) generate retinaldehyde, the substrate of RALDHs. Placental species depend on maternal retinol transferred to the embryo. The retinol-to-retinaldehyde conversion was thought to be achieved by several redundant enzymes; however, a random mutagenesis screen identified retinol dehydrogenase 10 [Rdh10Trex allele; Sandell LL, et al. (2007) Genes Dev 21:1113–1124] as responsible for a homozygous lethal phenotype with features of RA deficiency. We report here the production and characterization of unique murine Rdh10 loss-of-function alleles generated by gene targeting. We show that although Rdh10−/− mutants die at an earlier stage than Rdh10Trex mutants, their molecular patterning defects do not reflect a complete state of RA deficiency. Furthermore, we were able to correct most developmental abnormalities by administering retinaldehyde to pregnant mothers, thereby obtaining viable Rdh10−/− mutants. This demonstrates the rescue of an embryonic lethal phenotype by simple maternal administration of the missing retinoid compound. These results underscore the importance of maternal retinoids in preventing congenital birth defects, and lead to a revised model of the importance of RDH10 and RALDHs in controlling embryonic RA distribution. PMID:21930923

  8. Evolutionally dynamic L1 regulation in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Diaz, Nathaly; Ecco, Gabriela; Coluccio, Andrea; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Yazdanpanah, Benyamin; Friedli, Marc; Duc, Julien; Jang, Suk Min; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Mobile elements are important evolutionary forces that challenge genomic integrity. Long interspersed element-1 (L1, also known as LINE-1) is the only autonomous transposon still active in the human genome. It displays an unusual pattern of evolution, with, at any given time, a single active L1 lineage amplifying to thousands of copies before getting replaced by a new lineage, likely under pressure of host restriction factors, which act notably by silencing L1 expression during early embryogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that in human embryonic stem (hES) cells, KAP1 (KRAB [Krüppel-associated box domain]-associated protein 1), the master cofactor of KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) previously implicated in the restriction of endogenous retroviruses, represses a discrete subset of L1 lineages predicted to have entered the ancestral genome between 26.8 million and 7.6 million years ago. In mice, we documented a similar chronologically conditioned pattern, albeit with a much contracted time scale. We could further identify an L1-binding KRAB-ZFP, suggesting that this rapidly evolving protein family is more globally responsible for L1 recognition. KAP1 knockdown in hES cells induced the expression of KAP1-bound L1 elements, but their younger, human-specific counterparts (L1Hs) were unaffected. Instead, they were stimulated by depleting DNA methyltransferases, consistent with recent evidence demonstrating that the PIWI–piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway regulates L1Hs in hES cells. Altogether, these data indicate that the early embryonic control of L1 is an evolutionarily dynamic process and support a model in which newly emerged lineages are first suppressed by DNA methylation-inducing small RNA-based mechanisms before KAP1-recruiting protein repressors are selected. PMID:24939876

  9. Rapamycin efficiently promotes cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Liu, Yinan; Wang, Yang; Wang, Weiping; Yang, Zhe; Li, Tao; Tian, Yuyao; Chen, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Jia, Zhuqing; Zhou, Chunyan

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the effects of rapamycin on cardiac differentiation, murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were induced into cardiomyocytes by 10 -4 M ascorbic acid (AA), 20 nM rapamycin alone or 0.01% solvent DMSO. We found that rapamycin alone was insufficient to initiate cardiomyogenesis. Then, the ESCs were treated with AA and rapamycin (20 nM) or AA and DMSO (0.01%) as a control. Compared with control, mouse ESCs (mESCs) treated with rapamycin (20 nM) and AA yielded a significantly higher percentage of cardiomyocytes, as confirmed by the percentage of beating embryonic bodies (EBs), the immunofluorescence and FACS analysis. Rapamycin significantly increased the expression of a panel of cardiac markers including Gata 4, α- Mhc , β- Mhc , and Tnnt 2. Additionally, rapamycin enhanced the expression of mesodermal and cardiac transcription factors such as Mesp 1, Brachyury T, Eomes, Isl 1 , Gata 4 , Nkx 2.5 , Tbx 5, and Mef2c. Mechanistic studies showed that rapamycin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling but promotes the expression of fibroblast growth factor ( Fgf 8), Fgf 10, and Nodal at early stage, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 ( Bmp 2) at later stages. Sequential treatment of rapamycin showed that rapamycin promotes cardiac differentiation at the early and later stages. Interestingly, another mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor Ku0063794 (1 µM) had similar effects on cardiomyogenesis. In conclusion, our results highlight a practical approach to generate cardiomyocytes from mESCs by rapamycin. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. The plurennial life cycles of the European Tettigoniidae (Insecta: Orthoptera) : 1. The effect of temperature on embryonic development and hatching.

