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Sample records for early empiric treatment

  1. Biomarker-based strategy for early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rouzé, Anahita; Loridant, Séverine; Poissy, Julien; Dervaux, Benoit; Sendid, Boualem; Cornu, Marjorie; Nseir, Saad

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a biomarker-based strategy on early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment. Prospective randomized controlled single-center unblinded study, performed in a mixed ICU. A total of 110 patients were randomly assigned to a strategy in which empirical antifungal treatment duration was determined by (1,3)-β-D-glucan, mannan, and anti-mannan serum assays, performed on day 0 and day 4; or to a routine care strategy, based on international guidelines, which recommend 14 days of treatment. In the biomarker group, early stop recommendation was determined using an algorithm based on the results of biomarkers. The primary outcome was the percentage of survivors discontinuing empirical antifungal treatment early, defined as a discontinuation strictly before day 7. A total of 109 patients were analyzed (one patient withdraw consent). Empirical antifungal treatment was discontinued early in 29 out of 54 patients in the biomarker strategy group, compared with one patient out of 55 in the routine strategy group [54% vs 2%, p < 0.001, OR (95% CI) 62.6 (8.1-486)]. Total duration of antifungal treatment was significantly shorter in the biomarker strategy compared with routine strategy [median (IQR) 6 (4-13) vs 13 (12-14) days, p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in the percentage of patients with subsequent proven invasive Candida infection, mechanical ventilation-free days, length of ICU stay, cost, and ICU mortality between the two study groups. The use of a biomarker-based strategy increased the percentage of early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment among critically ill patients with suspected invasive Candida infection. These results confirm previous findings suggesting that early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment had no negative impact on outcome. However, further studies are needed to confirm the safety of this strategy. This trial was registered at Clinical

  2. [Contribution to the history of pharmacology (the early Roman empire)].

    PubMed

    Tesařová, Drahomíra

    2014-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of pharmacology in the early Roman empire. It contains texts mainly written in Latin: the works of Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Scribonius Largus and Plinius Maior (Pliny the Elder). It describes their structure and contributions to the history of medicine and gives examples of some prescriptions and drugs in the original language and in Czech.

  3. Is Empiricism Empirically False? Lessons from Early Nervous Systems.

    PubMed

    Miłkowski, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Recent work on skin-brain thesis (de Wiljes et al. 2015; Keijzer 2015; Keijzer et al. 2013) suggests the possibility of empirical evidence that empiricism is false. It implies that early animals need no traditional sensory receptors to be engaged in cognitive activity. The neural structure required to coordinate extensive sheets of contractile tissue for motility provides the starting point for a new multicellular organized form of sensing. Moving a body by muscle contraction provides the basis for a multicellular organization that is sensitive to external surface structure at the scale of the animal body. In other words, the nervous system first evolved for action, not for receiving sensory input. Thus, sensory input is not required for minimal cognition; only action is. The whole body of an organism, in particular its highly specific animal sensorimotor organization, reflects the bodily and environmental spatiotemporal structure. The skin-brain thesis suggests that, in contrast to empiricist claims that cognition is constituted by sensory systems, cognition may be also constituted by action-oriented feedback mechanisms. Instead of positing the reflex arc as the elementary building block of nervous systems, it proposes that endogenous motor activity is crucial for cognitive processes. In the paper, I discuss the issue whether the skin-brain thesis and its supporting evidence can be really used to overthrow the main tenet of empiricism empirically, by pointing out to cognizing agents that fail to have any sensory apparatus.

  4. Growth hormone and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Cavarzere, P; Gaudino, R

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) not only for GH deficiency (GHD) but also for other childhood growth disorders with growth failure and/or short stature. GHD is the most frequent endocrine disorder presenting with short stature in childhood. During neonatal period, metabolic effects due to congenital GHD require a prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. In childhood and adolescence, growth impairment is the most evident effect of GHD and early treatment has the aim of restore normal growth and to reach normal adult height. We reassume in this review the conditions causing GHD and the diagnostic challenge to reach an early diagnosis, and an early treatment, necessary to obtain the best results. Finally, we summarize results obtained in clinical studies about pediatric patients with GHD treated at an early age, in which a marked early catch-up growth and a normalization of adult height were obtained.

  5. Treatment of early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes currently available treatment options and treatment strategies, investigational treatments, and the importance of exercise for early Parkinson's disease. The available treatment options for early Parkinson's disease have changed little in the past decade and include carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors. However, we discuss changes in treatment strategies, including dosing and the use of combination therapy used in an attempt to reduce or delay the appearance of motor complications and other adverse events. We will also review several investigational treatments that have shown promise for the treatment of early Parkinson's disease, including a new extended release formulation of carbidopa/levodopa (IPX066), safinamide which inhibits MAO-B, dopamine uptake and glutamate and pardoprunox which is a 5HT-1A agonist and a partial dopamine agonist. Finally, we discuss recent studies focusing on exercise as an important component in the management of early Parkinson's disease. Advances in the management of early Parkinson's disease include evolving treatment strategies, new investigational treatments, and earlier implementation of various forms of exercise.

  6. Empirically supported treatments for feeding difficulties in young children.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ann McGrath; Bruce, Amanda; Cocjin, Jose; Mousa, Hayat; Hyman, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric feeding problems are common among children and present severe issues for families. Unfortunately, treatment outcome studies with this population are sparse. The current study reviews the literature regarding treatment studies of children with severe feeding issues, provides an overview of empirically supported treatments for children who do eat orally, and finally summarizes interventions that attempt to reintroduce oral feeding to children who have been fed by gastrostomy tube or other non-oral feeding route.

  7. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the…

  8. Empirical testing of two models for staging antidepressant treatment resistance.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Timothy; Papakostas, George I; Posternak, Michael A; Kant, Alexis; Guyker, Wendy M; Iosifescu, Dan V; Yeung, Albert S; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio

    2005-08-01

    An increasing amount of attention has been paid to treatment resistant depression. Although it is quite common to observe nonremission to not just one but consecutive antidepressant treatments during a major depressive episode, a relationship between the likelihood of achieving remission and one's degree of resistance is not clearly known at this time. This study was undertaken to empirically test 2 recent models for staging treatment resistance. Psychiatrists from 2 academic sites reviewed charts of patients on their caseloads. Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scales were used to measure severity of depression and response to treatment, and 2 treatment-resistant staging scores were classified for each patient using the Massachusetts General Hospital staging method (MGH-S) and the Thase and Rush staging method (TR-S). Out of the 115 patient records reviewed, 58 (49.6%) patients remitted at some point during treatment. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 staging scores, and logistic regression results indicated that greater MGH-S scores, but not TR-S scores, predicted nonremission. This study suggests that the hierarchical manner in which the field has typically gauged levels of treatment resistance may not be strongly supported by empirical evidence. This study suggests that the MGH staging model may offer some advantages over the staging method by Thase and Rush, as it generates a continuous score that considers both number of trials and intensity/optimization of each trial.

  9. Analysis of copper and brass coins of the early roman empire.

    PubMed

    Carter, G F

    1966-01-14

    X-ray fluorescence analysis of 14 copper and brass coins of the early Roman Empire shows differences in composition between coins minted in Rome and in France. Concentrations of tin, lead, and antimony are nearly always less than in coins minted before 29 B.C. or after 54 A.D. Older coins were not melted to make copper coins of the early empire.

  10. Evaluation of empirical treatment for blood culture-negative endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Menu, Estelle; Gouriet, Frédérique; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Vecten, Maude; Saby, Ludivine; Hubert, Sandrine; Salaun, Erwan; Theron, Alexis; Grisoli, Dominique; Lavoute, Cécile; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the main causes of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE). Few studies concerning BCNE treatment (due to previous antibiotics used or fastidious pathogens) are available. We performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of our therapeutic protocol in BCNE, based on compliance with the protocol, outcome and 1 year mortality. We collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively cases of BCNE between 2002 and 2014, using a simplified and standardized protocol developed by our multidisciplinary team. We apply two kinds of protocols to treat BCNE, which include only four intravenous antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin and amphotericin B. We had 177 patients with definite BCNE. There were 154 (87.0%) patients treated with both appropriate antimicrobial agents and appropriate duration of treatment. We analysed the causes of inappropriate treatment in 13 (7.3%) cases and inappropriate duration in 10 (5.6%) cases. The treatment changes were justified in all cases except one of discharge against medical advice. The fatality rate was 5.1% (nine cases) and all deaths occurred in the group of patients who were treated with appropriate treatment; however, four deaths were not attributable to empirical treatment failure. Concerning the other deaths, the lack of surgical management, in association with empirical treatment, could explain our protocol's failure, such as poorly tolerated surgery. Our protocol is efficient and our mortality rate was low, compared with the literature review. This may result from a strategy that uses a sampling procedure and a standardized protocol at the same time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Early Child Disaster Mental Health Interventions: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Tucker, Phebe; Newman, Elana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The need to establish an evidence base for early child disaster interventions has been long recognized. Objective: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the empirical research on early disaster mental health interventions delivered to children within the first 3 months post event. Methods: Characteristics and findings of the…

  12. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A; Dulmus, Catherine N; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the working conditions in programs that currently use ESTs. METHOD: This study compared the culture and climate scores of a large organization's programs that use ESTs and those programs indicating no EST usage. RESULTS: Of the total 55 different programs (1,273 frontline workers), 27 programs used ESTs. Results indicate that the programs offering an EST had significantly more rigid and resistant cultures, compared to those without any ESTs. In regard to climate, programs offering an EST were significantly less engaged, less functional, and more stressed. CONCLUSION: Outcomes indicate a significant disruption in organizational culture and climate for programs offering ESTs.

  13. Empirically Based Profiles of the Early Literacy Skills of Children with Language Impairment in Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Laura; Logan, Jessica; Kaderavek, Joan; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Tompkins, Virginia; Bartlett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested…

  14. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Childhood Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    The clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatment approaches is reviewed with the intent to facilitate the training of counseling students. Empirically supported treatments (ESTs) is defined operationally as evidence-based treatments following the listing of empirically validated psychological treatments reported by…

  15. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  16. Prediction of early summer rainfall over South China by a physical-empirical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2014-10-01

    In early summer (May-June, MJ) the strongest rainfall belt of the northern hemisphere occurs over the East Asian (EA) subtropical front. During this period the South China (SC) rainfall reaches its annual peak and represents the maximum rainfall variability over EA. Hence we establish an SC rainfall index, which is the MJ mean precipitation averaged over 72 stations over SC (south of 28°N and east of 110°E) and represents superbly the leading empirical orthogonal function mode of MJ precipitation variability over EA. In order to predict SC rainfall, we established a physical-empirical model. Analysis of 34-year observations (1979-2012) reveals three physically consequential predictors. A plentiful SC rainfall is preceded in the previous winter by (a) a dipole sea surface temperature (SST) tendency in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, (b) a tripolar SST tendency in North Atlantic Ocean, and (c) a warming tendency in northern Asia. These precursors foreshadow enhanced Philippine Sea subtropical High and Okhotsk High in early summer, which are controlling factors for enhanced subtropical frontal rainfall. The physical empirical model built on these predictors achieves a cross-validated forecast correlation skill of 0.75 for 1979-2012. Surprisingly, this skill is substantially higher than four-dynamical models' ensemble prediction for 1979-2010 period (0.15). The results here suggest that the low prediction skill of current dynamical models is largely due to models' deficiency and the dynamical prediction has large room to improve.

  17. Antibiotic stewardship and empirical antibiotic treatment: How can they get along?

    PubMed

    Zuccaro, Valentina; Columpsi, Paola; Sacchi, Paolo; Lucà, Maria Grazia; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Bruno, Raffaele

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the recent knowledge on antibiotic stewardship and empiric antibiotic treatment in cirrhotic patients. The application of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) rules appears to be the most appropriate strategy to globally manage cirrhotic patients with infectious complications: indeed they represent a unique way to provide both early diagnosis and appropriate therapy in order to avoid not only antibiotic over-prescription but, more importantly, selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, cirrhotic patients must be considered "frail" and susceptible to healthcare associated infections: applying AMS policies would assure a cost reduction and thus contribute to the improvement of public health strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Empirically Based Profiles of the Early Literacy Skills of Children With Language Impairment in Early Childhood Special Education.

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura; Logan, Jessica; Kaderavek, Joan; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Tompkins, Virginia; Bartlett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested vulnerability for future reading problems. Participants were 218 children enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms, 95% of whom received speech-language services. Children were administered an assessment of early literacy skills in the fall of the academic year. Based on results of latent profile analysis, four distinct literacy profiles were identified, with the single largest profile (55% of children) representing children with generally poor literacy skills across all areas examined. Children in the two low-risk categories had higher oral language skills than those in the high-risk and moderate-risk profiles. Across three of the four early literacy measures, children with language as their primary disability had higher scores than those with LI concomitant with other disabilities. These findings indicate that there are specific profiles of early literacy skills among children with LI, with about one half of children exhibiting a profile indicating potential susceptibility for future reading problems. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  19. Some empirical observations about early stuttering: a possible link to language development.

    PubMed

    Bloodstein, O

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests a possible link between incipient stuttering and early difficulty in language formulation. The hypothesis offers a unifying explanation of an array of empirical observations. Among these observations are the following: early stuttering occurs only on the first word of a syntactic structure; stuttering does not appear to be influenced by word-related factors; early stuttering seldom occurs on one-word utterances; the earliest age at which stuttering is reported is 18 months, with the beginning of grammatical development; the age at which most onset of stuttering is reported, 2-5 years, coincides with the period during which children acquire syntax; considerable spontaneous recovery takes place at the time most children have mastered syntax; incipient stuttering is influenced by the length and grammatical complexity of utterances; young children who stutter may be somewhat deficient in language skills; boys who stutter outnumber girls. The reader will learn about a number of empirical observations about incipient stuttering and how they may be explained by a syntax-based hypothesis about its etiology.

  20. Equine-related treatments for mental disorders lack empirical support: a systematic review of empirical investigations.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Zawilinski, Laci L; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-12-01

    Equine-related treatments (ERT) for mental disorders are becoming increasingly popular for a variety of diagnoses; however, they have been subjected only to limited systematic investigation. To examine the quality of and results from peer-reviewed research on ERT for mental disorders and related outcomes. Peer-reviewed studies (k = 14) examining treatments for mental disorders or closely related outcomes were identified from databases and article reference sections. All studies were compromised by a substantial number of threats to validity, calling into question the meaning and clinical significance of their findings. Additionally, studies failed to provide consistent evidence that ERT is superior to the mere passage of time in the treatment of any mental disorder. The current evidence base does not justify the marketing and utilization of ERT for mental disorders. Such services should not be offered to the public unless and until well-designed studies provide evidence that justify different conclusions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Empirically defining rapid response to intensive treatment to maximize prognostic utility for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Danielle E; Trottier, Kathryn; McFarlane, Traci; Olmsted, Marion P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid response (RR) to eating disorder treatment has been reliably identified as a predictor of post-treatment and sustained remission, but its definition has varied widely. Although signal detection methods have been used to empirically define RR thresholds in outpatient settings, RR to intensive treatment has not been investigated. This study investigated the optimal definition of RR to day hospital treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder. Participants were 158 patients who completed ≥6 weeks of day hospital treatment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to create four definitions of RR that could differentiate between remission and nonremission at the end of treatment. Definitions were based on binge/vomit episode frequency or percent reduction from pre-treatment, during either the first four or first two weeks of treatment. All definitions were associated with higher remission rates in rapid compared to nonrapid responders. Only one definition (i.e., ≤3 episodes in the first four weeks of treatment) predicted sustained remission (versus relapse) at 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings provide an empirically derived definition of RR to intensive eating disorder treatment, and provide further evidence that early change is an important prognostic indicator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relation between Trait Mindfulness and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Men Seeking Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has examined the relation between mindfulness and substance use, demonstrating that lower trait mindfulness is associated with increased substance use, and that mindfulness-based interventions help to reduce substance use. Research has also demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas are prevalent among individuals seeking substance use treatment and that targeting early maladaptive schemas in treatment may improve outcomes. However, no known research has examined the relation between mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas despite theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect their association. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas among adult men seeking residential substance abuse treatment (N = 82). Findings demonstrated strong negative associations between trait mindfulness and 15 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Moreover, men endorsing multiple early maladaptive schemas reported lower trait mindfulness than men with fewer early maladaptive schemas. The implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:26085852

  3. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

  4. Early outcomes of empiric embolization of tumor-related gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with advanced malignancy.

    PubMed

    Tandberg, Daniel J; Smith, Tony P; Suhocki, Paul V; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska; Nelson, Rendon C; Desai, Svetang; Branch, Stanley; Kim, Charles Y

    2012-11-01

    To report short-term results of empiric transcatheter embolization for patients with advanced malignancy and gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage directly from a tumor invading the GI tract wall. Between 2005 and 2011, 37 mesenteric angiograms were obtained in 26 patients with advanced malignancy (20 men, six women; mean age, 56.2 y) with endoscopically confirmed symptomatic GI hemorrhage from a tumor invading the GI tract wall. Angiographic findings and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical success was defined as absence of signs and symptoms of hemorrhage for at least 30 day following embolization. Active extravasation was demonstrated in three cases. Angiographic abnormalities related to a GI tract tumor were identified on 35 of 37 angiograms, including tumor neovascularity (n = 21), tumor enhancement (n = 24), and luminal irregularity (n = 5). In the absence of active extravasation, empiric embolization with particles and/or coils was performed in 25 procedures. Cessation of hemorrhage (ie, clinical success) occurred more frequently when empiric embolization was performed (17 of 25 procedures; 68%) than when embolization was not performed (two of nine; 22%; P = .03). Empiric embolization resulted in clinical success in 10 of 11 patients with acute GI bleeding (91%), compared with seven of 14 patients (50%) with chronic GI bleeding (P = .04). No ischemic complications were encountered. In patients with advanced malignancy, in the absence of active extravasation, empiric transcatheter arterial embolization for treatment of GI hemorrhage from a direct tumor source demonstrated a 68% short-term success rate, without any ischemic complications. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Strategies in treatment of suicidality: identification of common and treatment-specific interventions in empirically supported treatment manuals.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Igor; Ronningstam, Elsa; Goldblatt, Mark J; Schechter, Mark; Wheelis, Joan; Maltsberger, John T

    2010-06-01

    Many reports of treatments for suicidal patients claim effectiveness in reducing suicidal behavior but fail to demonstrate which treatment interventions, or combinations thereof, diminish suicidality. In this study, treatment manuals for empirically supported psychological treatments for suicidal patients were examined to identify which interventions they had in common and which interventions were treatment-specific. Empirically supported treatments for suicidality were identified through a literature search of PsychLit and MEDLINE for the years 1970-2007, employing the following search strategy: [suicide OR parasuicide] AND [therapy OR psychotherapy OR treatment] AND [random OR randomized]. After identifying the reports on randomized controlled studies that tested effectiveness of different treatments, the reference list of each report was searched for further studies. Only reports published in English were included. To ensure that rated manuals actually correspond to the delivered and tested treatments, we included only treatment interventions with explicit adherence rating and scoring and with adequate adherence ratings in the published studies. Five manualized treatments demonstrating efficacy in reducing suicide risk were identified and were independently evaluated by raters using a list of treatment interventions. The common interventions included a clear treatment framework; a defined strategy for managing suicide crises; close attention to affect; an active, participatory therapist style; and use of exploratory and change-oriented interventions. Some treatments encouraged a multimodal approach and identification of suicidality as an explicit target behavior, and some concentrated on the patient-therapist relationship. Emphasis on interpretation and supportive interventions varied. Not all methods encouraged systematic support for therapists. This study identified candidate interventions for possible effectiveness in reducing suicidality. These interventions

  6. Bridging Empirical and Physical Approaches for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Adler, Robert; Kumar, Sujay; Harrison, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides typically occur and are evaluated at local scales, using slope-stability models to calculate coincident changes in driving and resisting forces at the hillslope level in order to anticipate slope failures. Over larger areas, detailed high resolution landslide modeling is often infeasible due to difficulties in quantifying the complex interaction between rainfall infiltration and surface materials as well as the dearth of available in situ soil and rainfall estimates and accurate landslide validation data. This presentation will discuss how satellite precipitation and surface information can be applied within a landslide hazard assessment framework to improve landslide monitoring and early warning by considering two disparate approaches to landslide hazard assessment: an empirical landslide forecasting algorithm and a physical slope-stability model. The goal of this research is to advance near real-time landslide hazard assessment and early warning at larger spatial scales. This is done by employing high resolution surface and precipitation information within a probabilistic framework to provide more physically-based grounding to empirical landslide triggering thresholds. The empirical landslide forecasting tool, running in near real-time at http://trmm.nasa.gov, considers potential landslide activity at the global scale and relies on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data and surface products to provide a near real-time picture of where landslides may be triggered. The physical approach considers how rainfall infiltration on a hillslope affects the in situ hydro-mechanical processes that may lead to slope failure. Evaluation of these empirical and physical approaches are performed within the Land Information System (LIS), a high performance land surface model processing and data assimilation system developed within the Hydrological Sciences Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LIS provides the

  7. Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatments for Early Autism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Vismara, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention for children with autism is currently a politically and scientifically complex topic. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated positive effects in both short-term and longer term studies. The evidence suggests that early intervention programs are indeed beneficial for children with autism, often improving developmental functioning and decreasing maladaptive behaviors and symptom severity at the level of group analysis. Whether such changes lead to significant improvements in terms of greater independence and vocational and social functioning in adulthood is also unknown. Given the few randomized controlled treatment trials that have been carried out, the few models that have been tested, and the large differences in interventions that are being published, it is clear that the field is still very early in the process of determining (a) what kinds of interventions are most efficacious in early autism, (b) what variables moderate and mediate treatment gains and improved outcomes following intervention, and (c) the degree of both short-term and long-term improvements that can reasonably be expected. To examine these current research needs, the empirical studies of comprehensive treatments for young children with autism published since 1998 were reviewed. Lovaas's treatment meet Chambless and colleague's (Chambless et al., 1998; Chambless et al., 1996) criteria for “well-established” and no treatment meets the “probably efficacious” criteria, though three treatments meet criteria for “possibly efficacious” (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). Most studies were either Type 2 or 3 in terms of their methodological rigor based on Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria. Implications of these findings are also discussed in relation to practice guidelines as well as critical areas of research that have yet to be answered PMID:18444052

  8. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

  9. Nanomedicine for Early Disease Detection and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0442 TITLE: Nanomedicine for early disease ...been developed to report and cure diseases . ESNM is prepared with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes, sequentially assembled on an inert gold...molecular characteristics of the patient and his/her specific diseased tissues with the treatment. In order to maximize therapeutic effects and

  10. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-01-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…

  12. Management of genetic epilepsies: From empirical treatment to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Striano, Pasquale; Vari, Maria Stella; Mazzocchetti, Chiara; Verrotti, Alberto; Zara, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Despite the over 20 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) now licensed for epilepsy treatment, seizures can be effectively controlled in about ∼70% of patients. Thus, epilepsy treatment is still challenging in about one third of patients and this may lead to a severe medically, physically, and socially disabling condition. However, there is clear evidence of heterogeneity of response to existing AEDs and a significant unmet need for effective intervention. A number of studies have shown that polymorphisms may influence the poor or inadequate therapeutic response as well as the occurrence of adverse effects. In addition, the new frontier of genomic technologies, including chromosome microarrays and next-generation sequencing, improved our understanding of the genetic architecture of epilepsies. Recent findings in some genetic epilepsy syndromes provide insights into mechanisms of epileptogenesis, unrevealing the role of a number of genes with different functions, such as ion channels, proteins associated to the vesical synaptic cycle or involved in energy metabolism. The rapid progress of high-throughput genomic sequencing and corresponding analysis tools in molecular diagnosis are revolutionizing the practice and it is a fact that for some monogenic epilepsies the molecular confirmation may influence the choice of the treatment. Moreover, the novel genetic methods, that are able to analyze all known genes at a reasonable price, are of paramount importance to discover novel therapeutic avenues and individualized (or precision) medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  14. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Psychophysiological Disorders and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    In training counseling students, it is increasingly important to acquaint them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. This review of empirically supported treatments (EST's) concerning psychophysiological disorders and chronic pain is intended to facilitate the educational process. EST's, or…

  15. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Pica in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…

  16. Integrating real-time subsurface hydrologic monitoring with empirical rainfall thresholds to improve landslide early warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Becker, Rachel E.; Baum, Rex L.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Early warning for rainfall-induced shallow landsliding can help reduce fatalities and economic losses. Although these commonly occurring landslides are typically triggered by subsurface hydrological processes, most early warning criteria rely exclusively on empirical rainfall thresholds and other indirect proxies for subsurface wetness. We explore the utility of explicitly accounting for antecedent wetness by integrating real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements into landslide early warning criteria. Our efforts build on previous progress with rainfall thresholds, monitoring, and numerical modeling along the landslide-prone railway corridor between Everett and Seattle, Washington, USA. We propose a modification to a previously established recent versus antecedent (RA) cumulative rainfall thresholds by replacing the antecedent 15-day rainfall component with an average saturation observed over the same timeframe. We calculate this antecedent saturation with real-time telemetered measurements from five volumetric water content probes installed in the shallow subsurface within a steep vegetated hillslope. Our hybrid rainfall versus saturation (RS) threshold still relies on the same recent 3-day rainfall component as the existing RA thresholds, to facilitate ready integration with quantitative precipitation forecasts. During the 2015–2017 monitoring period, this RS hybrid approach has an increase of true positives and a decrease of false positives and false negatives relative to the previous RA rainfall-only thresholds. We also demonstrate that alternative hybrid threshold formats could be even more accurate, which suggests that further development and testing during future landslide seasons is needed. The positive results confirm that accounting for antecedent wetness conditions with direct subsurface hydrologic measurements can improve thresholds for alert systems and early warning of rainfall-induced shallow landsliding.

  17. Training addiction professionals in empirically supported treatments: perspectives from the treatment community.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale dissemination efforts seek to expand opportunities for the addiction treatment community to receive training in empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Prospective consumers of such training are valuable sources of input about content of interest, preferences for how training events are structured, and obstacles that deter receipt of training. In this mixed-method study, data were collected in 64 semistructured individual interviews with personnel during site visits to 16 community opioid treatment programs (OTPs). At each OTP, interviews were completed with the executive director, a clinical supervisor, and 2 direct-service clinicians. Topical interests were analyzed qualitatively in a cultural domain analysis. Likert ratings of training event preferences were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), and unstructured interviewee comments were analyzed via narrative analysis. Obstacles to training receipt were analyzed qualitatively with both content coding and narrative analysis. Based on topics of reported interest, cultural domain analysis suggests as ESTs of note: Multidimensional Family Therapy, Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Relapse Prevention Therapy, "Seeking Safety," and broad addiction-focused pharmacotherapy. Regarding training event preferences, GLMMs and narrative analysis revealed clear preferences for time-distributed trainings and use of participatory activities (e.g., trainer demonstrations, role plays, small group exercises). Content coding identified cost as the primary obstacle to receipt of EST trainings, followed by lack of time, logistical challenges, and disinterest, and narrative analysis elaborated on contextual issues underlying these obstacles. As primary consumers of EST technologies, the treatment community has valuable input to offer. Dissemination efforts may be enhanced by greater consideration of their preferences for training content and event structure, as well as practical obstacles that challenge

  18. Management strategy for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a comparison between empirical treatment with esomeprazole and endoscopy-oriented treatment.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Edoardo G; Zentilin, Patrizia; Dulbecco, Pietro; Vigneri, Sergio; Scarlata, Pamela; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2008-02-01

    Whether patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and without alarm features should be treated empirically or undergo endoscopy first is a debated issue. In this study, our aim was to assess the efficacy, and to compare the direct costs and impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL), of two treatment strategies (empirical vs endoscopy-oriented treatment) in a large population of patients with GERD. In total, 612 patients were randomized to either empirical treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg once daily (od) (group 1, N = 309) or endoscopy and treatment according to endoscopic findings (group 2, N = 303, esomeprazole 40 mg od in patients with reflux esophagitis and esomeprazole 20 mg od in patients without esophagitis) for 4 wk, followed by esomeprazole 20 mg od maintenance treatment in both groups. Direct costs and HRQL were analyzed in both treatment arms. At the end of the acute treatment phase (week 4), 267 patients in group 1 (86.4%) and 265 patients in group 2 (87.5%) were considered responders to treatment (intention-to-treat analysis, P= 0.878). Empirical treatment proved to be cost-effective by saving 38.72 euros per treated patient. At the end of the maintenance phase (week 24), a similar proportion of patients responded to treatment in the two groups (71.8%vs 68.3%, P= 0.389). HRQL improved from baseline to week 24 in both groups (difference between study groups not significant). In patients with GERD, empirical treatment with esomeprazole proved to be cost-effective compared with endoscopy-oriented treatment, and did not negatively affect patient HRQL. These results should be taken into account in the management of GERD patients in clinical practice.

  19. Functionality of empirical model-based predictive analytics for the early detection of hemodynamic instabilty.

    PubMed

    Summers, Richard L; Pipke, Matt; Wegerich, Stephan; Conkright, Gary; Isom, Kristen C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Monitoring cardiovascular hemodynamics in the modern clinical setting is a major challenge. Increasing amounts of physiologic data must be analyzed and interpreted in the context of the individual patient’s pathology and inherent biologic variability. Certain data-driven analytical methods are currently being explored for smart monitoring of data streams from patients as a first tier automated detection system for clinical deterioration. As a prelude to human clinical trials, an empirical multivariate machine learning method called Similarity-Based Modeling (“SBM”), was tested in an In Silico experiment using data generated with the aid of a detailed computer simulator of human physiology (Quantitative Circulatory Physiology or “QCP”) which contains complex control systems with realistic integrated feedback loops. Methods. SBM is a kernel-based, multivariate machine learning method that that uses monitored clinical information to generate an empirical model of a patient’s physiologic state. This platform allows for the use of predictive analytic techniques to identify early changes in a patient’s condition that are indicative of a state of deterioration or instability. The integrity of the technique was tested through an In Silico experiment using QCP in which the output of computer simulations of a slowly evolving cardiac tamponade resulted in progressive state of cardiovascular decompensation. Simulator outputs for the variables under consideration were generated at a 2-min data rate (0.083Hz) with the tamponade introduced at a point 420 minutes into the simulation sequence. The functionality of the SBM predictive analytics methodology to identify clinical deterioration was compared to the thresholds used by conventional monitoring methods. Results. The SBM modeling method was found to closely track the normal physiologic variation as simulated by QCP. With the slow development of the tamponade, the SBM model are seen to disagree while the

  20. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  2. A Review on Attachment and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Andreas; Bröning, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the relation of attachment and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescence. Based on a theoretical introduction, we review evidence for a possible general link between SUD and insecure attachment, for links between specific forms of SUD and specific patterns of attachment, and for studies on family patterns of attachment in adolescence. Using medical and psychological databases, we identified 10 studies on adolescent SUD and another 13 studies on adult SUD. Empirical evidence strongly supports the assumption of insecure attachment in SUD samples. With regard to specific patterns of attachment, results mainly point towards fearful and dismissing-avoidance, whereas single studies report preoccupied and unresolved patterns. Results indicate different patterns of attachment in different groups of substance abusers, that is, fearful-avoidant attachment in heroin addicts and more heterogeneous results in abusers of other substances. Explorative data suggest different types of insecure family attachment patterns, which might imply different functions of substance abuse and lead to different treatment recommendations. Methodological problems such as poor assessment of SUD and the use of different measures of attachment limit comparability. Although a lot of research is still needed to address the unknowns in the relation between attachment and SUD, there is strong evidence for a general link between SUD and insecure attachment. Data on connections between different patterns of attachment and different pathways towards SUD are less conclusive but mainly point to disorganized and externalizing pathways. Evidence suggests that fostering attachment security might improve the outcome of state-of-the-art approaches in both early interventional treatment and prevention. Implications for individual and family approaches are outlined.

  3. An Exploration of Students' Perceptions of Empirically Supported Treatments: The Significance of Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lori; Giorgio, Tina; Houston, Hank; Jacobucci, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate differences in students 'perceptions of empirically supported treatments (ESTS) randomized to experimental (n= 10) and attention-control (n= 10) manual-based therapy interventions. The results indicated that attitudinal changes took place for both groups. The results…

  4. An Empirical Investigation of Group Treatment for a Clinical Population of Adult Female Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…

  5. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  6. A Survey of Graduate Training in Empirically Supported and Manualized Treatments: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karekla, Maria; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; Forsyth, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The promotion and dissemination of empirically supported (ESTs) and manualized therapies are important, albeit controversial, developments within clinical science and practice. To date, studies evaluating training opportunities and attitudes about such treatments at the graduate, predoctoral internship, and postdoctoral levels have focused on the…

  7. Illustrations of neurosurgical techniques in early period of Ottoman Empire by Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M

    2007-10-01

    Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu (A.D. 1385-1468) was the author of the first illustrated surgery atlas Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), which was written in Turkish in 1465. The purpose of this report is to present his unique contribution to modern neurological surgery. Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye consists of 412 pages in three chapters, in which there are a total of 191 sections dealing with a variety of surgical specialties, including neurosurgery. In each section of the book, a sentence written in rhyme and meter gives the diagnosis, classification and surgical technique in detail. Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu describes medical and surgical management of neurological diseases such as spinal trauma, epilepsy, migraine, facial palsy, hemiplegia, low back pain, cranial fracture, hydrocephalus and abscesses of the head in his textbook. Serefeddin Sabuncuoğlu was a great surgeon in Turkish medical history and the sections on neurological diseases in Cerrahiyyetü'l Haniyye are of great importance in neurosurgery. Today, he is justified as a pioneer of surgery, an investigator and a medical illustrator in the early period of Ottoman Empire. His atlas is a modification of original contributions from earlier treatises.

  8. A simple empirical model for the clarification-thickening process in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y K; Wang, H C; Qi, L; Liu, G H; He, Z J; Fan, H T

    2015-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), activated sludge is thickened in secondary settling tanks and recycled into the biological reactor to maintain enough biomass for wastewater treatment. Accurately estimating the activated sludge concentration in the lower portion of the secondary clarifiers is of great importance for evaluating and controlling the sludge recycled ratio, ensuring smooth and efficient operation of the WWTP. By dividing the overall activated sludge-thickening curve into a hindered zone and a compression zone, an empirical model describing activated sludge thickening in the compression zone was obtained by empirical regression. This empirical model was developed through experiments conducted using sludge from five WWTPs, and validated by the measured data from a sixth WWTP, which fit the model well (R² = 0.98, p < 0.001). The model requires application of only one parameter, the sludge volume index (SVI), which is readily incorporated into routine analysis. By combining this model with the conservation of mass equation, an empirical model for compression settling was also developed. Finally, the effects of denitrification and addition of a polymer were also analysed because of their effect on sludge thickening, which can be useful for WWTP operation, e.g., improving wastewater treatment or the proper use of the polymer.

  9. Contribution of economic evaluation to decision making in early phases of product development: a methodological and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Susanne; John, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Economic evaluation as an integral part of health technology assessment is today mostly applied to established technologies. Evaluating healthcare innovations in their early states of development has recently attracted attention. Although it offers several benefits, it also holds methodological challenges. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible contributions of economic evaluation to industry's decision making early in product development and to confront the results with the actual use of early data in economic assessments. We conducted a literature research to detect methodological contributions as well as economic evaluations that used data from early phases of product development. Economic analysis can be beneficially used in early phases of product development for various purposes including early market assessment, R&D portfolio management, and first estimations of pricing and reimbursement scenarios. Analytical tools available for these purposes have been identified. Numerous empirical works were detected, but most do not disclose any concrete decision context and could not be directly matched with the suggested applications. Industry can benefit from starting economic evaluation early in product development in several ways. Empirical evidence suggests that there is still potential left unused.

  10. Early surgical treatment of retinal hemangioblastomas.

    PubMed

    van Overdam, Koen A; Missotten, Tom; Kilic, Emine; Spielberg, Leigh H

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical course after early surgical treatment with excision of retinal hemangioblastomas (RHs) before development of major complications. Interventional case series of four eyes (four patients) with a peripheral RH that had not yet been treated by laser or cryotherapy prior to surgery. All eyes underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy with lesion excision. One patient underwent ligation of the feeder vessel prior to lesion excision. Best-corrected visual acuity and clinical course were assessed during a follow-up period of at least 4 years. Four patients (mean age 27.3 years; range 19-32) were included, of whom two had von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Visual acuity improved in three patients (mean 4.8 lines; range 3-10) and remained stable at 0.0 logMAR in one patient. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications included transient mild vitreous haemorrhage (n = 2), and local epiretinal membrane formation at the excision location (n = 1). At 4 years postoperatively, there were no long-term complications. There was one case of a new lesion, which was effectively treated with laser. Vitrectomy with RH excision seems to be an effective approach for larger RHs and could be considered an early treatment option in selected cases. Postoperative complications were limited in scope of this case series. Important points to consider during vitrectomy are effective closure of feeder and draining vessels as well as complete removal of posterior hyaloid and epiretinal membranes in order to avoid postoperative vitreous haemorrhage and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Moving Clinical Deliberations on Administrative Discharge in Drug Addiction Treatment Beyond Moral Rhetoric to Empirical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L

    2016-01-01

    Patients' admission to modern substance use disorder treatment comes with the attendant risk of being discharged from treatment-a widespread practice. This article describes the three mainstream theories of addiction that operate as a reference point for clinicians in reasoning about a decision to discharge a patient from treatment. The extant literature is reviewed to highlight the pathways that patients follow after administrative discharge. Little scientific research has been done to investigate claims and hypotheses about the therapeutic function of AD, which points to the need for empirical ethics to inform clinical addictions practice. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  12. The effectiveness of empirical anti-parasitic treatment in returning travellers with persistent abdominal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Batel; Lachish, Tamar; Schwartz, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Persistent abdominal symptoms (PAS) are common among returning-travellers. In the absence of sensitive tests to identify intestinal parasites, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms often remain a diagnostic challenge. In this study we examined the effectiveness of empirical anti-parasitic treatment in returning-travellers with PAS despite no positive stool-test. A retrospective study among returning travellers who approached the clinic between the years 2014 and 2016 with GI complaints without a positive stool-test. The empirical treatment included broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agents-oral Tinidazole and Albendazole. A follow-up questionnaire was performed at least 6 months post-treatment. A total of 102 patients responded the questionnaire-50% women; average age 31.14 (±12.20) years. The average duration of complaints before treatment was 16.52 (±30.06) months. Common GI symptoms included abdominal pain (83.3%) and diarrhoea (78.4%); 67.6% of the patients complained of extreme fatigue. Overall, 69% of the patients reported an improvement in GI symptoms, 37% of them reported full recovery within a few weeks post-treatment. Furthermore, there was an improvement in the energy level and general well-being in 68% and 70% of the patients, respectively. Only 33% of the patients reported minor side effects related to the treatment. The improvement in GI symptoms, energy level and general well-being shortly after anti-parasitic treatment justifies this empirical approach in returning-travellers with PAS despite negative stool-tests. The association between fatigue and PAS post-travel and the improvement in both as a response to treatment defines fatigue as part of a new syndrome-'Post-travel fatigue and abdominal symptoms'. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Factors influencing the utilization of empirically supported treatments for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Angela M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Anderson, Drew A

    2008-01-01

    This study expands upon previous research investigating the use of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) for eating disorders by surveying a large sample of clinicians who specialize in treating eating disorders. Surveys developed for this study were sent to 698 members of a large, professional, eating disorder organization who were listed as treatment providers on the organization's website. Despite clinicians reporting frequently using CBT techniques, most identified something other than CBT or IPT as their primary approach to treatment. In contrast with previous research, the majority had received prior training in the use of manual-based treatments. However, consistent with previous investigations, most denied regular use of such treatments. Although manual-based CBT and IPT are referred to as "treatments of choice," professional clinicians in the field are not consistently using them. Responses suggest several barriers to the utilization of ESTs in practice.

  14. Patients presenting to the hospital with MRSA pneumonia: differentiating characteristics and outcomes with empiric treatment.

    PubMed

    Minejima, Emi; Lou, Mimi; Nieberg, Paul; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2014-05-10

    Concern for MRSA in patients presented to the hospital with pneumonia may be overestimated leading to excessive prescribing of empiric anti-MRSA therapy. This study aims to identify at-risk patients and treatment outcomes. Adults hospitalized during 2005-2011 with pneumonia diagnosed within 48 h of admission were included. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for relevant data. Patients with MRSA were matched 1:1 to those with non-MRSA pathogen or negative culture. A published risk scoring system for MRSA pneumonia was applied. 268 elderly patients were included, 134 patients in each group. Compared to non-MRSA group, MRSA patients presented more acutely ill (p < 0.0001) (pneumonia severity index score, 150 vs 93; vasopressor therapy, 34% vs 6%; ICU admission, 47% vs 13%; and mechanical ventilation, 35% vs 10%) and had worse outcomes (p < 0.0001) (time to reach clinical stability, 6 vs 2.5d; length of stay, 10 vs 5d; clinical failure, 28% vs 4%; 28-day mortality, 22% vs 3%). When applied to our patients, a published risk scoring scheme had 93% sensitivity but lacked specificity at 55%; 40% of medium-risk patients did not have MRSA. A history of MRSA infection or pneumonia differentiated the latter group. Most MRSA patients (66%, 88/134) were treated empirically (primarily vancomycin) but outcome was not improved by receipt of empiric therapy. Use of a published risk scoring scheme with additional variables from this study can potentially reduce overprescribing of anti-MRSA empiric therapy in patients presented to the hospital with pneumonia. Prospective studies evaluating the treatment benefit of non-vancomycin alternatives as empiric therapy are needed.

  15. Patients presenting to the hospital with MRSA pneumonia: differentiating characteristics and outcomes with empiric treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Concern for MRSA in patients presented to the hospital with pneumonia may be overestimated leading to excessive prescribing of empiric anti-MRSA therapy. This study aims to identify at-risk patients and treatment outcomes. Methods Adults hospitalized during 2005–2011 with pneumonia diagnosed within 48 h of admission were included. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for relevant data. Patients with MRSA were matched 1:1 to those with non-MRSA pathogen or negative culture. A published risk scoring system for MRSA pneumonia was applied. Results 268 elderly patients were included, 134 patients in each group. Compared to non-MRSA group, MRSA patients presented more acutely ill (p < 0.0001) (pneumonia severity index score, 150 vs 93; vasopressor therapy, 34% vs 6%; ICU admission, 47% vs 13%; and mechanical ventilation, 35% vs 10%) and had worse outcomes (p < 0.0001) (time to reach clinical stability, 6 vs 2.5d; length of stay, 10 vs 5d; clinical failure, 28% vs 4%; 28-day mortality, 22% vs 3%). When applied to our patients, a published risk scoring scheme had 93% sensitivity but lacked specificity at 55%; 40% of medium-risk patients did not have MRSA. A history of MRSA infection or pneumonia differentiated the latter group. Most MRSA patients (66%, 88/134) were treated empirically (primarily vancomycin) but outcome was not improved by receipt of empiric therapy. Conclusions Use of a published risk scoring scheme with additional variables from this study can potentially reduce overprescribing of anti-MRSA empiric therapy in patients presented to the hospital with pneumonia. Prospective studies evaluating the treatment benefit of non-vancomycin alternatives as empiric therapy are needed. PMID:24885158

  16. Predictive vs. Empiric Assessment of Schistosomiasis: Implications for Treatment Projections in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kabore, Achille; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Downs, Philip W.; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Zhang, Yaobi; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mapping the distribution of schistosomiasis is essential to determine where control programs should operate, but because it is impractical to assess infection prevalence in every potentially endemic community, model-based geostatistics (MBG) is increasingly being used to predict prevalence and determine intervention strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the accuracy of MBG predictions for Schistosoma haematobium infection in Ghana, school surveys were evaluated at 79 sites to yield empiric prevalence values that could be compared with values derived from recently published MBG predictions. Based on these findings schools were categorized according to WHO guidelines so that practical implications of any differences could be determined. Using the mean predicted values alone, 21 of the 25 empirically determined ‘high-risk’ schools requiring yearly praziquantel would have been undertreated and almost 20% of the remaining schools would have been treated despite empirically-determined absence of infection – translating into 28% of the children in the 79 schools being undertreated and 12% receiving treatment in the absence of any demonstrated need. Conclusions/Significance Using the current predictive map for Ghana as a spatial decision support tool by aggregating prevalence estimates to the district level was clearly not adequate for guiding the national program, but the alternative of assessing each school in potentially endemic areas of Ghana or elsewhere is not at all feasible; modelling must be a tool complementary to empiric assessments. Thus for practical usefulness, predictive risk mapping should not be thought of as a one-time exercise but must, as in the current study, be an iterative process that incorporates empiric testing and model refining to create updated versions that meet the needs of disease control operational managers. PMID:23505584

  17. Estimation of treatment effect in a subpopulation: An empirical Bayes approach.

    PubMed

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Xiaochun; Jeong, Jaesik

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that the benefit of a medical intervention may not be distributed evenly in the target population due to patient heterogeneity, and conclusions based on conventional randomized clinical trials may not apply to every person. Given the increasing cost of randomized trials and difficulties in recruiting patients, there is a strong need to develop analytical approaches to estimate treatment effect in subpopulations. In particular, due to limited sample size for subpopulations and the need for multiple comparisons, standard analysis tends to yield wide confidence intervals of the treatment effect that are often noninformative. We propose an empirical Bayes approach to combine both information embedded in a target subpopulation and information from other subjects to construct confidence intervals of the treatment effect. The method is appealing in its simplicity and tangibility in characterizing the uncertainty about the true treatment effect. Simulation studies and a real data analysis are presented.

  18. Empirical effective temperatures and bolometric corrections for early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Bless, R. C.; Davis, J.; Brown, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical effective temperature for a star can be found by measuring its apparent angular diameter and absolute flux distribution. The angular diameters of 32 bright stars in the spectral range O5f to F8 have recently been measured with the stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory, and their absolute flux distributions have been found by combining observations of ultraviolet flux from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2) with ground-based photometry. In this paper, these data have been combined to derive empirical effective temperatures and bolometric corrections for these 32 stars.

  19. Changing Bilingual Self-Perceptions from Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Empirical Evidence from a Mixed-Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    In the emerging tradition of language socialization research, this study examines the changing bilingual self-perceptions of three children, identical twin girls and their older brother, from early adolescence through early adulthood. The children were reared in a predominantly French-speaking home in south Louisiana by French/English bilingual…

  20. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates in Namibia: implications for empirical antibiotic treatment of meningitis.

    PubMed

    Mengistu, Assegid; Gaeseb, Johannes; Uaaka, Gottfried; Ndjavera, Christophine; Kambyambya, Kennedy; Indongo, Lazarus; Kalemeera, Francis; Ntege, Christopher; Mabirizi, David; Joshi, Mohan P; Sagwa, Evans

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency associated with high mortality rates. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is the "gold standard" for diagnosis of meningitis and it is important to establish the susceptibility of the causative microorganism to rationalize treatment. The Namibia Standard Treatment Guidelines (STGs) recommends initiation of empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with signs and symptoms of meningitis after taking a CSF sample for culture and sensitivity. The objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of microorganisms isolated from CSF to antibiotics commonly used in the empirical treatment of suspected bacterial meningitis in Namibia. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of routinely collected antibiotic susceptibility data from the Namibia Institute of Pathology (NIP) database. Results of CSF culture and sensitivity from January 1, 2009 to May 31, 2012, from 33 state hospitals throughout Namibia were analysed. The most common pathogens isolated were Streptococcus species, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus, and Escherichia coli. The common isolates from CSF showed high resistance (34.3% -73.5%) to penicillin. Over one third (34.3%) of Streptococcus were resistance to penicillin which was higher than 24.8% resistance in the United States. Meningococci were susceptible to several antimicrobial agents including penicillin. The sensitivity to cephalosporins remained high for Streptococcus, Neisseria, E. coli and Haemophilus. The highest percentage of resistance to cephalosporins was seen among ESBL K. pneumoniae (n = 7, 71%-100%), other Klebsiella species (n = 7, 28%-80%), and Staphylococcus (n = 36, 25%-40%). The common organisms isolated from CSF were Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus, and E. coli. All common organisms isolated from CSF showed high sensitivity to cephalosporins used in the empirical

  1. What Have We Learned about Treatment Failure in Empirically Supported Treatments? Some Suggestions for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The examination of treatment failure has substantial value in advancing psychological practice as illustrated by the articles in this special issue. Treatment failure is not well defined and includes at least two independent phenomena: nonresponse and deterioration. After discussing the important distinction between nonresponse to treatment and…

  2. Dispelling myths about dissociative identity disorder treatment: an empirically based approach.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Loewenstein, Richard J; Spiegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Some claim that treatment for dissociative identity disorder (DID) is harmful. Others maintain that the available data support the view that psychotherapy is helpful. We review the empirical support for both arguments. Current evidence supports the conclusion that phasic treatment consistent with expert consensus guidelines is associated with improvements in a wide range of DID patients' symptoms and functioning, decreased rates of hospitalization, and reduced costs of treatment. Research indicates that poor outcome is associated with treatment that does not specifically involve direct engagement with DID self-states to repair identity fragmentation and to decrease dissociative amnesia. The evidence demonstrates that carefully staged trauma-focused psychotherapy for DID results in improvement, whereas dissociative symptoms persist when not specifically targeted in treatment. The claims that DID treatment is harmful are based on anecdotal cases, opinion pieces, reports of damage that are not substantiated in the scientific literature, misrepresentations of the data, and misunderstandings about DID treatment and the phenomenology of DID. Given the severe symptomatology and disability associated with DID, iatrogenic harm is far more likely to come from depriving DID patients of treatment that is consistent with expert consensus, treatment guidelines, and current research.