    PubMed

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    1986-11-01

    The effect of temperature on embryonic development, voltinism, and hatching was studied in the laboratory in eggs of 21 Central and Southeastern European Tettigoniidae species. In most species, the embryo has to arrive at a postkatatrepsis stage prior to the onset of cold to be able to hatch in the following spring. The rate of embryonic development differs: quickly developing species need 4 weeks at 24°C (prior to cold) and almost all eggs hatch after the first cold treatment, slowly developing species would need 8-12 weeks to do the same. In Central Europe, warmth is not enough for the slowly developing species to have an univoltine life cycle, but they could have it in southern Europe. Most species make use of a dormancy sequence to pass successive winters as follows: an initial embryonic dormancy (either quiscence or diapause in embryonic stage 4) and a final diapause in embryonic stage 23/24. Additionally, 3 forms of aestivation or summer dormancy were observed facultatively: an initial diapause in embryonic stage 4 (induced and terminated at 30°C), a median dormancy shortly before or after katatrepsis (at 30°C), and a penultimate diapause in embryonic stage 20 (at 24°C).The life cycles of the European Tettigoniidae species can follow one of 3 types: 1. annual life cycle (no initial embryonic dormancy); 2. annual or biennial depending on whether laid early or late; 3. biennial or many year life cycle (up to 8 years due to a prolonged initial diapause).

  11. Embryonic senescence and laminopathies in a progeroid zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, Eriko; Imamura, Shintaro; Qi, Jie; Toure, Jamal; Valdez, Delgado M; Carr, Christopher E; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Kishi, Shuji

    2011-03-30

    Mutations that disrupt the conversion of prelamin A to mature lamin A cause the rare genetic disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and a group of laminopathies. Our understanding of how A-type lamins function in vivo during early vertebrate development through aging remains limited, and would benefit from a suitable experimental model. The zebrafish has proven to be a tractable model organism for studying both development and aging at the molecular genetic level. Zebrafish show an array of senescence symptoms resembling those in humans, which can be targeted to specific aging pathways conserved in vertebrates. However, no zebrafish models bearing human premature senescence currently exist. We describe the induction of embryonic senescence and laminopathies in zebrafish harboring disturbed expressions of the lamin A gene (LMNA). Impairments in these fish arise in the skin, muscle and adipose tissue, and sometimes in the cartilage. Reduced function of lamin A/C by translational blocking of the LMNA gene induced apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and craniofacial abnormalities/cartilage defects. By contrast, induced cryptic splicing of LMNA, which generates the deletion of 8 amino acid residues lamin A (zlamin A-Δ8), showed embryonic senescence and S-phase accumulation/arrest. Interestingly, the abnormal muscle and lipodystrophic phenotypes were common in both cases. Hence, both decrease-of-function of lamin A/C and gain-of-function of aberrant lamin A protein induced laminopathies that are associated with mesenchymal cell lineages during zebrafish early development. Visualization of individual cells expressing zebrafish progerin (zProgerin/zlamin A-Δ37) fused to green fluorescent protein further revealed misshapen nuclear membrane. A farnesyltransferase inhibitor reduced these nuclear abnormalities and significantly prevented embryonic senescence and muscle fiber damage induced by zProgerin. Importantly, the adult Progerin fish survived and remained fertile with

  12. Effectiveness of Non-Lethal Capabilities in a Maritime Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    demonstrates both the space filling properties for quantitative factors of the NOLH and the lack of correlation between the factors. 27 Figure 12 ...11 b. Optical Dazzler ........................................................................ 12 c...Warning Munitions................................................................. 12 2. Lethal Capabilities

  13. Anthrax lethal factor inhibitors as potential countermeasure of the infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B V S Suneel; Malik, Siddharth; Grandhi, Pradeep; Dayam, Raveendra; Sarma, J A R P

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease, one of the virulence factor of anthrax infection. Three forms of the anthrax infection have been identified: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). Anthrax toxin is composed of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). Protective antigen mediates the entry of Lethal Factor/Edema Factor into the cytosol of host cells. Lethal factor (LF) inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inducing cell death, and EF is an adenylyl cyclase impairing host defenses. In the past few years, extensive studies are undertaken to design inhibitors targeting LF. The current review focuses on the small molecule inhibitors targeting LF activity and its structure activity relationships (SAR).

  14. Back to the future: revisiting HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of eliminating HIV-1 infectivity by elevating the viral mutation rate was first proposed over a decade ago, even though the general concept had been conceived earlier for RNA viruses. Lethal mutagenesis was originally viewed as a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treating HIV-1 infection in which use of a viral mutagen would over multiple rounds of replication lead to the lethal accumulation of mutations, rendering the virus population non infectious – known as the slow mutation accumulation model. There have been limitations in obtaining good efficacy data with drug leads, leaving some doubt into clinical translation. More recent studies of the APOBEC3 proteins as well as new progress in the use of nucleoside analogs for inducing lethal mutagenesis have helped to refocus attention on rapid induction of HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis in a single or limited number of replication cycles leading to a rapid mutation accumulation model. PMID:23195922

  15. Generation of structures formed by lens and retinal cells differentiating from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Mariko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Yoshimura, Naoko; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Ishizaki, Katsuhiko; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Okazaki, Kenji; Yamazaki, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2003-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells have the potential to give rise to all cell lineages when introduced into the early embryo. They also give rise to a limited number of different cell types in vitro in specialized culture systems. In this study, we established a culture system in which a structure consisting of lens, neural retina, and pigmented retina was efficiently induced from embryonic stem cells. Refractile cell masses containing lens and neural retina were surrounded by retinal pigment epithelium layers and, thus, designated as eye-like structures. Developmental processes required for eye development appear to proceed in this culture system, because the formation of the eye-like structures depended on the expression of Pax6, a key transcription factor for eye development. The present culture system opens up the possibility of examining early stages of eye development and also of producing cells for use in cellular therapy for various diseases of the eye. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  17. Testicular trauma secondary to less-lethal kinetic energy munitions.

    PubMed

    Kavoussi, Parviz K; Hermans, Michael R

    2006-06-01

    Many cases of testicular trauma secondary to munitions have been reported. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who suffered testicular trauma as a result of a less-lethal munition projectile. With the advent, and increased use, of less-lethal munitions by the military and law enforcement agencies, more of these new subsets of genitourinary trauma patients who will require care are sure to result.

  18. Functional optical coherence tomography for live dynamic analysis of mouse embryonic cardiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Larina, Irina V.

    2018-02-01

    Blood flow, heart contraction, and tissue stiffness are important regulators of cardiac morphogenesis and function during embryonic development. Defining how these factors are integrated is critically important to advance prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of congenital heart defects. Mammalian embryonic development is taking place deep within the female body, which makes cardiodynamic imaging and analysis during early developmental stages in humans inaccessible. With thousands of mutant lines available and well-established genetic manipulation tools, mouse is a great model to understand how biomechanical factors are integrated with molecular pathways to regulate cardiac function and development. Dynamic imaging and quantitative analysis of the biomechanics of live mouse embryos have become increasingly important, which demands continuous advancements in imaging techniques and live assessment approaches. This has been one of the major drives to keep pushing the frontier of embryonic imaging for better resolution, higher speed, deeper penetration, and more diverse and effective contrasts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has played a significant role in addressing such demands, and its features in non-labeling imaging, 3D capability, a large working distance, and various functional derivatives allow OCT to cover a number of specific applications in embryonic imaging. Recently, our group has made several technical improvements in using OCT to probe the biomechanical aspects of live developing mouse embryos at early stages. These include the direct volumetric structural and functional imaging of the cardiodynamics, four-dimensional quantitative Doppler imaging and analysis of the cardiac blood flow, and fourdimensional blood flow separation from the cardiac wall tissue in the beating embryonic heart. Here, we present a short review of these studies together with brief descriptions of the previous work that demonstrate OCT as a valuable and useful imaging tool

  19. Clonal analysis of Notch1-expressing cells reveals the existence of unipotent stem cells that retain long-term plasticity in the embryonic mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Anna M; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Hannezo, Edouard; Landragin, Camille; Renaud, Olivier; Leroy, Olivier; Rulands, Steffen; Simons, Benjamin D; Fre, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Recent lineage tracing studies have revealed that mammary gland homeostasis relies on unipotent stem cells. However, whether and when lineage restriction occurs during embryonic mammary development, and which signals orchestrate cell fate specification, remain unknown. Using a combination of in vivo clonal analysis with whole mount immunofluorescence and mathematical modelling of clonal dynamics, we found that embryonic multipotent mammary cells become lineage-restricted surprisingly early in development, with evidence for unipotency as early as E12.5 and no statistically discernable bipotency after E15.5. To gain insights into the mechanisms governing the switch from multipotency to unipotency, we used gain-of-function Notch1 mice and demonstrated that Notch activation cell autonomously dictates luminal cell fate specification to both embryonic and basally committed mammary cells. These functional studies have important implications for understanding the signals underlying cell plasticity and serve to clarify how reactivation of embryonic programs in adult cells can lead to cancer.