  3. Impact of empiric nesiritide or milrinone infusion on early postoperative recovery after Fontan surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Costello, John M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Allan, Catherine K; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Newburger, Jane W; McGowan, Francis X; Wessel, David L; Mayer, John E; Salvin, Joshua W; Dionne, Roger E; Laussen, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether empirical nesiritide or milrinone would improve the early postoperative course after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that compared with milrinone or placebo, patients assigned to receive nesiritide would have improved early postoperative outcomes. In a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-arm parallel-group clinical trial, patients undergoing primary Fontan surgery were assigned to receive nesiritide, milrinone, or placebo. A loading dose of study drug was administered on cardiopulmonary bypass followed by a continuous infusion for ≥12 hours and ≤5 days after cardiac intensive care unit admission. The primary outcome was days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included measures of cardiovascular function, renal function, resource use, and adverse events. Among 106 enrolled subjects, 35, 36, and 35 were randomized to the nesiritide, milrinone, and placebo groups, respectively, and all were analyzed based on intention to treat. Demographics, patient characteristics, and operative factors were similar among treatment groups. No significant treatment group differences were found for median days alive and out of the hospital within 30 days of surgery (nesiritide, 20 [minimum to maximum, 0-24]; milrinone, 18 [0-23]; placebo, 20 [0-23]; P=0.38). Treatment groups did not significantly differ in cardiac index, arrhythmias, peak lactate, inotropic scores, urine output, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care or chest tube drainage, or adverse events. Compared with placebo, empirical perioperative nesiritide or milrinone infusions are not associated with improved early clinical outcomes after Fontan surgery. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00543309. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Retaining Early Childhood Education Workers: A Review of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totenhagen, Casey J.; Hawkins, Stacy Ann; Casper, Deborah M.; Bosch, Leslie A.; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    Low retention in the child care workforce is a persistent challenge that has been associated with negative outcomes for children, staff, and centers. This article reviews the empirical literature, identifying common correlates or predictors of retention for child care workers. Searches were conducted using several databases, and articles that…

  5. Beyond "Perezhivanie," Sense, and Language: An Empirical Study of Early Childhood Teachers' Subjective Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira Coelho, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Subjectivity in a cultural-historical perspective, this paper presents an empirical study of two infant teachers and their subjective dynamics of being "enchanted" with singular aspects of their professional lives. Through the constructive-interpretative principle driven from the Qualitative Epistemology, the study…

  6. National Trainers’ Perspectives on Challenges to Implementation of an Empirically-Supported Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Barr, Simone; Cohen, Judith; Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined perceived challenges to implementation of an empirically supported mental health treatment for youth (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; TF-CBT) and explored the potential use of technology-based resources in treatment delivery. Thematic interviews were conducted with 19 approved national TF-CBT trainers to assess their perspectives about challenges to implementation of TF-CBT and to explore their perceptions about the potential value of innovative, technology-based solutions to enhance provider fidelity and improve quality of care. These data offer some important insights and implications for training in evidence-based treatments, provider fidelity and competence, and patient engagement, particularly for those interventions targeting trauma-related symptoms among youth. PMID:23605292

  7. Empirical risk factors for delinquency and best treatments: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Zagar, Robert John; Busch, Kenneth G; Hughes, John Russell

    2009-02-01

    Youth development and prevention of violence are two sides of the same public policy issue. A great deal of theoretical and empirical effort has focused on identification of risk factors for delinquency and development of interventions for general risks. Recent calls for changes in public policy are evaluated here--and challenged--in light of new comprehensive, longitudinal empirical data on urban violent delinquency. Treatments such as prenatal care, home visitation, prevention of bullying, prevention of alcohol and/or drug abuse, promotion of alternative thinking, mentoring, life skills training, rewards for graduation and employment, functional family therapy, and multidimensional foster care are effective because they prevent or ameliorate risks for delinquency occurring during development. At present, the best treatments yield 10 to 40% reductions in delinquent recidivism. Better controlled application of developmentally appropriate treatments in higher doses, with narrow targeting of the highest-risk youth based on actuarial testing--rather than less accurate clinical judgment--should result in higher effectiveness. Such a focused approach in a geographical area with high homicide rates should be cost-effective. A prediction of cost-benefit outcomes for a carefully constructed example of a large-scale program is presented.

  8. A content analysis of advertisements for psychotherapy workshops: implications for disseminating empirically supported treatments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Weingardt, Kenneth R; Jaszka, Jacqueline; Wiesner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    This study involved a content analysis of 261 unique advertisements for psychotherapy workshops that appeared in two bimonthly clinical magazines, Psychotherapy Networker and Counselor, during a 2-year period. Two independent judges coded each advertisement and documented the type and prevalence of advertising appeals used. From the seminal diffusion of innovations model, Rogers' (2003) five perceived characteristics of innovations found to influence adoption in diverse fields were not well represented in these workshops appeals, appearing less than 10% each. Few advertisements cited specific empirically supported treatments or presented any evidence of treatment effectiveness beyond expert testimonials. The most frequently noted appeals were to benefit the clinician (e.g., earning education credit or developing skills), characteristics that enhance credibility of the workshop (e.g., reference to storied history or mention of faculty), and features of the advertisements itself (e.g., use of superlatives and exclamation points). Promotional strategies to advertise psychotherapy workshops can be used to inform the dissemination of empirically supported treatments.

  9. The empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Fasolato, Silvano; Salinas, Freddy; Romano, Antonietta; Tonon, Marta; Morando, Filippo; Cavallin, Marta; Gola, Elisabetta; Sticca, Antonietta; Loregian, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Zanus, Giacomo; Senzolo, Marco; Burra, Patrizia; Cillo, Umberto; Angeli, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common, life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. Third-generation cephalosporins have been considered the first-line treatment of SBP. In 2014, a panel of experts suggested a broader spectrum antibiotic regimen for nosocomial SBP, according to the high rate of bacteria resistant to third-generation cephalosporins found in these patients. However, a broader-spectrum antibiotic regimen has never been compared to third-generation cephalosporins in the treatment of nosocomial SBP. The aim of our study was to compare meropenem plus daptomycin versus ceftazidime in the treatment of nosocomial SBP. Patients with cirrhosis and nosocomial SBP were randomized to receive meropenem (1 g/8 hours) plus daptomycin (6 mg/kg/day) or ceftazidime (2 g/8 hours). A paracentesis was performed after 48 hours of treatment. A reduction in ascitic fluid neutrophil count <25% of pretreatment value was considered a treatment failure. The primary outcome was the efficacy of treatment defined by the resolution of SBP after 7 days of treatment. Thirty-two patients were randomized and 31 were analyzed. The combination of meropenem plus daptomycin was significantly more effective than ceftazidime in the treatment of nosocomial SBP (86.7 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). Ninety-day transplant-free survival (TFS) was not significantly different between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, ineffective response to first-line treatment (hazard ratio [HR]: 20.6; P = 0.01), development of acute kidney injury during hospitalization (HR: 23.2; P = 0.01), and baseline mean arterial pressure (HR: 0.92; P = 0.01) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day TFS. The combination of meropenem plus daptomycin is more effective than ceftazidime as empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial SBP. Efficacy of the empirical antibiotic treatment is a strong predictor of 90-day survival in patients with nosocomial SBP. © 2015 by the American

  10. Has the DOTS Strategy Improved Case Finding or Treatment Success? An Empirical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Nearly fifteen years after the start of WHO's DOTS strategy, tuberculosis remains a major global health problem. Given the lack of empirical evidence that DOTS reduces tuberculosis burden, considerable debate has arisen about its place in the future of global tuberculosis control efforts. An independent evaluation of DOTS, one of the most widely-implemented and longest-running interventions in global health, is a prerequisite for meaningful improvements to tuberculosis control efforts, including WHO's new Stop TB Strategy. We investigate the impact of the expansion of the DOTS strategy on tuberculosis case finding and treatment success, using only empirical data. Methods and Findings We study the effect of DOTS using time-series cross-sectional methods. We first estimate the impact of DOTS expansion on case detection, using reported case notification data and controlling for other determinants of change in notifications, including HIV prevalence, GDP, and country-specific effects. We then estimate the effect of DOTS expansion on treatment success. DOTS programme variables had no statistically significant impact on case detection in a wide range of models and specifications. DOTS population coverage had a significant effect on overall treatment success rates, such that countries with full DOTS coverage benefit from at least an 18% increase in treatment success (95% CI: 5–31%). Conclusions The DOTS technical package improved overall treatment success. By contrast, DOTS expansion had no effect on case detection. This finding is less optimistic than previous analyses. Better epidemiological and programme data would facilitate future monitoring and evaluation efforts. PMID:18320042

  11. Empirical first-line treatment with tigecycline for febrile episodes following abdominal surgery in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Secondo, Giovanni; Vassallo, Francesca; Solari, Nicola; Moresco, Luciano; Percivale, Pierluigi; Zappi, Lucia; Cafiero, Ferdinando; De Maria, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Cancer patients with complicated infections following abdominal surgery represent one of the worst clinical scenarios that is useful for testing the efficacy of empirical antimicrobial therapy. No study so far has evaluated the performance of tigecycline (TIG) when administered as empirical first-line treatment in a homogeneous population of surgical cancer patients with a febrile episode. An observational review of the data records of 24 sequential patients receiving TIG for a febrile episode following a major abdominal procedure in a single cancer institute was performed. Large bowel surgery represented 68% of all procedures, followed by gastric surgery (16%) and urinary-gynaecologic-biliary surgery (16%). Complications following surgery were observed in 68% of febrile episodes, with peritonitis and sepsis accounting for 59% and 24% of complications, respectively. Eight patients needed repeat surgery for source control. The mean duration of TIG treatment was 8 days. Causative pathogens were detected in 16 episodes (64%), and a total of 44 microorganisms were recovered (29% Escherichia coli, 9% Enterococcus faecalis and 9% coagulase-negative staphylococci). TIG was effective in 12 episodes (48%). The success rate was 67% when infectious episodes sustained by intrinsically resistant bacteria and fungi were excluded. Treatment failure was associated with the presence of complications and with microbiologically documented infection. TIG may be useful as a first-line treatment option in cancer patients requiring antibiotic treatment following surgery when complications are not present or suspected on clinical grounds and when local microbial epidemiology shows a low incidence of primary resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Early treatment of penile fractures: our experience.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero, Javier; Villacampa, Felipe; Tejido, Angel; Díaz, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To report our experience in early surgery of penile fractures. We review retrospectively all the cases that underwent surgery at our center from 1989 to 2009, with a total of 24. The cause of the fracture was sexual intercourse in most cases, and in all of them, surgical management was performed according to clinical presentation and physical exploration. In only 7 cases an ultrasound was performed as a complementary test. Early surgery allows prompt resolution of the problem with excellent functional outcomes and little side effects. The prognosis after emergency surgery was excellent in this review.

  13. Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  14. Adult bacterial meningitis: aetiology, penicillin susceptibility, risk factors, prognostic factors and guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M; Bangsborg, J M

    2004-08-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p < 0.001). Ceftriaxone plus penicillin as empirical treatment was appropriate in 97% of ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate was 75% for penicillin-susceptible episodes, and 24% for penicillin-non-susceptible episodes (p < 0.001). Cases involving staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae were under-reported. Among 51 ABM cases with no identified risk factors, nine of 11 cases with penicillin-non-susceptible bacteria were community-acquired. Severe sequelae correlated independently with age, penicillin non-susceptibility, mechanical ventilation and non-transferral to a tertiary hospital (p < 0.05; logistic regression). Other factors that correlated with severe sequelae by univariate analysis only were inappropriate clinical handling, abnormal consciousness, convulsions and nosocomial infection. Overall, the data indicated that neither age alone, community-acquired infection nor absence of identified risk factors can predict susceptibility to penicillin accurately. Recommendations for empirical antibiotic treatment for ABM should not be based exclusively on clinical notification systems with possible unbalanced under-reporting.

  15. Interesting Practitioners in Training in Empirically Supported Treatments: Research Reviews versus Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rebecca E.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been repeatedly demonstrated that clinicians rely more on clinical judgment than on research findings. We hypothesized that psychologists in practice might be more open to adopting empirically supported treatments (ESTs) if outcome results were presented with a case study. Psychologists in private practice (N = 742) were randomly assigned to receive a research review of data from randomized controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and medication for bulimia, a case study of CBT for a fictional patient with bulimia, or both. Results indicated that the inclusion of case examples renders ESTs more compelling and interests clinicians in gaining training. Despite these participants’ training in statistics, the inclusion of the statistical information had no influence on attitudes or training willingness beyond that of the anecdotal case information. PMID:19899142

  16. Empirical mass-loss rates for 25 O and early B stars, derived from Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gathier, R.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Ultraviolet line profiles are fitted with theoretical line profiles in the cases of 25 stars covering a spectral type range from O4 to B1, including all luminosity classes. Ion column densities are compared for the determination of wind ionization, and it is found that the O VI/N V ratio is dependent on the mean density of the wind and not on effective temperature value, while the Si IV/N V ratio is temperature-dependent. The column densities are used to derive a mass-loss rate parameter that is empirically correlated against the mass-loss rate by means of standard stars with well-determined rates from IR or radio data. The empirical mass-loss rates obtained are compared with those derived by others and found to vary by as much as a factor of 10, which is shown to be due to uncertainties or errors in the ionization fractions of models used for wind ionization balance prediction.

  17. PTSD after childbirth: early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zauderer, Cheryl R

    2014-03-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth may be diagnosed as postpartum depression. With a thorough assessment, women with this condition can be diagnosed correctly and receive appropriate treatment, promoting a better outcome for both mother and baby.

  18. Empirical treatment of bacterial keratitis: an international survey of corneal specialists.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ariana; Schallhorn, Julie; Geske, Mike; Mannis, Mark; Lietman, Tom; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    New antibiotic agents and changing susceptibility patterns may have changed the empirical treatment of bacterial keratitis. Our objective in this study was to survey cornea specialists' practice patterns in the initial treatment of bacterial ulcers. This study consisted of a short online survey emailed to members of the Cornea Society listserv for an international sample of cornea specialists. Data collection began July 2014 and ended October 2014. A total of 1009 surveys were emailed, and we received 140 (14%) responses. The majority of US clinicians surveyed (n=83, 80%) chose fortified antibiotics empirically, with 55% (n=57) selecting fortified vancomycin and 16% (n=17) using fluoroquinolone alone. International respondents were twice as likely to use fluoroquinolone monotherapy (31%, n=11, p=0.07) and less likely to use fortified vancomycin (33%, n=12, p=0.03). Forty-five per cent (n=46) of US respondents reported that their initial antibiotic choice covered methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , compared with 22% (n=8) of international respondents (p<0.01). Overall, respondents who were concerned about availability of antibiotics and toxicity were 20.86 (p<0.001) and 7.48 (p<0.001) times more likely to choose fluoroquinolone monotherapy, respectively. If respondents' primary considerations were broad spectrum coverage or antibiotic resistance they had 7.10 (p<0.001) and 12.51 (p<0.001) times the odds of using fortified vancomycin, respectively. Practice patterns for the initial treatment of bacterial keratitis vary with clinicians in the USA being more likely to use fortified antibiotics versus fluoroquinolone monotherapy and more concerned with resistant organisms than their international peers.

  19. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  20. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  1. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  2. Expectations and Integration of Early Career Academics into the Teaching Career: Empirical Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi, Goski; Abdulai, Munkaila

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and induction of Early Career Academics (ECAs) in Ghana has been investigated using a qualitative study that employed an enumerative-ethnographic approach. The study combined reviews of policy documents, interviews of 50 Deans and Heads of Departments and surveys of ECAs in five purposively selected universities in Ghana to capture…

  3. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  4. Early Childhood Education Intervention Programs in the Netherlands: Still Searching for Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…

  5. Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Ilaria; Falchi, Anna Giulia; Muggia, Chiara; Grecchi, Ilaria; Montagna, Elisabetta; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Diet attrition and failure of long term treatment are very frequent in obese patients. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment variables determining dropout and to customise the characteristics of those most likely to abandon the program before treatment, thus making it possible to modify the therapy to increase compliance. A total of 146 outpatients were consecutively enrolled; 73 patients followed a prescriptive diet while 73 followed a novel brief group Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) in addition to prescriptive diet. The two interventions lasted for six months. Anthropometric, demographic, psychological parameters and feeding behaviour were assessed, the last two with the Italian instrument VCAO Ansisa; than, a semi-structured interview was performed on motivation to lose weight. To identify the baseline dropout risk factors among these parameters, univariate and multivariate logistic models were used. Comparison of the results in the two different treatments showed a higher attrition rate in CBT group, despite no statistically significant difference between the two treatment arms (P = 0.127). Dropout patients did not differ significantly from those who did not dropout with regards to sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), history of cycling, education, work and marriage. Regardless of weight loss, the most important factor that determines the dropout appears to be a high level of stress revealed by General Health Questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) score within VCAO test. The identification of hindering factors during the assessment is fundamental to reduce the dropout risk. For subjects at risk, it would be useful to dedicate a stress management program before beginning a dietary restriction.

  6. Consensus guidelines for the use of empiric and diagnostic-driven antifungal treatment strategies in haematological malignancy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, C O; Gilroy, N M; Macesic, N; Walker, P; Ananda-Rajah, M; May, M; Heath, C H; Grigg, A; Bardy, P G; Kwan, J; Kirsa, S W; Slavin, M; Gottlieb, T; Chen, S

    2014-12-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy for haematological malignancy. Much of these adverse outcomes are due to the limited ability of traditional diagnostic tests (i.e. culture and histology) to make an early and accurate diagnosis. As persistent or recurrent fevers of unknown origin (PFUO) in neutropenic patients despite broad-spectrum antibiotics have been associated with the development of IFD, most centres have traditionally administered empiric antifungal therapy (EAFT) to patients with PFUO. However, use of an EAFT strategy has not been shown to have an overall survival benefit and is associated with excessive antifungal therapy use. As a result, the focus has shifted to developing more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for early and more targeted antifungal treatment. These tests, including the galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have enabled the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal treatment (DDAT) strategies, which have been shown to be safe and feasible, reducing antifungal usage. In addition, the development of effective antifungal prophylactic strategies has changed the landscape in terms of the incidence and types of IFD that clinicians have encountered. In this review, we examine the current role of EAFT and provide up-to-date data on the newer diagnostic tests and algorithms available for use in EAFT and DDAT strategies, within the context of patient risk and type of antifungal prophylaxis used. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Is Openness to Using Empirically Supported Treatments Related to Organizational Culture and Climate?

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Dulmus, Catherine N; Maguin, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to investigate workers' openness towards implementing a new empirically supported treatment (EST) and whether the workers' openness scores relate to their workplace culture and climate scores. Participants in this study (N=1273) worked in a total of 55 different programs in a large child and family services organization and completed a survey measuring their attitudes toward ESTs. Results indicate that work groups that measure themselves as being more open to using ESTs rated their organizational cultures as being significantly more proficient and significantly less resistant to change. With ESTs becoming the gold standard for professional social work practices, it is important to have accessible pathways to EST implementation.

  8. Empirically derived personality subtyping for predicting clinical symptoms and treatment response in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Haynos, Ann F; Pearson, Carolyn M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that eating disorder subtypes reflecting under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology personality traits constitute reliable phenotypes that differentiate treatment response. This study is the first to use statistical analyses to identify these subtypes within treatment-seeking individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and to use these statistically derived clusters to predict clinical outcomes. Using variables from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire, K-means cluster analyses identified under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology subtypes within BN patients (n = 80) enrolled in a treatment trial. Generalized linear models examined the impact of personality subtypes on Eating Disorder Examination global score, binge eating frequency, and purging frequency cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at end of treatment (EOT) and follow-up. In the longitudinal models, secondary analyses were conducted to examine personality subtype as a potential moderator of response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) or Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy for BN (ICAT-BN). There were no baseline clinical differences between groups. In the longitudinal models, personality subtype predicted binge eating (p = 0.03) and purging (p = 0.01) frequency at EOT and binge eating frequency at follow-up (p = 0.045). The over-controlled group demonstrated the best outcomes on these variables. In secondary analyses, there was a treatment by subtype interaction for purging at follow-up (p = 0.04), which indicated a superiority of CBT-E over ICAT-BN for reducing purging among the over-controlled group. Empirically derived personality subtyping appears to be a valid classification system with potential to guide eating disorder treatment decisions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:506-514). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Empirically Derived Personality Subtyping for Predicting Clinical Symptoms and Treatment Response in Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Haynos, Ann F.; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that eating disorder subtypes reflecting under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology personality traits constitute reliable phenotypes that differentiate treatment response. This study is the first to use statistical analyses to identify these subtypes within treatment-seeking individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and to use these statistically derived clusters to predict clinical outcomes. Methods Using variables from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology–Basic Questionnaire, K-means cluster analyses identified under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology subtypes within BN patients (n = 80) enrolled in a treatment trial. Generalized linear models examined the impact of personality subtypes on Eating Disorder Examination global score, binge eating frequency, and purging frequency cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at end of treatment (EOT) and follow-up. In the longitudinal models, secondary analyses were conducted to examine personality subtype as a potential moderator of response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) or Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy for BN (ICAT-BN). Results There were no baseline clinical differences between groups. In the longitudinal models, personality subtype predicted binge eating (p = .03) and purging (p = .01) frequency at EOT and binge eating frequency at follow-up (p = .045). The over-controlled group demonstrated the best outcomes on these variables. In secondary analyses, there was a treatment by subtype interaction for purging at follow-up (p = .04), which indicated a superiority of CBT-E over ICAT-BN for reducing purging among the over-controlled group. Discussion Empirically derived personality subtyping is appears to be a valid classification system with potential to guide eating disorder treatment decisions. PMID:27611235

  10. An empirical assessment of the Healthy Early Childhood Program in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Braun, Gisele; Carraro, André; Teixeira, Gibran da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a family-based primary health care program (Healthly Early Childhood Program) on infant mortality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We estimate infant mortality's counterfactual trajectories using the differences-in-differences approach, combined with the use of longitudinal data for all municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Our main result is that the program reduced the number of deaths caused by external causes. The length of exposure to the program seems to potentiate the effects. For the number of deaths by general causes, there is no evidence of impact. Our findings are consistent with the nature of the program that aims to improve adults care with children. The Healthly Early Childhood Program is effective in reducing the number of avoidable deaths in infants.

  11. An Analysis of Functional Communication Training as an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Boelter, Eric W.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Chin, Michelle D.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force,…

  12. Stability of an empirical psychosocial taxonomy across type of diabetes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nouwen, A; Breton, M-C; Urquhart Law, G; Descôteaux, J

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to examine whether an empirical psychosocial taxonomy, based on key diabetes-related variables, is independent of type of diabetes and treatment, and (ii) to further establish the external validation of the taxonomy. In a cross-sectional study, 82 patients with Type 1 and 86 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to one of three psychosocial patient profiles based on their Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) scores. General psychological and diabetes-specific measures were obtained through self-report and HbA(1c) was measured. Equal proportions of Type 1 and Type 2 patients, and of patients using insulin and oral medication/diet only were classified within each of the three psychosocial profiles. External validation confirmed the validity and distinctiveness of the patients' profiles. The patient profiles were independent of demographic variables, body mass index, duration of diabetes, complexity of treatment, number of complications, social desirability, and major stress levels. The Psychosocial Taxonomy for Patients with Diabetes provides a new way to categorize individuals who may have more in common than just their type of diabetes and/or its treatment and can help target interventions to individual patients' needs.

  13. Empirically supported psychological treatments for adult acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Hollon, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) predicts the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in some sufferers can persist for years and lead to significant disability. We carried out a review of randomized controlled trials to give an update on which psychological treatments are empirically supported for these disorders, and used the criteria set out by Chambless and Hollon [1998: J Consult Clin Psychol 66:7-18] to draw conclusions about efficacy, first irrespective of trauma type and second with regard to particular populations. The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched electronically to identify suitable articles published up to the end of 2008. Fifty-seven studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Looking at the literature undifferentiated by trauma type, there was evidence that trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) are efficacious and specific for PTSD, stress inoculation training, hypnotherapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy are possibly efficacious for PTSD and trauma-focused CBT is possibly efficacious for ASD. Not one of these treatments has been tested with the full range of trauma groups, though there is evidence that trauma-focused CBT is established in efficacy for assault- and road traffic accident-related PTSD. Trauma-focused CBT and to a lesser extent EMDR (due to fewer studies having been conducted and many having had a mixed trauma sample) are the psychological treatments of choice for PTSD, but further research of these and other therapies with different populations is needed.

  14. Treating Children with Early-Onset Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: An Empirical Evaluation of KooLKIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Carroll, Annemaree; Zadow, Corinne; O'connor, Emma Sanders; Hattie, John; Lynn, Sasha

    2017-01-01

    Children with early-onset conduct problems (EOCP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are highly resistant to treatment and cost society significantly more than their healthy counterparts. Employing a multiple baseline design, 13 males (9.0-10.2 years of age) with a history of school suspensions were sequentially introduced to KooLKIDS, a…

  15. Clinical trial: a randomized trial of early endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori testing and empirical therapy for the management of dyspepsia in primary care.

    PubMed

    Duggan, A E; Elliott, C A; Miller, P; Hawkey, C J; Logan, R F A

    2009-01-01

    Early endoscopy, Helicobacter pylori eradication and empirical acid suppression are commonly used dyspepsia management strategies in primary care but have not been directly compared in a single trial. To compare endoscopy, H. pylori test and refer, H. pylori test and treat and empirical acid suppression for dyspepsia in primary care. Patients presenting to their general practitioner with dyspepsia were randomized to endoscopy, H. pylori'test and treat', H. pylori test and endoscope positives, or empirical therapy with symptoms, patient satisfaction, healthcare costs and cost effectiveness at 12 months being the outcomes. At 2 months, the proportion of patients reporting no or minimal dyspeptic symptoms ranged from 74% for those having early endoscopy to 55% for those on empirical therapy (P = 0.009), but at 1 year, there was little difference among the four strategies. Early endoscopy was associated with fewer subsequent consultations for dyspepsia (P = 0.003). 'Test and treat' resulted in fewer endoscopies overall and was most cost-effective over a range of cost assumptions. Empirical therapy resulted in the lowest initial costs, but the highest rate of subsequent endoscopy. Gastro-oesophageal cancers were found in four patients randomized to the H. pylori testing strategies. While early endoscopy offered some advantages 'Test and treat' was the most cost-effective strategy. In older patients, early endoscopy may be an appropriate strategy in view of the greater risk of malignant disease. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Science on the fringe of the empire: the Academy of the Linceans in the early nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Donato, Maria Pia

    2012-01-01

    The article treats the Academy of the Linceans in the early nineteenth century, and more particularly during the Napoleonic domination of Rome in 1809-14. For the French regime, the Academy was instrumental to turning intellectuals into notables; pursuing the advancement of knowledge; stimulating industry; fostering secularization and orientating public opinion. But these goals did not always harmonize one with the other. Moreover, the local agenda was subordinated to strategic and ideological considerations pertaining to the organization of the Empire, relations with the Papacy, and internal politics. Hence, support to the Academy was subject to changes and contradictions. Within the Empire, the small local scientific elite found a place within international networks of science. Men of science increased their visibility and social standing, and greater symbolic and material resources were granted to the practice of science. The Academy, however, was left in the unclear status of a semi-public establishment, and it eventually imploded after the Restoration. The article analyses the Academy's scientific activity and its role in public life, focusing on material history as a key element to understand the ambiguous nature of Roman scientific institutions both under the papal government and the French regime.

  17. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  18. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight

    1990-01-01

    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  19. Globally efficient non-parametric inference of average treatment effects by empirical balancing calibration weighting

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Yam, Sheung Chi Phillip; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary The estimation of average treatment effects based on observational data is extremely important in practice and has been studied by generations of statisticians under different frameworks. Existing globally efficient estimators require non-parametric estimation of a propensity score function, an outcome regression function or both, but their performance can be poor in practical sample sizes. Without explicitly estimating either functions, we consider a wide class calibration weights constructed to attain an exact three-way balance of the moments of observed covariates among the treated, the control, and the combined group. The wide class includes exponential tilting, empirical likelihood and generalized regression as important special cases, and extends survey calibration estimators to different statistical problems and with important distinctions. Global semiparametric efficiency for the estimation of average treatment effects is established for this general class of calibration estimators. The results show that efficiency can be achieved by solely balancing the covariate distributions without resorting to direct estimation of propensity score or outcome regression function. We also propose a consistent estimator for the efficient asymptotic variance, which does not involve additional functional estimation of either the propensity score or the outcome regression functions. The proposed variance estimator outperforms existing estimators that require a direct approximation of the efficient influence function. PMID:27346982

  20. Globally efficient non-parametric inference of average treatment effects by empirical balancing calibration weighting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Yam, Sheung Chi Phillip; Zhang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of average treatment effects based on observational data is extremely important in practice and has been studied by generations of statisticians under different frameworks. Existing globally efficient estimators require non-parametric estimation of a propensity score function, an outcome regression function or both, but their performance can be poor in practical sample sizes. Without explicitly estimating either functions, we consider a wide class calibration weights constructed to attain an exact three-way balance of the moments of observed covariates among the treated, the control, and the combined group. The wide class includes exponential tilting, empirical likelihood and generalized regression as important special cases, and extends survey calibration estimators to different statistical problems and with important distinctions. Global semiparametric efficiency for the estimation of average treatment effects is established for this general class of calibration estimators. The results show that efficiency can be achieved by solely balancing the covariate distributions without resorting to direct estimation of propensity score or outcome regression function. We also propose a consistent estimator for the efficient asymptotic variance, which does not involve additional functional estimation of either the propensity score or the outcome regression functions. The proposed variance estimator outperforms existing estimators that require a direct approximation of the efficient influence function.

  1. Empirical Likelihood-Based Estimation of the Treatment Effect in a Pretest-Posttest Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A

    2008-09-01

    The pretest-posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest-posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175).

  2. Empirical Likelihood-Based Estimation of the Treatment Effect in a Pretest–Posttest Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A.

    2013-01-01

    The pretest–posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest–posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175). PMID:23729942

  3. Addison disease: early detection and treatment principles.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron; Michels, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency, or Addison disease, has many causes, the most common of which is autoimmune adrenalitis. Autoimmune adrenalitis results from destruction of the adrenal cortex, which leads to deficiencies in glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal androgens. In the United States and Western Europe, the estimated prevalence of Addison disease is one in 20,000 persons; therefore, a high clinical suspicion is needed to avoid misdiagnosing a life-threatening adrenal crisis (i.e., shock, hypotension, and volume depletion). The clinical manifestations before an adrenal crisis are subtle and can include hyperpigmentation, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, muscle and joint pain, and salt craving. Cortisol levels decrease and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increase. When clinically suspected, patients should undergo a cosyntropin stimulation test to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency requires replacement of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. During times of stress (e.g., illness, invasive surgical procedures), stress-dose glucocorticoids are required because destruction of the adrenal glands prevents an adequate physiologic response. Management of primary adrenal insufficiency or autoimmune adrenalitis requires vigilance for concomitant autoimmune diseases; up to 50% of patients develop another autoimmune disorder during their lifetime.

  4. Accounting for center in the Early External Cephalic Version trials: an empirical comparison of statistical methods to adjust for center in a multicenter trial with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reitsma, Angela; Chu, Rong; Thorpe, Julia; McDonald, Sarah; Thabane, Lehana; Hutton, Eileen

    2014-09-26

    Clustering of outcomes at centers involved in multicenter trials is a type of center effect. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement recommends that multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should account for center effects in their analysis, however most do not. The Early External Cephalic Version (EECV) trials published in 2003 and 2011 stratified by center at randomization, but did not account for center in the analyses, and due to the nature of the intervention and number of centers, may have been prone to center effects. Using data from the EECV trials, we undertook an empirical study to compare various statistical approaches to account for center effect while estimating the impact of external cephalic version timing (early or delayed) on the outcomes of cesarean section, preterm birth, and non-cephalic presentation at the time of birth. The data from the EECV pilot trial and the EECV2 trial were merged into one dataset. Fisher's exact method was used to test the overall effect of external cephalic version timing unadjusted for center effects. Seven statistical models that accounted for center effects were applied to the data. The models included: i) the Mantel-Haenszel test, ii) logistic regression with fixed center effect and fixed treatment effect, iii) center-size weighted and iv) un-weighted logistic regression with fixed center effect and fixed treatment-by-center interaction, iv) logistic regression with random center effect and fixed treatment effect, v) logistic regression with random center effect and random treatment-by-center interaction, and vi) generalized estimating equations. For each of the three outcomes of interest approaches to account for center effect did not alter the overall findings of the trial. The results were similar for the majority of the methods used to adjust for center, illustrating the robustness of the findings. Despite literature that suggests center effect can change the estimate of effect in

  5. Urinary Tract Infections: Leading Initiatives in Selecting Empiric Outpatient Treatment (UTILISE)

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Eric; Sulz, Linda; Bell, Ali; Rathgeber, Lane; Balogh, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Background Overuse of fluoroquinolone antibiotics is associated with outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea and increasing resistance in gram-negative organisms. Over the past decade, resistance of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin has increased in the Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region. In August 2011, an exploratory audit of the Regina General Hospital (RGH) emergency department showed that 20% of new antibiotic orders were for fluoroquinolones, and 60% of these new fluoroquinolone orders were for ciprofloxacin. It was postulated that ciprofloxacin was predominantly prescribed for outpatients with urinary tract infection. Objective: To develop, implement, and evaluate a best-practice algorithm for the empiric treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in the RGH emergency department, as part of an educational initiative for emergency physicians. Methods: A literature review was conducted and local antibiogram data were analyzed to establish a best-practice algorithm for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in outpatients seen in the emergency department. A chart review was conducted from January to March 2011 to establish a baseline of empiric antibiotic use. An educational strategy targeting emergency physicians described changes in antibiotic resistance patterns in the health region, principles of antimicrobial stewardship, drivers of resistance, and the results of a literature review of best practice for urinary tract infection in outpatients. A post-intervention audit was conducted from January to March 2012 to determine changes in practice. Results: Comparison of results from the post-intervention audit with baseline data showed that adherence to best practice increased significantly, from 41% (39/96) before the intervention to 66% (50/76) after the intervention (odds ratio [OR] 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51–5.25; p < 0.001). There was also a significant

  6. Controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of early cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Orzan, OA; Șandru, A; Jecan, CR

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a disease with an unpredictable evolution mainly due to its high metastatic ability. The steadily increasing incidence and the poor outcome in advanced stages made this cancer an interesting field for many research groups. Given that CM is a curable disease in early stages, efforts have been made to detect it as soon as possible, which led to the diversification and refining of diagnosis methods and therapies. But, as the data from trials have been published, doubts about the indications and efficacy of established treatments have arisen. In fact, there is probably no single aspect of early CM that has not given birth to controversy. This article intends to present the current disputes regarding the early detection, diagnosis, treatment and postoperative follow-up of patients with localized CM. After analyzing both pros and cons, several conclusions were drawn, that reflect our experience in managing patients with early CM. PMID:25866567

  7. The Impact of Early Substance Use Disorder Treatment Response on Treatment Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Primary Opioid Use.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Heather; Hochheimer, Martin; Jones, Hendree E; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the impact of early patient response on treatment utilization and substance use among pregnant participants enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Treatment responders (TRs) and treatment nonresponders (TNRs) were compared on pretreatment and treatment measures. Regression models predicted treatment utilization and substance use. TR participants attended more treatment and had lower rates of substance use relative to TNR participants. Regression models for treatment utilization and substance use were significant. Maternal estimated gestational age (EGA) and baseline cocaine use were negatively associated with treatment attendance. Medication-assisted treatment, early treatment response, and baseline SUD treatment were positively associated with treatment attendance. Maternal EGA was negatively associated with counseling attendance; early treatment response was positively associated with counseling attendance. Predictors of any substance use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine use. The single predictor of any substance use at 2 months was early treatment nonresponse. Predictors of opioid use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of opioid use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine and marijuana use. Predictors of cocaine use at 1 month were early treatment nonresponse, baseline cocaine use, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of cocaine use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse and baseline cocaine use. Early treatment response predicts more favorable maternal treatment utilization and substance use outcomes. Treatment providers should implement interventions to maximize patient early response to treatment.

  8. [Treatment of early onset scoliosis : How far can we go?].

    PubMed

    Studer, D; Hasler, C C; Schulze, A

    2015-11-01

    Recently, inconsistent definitions of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and a wide variety of treatment options have been observed. To clearly define the term EOS, to depict non-operative and operative treatment options, and to present the limitations of the boundaries of these techniques. Review of the literature, including conference presentations and expert opinions, in addition to personal experiences. Early onset scoliosis (EOS) refers to spine deformity that is present before 10 years of age, regardless of etiology. All existing operative treatment options share a high risk of complications. Therefore, non-operative treatment should act as a time-buying approach to postpone surgery. Awareness of treatment options and their specific indications, in addition to respecting each patient's individual needs and feasibilities, are crucial for the optimal outcome.

  9. Empirically Guided Coordination of Multiple Evidence-Based Treatments: An Illustration of Relevance Mapping in Children's Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Bernstein, Adam; Daleiden, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite substantial progress in the development and identification of psychosocial evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in mental health, there is minimal empirical guidance for selecting an optimal "set" of EBTs maximally applicable and generalizable to a chosen service sample. Relevance mapping is a proposed methodology that…

  10. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  11. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  12. Non-surgical treatments for the management of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Madry, Henning; Marchettini, Paolo; Marmotti, Antonio; Van Assche, Dieter; Zanon, Giacomo; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2016-06-01

    Non-surgical treatments are usually the first choice for the management of knee degeneration, especially in the early osteoarthritis (OA) phase when no clear lesions or combined abnormalities need to be addressed surgically. Early OA may be addressed by a wide range of non-surgical approaches, from non-pharmacological modalities to dietary supplements and pharmacological therapies, as well as physical therapies and novel biological minimally invasive procedures involving injections of various substances to obtain a clinical improvement and possibly a disease-modifying effect. Numerous pharmaceutical agents are able to provide clinical benefit, but no one has shown all the characteristic of an ideal treatment, and side effects have been reported at both systemic and local level. Patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals in pharmacological treatment, which should be considered together with other conservative measures. Among these, exercise is an effective conservative approach, while physical therapies lack literature support. Even though a combination of these therapeutic options might be the most suitable strategy, there is a paucity of studies focusing on combining treatments, which is the most common clinical scenario. Further studies are needed to increase the limited evidence on non-surgical treatments and their combination, to optimize indications, application modalities, and results with particular focus on early OA. In fact, most of the available evidence regards established OA. Increased knowledge about degeneration mechanisms will help to better target the available treatments and develop new biological options, where preliminary results are promising, especially concerning early disease phases. Specific treatments aimed at improving joint homoeostasis, or even counteracting tissue damage by inducing regenerative processes, might be successful in early OA, where tissue loss and anatomical changes are still at very initial stages.

  13. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print this issue Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key En español Send us your comments ... type of arthritis. It’s far more common than rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on ...

  14. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  15. Effects of One-Week Empirical Antibiotic Therapy on the Early Development of Gut Microbiota and Metabolites in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Danping; Xiao, Sa; Yu, Jialin; Ai, Qing; He, Yu; Cheng, Chen; Zhang, Yunhui; Pan, Yun

    2017-08-14

    The early postnatal period is the most dynamic and vulnerable stage in the assembly of intestinal microbiota. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to newborn preterm babies and are frequently used for a prolonged duration in China. We hypothesized that the prolonged antibiotic therapy would affect the early development of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the stool microbiota and metabolites in 36 preterm babies with or without antibiotic treatment. These babies were divided into three groups, including two groups treated with the combination of penicillin and moxalactam or piperacillin-tazobactam for 7 days, and the other group was free of antibiotics. Compared to the antibiotic-free group, both antibiotic-treated groups had distinct gut microbial communities and metabolites, including a reduction of bacterial diversity and an enrichment of harmful bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas. In addition, there was a significant difference in the composition of gut microbiota and their metabolites between the two antibiotic-treated groups, where the piperacillin-tazobactam treatment group showed an overgrowth of Enterococcus. These findings suggest that prolonged antibiotic therapy affects the early development of gut microbiota in preterm infants, which should be considered when prescribing antibiotics for this population.

  16. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  17. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  18. The empirical status of the third-wave behaviour therapies for the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Linardon, Jake; Fairburn, Christopher G; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Wilfley, Denise E; Brennan, Leah

    2017-12-01

    Although third-wave behaviour therapies are being increasingly used for the treatment of eating disorders, their efficacy is largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the empirical status of these therapies. Twenty-seven studies met full inclusion criteria. Only 13 randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified, most on binge eating disorder (BED). Pooled within- (pre-post change) and between-groups effect sizes were calculated for the meta-analysis. Large pre-post symptom improvements were observed for all third-wave treatments, including dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), schema therapy (ST), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based interventions (MBI), and compassion-focused therapy (CFT). Third-wave therapies were not superior to active comparisons generally, or to cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) in RCTs. Based on our qualitative synthesis, none of the third-wave therapies meet established criteria for an empirically supported treatment for particular eating disorder subgroups. Until further RCTs demonstrate the efficacy of third-wave therapies for particular eating disorder subgroups, the available data suggest that CBT should retain its status as the recommended treatment approach for bulimia nervosa (BN) and BED, and the front running treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) in adults, with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) considered a strong empirically-supported alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Empiric antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infection in preschool children: susceptibilities of urine sample isolates.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christopher C; O'Brien, Kathryn; Wootton, Mandy; Pickles, Timothy; Hood, Kerenza; Howe, Robin; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Dudley, Jan; Van Der Voort, Judith; Rumsby, Kate; Little, Paul; Downing, Harriet; Harman, Kim; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotic treatment recommendations based on susceptibility data from routinely submitted urine samples may be biased because of variation in sampling, laboratory procedures and inclusion of repeat samples, leading to uncertainty about empirical treatment. To describe and compare susceptibilities of Escherichia coli cultured from routinely submitted samples, with E. coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) from a cohort of systematically sampled, acutely unwell children. Susceptibilities of 1458 E. coli isolates submitted during the course of routine primary care for children <5 years (routine care samples), compared to susceptibilities of 79 E. coli isolates causing UTI from 5107 children <5 years presenting to primary care with an acute illness [systematic sampling: the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) cohort]. The percentage of E. coli sensitive to antibiotics cultured from routinely submitted samples were as follows: amoxicillin 45.1% (95% confidence interval: 42.5-47.7%); co-amoxiclav using the lower systemic break point (BP) 86.6% (84.7-88.3%); cephalexin 95.1% (93.9-96.1%); trimethoprim 74.0% (71.7-76.2%) and nitrofurantoin 98.2% (97.4-98.8%). The percentage of E. coli sensitive to antibiotics cultured from systematically sampled DUTY urines considered to be positive for UTI were as follows: amoxicillin 50.6% (39.8-61.4%); co-amoxiclav using the systemic BP 83.5% (73.9-90.1%); co-amoxiclav using the urinary BP 94.9% (87.7-98.4%); cephalexin 98.7% (93.2-99.8%); trimethoprim 70.9% (60.1-80.0%); nitrofurantoin 100% (95.3-100.0%) and ciprofloxacin 96.2% (89.4-98.7%). Escherichia coli susceptibilities from routine and systematically obtained samples were similar. Most UTIs in preschool children remain susceptible to nitrofurantoin, co-amoxiclav and cephalexin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patrick D W; Brown, Andrew K; Edwards, Christopher J; O'Reilly, David T; Ostör, Andrew J K; Quinn, Mark; Taggart, Allister; Taylor, Peter C; Wakefield, Richard J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-07-01

    RA has a substantial impact on both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective is to advance the understanding of modern management principles in light of recent evidence concerning the condition's diagnosis and treatment. A group of practicing UK rheumatologists formulated contemporary management principles and clinical practice recommendations concerning both diagnosis and treatment. Areas of clinical uncertainty were documented, leading to research recommendations. A fundamental concept governing treatment of RA is minimization of cumulative inflammation, referred to as the inflammation-time area under the curve (AUC). To achieve this, four core principles of management were identified: (i) detect and refer patients early, even if the diagnosis is uncertain: patients should be referred at the first suspicion of persistent inflammatory polyarthritis and rheumatology departments should provide rapid access to a diagnostic and prognostic service; (ii) treat RA immediately: optimizing outcomes with conventional DMARDs and biologics requires that effective treatment be started early-ideally within 3 months of symptom onset; (iii) tight control of inflammation in RA improves outcome: frequent assessments and an objective protocol should be used to make treatment changes that maintain low-disease activity/remission at an agreed target; (iv) consider the risk-benefit ratio and tailor treatment to each patient: differing patient, disease and drug characteristics require long-term monitoring of risks and benefits with adaptations of treatments to suit individual circumstances. These principles focus on effective control of the inflammatory process in RA, but optimal uptake may require changes in service provision to accommodate appropriate care pathways.

  1. Is early benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Presicce, Fabrizio; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The medical armamentaria for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been extensively implemented over the past decade. Nevertheless, the timeliest moment for a possible treatment has not been fully established. A systematic literature search in January 1996 until June 2016 was performed to answer the following question: in men with LUTS due to BPH, does early treatment result in better outcome? An ad hoc Population/patient Intervention/indicator Comparator/control Outcome (PICO) was developed.The Medline, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched. Each article title and abstract were reviewed for relevance and appropriateness with regard to the topic of this review. Overtime, the introduction of novel medications and the implementation of surgical techniques have significantly improved the treatment outcomes and markedly reduced the rate of BPH surgery. Early treatments in patients at risk of disease progression may result in better clinical outcomes than a delayed approach. However, the evidence to support early intervention remains weak and criteria to identify the patient phenotype that could best benefit from immediate treatment remain ill-defined.On the contrary, the patients who ultimately undergo surgery following prolonged pharmacological treatment present with larger prostates, older age and comorbidities. At the same time, the technological progress has partly compensated this critical scenario, and commonly, a nonpejorative trend has been recorded in perioperative complications. The ideal moment to begin a treatment in LUTS/BPH patients is still uncertain, and surprisingly, rare good quality studies are available on this topic.

  2. Early complications in bariatric surgery: incidence, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Santo, Marco Aurelio; Pajecki, Denis; Riccioppo, Daniel; Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective method of treating severe obesity. Nevertheless, the acceptance of bariatric surgery is still questioned. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities, these patients require special attention in the early postoperative follow-up. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control. The medical records of 538 morbidly obese patients who underwent surgical treatment (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery) were reviewed. Ninety-three (17.2%) patients were male and 445 (82.8%) were female. The ages of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years (average = 46), and their body mass indices ranged from 34.6 to 77 kg/m2. Early complications occurred in 9.6% and were distributed as follows: 2.6% presented bleeding, intestinal obstruction occurred in 1.1%, peritoneal infections occurred in 3.2%, and 2.2% developed abdominal wall infections that required hospitalization. Three (0.5%) patients experienced pulmonary thromboembolism. The mortality rate was 0,55%. The incidence of early complications was low. The diagnosis of these complications was mostly clinical, based on the presence of signs and symptoms. The value of the clinical signs and early treatment, specially in cases of sepsis, were essential to the favorable surgical outcome. The mortality was mainly related to thromboembolism and advanced age, over 65 years.

  3. Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

  4. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN THE ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENT OF BONE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu e Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. Method: There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Results: Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. Conclusion: The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage. PMID:27077063

  5. EARLY COMPLICATIONS IN THE ORTHOPEDIC TREATMENT OF BONE METASTASES.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira; Miranda, Ricardo Horta; Ghedini, Daniel Ferreira; Aguilar, Rafael Bazílio; Novais, Eduardo Nilo Vasconcelos; de Abreu E Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Araújo, Ivana Duval; de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope

    2009-01-01

    To assess the early complications in the orthopedic treatment of metastatic bone lesions and the factors associated with these complications. There were assessed, retrospectively, 64 patients that underwent surgical treatment for bone metastases, analyzing the complications that occurred in the pre-operative and early post- operative period and associating them with the tumor origin, type of procedure done, the need of blood reposition before the surgery, the need of new surgical procedures and the mortality due to the complications. Early complications in the treatment were observed in 17 (26.6%) patients, of which six (35.2%) ended up dying due to these complications. Regarding the type, 15 (23.8%) cases were due to surgical complications, four (6.3%) clinical and three (4.7%) patients showed clinical and surgical complications. There was no significant difference in the frequency of complications or mortality when assessed the type of reconstruction or affected region. The tumors with a renal origin needed more blood reposition and showed a bigger frequency of complications. The complications occurred in 26.6%. The complications are not related to the kind of treatment performed or to the region affected. The renal origin tumors showed a higher risk of hemorrhage.

  6. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Early-Lapse Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Hayes, Steven C.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Gifford, Elizabeth V.