  20. Expression of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes during early embryogenesis in the amphibian Bufo arenarum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bussy, Rodrigo; Mouguelar, Valeria; Banchio, Claudia; Coux, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    In the principal route of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis the regulatory steps are catalysed by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and choline kinase (CK). Knock-out mice in Pcyt1a (CCT gene) and Chka1 (CK gene) resulted in preimplantation embryonic lethality, demonstrating the essential role of this pathway. However, there is still a lack of detailed CCT and CK expression analysis during development. The aim of the current work was to study the expression during early development of both enzymes in the external-fertilization vertebrate Bufo arenarum. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot confirmed their presence in unfertilized eggs. Analysis performed in total extracts from staged embryos showed constant protein levels of both enzymes until the 32-cell stage: then they decreased, reaching a minimum in the gastrula before starting to recover. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase is an amphitropic enzyme that inter-converts between cytosolic inactive and membrane-bound active forms. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the cytosolic:total CCT protein ratio does not change throughout embryogenesis, suggesting a progressive decline of CCT activity in early development. However, PC (and phosphatidylethanolamine) content per egg/embryo remained constant throughout the stages analysed. In conclusion, the current data for B. arenarum suggest that net synthesis of PC mediated by CCT and CK is not required in early development and that supplies for membrane biosynthesis are fulfilled by lipids already present in the egg/embryo reservoirs.

  1. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  2. Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions.

    PubMed

    Koning, I V; Baken, L; Groenenberg, I A L; Husen, S C; Dudink, J; Willemsen, S P; Gijtenbeek, M; Koning, A H J; Reiss, I K M; Steegers, E A P; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2016-05-01

    studied in the general population. Assessment of growth trajectories of the embryonic head may be of benefit in future early antenatal care. This study was funded by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre and Sophia Foundation for Medical Research, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (SSWO grant number 644). No competing interests are declared. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of passage number on electrophoretic mobility distributions of cultured human embryonic kidney cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic investigation was undertaken to characterize population shifts that occur in cultured human embryonic kidney cells as a function of passage number in vitro after original explantation. This approach to cell population shift analysis follows the suggestion of Mehreshi, Klein and Revesz that perturbed cell populations can be characterized by electrophoretic mobility distributions if they contain subpopulations with different electrophoretic mobilities. It was shown that this is the case with early passage cultured human embryo cells.

  4. The effects of triclosan on pluripotency factors and development of mouse embryonic stem cells and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Han, Xiumei; Mao, Zhilei; Chen, Minjian; Du, Guizhen; Talbot, Prue; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan (TCS) poses potential risks to reproduction and development due to its endocrine-disrupting properties. However, the mechanism of TCS's effects on early embryonic development is little known. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) and zebrafish embryos provide valuable models for testing the toxic effects of environmental chemicals on early embryogenesis. In this study, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) were acutely exposed to TCS for 24 h, and general cytotoxicity and the effect of TCS on pluripotency were then evaluated. In addition, zebrafish embryos were exposed to TCS from 2- to 24-h post-fertilization (hpf), and their morphology was evaluated. In mESC, alkaline phosphatase staining was significantly decreased after treatment with the highest concentration of TCS (50 μM). Although the expression levels of Sox2 mRNA were not changed, the mRNA levels of Oct4 and Nanog in TCS-treated groups were significantly decreased compared to controls. In addition, the protein levels of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were significantly reduced in response to TCS treatment. MicroRNA (miR)-134, an expression inhibitor of pluripotency markers, was significantly increased in TCS-treated mESC. In zebrafish experiments, after 24 hpf of treatment, the controls had developed to the late stage of somitogenesis, while embryos exposed to 300 μg/L of TCS were still at the early stage of somitogenesis, and three genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog) were upregulated in treated groups when compared with the controls. The two models demonstrated that TCS may affect early embryonic development by disturbing the expression of the pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog).

  5. Lethal effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) on amphibian Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Liliana Elizabeth; Juárez, Américo Osvaldo; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2012-03-01

    The dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser which is used in popular medicine. Toxicity tests using embryos of amphibian have been widely used in order to predict toxic effects of different compounds. However, to our knowledge, there are not studies focussed on the toxic effects of dehydroleucodine on Bufo arenarum, which is an anuran widely distributed in South America. The effect of dehydroleucodine on the survival of embryos was evaluated in an acute test during the early life stage of B. arenarum embryos. Lethality and the degree of adverse effects were dehydroleucodine dose-dependent. Overall, amphibian early life stages appeared to be more susceptible to the embryotoxicity associated with exposure to dehydroleucodine, especially at concentration greater that 3mM. This increased susceptibility may result from the relatively high rate of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis that occurs at this early stage of development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Full recovery from a potentially lethal dose of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Beasley, D Michael G; Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Temple, Wayne A; Michel, Jonathan M

    2014-03-01

    Mercuric chloride poisoning is rare yet potentially life-threatening. We report a case of poisoning with a potentially significant amount of mercuric chloride which responded to aggressive management. A 19-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department with nausea, abdominal discomfort, vomiting of blood-stained fluid, and diarrhea following suicidal ingestion of 2-4 g of mercuric chloride powder. An abdominal radiograph showed radio-opaque material within the gastric antrum and the patient's initial blood mercury concentration was 17.9 μmol/L (or 3.58 mg/L) at 3 h post-ingestion. Given the potential toxicity of inorganic mercury, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and chelation with dimercaprol was undertaken. Further clinical effects included mild hemodynamic instability, acidosis, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, and fever. The patient's symptoms began to improve 48 h after admission and resolved fully within a week. Mercuric chloride has an estimated human fatal dose of between 1 and 4 g. Despite a reported ingestion of a potentially lethal dose and a high blood concentration, this patient experienced mild to moderate poisoning only and she responded to early and appropriate intervention. Mercuric chloride can produce a range of toxic effects including corrosive injury, severe gastrointestinal disturbances, acute renal failure, circulatory collapse, and eventual death. Treatment includes close observation and aggressive supportive care along with chelation, preferably with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate or 2,3-meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid.

  7. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Carracedo, Sergio; Sacher, Frank; Brandes, Gudrun; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  8. Paternal identity impacts embryonic development for two species of freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Pitcher, Trevor E; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2017-05-01

    Paternal, compared to maternal, contributions were believed to have only a limited influence on embryonic development and larval fitness traits in fishes. Therefore, the perspective of male influence on early life history traits has come under scrutiny. This study was conducted to determine parental effects on the rate of eyed embryos of Ide Leuciscus idus and Northern pike Esox lucius. Five sires and five dams from each species were crossed using a quantitative genetic breeding design and the resulting 25 sib groups of each species were reared to the embryonic eyed stage. We then partition variation in embryonic phenotypic performance to maternal, paternal, and parental interactions using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model. Results showed that paternal, maternal, and the paternal×maternal interaction terms were highly significant for both species; clearly demonstrating that certain family combinations were more compatible than others. Paternal effects explained 20.24% of the total variance, which was 2-fold higher than the maternal effects (10.73%) in Ide, while paternal effects explained 18.9% of the total variance, which was 15-fold higher than the maternal effects (1.3%) in Northern pike. Together, these results indicate that male effects are of major importance during embryonic development for these species. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that genetic compatibility between sires and dams plays an important role and needs to be taken into consideration for reproduction of these and likely other economically important fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Observation of human embryonic behavior in vitro by high-resolution time-lapse cinematography.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kyoko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has yielded vast amounts of information and knowledge on human embryonic development in vitro; however, still images provide limited data on dynamic changes in the developing embryos. Using our high-resolution time-lapse cinematography (hR-TLC) system, we were able to describe normal human embryonic development continuously from the fertilization process to the hatched blastocyst stage in detail. Our hR-TLC observation also showed the embryonic abnormality of a third polar body (PB)-like substance likely containing a small pronucleus being extruded and resulting in single-pronucleus (1PN) formation, while our molecular biological investigations suggested the possibility that some 1PN embryos could be diploid, carrying both maternal and paternal genomes. Furthermore, in some embryos the extruded third PB-like substance was eventually re-absorbed into the ooplasm resulting in the formation of an uneven-sized, two-PN zygote. In addition, other hR-TLC observations showed that cytokinetic failure was correlated with equal-sized, multi-nucleated blastomeres that were also observed in the embryo showing early initiation of compaction. Assessment combining our hR-TLC with molecular biological techniques enables a better understanding of embryonic development and potential improvements in ART outcomes.

  10. The embryonic origin of the ampullate silk glands of the spider Cupiennius salei.

    PubMed

    Hilbrant, Maarten; Damen, Wim G M

    2015-05-01

    Silk production in spiders is considered a key innovation, and to have been vital for the diversification of the clade. The evolutionary origin of the organs involved in spider silk production, however, and in particular of the silk glands, is poorly understood. Homologies have been proposed between these and other glands found in arachnids, but lacking knowledge of the embryonic development of spider silk glands hampers an evaluation of hypotheses. This study focuses on the embryonic origin of the largest silk glands of the spider Cupiennius salei, the major and minor ampullate glands. We show how the ampullate glands originate from ectodermal invaginations on the embryonic spinneret limb buds, in relation to morphogenesis of these buds. Moreover, we visualize the subsequent growth of the ampullate glands in sections of the early postembryonic stages. The invaginations are shown to correlate with expression of the proneural gene CsASH2, which is remarkable since it has been proposed that spider silk glands and their nozzles originate from sensory bristles. Hence, by confirming the ectodermal origin of spider silk glands, and by describing the (post-)embryonic morphogenesis of the ampullate glands, this work provides a starting point for further investigating into the genetic program that underlies their development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A staging table for the embryonic development of the brownbanded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum)