    2008-01-01

    A significant percentage of individuals attempting smoking cessation lapse within a matter of days, and very few are able to recover to achieve long-term abstinence. This observation suggests that many smokers may have quit-attempt histories characterized exclusively by early lapses to smoking following quit attempts. Recent negative-reinforcement conceptualizations of early lapse to smoking suggest that individuals' reactions to withdrawal and inability to tolerate the experience of these symptoms, rather than withdrawal severity itself, may represent an important treatment target in the development of new behavioral interventions for this subpopulation of smokers. This article presents the theoretical rationale and describes a novel, multicomponent distress-tolerance treatment for early-lapse smokers that incorporates behavioral and pharmacological elements of standard smoking-cessation treatment, whereas drawing distress-tolerance elements from exposure-based and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy–based treatment approaches. Preliminary data from a pilot study (N = 16) are presented, and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:18391050

  7. Treatment of specific phobias with Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): protocol, empirical status, and conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    De Jongh, A; Ten Broeke, E; Renssen, M R

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the current empirical status of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment method for specific phobias, along with some conceptual and practical issues in relation to its use. Both uncontrolled and controlled studies on the application of EMDR with specific phobias demonstrate that EMDR can produce significant improvements within a limited number of sessions. With regard to the treatment of childhood spider phobia, EMDR has been found to be more effective than a placebo control condition, but less effective than exposure in vivo. The empirical support for EMDR with specific phobias is still meagre, therefore, one should remain cautious. However, given that there is insufficient research to validate any method for complex or trauma related phobias, that EMDR is a time-limited procedure, and that it can be used in cases for which an exposure in vivo approach is difficult to administer, the application of EMDR with specific phobias merits further clinical and research attention.

  8. Early pregnancy failure: factors affecting successful medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Tendler, Rene; Kais, Mohamad; Maximovsky, Olga; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2010-06-01

    The results of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure are conflicting. To determine whether gestational sac volume measurement as well as other variables can predict the success rate of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. The study group comprised 81 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy who consented to medical treatment. Demographic data were collected and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was documented. Crown-rump length and the sac volume were measured using transvaginal ultrasound. TVU was performed 12-24 hours after intravaginal administration of 800 micro g misoprostol. If the thickness of the uterine cavity was less than 30 mm, the women were discharged. If the sac was still intact or the thickness of the uterine cavity exceeded 30 mm, they were offered an additional dosage of intravaginal misoprostol or surgical uterine evacuation. Medical treatment successfully terminated 32 pregnancies (39.5%), 30 after one dose of misoprostol and 2 after two doses (group A); 49 underwent surgical evacuation (group B), 47 following one dose of misoprostol and 2 following two doses. There were no significant differences between the groups in age and gestational week. Gestational sac volume did not differ between groups A and B (10.03 and 11.98 ml respectively, P = 0.283). Parity (0.87 and 1.43, P = 0.015), previous pregnancies (2.38 and 2.88, P = 0.037), and betahCG concentration (6961 and 28,748 mlU, P = 0.013) differed significantly between the groups. Gestational sac volume is not a predictor of successful medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. Previous pregnancies and deliveries and higher betahCG concentration negatively affect the success rate of medical treatment.

  9. Early treatment of posterior crossbite - a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment in contrast to normal growth effects for functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition by means of three-dimensional digital model analysis. Methods This randomised clinical trial was assessed to analyse the orthodontic treatment effects for patients with functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using a two-step procedure: initial maxillary expansion followed by a U-bow activator therapy. In the treatment group 31 patients and in the control group 35 patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (SD 2.1) were monitored. The time between the initial assessment (T1) and the follow-up (T2) was one year. The orthodontic analysis was done by a three-dimensional digital model analysis. Using the ‘Digimodel’ software, the orthodontic measurements in the maxilla and mandible and for the midline deviation, the overjet and overbite were recorded. Results Significant differences between the control and the therapy group at T2 were detected for the anterior, median and posterior transversal dimensions of the maxilla, the palatal depth, the palatal base arch length, the maxillary arch length and inclination, the midline deviation, the overjet and the overbite. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment of a functional unilateral posterior crossbite with a bonded maxillary expansion device followed by U-bow activator therapy in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition is an effective therapeutic method, as evidenced by the results of this RCT. It leads to three-dimensional therapeutically induced maxillary growth effects. Dental occlusion is significantly improved, and the prognosis for normal craniofacial growth is enhanced. Trial registration Registration trial DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:23339736

  10. Distribution of permanent plots to evaluate silvicultural treatments in the Inland Empire

    Treesearch

    John C. Byrne; Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner

    1988-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of a permanent-plot data base for estimating growth and yield, one first needs to know how the plots in the data base are distributed in relation to the population they are presumed to represent. The distribution of permanent plots to study forest growth in the Inland Empire (northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana) is...

  11. Evaluating the Validity of Systematic Reviews to Identify Empirically Supported Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Detrich, Ronnie; Spencer, Trina D.

    2012-01-01

    The "best available evidence" is one of the three basic inputs into evidence-based practice. This paper sets out a framework for evaluating the quality of systematic reviews that are intended to identify empirically supported interventions as a way of summarizing the best available evidence. The premise of this paper is that the process of…

  12. Severe sepsis in community-acquired pneumonia--early recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jose Manuel; Paiva, Jose Artur; Rello, Jordi

    2012-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in its management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality leading to significant consumption of health, social and economic resources. The assessment of CAP severity is a cornerstone in its management, facilitating selection of the most appropriate site of care and empirical antibiotic therapy. Several clinical scoring systems based on 30-day mortality have been developed to identify those patients with the highest risk of death. Although well validated in appropriate patient groups, each system has its own limitations and each exhibits different sensitivity and specificity values. These problems have increased interest in the use of biomarkers to predict CAP severity. Although so far no ideal solution has been identified, recent advances in bacterial genomic load quantification have made this tool very attractive. Early antibiotic therapy is essential to the reduction of CAP mortality and the selection of antibiotic treatment according to clinical guidelines is also associated with an improved outcome. In addition, the addition of a macrolide to standard empirical therapy seems to improve outcome in severe CAP although the mechanism of this is unclear. Finally, the role of adjuvant therapy has not yet been satisfactorily established. In this review we will present our opinion on current best practice in the assessment of severity and treatment of severe CAP. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Riddle, Mark A.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Axelson, David A.; Wagner, Karen D.; Joshi, Paramjit; Walkup, John T.; Luby, Joan; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal D.; Emslie, Graham; Robb, Adelaide; Tillman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth remain the subject of debate. In the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, risperidone was more effective than lithium or divalproex in children diagnosed with bipolar mania and highly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We searched for…

  14. Two Simple Rules for Improving the Accuracy of Empiric Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Linsenmeyer, Katherine; Strymish, Judith; Gupta, Kalpana

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogens is making the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) more challenging. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of empiric therapy for MDR UTIs and the utility of prior culture data in improving the accuracy of the therapy chosen. The electronic health records from three U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs facilities were retrospectively reviewed for the treatments used for MDR UTIs over 4 years. An MDR UTI was defined as an infection caused by a uropathogen resistant to three or more classes of drugs and identified by a clinician to require therapy. Previous data on culture results, antimicrobial use, and outcomes were captured from records from inpatient and outpatient settings. Among 126 patient episodes of MDR UTIs, the choices of empiric therapy against the index pathogen were accurate in 66 (52%) episodes. For the 95 patient episodes for which prior microbiologic data were available, when empiric therapy was concordant with the prior microbiologic data, the rate of accuracy of the treatment against the uropathogen improved from 32% to 76% (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 17.1; P < 0.001). Genitourinary tract (GU)-directed agents (nitrofurantoin or sulfa agents) were equally as likely as broad-spectrum agents to be accurate (P = 0.3). Choosing an agent concordant with previous microbiologic data significantly increased the chance of accuracy of therapy for MDR UTIs, even if the previous uropathogen was a different species. Also, GU-directed or broad-spectrum therapy choices were equally likely to be accurate. The accuracy of empiric therapy could be improved by the use of these simple rules. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. The role of early detection and treatment in malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Thu, Aung Myint; Carrara, Verena I; Lwin, Khin Maung; Bonnington, Craig A; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Delmas, Gilles; Nosten, François H

    2016-07-15

    Falciparum malaria persists in hard-to-reach areas or demographic groups that are missed by conventional healthcare systems but could be reached by trained community members in a malaria post (MP). The main focus of a MP is to provide uninterrupted and rapid access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) too all inhabitants of a village. RDTs allow trained community members to perform malaria diagnosis accurately and prescribe appropriate treatment, reducing as much as possible any delay between the onset of fever and treatment. Early treatment with ACT and with a low-dose of primaquine prevents further transmission from human to mosquito. A functioning MP represents an essential component of any malaria elimination strategy. Implementing large-scale, high-coverage, community-based early diagnosis and treatment through MPs requires few technological innovations but relies on a very well structured organization able to train, supervise and supply MPs, to monitor activity and to perform strict malaria surveillance.

  16. Treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Engert, Andreas; Raemaekers, John

    2016-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable malignancies today. This is particularly true for patients with early-stage disease. Today, most patients in this risk group are treated with a combination of chemotherapy followed by small-field radiotherapy. More recent clinical trials such as the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) HD10 study demonstrated, that even two cycles of ABVD followed by 20 Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) are sufficient and result in more than 90% of patients being cured. The current treatment for early unfavorable patients is either four cycles of ABVD plus 30 Gy IF-RT or two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline followed by two cycles of ABVD plus IF-RT. Here, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) demonstrated that in positron emission tomography (PET)-positive patients after two cycles of ABVD, treatment switched to two cycles of BEACOPPbaseline plus radiotherapy results in significantly improved outcomes. Other aspects including attempts to further reduce intensity of treatment will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains in Israel: implications for empirical treatment of skin and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michal; Komerska, Jacqueline; Prizade, Miriam; Sheinberg, Bracha; Tasher, Diana; Somekh, Eli

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from skin and soft tissue infections in the community in Israel and to document the sensitivity patterns for commonly used antimicrobial agents. The susceptibilities of S. aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections in the community in Israel were reviewed to determine the appropriate empirical therapy for these infections. A total of 7221 isolates were collected during the period 2009-2012; 39% were from children (age 0-18 years). In children, S. aureus oxacillin resistance dropped from 8.4% to 3.8% (p=0.073). While inducible clindamycin resistance increased slightly from 20% to 25%, there was a prominent increase in constitutive clindamycin resistance from 0.1% to 26.8% (p=0.012). In adults, oxacillin resistance increased from 16% to 23% (p<0.001) and constitutive clindamycin resistance increased notably from 5% to 29% (p<0.001). These findings demonstrate a dramatic increase in clindamycin resistance among S. aureus isolates and suggest against the usage of clindamycin as empirical treatment for suspected S. aureus infections in Israel. Beta-lactam anti-staphylococcal agents may be given as empirical treatment for children, but should be considered according to risk factors for adults in Israel. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutaric aciduria type 1--importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.

  19. Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients starting peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qimei; Xia, Xi; Lin, Zhenchuan; Lin, Jianxiong; Yang, Xiao; Huang, Fengxian; Yu, Xueqing

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an increasingly important, but poorly understood, issue. Here, we identified the reasons and risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD. Methods: Incident PD patients from The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University above 18 years who started treatment between January 1 2006 and December 31 2011 were included. Cessation of PD therapy within the first 90 days after beginning dialysis was classified as very early withdrawal. Results: Totally 1444 patients were enrolled. Of these, 71 (4.9%) withdrew from PD therapy during the first 90 days. Primary reasons for very early withdrawal included death (34 patients, 47.9%), transplantation (21 patients, 29.6%) and transfer to hemodialysis (14 patients, 19.7%). The leading reasons for death were cardiovascular and infectious disease, accounting for 41.2% (14 patients) and 23.5% (8 patients) of total deaths, respectively. Dialysate leakage (six patients, 42.9%) and catheter dysfunction (five patients, 35.7%) were the main reasons for transfer to hemodialysis. In multivariate analysis, predictors for very early PD withdrawal were older age (per decade increasing; hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.45; p = .019), higher systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg increasing; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.20–1.50; p < .001), lower hemoglobin (per 10 g/l increasing; HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57–0.78; p < .001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10–0.54; p = .001) and lower residual urine volume (per 100 ml/d increasing; HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84–0.95; p = .001). Conclusions: Death was the primary reason for very early withdrawal from PD. Risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD were older in age, had higher systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower residual urine volume

  20. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  1. [The physician in the Roman Army in the early period and at the height of the empire].

    PubMed

    Wilmanns, J C

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with the organization of health care in the Roman army, especially in the garrisons stationed in the more remote provinces of the Roman empire. A system of military healthcare was first created during the reign of Augustus. It consisted of various ranks of military physicians (milites medici) and assistants (capsarii and marsi) as well as military hospitals (valetudinaria). These played a major part in the spread of rational medicine over the less civilized parts of the Roman empire.

  2. [Implementation of an early rheumatoid athritis unit for the early recognition and treatment of the disease].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Francisco; Monckeberg, Gustavo; Hassi, Isabel; Queirolo, Alejandra; Chicao, Fernando; Sandoval, Ximena; Jorquera, Evelyn; Badilla, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Early recognition of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) provides clinical benefits in terms of remission induction, reduced disease progression, and eventually treatment free remission. To describe the setting of a Unit devoted exclusively to the recognition and treatment of early RA in patients referred from primary healthcare centers (PHC) in Chile. Patients were referred from nine participating PHC from 2014 through 2016. PHC physicians received a formal training to enhance criteria recognition and program adherence. Mandatory referral criteria were an age above 17 years, and arthralgia of less than 1-year duration, plus at least one of the following: morning stiffness of more than 30 minutes, swelling involving more than 3 joints for more than 1 month, a positive squeeze test or abnormal inflammatory serum markers. One hundred twenty patients aged 45 ± 12 years (90% women) were assessed at the early rheumatoid arthritis unit. Median time to referral from PHC to the Unit was 14.6 days. The median duration of symptoms for the overall sample of patients was 10.8 months. RA was identified in 43 patients (36%), with a delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of 8.3 months. Regarding the performance of referral criteria, the most sensitive was morning stiffness (80%, sensitivity 95% confidence intervals (CI) 64-89%) and synovitis was the most specific (specificity 83%, 95% CI 72-90%). The positive predictive value of the three clinical criteria altogether was 68.1% (95% CI 47-83%). Institution of an early RA unit was feasible within the Chilean healthcare system enabling the identification of early RA in one-third of patients.

  3. Opportunity cost for early treatment of Chagas disease in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Janine M; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life.

  4. Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life. PMID:24743112

  5. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early esophageal squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708

  6. Increasing patient involvement in choosing treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Street, R L; Voigt, B; Geyer, C; Manning, T; Swanson, G P

    1995-12-01

    This investigation examined factors affecting patient involvement in consultations to decide local treatment for early breast cancer and the effectiveness of two methods of preconsultation education aimed at increasing patient participation in these discussions. Sixty patients with Stage I or II breast cancer (1) were pretested on their knowledge about breast cancer treatment and optimism for the future, (2) were randomly assigned to one of two methods for preconsultation education: interactive multimedia program or brochure, (3) completed knowledge and optimism measures, (4) consulted with a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and general surgeon, and (5) completed self-report measures assessing their involvement in the consultations and control over decision-making. The consultations were audiorecorded and analyzed to identify behavioral indicators of patient involvement (question-asking, opinion-giving, and expressing concern) and physician utterances encouraging patient participation. College-educated patients younger than 65 years of age were more active participants in these consultations than were older, less educated patients. In addition, patients showed more involvement when they interacted with physicians who encouraged and facilitated patient participation. The method of education did not affect patient involvement although patients tended to learn more about breast cancer treatment after using the multimedia program than after reading the brochure. Although patients vary in their expressiveness, physicians may be able to increase patient participation in deciding treatment by using patient-centered behavior. Also, preconsultation education appears to be an effective clinical strategy for helping patients gain an accurate understanding of their treatment options before meeting with physicians.

  7. Predicting treatment noncompliance among criminal justice-mandated clients: a theoretical and empirical exploration.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hung-En; Belenko, Steven; Feng, Li; Tabachnick, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Compliance with therapeutic regimens constitutes an important but infrequently studied precursor of treatment engagement and is a necessary condition of successful treatment. This study builds on recent treatment process research and provides a theory-driven analysis of treatment compliance. Five hypotheses are formulated to predict treatment noncompliance among criminal justice-mandated clients. These hypotheses tap different determinants of treatment progress, including physical prime, supportive social network, conventional social involvement, treatment motivation, and risk-taking propensity. Data from 150 addicted felons participating in a diversion program are analyzed to test the hypotheses. Predictors related to these hypotheses correctly identify 58% of the fully compliant clients and 55-88% of the noncompliant clients. Most hypotheses are at least partially corroborated and a few strong correlates emerge across analyses. Clients in their physical prime, those with poorer social support, and those lacking internal desires for change were found especially likely to violate treatment program rules. Clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. PMID:25897226

  9. Treating Pediatric Obesity Using an Empirically Supported Treatment: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Ellis, Deborah A.; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in the United States of America, especially among children. Effective treatment of the multiple risk factors that promote youth obesity requires treatment approaches that are flexible and comprehensive enough to address each of these factors. One such treatment approach is Multisystemic Therapy…

  10. Very empirical treatment of solvation and entropy: a force field derived from Log Po/w

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, Glen Eugene; Burnett, James C.; Abraham, Donald J.

    2001-04-01

    A non-covalent interaction force field model derived from the partition coefficient of 1-octanol/water solubility is described. This model, HINT for Hydropathic INTeractions, is shown to include, in very empirical and approximate terms, all components of biomolecular associations, including hydrogen bonding, Coulombic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, entropy and solvation/desolvation. Particular emphasis is placed on: (1) demonstrating the relationship between the total empirical HINT score and free energy of association, ΔG interaction; (2) showing that the HINT hydrophobic-polar interaction sub-score represents the energy cost of desolvation upon binding for interacting biomolecules; and (3) a new methodology for treating constrained water molecules as discrete independent small ligands. An example calculation is reported for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) bound with methotrexate (MTX). In that case the observed very tight binding, ΔG interaction≤-13.6 kcal mol-1, is largely due to ten hydrogen bonds between the ligand and enzyme with estimated strength ranging between -0.4 and -2.3 kcal mol-1. Four water molecules bridging between DHFR and MTX contribute an additional -1.7 kcal mol-1 stability to the complex. The HINT estimate of the cost of desolvation is +13.9 kcal mol-1.

  11. Acute Cutaneous Necrosis: A Guide to Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Karen; Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Fike, Jesse; Stanford, Carol; Hall, John C

    Acute cutaneous necrosis is characterised by a wide range of aetiologies and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, warranting complex considerations in management. Early recognition is imperative in diagnosis and management of sudden gangrenous changes in the skin. This review discusses major causes of cutaneous necrosis, examines the need for early assessment, and integrates techniques related to diagnosis and management. The literature, available via PubMed, on acute cutaneous necrotic syndromes was reviewed to summarise causes and synthesise appropriate treatment strategies to create a clinician's guide in the early diagnosis and management of acute cutaneous necrosis. Highlighted in this article are key features associated with common causes of acute cutaneous necrosis: warfarin-induced skin necrosis, heparin-induced skin necrosis, calciphylaxis, pyoderma gangrenosum, embolic phenomena, purpura fulminans, brown recluse spider bite, necrotising fasciitis, ecthyma gangrenosum, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypergammaglobulinemia, and cryoglobulinemia. This review serves to increase recognition of these serious pathologies and complications, allowing for prompt diagnosis and swift limb- or life-saving management.

  12. Empirical ionization fractions in the winds and the determination of mass-loss rates for early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Gathier, R.; Snow, T. P.

    1980-01-01

    From a study of the UV lines in the spectra of 25 stars from 04 to B1, the empirical relations between the mean density in the wind and the ionization fractions of O VI, N V, Si IV, and the excited C III (2p 3P0) level were derived. Using these empirical relations, a simple relation was derived between the mass-loss rate and the column density of any of these four ions. This relation can be used for a simple determination of the mass-loss rate from O4 to B1 stars.

  13. Intestinal microbiota composition after antibiotic treatment in early life: the INCA study.

    PubMed

    Rutten, N B M M; Rijkers, G T; Meijssen, C B; Crijns, C E; Oudshoorn, J H; van der Ent, C K; Vlieger, A M

    2015-12-09

    The acquisition and development of infant gut microbiota can be influenced by numerous factors, of which early antibiotic treatment is an important one. However, studies on the effects of antibiotic treatment in early life on clinical outcomes and establishment and development of the gut microbiota of term infants are limited. Disturbed microbiota composition is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of an aberrant development of the immune system. This study aims to investigate the potential clinical and microbial consequences of empiric antibiotic use in early life. 450 term born infants, of whom 150 are exposed to antibiotic treatment in early life and 300 are not (control group), are included in this observational cohort study with a one-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes, including coughing, wheezing, fever >38 °C, runny nose, glue ear, rash, diarrhea and >3 crying hours a day, are recorded daily by parents and examined by previously defined doctor's diagnosis. A blood sample is taken at closure to investigate the infant's vaccination response and sensitization for food and inhalant allergens. Fecal samples are obtained at eight time points during the first year of life. Potential differences in microbial profiles of infants treated with antibiotics versus healthy controls will be determined by use of 16S-23S rRNA gene analysis (IS-pro). Microbiota composition will be described by means of abundance, diversity and (dis)similarity. Diversity is calculated using the Shannon index. Dissimilarities between samples are calculated as the cosine distance between each pair of samples and analyzed with principal coordinate analysis. Clinical variables and possible associations are assessed by appropriate statistics. Both clinical quantitative and qualitative microbial effects of antibiotic treatment in early life may be demonstrated. These findings can be important, since there is evidence that manipulation of the infant microbiota by using pre- or probiotics can

  14. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  15. Early Dexamethasone Treatment Induces Placental Apoptosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W.; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P.; Challis, John R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  16. Early endoscopic treatment of blunt traumatic pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Kullman, Eric; Gasslander, Thomas; Sandström, Per

    2015-01-01

    Blunt pancreatic trauma is a rare and challenging situation. In many cases, there are other associated injuries that mandate urgent operative treatment. Morbidity and mortality rates are high and complications after acute pancreatic resections are common. The diagnosis of pancreatic injuries can be difficult and often requires multimodal approach including Computed Tomography scans, Magnetic resonance imaging and Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). The objective of this paper is to review the application of endoprothesis in the settings of pancreatic injury. A review of the English literature available was conducted and the experience of our centre described. While the classical recommended treatment of Grade III pancreatic injury (transection of the gland and the pancreatic duct in the body/tail) is surgical resection this approach carries high morbidity. ERCP was first reported as a diagnostic tool in the settings of pancreatic injury but has in recent years been used increasingly as a treatment option with promising results. This article reviews the literature on ERCP as treatment option for pancreatic injury and adds further to the limited number of cases reported that have been treated early after the trauma.

  17. A cost analysis of a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in the empirical treatment of health care-associated infections in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Lucidi, Cristina; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Venditti, Mario; Riggio, Oliviero; Merli, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infections in cirrhosis are crucial. As new guidelines in this context, particularly for health care-associated (HCA) infections, would be needed, we performed a trial documenting whether an empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is more effective than the standard one for these infections. Because of the higher daily cost of broad-spectrum than standard antibiotics, we performed a cost analysis to compare: 1) total drug costs, 2) profitability of hospital admissions. Methods This retrospective observational analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the trial NCT01820026, in which consecutive cirrhotic patients with HCA infections were randomly assigned to a standard vs a broad-spectrum treatment. Antibiotic daily doses, days of treatment, length of hospital stay, and DRG (diagnosis-related group) were recorded from the clinical trial medical records. The profitability of hospitalizations was calculated considering DRG tariffs divided by length of hospital stay. Results We considered 84 patients (42 for each group). The standard therapy allowed to obtain a first-line treatment cost lower than in the broad-spectrum therapy. Anyway, the latter, being related to a lower failure rate (19% vs 57.1%), resulted in cost saving in terms of cumulative antibiotic costs (first- and second-line treatments). The mean cost saving per patient for the broad-spectrum arm was €44.18 (−37.6%), with a total cost saving of about €2,000. Compared to standard group, we observed a statistically significant reduction in hospital stay from 17.8 to 11.8 days (p<0.002) for patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. The distribution of DRG tariffs was similar in the two groups. According to DRG, the shorter length of hospital stay of the broad-spectrum group involved a higher mean profitable daily cost than standard group (€345.61 vs €252.23; +37%). Conclusion Our study supports the idea that the use of a broad

  18. A cost analysis of a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in the empirical treatment of health care-associated infections in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Cristina; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Venditti, Mario; Riggio, Oliviero; Merli, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infections in cirrhosis are crucial. As new guidelines in this context, particularly for health care-associated (HCA) infections, would be needed, we performed a trial documenting whether an empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is more effective than the standard one for these infections. Because of the higher daily cost of broad-spectrum than standard antibiotics, we performed a cost analysis to compare: 1) total drug costs, 2) profitability of hospital admissions. This retrospective observational analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the trial NCT01820026, in which consecutive cirrhotic patients with HCA infections were randomly assigned to a standard vs a broad-spectrum treatment. Antibiotic daily doses, days of treatment, length of hospital stay, and DRG (diagnosis-related group) were recorded from the clinical trial medical records. The profitability of hospitalizations was calculated considering DRG tariffs divided by length of hospital stay. We considered 84 patients (42 for each group). The standard therapy allowed to obtain a first-line treatment cost lower than in the broad-spectrum therapy. Anyway, the latter, being related to a lower failure rate (19% vs 57.1%), resulted in cost saving in terms of cumulative antibiotic costs (first- and second-line treatments). The mean cost saving per patient for the broad-spectrum arm was €44.18 (-37.6%), with a total cost saving of about €2,000. Compared to standard group, we observed a statistically significant reduction in hospital stay from 17.8 to 11.8 days ( p <0.002) for patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. The distribution of DRG tariffs was similar in the two groups. According to DRG, the shorter length of hospital stay of the broad-spectrum group involved a higher mean profitable daily cost than standard group (€345.61 vs €252.23; +37%). Our study supports the idea that the use of a broad-spectrum empirical treatment for HCA

  19. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  20. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  1. Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief…

  2. Empirically derived pain-patient MMPI subgroups: prediction of treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Moore, J E; Armentrout, D P; Parker, J C; Kivlahan, D R

    1986-02-01

    Fifty-seven male chronic pain patients admitted to an inpatient multimodal pain treatment program at a Midwestern Veterans Administration hospital completed the MMPI, Profile of Mood States (POMS), Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS), Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), activity diaries, and an extensive pain questionnaire. All patients were assessed both before and after treatment, and most also were assessed 2-5 months prior to treatment. No significant changes occurred during the baseline period, but significant improvements were evident at posttreatment on most variables: MMPI, POMS, TSCS, RAS, pain severity, sexual functioning, and activity diaries. MMPI subgroup membership, based on a hierarchical cluster analysis in a larger sample, was not predictive of differential treatment outcome. Possible reasons for comparable treatment gains among these subgroups, which previously have been shown to differ on many psychological and behavioral factors, are discussed.

  3. Comparison of cefepime versus ceftriaxone-amikacin as empirical regimens for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in acute leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Borbolla, J R; López-Hernández, M A; González-Avante, M; DeDiego, J; Trueba, E; Alvarado, M L; Jiménez, R M

    2001-01-01

    High-intensity regimes of chemotherapy have led to longer and more severe episodes of neutropenia with a resulting increase in morbidity and mortality due to infections. Which empiric antibiotic regimen to use in these cases is still under debate. We performed a randomized comparative study to evaluate the efficacy of cefepime versus ceftriaxone plus amikacin as the initial treatment in an escalating, empirical, antibiotic therapy regimen in febrile neutropenic patients. Both adults and children were included. All patients had less than 500 neutrophils/microl at the time of infection. Patients were randomized to receive either cefepime or ceftriaxone plus amikacin. If infection continued 72 h later, patients in both groups received vancomycin, and if infection had not disappeared 7 days after starting antibiotics, amphotericin B was started. Twenty patients were included in each group. Both treatment and control groups were comparable for age and sex, among other factors. There were 18 cures in the cefepime group and 17 in the ceftriaxone plus amikacin group (p = 0.9). No patient discontinued therapy because of toxicity. Cefepime is a safe and very effective therapy for patients with acute leukemia and febrile neutropenia; in addition, it is a cheaper regimen in our country, and lacks the potential toxicity of the aminoglycosides. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Empirically Supported Treatments in Psychotherapy: Towards an Evidence-Based or Evidence-Biased Psychology in Clinical Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs) movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM) perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented. PMID:21833197

  5. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-07-01

    Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Joyce C G; Van Calster, Joachim; Pulido, Jose S; Miles, Sarah L; Vile, Richard G; Van Bergen, Tine; Cassiman, Catherine; Spielberg, Leigh H; Leys, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, BDUMP) is a rare but devastating disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients who usually have an occult malignancy. Visual loss occurs as a result of paraneoplastic changes in the uveal tissue. Methods In a masked fashion, the serum of two patients with BDUMP was evaluated for the presence of cultured melanocyte elongation and proliferation (CMEP) factor using cultured human melanocytes. We evaluated the efficacy of plasmapheresis as a treatment modality early in the disease in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy. Results The serum of the first case patient was investigated after plasmapheresis and did not demonstrate proliferation of cultured human melanocytes. The serum of the second case was evaluated prior to treatment with plasmapheresis and did induce this proliferation. These findings are in accordance with the diminution of CMEP factor after plasmapheresis. Treatment with plasmapheresis managed to stabilise the ocular disease progression in both patients. Conclusions In the past, visual loss due to paraneoplastic melanocytic proliferation was considered progressive and irreversible. We treated two patients successfully with plasmapheresis and demonstrated a relation between CMEP factor in the serum of these patients and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. PMID:25908835

  7. Empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with agoraphobia in a Spanish psychology clinic.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Francisco; Labrador, Francisco J

    2014-10-27

    The aim of this work is to study the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (PD/Ag), as well as the characteristics of the treatment and its results and cost in a University Psychology Clinic. Fifty patients demanded psychological assistance for PD/Ag; 80% were women, with an average age of 29.22 years (SD = 9.03). Mean number of evaluation sessions was 3.26 (SD = 1.03), and of treatment sessions, 13.39 (SD = 9.237). Of the patients, 83.33% were discharged (that is, questionnaire scores were below the cut-off point indicated by the authors, and no PD/Ag was observed at readministration of the semistructured interview), 5.5% refused treatment, and 11% were dropouts. The average number of treatment sessions of patients who achieved therapeutic success was 15.13 (SD = 8.98). Effect sizes (d) greater than 1 were obtained in all the scales. Changes in all scales were significant (p < .05). The estimated cost of treatment for patients who achieved therapeutic success was 945.12€. The treatment results are at least similar to those of studies of efficacy and effectiveness for PD/Ag. The utility of generalizing treatments developed in research settings to a welfare clinic is discussed.

  8. Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    van der Eerden, M M; Vlaspolder, F; de Graaff, C S; Groot, T; Bronsveld, W; Jansen, H; Boersma, W

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is much controversy about the ideal approach to the management of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Recommendations differ from a pathogen directed approach to an empirical strategy with broad spectrum antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective randomised open study performed between 1998 and 2000, a pathogen directed treatment (PDT) approach was compared with an empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment (EAT) strategy according to the ATS guidelines of 1993 in 262 hospitalised patients with CAP. Clinical efficacy was primarily determined by the length of hospital stay (LOS). Secondary outcome parameters for clinical efficacy were assessment of therapeutic failure on antibiotics, 30 day mortality, duration of antibiotic treatment, resolution of fever, side effects, and quality of life. Results: Three hundred and three patients were enrolled in the study; 41 were excluded, leaving 262 with results available for analysis. No significant differences were found between the two treatment groups in LOS, 30 day mortality, clinical failure, or resolution of fever. Side effects, although they did not have a significant influence on the outcome parameters, occurred more frequently in patients in the EAT group than in those in the PDT group (60% v 17%, 95% CI –0.5 to –0.3; p<0.001). Conclusions: An EAT strategy with broad spectrum antibiotics for the management of hospitalised patients with CAP has comparable clinical efficacy to a PDT approach. PMID:16061709

  9. Early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Davies, Bronwen R; Howells, Sarah; Jenkins, Meryl

    2003-11-01

    Postnatal depression has a relatively high incidence and gives rise to considerable morbidity. There is sound evidence supporting the use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening tool for possible postnatal depression. This paper reports on a project developed by two health visitors and a community mental health nurse working in the United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to improve the early detection and treatment of postnatal depression in the population of the general practice to which they were attached. The health visitors screened for postnatal depression in the course of routine visits on four occasions during the first postpartum year. Women identified as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression were offered 'listening visits' as a first-line intervention, with referral on to the general practitioner and/or community mental health nurse if indicated. Data collected over 3 years showed that the project succeeded in its aim of enhancing early detection and treatment of postnatal depression. These findings replicate those of other studies. The data also showed that a substantial number of women were identified for the first time as likely to be suffering from postnatal depression at 12 months postpartum. Women screened for the first time at 12 months were at greater risk than those who had been screened earlier than this. Health visitors should screen for postnatal depression throughout the period of their contact with mothers, not solely in the immediate postnatal period. It is particularly important to screen women who, for whatever reason, were not screened when their child was younger. The knowledge and skills needed to use the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and provide first-line intervention and onward referral can be developed at practitioner level through close collaborative working.

  10. Preferences for trauma treatment: A systematic review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Simiola, Vanessa; Neilson, Elizabeth C; Thompson, Richard; Cook, Joan M

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of trauma histories and related psychological problems is high in general clinical settings, but little is known about trauma patient preferences for mental health treatment. The purpose of this article is to systematically review and synthesize the literature on treatment preferences in survivors of traumatic events. Studies were identified using comprehensive searches of PsycINFO, Medline, PubMed, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. Included in the review were articles published between January 1980 and September 2014, in English that reported patient preference of treatment for trauma related disorders in either clinical or nonclinical (e.g., analog) samples. The total number of individual participants was 6,091. Of the identified studies, 35 were quantitative and 6 were qualitative. Methodological concerns included the use of analog samples, small sample sizes, and the assessment of a limited number of treatment options (e.g., asking about only 1 type of psychotherapy or medication). Overall, participants expressed a preference for psychotherapy over medication and for talking about their trauma. Understanding and addressing trauma patient preferences may assist in improving treatment initiation as well as facilitate engagement, retention and outcome. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Economic valuation of environmental benefits from wastewater treatment processes: an empirical approach for Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Molinos-Senante, María; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2010-01-15

    Economic research into the design and implementation of policies for the efficient management of water resources has been emphasized by the European Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). The efficient implementation of policies to prevent the degradation and depletion of water resources requires determining their value in social and economic terms and incorporating this information into the decision-making process. A process of wastewater treatment has many associated environmental benefits. However, these benefits are often not calculated because they are not set by the market, due to inadequate property rights, the presence of externalities, and the lack of perfect information. Nevertheless, the valuation of these benefits is necessary to justify a suitable investment policy and a limited number of studies exist on the subject of the economic valuation of environmental benefits. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on the estimation of shadow prices for the pollutants removed in a treatment process. This value represents the environmental benefit (avoided cost) associated with undischarged pollution. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of wastewater treatment. The comparison of these benefits with the internal costs of the treatment process will provide a useful indicator for the feasibility of wastewater treatment projects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [The premises of a policy of early childhood during the second empire: The association for the care of lying-in women].

    PubMed

    Vitoux, M C

    1995-01-01

    As early as the 1830's, the social elite of Mulhouse was aware of the higher infant mortality in the working class. A family policy was adopted only during the Second Empire: the consciousness of the failure of the first philanthropic measures explains why the manufacturers decided to take direct responsibility for the working class family. The demographic preoccupations are directly linked to philanthropy. This paper analises the principles and evaluates the results of the Association for the care of lying-in women.

  13. Best oral empirical treatment for pyelonephritis in children: Do we need to differentiate between age and gender?

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Petra; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Heiberg, Ida; Mola, Gylli; Wenger, Therese Ramstad; Cortes, Dina; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2016-10-01

    Pyelonephritis is a common infection in childhood and may cause renal scarring. The aim was to determine an effective oral antibiotic treatment of first time pyelonephritis in children. The study is a retrospective analysis of positive urine cultures collected at a Danish paediatric department from 2010-2013. Urine samples from 378 children aged 0-15.9 years, without renal anomalies and treated for first time pyelonephritis, were included. The urine pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities were analysed. The most common aetiologic agents found were Escherichia coli (85%), Klebsiella species and other Enterobacteriaecea (9.7%) and Enterococcus species (5.3%). Escherichia coli was significantly more common in girls than in boys (90% vs 74%, p < 0.001) and in children older than 6 months (89% vs 77%, p < 0.001). Children younger than 6 months had a higher prevalence of other Gram-negative rods (16% vs 7%, p < 0.001). These differences may be due to boys representing 63% of patients in the youngest age group compared to 16% of older children (p < 0.001). For all urine isolates, piv-mecillinam and amoxicillin-clavulanate had the lowest resistance rates of 6.9% and 7.2%, respectively, and 6% for both antimicrobials in patients older than 6 months. Uropathogens from boys above 6 months of age were more resistant to piv-mecillinam compared to girls (25% vs 2.4%, p < 0.001). This study recommends piv-mecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanate as empirical treatment of first time pyelonephritis in Danish children from 6 months of age. Age and gender of patients should be taken into consideration when initiating empirical treatment.

  14. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  15. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of early empyema: an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, P.; Townsend, E. R.; Clark, D.; Fountain, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required. PMID:8659973

  16. Empirically and Clinically Useful Decision Making in Psychotherapy: Differential Predictions with Treatment Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Saunders, Stephen M.; Leon, Scott C.; Martinovich, Zoran; Kosfelder, Joachim; Schulte, Dietmar; Grawe, Klaus; Tholen, Sven

    2006-01-01

    In the delivery of clinical services, outcomes monitoring (i.e., repeated assessments of a patient's response to treatment) can be used to support clinical decision making (i.e., recurrent revisions of outcome expectations on the basis of that response). Outcomes monitoring can be particularly useful in the context of established practice research…

  17. Virologic outcomes in early antiretroviral treatment: HPTN 052.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Susan H; Wilson, Ethan A; Zhang, Xinyi C; Ou, San-San; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Eron, Joseph J; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Gallant, Joel E; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G; Kalonga, Ben; Pilotto, Jose H; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Godbole, Sheela V; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Santos, Breno Riegel; Shava, Emily; Mills, Lisa A; Panchia, Ravindre; Mwelase, Noluthando; Mayer, Kenneth H; Chen, Ying Q; Cohen, Myron S; Fogel, Jessica M

    2017-05-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial demonstrated that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented 93% of HIV transmission events in serodiscordant couples. Some linked infections were observed shortly after ART initiation or after virologic failure. To evaluate factors associated with time to viral suppression and virologic failure in participants who initiated ART in HPTN 052. 1566 participants who had a viral load (VL) > 400 copies/mL at enrollment were included in the analyses. This included 832 in the early ART arm (CD4 350-550 cells/mm 3 at ART initiation) and 734 in the delayed ART arm (204 with a CD4 < 250 cells/mm 3 at ART initiation; 530 with any CD4 at ART initiation). Viral suppression was defined as two consecutive VLs ≤ 400 copies/mL after ART initiation; virologic failure was defined as two consecutive VLs > 1000 copies/mL > 24 weeks after ART initiation. Overall, 93% of participants achieved viral suppression by 12 months. The annual incidence of virologic failure was 3.6%. Virologic outcomes were similar in the two study arms. Longer time to viral suppression was associated with younger age, higher VL at ART initiation, and region (Africa vs. Asia). Virologic failure was strongly associated with younger age, lower educational level, and lack of suppression by three months; lower VL and higher CD4 at ART initiation were also associated with virologic failure. Several clinical and demographic factors were identified that were associated with longer time to viral suppression and virologic failure. Recognition of these factors may help optimize ART for HIV treatment and prevention.

  18. Virologic outcomes in early antiretroviral treatment: HPTN 052

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, Susan H.; Wilson, Ethan A.; Zhang, Xinyi C.; Ou, San-San; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Eron, Joseph J.; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Gallant, Joel E.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G.; Kalonga, Ben; Pilotto, Jose H.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Godbole, Sheela V.; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Santos, Breno Riegel; Shava, Emily; Mills, Lisa A.; Panchia, Ravindre; Mwelase, Noluthando; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Chen, Ying Q.; Cohen, Myron S.; Fogel, Jessica M.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The HPTN 052 trial demonstrated that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented 93% of HIV transmission events in serodiscordant couples. Some linked infections were observed shortly after ART initiation or after virologic failure. OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors associated with time to viral suppression and virologic failure in participants who initiated ART in HPTN 052. METHODS 1,566 participants who had a viral load (VL) >400 copies/mL at enrollment were included in the analyses. This included 832 in the early ART arm (CD4 350–550 cells/mm3 at ART initiation) and 734 in the delayed ART arm (204 with a CD4 <250 cells/mm3 at ART initiation; 530 with any CD4 at ART initiation). Viral suppression was defined as two consecutive VLs ≤400 copies/mL after ART initiation; virologic failure was defined as two consecutive VLs >1,000 copies/mL >24 weeks after ART initiation. RESULTS Overall, 93% of participants achieved viral suppression by 12 months. The annual incidence of virologic failure was 3.6%. Virologic outcomes were similar in the two study arms. Longer time to viral suppression was associated with younger age, higher VL at ART initiation, and region (Africa vs. Asia). Virologic failure was strongly associated with younger age, lower educational level, and lack of suppression by 3 months; lower VL and higher CD4 at ART initiation were also associated with virologic failure. CONCLUSIONS Several clinical and demographic factors were identified that were associated with longer time to viral suppression and virologic failure. Recognition of these factors may help optimize ART for HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:28385131

  19. [Early operative treatment of pelvic fractures associated with urethral disruption].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian; Guo, Lu-Zeng; Wu, Chang-Lin; Chen, Jia-Geng; Zhang, Tie-Liang; Pei, Fu-Xing

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the early operative treatment and clinical results of pelvic fractures associated with urethra disruption. From January 1995 to January 2005, 25 patients suffered from pelvic fractures combined urethra disruption treated by operation were retrospectively analyzed. According to Tile's classification, 1 case was stable pelvic fracture, 17 rotational unstable fractures, and 7 rotational combined vertical unstable fractures. The complete urethra rupture were in 23 cases and incomplete in 2 cases. The operative methods included: (1) emergency open reduction and internal fixation of the pelvis combined primary urethra suturing in 2 cases, partial suturing after realignment in 4 cases, realignment in 2 cases, and urethrovaginal penetrating wound repairing in 1 case; (2) primary urethra realignment only and delayed (range, 7 to 21 days) pelvic internal fixation in 10 cases; (3) early cystostomy and delayed (range, 3 to 21 days) urethra realignment and pelvic internal fixation in 6 cases. The mean follow-up time of all patients was 34 months (range from 6 to 120 months). According to Majeed's evaluation, 17 cases of pelvic injury showed excellent results, 5 good, and 3 fare. After urinary catheter removed, the mean maximal urine flow rate of 19 (76%) patients was 18.6 ml/s and the mean scar length between both disrupted ends on the film of excretion urethrography was 0.51 cm. Five (20%) cases suffered in dysuria needed urethral dilatation or further surgery. One (4%) female could not control urination who need a second-look operation. The primary suprapubic soft tissue avulsion wound infection secondary to retropubic abscess was found in 1 case, posterior urethra-stenosis in 5 cases, sexual impotence in 3 cases, and incontinence in 1 case. The satisfactory reduction and effective fixation of the pelvic fractures is an anatomical basis for receiving "tension-free urethral anastomosis".

  20. Change of signs, symptoms and voice quality evaluations throughout a 3- to 6-month empirical treatment for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lechien, J R; Finck, C; Khalife, M; Huet, K; Delvaux, V; Picalugga, M; Harmegnies, B; Saussez, S

    2018-05-16

    To assess the usefulness of voice quality measurements as a treatment outcome in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)-related symptoms. Prospective uncontrolled multi-centre study. A total of 80 clinically diagnosed LPR patients with a reflux finding score (RFS)>7 and a reflux symptom index (RSI)>13 were treated with pantoprazole and diet recommendations during 3 or 6 months, according to their evolution. RSI; RFS; blinded Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain and Instability (GRBASI) and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were evaluated at baseline, 3 months (n = 80), and 6 months (n = 41) post-treatment. We conducted a correlation analysis between the adherence to the diet, and the evolution of both signs and symptoms and between videolaryngostroboscopic signs and acoustic measurements. Reflux symptom index, RFS, perceptual voice quality evaluations (dysphonia, roughness, strain and instability), and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements (ie, percent jitter and percent shimmer) were significantly improved at 3 months post-treatment but not at 6 months. Percent jitter was the most useful outcome for evaluating the clinical evolution of patients throughout the treatment course. A significant relationship between globus sensation and posterior commissure hypertrophy was documented; both seemed to significantly improve from 3 to 6 months. The correlation analysis revealed correlations between adherence to diet recommendations and the improvement of symptoms and between posterior commissure granulation severity and acoustic measurement impairments. Voice quality improved in a manner similar to both signs and symptoms throughout a 6-month empirical treatment with better improvement the 3 first months. Voice quality assessments can be used as indicators of treatment effectiveness in patients with LPR-related symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Brown, M; Oldenhof, E; Allen, J S; Dowling, N A

    2016-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist outpatient gambling service in Australia. The prevalence of personality disorders using the self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorders Screen was 43.3 %. Cluster B personality disorders, but not Cluster A or C personality disorders, were associated with problem gambling severity. All psychological symptoms, except alcohol and drug use, were significantly higher among participants with personality disorder pathology compared to those without. Finally, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for problem gamblers with personality disorder pathology, while impulsivity, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for those without personality disorder pathology. High rates of comorbid personality disorders, particularly Cluster B disorders, necessitate routine screening in gambling treatment services. More complex psychological profiles may complicate treatment for problem gamblers with comorbid personality disorders. Future research should examine the applicability of the biosocial developmental model to problem gambling in community studies.

  2. Voltammetric Thin-Layer Ionophore-Based Films: Part 2. Semi-Empirical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dajing; Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston A; Bakker, Eric

    2017-01-03

    This work reports on a semiempirical treatment that allows one to rationalize and predict experimental conditions for thin-layer ionophore-based films with cation-exchange capacity read out with cyclic voltammetry. The transition between diffusional mass transport and thin-layer regime is described with a parameter (α), which depends on membrane composition, diffusion coefficient, scan rate, and electrode rotating speed. Once the thin-layer regime is fulfilled (α = 1), the membrane behaves in some analogy to a potentiometric sensor with a second discrimination variable (the applied potential) that allows one to operate such electrodes in a multianalyte detection mode owing to the variable applied ion-transfer potentials. The limit of detection of this regime is defined with a second parameter (β = 2) and is chosen in analogy to the definition of the detection limit for potentiometric sensors provided by the IUPAC. The analytical equations were validated through the simulation of the respective cyclic voltammograms under the same experimental conditions. While simulations of high complexity and better accuracy satisfactorily reproduced the experimental voltammograms during the forward and backward potential sweeps (companion paper 1), the semiempirical treatment here, while less accurate, is of low complexity and allows one to quite easily predict relevant experimental conditions for this emergent methodology.

  3. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  4. Corticosteroid injection in early treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, K L; Laskowski, E R; Idank, D M; McLean, T J; Egan, K S

    2001-10-01

    To analyze whether a corticosteroid injection in combination with rehabilitation early in the course of lateral epicondylitis (LE) alters the outcome up to 6 months after injection compared with a control injection and rehabilitation. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Sports medicine center in a tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of LE whose symptoms had been present less than 4 weeks were included. Subjects were recruited by word of mouth and through advertising. The 39 subjects who were recruited were 18 to 65 years old. 19 subjects were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a sham injection, and 20 were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a corticosteroid injection. At 4 and 8 weeks, they were reevaluated and their treatment programs were modified, if indicated. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months, and included a functional pain questionnaire and a visual analogue pain scale. Painless grip strength on the affected side and maximal grip strength bilaterally were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in outcome between the two groups with the exception of an improvement in the visual analogue pain scale in the corticosteroid group from 8 weeks to 6 months. Outcome measurements in both groups improved significantly over time; more than 80% of subjects reported improvements from baseline to 6 months for all scales. A corticosteroid injection does not provide a clinically significant improvement in the outcome of LE, and rehabilitation should be the first line of treatment in patients with a short duration of symptoms.

  5. The windowed sound therapy: a new empirical approach for an effectiv personalized treatment of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Marco; Romani, Romano; Ponzi, Stefano; Bacciu, Salvatore; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We auditorily stimulated patients affected by subjective tinnitus with broadband noise containing a notch around their tinnitus frequency. We assessed the long-term effects on tinnitus perception in patients listening to notched noise stimuli (referred to as windowed sound therapy [WST]) by measuring the variation of subjects' tinnitus loudness over a period of 2-12 months. We tested the effectiveness of WST using non-notched broadband noise and noise of water as control sound therapies. We found a significant long-term reduction of tinnitus loudness in subjects treated with notched noise but not in those treated with control stimulations. These results point to the importance of the personalized sound treatment of tinnitus sufferers for the development of an effective tinnitus sound therapy.

  6. Identity: empirical contribution. Changes in the identity integration of adolescents in treatment for personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Verheul, Roel; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    A renewed interest in identity as one of the core markers of personality disorders has been introduced by the DSM-5 Level of Personality Functioning Scale. However, little is known about the utility of the construct of identity in children and adolescents. This study aimed to broaden the knowledge of identity integration as a core component of personality functioning in adolescents. The authors investigated levels of identity integration, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), in adolescents in both normal (n = 406) and clinical populations (n = 285). Furthermore, changes in levels of identity integration during treatment were investigated in a clinical subsample (n = 76). Levels of identity integration were not associated with age. They were, however, associated with the absence or presence of personality pathology. Most adolescents receiving inpatient psychotherapy gradually changed toward more healthy levels of identity integration; a significant number, however, remained at maladaptive levels of identity functioning after intensive psychotherapy.