    PubMed Central

    Onimaru, Koh; Motone, Fumio; Kiyatake, Itsuki; Nishida, Kiyonori

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studying cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans) has helped us understand vertebrate evolution and diversity. However, resources such as genome sequences, embryos, and detailed staging tables are limited for species within this clade. To overcome these limitations, we have focused on a species, the brownbanded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum), which is a relatively common aquarium species that lays eggs continuously throughout the year. In addition, because of its relatively small genome size, this species is promising for molecular studies. Results: To enhance biological studies of cartilaginous fishes, we establish a normal staging table for the embryonic development of the brownbanded bamboo shark. Bamboo shark embryos take around 118 days to reach the hatching period at 25°C, which is approximately 1.5 times as fast as the small‐spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) takes. Our staging table divides the embryonic period into 38 stages. Furthermore, we found culture conditions that allow early embryos to grow in partially opened egg cases. Conclusions: In addition to the embryonic staging table, we show that bamboo shark embryos exhibit relatively fast embryonic growth and are amenable to culture, key characteristics that enhance their experimental utility. Therefore, the present study is a foundation for cartilaginous fish research. Developmental Dynamics 247:712–723, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:29396887

  12. Transcriptional Profiling of Ectoderm Specification to Keratinocyte Fate in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tadeu, Ana Mafalda Baptista; Lin, Samantha; Hou, Lin; Chung, Lisa; Zhong, Mei; Zhao, Hongyu; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shed light into the processes that regulate epidermal specification and homeostasis. We previously showed that a broad-spectrum γ–secretase inhibitor DAPT promoted early keratinocyte specification in human embryonic stem cells triggered to undergo ectoderm specification. Here, we show that DAPT accelerates human embryonic stem cell differentiation and induces expression of the ectoderm protein AP2. Furthermore, we utilize RNA sequencing to identify several candidate regulators of ectoderm specification including those involved in epithelial and epidermal development in human embryonic stem cells. Genes associated with transcriptional regulation and growth factor activity are significantly enriched upon DAPT treatment during specification of human embryonic stem cells to the ectoderm lineage. The human ectoderm cell signature identified in this study contains several genes expressed in ectodermal and epithelial tissues. Importantly, these genes are also associated with skin disorders and ectodermal defects, providing a platform for understanding the biology of human epidermal keratinocyte development under diseased and homeostatic conditions. PMID:25849374

  13. Simultaneous cell death and desquamation of the embryonic diffusion barrier during epidermal development.

    PubMed

    Saathoff, Manuela; Blum, Barbara; Quast, Thomas; Kirfel, Gregor; Herzog, Volker

    2004-10-01

    The periderm is an epithelial layer covering the emerging epidermis in early embryogenesis of vertebrates. In the chicken embryo, an additional cellular layer, the subperiderm, occurs at later embryonic stages underneath the periderm. The questions arose what is the function of both epithelial layers and, as they are transitory structures, by which mechanism are they removed. By immunocytochemistry, the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and claudin-1 were localized in the periderm and in the subperiderm, and sites of close contact between adjacent cells were detected by electron microscopy. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as tracer, these contacts were identified as tight junctions involved in the formation of the embryonic diffusion barrier. This barrier was lost by desquamation at the end of the embryonic period, when the cornified envelope of the emerging epidermis was formed. By TUNEL and DNA ladder assays, we detected simultaneous cell death in the periderm and the subperiderm shortly before hatching. The absence of caspases-3, -6, and -7 activity, key enzymes of apoptosis, and the lack of typical morphological criteria of apoptosis such as cell fragmentation or membrane blebbing point to a special form of programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the desquamation of the embryonic diffusion barrier. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Subretinally transplanted embryonic stem cells rescue photoreceptor cells from degeneration in the RCS rats.

    PubMed

    Schraermeyer, U; Thumann, G; Luther, T; Kociok, N; Armhold, S; Kruttwig, K; Andressen, C; Addicks, K; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2001-01-01

    The Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat is an animal model for retinal degeneration such as the age-related macular degeneration. The RCS rat undergoes a progressive retinal degeneration during the early postnatal period. A potential treatment to prevent this retinal degeneration is the transplantation into the subretinal space of cells that would replace functions of the degenerating retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells or may form neurotrophic factors. In this study we have investigated the potential of subretinally transplanted embryonic stem cells to prevent the genetically determined photoreceptor cell degeneration in the RCS rat. Embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst were allowed to differentiate to neural precursor cells in vitro and were then transplanted into the subretinal space of 20-day-old RCS rats. Transplanted and sham-operated rats were sacrificed 2 months following cell transplantation. The eyes were enucleated and photoreceptor degeneration was quantified by analyzing and determining the thickness of the outer nuclear layer by light and electron microscopy. In the eyes transplanted with embryonic cells up to 8 rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei were observed, whereas in nontreated control eyes the outer nuclear layer had degenerated completely. Transplantation of embryonic stem cells appears to delay photoreceptor cell degeneration in RCS rats.

  15. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chan-Jung; Mitra, Koyel; Koya, Mariko; Velho, Michelle; Desprat, Romain; Lenz, Jack; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  16. Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Yelin, Ronit; Yelin, Dvir; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yun, Seok H.; Boudoux, Caroline; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2009-01-01

    Study of developmental heart defects requires the visualization of the microstructure and function of the embryonic myocardium, ideally with minimal alterations to the specimen. We demonstrate multiple endogenous contrast optical techniques for imaging the Xenopus laevis tadpole heart. Each technique provides distinct and complementary imaging capabilities, including: 1. 3-D coherence microscopy with subcellular (1 to 2 µm) resolution in fixed embryos, 2. real-time reflectance confocal microscopy with large penetration depth in vivo, and 3. ultra-high speed (up to 900 frames per second) that enables real-time 4-D high resolution imaging in vivo. These imaging modalities can provide a comprehensive picture of the morphologic and dynamic phenotype of the embryonic heart. The potential of endogenous-contrast optical microscopy is demonstrated for investigation of the teratogenic effects of ethanol. Microstructural abnormalities associated with high levels of ethanol exposure are observed, including compromised heart looping and loss of ventricular trabecular mass. PMID:18163837

  17. Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure.

    PubMed

    Yelin, Ronit; Yelin, Dvir; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yun, Seok H; Boudoux, Caroline; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2007-01-01

    Study of developmental heart defects requires the visualization of the microstructure and function of the embryonic myocardium, ideally with minimal alterations to the specimen. We demonstrate multiple endogenous contrast optical techniques for imaging the Xenopus laevis tadpole heart. Each technique provides distinct and complementary imaging capabilities, including: 1. 3-D coherence microscopy with subcellular (1 to 2 microm) resolution in fixed embryos, 2. real-time reflectance confocal microscopy with large penetration depth in vivo, and 3. ultra-high speed (up to 900 frames per second) that enables real-time 4-D high resolution imaging in vivo. These imaging modalities can provide a comprehensive picture of the morphologic and dynamic phenotype of the embryonic heart. The potential of endogenous-contrast optical microscopy is demonstrated for investigation of the teratogenic effects of ethanol. Microstructural abnormalities associated with high levels of ethanol exposure are observed, including compromised heart looping and loss of ventricular trabecular mass.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with fertilizing ability of sperm and subsequent embryonic development in cattle

    Fertilization and development of the preimplantation embryo is under genetic control. The goal of the current study was to test 434 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with genetic variation in fertilization and early embryonic development. The approach was to produce embryos from...

  19. A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature

    Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

    2011-01-01

    Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

  20. Lethal factor antibodies contribute to lethal toxin neutralization in recipients of anthrax vaccine precipitated.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Eric K; Garman, Lori; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Charlton, Sue; Hallis, Bassam; Engler, Renata J M; Choudhari, Shyamal; Picking, William D; James, Judith A; Farris, A Darise

    2017-06-08

    A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective. In this report we compared humoral immune responses in cohorts of AVP (n=39) and AVA recipients (n=78) matched 1:2 for number of vaccinations and time post-vaccination, and evaluated whether the LF response contributes to LT neutralization in human recipients of AVP. PA response rates (≥95%) and PA IgG concentrations were similar in both groups; however, AVP recipients exhibited higher LT neutralization ED 50 values (AVP: 1464.0±214.7, AVA: 544.9±83.2, p<0.0001) and had higher rates of LF IgG positivity (95%) compared to matched AVA vaccinees (1%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that LF IgG makes an independent and additive contribution to the LT neutralization response in the AVP group. Affinity purified LF antibodies from two independent AVP recipients neutralized LT and bound to LF Domain 1, confirming contribution of LF antibodies to LT neutralization. This study documents the benefit of including an LF component to PA-based anthrax vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Redundant functions of I-BAR family members, IRSp53 and IRTKS, are essential for embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ai Mei; Sem, Kai Ping; Lam, Wei Jun; Ahmed, Sohail; Lim, Chin Yan

    2017-01-01

    The insulin receptor substrate of 53 kDa, IRSp53, is an adaptor protein that works with activated GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac, to modulate actin dynamics and generate membrane protrusions in response to cell signaling. Adult mice that lack IRSp53 fail to regulate synaptic plasticity and exhibit hippocampus-associated learning deficiencies. Here, we show that 60% of IRSp53 null embryos die at mid to late gestation, indicating a vital IRSp53 function in embryonic development. We find that IRSp53 KO embryos displayed pleiotropic phenotypes such as developmental delay, oligodactyly and subcutaneous edema, and died of severely impaired cardiac and placental development. We further show that double knockout of IRSp53 and its closest family member, IRTKS, resulted in exacerbated placental abnormalities, particularly in spongiotrophoblast differentiation and development, giving rise to complete embryonic lethality. Hence, our findings demonstrate a hitherto under-appreciated IRSp53 function in embryonic development, and further establish an essential genetic interaction between IRSp53 and IRTKS in placental formation. PMID:28067313