  7. Early diagnosis and treatment in a child with foodborne botulism.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Maria Renata; Lamba, Marta; Rossi, Alessandro; Siani, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxins. Despite rare the mortality rate is high if untreated. Diagnosis of botulism is still a challenge for clinician, due to the variability of clinical manifestations and disease course. We report on a child with type B botulin intoxication who was early diagnosed and treated underlining that clinical suspicion is crucial to start prompt treatment. An 11-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and mydriasis, dry mouth, difficulty in swallowing, dysphonia, urine retention and constipation. Clear sensorium and no fever were observed. Immediately the suspicion of botulism was risen and botulinum antitoxin was administered. 3 days later serum and rectal samples tested positive for Clostridium botulinum. The patient completely recovered when discharged from hospital. Foodborne botulism is still possible in developed countries. The confirmation test of botulism requires some days. To avoid long delays between intoxication and diagnosis prompt clinical suspicion is thus crucial. The outcome depends on rapid implementation of appropriate management with intensive respiratory care and antitoxin administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Childhood Education and Care in a Context of Social Heterogeneity and Inequality. Empirical Notes on an Interdisciplinary Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoyerer, Gabriel; van Santen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Against a background of increasing inequality and its impact at various levels on childhood and family life, of the growing societal significance and uptake of extra-familial childcare provision, and of social policy goals emphasising participation and education for all, the early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector in Germany is facing new…

  9. Transforming Theories of Childhood and Early Childhood Education: Child Study and the Empirical Assault on Froebelian Rationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehony, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the possibility that one of the defining characteristics of the New Education, as it related to children in their early years, was its epistemological break with rationalist forms of knowledge and its embrace of empiricism and positivism. It considers, briefly, social theories that identify a similar process at a societal…

  10. Rapid Molecular Diagnostics, Antibiotic Treatment Decisions, and Developing Approaches to Inform Empiric Therapy: PRIMERS I and II.

    PubMed

    Evans, Scott R; Hujer, Andrea M; Jiang, Hongyu; Hujer, Kristine M; Hall, Thomas; Marzan, Christine; Jacobs, Michael R; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J; Manca, Claudia; Chavda, Kalyan; Zhang, Pan; Fernandez, Helen; Chen, Liang; Mediavilla, Jose R; Hill, Carol B; Perez, Federico; Caliendo, Angela M; Fowler, Vance G; Chambers, Henry F; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-01-15

    Rapid molecular diagnostic (RMD) platforms may lead to better antibiotic use. Our objective was to develop analytical strategies to enhance the interpretation of RMDs for clinicians. We compared the performance characteristics of 4 RMD platforms for detecting resistance against β-lactams in 72 highly resistant isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (PRIMERS I). Subsequently, 2 platforms were used in a blinded study in which a heterogeneous collection of 196 isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae (PRIMERS II) were examined. We evaluated the genotypic results as predictors of resistance or susceptibility against β-lactam antibiotics. We designed analytical strategies and graphical representations of platform performance, including discrimination summary plots and susceptibility and resistance predictive values, that are readily interpretable by practitioners to inform decision-making. In PRIMERS I, the 4 RMD platforms detected β-lactamase (bla) genes and identified susceptibility or resistance in >95% of cases. In PRIMERS II, the 2 platforms identified susceptibility against extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems in >90% of cases; however, against piperacillin/tazobactam, susceptibility was identified in <80% of cases. Applying the analytical strategies to a population with 15% prevalence of ceftazidime-resistance and 5% imipenem-resistance, RMD platforms predicted susceptibility in >95% of cases, while prediction of resistance was 69%-73% for ceftazidime and 41%-50% for imipenem. RMD platforms can help inform empiric β-lactam therapy in cases where bla genes are not detected and the prevalence of resistance is known. Our analysis is a first step in bridging the gap between RMDs and empiric treatment decisions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An empirically derived composite cognitive test score with improved power to track and evaluate treatments for preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Langbaum, Jessica B; Hendrix, Suzanne B; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S; Shah, Raj C; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Tariot, Pierre N; Reiman, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatments. As a result, there is a need to identify a cognitive composite that is sensitive to track preclinical AD decline to be used as a primary endpoint in treatment trials. Longitudinal data from initially cognitively normal, 70- to 85-year-old participants in three cohort studies of aging and dementia from the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center were examined to empirically define a composite cognitive endpoint that is sensitive to detect and track cognitive decline before the onset of cognitive impairment. The mean-to-standard deviation ratios (MSDRs) of change over time were calculated in a search for the optimal combination of cognitive tests/subtests drawn from the neuropsychological battery in cognitively normal participants who subsequently progressed to clinical stages of AD during 2- and 5-year periods, using data from those who remained unimpaired during the same period to correct for aging and practice effects. Combinations that performed well were then evaluated for representation of relevant cognitive domains, robustness across individual years before diagnosis, and occurrence of selected items within top performing combinations. The optimal composite cognitive test score comprised seven cognitive tests/subtests with an MSDR = 0.964. By comparison, the most sensitive individual test score was Logical Memory Delayed Recall with an MSDR = 0.64. We have identified a composite cognitive test score representing multiple cognitive domains that has improved power compared with the most sensitive single test item to track preclinical AD decline and evaluate preclinical AD treatments. We are confirming the power of the composite in independent cohorts and with other analytical approaches, which may result in refinements, have designated it as the primary endpoint in the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative's preclinical treatment trials for individuals at high imminent risk

  12. VIA Family - Family Based Early Intervention Versus Treatment as Usual

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-12

    Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations

  13. Using a Film Intervention in Early Addiction Treatment: a Qualitative Analysis of Process.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Ingerid Elgesem; Johansen, Ayna; Darnell, Farnad; Brendryen, Håvar

    2017-10-01

    There is a need for knowledge about how self-help materials can be made useful in treatment for Substance Abuse Disorders (SUD), as a supplement to ongoing treatment, or as independent tools for change. In this study, we explored the use of self-help films in early addiction treatment, taking into account both patient and therapist perspectives, as well as dyadic functions. We explored how active mechanisms might be related to intervention format and implementation context. A secondary aim was to examine the potential mechanisms related to the specific content of the intervention: mindfulness and acceptance psychoeducation. A qualitative exploratory research design, including a general inductive analytic approach, constructivist grounded theory, and source triangulation features, was used to code and analyze interview material. Emerging themes were developed into concepts, and finally an operational model. Participants included 12 patients and 22 therapists, in in-/outpatient addiction clinics, all in urban areas of Norway. The purpose of the design was empirical grounding of developed concepts, to promote different potential user perspectives (patients' and therapists') and obtain process data. The core concept constructed, "Alliance as experiential process," gives a description of the data where patients and therapists accept or reject the film as a result of an experience process conceptualized as alliance formation. The alliance process model reflects the observation that patients constructed alliances autonomously, while therapists built alliances indirectly through their patients' experiences. Use of a self-help film may be a helpful adjunct to face-to-face therapy for patients who create a personally meaningful attachment to the film. Mindfulness/acceptance may offer one basic framework for such connection to take place.

  14. The Long-term Impact of Early Life Pain On Adult Responses to Anxiety and Stress: Historical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10–18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. PMID:26210872

  15. Empirical evaluation demonstrated importance of validating biomarkers for early detection of cancer in screening settings to limit the number of false-positive findings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongda; Knebel, Phillip; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-07-01

    Search for biomarkers for early detection of cancer is a very active area of research, but most studies are done in clinical rather than screening settings. We aimed to empirically evaluate the role of study setting for early detection marker identification and validation. A panel of 92 candidate cancer protein markers was measured in 35 clinically identified colorectal cancer patients and 35 colorectal cancer patients identified at screening colonoscopy. For each case group, we selected 38 controls without colorectal neoplasms at screening colonoscopy. Single-, two- and three-marker combinations discriminating cases and controls were identified in each setting and subsequently validated in the alternative setting. In all scenarios, a higher number of predictive biomarkers were initially detected in the clinical setting, but a substantially lower proportion of identified biomarkers could subsequently be confirmed in the screening setting. Confirmation rates were 50.0%, 84.5%, and 74.2% for one-, two-, and three-marker algorithms identified in the screening setting and were 42.9%, 18.6%, and 25.7% for algorithms identified in the clinical setting. Validation of early detection markers of cancer in a true screening setting is important to limit the number of false-positive findings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia: Recent Trends, Challenges and Future Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nora S.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Early onset schizophrenia (onset before adulthood) is a rare, severe, and chronic form of schizophrenia. The clinical presentation of schizophrenia at this unusually early age of onset has been associated with premorbid developmental abnormalities, poor response to neuroleptic treatment, greater admission rates, and poor prognosis. This is a brief, condensed review of current treatment strategies for the early onset population highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies for these generally treatment-refractory cases. Based on the current literature, second-generation antipsychotics remain the mainstay of treatment, although current medications provide suboptimal response at best. Based on the adult literature, combining antipsychotic treatment with psychotherapeutic intervention may be a more comprehensive treatment strategy. Indeed, early detection, identification of relevant biomarkers, coupled with advancing knowledge of the neurochemical and neuroanatomic pathways may help design informed and novel treatment strategies. PMID:22485097

  17. Early Prediction of Acute Antidepressant Treatment Response and Remission in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Rongrong; Emslie, Graham; Mayes, Taryn; Nakonezny, Paul; Kennard, Betsy; Hughes, Carroll

    2009-01-01

    The rate of symptom improvement during the early weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment is a good indicator of remission. This finding was made after evaluating the outcome of the fluoxetine treatment on 168 children and adults with depression.

  18. The early steps of chloroform anaesthesia in Turkey during the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Yesim Isil

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to research the pioneering steps for the employment of chloroform in Turkey in comparison with the developments in the West i.e. in the United States and in Europe. The development of anaesthesiology in the West started in the first half of the 19th century. As an anaesthetic substance, ether was first employed in a medical operation by R. Liston in December 1846. But taking into consideration of its bronchially irritant effect, British gynaecologist Dr. J.Y. Simpson preferred to utilize chloroform in obstetrical operations in 1847. The paper aims at shedding light on the earlier steps for modern anaesthesiology in Turkey in that sense. The survey used evaluation of archival documents, first hand-original sources such as the annual medical reports of the Medical School, books, official journals, and newspapers of the time, and also secondary sources concerned with the subject. In view of the findings of the survey, chloroform, as an anaesthetic material, began to be administered surgically in Turkey much earlier than it was already known. It was experienced and used in operations at the surgical clinic of the Imperial School of Medicine at the Capital city, Istanbul in 1848. The Crimean War (1853-1855) induced to the prevalent surgical use of chloroform in Istanbul on the soldiers back from the front. In other words, it was evidenced that surgeons started to make use of this anaesthetic substance in the Ottoman Empire, shortly after it was put into medical practice in Europe. This study deals with that phenomenal progress of chloroform anaesthesia in the medical history in Turkey during the second half of the 19th century.

  19. New Empirical Evidence on the Validity and the Reliability of the Early Life Stress Questionnaire in a Polish Sample.

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Andrzej; Dragan, Wojciech Ł

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Early Life Stress Questionnaire (ELSQ) is widely used to estimate the prevalence of negative events during childhood, including emotional, physical, verbal, sexual abuse, negligence, severe conflicts, separation, parental divorce, substance abuse, poverty, and so forth. Objective: This study presents the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the ELSQ. It also verifies if early life stress (ELS) is a good predictor of psychopathology symptoms during adulthood. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from two samples. Sample 1 was selected by random quota method from across the country and included 609 participants aged 18-50 years, 306 women (50.2%) and 303 men (49.8%). Sample 2 contained 503 young adults (253 women and 250 men) aged 18-25. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to measure ELSQ internal consistency. The validity was based on the relation to psychopathological symptoms and substance misuse. Results: Results showed good internal consistency and validity. Exploratory factor analysis indicates a six-factor structure of the ELSQ. ELS was related to psychopathology in adulthood, including depressive, sociophobic, vegetative as well as pain symptoms. ELSQ score correlated also with alcohol use, but not nicotine dependence. Moreover, ELS was correlated with stress in adulthood. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the Polish version of the ELSQ is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing ELS in the Polish population and may be applied in both clinical and community samples.

  20. Economic evaluation of medical tests at the early phases of development: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Frempong, Samuel N; Sutton, Andrew J; Davenport, Clare; Barton, Pelham

    2018-02-01

    There is little specific guidance on the implementation of cost-effectiveness modelling at the early stage of test development. The aim of this study was to review the literature in this field to examine the methodologies and tools that have been employed to date. Areas Covered: A systematic review to identify relevant studies in established literature databases. Five studies were identified and included for narrative synthesis. These studies revealed that there is no consistent approach in this growing field. The perspective of patients and the potential for value of information (VOI) to provide information on the value of future research is often overlooked. Test accuracy is an essential consideration, with most studies having described and included all possible test results in their analysis, and conducted extensive sensitivity analyses on important parameters. Headroom analysis was considered in some instances but at the early development stage (not the concept stage). Expert commentary: The techniques available to modellers that can demonstrate the value of conducting further research and product development (i.e. VOI analysis, headroom analysis) should be better utilized. There is the need for concerted efforts to develop rigorous methodology in this growing field to maximize the value and quality of such analysis.

  1. Prevention and early treatment of influenza in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Demicheli, V; Jefferson, T; Rivetti, D; Deeks, J

    2000-01-06

    We present three systematic reviews carried out within the Cochrane Collaboration, focusing on a different influenza intervention in healthy adults: Vaccines; Ion Channel Inhibitor antivirals and Neuraminidase Inhibitor (NIs) antivirals. The objectives were to identify, retrieve and assess all studies evaluating the effects of these interventions in prophylaxis and early treatments of influenza and the frequency of adverse events. Additionally we present the results of the economic evaluation of effective alternatives in order to define the most cost-effective intervention. The economic evaluation is set in the context of the British Army. Studies were identified using a standard Cochrane search strategy. Any randomised or quasi-randomised studies in healthy individuals aged 14-60 years were considered for inclusion in the systematic review. Those which met inclusion criteria were assessed for quality and their data meta-analysed. The economic model was constructed using Cost-effectiveness and Cost-utility study designs. Live aerosol vaccines reduced cases of clinical influenza A with virological confirmation (by serology and/or viral isolation) by 48% (95%CI: 24-64%), whilst recommended inactivated parenteral vaccines have an efficacy of 68% (95%CI: 49-79%). Vaccine effectiveness in reducing clinical influenza cases (i.e. without virological confirmation) was lower, with efficacies of 13 and 24% respectively. Use of the vaccine significantly reduced time off work, but only by 0.4 days (95%CI: 0. 1-0.8 days). Analysis of vaccines matching the circulating strain gave higher estimates of efficacy, whilst inclusion of all other vaccines reduced the efficacy. When compared to placebo for the prevention of influenza, oral amantadine was 61% (95%CI: 51-69%) efficacious (RR 0.39 - 95%CI: 0.31-0.49), and oral rimantadine was 64% (95%CI: 41-78%) efficacious (RR 0.36 -95%CI: 0.22-0.59). When compared to placebo for the treatment of influenza, oral amantadine significantly

  2. Experimental Treatment of Early Stuttering: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Marie-Christine J.; Kielstra-Van der Schalk, Carine J.; Boelens, Harrie

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study compared two treatments for stuttering in preschool-age children. Thirty children were randomly assigned to either a Lidcombe Program (LP) treatment or a Demands and Capacities Model (DCM) treatment. Stuttering frequencies and severity ratings were obtained immediately before and after treatment (12 weeks). The stuttering…

  3. Disease-modifying treatments for early and advanced multiple sclerosis: a new treatment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Gavin

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of multiple sclerosis is evolving rapidly with 11 classes of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). This article provides an overview of a new classification system for DMTs and treatment paradigm for using these DMTs effectively and safely. A summary of research into the use of more active approaches to early and effective treatment of multiple sclerosis with defined treatment targets of no evident disease activity (NEDA). New insights are discussed that is allowing the field to begin to tackle more advanced multiple sclerosis, including people with multiple sclerosis using wheelchairs. However, the need to modify expectations of what can be achieved in more advanced multiple sclerosis are discussed; in particular, the focus on neuronal systems with reserve capacity, for example, upper limb, bulbar and visual function. The review describes a new more active way of managing multiple sclerosis and concludes with a call to action in solving the problem of slow adoption of innovations and the global problem of untreated, or undertreated, multiple sclerosis.

  4. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility survey on bacterial agents of canine and feline urinary tract infections: Weight of the empirical treatment.

    PubMed

    Rampacci, Elisa; Bottinelli, Marco; Stefanetti, Valentina; Hyatt, Doreene R; Sgariglia, Elisa; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2018-06-01

    This work characterised the antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens isolated from empirically treated dogs and cats. Within-household transmission of uropathogens can involve humans and companion animals. Knowledge on the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of isolates from canine and feline urine samples and the impact of prior antimicrobial treatment is important to prevent the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. A retrospective study was conducted selecting antibiotic-treated companion animals. Urine samples were collected by cystocentesis and were submitted to an Italian diagnostic laboratory over a 2-year period (2013-2015). The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was analysed both using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and a formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy. Gram-negative bacteria were clearly prevalent. Gentamicin had the highest impact factors. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and doxycycline appeared to be the most effective compounds against Gram-positive infections, whilst marbofloxacin may be a useful option against Gram-negative urinary tract infections (UTIs) as well as doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in cats and dogs, respectively. Consulting published studies, a comparable overall trend regarding bacterial species incriminated in canine and feline UTIs and their susceptibilities seems likely, despite different circumstances where the studies were conducted. Companion animals are potential reservoirs of drug-resistant uropathogens. Judicious use of antibiotics is necessary to maintain the efficacy of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programmes are therefore essential to facilitate the choice of antimicrobial agent that is most likely to be effective, particularly in cases of prior antimicrobial treatment. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. All rights reserved.

  6. Current developments in the treatment of early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Borchmann, Sven; von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited. In contrast, a more defensive strategy of starting treatment with less aggressive doxorubicine, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy and intensifying treatment in early interim PET-positive patients has shown encouraging results. New drugs such as brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical trials of brentuximab vedotin in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma have been initiated. Additionally, biomarker-based treatment de-escalation might be a possible route for future improvements. The challenge for future clinical research in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is to continue to cure the majority of patients with first-line treatment while reducing long-term toxicity. New strategies to achieve that goal are currently being developed and will further refine treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

  7. Traumatic and Stressful Events in Early Childhood: Can Treatment Help Those at Highest Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Harris, William W.; Van Horn, Patricia; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study involves a reanalysis of data from a randomized controlled trial to examine whether child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), an empirically based treatment focusing on the parent-child relationship as the vehicle for child improvement, is efficacious for children who experienced multiple traumatic and stressful life events (TSEs).…

  8. Cost Effectiveness of Candida Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection and Empirical Antifungal Treatment among Patients with Suspected Fungal Peritonitis in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Pagès, Arnaud; Iriart, Xavier; Molinier, Laurent; Georges, Bernard; Berry, Antoine; Massip, Patrice; Juillard-Condat, Blandine

    2017-12-01

    Mortality from intra-abdominal candidiasis in intensive care units (ICUs) is high. It takes many days for peritoneal-fluid fungal culture to become positive, and the recommended empirical antifungal therapy involves excessive costs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) should produce results more rapidly than fungal culture. To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the combination of several diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to manage Candida peritonitis in non-neutropenic adult patients in ICUs. We constructed a decision tree model to evaluate the cost effectiveness. Cost and effectiveness were taken into account in a 1-year time horizon and from the French National Health Insurance perspective. Six strategies were compared: fluconazole or echinocandin as an empirical therapy, plus diagnosis by fungal culture or detection by PCR of all Candida species, or use of PCR to detect most fluconazole-resistant Candida species (i.e., Candida krusei and Candida glabrata). The use of fluconazole empirical treatment and PCR to detect all Candida species is more cost effective than using fluconazole empirical treatment without PCR (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €40,055/quality-adjusted life-year). Empirical treatment with echinocandin plus PCR to detect C. krusei and C. glabrata is the most effective strategy, but has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €93,776/quality-adjusted life-year. If the cost of echinocandin decreases, then strategies involving PCR plus empirical echinocandin become more cost-effective. Detection by PCR of all Candida species and of most fluconazole-resistant Candida species could improve the cost-effectiveness of fluconazole and echinocandin given to non-neutropenic patients with suspected peritoneal candidiasis in ICUs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An empirical review of treatment and rehabilitation approaches used in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic phases of recovery following sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Elbin, R J; Schatz, Phil; Lowder, Harrison B; Kontos, Anthony P

    2014-11-01

    Several treatment and rehabilitation approaches for sport-related concussion have been mentioned in recent consensus and position statements. These options range from the more conservative behavioral management approaches to aggressive pharmacological and therapeutic interventions. Moreover, clinical decision-making for sport-related concussion changes as symptoms and impairments persist throughout recovery. The current article provides an empirical review of proposed treatment and rehabilitation options for sport-related concussion during the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of injury.

  10. Time to Guideline-Based Empiric Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Pneumonia in a Community Hospital: A Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Beth L; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Allen, Leland N

    2016-08-01

    The 2005 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) stress the importance of initiating prompt appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. This study's purpose was to determine the percentage of patients with HAP, VAP, and HCAP who received guideline-based empiric antibiotic therapy and to determine the average time to receipt of an appropriate empiric regimen. A retrospective chart review of adults with HAP, VAP, or HCAP was conducted at a community hospital in suburban Birmingham, Alabama. The hospital's electronic medical record system utilized International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes to identify patients diagnosed with pneumonia. The percentage of patients who received guideline-based empiric antibiotic therapy was calculated. The mean time from suspected diagnosis of pneumonia to initial administration of the final antibiotic within the empiric regimen was calculated for patients who received guideline-based therapy. Ninety-three patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall guideline adherence rate for empiric antibiotic therapy was 31.2%. The mean time to guideline-based therapy in hours:minutes was 7:47 for HAP and 28:16 for HCAP. For HAP and HCAP combined, the mean time to appropriate therapy was 21:55. Guideline adherence rates were lower and time to appropriate empiric therapy was greater for patients with HCAP compared to patients with HAP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The long-term impact of early life pain on adult responses to anxiety and stress: Historical perspectives and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10-18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between early maladaptive schemas and eating-disorder symptomatology among individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and their relationship to psychological disorders, including eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs). However, to date, there are no empirical investigations that have examined the relationship between EMS and EDs among individuals seeking treatment for substance use. In an attempt to further elucidate this relationship, the purpose of the current, exploratory study was to examine the relationship between EMS, ED symptomatology (i.e., bulimia and binge-eating but not anorexia), and substance use and to directly compare EMS among individuals with and without a probable ED diagnosis. Participants were 387 men and 132 women seeking residential treatment for substance use. Results demonstrated that 11 of the 18 EMS were significantly associated with ED. Moreover, patients with a probable ED scored significantly higher than patients without a probable ED on 8 of the 18 EMS. Results suggest that EMS are prevalent among individuals with ED pathology seeking treatment for substance use. Thus treatment programs could potentially benefit from the assessment and treatment of EMS among dually-diagnosed patients. Given the exploratory and preliminary nature of the study, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between EMS, EDs, and substance use. PMID:27375373

  13. Early interventional treatment with intranasal corticosteroids compared with postonset treatment in pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takaya; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Makihara, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Tazuko; Haruna, Takenori; Noda, Yohei; Kariya, Shin; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2012-12-01

    The usefulness of early interventional treatment (EIT) with intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) compared with postonset treatment (POT) has not been clarified. To study the efficacy and safety of EIT with INSs compared with POT and placebo in Japanese cedar/cypress pollinosis. We designed a 3-armed, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients received mometasone furoate nasal spray (EIT group: n = 25), placebo (n = 25), or 4 weeks of placebo followed by 8 weeks of mometasone (POT group: n = 25) for a 12-week period starting on February 1, 2011. The primary end point was the comparison of the total nasal symptom score (TNSS) among the 3 groups. Total ocular symptom score (TOSS), total naso-ocular symptom score (TSS), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact (ARIA) on Asthma classification, and safety were the main secondary end points. The placebo and POT groups, but not the EIT group, had a significant exacerbation of TNSS and TOSS soon after the start of pollen counts being high on consecutive days. The 12-week mean TSS in the EIT group (score, 2.3) was significantly lower than in the placebo (5.0; P < .01) and POT (3.9; P = .03) groups. All patients in the placebo and POT groups were classified as having persistent rhinitis, whereas 80% of the EIT group met the ARIA classification criteria (P = .03). The quality-of-life score and nasal eosinophil cationic protein levels were lower in the EIT and POT groups compared with the placebo group. Daytime sleepiness, smell disturbance, and the mean dose of loratadine taken as the rescue medication were similar. Treatment with mometasone was well tolerated. EIT with INSs is superior to POT in controlling pollinosis. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease.

  15. Effect of deferred or no treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with early primary biliary cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hirohara, Junko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Yagi, Minami; Namisaki, Tadashi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takikawa, Hajime

    2018-02-06

    As primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a heterogeneous disease, we hypothesized that there is a population of patients with early PBC who do not require prompt treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In this study, we analyzed data from a large-scale PBC cohort in Japan, and retrospectively investigated whether outcomes of early PBC patients were affected with prompt or deferred/no UDCA treatment. We defined early PBC as asymptomatic, serum alkaline phosphatase <1.67-fold the upper limit of normal, normal bilirubin, and histological stages I-II at presentation. We compared the outcomes of early PBC patients between the treatment regimens; prompt treatment group (UDCA was initiated within 1 year after diagnosis) and deferred/no treatment group (UDCA initiated >1 year after diagnosis or never initiated). Furthermore, we examined the outcomes of early PBC patients alternatively defined only with symptomatology and biochemistry. We identified 562 early PBC patients (prompt: n = 509; deferred/no treatment: n = 53). Incidence rates (per 1000 patient-years) for liver-related mortality or liver transplantation and decompensating events were 0.5 and 5.4, respectively, in the prompt treatment group, and 0 and 8.7, respectively, in the deferred/no treatment group. Multivariate analyses showed that age and bilirubin were significantly associated with developing decompensating events, whereas the prompt and deferred/no treatments were not. We obtained similar results in early PBC patients defined without histological examination. We showed that deferred/no treatment for early PBC patients did not affect the outcomes. This study provides a rationale for a future prospective, randomized study. © 2018 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Lidcombe Program Webcam Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgman, Kate; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Webcam treatment is potentially useful for health care in cases of early stuttering in which clients are isolated from specialized treatment services for geographic and other reasons. The purpose of the present trial was to compare outcomes of clinic and webcam deliveries of the Lidcombe Program treatment (Packman et al., 2015) for early…

  17. Risk of early surgery for Crohn's disease: implications for early treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Sands, Bruce E; Arsenault, Joanne E; Rosen, Michael J; Alsahli, Mazen; Bailen, Laurence; Banks, Peter; Bensen, Steven; Bousvaros, Athos; Cave, David; Cooley, Jeffrey S; Cooper, Herbert L; Edwards, Susan T; Farrell, Richard J; Griffin, Michael J; Hay, David W; John, Alex; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Olans, Lori B; Peppercorn, Mark A; Rothstein, Richard I; Roy, Michael A; Saletta, Michael J; Shah, Samir A; Warner, Andrew S; Wolf, Jacqueline L; Vecchio, James; Winter, Harland S; Zawacki, John K

    2003-12-01

    In this study we aimed to define the rate of early surgery for Crohn's disease and to identify risk factors associated with early surgery as a basis for subsequent studies of early intervention in Crohn's disease. We assembled a retrospective cohort of patients with Crohn's disease diagnosed between 1991 and 1997 and followed for at least 3 yr, who were identified in 16 community and referral-based practices in New England. Chart review was performed for each patient. Details of baseline demographic and disease features were recorded. Surgical history including date of surgery, indication, and procedure were also noted. Risk factors for early surgery (defined as major surgery for Crohn's disease within 3 yr of diagnosis, exclusive of major surgery at time of diagnosis) were identified by univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors. Of 345 eligible patients, 69 (20.1%) required surgery within 3 yr of diagnosis, excluding the 14 patients (4.1%) who had major surgery at the time of diagnosis. Overall, the interval between diagnosis and surgery was short; one half of all patients who required surgery underwent operation within 6 months of diagnosis. Risk factors identified by univariate analysis as significantly associated with early surgery included the following: smoking; disease of small bowel without colonic involvement; nausea and vomiting or abdominal pain on presentation; neutrophil count; and steroid use in the first 6 months. Disease localized to the colon only, blood in the stool, use of 5-aminosalicylate, and lymphocyte count were inversely associated with risk of early surgery. Logistic regression confirmed independent associations with smoking as a positive risk factor and involvement of colon without small bowel as a negative risk factor for early surgery. The rate of surgery is high in the first 3 yr after diagnosis of Crohn's disease, particularly in the first 6 months. These results suggest that

  18. Comparison of Doxycycline and Benzathine Penicillin G for the Treatment of Early Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hailu; Liu, Dianchang; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Rongtao; Li, Zhongwei; Hou, Jianling; Zhang, Shengjia; Chu, Tongsheng; Tian, Hongqing; Zhang, Furen

    2017-07-01

    Doxycycline is the preferred recommended second-line treatment for the treatment of early syphilis. Recent reports showed a declining efficacy trend of doxycycline in treatment of early syphilis. The aim of our study was to assess the serological response to the treatment for early syphilis with doxycycline compared with benzathine penicillin G and evaluate whether doxycycline is still an effective agent for the treatment of early syphilis. A record-based retrospective study was conducted. Patients were diagnosed with early syphilis in an sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014. They were treated with a single dose of benzathine penicillin G 2.4MU or oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 14 days. Pearson's chi-squared test was used for data analysis. 601 cases were included in the final study sample: 105 (17.5%) patients received a 14-day course of doxycycline (doxycycline group), and 496 (82.5%) patients received single-dose benzathine penicillin G (BPG group). The serological responses at 6 months and 12 months after treatment were compared. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups at 6 months (69.52% vs. 75.00%, P=0.245), and at 12 months (92.38% vs. 96.17%, P=0.115). Doxycycline is still an effective agent for the treatment of early syphilis.

  19. Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86

  20. Early treatment is associated with improved cognition in Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poe, Michele D; Chagnon, Sarah L; Escolar, Maria L

    2014-11-01

    Hurler syndrome is the most clinically severe form of an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterized by the deficiency of α-L-iduronidase. The resulting accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causes progressive multisystem deterioration, resulting in death in childhood. Umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors has been previously shown to improve neurological outcomes of children <2 years of age and prolong life. The purpose of this article is to determine whether age at transplantation can predict cognitive outcomes. Between June 1997 and February 2013, 31 patients with Hurler syndrome underwent umbilical cord blood transplantation and were evaluated at baseline and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. All 31 patients underwent complete neurodevelopmental evaluation (median follow-up = 7.3 years, range = 2-21.7) and a median of 7.0 evaluations (range = 3-18). Younger age at transplantation was associated with improved cognitive function (p = 0.001), receptive and expressive language (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01), and adaptive behavior (p = 0.03). Early age at transplantation is a strong predictor of cognitive, language, and adaptive behavior outcomes. Children younger than 9 months at the time of transplant showed normal cognitive development. Our results demonstrate that early diagnosis is necessary for optimal outcomes and support the need for newborn screening, because most patients are not identified at this young age. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  1. Direct Extraction of Tumor Response Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for Image Reconstruction of Early Breast Cancer Detection by UWB.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinwei; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Liang; Song, Hang; Kono, Hayato; Liu, Peifang; Lu, Hong; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2015-10-01

    A direct extraction method of tumor response based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed for early breast cancer detection by ultra-wide band (UWB) microwave imaging. With this approach, the image reconstruction for the tumor detection can be realized with only extracted signals from as-detected waveforms. The calibration process executed in the previous research for obtaining reference waveforms which stand for signals detected from the tumor-free model is not required. The correctness of the method is testified by successfully detecting a 4 mm tumor located inside the glandular region in one breast model and by the model located at the interface between the gland and the fat, respectively. The reliability of the method is checked by distinguishing a tumor buried in the glandular tissue whose dielectric constant is 35. The feasibility of the method is confirmed by showing the correct tumor information in both simulation results and experimental results for the realistic 3-D printed breast phantom.

  2. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing PhotofrinR for treatment of early esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud; Teffeteller, Elmeria; Rose, S. Mark

    1993-06-01

    Four lesions of early carcinoma of the esophagus found during endoscopic biopsies in three patients were treated with photodynamic therapy. Follow-up biopsies over 9 - 24 months remain negative for carcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasonography is essential for proper staging and treatment planning for these patients. Photodynamic therapy may provide an alternative to surgical resection for early esophageal carcinoma or severe dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

  3. Penicillin treatment for gonorrhoea in relation to early syphilis in prostitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Bradbeer, C S; Thin, R N; Tan, T; Thirumoorthy, T

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study of prostitutes in Singapore showed that they had received less antigonorrhoeal treatment with penicillin derivatives during the three month period before early syphilis was diagnosed than in other three month periods when they had not developed syphilis. This suggests that penicillin derivatives in doses sufficient to treat gonorrhoea will abort coincidental early syphilis. PMID:3346033

  4. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Press, Joshua Z.; Gotlieb, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. PMID:22685466

  5. Early endovascular treatment of superior mesenteric occlusion secondary to thromboemboli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z; Jiang, G; Tian, F; Zhao, J; Li, S; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Jiang, L; Wang, W

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate our early experience with endovascular revascularization in patients with acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic SMA occlusion from May 2005 to May 2012. Endovascular revascularization was performed using aspiration, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and adjunctive stent-placement techniques. Laparotomy was performed if the patient developed clinical signs of advanced bowel ischemia after endovascular procedure. Twenty-one patients underwent endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic SMA occlusion. All presented with acute-onset abdominal pain. Three patients had rebound tenderness before the procedure. Computed tomography angiography revealed complete occlusion in seven cases and incomplete occlusion in 14 cases, with no evidence of free gas or bowel necrosis. The median duration from onset of symptoms to revascularization was 8.7 ± 4.1 hours (range, 2-18 hours). Completely successful endovascular revascularization occurred in six cases (aspiration alone, 3 cases; combined aspiration and urokinase, 3 cases); partial success was achieved in 15 cases (aspiration alone, 4 cases; combined aspiration and urokinase, 10 cases; and combined aspiration, urokinase, and stent placement, 1 case). Laparotomy was required in five patients, all of whom had SMA main trunk complete occlusion and required small bowel resection. The 30-day mortality for all patients was 9.5%. During a median follow-up of 26 months, 15 patients remained asymptomatic, three patients reported occasional abdominal pain, and one patient had temporary short-bowel syndrome. Percutaneous revascularization is a promising alternative to surgery for acute SMA occlusion in selected patients who have no signs of advanced bowel ischemia. Early diagnosis followed by prompt endovascular intervention with close postprocedural monitoring is

  6. Early history of operative treatment of patellar fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The presented overview shows that the first efforts to address patellar fractures by operative treatment, although sporadic, emerged in the pre-antiseptic era. Introduction of Lister's antiseptic method in Great Britain, Germany and the USA in 1877-1882 contributed to a new, progressive trend in the treatment of fractures of the patella as well as of other bones. The authors, using Lister's antiseptic method, evaluated three basic aspects in their operations, namely healing of the surgical wound without infective complications, achievement of bony union and a good functional outcome, i.e. restoring the range of motion in the knee, even if limited in most cases. The majority of them used a longitudinal incision and fixation by a silver wire.

  7. Positive communication paradigm decreases early recurrence in clubfoot treatment.

    PubMed

    Morin, Matthew L; Hoopes, Daniel M; Szalay, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    The Ponseti method has become the treatment standard for idiopathic clubfoot. Deformity recurrence is most commonly attributed to premature abandonment of the requisite abduction orthosis. A study in 2009 from our center revealed a high rate of deformity recurrence in our patient population. It was surmised that the importance of bracing to maintain correction had not been adequately communicated to some families, especially Native Americans. As a result, the principal investigator developed a different communication protocol for parents of infants. All children treated for clubfoot at the University of New Mexico Carrie Tingley Hospital, Albuquerque, NM, from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed. They were compared with a historical control group from this institution, the subjects of the 2009 study, and were analyzed for the rate of recurrence and Pirani score improvement. Our study cohort comprised 69 infants (104 clubfeet), all of whom were treated with the new communication style. The recurrence rate for the new communication paradigm was 2.88% compared with 18.2% in the control group (P<0.001). The Pirani score improvement was 4.0 in the treatment group compared with 3.5 in the control group (P=0.001). Native American recurrence was zero in the treatment group and 41% in the control group (P=0.011). A positive, rather than a negative communication style, emphasis on the brace as the most important aspect of treatment, and a more culturally sensitive family education paradigm, resulted in a lower rate of deformity recurrence when treating children with clubfeet using the Ponseti method. Level III.

  8. Early hyperbaric oxygen treatment for nonarteritic central retinal artery obstruction.

    PubMed

    Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Siekmann, Ullrich; Weinberger, Andreas; Roessler, Gernot; Walter, Peter; Mazinani, Babac

    2012-03-01

    To compare hyperbaric oxygen treatment combined with hemodilution with hemodilution only in central retinal artery obstruction. Retrospective, nonrandomized case series. We reviewed records of all our patients diagnosed with central retinal artery obstruction between 1997 and 2010. In these patients, hyperbaric oxygen and hemodilution therapy had been administered routinely (oxygen group). Where hyperbaric oxygenation could not be performed, patients were underwent hemodilution only (control group). Patients with presenting visual acuity (VA) of up to 20/200 within 12 hours of onset were included in our analysis. Exclusion criteria included cilioretinal vessels or arteritic occlusion. The oxygen group comprised 51 patients, and the control group comprised 29 patients. Mean baseline VA was counting fingers (oxygen group) and 20/1000 (control group; P = .1). Most other potential confounders, including duration of symptoms, also did not differ significantly at baseline. In the oxygen group, mean VA improvement was 3 lines (P < .0001). This was sustained over a follow-up of 3 months (P = .01). In the control group, mean improvement was 1 line (P = .23 at discharge, P = .17 at follow-up). Differences between both groups were not significant (P = .07 at discharge, P = .26 at follow-up). The number of patients gaining 3 lines or more was 38.0% versus 17.9% at discharge (P = .06) and 35.7% versus 30.8% at follow-up (P = .76). We saw significant VA improvement after the combined treatment, but not when using hemodilution only. Confirming superiority of the combination treatment requires a randomized, prospective trial. A high number of nonresponders highlights the need to improve our understanding and treatment of hypoxia-related metabolic insults after central retinal artery obstruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Hypoparathyroidism Reversibility with Treatment of Riedel's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Stan, Marius N; Haglind, Elizabeth G; Drake, Matthew T

    2015-09-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare, fibroinflammatory condition which induces gradual thyroid gland destruction and adjacent soft-tissue fibrous infiltration. About one- seventh of RT cases are associated with hypoparathyroidism, necessitating long-term therapy for symptomatic hypocalcemia. The reversibility of the parathyroid hormone deficit has not been fully described. A 40-year-old woman with no prior history of thyroid disease presented with a six month history of progressive thyroid enlargement complicated by worsening dysphagia and positional dyspnea. Her past medical history was remarkable only for retroperitoneal fibrosis. Physical examination revealed a large, hard, non-mobile goiter. Thyroid indices while maintained on levothyroxine were normal, but marked asymptomatic hypocalcemia with an inappropriately normal parathyroid hormone level was noted. Thyroid imaging and fine needle aspiration were consistent with RT. Isthmectomy and subsequent serial corticosteroid and tamoxifen treatment led to rapid symptom improvement. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels returned to the reference range within three months. We describe a case of RT in which hypoparathyroidism resolved after treatment targeted the mechanical compression and the fibroinflammatory milieu of the patient's thyroidal disease. RT can be associated with hypoparathyroidism that is clinically silent at presentation. Mechanical decompression of the goiter and immunomodulatory therapy can reverse the fibrosclerotic process and lead to rapid recovery of parathyroid gland function, as in this patient. However, in most cases hypoparathyroidism is persistent and requires continued treatment to prevent symptomatic hypocalcemia.

  10. Retrospective 25-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in angle Class III patients : Early versus late treatment.

    PubMed

    Wendl, B; Muchitsch, A P; Winsauer, H; Walter, A; Droschl, H; Jakse, N; Wendl, M; Wendl, T

    2017-05-01

    To assess early versus late treatment of Class III syndrome for skeletal and dental differences. Thirty-eight Class III patients treated with a chincup were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline data were obtained by reviewing pretreatment (T0) anamnestic records, cephalograms, and casts. The cases were assigned to an early or a late treatment group based on age at T0 (up to 9 years or older than 9 years but before the pubertal growth spurt). Both groups were further compared based on posttreatment data (T1) and long-term follow-up data collected approximately 25 years after treatment (T2). Early treatment was successful in 74% and late treatment in 67% of cases. More failures were noted among male patients. The late treatment group was characterized post therapeutically by significantly more pronounced skeletal parameters of jaw size relative to normal Class I values; in addition, a greater skeletal discrepancy between maxilla and mandible, higher values for mandibular length, Cond-Pog, ramus height, overjet, anterior posterior dysplasia indicator (APDI), lower anterior face height, and gonial angle were measured at T1. The angle between the AB line and mandibular plane was found to be larger at T0, T1, and T2, as well as more pronounced camouflage positions of the lower anterior teeth at T0. The early treatment group was found to exhibit greater amounts of negative overjet at T0 but more effective correction at T1. Early treatment of Class III syndrome resulted in greater skeletal changes with less dental compensation.

  11. Final visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Good, William V; Hardy, Robert J; Dobson, Velma; Palmer, Earl A; Phelps, Dale L; Tung, Betty; Redford, Maryann

    2010-06-01

    To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally managed eyes. Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. The main outcome measure was ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.3% vs 28.6% [corrected] unfavorable outcome; P = .15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% vs 32.8%; P = .02) treated early but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% vs 19.4%; P = .37). Early-treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% vs 15.2% unfavorable outcome; P < .001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes, should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52% of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  12. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  13. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  14. Current role of minimally invasive approaches in the treatment of early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    El-Sedfy, Abraham; Brar, Savtaj S; Coburn, Natalie G

    2014-01-01

    Despite declining incidence, gastric cancer remains one of the most common cancers worldwide. Early detection in population-based screening programs has increased the number of cases of early gastric cancer, representing approximately 50% of newly detected gastric cancer cases in Asian countries. Endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection have become the preferred therapeutic techniques in Japan and Korea for the treatment of early gastric cancer patients with a very low risk of lymph node metastasis. Laparoscopic and robotic resections for early gastric cancer, including function-preserving resections, have propagated through advances in technology and surgeon experience. The aim of this paper is to discuss the recent advances in minimally invasive approaches in the treatment of early gastric cancer. PMID:24833843

  15. Early definitive treatment rate as a quality indicator of care in acute gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Charman, S C; Palser, T

    2017-11-01

    Early definitive treatment (cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy in the same admission or within 2 weeks after discharge) of gallstone disease after a biliary attack of acute pancreatitis is standard of care. This study investigated whether compliance with early definitive treatment for acute gallstone pancreatitis can be used as a care quality indicator for the condition. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. All emergency admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England with a first time diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis in the financial years 2008, 2009 and 2010 were examined. Trends in early definitive treatment between hospital trusts were examined and patient morbidity outcomes were determined. During the study interval there were 19 510 patients with an overall rate of early definitive treatment at 34·7 (range 9·4-84·7) per cent. In the 1-year follow-up period, 4661 patients (23·9 per cent) had one or more emergency readmissions for complications related to gallstone pancreatitis. Of these, 2692 (57·8 per cent) were readmissions for acute pancreatitis; 911 (33·8 per cent) were within the first 2 weeks of discharge, with the remaining 1781 (66·2 per cent) occurring after the point at which definitive treatment should have been received. Early definitive treatment resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in readmission risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0·61, 95 per cent c.i. 0·58 to 0·65). The risk was further reduced for acute pancreatitis readmissions to 54 per cent in the early definitive treatment group (adjusted RR 0·46, 0·42 to 0·51). In acute gallstone pancreatitis, compliance with recommended early definitive treatment varied considerably, with associated variation in outcomes. Compliance should be used as a quality indicator to improve care. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Treatment with soy isoflavones during early adulthood improves metabolism in early postnatally overfed rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pamelli; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Prates, Kelly Valério; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Silveira, Sandra da Silva; Malta, Ananda; Lopes, Denise Alves; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Torrezan, Rosana; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2018-01-01

    The incidences of obesity and related diseases have reached epidemic proportions, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Soy isoflavones have been identified as an important dietary factor for preventing and treating metabolic dysfunction. This study examined the effects of high doses of isoflavone on glucose and fat metabolism in a model of programmed obesity and evaluated its effects on the autonomic nervous system. Litters of Wistar rats were standardized at nine pups per dam in normal litters (NL) or reduced to three pups per dam at the third day of life (P3) in small litters (SL) to induce postnatal overfeeding. Gavage with a soy bean isoflavone mixture (1 g/day) diluted in water was started at P60 and continued for 30 days. The control animals received vehicle gavage. At P90, biometric and metabolic parameters as well as direct autonomic nerve activity were measured. Increases in glycaemia and insulinaemia observed in SL rats were reduced by isoflavone treatment, which also caused lower glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Sympathetic activity in the major splanchnic nerve was increased, while vagus nerve activity was reduced by isoflavone treatment. The dyslipidaemia induced by overfeeding in SL rats was restored by isoflavone treatment. The present study shows that treatment with isoflavone reduces adiposity and improves glucose and lipid metabolism. Collectively, these effects may depend on autonomic changes.

  17. Juvenile Dermatomyositis: Key Roles of Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Early Aggressive Treatment.

    PubMed

    Corral-Magaña, O; Bauzá-Alonso, A F; Escudero-Góngora, M M; Lacruz, L; Martín-Santiago, A

    2017-09-12

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is a rare systemic connective tissue disease with onset during childhood. It presents clinically with proximal muscle weakness and characteristic skin involvement. Diagnosis is based on the Bohan and Peter criteria, though many authors are now substituting biopsy with muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both diagnosis and follow-up. Without intensive early treatment, complications such as calcinosis cutis and lipodystrophy can develop in the chronic phases of the disease. Early recognition is therefore key to management. We present a series of 5 patients who were diagnosed with Juvenile dermatomyositis on muscle MRI without undergoing muscle biopsy and who received early treatment. We draw attention to the usefulness of muscle MRI for the diagnosis of muscle involvement and to the importance of early initiation of intensive treatment to prevent complications. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Early improvements in anxiety, depression, and anger/hostility symptoms and response to antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Farabaugh, Amy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Johnson, Daniel P; Witte, Janet; Papakostas, George I; Goodness, Tracie; Clain, Alisabet; Baer, Lee; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Harley, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether treatment response to fluoxetine by depressed outpatients was predicted by early improvement on any of 3 subscales (Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility) of the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). We evaluated 169 depressed outpatients (52.6% female) between ages 18 and 65 (mean age, 40.3 +/- 10.6 years) meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). All patients completed the SQ at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg/d. We defined treatment response as a > or= 50% reduction in score on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and early improvement on 3 SQ subscales (Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility) as a >30% reduction in score by week 2. The percentage of patients with significant early improvement in anger was significantly greater than the percentage of those with early improvements in anxiety or depression. When early improvement on the Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility subscales of the SQ were assessed independently by logistic regression, all 3 subscales were predictors of response to treatment. Early improvement in anger, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may predict response to antidepressant treatment among outpatients with MDD.

  19. Effectiveness of Community-Based Early Intervention Based on Pivotal Response Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isabel M.; Flanagan, Helen E.; Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers (n = 118) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in this prospective effectiveness study of an early intervention program. Treatment entailed parent training and therapist-implemented components, incorporating Pivotal Response Treatment and Positive Behaviour Support. Standardized ability and behavioural measures were…

  20. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Early Optimized Treatment.

    PubMed

    Habert, Jeffrey; Katzman, Martin A; Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; McIntyre, Roger S; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Khullar, Atul; Milev, Roumen V; Kjernisted, Kevin D; Chokka, Pratap R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the case that a more rapid, individualized approach to treating major depressive disorder (MDD) may increase the likelihood of achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery for individual patients and that studies show it is possible to make earlier decisions about appropriateness of treatment in order to rapidly optimize that treatment. A PubMed search was conducted using terms including major depressive disorder, early improvement, predictor, duration of untreated illness, and function. English-language articles published before September 2015 were included. Additional studies were found within identified research articles and reviews. Thirty antidepressant studies reporting predictor criteria and outcome measures are included in this review. Studies were reviewed to extract definitions of predictors, outcome measures, and results of the predictor analysis. Results were summarized separately for studies reporting effects of early improvement, baseline characteristics, and duration of untreated depression. Shorter duration of the current depressive episode and duration of untreated depression are associated with better symptomatic and functional outcomes in MDD. Early improvement of depressive symptoms predicts positive symptomatic outcomes (response and remission), and early functional improvement predicts an increased likelihood of functional remission. The approach to treatment of depression that exhibits the greatest potential for achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery is early optimized treatment: early diagnosis followed by rapid individualized treatment. Monitoring symptoms and function early in treatment is crucial to ensuring that patients do not remain on ineffective or poorly tolerated treatment, which may delay recovery and heighten the risk of residual functional deficits. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Social-Emotional Well-Being and Resilience of Children in Early Childhood Settings--PERIK: An Empirically Based Observation Scale for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Toni; Ulich, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Compared with the traditional focus on developmental problems, research on positive development is relatively new. Empirical research in children's well-being has been scarce. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically based instrument for practitioners to observe and assess preschool children's well-being in early…

  2. Early surgical suction and washout for treatment of cytotoxic drug extravasations.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, E; Deraemaecker, R

    2000-02-01

    This case report is presented to assess safety and efficiency of early suction and saline washout of extravasated cytotoxic drugs. Through multiple small skin incisions, the area of extravasation is first suctioned and subsequently extensively washed out with saline. Incisions are left open and the arm is elevated for 24 hours. A complete healing was obtained in five days without any skin or soft tissue loss. No additional treatment was needed. Early referral and surgical treatment by suction and washout is a safe and reliable treatment protocol for major cytotoxic drug extravasation injuries.

  3. Potential role of immunoablation and hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of early diabetes type 1.

    PubMed

    Snarski, Emilian; Milczarczyk, Alicja; Franek, Edward; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Immunoablation with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation has shown some effectiveness in the treatment of autoimmune diseases as diverse as aplastic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. It has been recently shown that this treatment might prevent or delay development of diabetes type 1. The majority of more than 30 patients with early diabetes type 1 who underwent immunoablation and hematopoietic cell transplantation in various centers in the world achieved durable remission of diabetes and independence of exogenous insulin. This review summarizes advantages and risks of this treatment of early diabetes type 1.

  4. Carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empiric treatment and outcomes among patients hospitalized with Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infection, pneumonia and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Nathanson, Brian H; Sulham, Kate; Fan, Weihong; Shorr, Andrew F

    2017-04-17

    Drug resistance among gram-negative pathogens is a risk factor for inappropriate empiric treatment (IET), which in turn increases the risk for mortality. We explored the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) on the risk of IET and of IET on outcomes in patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Premier Perspective database (2009-2013) of 175 US hospitals. We included all adult patients with community-onset culture-positive urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, or sepsis as a principal diagnosis, or as a secondary diagnosis in the setting of respiratory failure, treated with antibiotics within 2 days of admission. We employed regression modeling to compute adjusted association of presence of CRE with risk of receiving IET, and of IET on hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS) and costs. Among 40,137 patients presenting to the hospital with an Enterobacteriaceae UTI, pneumonia or sepsis, 1227 (3.1%) were CRE. In both groups, the majority of the cases were UTI (51.4% CRE and 54.3% non-CRE). Those with CRE were younger (66.6+/-15.3 vs. 69.1+/-15.9 years, p < 0.001), and more likely to be African-American (19.7% vs. 14.0%, p < 0.001) than those with non-CRE. Both chronic (Charlson score 2.0+/-2.0 vs. 1.9+/-2.1, p = 0.009) and acute (by day 2: ICU 56.3% vs. 30.4%, p < 0.001, and mechanical ventilation 35.8% vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001) illness burdens were higher among CRE than non-CRE subjects, respectively. CRE patients were 3× more likely to receive IET than non-CRE (46.5% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001). In a regression model CRE was a strong predictor of receiving IET (adjusted relative risk ratio 3.95, 95% confidence interval 3.5 to 4.5, p < 0.001). In turn, IET was associated with an adjusted rise in mortality of 12% (95% confidence interval 3% to 23%), and an excess of 5.2 days (95% confidence interval 4.8, 5.6, p < 0.001) LOS and $10,312 (95% confidence interval $9497, $11,126, p < 0

  5. [Early diagnosis and early treatment for liver cancer in Qidong: survival of patients and effectiveness of screening].

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Zhang, Y H; Zhu, J; Lu, J H; Wang, J B; Sun, Y; Xue, X F; Lu, L L; Chen, Y S; Wu, Y; Jiang, X P; Ding, L L; Zhang, Q N; Zhu, Y R

    2017-12-23

    Objective: To evaluate the patients' survival and effectiveness of the live cancer screening for population at high risk for liver cancer in Qidong. Methods: According to the Expert Scheme proposed the Expert Committee of Early Detection and Early Treatment, China Cancer Foundation, diagnostical screening by using combined methods of alpha-fetoprotein and B ultrasound monitoring were carried out biannually in individuals with positive HBsAg who were screened from Qidong area. The evaluation indices of the effectiveness are task completion rate of screening, detection rate of liver cancer, early diagnosis rate, and treatment rate. The deadline of the follow-up for the surviving outcome was March 31, 2016. The life-table method was used to calculate the observed survival, and to make comparison and significant tests between survival rates in Group A (those found via repeated periodic screening) and Group B (those diagnosed without periodic screening). Results: Since 2007, 38 016 target population have been screened, and 3 703(9.74%) individuals with positive HBsAg were found. Except for 29 patients with liver cancer at the initial screening, 3 674 persons in the cohort were followed up; 268 patients with liver cancer were detected from the 33 199 person-times screening, with an annual detection rate of 1.61%. Of them, 186 patients were found in Group A(1.12%), in which 149 patients were the early cases, with an early detection rate of 80.11%; 167 out of 186(89.78%) patients received treatment after diagnosis. The incidence of liver cancer in this HBsAg (+ ) cohort of 25 452 person-years was 1 052.96 per 100 000 annually, 187 cases in males(1 488.45/100 000)and 81 cases in females(628.46/100 000). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival of all patients with liver cancer were 64.55%, 40.50%, 32.54%, and 19.65%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 77.16%, 49.04%, 38.53%, and 24.25% in Group A, and were 36.25%, 21.21%, 21.21%, and 0% in Group B

  6. Oral health changes during early phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudarević, Karlo; Jurela, Antonija; Repić, Dario; Jokić, Dražen; Mikić, Ivana Medvedec; Pejda, Slavica

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on Streptococcus (S.) mutans and S. sobrinus counts in orthodontic patients with regard to their previous caries experience (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index) during the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-two patients that satisfied inclusion criteria (healthy systemic and periodontal condition, avoidance of antibiotic therapy and antiseptic mouthwashes in the past three months) were included. All clinical measurements took place prior to and 12 weeks after fixed orthodontic appliance placement, in the following order: 1) stimulated saliva flow (SS); 2) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); and 3) DMFT. The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at T1 and T2. T-test showed significant increase in DMFT index and SS between T1 and T2. Results also indicated significant improvement in OHI-S index. By use of the PCR method, S. mutans was detected in two patients at T1. At T2, two more patients had S. mutans, but the increase was not statistically significant. Using the same method, S. sobrinus was detected only in two patients at T2. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances did not induce statistically significant changes in caries microflora even in the presence of enhanced oral hygiene habits.

  7. Eosinophilia and parotitis occurring early in clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Saguem, Bochra Nourhène; Bouhlel, Saoussen; Ben Salem, Chaker; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2015-12-01

    Mr. S is a 32-year-old male with schizophrenia. Due to poor responses to various antipsychotic medications, he was started on clozapine with the dose titrated to 300 mg/day during a 4-week period. The weekly checks of the complete blood cell count showed gradual increases in the eosinophil count from normal values to 4320 per mm(3). Mr. S did not have any symptoms except some increased salivation. Clozapine was suspended, and eosinophils gradually began to decline to the normal range. Clozapine was subsequently re-started and there were no changes in eosinophil counts. Mr. S exhibited improvement of symptoms but complained of acute auricular pain and increased salivation, 8 weeks after clozapine rechallenge. He also developed a swelling of his both parotid glands. The diagnosis of clozapine-induced parotitis was suggested. Symptomatic medication was prescribed with a favorable outcome. We report a case of a patient who developed eosinophilia shortly after clozapine use, and then developed parotitis. There is debate in the literature over how to manage these complications of clozapine treatment. Generally they do not warrant clozapine discontinuation.

  8. Enhancing the Delivery of an Empirically-Supported Trauma-Focused Treatment for Adolescents: Providers' Views of the Role of Technology and Web-Based Resources.

    PubMed

    Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E; Hanson, Rochelle F; Moreland, Angela D; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Adams, Zachary W

    2018-07-01

    This mixed-methods study assessed providers' views of the use of technology in the delivery of an empirically supported mental health treatment for adolescents (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; TF-CBT). Thematic qualitative interviews were conducted with nine experienced providers. Emerging themes served as the basis for the creation of a quantitative web-based survey, completed by 56 TF-CBT experts, to assess the perceived helpfulness of the recommendations. Technology was perceived as a useful, appealing, and familiar tool that could greatly enhance the delivery of this treatment modality with adolescents. Main recommendations included the creation of a mobile application targeting all of the treatment components and a website with developmentally appropriate resources for providers, caregivers, and teens. Technology may be a useful tool for enhancing service delivery and promoting engagement among youth receiving trauma-focused mental health treatment.

  9. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of early treatment of the patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Kluckow, Martin; Jeffery, Michele; Gill, Andy; Evans, Nick

    2014-03-01

    Failure of closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) may be associated with harm. Early cardiac ultrasound-targeted treatment of a large PDA may result in a reduction in adverse outcomes and need for later PDA closure with no increase in adverse effects. Multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Three neonatal intensive care units in Australia. Eligible infants born <29 weeks were screened for a large PDA and received indomethacin or placebo before age 12 h. Death or abnormal cranial ultrasound. The trial ceased enrolment early due to lack of availability of indomethacin. 164 eligible infants were screened before 12 h; of the 92 infants with a large PDA, 44 were randomised to indomethacin and 48 to placebo. There was no difference in the main outcome between groups. Infants receiving early indomethacin had significantly less early pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) (2% vs 21%), a trend towards less periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH) (4.5% vs 12.5%) and were less likely to receive later open-label treatment for a PDA (20% vs 40%). The 72 non-randomised infants with a small PDA were at low risk of pulmonary haemorrhage and had an 80% spontaneous PDA closure rate. Early cardiac ultrasound-targeted treatment of a large PDA is feasible and safe, resulted in a reduction in early pulmonary haemorrhage and later medical treatment but had no effect on the primary outcome of death or abnormal cranial ultrasound. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000295347).

  10. Early treatment using fractional CO2 laser before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians.

    PubMed

    Du, Feiya; Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Zhiqin; Wang, Liujia; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars. However, most previous studies have been performed on mature scars at least 2 months after surgery. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of early treatment to reduce scar formation. In the present study, we described our experience with fractional CO 2 laser intervention before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians, and found the treatment was safe and effective.

  11. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for severe influenza pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Pérez, M; Almirall, J; Lorente, L; Marqués, A; Socias, L; Vidaur, L; Rello, J

    2013-03-01

    The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure caused by viral pneumonia remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the use of NIV in a cohort of (H1N1)v pneumonia. Usefulness and success of NIV were assessed in a prospective, observational registry of patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009-10. Significant variables for NIV success were included in a multivariate analysis. In all, 685 patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia were admitted to participating ICUs; 489 were ventilated, 177 with NIV. The NIV was successful in 72 patients (40.7%), the rest required intubation. Low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, low Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and absence of renal failure were associated with NIV success. Success of NIV was independently associated with fewer than two chest X-ray quadrant opacities (OR 3.5) and no vasopressor requirement (OR 8.1). However, among patients with two or more quadrant opacities, a SOFA score ≤7 presented a higher success rate than those with SOFA score >7 (OR 10.7). Patients in whom NIV was successful required shorter ventilation time, shorter ICU stay and hospital stay than NIV failure. In patients in whom NIV failed, the delay in intubation did not increase mortality (26.5% versus 24.2%). Clinicians used NIV in 25.8% of influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia admitted to ICU, and treatment was effective in 40.6% of them. NIV success was associated with shorter hospital stay and mortality similar to non-ventilated patients. NIV failure was associated with a mortality similar to those who were intubated from the start. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  12. Sexual functioning among early post-treatment breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Johnson, Aimee; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Levine, Beverly J

    2018-02-17

    This study aims (1) to estimate percentages of partnered women who are sexually active over the first 2 years post-breast cancer diagnosis; (2) to identify factors related to sexual inactivity; and (3) to evaluate separately, among both sexually active and inactive survivors, the relation between sexual problems and treatment-related variables, symptoms, and psychosocial factors. Longitudinal observational study of breast cancer survivors recruited within 8 months of cancer diagnosis and followed for 18 months. The main outcome measures were (1) being sexually active/inactive in the past month and (2) sexual problems assessed with the four-item sexual problem domain of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) scale. At baseline, 52.4% of women reported being sexually active in the past month. This percentage increased to 60.7% 18 months later. In multivariable repeated-measures analyses, age, past chemotherapy, depressive symptoms, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to inactivity. Sexually inactive women reported more problems on the QLACS than sexually active women. In stratified multivariable analyses, depressive symptoms were related to greater sexual problems for both sexually active and inactive women, as was vaginal dryness. Among the sexually active women, younger age at diagnosis, less illness intrusiveness, and lower perceived attractiveness were related to more problems. Research has shown that sexual functioning/sexual health are key aspects of quality of life for many cancer survivors, and are often not addressed by health care providers. Future studies should examine how such topics are handled by clinicians in their interactions with survivors.

  13. Treatment Interventions for Early Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foster, Byron A; Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Sosa, Erica T

    2015-01-01

    With 25% of preschool-age children in the United States being overweight or obese, effective interventions for these children would have significant public health implications. Randomized trials targeting this age group have been performed since the last systematic review. To systematically review the literature on treatment interventions for overweight or obesity in preschool-age children. Medline (1948-July 2014), the Cochrane Central Registry (1991-July 2014), CINAHL (1990-July2014), and PAS abstracts (2000-2014). Inclusion criteria were children aged 0 to 6 in the study and adiposity as an outcome. Exclusions were having normal-weight children in the trial and not having a comparison group. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors using a template. The initial search yielded 1981 results, narrowed to 289 abstracts after initial review. Further analysis and cross-referencing led to the selection of 6 randomized controlled trials representing 1222 children. Two studies used systems changes and motivational interviewing and showed no significant effect on adiposity. Two studies used an intensive, multidisciplinary approach over 6 months and demonstrated significant decreases in adiposity. One study tested parental coaching and showed a significant reduction in adiposity at 6 months. One study used education on a dairy-rich diet and showed a possible effect on adiposity. The study designs were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis; few ethnic minority subjects were included. Multidisciplinary, intensive interventions have some evidence of efficacy in reducing adiposity in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of evidence-based early intervention for behavioural problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: the core components of effective programs, child-focused interventions and comprehensive treatment models.

    PubMed

    Tonge, Bruce J; Bull, Kerry; Brereton, Avril; Wilson, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    This article reviews recent evidence and other earlier relevant articles regarding early intervention studies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is a well-established body of empirical evidence for the effectiveness of Early Intensive Behavioural Intervention (EIBI) with young children with ASD. The importance of parent skills training, education and positive behaviour support is also a key factor in influencing outcomes. Drug treatment is of short-term benefit for disruptive behaviour but long-term outcome and metabolic side-effects have not been studied. Few studies have measured the long-term value and effectiveness of early intervention treatments, and currently there are no articles published on effects into adulthood of such treatments. Such research would indicate whether early intervention results in reduced reliance on health services into adulthood.

  15. Client Attachment Status and Changes in Therapeutic Alliance Early in Treatment.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Caleb J; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined associations between client attachment status and therapeutic alliance. Most, however, measure alliance at a single time point only. This study is among the first to examine how client attachment relates to changes in the therapeutic alliance early in treatment. Forty-six outpatients from a university-based community clinic participated. Attachment status was assessed with the Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) prior to beginning treatment. Participants rated therapeutic alliance after an evaluation feedback session and again early in psychotherapy. Fearful insecurity was associated with declines in therapeutic alliance, while attachment security was associated with increasing client-therapist bonds. Although unrelated to global alliance, preoccupied insecurity was associated with greater confident collaboration at both time points and declines in idealized relationship from the evaluation to the early therapy time point. Results are discussed in light of prior theoretical formulations and previous research. Limitations of the study are reviewed, implications for clinical practice are noted, and suggestions for future research are made. Assessing client attachment status can provide clinicians with information that helps them identify clients at risk for difficulties establishing a therapeutic alliance. Clients high in attachment security are more likely to develop strong bonds with therapists during the early portion of treatment. Clients high in fearful insecurity are at risk for developing weaker alliances early in treatment. Such clients appear more likely to experience declines in client-therapist bond, goal-task agreement and overall alliance early in the treatment process. Clients high in preoccupied insecurity may enter therapy with great confidence in the therapist and willing to engage in therapy but report more conflicts with therapists in the early phase of treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley

  16. Orofacial hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: high power diode laser in early and advanced lesion treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Angela; Franco, Simonetta; Miccoli, Simona; Suppressa, Patrizia; De Falco, Vincenzo; Crincoli, Vito; Lacaita, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Michele; Favia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a muco-cutaneous inherited disease. Symptoms are epistaxis, visceral arterio-venous malformations, multiple muco-cutaneous telangiectasia with the risk of number increasing enlargement, bleeding, and super-infection. The aim of this work is to show the dual Diode Laser efficacy in preventive treatment of Early Lesions (EL < 2mm) and therapeutic treatment of Advanced Lesions (AL < 2mm). 21 patients affected by HHT with 822 muco-cutaneous telangiectatic nodules have been treated in several sessions with local anaesthesia and cooling of treated sites. EL preventive treatment consists of single Laser impulse (fibre 320) in ultrapulsed mode (2 mm single point spot). AL therapeutic treatment consists of repeated Laser impulses in pulsed mode (on 200ms / off 400ms). According to the results, Diode Laser used in pulsed and ultra-pulsed mode is very effective as noninvasive treatment both in early and advanced oral and perioral telangiectasia.

  17. A Longitudinal Study for the Empirical Validation of an Etiopathogenetic Model of Internet Addiction in Adolescence Based on Early Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Several etiopathogenetic models have been conceptualized for the onset of Internet Addiction (IA). However, no study had evaluated the possible predictive effect of early emotion regulation strategies on the development of IA in adolescence. In a sample of N = 142 adolescents with Internet Addiction, this twelve-year longitudinal study aimed at verifying whether and how emotion regulation strategies (self-focused versus other-focused) at two years of age were predictive of school-age children's internalizing/externalizing symptoms, which in turn fostered Internet Addiction (compulsive use of the Web versus distressed use) in adolescence. Our results confirmed our hypotheses demonstrating that early emotion regulation has an impact on the emotional-behavioral functioning in middle childhood (8 years of age), which in turn has an influence on the onset of IA in adolescence. Moreover, our results showed a strong, direct statistical link between the characteristics of emotion regulation strategies in infancy and IA in adolescence. These results indicate that a common root of unbalanced emotion regulation could lead to two different manifestations of Internet Addiction in youths and could be useful in the assessment and treatment of adolescents with IA.

  18. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity and early symptom improvement during treatment for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Korb, Alexander S.; Hunter, Aimee M.; Cook, Ian A.; Leuchter, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    In treatment trials for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), early symptom improvement is predictive of eventual clinical response. Clinical response may also be predicted by elevated pretreatment theta (4-7 Hz) current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). We investigated the relationship between pretreatment EEG and early improvement in predicting clinical outcome in 72 MDD subjects across three placebo-controlled treatment trials. Subjects were randomized to receive fluoxetine, venlafaxine, or placebo. Theta current density in the rACC and mOFC was computed with Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). An ANCOVA, examining week 8 Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HamD) percent change, showed a significant effect of week-2-HamD-percent-change, and a significant three-way interaction of week-2-HamD-percent-change × Treatment × rACC. Medication subjects with robust early improvement showed almost no relationship between rACC theta current density and final clinical outcome. However, in subjects with little early improvement, rACC activity showed a strong relationship with clinical outcome. The model examining mOFC showed a trend in the three-way interaction. A combination of pretreatment rACC activity and early symptom improvement may be useful for predicting treatment response. PMID:21546222

  19. Cost-effectiveness of micafungin as an alternative to fluconazole empiric treatment of suspected ICU-acquired candidemia among patients with sepsis: a model simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Kothari, Smita; Shorr, Andrew F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Recent epidemiologic literature indicates that candidal species resistant to azoles are becoming more prevalent in the face of increasing incidence of hospitalizations with candidemia. Echinocandins, a new class of antifungal agents, are effective against resistant candidal species. As delaying appropriate antifungal coverage leads to increased mortality, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of 100 mg daily empiric micafungin (MIC) vs. 400 mg daily fluconazole (FLU) for suspected intensive care unit-acquired candidemia (ICU-AC) among septic patients. Methods We designed a decision model with inputs from the literature in a hypothetical 1000-patient cohort with suspected ICU-AC treated empirically with either MIC or FLU or no treatment accompanied by a watchful waiting strategy. We examined the differences in the number of survivors, acquisition costs of antifungals, and lifetime costs among survivors in the cohort under each scenario, and calculated cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). We conducted Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses to determine the stability of our estimates. Results In the base case analysis, assuming ICU-AC attributable mortality of 0.40 and a 52% relative risk reduction in mortality with appropriate timely therapy, compared with FLU (total deaths 31), treatment with MIC (total deaths 27) would result in four fewer deaths at an incremental cost/death averted of $61,446. Similarly, in reference case, incremental cost-effectiveness of MIC over FLU was $34,734 (95% confidence interval $26,312 to $49,209) per QALY. The estimates were most sensitive to the QALY adjustment factor and the risk of candidemia among septic patients. Conclusions Given the increasing likelihood of azole resistance among candidal isolates, empiric treatment of ICU-AC with 100 mg daily MIC is a cost-effective alternative to FLU. PMID:19545361

  20. Semi-empirical catalog of early-type galaxy-halo systems: dark matter density profiles, halo contraction and dark matter annihilation strength

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    With Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy data and halo data from up-to-date N-body simulations within the ΛCDM framework we construct a semi-empirical catalog (SEC) of early-type galaxy-halo systems by making a self-consistent bivariate statistical match of stellar mass (M{sub *}) and velocity dispersion (σ) with halo virial mass (M{sub vir}) as demonstrated here for the first time. We then assign stellar mass profile and velocity dispersion profile parameters to each system in the SEC using their observed correlations with M{sub *} and σ. Simultaneously, we solve for dark matter density profile of each halo using the spherical Jeans equation. Themore » resulting dark matter density profiles deviate in general from the dissipationless profile of Navarro-Frenk-White or Einasto and their mean inner density slope and concentration vary systematically with M{sub vir}. Statistical tests of the distribution of profiles at fixed M{sub vir} rule out the null hypothesis that it follows the distribution predicted by dissipationless N-body simulations for M{sub vir}∼<10{sup 13.5} {sup –} {sup 14.5} M{sub s}un. These dark matter profiles imply that dark matter density is, on average, enhanced significantly in the inner region of halos with M{sub vir}∼<10{sup 13.5} {sup –} {sup 14.5} M{sub s}un supporting halo contraction. The main characteristics of halo contraction are: (1) the mean dark matter density within the effective radius has increased by a factor varying systematically up to ≈ 3–4 at M{sub vir} = 10{sup 12} M{sub s}un, and (2) the inner density slope has a mean of (α) ≈ 1.3 with ρ{sub dm}(r)∝r{sup −α} and a halo-to-halo rms scatter of rms(α) ∼ 0.4–0.5 for 10{sup 12} M{sub s}un∼« less

  1. Treatment of Early-Age Mania: Outcomes for Partial and Nonresponders to Initial Treatment.

    PubMed

    Walkup, John T; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Miller, Leslie; Yenokyan, Gayane; Luby, Joan L; Joshi, Paramjit T; Axelson, David A; Robb, Adelaide; Salpekar, Jay A; Wolf, Dwight; Sanyal, Abanti; Birmaher, Boris; Vitiello, Benedetto; Riddle, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    The Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study evaluated lithium, risperidone, and divalproex sodium (divalproex) in children with bipolar I disorder who were naive to antimanic medication, or were partial or nonresponders to 1 of 3 study medications. This report evaluates the benefit of either an add-on or a switch of antimanic medications for an 8-week trial period in partial responders and nonresponders, respectively. TEAM is a randomized, controlled trial of individuals (N = 379) aged 6 to 15 years (mean ± SD = 10.2 ± 2.7 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (mixed or manic phase). Participants (n = 154) in this report were either nonresponders or partial responders to 1 of the 3 study medications. Nonresponders (n = 89) were randomly assigned to 1 of the other 2 antimanic medications and cross-tapered. Partial responders (n = 65) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 other antimanic medications as an add-on to their initial medication. Adverse event (AE) rates are reported only for the add-on group. Response rate for children switched to risperidone (47.6%) was higher than for those switched to either lithium (12.8%; p = .005; number needed to treat [NNT] = 3; 95% CI = 1.71-9.09) or divalproex (17.2%; p = .03; NNT = 3; 95% CI = 1.79-20.10); response rate for partial responders who added risperidone (53.3%) was higher than for those who added divalproex (0%; p = .0002; NNT = 2; 95% CI = 1.27-3.56) and trended higher for lithium (26.7%; p = .07; NNT = 4). Reported AEs in the add-on group were largely consistent with the known AE profile for the second medication. Weight gain (kg) was observed for all add-on medications: lithium add-on (n = 29 of 30) = 1.66 ± 1.97; risperidone add-on (n = 15 of 15) = 2.8 ± 1.34; divalproex add-on (n = 19 of 20) = 1.42 ± 1.96. There was no evidence at the 5% significance level that the average weight gain was different by study medication for partial responders (p = .07, 1-way analysis of variance

  2. Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee

    2014-04-04

    This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N = 494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. NCT01104805.

  3. Measuring patients' perceptions of the outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jack A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Inui, Thomas S; Silliman, Rebecca A; Talcott, James A

    2003-08-01

    Compared with careful attention to the physical (eg, urinary, bowel, sexual) dysfunction that may follow treatment, little attention has been given to the behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal changes that the diagnosis of early prostate cancer and subsequent physical dysfunction may bring. To construct patient-centered measures of the outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer. Qualitative study followed by survey of early prostate cancer patients and group of comparable patients with no history of prostate cancer. Analysis of focus groups identified relevant domains of quality of life, which were represented by Likert scale items included in survey questionnaires. Psychometric analyses of survey data defined scales evaluated with respect to internal consistency and validity. Qualitative analysis identified three domains: urinary control, sexuality, and uncertainty about the cancer and its treatment. Psychometric analysis defined 11 scales. Seven were generically relevant to most older men: urinary control (eg, embarrassment with leakage), sexual intimacy (eg, anxiety about completing intercourse), sexual confidence (eg, comfort with sexuality), marital affection (eg, emotional distance from spouse/partner), masculine self esteem (eg, feeling oneself a whole man), health worry (eg, apprehensiveness about health changes), and PSA concern (eg, closely attending to one's PSA). Four scales were specific to the treatment experience: perceived cancer control, quality of treatment decision making, regret of treatment choice, and cancer-related outlook. The scales provide definition and metrics for patient-centered research in this area. They complement measures of physical dysfunction and bring into resolution outcomes of treatment that have gone unnoticed in previous studies.

  4. Impact of early treatment programs on HIV epidemics: An immunity-based mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M Ashrafur; Vaidya, Naveen K; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-10-01

    While studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) have demonstrated substantial advantages in controlling HIV transmission, the overall benefits of the programs with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been fully understood and are still on debate. Here, we develop an immunity-based (CD4+ T cell count based) mathematical model to study the impacts of early treatment programs on HIV epidemics and the overall community-level immunity. The model is parametrized using the HIV prevalence data from South Africa and fully analyzed for stability of equilibria and infection persistence criteria. Using our model, we evaluate the effects of early treatment on the new infection transmission, disease death, basic reproduction number, HIV prevalence, and the community-level immunity. Our model predicts that the programs with early treatments significantly reduce the new infection transmission and increase the community-level immunity, but the treatments alone may not be enough to eliminate HIV epidemics. These findings, including the community-level immunity, might provide helpful information for proper implementation of HIV treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early nerve repair in traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults: treatment algorithm and first experiences.

    PubMed

    Pondaag, Willem; van Driest, Finn Y; Groen, Justus L; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of early nerve repair within 2 weeks following adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (ATBPI). METHODS From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. Among a group of 36 patients surgically treated in the period between 2009 and 2011, surgical findings in those who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks after trauma were retrospectively compared with results in those who had undergone delayed treatment. The result of biceps muscle reanimation was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS Five of the 36 patients were referred within 2 weeks after trauma and were eligible for early surgery. Nerve ruptures and/or avulsions were found in all early cases of surgery. The advantages of early surgery are as follows: no scar formation, easy anatomical identification, and gap length reduction. Disadvantages include less-clear demarcation of vital nerve tissue and unfamiliarity with the interpretation of frozen-section examination findings. All 5 early-treatment patients recovered a biceps force rated Medical Research Council grade 4. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results of nerve repair within 2 weeks of ATBPI are encouraging, and the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. The authors propose a decision algorithm to select patients eligible for early surgery. Referral standards for patients with ATBPI must be adapted to enable early surgery.

  6. Early versus Deferred Treatment for Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Van S.; Gao, Lu; Wu, Xiaosong; Tao, Yi; Hu, Xiaojing; Hou, Jun; Han, Ying; Xu, Hongwei; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM. Methods MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events. Results Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24). There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively). More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23), constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00) and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67). No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81), hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01), second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68), nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59). Conclusions Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn’t significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence

  7. Endoscopic methods in the treatment of early-stage esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with early esophageal cancer restricted to the mucosa may be offered endoscopic therapy, which is similarly effective, less invasive and less expensive than esophagectomy. Selection of appropriate relevant treatment and therapy methods should be performed at a specialized center with adequate facilities. The selection of an endoscopic treatment method for high-grade dysplasia and early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma requires that tumor infiltration is restricted to the mucosa and that there is no neighboring lymph node metastasis. In squamous cell carcinoma, this treatment method is accepted in cases of tumors invading only up to the lamina propria of mucosa (m2). Tumors treated with the endoscopic method should be well or moderately differentiated and should not invade lymphatic or blood vessels. When selecting endoscopic treatments for these lesions, a combination of endoscopic resection and endoscopic ablation methods should be considered. PMID:25097676

  8. Benefit-cost analysis of addiction treatment: methodological guidelines and empirical application using the DATCAP and ASI.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Salomé, Helena J; Sindelar, Jody L; McLellan, A Thomas

    2002-04-01

    To provide detailed methodological guidelines for using the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP) and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a benefit-cost analysis of addiction treatment. A representative benefit-cost analysis of three outpatient programs was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and value of the methodological guidelines. Procedures are outlined for using resource use and cost data collected with the DATCAP. Techniques are described for converting outcome measures from the ASI to economic (dollar) benefits of treatment. Finally, principles are advanced for conducting a benefit-cost analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the estimates. The DATCAP was administered at three outpatient drug-free programs in Philadelphia, PA, for 2 consecutive fiscal years (1996 and 1997). The ASI was administered to a sample of 178 treatment clients at treatment entry and at 7-months postadmission. The DATCAP and ASI appear to have significant potential for contributing to an economic evaluation of addiction treatment. The benefit-cost analysis and subsequent sensitivity analysis all showed that total economic benefit was greater than total economic cost at the three outpatient programs, but this representative application is meant to stimulate future economic research rather than justifying treatment per se. This study used previously validated, research-proven instruments and methods to perform a practical benefit-cost analysis of real-world treatment programs. The study demonstrates one way to combine economic and clinical data and offers a methodological foundation for future economic evaluations of addiction treatment.

  9. Treatment of early-stage prostate cancer among rural and urban patients.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Andrilla, C Holly A; Porter, Michael P; Rosenblatt, Roger A; Patel, Shilpen; Doescher, Mark P

    2013-08-15

    Geographic barriers and limited availability of cancer specialists may influence early prostate cancer treatment options for rural men. This study compares receipt of different early prostate cancer treatments between rural and urban patients. Using 2004-2006 SEER Limited-Use Data, 51,982 early prostate cancer patients were identified (T1c, T2a, T2b, T2c, T2NOS; no metastases) who were most likely to benefit from definitive treatment (< 75 years old, Gleason score < 8, PSA ≤ 20). Definitive treatment included radical prostatectomy, daily external beam radiation for 5 to 8 weeks, brachytherapy, or combination external beam radiation/brachytherapy. Adjusted definitive treatment rates were calculated by rural-urban residence overall, and for different sociodemographic and cancer characteristics, and different states based on logistic regression analyses, using general estimating equation methods to account for clustering by county. Adjusted definitive treatment rates were lower for rural (83.7%) than urban (87.1%) patients with early-stage prostate cancer (P ≤ .01). Rural men were more likely than urban men to receive non-definitive surgical treatment and no initial treatment. The lowest definitive treatment rates were among rural subgroups: 70 to 74 years (73.9%), African Americans (75.6%), American Indians/Alaska Natives (77.8%), single/separated/divorced (76.8%), living in New Mexico (69.3%), and living in counties with persistent poverty (79.6%). Between 2004 and 2006, this adjusted analysis found that men who were living in rural areas were less likely to receive definitive treatment for their early-stage prostate cancer than those living in urban areas. Certain rural patient groups with prostate cancer need particular attention to ensure their access to appropriate treatment. Rural providers, rural health care systems, and cancer advocacy and support organizations should ensure resources are in place so that the most vulnerable rural groups (men

  10. Early treatment improves urodynamic prognosis in neurogenic voiding dysfunction: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Costa Monteiro, Lucia M; Cruz, Glaura O; Fontes, Juliana M; Vieira, Eliane T R C; Santos, Eloá N; Araújo, Grace F; Ramos, Eloane G

    To evaluate the association between early treatment and urodynamic improvement in pediatric and adolescent patients with neurogenic bladder. Retrospective longitudinal and observational study (between 1990 and 2013) including patients with neurogenic bladder and myelomeningocele treated based on urodynamic results. The authors evaluated the urodynamic follow-up (bladder compliance and maximum bladder capacity and pressure) considering the first urodynamic improvement in two years as the outcome variable and early referral as the exposure variable, using a descriptive and multivariate analysis with logistic regression model. Among 230 patients included, 52% had an early referral. The majority were diagnosed as overactive bladder with high bladder pressure (≥40cm H 2 O) and low bladder compliance (3mL/cmH 2 O) and were treated with oxybutynin and intermittent catheterization. Urodynamic follow-up results showed 68% of improvement at the second urodynamic examination decreasing bladder pressure and increasing bladder capacity and compliance. The percentage of incontinence and urinary tract infections decreased over treatment. Early referral (one-year old or less) increased by 3.5 the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years (95% CI: 1.81-6.77). Treatment onset within the first year of life improves urodynamic prognosis in patients with neurogenic bladder and triplicates the probability of urodynamic improvement in two years. The role of neonatologists and pediatricians in early referral is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of the mentally ill in the Chola Empire in 11th -12th centuries AD: A study of epigraphs

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Tejus Murthy, A. G.; Somasundaram, O.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the epigraphs of the Chola emperors Veera Rajendra Deva (1063-1069 AD) and Raja Raja III (1216-1256 AD), found at the temples of Thirumukkudal and Vedaranyam, with emphasis on the treatment given to the residents of the attached hospitals with special reference to treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24891715

  12. Concept and treatment of hydrocephalus in the Greco-Roman and early Arabic medicine.

    PubMed

    Grunert, P; Charalampaki, P; Ayyad, A

    2007-10-01

    In the ancient medical literature hydrocephalus was not often described although its existence and symptomatology were well known. Most detailed descriptions of hydrocephalus including the surgical treatment are extant in the encyclopaedic works on medicine of the physicians Oreibasios and Aetios from Amida from the 4th and 6th centuries AD, respectively. Because of their broad scientific interests, this type of physicians, typical for the late Roman empire, were known as philosophy-physicians (iota alpha tau rho o sigma o phi iota sigma tau alpha iota). They defined hydrocephalus in contrast to our present understanding as a fluid collection excluding abscesses visible as a bulging tumour localised either outside or inside the skull of an infant. They classified the hydrocephalus similar as stated first by Galen in the 2nd century AD in four types corresponding to the assumed anatomic localisation of the fluid collection: 1st Type between the skin and the pericranium corresponding to the subgaleal haematoma or caput succedaneum of the newborn in our terminology, 2nd Type between the pericranium and the skull corresponding to the cephal haematoma after delivery, 3rd Type between skull and the meninges with increased head circumference, bone sutures being increasingly driven apart corresponding most likely to the hydrocephalus in our understanding, and 4th Type between the menings and the brain characterised by severe neurological deficit with lethal prognosis corresponding probably to all pathologies which were accompanied by an excessive increase of the intracranial pressure with a bulging fontanel. Due to the lack of autopsies in ancient times, the hydrocephalus was never linked to the pathology of the ventricles. All forms of hydrocephalus were believed to be caused by improper handling of the head by the midwife during delivery. Only the extracranial fluid collections, but not hydrocephalus in our sense, were considered to be suitable for surgical treatment

  13. Mathematical models for the early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Harper, P R; Jones, S K

    2005-05-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death for men and women in the Western world. When the cancer is detected through an awareness of the symptoms by a patient, typically it is at an advanced stage. It is possible to detect cancer at an early stage through screening and the marked differences in survival for early and late stages provide the incentive for the primary prevention or early detection of colorectal cancer. This paper considers mathematical models for colorectal cancer screening together with models for the treatment of patients. Illustrative results demonstrate that detailed attention to the processes involved in diseases, interventions and treatment enable us to combine data and expert knowledge from various sources. Thus a detailed operational model is a very useful tool in helping to make decisions about screening at national and local levels.

  14. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  15. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Anderson, Robert; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Williams, Emily; McNamara, Nora K.; Jackson, Joseph A.; Ritz, Louise; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Pierson, Leslie; Varley, Jennifer A.; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Hamer, Robert M.; Noyes, Nancy; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Sikich, Linmarie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined baseline demographic and clinical profiles of youths enrolled from 2001 to 2006 in the publicly funded multicenter, randomized controlled trial Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Method: Youths (8-19 years) with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder were recruited at four academic sites.…

  16. Marketing EPSDT to Clients: A Self-Instructional Module for Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…

  17. Neratinib for the treatment of HER2-positive early stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Echavarria, Isabel; López-Tarruella, Sara; Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Jerez, Yolanda; Martin, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, resistance to actual chemotherapeutic regimens eventually occurs. Neratinib, an orally available pan-inhibitor of the ERBB family, represents an interesting new option for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Areas covered: In this article, the development of neratinib, with a special focus on its potential value in the treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, has been reviewed. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, including preclinical studies, early-phase trials in advanced cancer with neratinib in monotherapy and in combination, and phase II and large phase III trials in the early setting. Management of neratinib-induced toxicity, future perspectives for the drug, and ongoing trials are also discussed in this review. Expert commentary: Neratinib is emerging as a promising oral drug for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Although FDA and EMA approval is derived from the extended adjuvant treatment, this setting may not be the ideal scenario to obtain the beneficial effects of neratinib. Confirmatory data in the neoadjuvant setting and subgroup analysis from the ExTENET trial might bring some light into the best setting for neratinib therapy. Data from confirmatory trials in the metastatic setting are also required.

  18. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  19. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  20. Prognosis and response to laser treatment of early-onset hypertrophic port-wine stains (PWS).

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Salhi, Aicha; Mazer, Jean-Michel; Lavogiez, Céline; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Galliot, Chrystèle; Collet-Villette, Anne-Marie; Labreze, Christine; Boon, Laurence; Hardy, Jean-Philippe; Fayard, Virginie; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Toubel, Gérard; Georgescou, Gabriela; Gral, Nathalie; Maza, Aude; Lacour, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    There is limited information regarding early development of soft-tissue and/or bone hypertrophy with facial port-wine stains (PWS). We sought to characterize patients with hypertrophic PWS presenting during childhood. Patients with a facial PWS and underlying hypertrophy that developed before the age of 18 years were included in a multicenter retrospective study. Age at onset of the hypertrophy, its location, association with odontologic problems, presence of other associated complications, and response to laser treatment were recorded. A total of 98 patients were included. The mean age at onset of hypertrophy, retrieved for 77 of 98 patients, was 5.6 years. The hypertrophy was congenital in 26%. Odontologic problems were noted in 39.8% of cases. Other complications, including cataract, asymmetric development of the maxillary bone, and speech delay/disorders, were reported in 18.4%. In all, 67 patients received laser treatment. Only 3% achieved complete or nearly complete clearance of the PWS. As only cases of PWS with early-onset hypertrophy were included, we were unable to calculate the prevalence of this manifestation. PWS with early-onset hypertrophy are associated with a high rate of complications and a poor response to laser treatment. Periodic monitoring is recommended for early detection and treatment of complications. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful treatment algorithm for evaluation of early pregnancy after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Goossen, Rachel P; Sparks, Amy E T; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Duran, Eyup Hakan

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate a prospectively implemented clinical algorithm for early identification of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after assisted reproductive technology (ART). Analysis of prospectively collected data. Academic medical center. All ART-conceived pregnancies between January 1995 and June 2013. Early pregnancy monitoring via clinical algorithm with all pregnancies screened using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels and reported symptoms, with subsequent early ultrasound evaluation if hCG levels were abnormal or if the patient reported pain or vaginal bleeding. Algorithmic efficiency for diagnosis of EP and HP and their subsequent clinical outcomes using a binary forward stepwise logistic regression model built to determine predictors of early pregnancy failure. Of the 3,904 pregnancies included, the incidence of EP and HP was 0.77% and 0.46%, respectively. The algorithm selected 96.7% and 83.3% of pregnancies diagnosed with EP and HP, respectively, for early ultrasound evaluation, leading to earlier treatment and resolution. Logistic regression revealed that first hCG, second hCG, hCG slope, age, pain, and vaginal bleeding were all independent predictors of early pregnancy failure after ART. Our clinical algorithm for early pregnancy evaluation after ART is effective for identification and prompt intervention of EP and HP without significant over- or misdiagnosis, and avoids the potential catastrophic morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lidcombe Program Webcam Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, Kate; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Webcam treatment is potentially useful for health care in cases of early stuttering in which clients are isolated from specialized treatment services for geographic and other reasons. The purpose of the present trial was to compare outcomes of clinic and webcam deliveries of the Lidcombe Program treatment (Packman et al., 2015) for early stuttering. The design was a parallel, open plan, noninferiority randomized controlled trial of the standard Lidcombe Program treatment and the experimental webcam Lidcombe Program treatment. Participants were 49 children aged 3 years 0 months to 5 years 11 months at the start of treatment. Primary outcomes were the percentage of syllables stuttered at 9 months postrandomization and the number of consultations to complete Stage 1 of the Lidcombe Program. There was insufficient evidence of a posttreatment difference of the percentage of syllables stuttered between the standard and webcam Lidcombe Program treatments. There was insufficient evidence of a difference between the groups for typical stuttering severity measured by parents or the reported clinical relationship with the treating speech-language pathologist. This trial confirmed the viability of the webcam Lidcombe Program intervention. It appears to be as efficacious and economically viable as the standard, clinic Lidcombe Program treatment.

  3. Early versus delayed hormonal treatment in locally advanced or asymptomatic metastatic prostatic cancer patient dilemma.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Domenico; Iacono, Fabrizio; Romeo, Giuseppe; Ruffo, Antonio; Russo, Nicola; Illiano, Ester

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of hormonal treatment (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists and/or antiandrogens) as an early or as a deferred intervention for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPC) and/or asymptomatic metastasis. Systematic review of trials published in 1950-2007. Sources included MEDLINE and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Eligible trials included adults with a history of LAPC who are not suitable for curative local treatment of prostate cancer. We retrieved 22 articles for detailed review, of which 8 met inclusion criteria. The Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group suggested that delaying hormonal therapy did not compromise overall survival and that many of the patients died of causes other than prostate cancer. In European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 30846 trial, the median survival for delayed endocrine treatment was 6.1 year, and for immediate treatment 7.6 year, the HR for survival on delayed versus immediate treatment was 1.23 (95 % CI 0.88-1.71), indicating a 23 % nonsignificant trend in favour of early treatment. In EORTC 30891, the immediate androgen deprivation resulted in a modest but statistically significant increase in overall survival. The protocol SAKK 08/88 showed the lack of any major advantage of immediate compared with deferred hormonal treatment regarding quality of life or overall survival. The early intervention with hormonal treatment for patients with LAPC provides important reductions in all-cause mortality, prostate cancer-specific mortality, overall progression, and distant progression compared with deferring their use until standard care has failed to halt the disease.

  4. Changes in the Vaginal Microenvironment with Metronidazole Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Balkus, Jennifer; Agnew, Kathy; Lawler, Richard; Hitti, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with preterm delivery, but there is little evidence that treatment improves pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether oral or vaginal metronidazole treatment for BV in early pregnancy was more effective in restoring the normal vaginal environment. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial comparing oral and intravaginal metronidazole for treatment of BV in early pregnancy (<20 weeks). Vaginal samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment were evaluated using gram stain, culture, colorimetric detection of sialidase, and immunoassay for measurement of proinflammatory cytokines interleukins-1β, -6, -8 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). We compared the effect of treatment between groups (using chi-square and t test) and within individuals (McNemar's test). Results Of 126 subjects, 108 (86%) completed follow-up (55 oral, 53 intravaginal). Of the study population, 34% achieved therapeutic cure, and this was not different between treatment groups. BV-associated bacteria were significantly reduced in both groups, but few subjects regained colonization with protective lactobacilli. Among women who achieved therapeutic cure, the level of IL-1β dropped significantly (p < 0.001) and SLPI increased (p = 0.003). More women in the vaginal treatment group had undetectable sialidase after treatment (p = 0.013). Conclusions Treatment with oral or intravaginal metronidazole in early pregnancy reduced colonization with BV-associated bacteria but was not effective in achieving therapeutic cure or in restoring healthy vaginal lactobacilli. PMID:19951217

  5. Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study are described. Using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design at four sites, youths with EOSS (ages 8-19 years) were assigned to an 8-week acute trial of risperidone (0.5-6.0 mg/day), olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day). Responders continued double-blind treatment for 44 weeks. The primary outcome measure was responder status at 8 weeks, defined by a 20% reduction in baseline Positive and Negative Symptom Scale scores plus ratings of significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of psychopathology, functional impairment, quality of life, and medication safety. An intent-to-treat analytic plan was used. From February 2002 to May 2006, 476 youths were screened, 173 were further evaluated, and 119 were randomized. Several significant study modifications were required to address safety, the use of adjunctive medications, and the termination of the olanzapine treatment arm due to weight gain. The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study will inform clinical practice regarding the use of antipsychotic medications for youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Important safety concerns emerged during the study, including higher than anticipated rates of suicidality and problems tapering thymoleptic agents before randomization.

  6. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - Ecological Economics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). This study reviews the extant cost function literature linking ...

  7. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). In this presentation, we review the literature linking raw wate...

  8. Benchmarks for detecting 'breakthroughs' in clinical trials: empirical assessment of the probability of large treatment effects using kernel density estimation.

    PubMed

    Miladinovic, Branko; Kumar, Ambuj; Mhaskar, Rahul; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2014-10-21

    To understand how often 'breakthroughs,' that is, treatments that significantly improve health outcomes, can be developed. We applied weighted adaptive kernel density estimation to construct the probability density function for observed treatment effects from five publicly funded cohorts and one privately funded group. 820 trials involving 1064 comparisons and enrolling 331,004 patients were conducted by five publicly funded cooperative groups. 40 cancer trials involving 50 comparisons and enrolling a total of 19,889 patients were conducted by GlaxoSmithKline. We calculated that the probability of detecting treatment with large effects is 10% (5-25%), and that the probability of detecting treatment with very large treatment effects is 2% (0.3-10%). Researchers themselves judged that they discovered a new, breakthrough intervention in 16% of trials. We propose these figures as the benchmarks against which future development of 'breakthrough' treatments should be measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. How good is the evidence for the recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of community-acquired pneumonia? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oosterheert, J J; Bonten, M J M; Hak, E; Schneider, M M E; Hoepelman, I M

    2003-10-01

    For years, monotherapy with a beta-lactam antibiotic (penicillin, amoxicillin or second-generation cephalosporin) was recommended as empirical therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide antibiotic was only recommended for patients with severe CAP needing intensive care treatment or when atypical pathogens, i.e. Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, were strongly suspected. However, new guidelines recommend a combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone for all patients hospitalized with CAP. We evaluated whether treatment with a beta-lactam plus macrolide or quinolone monotherapy is truly superior to beta-lactam treatment alone. We systematically reviewed available studies, retrieved from MEDLINE and by hand-searching reference lists from recent reviews and guidelines on the effectiveness of recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of CAP. Eight relevant studies were selected. In six studies significant reductions in mortality were found, in one study a reduction in hospital length of stay was found and in one study no beneficial effects could be demonstrated for treatment regimens with fluoroquinolone monotherapy or combinations of beta-lactams and macrolides. The beneficial value of macrolides or fluoroquinolones might be the result of a large and mainly unrecognized role of atypical pathogens in the aetiology of CAP, anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides or resistance to beta-lactams of the most important pathogens. However, the studies supporting the recommended treatment regimen were designed as non-experimental cohort studies. As a consequence, the results may have been influenced by confounding by indication. In addition, the outcomes showed several inconsistencies. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to circumvent the methodological flaws in the designs of the

  10. [Renal decapsulation for the treatment of anuria : A "forgotten" treatment from the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Dräger, D L; Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W

    2017-01-01

    In the early 20th century, Harrison first performed renal decapsulation in anuric children with scarlet fever and observed improvement in renal function postoperatively. The pathophysiological explanation was seen in intraparenchymal renal pressure due to edema which was improved by surgical decapsulation. The technique of decapsulation was simple excision after incision and blunt dissection of the renal parenchyma. Renal decapsulation then became a procedure commonly used for many indications in inflammatory renal conditions; indications were renal angioneurosis, hydronephrosis, toxic, bacterial and chronic nephritis, renal abscess and even eclampsia. With the beginning of the antibiotic era, renal decapsulation became obsolete and has disappeared from the urological spectrum completely.