  2. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 9.5-18.5

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F.; Elmore, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxiciy studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. PMID:20805319

  3. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cox, B D; Lyon, M F

    1975-06-01

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes, in contrast to results for the mouse. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster, as in the mouse, immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pig and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss and when on post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones. The mutation rate data for mature oocytes of the mouse, using post-implantation loss alone, also fitted a linear dose-response relationship, except that the rate per unit dose was lower than for the other two species.

  4. Similar GABAergic inputs in dentate granule cells born during embryonic and adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Laplagne, Diego A; Kamienkowski, Juan E; Espósito, M Soledad; Piatti, Verónica C; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2007-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus follows a unique temporal pattern that begins during embryonic development, peaks during the early postnatal stages and persists through adult life. We have recently shown that dentate granule cells born in early postnatal and adult mice acquire a remarkably similar afferent connectivity and firing behavior, suggesting that they constitute a homogeneous functional population [Laplagne et al. (2006)PLoS Biol., 4, e409]. Here we extend our previous study by comparing mature neurons born in the embryonic and adult hippocampus, with a focus on intrinsic membrane properties and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic inputs. For this purpose, dividing neuroblasts of the ventricular wall were retrovirally labeled with green fluorescent protein at embryonic day 15 (E15), and progenitor cells of the subgranular zone were labeled with red fluorescent protein in the same mice at postnatal day 42 (P42, adulthood). Electrophysiological properties of mature neurons born at either stage were then compared in the same brain slices. Evoked and spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic responses of perisomatic and dendritic origin displayed similar characteristics in both neuronal populations. Miniature GABAergic inputs also showed similar functional properties and pharmacological profile. A comparative analysis of the present data with our previous observations rendered no significant differences among GABAergic inputs recorded from neurons born in the embryonic, early postnatal and adult mice. Yet, embryo-born neurons showed a reduced membrane excitability, suggesting a lower engagement in network activity. Our results demonstrate that granule cells of different age, location and degree of excitability receive GABAergic inputs of equivalent functional characteristics.

  5. Clofibrate and gemfibrozil induce an embryonic malabsorption syndrome in zebrafish

    SciT

    Raldua, Demetrio; Andre, Michele; Babin, Patrick J.

    2008-05-01

    Nutrient availability is one of the major non-genetic factors determining embryonic growth and larval or fetal size. Due to the high human consumption of blood lipid regulators, fibrates have recently been reported as pollutants in rivers. Our study investigated the developmental toxicity of fibrates in zebrafish. Treatment with micromolar concentrations of clofibrate or gemfibrozil induced an embryonic malabsorption syndrome (EMS) with very little yolk consumption, resulting in small-sized larvae. This effect was reversible on removing the drug from the water. Clofibrate delayed hatching time and decreased the amount of oil red O lipid staining in the vasculature. It also inducedmore » higher density, round-shaped neuromuscular junctions associated with disorganization and less striation of muscular fibers, and pericardial edema, as well as impairing thyroid gland morphogenesis. acox1, apoa1 and mtp hybridization transcript signals were not affected in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) after clofibrate exposure. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate did not slow down yolk resorption, whereas brefeldin A induced EMS. These findings suggest that the inhibition of yolk sac resorption on exposure to fibrate is not at a pre-translational level or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha dependent and may be due to an inhibition of the YSL constitutive cell secretion. The effects of fibrates and the potential bioconcentration in eggs as well as the additive action of structurally related toxicants warrant an evaluation of the developmental impact of these compounds after long-term exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations. Fibrate-induced EMS in zebrafish seems useful for studying the morphogenetic consequences of impaired nutrient availability during the early stages of vertebrate development.« less

  6. Empirical complexities in the genetic foundations of lethal mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bull, James J; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-10-01

    From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias-mutagenesis of virions-but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it.

  7. Embryonic death is linked to maternal identity in the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea).

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anthony R; Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V; Reina, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Leatherback turtles have an average global hatching success rate of ~50%, lower than other marine turtle species. Embryonic death has been linked to environmental factors such as precipitation and temperature, although, there is still a lot of variability that remains to be explained. We examined how nesting season, the time of nesting each season, the relative position of each clutch laid by each female each season, maternal identity and associated factors such as reproductive experience of the female (new nester versus remigrant) and period of egg retention between clutches (interclutch int