  11. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    PubMed

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  12. The Live Chicken Treatment for Buboes: Trying a Plague Cure in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Erik A

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a seven-hundred-year history of one puzzling treatment for plague buboes that used the rumps of chickens to draw out the bubo's poisons. It traces the origin of the recipe to Avicenna's Canon and explores how medieval and early modern physicians altered the treatment and explained its workings up to the early eighteenth century. Much of the analysis focuses on the variants of the recipe that German physicians created as they adapted or elaborated on older recipes. This article argues that most variations of the treatment likely resulted from physicians trying ideas on paper, rather than in practice, as they attempted to unlock the mysteries of the plague's underlying poisons. Starting in the sixteenth century, however, evidence suggests that practice began to play an important role in the adaptation and interpretation of the "live chicken" recipes.

  13. Clozapine Titration for People in Early Psychosis: A Chart Review and Treatment Guideline.

    PubMed

    Ballon, Jacob S; Ashfaq, Hera; Noordsy, Douglas L

    2018-06-01

    The use of clozapine, particularly in young people, is often limited by early treatment-emergent adverse effects including drowsiness and lethargy. Concerns about adverse effects, medication adherence, and the need for blood monitoring often impede the use of clozapine in this population, leading to repeated trials of less effective medications. Current clozapine dosing recommendations are based on people further in the course of their illness and thus reflect different responsiveness and sensitivities to antipsychotic medication. As such, there is a need for evidence-based guidelines for titration and dosing of clozapine among people in early psychosis. We performed a chart review of 14 people treated with clozapine within our early psychosis team. Data regarding dose titration, response, time to discontinuation, symptom severity, weight gain, and other adverse effects were gathered at clozapine initiation, 3 months, and last available visit on clozapine. People treated with slow titration within their first year of psychosis onset achieved sustained response at very low maintenance doses (mean dose = 81 mg/d, mean duration of treatment = 200 weeks) compared with slow titration with longer duration of illness (mean dose = 350 mg/d, mean duration of treatment = 68 weeks) or standard dose titration in early psychosis (mean dose = 112 mg/d, mean duration of treatment = 38 weeks). The most common adverse effects in all groups were weight gain and sedation, with the groups requiring higher mean doses reporting a broader range of adverse effects. There was no apparent difference in the clinical global impression for severity or improvement between the slow titration and standard titration groups in people with early psychosis. These observations are synthesized into a proposed treatment guideline for use of clozapine among people in early psychosis. We describe development of a slow titration approach to initiating clozapine among people in early psychosis. This

  14. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Time to first treatment: The significance of early treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Renate; Weingessel, Birgit; Maca, Saskia M; Vecsei-Marlovits, Pia V

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether the time span between initial symptoms and treatment with ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration has an effect on visual outcome. In this retrospective study, 45 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration were split into 3 groups depending on the duration of visual symptoms--Group I: <1 month, Group II: 1 month to 6 months, and Group III: >6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity, clinical ophthalmologic examination, and central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography were recorded at baseline and 2 months later. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline. Treatment consisted of 2 intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg of ranibizumab at baseline and after 4 weeks. The mean time span between initial symptoms and treatment was 59 ± 62 days. In all groups, a reduction of retinal thickness was observed. Shorter disease duration, as estimated by persistence of visual symptoms, was correlated with a better visual outcome after treatment. Patients in Group I demonstrated a significant increase in best-corrected visual acuity (P = 0.007). Patients of Group II (P = 0.095) and Group III (P = 0.271) still achieved a visual improvement in best-corrected visual acuity, albeit not significant. The mean change in best-corrected visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.1 in all patients and was not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.87). Duration of visual symptoms <1 month before treatment is associated with a better visual outcome. Treatment of new-onset wet age-related macular degeneration should be initiated as soon as possible.

  16. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:25897180

  17. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  18. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  19. In vitro early changes in intercellular junctions by treatment with a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Tachikawa, T; Kohno, Y; Matsui, Y; Yoshiki, S

    1986-06-01

    To examine early intercellular junction changes caused by treatment with 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA), rat lingual epithelium was cultivated in isolation and observed by electrophysiological, freeze-fracture and whole-mount electron microscopy. Electrophysiological measurements showed a transient decrease in membrane potential of -10.2 mV 6 h after the treatment. It returned to almost the same level as that of the control group 1 day later. Six hours after treatment, input resistance decreased rapidly to 5.3 M omega but increased to 18.0 M omega 12 h after treatment. Transient reduction of input resistance and membrane potential occurred prior to the decrease in the coupling ratio 6 h after treatment with DMBA. In freeze-fracture replicas, the number of gap junctions decreased by approximately 45% of the control value 6 h after treatment with DMBA. At 12 h and thereafter, the number and area of gap junctions subsequently decreased by 60-80% of the control value. Alterations in the number and area of desmosomes were similar to those of the gap junctions. The formation of epithelial cytoskeletons, partially devoid of the 2-4 and 5-8 nm filaments was also observed. A decrease in the density of filament networks beneath the plasma membranes was especially apparent. Treatment with a carcinogen brought about morphological cellular changes as early as 6 h after treatment, and such early changes might trigger metabolic cellular abnormalities. Affected cells appear to move away from normal cells in a process of repeated destruction and revision of intercellular junctions, and cytoskeletons.

  20. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  1. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of surfactant treatment (Curosurf®) in respiratory distress syndrome therapy in preterm infants: early treatment compared to late treatment.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Ravasio, Roberto; Fioravanti, Leonardo; Circelli, Maria

    2014-05-02

    The best criteria for surfactant treatment in the perinatal period are unknown and this makes it of interest to consider the possible economic implications of lessening the use of more restrictive criteria. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the costs of respiratory care for preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) treated with "early rescue" surfactant compared to a "late rescue" strategy. The study was carried out applying the costs of materials used, of staff and pharmacological therapy calculated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of an Italian hospital to the Verder et al. study (Pediatrics 1999) clinical data. The cost for patients treated with early strategy was slightly lower than for patients treated with late strategy (Euro 4,901.70 vs. Euro 4,960.07). The cost of treatment with surfactant was greater in the early group (Euro 458.49 vs. Euro 311.74), but this was compensated by the greater cost of treatment with Mechanical Ventilation (MV) in the late group (respectively Euro 108.85 vs. Euro 259.25). The cost-effectiveness analysis performed in this study shows how early treatment with surfactant in preterm infants with RDS, as well as being clinically more effective, is associated with a slightly lower cost.

  2. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of surfactant treatment (Curosurf®) in respiratory distress syndrome therapy in preterm infants: early treatment compared to late treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The best criteria for surfactant treatment in the perinatal period are unknown and this makes it of interest to consider the possible economic implications of lessening the use of more restrictive criteria. Objective The objective of this study is the evaluation of the costs of respiratory care for preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) treated with "early rescue" surfactant compared to a "late rescue" strategy. Methods The study was carried out applying the costs of materials used, of staff and pharmacological therapy calculated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of an Italian hospital to the Verder et al. study (Pediatrics 1999) clinical data. Results The cost for patients treated with early strategy was slightly lower than for patients treated with late strategy (Euro 4,901.70 vs. Euro 4,960.07). The cost of treatment with surfactant was greater in the early group (Euro 458.49 vs. Euro 311.74), but this was compensated by the greater cost of treatment with Mechanical Ventilation (MV) in the late group (respectively Euro 108.85 vs. Euro 259.25). Conclusions The cost-effectiveness analysis performed in this study shows how early treatment with surfactant in preterm infants with RDS, as well as being clinically more effective, is associated with a slightly lower cost. PMID:24886906

  3. Empirical Comparison of Two Psychological Therapies: Self Psychology and Cognitive Orientation in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia

    PubMed Central

    Bachar, Eytan; Latzer, Yael; Kreitler, Shulamit; Berry, Elliot M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the applicability of self psychological treatment (SPT) and cognitive orientation treatment (COT) to the treatment of anorexia and bulimia. Thirty-three patients participated in this study. The bulimic patients (n = 25) were randomly assigned either to SPT, COT, or control/nutritional counseling only (C/NC). The anorexic patients (n = 8) were randomly assigned to either SPT or COT. Patients were administered a battery of outcome measures assessing eating disorders symptomatology, attitudes toward food, self structure, and general psychiatric symptoms. After SPT, significant improvement was observed. After COT, slight but nonsignificant improvement was observed. After C/NC, almost no changes could be detected.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1999; 8:115–128) PMID:10079459

  4. Survival outcome of early versus delayed bevacizumab treatment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Mohamed A.; Mandel, Jacob J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; DeGroot, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV) is widely used for treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. It is not known if there are differences in outcome between early versus delayed BEV treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. We examined the relationship between the time of starting BEV treatment and outcomes in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. In this retrospective chart review, we identified patients with recurrent glioblastoma diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 who were treated with BEV alone or BEV-containing regimens. Data was analyzed to determine overall survival (OS) from time of diagnosis and progression free survival (PFS) from time of starting BEV. A total of 298 patients were identified, 112 patients received early BEV, 133 patients received delayed BEV, and 53 patients were excluded because they either progressed within 3 months of radiation or received BEV at the time of diagnosis. There was no significant difference in PFS between patients that received early BEV and those that received delayed BEV (5.2 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.2). Patients treated with delayed BEV had longer OS when compared to those treated with early BEV (25.9 vs. 20.8 months, p = 0.005). In patients with recurrent glioblastoma, there was no significant difference in PFS from the time of starting BEV between early and delayed BEV. Although patients treated with delayed BEV seemed to have longer OS, a conclusion regarding OS outcome requires further prospective trials. These results may indicate that delaying treatment with BEV is not detrimental for survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. PMID:24803001

  5. Polymeric composite devices for localized treatment of early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Soboyejo, Wole

    2017-01-01

    For early-stage breast cancers mastectomy is an aggressive form of treatment. Therefore, there is a need for new treatment strategies that can enhance the use of lumpectomy by eliminating residual cancer cells with limited side effects to reduce local recurrence. Although, various radiotherapy-based methods have been developed, residual cells are found in 20–55% of the time at the first operation. Furthermore, some current treatment methods result in poor cosmesis. For the last decade, the authors have been exploring the use of polymeric composite materials in single and multi-modal implantable biomedical devices for post-operative treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, the concept and working principles of the devices, as well as selected results from experimental and numerical investigations, are presented. The results show the potential of the biomedical implants for cancer treatment. PMID:28245288

  6. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  7. Translating Empirically Supported Strategies into Accessible Interventions: The Potential Utility of Exercise for the Treatment of Panic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Powers, Mark B.; Berry, Angela C.; Otto, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Many patients suffering from panic disorder do not receive adequate care. Advances in the conceptualization and treatment of panic disorder encourage innovative strategies for targeting core fears (fears of anxiety sensations) that underlie this disorder. In this article, we discuss the use of exercise as a potential strategy for therapeutic…

  8. Clients' Expected Number of Counseling Sessions, Treatment Effectiveness, and Termination Status: Using Empirical Evidence to Inform Session Limit Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Smith, Amanda; Rodolfa, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Many counseling centers have session limits to accommodate the increasing number of clients who seek treatment. The current study explored clients' expectations for the number of sessions over the course of one year at a large university counseling center. In contrast to previous research that has suggested clients want ten or fewer sessions, our…

  9. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  10. Treatment strategies in the acute therapy of migraine: stratified care and early intervention.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, D; Moschiano, F; Usai, S; Bussone, G

    2006-05-01

    Various treatment strategies have been proposed to help clinicians provide the most effective acute treatment for migraine patients. Stratified care is based on the concept that the most appropriate initial treatment can be prescribed after evaluation of each patient's headache characteristics. The results of a large multicentre trial showed that when patients were stratified according to disability grade, clinical outcomes were significantly better than with step-care approaches. Prospective studies have shown that treating migraines with triptans when pain is mild (early intervention) considerably increases success rates for endpoints (pain-free at 2 h, sustained pain-free state) for which triptans had relatively poor efficacy in pivotal trials, and which contribute most to patient satisfaction. Stratified care and early treatment are also cost-effective. However these strategies are not suitable for all patients. Stratified care may be rendered difficult by medication contraindications and changes in attack characteristics over time. Early triptan intervention carries a risk of medication overuse and might not be indicated in patients with lack of pain progression. Successful implementation of both strategies requires that physicians are well informed, and that they elicit an exhaustive headache history from each patient.

  11. Health economics evaluation of a gastric cancer early detection and treatment program in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Li-Ping; Fang, Xue; Zhou, Bao-Sen

    2014-01-01

    To use health economics methodology to assess the screening program on gastric cancer in Zhuanghe, China, so as to provide the basis for health decision on expanding the program of early detection and treatment. The expense of an early detection and treatment program for gastric cancer in patients found by screening, and also costs of traditional treatment in a hospital of Zhuanghe were assessed. Three major techniques of medical economics, namely cost-effective analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA), were used to assess the screening program. RESULTS from CEA showed that investing every 25, 235 Yuan on screening program in Zhuanghe area, one gastric cancer patient could be saved. Data from CUA showed that it was cost 1, 370 Yuan per QALY saved. RESULTS from CBA showed that: the total cost was 1,945,206 Yuan with a benefit as 8,669,709 Yuan and an CBR of 4.46. The early detection and treatment program of gastric cancer appears economic and society-beneficial. We suggest that it should be carry out in more high risk areas for gastric cancer.

  12. Integrated Specialized Early-Course Psychosis Treatment Services - University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce Model.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, DraŽenka; Čulo, Ilaria; Silić, Ante; Kos, Suzana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2018-06-01

    First episode of psychosis presents a critical period in terms of numerous associated risks, but also possibilities for effective therapeutic interventions. There is a continued focus on early interventions in prodromal states and early course of frank psychosis, aimed at ensuring faster remission, reducing relapses, achieving better long-term functioning, and preventing adverse outcomes linked to untreated psychosis and chronic psychotic disorders. A number of different specialized treatment models and services exist trying to close knowledge gaps and provide clinical interventions to first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but there is still no generally accepted standard of care informing our every-day practice. FEP and early-course psychosis specialized treatment model developed in 2004 in University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce rests on integration of care across different organization units and clinical presentation acuity levels and patient needs (intensive care, FEP inpatient unit, FEP outpatient services including day hospital). Such integration of FEP services allows for flexible entry point on multiple levels, earlier structuring of therapeutic alliance for those requiring inpatient care, reduction of risks associated with FEP, quicker formation of long-term treatment plans, reduction of delay in accessing specialized services, and a more coordinated diagnostic process and recruitment of FEP patient population. Detailed evaluations of outcomes and comparisons with different treatment models are necessary in order to assess strengths and weaknesses of each specific model and inform modifications to current practice models.

  13. Early weight gain predicts outcome in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Le Grange, Daniel; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Agras, Stewart; Bryson, Susan W

    2014-03-01

    Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n = 61) or individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT) (n = 60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.670; p = .043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC = 0.754, p = .014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square = 3.692, df = 1, p = .055). Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Economic evaluation of test-and-treat and empirical treatment strategies in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection; A Markov model in an Iranian adult population.

    PubMed

    Mazdaki, Alireza; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Naghdi, Seyran; Aryankhesal, Aidin

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori may cause many gastrointestinal problems in developing countries such as Iran. We aimed to analyze the cost- effectiveness and cost- utility of the test-and-treat and empirical treatment strategies in managing Helicobacter pylori infection. This was a Markov based economic evaluation. Effectiveness was defined as the symptoms free numbers and QALYs in 100,000 hypothetical adults. The sensitivity analysis was based on Monte Carlo approach. In the test- and- treat strategy, if the serology is the first diagnostic test vs. histology, the cost per symptoms free number would be 291,736.1 Rials while the cost per QALYs would be 339,226.1 Rials. The cost per symptoms free number and cost per QALYs when the 13 C-UBT was used as the first diagnostic test vs. serology was 1,283,200 and 1,492,103 Rials, respectively. In the empirical strategy, if histology is used as the first diagnostic test vs. 13 CUBT, the cost per symptoms free numbers and cost per QALYs would be 793,234 and 955,698 Rials, respectively. If serology were used as the first diagnostic test vs. histology, the cost per symptoms free and QALYs would be 793,234 and 368941 Rials, respectively. There was no significant and considerable dominancy between the alternatives and the diagnostic tests.

  15. Caregiver acceptability and preferences for early childhood caries preventive treatments for Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sally H; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries in young Hispanic children. We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of, and preferences for, five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, and xylitol in food for children, and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment, photograph/video clip, and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0-4). All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however, there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman chi-square = 23.4, P < 0.001). Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and varnish were most acceptable, not different from each other, but more acceptable than xylitol in food (P < 0.05). Summed treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman chi-square = 128.2, P < 0.001). Fluoride varnish (2.6) and toothbrushing (2.5) were most highly preferred, and differences between preferences for xylitol in food (1.4), xylitol gum (1.5), and chlorhexidine (2.1) were all significant (P < 0.001). Preferences for chlorhexidine were also significantly greater than those for the xylitol products (P < 0.001). All five treatments were highly acceptable, however, when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments.

  16. “Caregiver Acceptability and Preferences for Early Childhood Caries Preventive Treatments for Hispanic Children”

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries (ECC) in young Hispanic children. Methods We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of and preferences for five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were: toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, xylitol in food for children; and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of: illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment; picture/video clip; and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0–4). Results All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman Chi Square = 23.4, p< 0.001). Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and varnish were most acceptable, not different from each other, but more acceptable than xylitol in food (p< 0.05). Summed treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman Chi Square=128.2, p< 0.001). Fluoride varnish (2.6) and toothbrushing (2.5) were most highly preferred, and differences between preferences for xylitol in food (1.4), xylitol gum (1.5) and chlorhexidine (2.1) were all significant, p < 0.001. Preferences for chlorhexidine were also significantly greater than those for the xylitol products (p < 0.001). Conclusions All 5 treatments were highly acceptable, however when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments. PMID:19486461

  17. Intra-Abdominal Candidiasis: The Importance of Early Source Control and Antifungal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vergidis, Pascalis; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Shields, Ryan K.; Park, Seo Young; Wildfeuer, Brett N.; Simmons, Richard L.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is poorly understood compared to candidemia. We described the clinical characteristics, microbiology, treatment and outcomes of IAC, and identified risk factors for mortality. We performed a retrospective study of adults diagnosed with IAC at our center in 2012–2013. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. We identified 163 patients with IAC, compared to 161 with candidemia. Types of IAC were intra-abdominal abscesses (55%), secondary peritonitis (33%), primary peritonitis (5%), infected pancreatic necrosis (5%), and cholecystitis/cholangitis (3%). Eighty-three percent and 66% of secondary peritonitis and abscesses, respectively, stemmed from gastrointestinal (GI) tract sources. C. albicans (56%) and C. glabrata (24%) were the most common species. Bacterial co-infections and candidemia occurred in 67% and 6% of patients, respectively. Seventy-two percent of patients underwent an early source control intervention (within 5 days) and 72% received early antifungal treatment. 100-day mortality was 28%, and highest with primary (88%) or secondary (40%) peritonitis. Younger age, abscesses and early source control were independent predictors of survival. Younger age, abscesses and early antifungal treatment were independently associated with survival for IAC stemming from GI tract sources. Infectious diseases (ID) consultations were obtained in only 48% of patients. Consulted patients were significantly more likely to receive antifungal treatment. IAC is a common disease associated with heterogeneous manifestations, which result in poor outcomes. All patients should undergo source control interventions and receive antifungal treatment promptly. It is important for the ID community to become more engaged in treating IAC. PMID:27123857

  18. Early changes in emotional processing as a marker of clinical response to SSRI treatment in depression.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, B R; Browning, M; Norbury, R; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2016-11-22

    Antidepressant treatment reduces behavioural and neural markers of negative emotional bias early in treatment and has been proposed as a mechanism of antidepressant drug action. Here, we provide a critical test of this hypothesis by assessing whether neural markers of early emotional processing changes predict later clinical response in depression. Thirty-five unmedicated patients with major depression took the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram (10 mg), over 6 weeks, and were classified as responders (22 patients) versus non-responders (13 patients), based on at least a 50% reduction in symptoms by the end of treatment. The neural response to fearful and happy emotional facial expressions was assessed before and after 7 days of treatment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the neural response to these facial cues after 7 days of escitalopram were compared in patients as a function of later clinical response. A sample of healthy controls was also assessed. At baseline, depressed patients showed greater activation to fear versus happy faces than controls in the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate. Depressed patients who went on to respond to the SSRI had a greater reduction in neural activity to fearful versus happy facial expressions after just 7 days of escitalopram across a network of regions including the anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala and thalamus. Mediation analysis confirmed that the direct effect of neural change on symptom response was not mediated by initial changes in depressive symptoms. These results support the hypothesis that early changes in emotional processing with antidepressant treatment are the basis of later clinical improvement. As such, early correction of negative bias may be a key mechanism of antidepressant drug action and a potentially useful predictor of therapeutic response.

  19. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  20. Should the patients colonized with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (E-GNB) coming to hospital from the community with pneumonia get anti-E-GNB active empirical treatment?

    PubMed

    Peterlin, Lara; Žagar, Mateja; Lejko Zupanc, Tatjana; Paladin, Marija; Beović, Bojana

    2017-10-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to several beta-lactam antibiotics, including those prescribed for treatment pneumonia. To evaluate the importance of colonization with E-GNB for the choice of empirical treatment we performed a retrospective case-control study including 156 patients, hospitalized for treatment of pneumonia from 2009 through 2013. Empirical treatment success and in-hospital survival were significantly lower in patients colonized with E-GNB compared to non-colonized (p = 0.002, p = 0.035). When comparing subgroups of colonized patients, treatment success was significantly lower in patients who were colonized with E-GNB resistant to empirical antibiotic (p = 0.010), but not in those colonized by E-GNB susceptible to empirically given antibiotic (p = 0.104). Difference in in-hospital mortality was insignificant in both subgroups (p = 0.056, p = 0.331). The results of study suggest that an anti-E-GNB active antibiotic should be used for empirical treatment of pneumonia in E-GNB colonized patients.

  1. Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for autism--an umbrella approach to issues critical to treatment individualization.

    PubMed

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2014-12-01

    Integrating knowledge across the disciplines of genetics, neurological, and behavioral science targets, so far, early identification of children with autism and thus early access to intervention. Cross-discipline collaboration might be substantially improve treatment efficacy via individualized treatment based on the child and family needs, consistency across treatment providers and careful planning of skill curricula, setting and techniques. This paper documents the current state of five main issues critical to treatment individualization where cross-discipline collaboration is warranted: (1) developmental timing, (2) treatment intensity, (3) heterogeneity in treatment response, (4) program breath and flexibility, and (5) formats of treatment provision. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early antibiotic treatment for BAL-confirmed ventilator-associated pneumonia: a role for routine endotracheal aspirate cultures.

    PubMed

    Michel, Fabrice; Franceschini, Bruno; Berger, Pierre; Arnal, Jean-Michel; Gainnier, Marc; Sainty, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2005-02-01

    To test whether routine quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates obtained before the onset of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) could help to predict the causative microorganisms and to select early appropriate antimicrobial therapy before obtaining BAL culture results. Prospective observational study. French medical ICU. A total of 299 patients received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h. Endotracheal aspiration (EA) was performed twice weekly in all mechanically ventilated patients. A diagnosis of VAP was made by BAL culture. Only the EA performed just before the suspicion of VAP (EA-pre) were evaluated. This strategy (ie, the EA-pre-based strategy) was compared with an antibiotic therapy that would have been prescribed if the recommendations of both the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and Trouillet et al (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157:531-539) had been applied. VAP was diagnosed (by BAL culture) in 41 of the 75 patients in whom BAL was performed. Among the 41 BAL specimens that were positive for VAP, EA-pre had identified the same microorganisms (with the same antibiotic resistance patterns) in 34 cases (83%). In one case, EA-pre was not available at the time BAL was performed (a case of early-onset VAP), but the empiric antibiotic therapy was adequate. While EA-pre did not give the same results as the BAL culture, the antibiotic therapy based on the results of the EA-pre was adequate in four other cases. Finally, antibiotic therapy was delayed in only two cases. Antibiotic treatment was therefore adequate in 38 of the 40 assessable cases (95%). If the Trouillet-based strategy had been used, the antibiotic treatment would have been adequate in 34 of the 41 cases (83%; p = 0.15 [vs EA-pre strategy]). Based on the ATS classification, the antibiotic treatment would have been adequately prescribed in only 28 of the 41 cases (68%; p = 0.005 [vs EA-pre strategy]). Routine EA performed twice a week makes it possible to prescribe adequate

  3. 78 FR 9396 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Alzheimer's Disease: Developing Drugs for the Treatment of Early...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Alzheimer's Disease: Developing Drugs for the Treatment of Early Stage Disease; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and... ``Alzheimer's Disease: Developing Drugs for the Treatment of Early Stage Disease.'' This guidance outlines FDA...

  4. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    PubMed

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stories about breast cancer in Australian women's magazines: information sources for risk, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, L; Withnall, J; Harris, R; White, K; Beale, B; Hobson, J; Durham, M; Kristjanson, L

    2001-06-01

    Sixty articles in five Australian women's magazines were analyzed for journalistic qualities, metaphors, narrative features and accuracy of clinical facts related to risk, early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The stories were features, news features or soft news stories. The stories reflected the 'good news' editorial style of women's magazines. A dominant theme in the stories was that early detection of breast cancer is crucial and equals survival. While there were few inaccuracies in the stories, there was little detail of treatment modalities, an emphasis on lifestyle as a risk factor and a prevailing message that a genetic history of breast cancer means you will get it. A major implication of the findings is that nurses, who provide information to women, must be aware of the goals of journalists and the educational power of narrative logic of stories in women's magazines.

  6. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Yael R.; Cox, Laura M.; Kirigin, Francis F.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M.; Goldfarb, David S.; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment. PMID:26123276

  7. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Yael R; Cox, Laura M; Kirigin, Francis F; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M; Goldfarb, David S; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-06-30

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment.

  8. Best practices in the treatment of early cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Proesmans, Marijke

    2017-02-01

    For many years, management of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease was focused on symptomatic treatment of chronic lung infection, which is characterized by cough and sputum production, leading to progressive lung damage. With increasing survival and better knowledge of the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, it has become clear that treatment has to start very early because lung damage occurs in young patients, often before obvious symptoms appear. The arrival of new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance-regulator (CFTR)-correcting therapies will bring more opportunities to prevent the disease, apart from only treating chronic lung infection. In this review, a summary of the current knowledge of early CF lung disease is provided, based on animal model studies, as well as on data obtained from well structured follow-up programs after newborn screening (NBS). The most important clinical guidelines for treating young CF patients are also summarized.

  9. Early response to venlafaxine antidepressant correlates with lower ACTH levels prior to pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Araya, A V; Rojas, P; Fritsch, R; Rojas, R; Herrera, L; Rojas, G; Gatica, H; Silva, H; Fiedler, J L

    2006-12-01

    A link between stressful life events and development or exacerbation of depression has been established via a large body of evidence. An alteration in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in depression has also been associated with an increase in cortisol secretion. As arginine-vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in the activation of HPA axis during stress, the present study investigated ACTH and cortisol secretory response induced by an AVP-related peptide desmopressin (ddAVP) in patients with major depression. Prior to antidepressant treatment, endocrinological parameters were evaluated and correlated with the clinical response to venlafaxine treatment, which offers a dual antidepressant action. Depressive patients with no other psychiatric pathology were evaluated with 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) in order to follow-up the response to venlafaxine. After 1 wk of treatment, 60% of patients reduced their initial HAM-D score to at least 25%; this group was classified as early responders. The other group (40%) started to reduce significantly their HAM-D score after 3 wk of treatment and was classified as late responders. After 6 wk of treatment both groups have reduced HAM-D score to at least 25% of the baseline score. Prior to the pharmacological treatment, both early and late responders showed salivary cortisol rhythm and urinary free cortisol (UFC) in 24-h similar to healthy subjects. However, we did observe differences in basal ACTH secretion, showing that the late responder group had higher basal ACTH than both early responders and controls. The ddAVP challenge promoted a robust secretion of ACTH only in late responders, suggesting a different sensitivity of pituitary vasopressin receptor. The differences in clinical response to venlafaxine among depressive patients seem to be related to endocrinological parameters.

  10. Clarithromycin vs. Gemifloxacin in Quadruple Therapy Regimens for Empiric Primary Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Tabatabaie, Khadijeh; Khaleghi, Siamak; Faghihi, Amir-Hossein; Agah, Shahram; Asadi, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Clarithromycin resistance is a major cause of treatment failure. This randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a clarithromycin versus gemifloxacin containing quadruple therapy regimen in eradication of H.pylori infection. METHODS In this randomized double blind clinical trial (RCT 2012102011054N2), a total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups of 60 patients each. Patients with proven H.pylori infection were consecutively assigned into two groups to receive OBAG or OBAC in gastroenterology clinic in Rasoul-e- Akram General Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The patients in the OBAG group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, bismuth subcitrate (240 mg) twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and gemifloxacin (320 mg) once daily, and those in the OBAC group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, 240 mg of bismuth subcitrate twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 10 days. RESULTS Five patients from each group were excluded from the study because of poor compliance, so 110 patients completed the study. The intention-to-treat eradication rate was 61.6% and 66.6% for the OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively. According to the per protocol analysis, the success rates of eradication of H.pylori infection were 67.2% and 72.7% for OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively (p=0.568). CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that gemifloxacin containing regimen is at least as effective as clarithromycin regimen; hence, this new treatment could be considered as an alternative for the patients who cannot tolerate clarithromycin. PMID:26106468

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  13. Emerging treatments for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: focus on neratinib.

    PubMed

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; El Rassy, Elie; Clatot, Florian; de Azambuja, Evandro; Lambertini, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, a better understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity provided tools for a biologically based personalization of anticancer treatments. In particular, the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by tumor cells provided a specific target in these HER2-positive tumors. The development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and its approval in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, radically changed the natural history of this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. These findings provided strong support for the continuous research in targeting the HER2 pathway and implementing the development of new anti-HER2 targeted agents. Besides trastuzumab, a series of other anti-HER2 agents have been developed and are currently being explored for the treatment of breast cancer patients, including those diagnosed with early-stage disease. Among these agents, neratinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits HER1, HER2, and HER4 at the intracellular level, has shown promising results, including when administered to patients previously exposed to trastuzumab-based treatment. This article aims to review the available data on the role of the HER2 pathway in breast cancer and on the different targeted agents that have been studied or are currently under development for the treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease with a particular focus on neratinib.

  14. Emerging treatments for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: focus on neratinib

    PubMed Central

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; El Rassy, Elie; Clatot, Florian; de Azambuja, Evandro; Lambertini, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, a better understanding of breast cancer heterogeneity provided tools for a biologically based personalization of anticancer treatments. In particular, the overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) by tumor cells provided a specific target in these HER2-positive tumors. The development of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, and its approval in 1998 for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, radically changed the natural history of this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. These findings provided strong support for the continuous research in targeting the HER2 pathway and implementing the development of new anti-HER2 targeted agents. Besides trastuzumab, a series of other anti-HER2 agents have been developed and are currently being explored for the treatment of breast cancer patients, including those diagnosed with early-stage disease. Among these agents, neratinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly inhibits HER1, HER2, and HER4 at the intracellular level, has shown promising results, including when administered to patients previously exposed to trastuzumab-based treatment. This article aims to review the available data on the role of the HER2 pathway in breast cancer and on the different targeted agents that have been studied or are currently under development for the treatment of patients with early-stage HER2-positive disease with a particular focus on neratinib. PMID:28744140

  15. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  16. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  17. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors.

    PubMed

    Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-19

    Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for

  18. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Methods: Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview – Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results: Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview – Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Conclusions: Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side

  19. Early antihypertensive treatment and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke: subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure.

    PubMed

    He, William J; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Wang, Dali; Sun, Yingxian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Wang, Jinchao; Ju, Zhong; Li, Qunwei; Zhang, Jintao; Geng, Deqin; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Dong; Li, Yongqiu; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yonghong; Kelly, Tanika N

    2018-06-01

    We studied the effect of early antihypertensive treatment on death, major disability, and vascular events among patients with acute ischemic stroke according to their baseline SBP. We randomly assigned 4071 acute ischemic stroke patients with SBP between 140 and less than 220 mmHg to receive antihypertensive treatment or to discontinue all antihypertensive medications during hospitalization. A composite primary outcome of death and major disability and secondary outcomes were compared between treatment and control stratified by baseline SBP levels of less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg. At 24 h after randomization, differences in SBP reductions were 8.8, 8.6 and 7.8 mmHg between the antihypertensive treatment and control groups among patients with baseline SBP less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001 among subgroups). At day 14 or hospital discharge, the primary and secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups among subgroups. However, there was a significant interaction between antihypertensive treatment and baseline SBP subgroups on death (P = 0.02): odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.42 (0.74-7.89) in patients with baseline SBP less than 60 mmHg and 0.34 (0.11-1.09) in those with baseline SBP at least 180 mmHg. At the 3-month follow-up, the primary and secondary clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups by baseline SBP levels. Early antihypertensive treatment had a neutral effect on clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with various baseline SBP levels. Future clinical trials are warranted to test BP-lowering effects in acute ischemic stroke patients by baseline SBP levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840072.

  20. Early effects of low dose bevacizumab treatment assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Simonsen, Trude G; Smistad, Ragnhild; Wegner, Catherine S; Andersen, Lise Mari K; Rofstad, Einar K

    2015-11-14

    Antiangiogenic treatments have been shown to increase blood perfusion and oxygenation in some experimental tumors, and to reduce blood perfusion and induce hypoxia in others. The purpose of this preclinical study was to investigate the potential of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) in assessing early effects of low dose bevacizumab treatment, and to investigate intratumor heterogeneity in this effect. A-07 and R-18 human melanoma xenografts, showing high and low expression of VEGF-A, respectively, were used as tumor models. Untreated and bevacizumab-treated tumors were subjected to DCE-MRI and DW-MRI before treatment, and twice during a 7-days treatment period. Tumor images of Ktrans (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DOTA) and ve (the fractional distribution volume of Gd-DOTA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data, and tumor images of ADC (the apparent diffusion coefficient) were produced from DW-MRI data. Untreated A-07 tumors showed higher Ktrans, v e, and ADC values than untreated R-18 tumors. Untreated tumors showed radial heterogeneity in Ktrans, i.e., Ktrans was low in central tumor regions and increased gradually towards the tumor periphery. After the treatment, bevacizumab-treated A-07 tumors showed lower Ktrans values than untreated A-07 tumors. Peripherial tumor regions showed substantial reductions in Ktrans, whereas little or no effect was seen in central regions. Consequently, the treatment altered the radial heterogeneity in Ktrans. In R-18 tumors, significant changes in Ktrans were not observed. Treatment induced changes in tumor size, v e, and ADC were not seen in any of the tumor lines. Early effects of low dose bevacizumab treatment may be highly heterogeneous within tumors and can be detected with DCE-MRI.

  1. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women

    PubMed Central

    Obeidat, Rana F.

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers’ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system. PMID:27981122

  2. The Treatment Effect of Porous Titanium Alloy Rod on the Early Stage Talar Osteonecrosis of Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Quan; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the talus (ONT) may severely affect the function of the ankle joint. Most orthopedists believe that ONT should be treated at an early stage, but a concise and effective surgical treatment is lacking. In this study, porous titanium alloy rods were prepared and implanted into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT (IM group). The curative effect of the rods was compared to treatment by core decompression (DC group). No significant differences in bone reconstruction were observed between the two groups at 1 month after intervention. After 3 months, the macroscopic view of gross specimens of the IM group showed ordinary contours, but the specimens of the DC group showed obvious partial bone defects and cartilage degeneration. Quantitative analysis of the reconstructed trabeculae by micro-CT and histological study suggested that the curative effect of the IM group was superior to that of the DC group at 3 months after intervention. These favorable short-term results of the implantation of porous titanium alloy rods into the tali of sheep with early-stage ONT may provide insight into an innovative surgical treatment for ONT. PMID:23516485

  3. Promoting emancipated decision-making for surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer among Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Rana F

    2015-01-01

    To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council), the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers' support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system.

  4. Beyond usual care: the economic consequences of expanding treatment options in early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Vanessa K; Liang, Angela; Hutton, David W; Zochowski, Melissa K; Fendrick, A Mark

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of expanding options for early pregnancy loss (EPL) treatment beyond expectant management and operating room surgical evacuation (usual care). We constructed a decision model using a hypothetical cohort of women undergoing EPL management within a 30 day horizon. Treatment options under the usual care arm include expectant management and surgical uterine evacuation in an operating room (OR). Treatment options under the expanded care arm included all evidence-based safe and effective treatment options for EPL: expectant management, misoprostol treatment, surgical uterine evacuation in an office setting, and surgical uterine evacuation in an OR. Probabilities of entering various treatment pathways were based on previously published observational studies. The cost per case was US $241.29 lower for women undergoing treatment in the expanded care model as compared with the usual care model (US $1033.29 per case vs US $1274.58 per case, expanded care and usual care, respectively). The model was the most sensitive to the failure rate of the expectant management arm, the cost of the OR surgical procedure, the proportion of women undergoing an OR surgical procedure under usual care, and the additional cost per patient associated with implementing and using the expanded care model. This study demonstrates that expanding women's treatment options for EPL beyond what is typically available can result in lower direct medical expenditures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive Changes After Adjuvant Treatment in Older Adults with Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lange, Marie; Heutte, Natacha; Noal, Sabine; Rigal, Olivier; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Lévy, Christelle; Allouache, Djelila; Rieux, Chantal; Lefel, Johan; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Leconte, Alexandra; Veyret, Corinne; Barthélémy, Philippe; Longato, Nadine; Tron, Laure; Castel, Hélène; Eustache, Francis; Giffard, Bénédicte; Joly, Florence

    2018-06-22

    Group-based trajectory modeling is particularly important to identify subgroups of patients with pathological cognitive changes after cancer treatment. To date, only one study has explored cognitive trajectories in older patients with cancer. The present article describes objective cognitive changes before to after adjuvant treatment in older adults with early-stage breast cancer (EBC) after adjuvant treatment compared with healthy controls. Participants were patients ≥65 years of age with newly diagnosed EBC and healthy controls (age-, sex-, and education-matched). The pretreatment assessment was conducted before adjuvant therapy, and the post-treatment assessment after the end of the first adjuvant treatment. Objective cognitive changes before to after treatment were evaluated based on the Reliable Change Index for cognitive decline accounting for cognitive impairment status. The sample consisted of women newly diagnosed with EBC ( n  = 118) and healthy controls ( n  = 62). Five patterns of changes before to after treatment were identified based on the presence of cognitive decline and cognitive impairment. The distribution of these five change patterns was statistically significant ( p  = .0001). Thirty-six percent of patients had phase shift changes, 31% without initial objective cognitive impairment developed impairment, 15% had a normal aging, 12% had a nonpathological decline, and 6% experienced accelerated cognitive decline. This study described for the first time objective cognitive changes before to after treatment of older adults with EBC immediately after the end of adjuvant treatment. A longer-term remote follow-up of adjuvant treatment is needed to better understand the cognitive trajectories of older patients with EBC. The Oncologist IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: After the end of adjuvant treatment, 31% of older adults with early-stage breast cancer without initial objective cognitive impairment developed impairment, and 6% experienced

  6. Typology of Couples Entering Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy: An Empirical Approach and Test of Predictive Validity on Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Ladd, Benjamin O.; McCrady, Barbara S.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine whether classification of couples in which one partner has an alcohol problem is similar to that reported in the general couples literature. Typologies of couples seeking Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) were developed via hierarchical cluster analysis using behavioral codes of couple interactions during their first ABCT session. Four couples types based on in-session behavior were established reliably, labeled Avoider, Validator, Hostile, and Ambivalent-Detached. These couple types resembled couples types found in previous research. Couple type was associated with baseline relationship satisfaction, but not alcohol use. Results suggest heterogeneity in couples with alcohol problems presenting to treatment; further study is needed to investigate the function of alcohol within these different types. PMID:25808432

  7. Typology of Couples Entering Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy: An Empirical Approach and Test of Predictive Validity on Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Benjamin O; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether classification of couples in which one partner has an alcohol problem is similar to that reported in the general couples literature. Typologies of couples seeking alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) were developed via hierarchical cluster analysis using behavioral codes of couple interactions during their first ABCT session. Four couples types based on in-session behavior were established reliably, labeled avoider, validator, hostile, and ambivalent-detached. These couple types resembled couples types found in previous research. Couple type was associated with baseline relationship satisfaction, but not alcohol use. Results suggest heterogeneity in couples with alcohol problems presenting to treatment; further study is needed to investigate the function of alcohol within these different types. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. Neurocognitive outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders study.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jean A; Giuliano, Anthony J; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Hooper, Stephen R

    2012-05-01

    To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine, and risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Of 116 TEOSS participants, 77 (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. Clinical trial registry information-Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00053703. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published

  9. Instrumental relating and treatment decision making among older women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Huibrie C; Heilemann, Marysue V; Maliski, Sally; Dornig, Katrina; Mentes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To understand how women aged 70 years and older who had recently undergone treatment for early-stage breast cancer experienced treatment decision making. Qualitative, descriptive study guided by grounded theory. PARTICIPANTS' houses and apartments in southern California. 18 women, aged 70-94 years, who completed treatment for primary, early-stage breast cancer 3-15 months prior (X = 8.5 months). Twenty-eight semistructured personal interviews that lasted, on average, 104 minutes. Data were collected and analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. Gero-oncology perspective of treatment decision making. A major finding was that the power of relating spontaneously was used as a vehicle to connect with others. That process, which the authors called "instrumental relating," was grounded in a foundation of mutual caring for themselves and others. Within that mutual caring, the women participated in three ways of relating to share in treatment decision making: obtaining information, interpreting healthcare providers, and determining the trustworthiness of their providers. Those ways of relating were effortlessly and simultaneously employed. The women used their expert abilities of relating to get the factual and emotional information that they needed. That information supported what the women perceived to be decisions that were shared and effective. The findings are the first evidence of the importance of relating as a key factor in decision making from the personal perspective of older women with early-stage breast cancer. This work serves as a springboard for future clinical interventions and research opportunities to individualize communication and enhance effective decision making for older patients who wish to participate in their cancer care.

  10. Internet-Delivered, Family-Based Treatment for Early-Onset OCD: A Preliminary Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Kerns, Caroline E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin E.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Freeman, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Given the burdens of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), limitations in the broad availability and accessibility of evidence-based care for affected youth present serious public health concerns. The growing potential for technological innovations to transform care for the most traditionally remote and underserved families holds enormous promise. This article presents the rationale, key considerations, and a preliminary case series for a promising behavioral telehealth innovation in the evidence-based treatment of early-onset OCD. We developed an Internet-based format for the delivery of family-based treatment for early-onset OCD directly to families in their homes, regardless of their geographic proximity to a mental health facility. Videoteleconferencing (VTC) methods were used to deliver real-time cognitive-behavioral therapy centering on exposure and response prevention to affected families. Participants in the preliminary case series included 5 children between the ages of 4 and 8 (MAge = 6.5) who received the Internet-delivered treatment format. All youth completed a full treatment course, all showed OCD symptom improvements and global severity improvements from pre- to posttreatment, all showed at least partial diagnostic response, and 60% no longer met diagnostic criteria for OCD at posttreatment. No participants got worse, and all mothers characterized the quality of services received as “excellent.” The present work adds to a growing literature supporting the potential of VTC and related computer technology for meaningfully expanding the reach of supported treatments for OCD and lays the foundation for subsequent controlled evaluations to evaluate matters of efficacy and engagement relative to standard in-office evidence-based care. PMID:24295036

  11. The role of the early therapeutic alliance in predicting drug treatment dropout.

    PubMed

    Meier, Petra S; Donmall, Michael C; McElduff, Patrick; Barrowclough, Christine; Heller, Richard F

    2006-06-09

    To investigate the role of the therapeutic alliance in predicting length of retention in residential drug treatment. The study recruited 187 clients starting residential rehabilitation treatment for drug misuse in three UK services. Counsellor and client information was assessed at intake, and the average total scores of client and counsellor ratings on the WAI-S (obtained during weeks 1-3) were use as the alliance measure. Length of retention and treatment completion (stay beyond 90 days) were used as measures of retention. Clients with weak counsellor rated alliances dropped out of treatment significantly sooner than clients with strong counsellor rated therapeutic alliances, whether or not the model adjusted for individual counsellor effects and potential confounders including psychological well-being, treatment motivation and readiness, coping strategies, and attachment style. The client rated alliance did not predict length of retention. Apart from the alliance, pre-treatment crack use, secure attachment style and better coping strategies were associated with shorter retention, whereas greater confidence in treatment, older client age and better education predicted treatment completion. Counsellors with greater experience of delivering drug counselling retained clients longer. The findings of this study stress the importance of treatment professionals attending to the therapeutic alliance in drug treatment, as counsellors' alliance ratings were found to be amongst the strongest predictors of dropout. Using alliance measures as clinical tools may help treatment practitioners to become aware of the risk of disengagement early on. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether strategies of reallocating clients with poor alliances to different counsellors lead to improvements in retention.

  12. Photoacoustic Imaging of Cancer Treatment Response: Early Detection of Therapeutic Effect from Thermosensitive Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging methods capable of indicating the potential for success of an individualized treatment course, during or immediately following the treatment, could improve therapeutic outcomes. Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSLs) provide an effective way to deliver chemotherapeutics to a localized tumoral area heated to mild-hyperthermia (HT). The high drug levels reached in the tumor vasculature lead to increased tumor regression via the cascade of events during and immediately following treatment. For a TSL carrying doxorubicin (DOX) these include the rapid and intense exposure of endothelial cells to high drug concentrations, hemorrhage, blood coagulation and vascular shutdown. In this study, ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging was used to probe the changes to tumors following treatment with the TSL, HaT-DOX (Heat activated cytoToxic). Levels of oxygen saturation (sO2) were studied in a longitudinal manner, from 30 min pre-treatment to 7 days post-treatment. The efficacious treatments of HT-HaT-DOX were shown to induce a significant drop in sO2 (>10%) as early as 30 min post-treatment that led to tumor regression (in 90% of cases); HT-Saline and non-efficacious HT-HaT-DOX (10% of cases) treatments did not show any significant change in sO2 at these timepoints. The changes in sO2 were further corroborated with histological data, using the vascular and perfusion markers CD31 and FITC-lectin. These results allowed us to further surmise a plausible mechanism of the cellular events taking place in the TSL treated tumor regions over the first 24 hours post-treatment. The potential for using photoacoustic imaging to measure tumor sO2 as a surrogate prognostic marker for predicting therapeutic outcome with a TSL treatment is demonstrated. PMID:27788199

  13. Risk factors for early treatment discontinuation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Juliana Belo; Malavazzi, Dante Marino; Fossaluza, Victor; Belotto-Silva, Cristina; Borcato, Sonia; Pimentel, Izabel; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In obsessive-compulsive disorder, early treatment discontinuation can hamper the effectiveness of first-line treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of early treatment discontinuation among obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. METHODS: A group of patients who stopped taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or stopped participating in cognitive behavioral therapy before completion of the first twelve weeks (total n = 41; n = 16 for cognitive behavioral therapy and n = 25 for SSRIs) were compared with a paired sample of compliant patients (n = 41). Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline using structured clinical interviews. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used when indicated. Variables presenting a p value <0.15 for the difference between groups were selected for inclusion in a logistic regression analysis that used an interaction model with treatment dropout as the response variable. RESULTS: Agoraphobia was only present in one (2.4%) patient who completed the twelve-week therapy, whereas it was present in six (15.0%) patients who dropped out (p = 0.044). Social phobia was present in eight (19.5%) patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and eighteen (45%) patients who dropped out (p = 0.014). Generalized anxiety disorder was present in eight (19.5%) patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and twenty (50%) dropouts (p = 0.004), and somatization disorder was not present in any of the patients who completed the twelve-week therapy; however, it was present in six (15%) dropouts (p = 0.010). According to the logistic regression model, treatment modality (p = 0.05), agoraphobia, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale scores (p = 0.03) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (p = 0.02) scores were significantly associated with the probability of treatment discontinuation irrespective of interactions with other variables

  14. Clarifying uncertainty regarding detection and treatment of early-stage prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2002-02-01

    Detection and treatment of prostate cancer can theoretically identify and cure a potentially disabling and deadly disease. However, controversy exists primarily because of the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documenting that these strategies improve survival and quality of life. In the absence of definitive information from RCTs, patients seek information and recommendations from many sources. Physicians have an opportunity to help patients and their families sort through the vast array of conflicting and confusing information. Rather then recommending for or against routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, physicians should provide men who are interested in prostate cancer testing, 50 years of age and older, and have a life expectancy of at least 10 to 15 years, with balanced information about the potential benefits and established harms of screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Validated informational materials can effectively and efficiently promote shared decision making. For early prostate cancer detection, the minimum information should include: the likelihood that prostate cancer will be diagnosed, possibilities of false-positive and false-negative results, anxiety associated with a positive test, and uncertainty regarding whether screening reduces the risk for death from prostate cancer. For men with localized prostate cancer, acceptable treatment options include radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, cryotherapy, early androgen-suppression therapy, and watchful waiting. These are all considered acceptable options because data do not provide clear-cut evidence for the superiority of any 1 treatment. The only RCT comparing surgery to watchful waiting, though of relatively small size and conducted before PSA testing, showed no difference in survival after 23 years of follow-up. Watchful waiting does not remove prostate cancer, may miss an opportunity to cure or delay disease progression, and may lead to increased patient anxiety

  15. Early Magnesium Treatment After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, Sanne M; Algra, Ale; Wong, George K C; Poon, Wai S; Bradford, Celia M; Saver, Jeffrey L; Starkman, Sidney; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van den Bergh, Walter M; van Kooten, F; Dirven, C M; van Gijn, J; Vermeulen, M; Rinkel, G J E; Boet, R; Chan, M T V; Gin, T; Ng, S C P; Zee, B C Y; Al-Shahi Salman, R; Boiten, J; Kuijsten, H; Lavados, P M; van Oostenbrugge, R J; Vandertop, W P; Finfer, S; O'Connor, A; Yarad, E; Firth, R; McCallister, R; Harrington, T; Steinfort, B; Faulder, K; Assaad, N; Morgan, M; Starkman, S; Eckstein, M; Stratton, S J; Pratt, F D; Hamilton, S; Conwit, R; Liebeskind, D S; Sung, G; Kramer, I; Moreau, G; Goldweber, R; Sanossian, N

    2015-11-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is an important cause of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Trials of magnesium treatment starting <4 days after symptom onset found no effect on poor outcome or DCI in SAH. Earlier installment of treatment might be more effective, but individual trials had not enough power for such a subanalysis. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to study whether magnesium is effective when given within different time frames within 24 hours after the SAH. Patients were divided into categories according to the delay between symptom onset and start of the study medication: <6, 6 to 12, 12 to 24, and >24 hours. We calculated adjusted risk ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for magnesium versus placebo treatment for poor outcome and DCI. We included 5 trials totaling 1981 patients; 83 patients started treatment<6 hours. For poor outcome, the adjusted risk ratios of magnesium treatment for start <6 hours were 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-2.51); for 6 to 12 hours 1.03 (0.65-1.63), for 12 to 24 hours 0.84 (0.65-1.09), and for >24 hours 1.06 (0.87-1.31), and for DCI, <6 hours 1.76 (0.68-4.58), for 6 to 12 hours 2.09 (0.99-4.39), for 12 to 24 hours 0.80 (0.56-1.16), and for >24 hours 1.08 (0.88-1.32). This meta-analysis suggests no beneficial effect of magnesium treatment on poor outcome or DCI when started early after SAH onset. Although the number of patients was small and a beneficial effect cannot be definitively excluded, we found no justification for a new trial with early magnesium treatment after SAH. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. [Early diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome caused by landslides:a report of 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Bo; Peng, Zi-Lai; Liu, Xu-Bang; Chen, Lian

    2012-01-01

    To summarize early diagnosis and treatment methods of 20 patients with compartment syndrome caused by landslides during coal mine accidents in order to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment of compartment syndrome and reduce disability. From September 2006 to April 2010,20 patients with compartment syndrome were treated with the methods of early decompression, systemic support. All the patients were male with an average age of 42 years (ranged, 23 to 54). All the patients with high tension limb swelling, pain, referred pain passive positive; 5 extremities feeling diminish or disappear and the distal blood vessel beat were normal or weakened or disappeared; myoglobinuria, hyperkalemia, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine increased in 5 cases and oliguria in occurred 1 case. The function of affected limbs was observed according to disability ratings. Three cases complicated with infection of affected limb and 6 cases occurred with renal function insufficiency. Total recovery was in 16 cases, basically recovery in 3, amputation in 1 case. All patients were followed up for 6-15 months with an average of 12 months. The ability to work according to national standard identification--Employee work-related injuries and occupational disability rating classification (GB/T16180-2006) to assess, grade 5 was in 1 case, grade 8 in 2 cases, grade 10 in 1 case, no grade in 16 cases. Arteriopalmus of dorsalis pedis weaken and vanished can not be regard as an evidence in early diagnosis of compartment syndrome. Early diagnosis and decompression, systemic support and treatment is the key in reducing disability.

  17. Early-life antibiotic treatment enhances the pathogenicity of CD4+ T cells during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Sebastian; Medina, Tiago S; Murison, Alex; Taves, Matthew D; Antignano, Frann; Chenery, Alistair; Soma, Kiran K; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Lupien, Mathieu; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; De Carvalho, Daniel D; Zaph, Colby

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4 + T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD. Our results show that CD4 + T cells isolated from adult mice that had been treated with Abx during gestation and in early life induced a faster onset of IBD in Rag1 -deficient mice compared with CD4 + T cells of untreated mice. Ex vivo functional analyses of IBD-inducing CD4 + T cells did not show significant differences in their immunologic potential ex vivo, despite their in vivo phenotype. However, genome-wide gene-expression analysis revealed that these cells displayed dysregulated expression of genes associated with cell-cycle regulation, metabolism, and cellular stress. Analysis of Abx-treated CD4 + T cell donors showed systemically elevated levels of the stress hormone corticosterone throughout life compared with untreated donors. The cohousing of Abx-treated mice with untreated mice decreased serum corticosterone, and a consequent transfer of the cells from cohoused mice into Rag1 -deficient mice restored the onset and severity of disease to that of untreated animals. Thus, our results suggest that early-life Abx treatment results in a stress response with high levels of corticosterone that influences CD4 + T cell function. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  18. Treatment of Early-stage Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformations with Intralesional Interstitial Bleomycin Injection: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunbo; Zou, Yun; Hua, Chen; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xi; Ma, Gang; Chang, Lei; Qiu, Yajing; Lyu, Dongze; Wang, Tianyou; Chang, Shih-Jen; Qiao, Congzhen; Luo, Chunfen; Tremp, Mathias; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection in the treatment of early-stage (Schobinger stage I or II) extracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Materials and Methods This prospective study involved 34 patients with early-stage AVMs, as defined by the Schobinger staging system. The patients received intralesional interstitial bleomycin injected at a maximum dose of 15 000 IU or 1000 IU per kilogram of body weight for children who weighed less than 15 kg per procedure for a total of 6 months (once every month). Therapeutic outcome was evaluated by the degree of devascularization at angiography and the clinical outcome 3 months after the last treatment. Further follow-up was evaluated based on further clinical outcome. Adverse events were recorded according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. Results Of the 34 patients with early-stage AVM, 32 (mean age, 20.5 years; 24 female [75%]) completed the study. The results showed that 27 (84.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.1, 97.7) patients were responsive to bleomycin injection, including nine (28.1%) with a complete response. Four (12.5%) patients showed no response, and one (3.1%) patient experienced worsening 3 months after the last treatment. During further follow-up (mean follow-up time, 20.7 months; range, 5-28 months), the outcome remained stable in 31 (96.9%) of the 32 patients. A major complication, anaphylactic shock, was observed in one (3.1%, 95% CI: 0, 9.5) patient. Common minor complications included hyperpigmentation, nausea, pruritus, and bullae. Conclusion Intralesional interstitial bleomycin injection is a feasible approach for early-stage AVMs and yields safe and effective outcomes. © RSNA, 2017.

  19. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Engineering—Investigating Membrane Fouling in both Rotational and Static Membrane Bioreactor Systems Using Empirical Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Parneet; Jones, Franck Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment using membranes are popular environmental system processes since they allow reuse and recycling. However, fouling is a key limiting factor and so proprietary systems such as Avanti’s RPU-185 Flexidisks membrane bioreactor (MBR) use novel rotating membranes to assist in ameliorating it. In earlier research, this rotating process was studied by creating a simulation model based on first principles and traditional fouling mechanisms. In order to directly compare the potential benefits of this rotational system, this follow-up study was carried out using Avanti’s newly developed static (non-rotating) Flexidisks MBR system. The results from operating the static pilot unit were simulated and modelled using the rotational fouling model developed earlier however with rotational switching functions turned off and rotational parameters set to a static mode. The study concluded that a rotating MBR system could increase flux throughput when compared against a similar static system. It is thought that although the slowly rotating spindle induces a weak crossflow shear, it is still able to even out cake build up across the membrane surface, thus reducing the likelihood of localised critical flux being exceeded at the micro level and lessening the potential of rapid trans-membrane pressure increases at the macro level. PMID:26742053

  20. Early treatment with xenon protects against the cold ischemia associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailin; Luo, Xianghong; Zhou, Zhaowei; Liu, Juying; Tralau-Stewart, Catherine; George, Andrew J T; Ma, Daqing

    2014-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is a common finding in kidney grafts with functional impairment. Prolonged hypothermic storage-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with the early onset of CAN. As the noble gas xenon is clinically used as an anesthetic and has renoprotective properties in a rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we studied whether early treatment with xenon could attenuate CAN associated with prolonged hypothermic storage. Exposure to xenon enhanced the expression of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor in human proximal tubular (HK-2) cells, which, in turn, increased cell proliferation. Xenon treatment before or after hypothermia-hypoxia decreased cell apoptosis and cell inflammation after reoxygenation. The xenon-induced HK-2 cell proliferation was abolished by blocking the IGF-1 receptor, mTOR, and HIF-1α individually. In the Fischer-to-Lewis rat allogeneic renal transplantation model, xenon exposure of donors before graft retrieval or recipients after engraftment enhanced tubular cell proliferation and decreased tubular cell death and cell inflammation associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Compared with control allografts, xenon treatment significantly suppressed T-cell infiltration and fibrosis, prevented the development of CAN, and improved renal function. Thus, xenon treatment promoted recovery from ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduced susceptibility to the subsequent development of CAN in allografts.

  1. [Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy as a Surgical Treatment for Upper Third Early Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Park, Do Joong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2017-09-25

    Recently, the incidence of upper third gastric cancer has increased, and with it the number of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedures performed has been increasing. However, if ESD is not indicated or non-curable, surgical treatment may be necessary. In the case of lower third gastric cancer, it is possible to preserve the upper part of the stomach; however, in the case of upper third gastric cancer, total gastrectomy is still the standard treatment option, regardless of the stage. This is due to the complications associated with upper third gastric cancer, such as gastroesophageal reflux after proximal gastrectomy rather than oncologic problems. Recently, the introduction of the double tract reconstruction method after proximal gastrectomy has become one of the surgical treatment methods for upper third early gastric cancer. However, since there has not been a prospective comparative study evaluating its efficacy, the ongoing multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial (KLASS-05) comparing laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction and laparoscopic total gastrectomy is expected to be important for determining the future of treatment of upper third early gastric cancer.

  2. Comparison of Growing Rod Instrumentation Versus Serial Cast Treatment for Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charles E; McClung, Anna M; Thompson, George H; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Sanders, James O

    2013-09-01

    A comparison of 2 methods of early-onset scoliosis treatment using radiographic measures and complication rates. To determine whether a delaying tactic (serial casting) has comparable efficacy to a surgical method (insertion of growing rod instrumentation [GRI]) in the initial phase of early-onset deformity management. Serial casts are used in experienced centers to delay operative management of curves of surgical magnitude (greater than 50°) in children up to age 6 years. A total of 27 casted patients from 3 institutions were matched with 27 patients from a multicenter database according to age (within 6 months of each other), curve magnitude (within 10° of each other), and diagnosis. Outcomes were compared according to major curve magnitude, spine length (T1-S1), duration and number of treatment encounters, and complications. There was no difference in age (5.5 years) or initial curve magnitude (65°) between groups, which reflects the accuracy of the matching process. Six pairs of patients had neuromuscular diagnoses, 11 had idiopathic deformities, and 10 had syndromic scoliosis. Growing rod instrumentation patients had smaller curves (45.9° vs. 64.9°; p = .002) at follow-up, but there was no difference in absolute spine length (GRI = 32.0 cm; cast = 30.6 cm; p = .26), even though GRI patients had been under treatment for a longer duration (4.5 vs. 2.4 years; p < .0001) and had undergone a mean of 5.5 lengthenings compared with 4.0 casts. Growing rod instrumentation patients had a 44% complication rate, compared with 1 cast complication. Of 27 casted patients, 15 eventually had operative treatment after a mean delay of 1.7 years after casting. Cast treatment is a valuable delaying tactic for younger children with early-onset scoliosis. Spine deformity is adequately controlled, spine length is not compromised, and surgical complications associated with early GRI treatment are avoided. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. Reduction in early stroke risk in carotid stenosis with transient ischemic attack associated with statin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Merwick, Áine; Albers, Gregory W; Arsava, Ethem M; Ay, Hakan; Calvet, David; Coutts, Shelagh B; Cucchiara, Brett L; Demchuk, Andrew M; Giles, Matthew F; Mas, Jean-Louis; Olivot, Jean Marc; Purroy, Francisco; Rothwell, Peter M; Saver, Jeffrey L; Sharma, Vijay K; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kelly, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins reduce stroke risk when initiated months after TIA/stroke and reduce early vascular events in acute coronary syndromes, possibly via pleiotropic plaque-stabilisation. Few data exist regarding acute statin use in TIA. We aimed to determine if statin pre-treatment at TIA onset modified early stroke risk in carotid stenosis. Methods We analyzed data from 2770 TIA patients from 11 centres, 387 with ipsilateral carotid stenosis. ABCD2 score, abnormal DWI, medication pre-treatment, and early stroke were recorded. Results In patients with carotid stenosis, 7-day stroke risk was 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7–11.1) compared with 2.7% [CI 2.0–3.4%] without stenosis (p<0.0001) (90-day risks 17.8% and 5.7% [p<0.0001]). Among carotid stenosis patients, non-procedural 7-day stroke risk was 3.8% [CI 1.2–9.7%] with statin treatment at TIA onset, compared to 13.2% [CI 8.5–19.8%] in those not statin pre-treated (p=0.01) (90-day risks 8.9% versus 20.8% [p=0.01]). Statin pre-treatment was associated with reduced stroke risk in carotid stenosis patients (OR for 90-day stroke 0.37, CI 0.17–0.82), but not non-stenosis patients (OR 1.3, CI 0.8–2.24) (p for interaction 0.008). On multivariable logistic regression, the association remained after adjustment for ABCD2 score, smoking, antiplatelet treatment, recent TIA, and DWI hyperintensity (adjusted p for interaction 0.054). Conclusion In acute symptomatic carotid stenosis, statin pre-treatment was associated with reduced stroke risk, consistent with findings from randomized trials in acute coronary syndromes. These data support the hypothesis that statins started acutely after TIA symptom onset may also be beneficial to prevent early stroke. Randomized trials addressing this question are required. PMID:23908061

  4. Early Stage Breast Cancer Treatments for Younger Medicare Beneficiaries with Different Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ngo, Long H; Li, Donglin; Roetzheim, Richard G; Drews, Reed E; McCarthy, Ellen P

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore how underlying disability affects treatments and outcomes of disabled women with breast cancer. Data Sources Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data, linked with Medicare files and Social Security Administration disability group. Study Design Ninety thousand two hundred and forty-three incident cases of early-stage breast cancer under age 65; adjusted relative risks and hazards ratios examined treatments and survival, respectively, for women in four disability groups compared with nondisabled women. Principal Findings Demographic characteristics, treatments, and survival varied among four disability groups. Compared with nondisabled women, those with mental disorders and neurological conditions had significantly lower adjusted rates of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Survival outcomes also varied by disability type. Conclusions Compared with nondisabled women, certain subgroups of women with disabilities are especially likely to experience disparities in care for breast cancer. PMID:18479411

  5. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks Resolve Faster and Are Shorter after Early Icatibant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Marcus; Kaplan, Allen; Investigators, on behalf of I. O. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) are unpredictable and, if affecting the upper airway, can be lethal. Icatibant is used for physician- or patient self-administered symptomatic treatment of HAE attacks in adults. Its mode of action includes disruption of the bradykinin pathway via blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor. Early treatment is believed to shorten attack duration and prevent severe outcomes; however, evidence to support these benefits is lacking. Objective To examine the impact of timing of icatibant administration on the duration and resolution of HAE type I and II attacks. Methods The Icatibant Outcome Survey is an international, prospective, observational study for patients treated with icatibant. Data on timings and outcomes of icatibant treatment for HAE attacks were collected between July 2009–February 2012. A mixed-model of repeated measures was performed for 426 attacks in 136 HAE type I and II patients. Results Attack duration was significantly shorter in patients treated <1 hour of attack onset compared with those treated ≥1 hour (6.1 hours versus 16.8 hours [p<0.001]). Similar significant effects were observed for <2 hours versus ≥2 hours (7.2 hours versus 20.2 hours [p<0.001]) and <5 hours versus ≥5 hours (8.0 hours versus 23.5 hours [p<0.001]). Treatment within 1 hour of attack onset also significantly reduced time to attack resolution (5.8 hours versus 8.8 hours [p<0.05]). Self-administrators were more likely to treat early and experience shorter attacks than those treated by a healthcare professional. Conclusion Early blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor with icatibant, particularly within the first hour of attack onset, significantly reduced attack duration and time to attack resolution. PMID:23390491

  6. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  7. Early identification and treatment of communication and swallowing deficits in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Michelle R; Grant, Laura M; Rajamanickam, Eunice S Paul; Hilby, Breanna L; Blue, Katherine V; Jones, Corinne A; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A

    2013-08-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. The importance of early operative treatment in open fractures of the fingers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tim; Unadkat, Jignesh; Bilonick, Richard A; Wollstein, Ronit

    2014-04-01

    Current guidelines suggest early surgical treatment of open fractures. This rule in open hand fractures is not well supported and may be practically difficult to observe. Furthermore, desirable washout can be obtained in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of early surgery in our institution. Seventy patients with open fractures of the hand were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, fracture characteristics, and complications. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis, Fisher exact test, and Akaike information criterion. Intravenous antibiotics were administered early in 53 (75.7%) patients. Mean (SD) time to surgery was 2.3 (134.9) hours. The infection rate was 11.4%. No significant relationship was found between fracture type, finger involved, hand dominance, comorbidities, and infection. Antibiotic administration was significantly related to infection (P = 0.007), whereas time to surgery was not (P = 0.33). Age was weakly related to infection (P = 0.08). Administration of intravenous antibiotics in the ED was the most significant factor in preventing infection, whereas the time to operation was not significant. Because a thorough washout and debridement can be performed on open hand fractures in the ED due to the ability to provide adequate anesthesia, the actual time to surgery may possibly be delayed without increasing the risk of infection. Future prospective studies may allow for better guidelines for the treatment of open hand fractures.

  9. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Villain, Hélène; Benkahoul, Aïcha; Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara; Roullet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the "city-like" test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans.

  10. Influence of early stress on memory reconsolidation: Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Birmes, Philippe; Ferry, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear. One of the major candidates as factor of treatment resistance is the patient's early-life traumatic history. To test the role of this factor, mice with pre- or postnatal stress are being tested in fear conditioning and in a new behavioral task, the "city-like", specifically designed as a mouse model of PTSD. After reactivation of the traumatic event, mice received propranolol injection to block the noradrenergic system during memory reconsolidation. Results show that, in the “city-like” test, control mice strongly avoided the shock compartment but also the compartments containing cues associated with the electric shocks. Injection of propranolol after reactivation greatly reduced the memory of the traumatic event, but this effect was not present when mice had received pre- or postnatal stress. Moreover, propranolol produced only a very weak effect in the fear conditioning test, and never changed the corticosterone level whatever the behavioral experiment. Taken together our results suggest that our new behavioural paradigm is well adapted to PTSD study in mice, and that early stress exposure may have an impact on propranolol PTSD treatment outcome. These data are critical to understanding the effect of propranolol treatment, in order to improve the therapeutic protocol currently used in humans. PMID:29352277

  11. Deficits in adult prefrontal cortex neurons and behavior following early post-natal NMDA antagonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon G; Jarskog, L Fredrik; Moy, Sheryl S; Crews, Fulton T

    2009-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with higher cognitive functions including attention and working memory and has been implicated in the regulation of impulsivity as well as the pathology of complex mental illnesses. N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist treatment with dizocilpine induces cell death which is greatest in the frontal cortex on post-natal day seven (P7), however the long-term structural and behavioral effects of this treatment are unknown. This study investigates both the acute neurotoxicity of P7 dizocilpine and the persistent effects of this treatment on pyramidal cells and parvalbumin interneurons in the adult PFC, a brain region involved in the regulation of impulsivity. Dizocilpine treatment on P7 increased cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity (IR) in the PFC on P8. In adult mice (P82), P7 dizocilpine treatment resulted in 50% fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons (p<0.01) and 42% fewer layer V pyramidal neurons (p<0.01) in the PFC. Double immunohistochemistry revealed cleaved caspase-3 IR in both GAD67 IR interneurons and GAD67 (-) neurons. Following dizocilpine treatment at P7, adults showed reduced time in the center of the open field suggesting increased anxiety-like behavior. These findings indicate that early brain insults affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission lead to persistent brain pathology that could contribute to impulsivity and cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Early change in coping strategies in responsive treatments for borderline personality disorder: A mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ueli; Keller, Sabine; Caspar, Franz; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Kolly, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    Difficulty in emotion regulation is a hallmark feature of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therefore, change in the frequency of certain patients' coping strategies-aiming at emotion regulation-are among the most promising mechanisms of change in treatments for BPD. In parallel, it was highlighted that therapist responsiveness significantly contributed to outcome across treatment approaches (Stiles, 2009). Based on a randomized controlled trial (Kramer et al., 2014), the present process-outcome mediation analysis aims at examining the patient's early change in frequency of coping strategies-in particular the decrease in behavioral forms of coping-as potential mechanism of change in responsive treatments for BPD. A total of 57 patients with BPD were included in the present analysis, out of whom 27 were randomly assigned to a 10-session psychiatric treatment and 30 to a 10-session psychiatric treatment augmented with the responsive intervention of the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (Caspar, 2007). The 1st, 5th, and 9th session of each therapy were transcribed and analyzed using the Coping Action Pattern Rating Scale (Perry et al., 2005; 171 sessions analyzed in total), a validated observer-rated method for assessing coping strategies in the therapy process. Psychological distress was assessed using the OQ-45 at intake, after Session 5, and after Session 10. The results confirmed a responsiveness effect associated with the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship and showed a significant decrease in frequency of behavioral forms of coping, F(1, 54) = 3.09, p = .05, d = .56, which was not different between the 2 conditions. In addition, we demonstrated that the early decrease in behavioral forms of coping between Sessions 1 and 5 partially mediated the link between the group assignment and the change in psychological distress between Sessions 5 and 10. These results shed light on the centrality of therapist responsiveness in treatments for

  13. Validating Culturally Relevant Treatment Interventions: What Are We Trying To Change? or Challenges to the Development of Culturally Relevant or Specific Empirically Validated Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    This paper presents an example of a patient treated in a school-based clinic. The counselor used traditional diagnostic perspectives to come up with a diagnosis that would be understood by the patient's Health Maintenance Organization. This diagnosis reflects traditional understanding of mental health and psychological treatment, which promotes…

  14. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia CS; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane AS; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant’Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba AA; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo CF

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer. PMID:26024008

  15. Walking ability as a measure of treatment effect in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J; Brydson, G; Fraser, S; Grant, M

    2001-04-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of a prototype walkmat system in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-four subjects with early RA and symptomatic forefoot disease requiring therapy with second-line drugs were recruited. Each subject underwent clinical assessment together with gait analysis on the contact sensitive walkmat system and Kistler forceplate before and after six months of treatment with second-line drugs. Two subjects were lost to follow-up. There was the expected improvement in disease activity in response to therapy. Significant differences were also demonstrated in defined gait parameters that indicated improved weight-bearing and enhanced forefoot propulsion. Medical therapy improved walking ability in patients with RA and the walkmat system provided a useful adjunct to existing outcome measures in the assessment of lower limb function.

  16. [The importance of early exercise therapy in the treatment of Colles' fracture. A clinically controlled study].

    PubMed

    Grønlund, B; Harreby, M S; Kofoed, R; Rasmussen, L

    1990-08-27

    Forty patients participated in a study of the importance of early occupational therapy for the prognosis in stable Colles' fractures. Seventeen patients were treated by an occupational therapist 1-3 days after the injury, and the need for appliances and home-care was estimated. Twenty-three patients completed the usual treatment. Five weeks after the injury, we found significantly (p less than 0.05) better function of the hand in the 17 patients with early occupational therapy. This difference in function could not be found after 13 weeks. The rate of complications was the same in the two groups. The results indicate that contact with the occupational therapist shortly after the injury is valuable in patients with stable Colles' fractures.

  17. What are the goals and principles of management in the early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Bykerk, Vivian Patricia; Keystone, Edward Clark

    2005-02-01

    The management of patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) requires an awareness of the potential issues and needs that are unique to each patient with regards to their perceptions of their disease, physical needs and nutritional issues. Arthritis specialists should have a clear approach to the goals of management that are specific to patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). In this chapter, evidence for the goals and principles of management in the early treatment of RA is discussed. Patient education, the role of self-management, physical therapies, exercise, diet and drug management are addressed. This chapter aims to provide clinicians with a clear understanding of which interventions have supporting evidence and where further research is required. Where evidence for patients with ERA is lacking, evidence from patients with established RA is reviewed.

  18. Early, but not late, treatment with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity through immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hyeon; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Kim, Do Hee; Kwon, Ghee Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Huh, Wooseong; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Oh, Ha Young; Kim, Yoon-Goo

    2017-10-01

    Preemptive treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can attenuate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). However, it is uncertain whether MSC treatment after the development of renal dysfunction prevents AKI progression or if MSC immunomodulatory properties contribute to MSC therapy. In this study, human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived MSCs were used to compare the effects and mechanisms of early and late MSC therapy in a murine model. After cisplatin injection into C57BL/6 mice, hUCB-MSCs were administered on day 1 (early treatment) or day 3 (late treatment). With early treatment, cisplatin nephrotoxicity was attenuated as evidenced by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and reduced apoptosis and tubular injury scores on day 3 Early treatment resulted in downregulation of intrarenal monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and IL-6 expression and upregulation of IL-10 and VEGF expression. Flow cytometric analysis showed similar populations of infiltrated immune cells in both groups; however, regulatory T-cell (Treg) infiltration was 2.5-fold higher in the early treatment group. The role of Tregs was confirmed by the blunted effect of early treatment on renal injury after Treg depletion. In contrast, late treatment (at a time when BUN levels were 2-fold higher than baseline levels) showed no renoprotective effects on day 6 Neither the populations of intrarenal infiltrating immune cells (including Tregs) nor cytokine expression levels were affected by late treatment. Our results suggest that early MSC treatment attenuates renal injury by Treg induction and immunomodulation, whereas a late treatment (i.e., after the development of renal dysfunction) does not prevent AKI progression or alter the intrarenal inflammatory micromilieu. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Early orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Woon, See Choong; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri

    2017-01-01

    Class III malocclusion affects between 5% and 15% of our population. The 2 most common dilemmas surrounding Class III treatment are the timing of treatment and the type of appliance. A number of appliances have been used to correct a Class III skeletal discrepancy, but there is little evidence available on their effectiveness in the long term. Similarly, early treatment of Class III malocclusion has been practiced with increasing interest. However, there has been no solid evidence on the benefits in the long term. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic/orthopedic methods used in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion in the short and long terms. Several sources were used to identify all relevant studies independently of language. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (Ovid), and MEDLINE (Ovid) were searched to June 2016. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years on early treatment with any type of orthodontic/orthopedic appliance compared with another appliance to correct Class III malocclusion or with an untreated control group. The primary outcome measure was correction of reverse overjet, and the secondary outcomes included skeletal changes, soft tissue changes, quality of life, patient compliance, adverse effect, Peer Assessment Rating score, and treatment time. The search results were screened for inclusion, and the data extracted by 2 independent authors. The data were analyzed using software (version 5.1, Review Manager; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; Copenhagen, Denmark). The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were expressed for the continuous data. Random effects were carried out with high levels of clinical or statistical heterogeneity and fixed affects when the heterogeneity was low

  20. The treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kemp, Kristyn; Gibbon, Samantha

    2005-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of brief bright-light therapy for the treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia. Twenty-four healthy adults with early-morning awakening insomnia were assigned to either the bright-light condition (2,500-lux white light) or the control (dim red light) condition. The circadian phase of rectal temperature and urinary melatonin rhythms were assessed with 26-hour constant routines before and after 2 evenings of light therapy. Sleep and daytime functioning were monitored using sleep diaries, activity monitors, and mood scales before light therapy and for 4 weeks during the follow-up period. While there were no significant circadian phase changes in the dim-light control group, the bright-light group had significant 2-hour phase delays of circadian temperature and melatonin rhythm. Compared to pretreatment measures, over the 4-week follow-up period, the bright-light group had a greater reduction of time awake after sleep onset, showed a trend toward waking later, and had a greater increase of total sleep time. Participants in the bright-light condition also tended to report greater reductions of negative daytime symptoms, including significantly fewer days of feeling depressed at the 4-week follow-up, as compared with the control group. Two evenings of bright-light exposure phase delayed the circadian rhythms of early-morning awakening insomniacs. It also improved diary and actigraphy sleep measures and improved some indexes of daytime functioning for up to 1 month after light exposure. The study suggests that a brief course of evening bright-light therapy can be an effective treatment for early-morning awakening insomniacs who have relatively phase advanced circadian rhythms.

  1. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor of CO2 laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Sang Joon

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Laser cordectomy is very popular nowadays and become one of the treatments of choice for early glottis carcinoma. Transoral laser microsurgery has many advantages comparing conventional open surgery or radiation therapy. In this study, we examined the oncologic results of laser cordectomy for early glottic cancer and analyzed the prognostic impact on the survival of the several tumor-related and treatment-related factors. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed as early glottic squamous cell carcinoma, treated by laser cordectomy with curative intent were analyzed. Patients with preivous radiation therapy were included. From June 1988 to March 2005, 202 patients from five hospitals were analyzed (174 T1, 28 T2). Results: Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 98.4% and 84.9%. Twenty two patients developed local recurrence. Total laryngectomy was done in 6 patients and laryngeal preservation rate was 97%. Recurrence was higher in the patients with anterior commissure involvement (9/39) than without anterior commissure involvement (13/163). Recurrence was higher in T1b (4/15) than T1a (13/159). Previous radiation was also highly related to the recurrence (7/20 vs 15/182). Twenty patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were treated by salvage laser cordectomy. Of them, 7 patients developed local recurrence and 5 year disease-free survival was 57%. Complication was rare with one case of hemorrhage. Tracheotomy was not necessary in all patients. Conclusions: Laser cordectomy for early glottic carcinoma showed high survival, laryngeal preservation rate and low complication rate. The prognostic factors were anterior commissure involvement, both vocal fold involvement and previous radiotherapy.

  2. [Drug treatment of early-stage (de novo and "honeymoon") Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Cesaro, P; Defebvre, L

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the management of motor symptoms during the early phases of Parkinson's disease, excluding that of any other clinical manifestation. We relied primarily upon recently published data and do not describe older publications relating to anticholinergic drugs or amantadine. The initial pharmacological treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is symptomatic and remains based upon dopaminergic drugs. However, the development of new drugs has broadened the range of strategic options and improved overall patient management. Announcing the diagnosis is a critical moment, as pointed out by patients' associations. Patients should be advised to maintain personal, professional, social and physical activities as long as possible. The potential benefit of early pharmacological treatment should be explained, focusing on the possible disease-modifying effect of drugs such as rasagiline. According to current guidelines, L-Dopa is preferred in patients above 65years of age, while those below 65 should be treated with dopamine agonists. Like monoamine oxidase inhibitors B (MAOI-B), synthetic dopamine agonists exhibit several advantages: easy-to-use treatment with a once-daily administration, delayed L-Dopa initiation, significant efficacy on motor symptoms (although lower than that of L-Dopa). MOAI can be prescribed in association with L-Dopa or dopamine agonists. Rasagiline also delays L-Dopa initiation, and consequently motor complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Value of optimization of bedside Gram staining of sputum smear in the early diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xinyan; Ran, Yu; Bian, Shichang; Wang, Chao; Xu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the significance of optimization of bedside Gram staining of sputum smear in the early diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients. The data of patients with VAP undergoing mechanical ventilation over 48 hours in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Tianjin Fourth Central Hospital from June 2009 to June 2014 were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether or not bedside Gram staining of sputum smear was used or not. The sputum samples from lower respiratory tract of all VAP patients were collected daily with tracheal catheter. In empirical examination group (from June 2009 to December 2011, n=43), the patients received antibiotics at the time of onset of VAP, selection of antibiotics depended on the information of bacterial epidemiology of the intensive care unit (ICU), and also existence of high risk factors of multi-drug resistant bacteria. In target treatment group (from January 2012 to June 2014, n=43), the patients received antibiotics according to the results of bedside instant sputum smear examination and empirical antibiotic regime. The correlation between the results of sputum smear examination and culture result was analyzed. The levels of body temperature, white blood cell (WBC) count, procalcitonin (PCT) level,and high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured on the 1st day and 3rd day. The length of antibiotics treatment, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the time of ICU stay were recorded for both groups. There were 512 qualified sputum specimens for culture, from which 336 pathogens were found, and 358 strains of pathogenic bacteria were found from microscopic examination of 512 qualified sputum smear. The coincidence rate of results of bedside examination of sputum smear and that of sputum culture was 78.32%(401/512). The diagnostic acumen of the former was 85.42% (287/336), specificity was 64.77% (114/176), positive predictive value

  4. Early effect of intra-arterial treatment in ischemic stroke on aphasia recovery in MR CLEAN.

    PubMed

    Crijnen, Yvette S; Nouwens, Femke; de Lau, Lonneke M L; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Lingsma, Hester F; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; van Zwam, Wim H; Majoie, Charles B L M; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2016-05-31

    To investigate the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) on early recovery from aphasia in acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that the early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. We included patients with aphasia from the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), in which 500 patients with a proximal anterior circulation stroke were randomized to usual care plus IAT (<6 hours after stroke, mainly stent retrievers) or usual care alone. We estimated the effect of IAT on the shift on the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) item language and the NIHSS item motor arm at 24 hours and 1 week after stroke with multivariable ordinal logistic regression as a common odds ratio, adjusted for prognostic variables (acOR). Differences between the effect of IAT on aphasia and on motor deficits were tested in a multilevel model with a multiplicative interaction term. Of the 288 patients with aphasia, 126 were assigned to IAT and 162 to usual care alone. The acOR for improvement of language score at 24 hours was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.60), and at 1 week 1.86 (95% CI 1.18-2.94). The acOR for improvement of motor deficit at 24 hours was 2.44 (95% CI 1.54-3.88), and at 1 week 2.32 (95% CI 1.43-3.77). The effect of IAT on language deficits was significantly different from the effect on motor deficits at 24 hours and 1 week (p = 0.005 and p = 0.011). IAT results in better early recovery from aphasia than usual care alone. The early effect of IAT on aphasia is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with acute ischemic stroke IAT increases early recovery from aphasia and that the early effect on aphasia, as measured by the NIHSS, is smaller than the effect on motor deficits. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  6. Early treatment resistance in a Latin-American cohort of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mena, Cristian; Gonzalez-Valderrama, Alfonso; Iruretagoyena, Barbara; Undurraga, Juan; Crossley, Nicolas A

    2018-03-08

    Failure to respond to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia is a common clinical scenario with significant morbidity. Recent studies have highlighted that many patients present treatment-resistance from disease onset. We here present an analysis of clozapine prescription patterns, used as a real-world proxy marker for treatment-resistance, in a cohort of 1195 patients with schizophrenia from a Latin-American cohort, to explore the timing of emergence of treatment resistance and possible subgroup differences. Survival analysis from national databases of clozapine monitoring system, national disease notification registers, and discharges from an early intervention ward. Echoing previous studies, we found that around 1 in 5 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were eventually prescribed clozapine, with an over-representation of males and those with a younger onset of psychosis. The annual probability of being prescribed clozapine was highest within the first year (probability of 0.11, 95% confidence interval of 0.093-0.13), compared to 0.018 (0.012-0.024) between years 1 and 5, and 0.006 (0-0.019) after 5years. Age at psychosis onset, gender, dose of clozapine used, and compliance with hematological monitoring at 12months, was not related to the onset of treatment resistance. A similar pattern was observed in a subgroup of 230 patients discharged from an early intervention ward with a diagnosis of non-affective first episode of psychosis. Our results highlight that treatment resistance is frequently present from the onset of psychosis. Future studies will shed light on the possible different clinical and neurobiological characteristics of this subtype of psychosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Early add-on treatment vs alternative monotherapy in patients with partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Semah, Franck; Thomas, Pierre; Coulbaut, Safia; Derambure, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two different therapeutic strategies in patients with partial seizures who were intractable to the first prescribed antiepileptic drug (AED); alternative monotherapy vs early add-on treatment. We conducted an open, cluster-randomised, prospective, controlled trial in patients with persistent partial seizures, despite treatment with one AED, who were never administered any other AEDs. Neurologists were randomised to two strategies: in group A, an alternative monotherapy with a second AED was employed; in group B, add-on treatment with a second AED was employed. The primary outcome was the percentage of seizure-free patients during a two-month period after six months of treatment. The secondary outcomes were: (i) the percentage of patients achieving a 50% reduction in the number of seizures at six months; (ii) the quality of life based on the Quality Of Life In Epilepsy scale; and (iii) tolerability. A total of 143 neurologists were included and randomised, and 264 patients were evaluated. At six months, the primary outcome was 51% in group A and 45% in group B (p=0.34). The percentage of patients achieving a 50% reduction in the number of seizures at six months was 76% in group A and 84% in group B (p=0.53). The quality of life and the tolerability did not significantly differ between the two groups. Alternative monotherapy or early treatment initiation with another AED drug resulted in similar efficacy, and the side effects associated with monotherapy and combined therapies were similar, which suggests that individual susceptibility is more important than the number and burden of AEDs used.

  8. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown.

  9. Initial Treatment for Nonsyndromic Early-Life Epilepsy: An Unexpected Consensus.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Berg, Anne T; Grinspan, Zachary M; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Millichap, John J; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Coryell, Jason; Saneto, Russell P; Chu, Catherine J; Joshi, Sucheta M; Sullivan, Joseph E; Knupp, Kelly G; Kossoff, Eric H; Keator, Cynthia; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mytinger, John R; Valencia, Ignacio; Massey, Shavonne; Gaillard, William D

    2017-10-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records. About half of the 495 enrolled children with new-onset, nonsyndromic epilepsy were less than 12 months old at the time of diagnosis (n = 263, 53%) and about half (n = 260, 52%) had epilepsy with focal features. Of 464 who were treated with monotherapy, 95% received one of five drugs: levetiracetam (n = 291, 63%), oxcarbazepine (n = 67, 14%), phenobarbital (n = 57, 12%), topiramate (n = 16, 3.4%), and zonisamide (n = 13, 2.8%). Phenobarbital was prescribed first for 50 of 163 (31%) infants less than six months old versus seven of 300 (2.3%) of children six months or older (P < 0.0001). Although the first treatment varied across study centers (P < 0.0001), levetiracetam was the most commonly prescribed medication regardless of epilepsy presentation (focal, generalized, mixed/uncertain). Between the first and second treatment choices, 367 (74%) of children received levetiracetam within the first year after diagnosis. Without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community has developed an unexpectedly consistent approach to initial treatment selection for early-life epilepsy. This suggests that a standard practice is emerging and could be utilized as a widely acceptable basis of comparison in future drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Grating visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty; Good, William V

    2011-07-01

    To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with that in eyes that underwent conventional management (CM). In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye undergo ET and the other eye undergo CM, with treatment only if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to ET or CM. Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 of 370 surviving children (85.6%). Analysis of grating acuity results for all study participants with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit of ET (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcomes; P = .08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk types 1 and 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%; P = .004) undergoing ET, but not in type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%; P = .29). Early treatment of eyes with type 1 ROP improves grating acuity outcomes, but ET for eyes with type 2 ROP does not. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE: Type 1 eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at 6 years of age, type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to type 1 ROP. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  11. Interpretation bias modification for youth and their parents: a novel treatment for early adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Meg M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-12-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents' maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents' intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10-15; N=18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents' cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents' biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents' biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpretation Bias Modification for Youth and their Parents: A Novel Treatment for Early Adolescent Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents’ intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10–15; N = 18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents’ cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents’ biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents’ biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. PMID:25445075

  13. Weight changes after adjuvant treatment in Korean women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye-Suk; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, In-Ah; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2009-03-01

    Weight gain is a common problem in breast cancer patients and is reported to be associated with poorer survival. However, most data are limited to Western women. We evaluated weight changes after adjuvant treatment in Korean women with early breast cancer. The authors reviewed the records of 260 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated between June 2003 and February 2006. Body weight, body mass index (BMI) and menopausal status at baseline and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of adjuvant treatment were reviewed. Mean patient age was 47.0 years and 61.1% of women were premenopausal. Among them, 195 patients (75.8%) received chemotherapy and 186 (71.5%) received hormonal therapy. Mean baseline weight was 57.5 +/- 9.8 kg and mean BMI was 23.5 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2) (22.8 +/- 3.0 vs. 24.7 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2) for pre- vs. post-menopausal women, P = 0.286). Mean weight changes were; 0.30 kg at 3 months (P = 0.019); 0.16 kg at 6 months (P = 0.367); -0.34 kg at 1 year (P = 0.082); -0.40 kg at 2 years (P = 0.097). Twenty-three patients (10.4%) gained more than 5% of baseline body weight at 1 year, but no clinical variable was found to be associated with these weight gains. This study shows that Korean women with early breast cancer do not gain weight after adjuvant treatment. Further studies are needed to determine differences between Asian and Western women in terms of weight changes and prognosis in early breast cancer.

  14. Empiric antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans-like skin lesions as a function of geography: a clinical and cost effectiveness modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Paul M; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Wormser, Gary P; Clemen, Robert

    2013-12-01

    The skin lesion of early Lyme disease, erythema migrans (EM), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. Because other skin lesions may resemble EM, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of EM is appropriate in regions where Lyme disease is rare. We constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of EM: Treat All, Observe, and Serology as a function of the probability that an EM-like lesion is Lyme disease. Treat All was found to be the preferred strategy in regions that are endemic for Lyme disease. Where Lyme disease is rare, Observe is the preferred strategy, as presumptive treatment would be expected to produce excessive harm and increased costs. Where Lyme disease is rare, clinicians and public health officials should consider observing patients with EM-like lesions who lack travel to Lyme disease-endemic areas.

  15. [Treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma in early stages].

    PubMed

    Meneses, José Carlos; Avila Martínez, Régulo J; Ponce, Santiago; Zuluaga, Mauricio; Bartolomé, Adela; Gámez, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of lung carcinoma is multidisciplinary. There are different therapeutic strategies available, although surgery shows the best results in those patients with lung carcinoma in early stages. Other options such as stereotactic radiation therapy are relegated to patients with small tumors and poor cardiopulmonary reserve or to those who reject surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not justified in patients with stage i of the disease and so double adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered. This adjuvant chemotherapy should be based on cisplatin after surgery in those patients with stages ii and IIIA. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient.

    PubMed

    Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  17. Early Functional Treatment of Proximal Phalanx Fractures in Children: A Case Series Study.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Mammadli, Toghrul

    2018-05-23

    The objective of this study was to assess proper indications a nonsurgical treatment regime for pediatric fractures of the proximal phalanx based on principles of early functional treatment. A case series (evidence level 4) of 30 pediatric patients with fractures of the proximal phalanx were treated nonsurgically using protective dynamic splinting techniques and fiberglass casting material. Assessments were performed clinically and by x-ray within 4 to 8 weeks of commencement of treatment. Outcome measures included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score questionnaire as well as fingertip palm distance (cm) and dynamic pain interval assessments. All fractures healed without any clinically apparent bony deformities. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were of 25.17 ± 5.29 (mean ± SD), which indicated good functional results usually within 2 weeks of removal of dynamic splints. Fingertip palm distance measurements at endpoints were of 0.17 ± 0.27 cm (mean ± SD), which indicated an almost free range of finger motion. Absence of pain perception under active finger motion (dynamic pain interval) was noted at 14.10 ± 6.79 days (mean ± SD). Well-established criteria for surgical treatment of phalangeal fractures exist. However, in our experience, a majority of pediatric fractures of the proximal phalanx can be safely treated nonsurgically with dynamic splinting along with shorter intervals of immobilization of the affected fingers and faster restoration of overall hand function compared to surgical treatment.

  18. Early Treatment in HCV: Is it a Cost-Utility Option from the Italian Perspective?

    PubMed

    Marcellusi, Andrea; Viti, Raffaella; Damele, Francesco; Cammà, Calogero; Taliani, Gloria; Mennini, Francesco Saverio

    2016-08-01

    In Italy, the Italian Pharmaceutical Agency (AIFA) criteria used F3-F4 fibrosis stages as the threshold to prioritise the treatment with interferon (IFN)-free regimens, while in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (G1 CHC) patients with fibrosis of liver stage 2, an approach with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-based triple therapy with simeprevir was suggested. The key clinical question is whether, in an era of financial constraints, the application of a universal IFN-free strategy in naïve G1 CHC patients is feasible within a short time horizon. The aim of this study is to perform an economic analysis to estimate the cost-utility of the early innovative therapy in Italy for managing hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The incremental cost-utility analysis was carried out to quantify the benefits of the early treatment approach in HCV subjects. A Markov simulation model including direct and indirect costs and health outcomes was developed from an Italian National Healthcare Service and societal perspective. A total of 5000 Monte Carlo simulations were performed on two distinct scenarios: standard of care (SoC) which includes 14,000 genotype 1 patients in Italy treated with innovative interferon-free regimens in the fibrosis of liver stages 3 and 4 (F3-F4) versus early-treatment scenario (ETS) where 2000 patients were additionally treated with simeprevir plus PEG-IFN and ribavirin in the fibrosis stage 2 (F2) (based on Italian Medicines Agency AIFA reimbursement criteria). A systematic literature review was carried out to identify epidemiological and economic data, which were subsequently used to inform the model. Furthermore, a one-way probabilistic sensitivity was performed to measure the relationship between the main parameters of the model and the cost-utility results. The model shows that, in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, ETS appeared to be the most cost-utility option compared with both

  19. Cimetidine as a novel adjunctive treatment for early stage Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Shemenski, Justin

    2016-04-09

    Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), is the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. It is a complex disease which may affect the skin, joints, heart, eyes, and central nervous system. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is curative in most instances. However, a significant percentage of patients experience ongoing symptoms after treatment. Currently, there is much controversy regarding the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of Lyme disease. Pathogen persistence despite treatment lies at the heart of this debate. Many believe that the ongoing symptoms are due to factors such as autoimmunity or permanent damage that is incurred during the active infection. However, there is an emerging school of thought that states that ongoing symptoms are due to a persistent infection that is able to survive both the immune response and antibiotic therapy. Numerous studies have shown that Bb can indeed persist within the host despite treatment and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain Bb's persistence capabilities. These include: polymorphism, antigenic variance, biofilm formation, persister cells, and immunomodulation. There is evidence that Bb is able to alter cytokine profiles within the host which may allow the organism to survive the immune response. This immunomodulation follows a pattern of T-helper 1 (TH1) suppression in favor of T-helper 2 (TH2) processes. In contrast, it has been shown that the optimal immune response to Bb infection involves an early, robust TH1 response and a later conversion to TH2 dominance once the infection is controlled or cleared. It has been proposed that a reconstitution of proper immune-competency in the infected host may improve clinical outcomes in Lyme disease. Cimetidine (CIM) is an over-the-counter histamine-2 (H2) antagonist that is primarily used to lower acid secretions in the stomach. T-regulatory (Treg) cells also possess the H2 receptor, which has spurred interest in CIM as a

  20. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8–19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine or risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Results Seventy-seven of 116 TEOSS participants (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Conclusions Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. PMID:22525956

  1. Early diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Africa and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Bahiri; El Zorkany, Bassel; Youseif, Ehab; Tikly, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototype for spondyloarthritis primarily affecting young men. Geographic and ethnic variations exist in the prevalence and severity of AS and relate to the wide disparity in the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, a major genetic risk factor. The strength of the disease association with HLA-B27 is lower in most Arab populations (25-75 %) than in Western European populations (>90 %), and there is no association in sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of HLA-B27 is <1 %. Other epidemiologic differences between European and African populations are the apparent later age at presentation in sub-Saharan Africa, and the high rate of spondyloarthropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosis of AS is often delayed 8-10 years; potential reasons for the delay in Africa and the Middle East include low awareness among physicians and patients, the requirement for radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis for diagnosis, and limited access to magnetic resonance imaging in some countries. Treatment should be initiated early to prevent or reduce skeletal deformity and physical disability. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective first-line treatment and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α drugs are indicated for patients who have an inadequate response to first-line therapy. In Africa and the Middle East, such treatments may be precluded either by cost or contraindicated because of the high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection. Research is sorely needed to develop cost-effective tools to diagnose AS early as well as effective, inexpensive, and safe treatments for these developing regions.

  2. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. A WHO study of treatment schedules for early syphilis in use throughout the world

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R. R.

    1954-01-01

    Ten years have elapsed since penicillin was introduced in the treatment of syphilis. In order to appraise recent trends in syphilotherapy in the world, WHO carried out a detailed study of treatment practices in early syphilis. A questionnaire was circulated to leading venereologists and clinics in the world, and 277 replies were received from 55 countries giving particulars of 294 schedules. A total of 65.3% of the participants used penicillin alone and 28.9% used it in combination with other drugs. In North America all clinics relied solely on penicillin as against 52.2% in Europe; and procaine penicillin G in oil with aluminium monostearate (PAM) was used in 91% of clinics in the Americas and Asia and in 60.6% of European clinics. The most common dosage of penicillin in all stages of early syphilis was 4.8-6.0 million units; but appreciably larger doses were used in Europe than elsewhere, some 39.4% of schedules using 10.8 million units or more. There were single instances of 36 million units being given. Consolidation treatment was given in none of the North American clinics; seldom in Asia; by about one-third of the participants in Central and South America; and, for secondary syphilis, in 59% of European schedules. This study shows that with intensive treatment with PAM the saving in drug cost to clinics over the classical courses of arsenic and bismuth may be as much as £4 per case, but the overhead expenses are, of course, not reduced. PMID:13182588

  4. Endoscopic laser-induced steam generator: a new method of treatment for early gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Tajiri, Hisao; Nogami, Yashiroh; Hino, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1996-05-01

    The minimum invasive endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer has been popular in Japan. The endoscopic mucosal resection and laser coagulation by Nd:YAG laser irradiation has been the popular treatment method in this field. However, the submucosal cancer has not been successfully treated by these methods. To treat the submucosal cancer endoscopically, we developed a new coagulation therapy using hot steam generated by Nd:YAG laser. The steam of which temperature was over 10 deg. in Celsius was generated by the laser power of 30 W with 5 ml/min. of saline. The steam was emitted to canine gastric wall under laparotomy or endoscopy for 50 s respectively. Follow up endoscopy was performed on 3, 7, 14, 28 days after the treatment. Histological examination was studied on 7, 28 days, and just after the emission. In the acute observation, the submucosal layer was totally coagulated. On the 7th day, ulceration with white coat was seen. The mucosal defect, submucosal coagulation, and marked edema without muscle degeneration were found by the histological study. On the 14th day, the ulcer advanced in the scar stage. On the 28th day, it completely healed into white scar with mucosal regeneration and mucosal muscle thickening. We could obtain reproducible coagulation up to deep submucosal layer with large area in a short operation time. Moreover there were no degeneration of proper muscle. This treatment effectiveness could be easily controlled by the steam temperature and emission duration. We think that this method can be applied to early gastric cancer including the submucosal cancer, in particular poor risk case for operation. Further study should be done to apply this method to clinical therapy.

  5. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. A screening questionnaire for voice problems after treatment of early glottic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gogh, Christine D.L. van; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Boon-Kamma, Brigitte A.

    Purpose: After treatment for early glottic cancer, a considerable number of patients end up with voice problems interfering with daily life activities. A 5-item screening questionnaire was designed for detection of voice impairment. The purpose of this study is to assess psychometric properties of this questionnaire in clinical practice. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was completed by 110 controls without voice complaints and 177 patients after radiotherapy or laser surgery for early glottic cancer. Results: Based on normative data of the controls, a score of 5 or less on at least 1 of the 5 questions was considered to statemore » overall voice impairment. Reliability of the questionnaire proved to be good. Voice impairment was reported in 44% of the patients treated with radiotherapy vs. 29% of the patients treated with endoscopic laser surgery. Conclusions: The questionnaire proved to be a reliable, valid, and feasible method to detect voice impairment in daily life. The questionnaire is easy to fill in, and interpretation is straightforward. It is useful for both radiation oncologists and otorhinolaryngologists in their follow-up of patients treated for early glottic cancer.« less

  7. Update on the Treatment of Early-Stage Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka

    2018-04-14

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of all breast cancers and is associated with poor long-term outcomes compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Currently, chemotherapy remains the main modality of treatment for early-stage TNBC, as there is no approved targeted therapy for this subtype. The biologic heterogeneity of TNBC has hindered the development and evaluation of novel agents, but recent advancements in subclassifying TNBC have paved the way for further investigation of more effective systemic therapies, including cytotoxic and targeted agents. TNBC is enriched for germline BRCA mutation and for somatic deficiencies in homologous recombination DNA repair, the so-called "BRCAness" phenotype. Together, germline BRCA mutations and BRCAness are promising biomarkers of susceptibility to DNA-damaging therapy. Various investigational approaches are consequently being investigated in early-stage TNBC, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, platinum compounds, PI3K pathway inhibitors, and androgen receptor inhibitors. Due to the biological diversity found within TNBC, patient selection based on molecular biomarkers could aid the design of early-phase clinical trials, ultimately accelerating the clinical application of effective new agents. TNBC is an aggressive breast cancer subtype, for which multiple targeted approaches will likely be required for patient outcomes to be substantially improved.

  8. Treatment decisions and the impact of adverse events before and during extended endocrine therapy in postmenopausal early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blok, Erik J; Kroep, Judith R; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Duijm-de Carpentier, Marjolijn; Putter, Hein; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Nortier, Johan W R; Rutgers, Emiel J Th; Seynaeve, Caroline M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2018-05-01

    Extended endocrine therapy beyond 5 years for postmenopausal breast cancer has been studied within multiple phase III trials. Treatment compliance in these trials is generally poor. In this analysis, we aimed to determine factors that were associated with participation in the phase III Investigation on the Duration of Extended Adjuvant Letrozole (IDEAL) trial and with early treatment discontinuation, and how this influenced survival outcome. In the IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients were randomised between 2.5 or 5 years of extended letrozole, after completing 5 years of endocrine therapy for hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. A subgroup of this population participated earlier in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational trial (5 years of exemestane or 2.5 years of tamoxifen followed by exemestane as primary adjuvant therapy) in which we explored which factors were determinative for enrolment in the IDEAL study. In the IDEAL cohort, we evaluated which factors predicted for early treatment discontinuation and the effect of early treatment discontinuation on disease-free survival (DFS). Nodal status, younger age and adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with higher enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In the IDEAL cohort, adverse events (AEs), the type of primary endocrine therapy and the interval between primary and extended therapy were associated with early treatment discontinuation. Among the reported AEs, depressive feelings (56%) were most frequently associated with early treatment discontinuation. Early treatment discontinuation was not associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 0.76-1.37). In this analysis, we found that risk factors were most strongly associated enrolment in the IDEAL trial. In contrast, patient experiences were the most significant factors leading to early treatment discontinuation, with no effect on DFS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth hormone (GH) treatment reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, M; Verhovec, R; Zizek, B; Prezelj, J; Poredos, P; Clayton, R N

    1999-02-01

    Hypopituitary patients have increased mortality from vascular disease, and in these patients, early markers of atherosclerosis [increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and reduced distensibility] are more prevalent. As GH replacement can reverse some risk factors of atherosclerosis, the present study examined the effect of GH treatment on morphological and functional changes in the carotid and brachial arteries of GH-deficient (GHD) adults. Eleven GHD hypopituitary men (24-49 yr old) were treated with recombinant human GH (0.018 U/kg BW x day) for 18 months. IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bifurcation (CB), and flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) of the brachial artery were measured by B mode ultrasound before and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment, and values were compared with those in 12 age-matched control men. Serum concentrations of lipids, lipoprotein(a), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were also measured. In GHD men before treatment the IMTs of the CCA [mean(SD), 0.67(0.05) mm] and CB [0.75(0.04) mm] were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those in control men [0.52(0.07) and 0.65(0.07) mm, respectively]. GH treatment normalized the IMT of the CCA by 6 months [0.53(0.04) mm] and that of the CB by 3 months [0.68(0.05) mm]. The IMT of the carotid artery (CCA and CB) was negatively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = -0.53; P < 0.0001). There was a significant improvement in flow-mediated EDD of the brachial artery at 3 months, which was sustained at 6 and 18 months of GH treatment (P < 0.05). GH treatment increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 3 and 6 months, but did not reduce total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol and was without effect on lipoprotein(a). There was no correlation between plasma lipids and changes in IMT or EDD of the arteries examined. In conclusion, GH treatment of hypopituitary GHD men reverses early morphological and

  10. The effect of duration of untreated psychosis and treatment delay on the outcomes of prolonged early intervention in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-09-26

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether DUP affects treatment response after 5 years of SEI treatment compared to 2 years of SEI treatment. As part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of prolonged SEI treatment 400 participants diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum were recruited. For this specific study participants were dichotomized based on DUP, treatment delay, and time from first symptom until start of SEI treatment. The groups were analyzed with regard to treatment response on psychopathology, level of functioning, and cognitive functioning. The participants with a short DUP had a tendency to respond better to the prolonged treatment with regards to disorganized and negative dimension. For participants with short duration from first symptom until start of SEI treatment there was a significant difference on the negative dimension favoring the prolonged OPUS treatment. The finding of an effect of prolonged treatment for participants with a short total treatment delay could mean that prolonged SEI treatment is more beneficial than treatment as usual (TAU) so long as it is provided in the early years of illness and not just in the early years after diagnosis. THE EARLIER THE BETTER: The duration of untreated psychosis influences the long-term outcomes of treatment. Nikolai Albert, at the Copenhagen Mental Health Centre, and a team of Danish researchers have investigated the effects of a specialized early intervention program (OPUS) in 400 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and compared the effects of OPUS after two and five years. Their findings suggest that five years of specialized early intervention was most beneficial when the total duration from symptom start to

  11. Outpatient follow-up after treatment for early breast cancer: updated results after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Churn, M; Kelly, V

    2001-01-01

    The value of frequent outpatient follow-up in the first few years after primary treatment for early breast cancer is a controversial issue. Schedules involving 3-4 monthly visits in the first 2-3 years and 6-monthly from years 3-5 are still commonplace. In this study we audited such a policy from a single cancer centre, identifying a cohort of all 612 patients with early breast cancer (pT(1-3)pN(0-1)NxM0) referred for adjuvant therapy in 1993. The hospital records were reviewed to ascertain patient and tumour characteristics, the surgical and adjuvant treatment received, the timing and sequencing of recurrences and their mode of detection. Five hundred and five patients had breast conservation surgery. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years in this group was 94.5%. Twenty-five of the 31 local recurrences that occurred were the first site of relapse. Eight (32%) of these were detected at routine clinic appointments, seven (28%) by routine mammography, and nine (36%) were interim referrals. Significant risk factors for local recurrence identified were lymph node status (P = 0.03) and tumour grade (P = 0.04). One hundred and four patients underwent mastectomy. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival at 5 years in this group was 85.4%. Nine of the 13 local recurrences were the first site of relapse. Six (66.7%) of these were detected at routine appointments. The significant risk factor for local recurrence identified was tumour grade (P = 0.03). Overall, 60.1% of metastases presented as interim referrals. Nodal status, tumour grade and tumour stage were confirmed as significant risk factors for metastasis (P < or = 0.001). Hazard rate analysis demonstrated a peak incidence of both local and metastatic recurrences in the second year, diminishing thereafter. This peak was largely confined to patients with tumours with poor prognostic features. We identified only eight patients out of a total of 612 followed up as outpatients for 5 years who had

  12. A pilot randomised controlled trial in intensive care patients comparing 7 days' treatment with empirical antibiotics with 2 days' treatment for hospital-acquired infection of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Scawn, N; Saul, D; Pathak, D; Matata, B; Kemp, I; Stables, R; Lane, S; Haycox, A; Houten, R

    2012-09-01

    Management of cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) sepsis is complicated by the high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which mimics sepsis but without an infective cause. This pilot randomised trial investigated whether or not, in the ICU, 48 hours of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment was adequate to safely treat suspected sepsis of unknown and unproven origin and also the predictive power of newer biomarkers of sepsis. The main objective of this pilot study was to provide preliminary data on the likely safety and efficacy of a reduced course of antibiotics for the treatment of ICU infections of unknown origin. A pilot, single-centre, open-label randomised trial. This study was carried out in the ICU of a tertiary heart and chest hospital. Patients being treated within the ICU were recruited into the trial if the intensivist was planning to commence antibiotics because of evidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and a strong suspicion of infection but there was no actual known source for that infection. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment administered for 48 hours (experimental) compared with treatment for 7 days (control). The primary outcome was a composite outcome of the rate of death or initiation of antibiotic therapy after the completion of the treatment schedule allocated at randomisation. Secondary outcomes included the duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU and hospital stay; the incidence of infection with Clostridium difficile (B. S. Weeks & E. Alcamo) Jones & Bartlett International Publishers, 2008, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (B. S. Weeks & E. Alcamo) Jones & Bartlett International Publishers, 2008; resource utilisation and costs associated with each of the two pilot arms; the ratio of patients screened to patients eligible to patients randomised; the incidence of crossover between groups; and the significance of newer biomarkers for sepsis for predicting patients' need for further antibiotics

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. Aims The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Method Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Results Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Conclusions Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots. PMID:24701252

  14. Aggressive treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis: recognizing the window of opportunity and treating to target goals.

    PubMed

    Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Cicero, Marco P

    2010-11-01

    Evidence supports the use of aggressive therapy for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical outcomes in patients with early RA can improve with a treat-to-target approach that sets the goal at disease remission. The current selection of antirheumatic therapies, including conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), has made disease remission a realistic target for patients with early RA. The challenge is selecting the optimal antirheumatic drug or combination of drugs for initial and subsequent therapy to balance the clinical benefits, risks, and economic considerations. In some cases, the use of biologic agents as part of the treatment regimen has shown superior results compared with conventional DMARDs alone in halting the progression of disease, especially in reducing radiographic damage. However, the use of biologic agents as initial therapy is challenged by cost-effectiveness analyses, which favor the use of conventional DMARDs. The use of biologic agents may be justified in certain patients with poor prognostic factors or those who experience an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs as a means to slow or halt disease progression and its associated disability. In these cases, the higher cost of treatment with biologic agents may be offset by decreased societal costs, such as lost work productivity, and increased health-related quality of life. Further research is needed to understand optimal strategies for balancing costs, benefits, and risks of antirheumatic drugs. Some key questions are (1) when biologic agents are appropriate for initial therapy, and (2) when to conclude that response to conventional DMARDs is inadequate and biologic agents should be initiated.

  15. Managing Early Childhood Caries with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment and Topical Silver and Fluoride Agents

    PubMed Central

    Duangthip, Duangporn; Chen, Kitty Jieyi; Gao, Sherry Shiqian

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is a significant global health problem affecting millions of preschool children worldwide. In general, preschool children from families with 20% of the lowest family incomes suffered about 80% of the ECC. Most, if not all, surveys indicated that the great majority of ECC was left untreated. Untreated caries progresses into the dental pulp, causing pain and infection. It can spread systemically, affecting a child’s growth, development and general health. Fundamental caries management is based on the conventional restorative approach. Because preschool children are too young to cope with lengthy dental treatment, they often receive dental treatment under general anaesthesia from a specialist dentist. However, treatment under general anaesthesia poses a life-threatening risk to young children. Moreover, there are few dentists in rural areas, where ECC is prevalent. Hence, conventional dental care is unaffordable, inaccessible or unavailable in many communities. However, studies showed that the atraumatic restorative treatment had a very good success rate in treating dentine caries in young children. Silver diamine fluoride is considered safe and effective in arresting dentine caries in primary teeth. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss updated evidence of these alternative approaches in order to manage cavitated ECC. PMID:28994739

  16. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment choices and neuropsychological symptoms of a large cohort of early MS

    PubMed Central

    von Bismarck, Olga; Dankowski, Theresa; Ambrosius, Björn; Hessler, Nicole; Antony, Gisela; Ziegler, Andreas; Hoshi, Muna-Miriam; Aly, Lilian; Luessi, Felix; Groppa, Sergiu; Klotz, Luisa; Meuth, Sven G.; Tackenberg, Björn; Stoppe, Muriel; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Kümpfel, Tania; Stangel, Martin; Heesen, Christoph; Wildemann, Brigitte; Paul, Friedemann; Bayas, Antonios; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Linker, Ralf A.; Ziemann, Ulf; Zettl, Uwe K.; Zipp, Frauke; Wiendl, Heinz; Hemmer, Bernhard; Gold, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess clinical characteristics, distribution of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), and neuropsychological symptoms in a large cohort of patients with early-stage MS. Methods The German National MS Cohort is a multicenter prospective longitudinal cohort study that has recruited DMT-naive patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) since 2010. We evaluated their baseline characteristics and the prevalence of neuropsychological symptoms. Results Of 1,124 patients, with a 2.2:1 female-to-male ratio and median age at onset of 31.71 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 26.06–40.33), 44.6% and 55.3% had CIS and RRMS, respectively. The median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score at baseline was 1.5 (IQR: 1.0–2.0). A proportion of 67.8% of patients started DMT after a median time of 167.0 days (IQR 90.0–377.5) since the first manifestation. A total of 64.7% and 70.4% of the 762 patients receiving early DMT were classified as CIS and RRMS, respectively. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction were detected in 36.5%, 33.5%, and 14.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusion Baseline characteristics of this large cohort of patients with early, untreated MS corroborated with other cohorts. Most patients received early DMT within the first year after disease onset, irrespective of a CIS or RRMS diagnosis. Despite the low EDSS score, neuropsychological symptoms affected a relevant proportion of patients. PMID:29511705

  18. Critique of early models of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa based on contemporary empirical data from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Simon; Nyamukapa, Constance; Lopman, Ben; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Chandiwana, Stephen K.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    Early mathematical models varied in their predictions of the impact of HIV/AIDS on population growth from minimal impact to reductions in growth, in pessimistic scenarios, from positive to negative values over a period of 25 years. Models predicting negative rates of natural increase forecast little effect on the dependency ratio. Twenty years later, HIV prevalence in small towns, estates, and rural villages in eastern Zimbabwe, has peaked within the intermediate range predicted by the early models, but the demographic impact has been more acute than was predicted. Despite concurrent declines in fertility, fueled in part by HIV infections (total fertility is now 8% lower than expected without an epidemic), and a doubling of the crude death rate because of HIV/AIDS, the rate of natural population increase between 1998 and 2005 remained positive in each socioeconomic stratum. In the worst-affected areas (towns with HIV prevalence of 33%), HIV/AIDS reduced growth by two-thirds from 2.9% to 1.0%. The dependency ratio fell from 1.21 at the onset of the HIV epidemic to 0.78, the impact of HIV-associated adult mortality being outweighed by fertility decline. With the benefit of hindsight, the more pessimistic early models overestimated the demographic impact of HIV epidemics by overextrapolating initial HIV growth rates or not allowing for heterogeneity in key parameters such as transmissibility and sexual risk behavior. Data collected since the late 1980s show that there was a mismatch between the observed growth in the HIV epidemic and assumptions made about viral transmission. PMID:17761795

  19. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600–7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb. PMID:29211749

  20. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  1. [Early versus delayed physiotherapy in the treatment of post-prostatectomy male urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Tarcía Kahihara, Carina; Ferreira, Ubirajora; Nardi Pedro, Renato; Matheus, Wagner Eduardo; Rodrigues Netto, Nelson

    2006-10-01

    To analyze the importance of the starting time for pelvic floor physiotherapy in patients with post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Between May 2003 and February 2004 18 patients with the diagnosis of post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence underwent physiotherapy of the pelvic floor. Each patient received 12 sessions using kinesotherapy and electric stimulation on a weekly basis. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included eight patients that started therapy within the first six months after surgery; Group 2 included 10 patients starting therapy after the sixth post operative month. All patients were evaluated by the pad test and number of incontinence pads per day. Evaluating pad tests before and after treatment, six patients in group 1 had a reduction of the amount of urine leak in comparison to seven patients in group 2. The statistical analysis showed significant differences before and after treatment for both groups (group 1: p = 0.028; group 2: p = 0.018). The evaluation of the number of pads showed: Group 1: all eight patients using pods had a reduction in the number of pads. Group 2: 5 of the eight patients using pads had a reduction and the other three continued using the same number. Statistical analysis comparing the number of pads per day before and after treatment showed a significant difference in group 1 (p = 0.004). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of pads per day before and after physiotherapy in group 2, although half of the patients showed a diminishment in the number of pads required after treatment. Results demonstrate that early indication of physiotherapy for the treatment of post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence is better than delayed treatment. New works may be developed in the future to confirm our results.

  2. Early effect of fractional CO2 laser treatment in Post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Eder, Scott Evan

    2018-03-31

    Fractional CO 2 lasers have been shown to provide improvement of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). The aim of the current study was to assess the early effect of a fractional CO 2 laser system in treating postmenopausal women with clinical symptoms of VVA. 28 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age 60.1 ± 5.55 years) with VVA-related symptoms were treated with fractional CO 2 laser 3 times, in 4-week intervals. At each study visit, VHIS score and VVA symptom severity were recorded. Sexual function was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). One month following the first laser treatment, the mean VHIS score was significantly improved (13.89 ± 4.25 vs. baseline 11.93 ± 3.82; p < 0.05), and improved further at 3 and 6 months following all three laser treatments (16.43 ± 4.20 and 17.46 ± 4.07, respectively). Almost all VVA symptoms were significantly improved at one month following the first treatment. A further significant improvement in VVA symptoms was noted at 3 and 6 months following the third laser treatment. Following treatments, the FSFI score increased significantly (22.36 ± 10.40 vs. baseline 13.78 ± 7.70; p < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than baseline at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CO 2 laser therapy for post-menopausal women can be considered an effective therapeutic option providing relief of symptoms already noted after one laser treatment.

  3. Astigmatism Progression in the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Study to 6 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Davitt, Bradley V.; Quinn, Graham E.; Wallace, David K.; Dobson, Velma; Hardy, Robert J.; Tung, Betty; Lai, Dejian; Good, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence of astigmatism (≥1.00 diopter (D)) and high astigmatism (≥2.00 D) from 6 months post term due date to 6 years postnatal, in preterm children with birth weight ≤ 1251g who developed high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and participated in the Early Treatment for ROP (ETROP) Study. Design Observational Cohort Study Participants 401 infants who developed high-risk prethreshold ROP in one or both eyes and were randomized to early treatment (ET) versus conventional management (CM). Refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy. Eyes were excluded if they received additional retinal, glaucoma, or cataract surgery. Intervention Eyes were randomized to receive laser photocoagulation at high-risk prethreshold ROP or to receive treatment only if threshold ROP developed. Main Outcome Measures Astigmatism and high astigmatism at each study visit. Results For both ET and CM eyes, there was a consistent increase in prevalence of astigmatism over time, increasing from 42% at 4 years to 52% by 6 years for the group of ET eyes and from 47% to 54% in the CM eyes. There was no statistically significant difference between the slopes (rate of change per month) of the ET and CM eyes for both astigmatism and high astigmatism. (P=0.75) Conclusions By 6 years of age, over 50% of eyes with high-risk prethreshold ROP developed astigmatism ≥ 1.00 D, and nearly 25% of such eyes had high astigmatism (≥ 2.00 D). Presence of astigmatism was not influenced by timing of treatment, zone of acute-phase ROP, or presence of plus disease. However, there was a trend toward higher prevalence of astigmatism and high astigmatism in eyes with ROP residua. Most astigmatism was with-the-rule (75º –105º). More eyes with Type 2 than Type 1 had astigmatism by 6 years. These findings reinforce the need for follow-up eye examinations through early grade school years in infants with high risk prethreshold ROP. PMID:21872933

  4. Antiangiogenic treatment diminishes renal injury and dysfunction via regulation of local AKT in early experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiao; Tian, Jianwei; Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser⁴⁷³-AKT, phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1) were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr³⁰⁸-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis

  5. Antiangiogenic Treatment Diminishes Renal Injury and Dysfunction via Regulation of Local AKT in Early Experimental Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhanmei

    2014-01-01

    In view of increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and renal dysfunction in early diabetes, we designed a study to test whether VEGF-A inhibition can prevent early renal injury and dysfunction. We investigated the relationship and mechanism between VEGF-A and AKT regulation. In vitro, VEGF-A small interfering RNA (siRNA) and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 were employed to podocytes and NRK-52 cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM). In vivo, the antiangiogenic drug endostatin was administered in 12 week-old streptozotocin-induced male Sprague Dawley rats. The levels of VEGF-A, AKT, phosphorylated Ser473-AKT, phosphorylated Thr308-AKT, nephrin, angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin type II receptor 1 (ATR1) were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Interactions between phosphorylated Thr308-AKT and either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules were studied, respectively, using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation. Silencing VEGF-A in podocytes upregulated phosphorylated Thr308-AKT and nephrin. Silencing VEGF-A in NRK-52E cells upregulated phosphorylated Thr308-AKT while downregulated Ang II and ATR1. MK-2206 enhanced VEGF-A expression in both podocytes and NRK-52E cells by inhibiting AKT activities. In diabetic rat kidneys, VEGF-A was upregulated and phosphorylated Thr308-AKT colocalized with either nephrin in podocytes or Ang II in renal tubules. With the endostatin treatment, the level of VEGF-A decreased while phosphorylated Thr308-AKT increased in both glomeruli and renal tubules. Treatment with endostatin upregulated nephrin in podocytes while downregulated Ang II and AT1R in renal tubules. Glomerular mesangial expansion was attenuated by the endostatin treatment, however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Endostatin ameliorated the interstitial fibrosis, urine albumin excretion rate

  6. Operative treatment of early infection after internal fixation of limb fractures (exclusive of severe open fractures).

    PubMed

    Bonnevialle, P

    2017-02-01

    Early infection after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a limb bone is defined as bacteriologically documented, deep and/or superficial surgical-site infection (SSI) diagnosed within 6months after the surgical procedure. This interval is arbitrarily considered sufficient to obtain fracture healing. The treatment of early infection after ORIF should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. The principles are the same as for revision arthroplasty. Superficial SSIs should be differentiated from deep SSIs, based on the results of bacteriological specimens collected using flawless technique. A turning point in the local microbial ecology occurs around the third or fourth week, when a biofilm develops around metallic implants. This biofilm protects the bacteria. The treatment relies on both non-operative and operative measures, which are selected based on the time to occurrence of the infection, condition of the soft tissues, and stage of bone healing. Both the surgical strategy and the antibiotic regimen should be determined during a multidisciplinary discussion. When treating superficial SSIs after ORIF, soft-tissue management is the main challenge. The treatment differs according to whether the hardware is covered or exposed. Defects in the skin and/or fascia can be managed using reliable reconstructive surgery techniques, either immediately or after a brief period of vacuum-assisted closure. In deep SSIs, deciding whether to leave or to remove the hardware is difficult. If the hardware is removed, the fracture site can be stabilised provisionally using either external fixation or a cement rod. Once infection control is achieved, several measures can be taken to stimulate bone healing before the end of the classical 6-month interval. If the hardware was removed, then internal fixation must be performed once the infection is eradicated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Combining epidemiological and genetic networks signifies the importance of early treatment in HIV-1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Zarrabi, Narges; Prosperi, Mattia; Belleman, Robert G; Colafigli, Manuela; De Luca, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M A

    2012-01-01

    Inferring disease transmission networks is important in epidemiology in order to understand and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Reconstruction of the infection transmission networks requires insight into viral genome data as well as social interactions. For the HIV-1 epidemic, current research either uses genetic information of patients' virus to infer the past infection events or uses statistics of sexual interactions to model the network structure of viral spreading. Methods for a reliable reconstruction of HIV-1 transmission dynamics, taking into account both molecular and societal data are still lacking. The aim of this study is to combine information from both genetic and epidemiological scales to characterize and analyse a transmission network of the HIV-1 epidemic in central Italy.We introduce a novel filter-reduction method to build a network of HIV infected patients based on their social and treatment information. The network is then combined with a genetic network, to infer a hypothetical infection transmission network. We apply this method to a cohort study of HIV-1 infected patients in central Italy and find that patients who are highly connected in the network have longer untreated infection periods. We also find that the network structures for homosexual males and heterosexual populations are heterogeneous, consisting of a majority of 'peripheral nodes' that have only a few sexual interactions and a minority of 'hub nodes' that have many sexual interactions. Inferring HIV-1 transmission networks using this novel combined approach reveals remarkable correlations between high out-degree individuals and longer untreated infection periods. These findings signify the importance of early treatment and support the potential benefit of wide population screening, management of early diagnoses and anticipated antiretroviral treatment to prevent viral transmission and spread. The approach presented here for reconstructing HIV-1 transmission networks

  8. Prosthetic valve endocarditis: early and late outcome following medical or surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Akowuah, E F; Davies, W; Oliver, S; Stephens, J; Riaz, I; Zadik, P; Cooper, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the early and late outcome of medical and surgical treatment in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis within a single unit. Design: All patients with proven prosthetic valve endocarditis treated in one institution between 1989 and 1999 were studied. Results: There were 66 patients (24 female, 42 male), mean (SD) age 57 (14) years. Of these, 28 were treated with antibiotics alone and 38 with a combination of antibiotics and surgery. The in-hospital mortality for the antibiotic group was 46% and for the surgical group, 24%. However, seven patients in the antibiotic group were considered too sick for curative treatment. The mortality in the remaining 21 medically treated patients (6/21; 29%) was not significantly different from that in the surgically treated patients (p = 0.15). Six patients in the medically treated group and one in the surgically treated group required late reoperation. Endocarditis recurred in three patients in the medically treated group, two of whom were treated surgically, and in one patient in the surgically treated group. Kaplan–Meier survival at 10 years was 28% in the medically treated group v 58% in the surgically treated group (p = 0.04). Freedom from endocarditis at five years was 60% in the surgically treated group and 65% in the medically treated group. Conclusions: Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a serious condition with high early and late mortality, irrespective of the treatment employed. These data show that selected patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis can be successfully treated with antibiotics alone. If required, surgery in this difficult group of patients can provide satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection. PMID:12591827

  9. Predictors of Positive Treatment Outcome in People With Anorexia Nervosa Treated in a Specialized Inpatient Unit: The Role of Early Response to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wales, Jackie; Brewin, Nicola; Cashmore, Rebecca; Haycraft, Emma; Baggott, Jonathan; Cooper, Amy; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-09-01

    To investigate factors which predict positive treatment outcome in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN), particularly the role of early treatment response. 102 patients entering specialist inpatient treatment were assessed for eating disorder history, psychopathology, and motivation to change. Predictive factors assessed were: early treatment response defined as weight increase of at least 0.5-1 kg/week during the first 6 weeks of treatment (n=87), admission body mass index (BMI), onset age, chronicity, motivation to change, diagnosis, and previous hospitalization for AN. Positive treatment outcome was defined as achieving a BMI of 17.5 kg/m(2) within an individual time frame. Logistic regression indicated that patients were 18 times more likely to reach positive treatment outcome if they met the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence weight guidelines within the first 6 weeks of hospitalization. Higher admission BMI was also found to predict positive treatment outcome. Higher entry BMI and early weight gain predict positive treatment outcome in individuals receiving specialist AN inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Current approaches for assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in Nigeria: a case for dedicated early pregnancy services.

    PubMed

    Iyoke, C A; Ugwu, O G; Ezugwu, F O; Onah, H E; Agbata, A T; Ajah, L C

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy are best cared for in dedicated units which offer rapid and definitive ultrasonographic and biochemical assessment at the initial review of the patient. To describe the current protocols for the assessment and treatment of women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy as reported by Nigerian Gynecologists, and determine if dedicated early pregnancy services such as Early Pregnancy Assessment Units could be introduced to improve care. A cross-sectional survey of Nigerian Gynecologists attending the 46 th Annual Scientific Conference of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria. This was a questionnaire-based study. Data analysis was by descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 17.0 for Windows (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). A total of 232 gynecologists working in 52 different secondary and tertiary health facilities participated in the survey. The mean age of the respondents was 42.6 ± 9.1 years (range 28-70 years). The proportion of gynecologists reporting that women with early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy were first managed within the hospital general emergency room was 92%. The mean reported interval between arrival in hospital and first ultrasound scan was 4.9 ± 1.4 hours (range ½-8 hours). Transvaginal scan was stated as the routine initial imaging investigation by only 17.2% of respondents. Approximately 94.8% of respondents felt that dedicated early pregnancy services were feasible and should be introduced to improve the care of women with early miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Reported protocols for managing early miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy in many health facilities in Nigeria appear to engender unnecessary delays and avoidable costs, and dedicated early pregnancy services could be both useful and feasible in addressing these shortcomings in the way women with such conditions are currently managed.

  11. A modified protocol for early treatment of osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Aitasalo, K; Niinikoski, J; Grénman, R; Virolainen, E

    1998-08-01

    The treatment of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and early chronic osteomyelitis (COM) of the mandible and maxilla is controversial. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) at two to three times the atmospheric pressure at sea level can result in tissue oxygen tension of almost 400 mmHg. Herewith HBO increases oxygen supply in hypoxic tissue, thus inducing fibroblastic proliferation and capillary formation. From 1981 to 1991, we used a monoplace chamber and since 1992, we have also had a multiplace chamber for HBO treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen was given at 2.5-2.8 atmosphere absolute pressure (ATA) for 90-120 minutes, once per day. The patients had five to 10 preoperative and five to seven postoperative sessions. Surgical therapy consisted of decortication of the affected bone, subsequently covered with a free periosteal transplant from the tibia. Thirty-six patients with ORN and 33 with COM of the mandible and maxilla was treated with this protocol. The median follow-up time in this material is 34 months, with a minimum of 10 months. Thirty-six ORN patients (92%) and 26 COM patients (79%) have remained symptom-free after the first treatment period. Three failed ORN patients were successfully treated with a free microvascular flap. The seven failed COM patients have been retreated, and five of them have occasional clinical symptoms. Hyperbaric oxygen is a promising adjunct to surgery in the treatment of mandibular and maxillary ORN and COM. Using this protocol, the necessary HBO treatment sessions have been reduced from earlier protocols, without adverse effect on the outcome.

  12. Impact of two early treatment protocols for anterior dental crossbite on children's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Miamoto, Cristina Batista; Marques, Leandro Silva; Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2018-01-01

    To assess the impact of two early treatment protocols for anterior dental crossbite on children's quality of life. Thirty children, 8 to 10 years of age, with anterior dental crossbite, participated in this study. Individuals were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 15 children undergoing treatment with an upper removable appliance with digital springs; Group 2 - 15 children undergoing treatment with resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement bite pads on the lower first molars. Quality of life was evaluated using the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10), which contains four subscales: oral symptoms (OS), functional limitations (FL), emotional well-being (EW), and social well-being (SW). A higher score denotes a greater negative impact on children's quality of life. Children answered the questionnaire before treatment (T1) and twelve months after orthodontic treatment onset (T2). Descriptive statistics, the Wilcoxon test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed. Children's mean age was 9.07 ± 0.79 years in Group 1 and 9.00 ± 0.84 years in Group 2. For Group 1, the FL and EW subscale scores and the overall CPQ8-10 were significantly higher in T1 as compared to T2 (p= 0.004, p= 0.012 and p= 0.015, respectively). For Group 2, there were no statistically significant differences. The ANCOVA showed no significant difference regarding quality of life at T2 between groups, after controlling for quality of life measures at T1. The difference regarding the impact on quality of life between groups is not related to the protocol used.

  13. Global gene expression analysis of early response to chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer spheroids.

    PubMed

    L'Espérance, Sylvain; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Tetu, Bernard; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2008-02-26

    Chemotherapy (CT) resistance in ovarian cancer (OC) is broad and encompasses diverse unrelated drugs, suggesting more than one mechanism of resistance. To better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the immediate response of OC cells to CT exposure, we have performed gene expression profiling in spheroid cultures derived from six OC cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, TOV-112, TOV-21, OV-90 and TOV-155), following treatment with 10,0 microM cisplatin, 2,5 microM paclitaxel or 5,0 microM topotecan for 72 hours. Exposure of OC spheroids to these CT drugs resulted in differential expression of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell death, cell cycle control and cell signaling. Genes, functionally involved in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell cycle arrest were mostly overexpressed, while genes implicated in metabolism (especially lipid metabolism), signal transduction, immune and inflammatory response, transport, transcription regulation and protein biosynthesis, were commonly suppressed following all treatments. Cisplatin and topotecan treatments triggered similar alterations in gene and pathway expression patterns, while paclitaxel action was mainly associated with induction of genes and pathways linked to cellular assembly and organization (including numerous tubulin genes), cell death and protein synthesis. The microarray data were further confirmed by pathway and network analyses. Most alterations in gene expression were directly related to mechanisms of the cytotoxics actions in OC spheroids. However, the induction of genes linked to mechanisms of DNA replication and repair in cisplatin- and topotecan-treated OC spheroids could be associated with immediate adaptive response to treatment. Similarly, overexpression of different tubulin genes upon exposure to paclitaxel could represent an early compensatory effect to this drug action. Finally, multicellular growth conditions that are known to alter gene

  14. Effective treatment of haemorrhoids: early complication and late results after 150 consecutive stapled haemorrhoidectomies.

    PubMed

    Bove, Aldo; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe; Palone, Gino; Chiarini, Stella; Calisesi, Enrico Maria; Corbellini, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy according to Longo potentially reduces post-operative pain and allows an early return to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the technique, the early and especially late complications, and recurrences, in 150 patients. Between January 2005 and December 2006, we performed 150 consecutive haemorrhoidectomies with the Longo technique: 82 for third degree haemorrhoids and 68 for fourth degree haemorrhoids. The mean age of patients was 42 years. Every patient had a pre-operative proctoscopy and endoscopy KIT PPH01 (Ethicon Endo Surgery) was used. We evaluated the length of the operation, the post-operative pain, the early and late complications, and the recurrence of the disease. The mean follow up was 52 months (range 36-72). There was no mortality. The mean length of the operation was 25 minutes with a range of 15 to 45 minutes. Pain, evaluated using the V.A.S. scale, was very light in 114 patients (V.A.S. 2,1) and light in 36 (V.A.S. 3.2). Only 11 (7.5%) patients took painkillers, on demand, for a week after discharge from hospital and 2 patients (1,3%) for more than one month. Early complications (6.6%) were: 5 bleeding (2 after seven days), 4 acute urinary retentions, 1 external haemorrhoid thrombosis and 1 haematoma of the rectus wall. Mean Hospital stay was 2.1 days. Late complications (10%) were: 5 "faecal urgency" which disappeared after six months, 6 moderate asymptomatic strictures, and 4 persistent skin tags. There were 8 recurrences (5.1%), 2 for haemorrhoids of grade 3 e 6 for haemorrhoids of grade 4. All the recurrences appeared within the first 24 months. The stapled procedure according to Longo is an effective treatment for haemorrhoids. The results for postoperative pain and early return to work are very good. However, special care for haemostasis is essential in order to avoid bleeding. An effective surgical technique prevents late complications, but results after long term follow up show a not insignificant

  15. Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: the European Scleroderma Observational Study (ESOS)

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Ariane L; Pan, Xiaoyan; Peytrignet, Sébastien; Lunt, Mark; Hesselstrand, Roger; Mouthon, Luc; Silman, Alan; Brown, Edith; Czirják, László; Distler, Jörg H W; Distler, Oliver; Fligelstone, Kim; Gregory, William J; Ochiel, Rachel; Vonk, Madelon; Ancuţa, Codrina; Ong, Voon H; Farge, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Midtvedt, Øyvind; Jordan, Alison C; Jobanputra, Paresh; Stevens, Wendy; Moinzadeh, Pia; Hall, Frances C; Agard, Christian; Anderson, Marina E; Diot, Elisabeth; Madhok, Rajan; Akil, Mohammed; Buch, Maya H; Chung, Lorinda; Damjanov, Nemanja; Gunawardena, Harsha; Lanyon, Peter; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Jacobsen, Søren; MacGregor, Alexander J; McHugh, Neil; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Becker, Michael; Roddy, Janet; Carreira, Patricia E; Fauchais, Anne Laure; Hachulla, Eric; Hamilton, Jennifer; İnanç, Murat; McLaren, John S; van Laar, Jacob M; Pathare, Sanjay; Proudman, Susannah; Rudin, Anna; Sahhar, Joanne; Coppere, Brigitte; Serratrice, Christine; Sheeran, Tom; Veale, Douglas J; Grange, Claire; Trad, Georges-Selim; Denton, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. Methods This was a prospective, observational cohort study of early dcSSc (within three years of onset of skin thickening). Clinicians selected one of four protocols for each patient: methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclophosphamide or ‘no immunosuppressant’. Patients were assessed three-monthly for up to 24 months. The primary outcome was the change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Confounding by indication at baseline was accounted for using inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weights. As a secondary outcome, an IPT-weighted Cox model was used to test for differences in survival. Results Of 326 patients recruited from 50 centres, 65 were prescribed methotrexate, 118 MMF, 87 cyclophosphamide and 56 no immunosuppressant. 276 (84.7%) patients completed 12 and 234 (71.7%) 24 months follow-up (or reached last visit date). There were statistically significant reductions in mRSS at 12 months in all groups: −4.0 (−5.2 to −2.7) units for methotrexate, −4.1 (−5.3 to −2.9) for MMF, −3.3 (−4.9 to −1.7) for cyclophosphamide and −2.2 (−4.0 to −0.3) for no immunosuppressant (p value for between-group differences=0.346). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between protocols before (p=0.389) or after weighting (p=0.440), but survival was poorest in the no immunosuppressant group (84.0%) at 24 months. Conclusions These findings may support using immunosuppressants for early dcSSc but suggest that overall benefit is modest over 12 months and that better treatments are needed. Trial registration number NCT02339441. PMID:28188239

  16. Early treatment of chlorine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation with corticosteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.jonasson@foi.se; Wigenstam, Elisabeth; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå

    Chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) is an industrial gas that is highly toxic and irritating when inhaled causing tissue damage and an acute inflammatory response in the airways followed by a long-term airway dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early anti-inflammatory treatment can protect against the delayed symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation using 200 ppm Cl{sub 2} during 15 min. Assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, occurrence of lung edema and lung fibrosis were analyzed 24 h or 14 days post-exposure. A single dose of themore » corticosteroid dexamethasone (10 or 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1, 3, 6, or 12 h following Cl{sub 2} exposure. High-dose of dexamethasone reduced the acute inflammation if administered within 6 h after exposure but treated animals still displayed a significant lung injury. The effect of dexamethasone administered within 1 h was dose-dependent; high-dose significantly reduced acute airway inflammation (100 mg/kg) but not treatment with the relatively low-dose (10 mg/kg). Both doses reduced AHR 14 days later, while lung fibrosis measured as collagen deposition was not significantly reduced. The results point out that the acute inflammation in the lungs due to Cl{sub 2} exposure only partly is associated with the long-term AHR. We hypothesize that additional pathogenic mechanisms apart from the inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of long-term airway dysfunction. By using this mouse model, we have validated early administration of corticosteroids in terms of efficacy to prevent acute lung injury and delayed symptoms induced by Cl{sub 2} exposure. - Highlights: • Inhalation of Cl{sub 2} may lead to a long-standing airway hyperresponsiveness. • The symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice are similar to those described for RADS in humans. • Corticosteroids prevent delayed symptoms such as

  17. Effects of early and late treatments of low-intensity, high-frequency mechanical vibration on bone parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Santos, Miriam Aparecida; Teixeira, Cristiane de Paula; Simões, Manuel de Jesus; Katchburian, Eduardo; Reginato, Rejane Daniele; Daniele Reginato, Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity, high-frequency mechanical vibration (LHMV) has shown to increase bone formation. However, studies comparing the effectiveness of early- and late-treatments of LHMV to counteract bone loss have not been documented. This study was designed to compare the effects of early- and late-treatments of LHMV (at 30 Hz/0.6 g, 20 min per day/five days per week, for 12 weeks) on bone parameters in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Thirty days after ovariectomy, 40 adult rats were randomly divided into four groups: GI (early control group); GII treated with LHMV 3 weeks after Ovx (early treatment); GIII (late control group) and GIV treated with LHMV twelve weeks after Ovx (late treatment). Bone mineral density (BMD) was analyzed before Ovx and after treatments. Then, animals were killed, and the femurs were collected and their length and diaphysis diameter were measured; the distal femurs were taken and processed for histomorphometry and polarized light microscopy for collagen fibers analysis or subjected to immunohistochemistry of cleaved caspase-3 in osteocytes. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test (p < 0.05). BMD was similar among the groups before Ovx, but after treatments, it was significantly higher in GII and GIV compared with their control groups (p < 0.05). Femur length and cortical bone thickness were similar among the groups, but the diaphysis diameter of GII was higher compared with GI. Trabecular bone area was higher in the vibrated groups, but it was greater in GII (p < 0.05). Also, the vibrated groups showed the higher content collagen fibers and lower presence apoptotic osteocytes (positive caspase-3 immunoreactivity) when compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that both early- and late-treatments with LHMV counteract bone loss, being the early treatment more effective than the late treatment.

  18. Predicting the early therapeutic alliance in the treatment of drug misuse.

    PubMed

    Meier, Petra S; Donmall, Michael C; Barrowclough, Christine; McElduff, Patrick; Heller, Richard F

    2005-04-01

    To predict the early therapeutic alliance from a range of potentially relevant factors, including clients' social relationships, motivation and psychological resources, and counsellors' professional experience and ex-user status. The study recruited 187 clients starting residential rehabilitation treatment for drug misuse in three UK services. Counsellor and client information was assessed at intake, and client and counsellor ratings of the alliance were obtained during weeks 1, 2 and 3. The intake assessment battery included scales on psychological wellbeing, treatment motivation, coping strategies and attachment style. Client and counsellor versions of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-S) were used for weekly alliance measurement. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine the relationship between alliance and predictor variables. Clients who had better motivation, coping strategies, social support and a secure attachment style were more likely to develop good alliances. Findings with regard to counsellor characteristics were not clear cut: clients rated their relationships with ex-user counsellors, experienced counsellors and male counsellors as better, but more experienced counsellors rated their alliances as worse. The findings offer important leads as to what interventions might improve the therapeutic alliance. Further work will need to establish whether the therapeutic alliance and ultimately treatment outcomes can be enhanced by working on improving clients' motivation and psychosocial resources.

  19. Geographic proximity to treatment for early stage breast cancer and likelihood of mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Henry, Kevin A; Goldberg, Daniel W; Shahabi, Kaveh; Elkin, Elena B; Ballas, Leslie K; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-08-01

    Women with early stage breast cancer who live far from a radiation therapy facility may be more likely to opt for mastectomy over breast conserving surgery (BCS). The geographic dimensions of this relationship deserve further scrutiny. For over 100,000 breast cancer patients in 10 states who received either mastectomy or BCS, a newly-developed software tool was used to calculate the shortest travel distance to the location of surgery and to the nearest radiation treatment center. The likelihood of receipt of mastectomy was modeled as a function of these distance measures and other demographic variables using multilevel logistic regression. Women traveling over 75 km for treatment are about 1.4 times more likely to receive a mastectomy than those traveling under 15 km. Geographic barriers to optimal breast cancer treatment remain a valid concern, though most women traveling long distances to receive mastectomies are doing so after bypassing local options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are improvements in shame and self-compassion early in eating disorders treatment associated with better patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C; Borairi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Compassion-focused therapy (CFT; Gilbert, 2005, 2009) is a transdiagnostic treatment approach focused on building self-compassion and reducing shame. It is based on the theory that feelings of shame contribute to the maintenance of psychopathology, whereas self-compassion contributes to the alleviation of shame and psychopathology. We sought to test this theory in a transdiagnostic sample of eating disorder patients by examining whether larger improvements in shame and self-compassion early in treatment would facilitate faster eating disorder symptom remission over 12 weeks. Participants were 97 patients with an eating disorder admitted to specialized day hospital or inpatient treatment. They completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Experiences of Shame Scale, and Self-Compassion Scale at intake, and again after weeks 3, 6, 9, and 12. Multilevel modeling revealed that patients who experienced greater decreases in their level of shame in the first 4 weeks of treatment had faster decreases in their eating disorder symptoms over 12 weeks of treatment. In addition, patients who had greater increases in their level of self-compassion early in treatment had faster decreases in their feelings of shame over 12 weeks, even when controlling for their early change in eating disorder symptoms. These results suggest that CFT theory may help to explain the maintenance of eating disorders. Clinically, findings suggest that intervening with shame early in treatment, perhaps by building patients' self-compassion, may promote better eating disorders treatment response. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Artificially regenerating longleaf pine on wet sites: preliminary analysis of effects of site preparation treatments on early survival and growth

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Our study, conducted over two years on poorly drained, sandy sites in Onslow County, NC, compared the effects of eight common site preparation treatments on early survival and growth of planted longleaf pine seedlings. Through two growing seasons, we found survival to be similar across all treatments (p = 0.8806), but root collar diameter was greatest with combinations...

  2. Upgrading the definition of early gastric cancer: better staging means more appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Saragoni, Luca

    2015-12-01

    Since Murakami defined early gastric cancer (EGC) as a "carcinoma limited to the gastric mucosa and/or submucosa regardless of the lymph node status", several authors have focused on the most influential histopathological parameters for predicting the development of lymph node metastases by considering the lymph node status as an important prognostic factor. A few authors have also considered the depth of invasion as one of the keys to explaining the existence of subgroups of patients affected by EGC with poor prognoses. In any case, EGC is still considered an initial phase of tumor progression with good prognosis. The introduction of modern endoscopic devices has allowed a precise diagnosis of early lesions, which can lead to improved definitions of tumors that can be radically treated with endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Given the widespread use of these techniques, the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) identified in 2011 the standard criteria that should exclude the presence of lymph node metastases. At that time, EGCs with nodal involvement should have been asserted as no longer fitting the definition of an early tumor. Some authors have also demonstrated that the morphological growth pattern of a tumor, according to Kodama's classification, is one of the most important prognostic factors, thereby suggesting the need to report it in histopathological drafts. Notwithstanding the acquired knowledge regarding the clinical behavior of EGC, Murakami's definition is still being used. This definition needs to be upgraded according to the modern staging of the disease so that the appropriate treatment would be selected.

  3. [In the absence of early orthodontic treatment, is there a loss of chance?].

    PubMed

    Béry, A

    2006-06-01

    Chance is the probability that something will happen, and, in this sense, the absence of chance can be defined as the damage resulting from the disappearance of the probability of a favorable outcome (the contrary being the non-realization of the risk). This is autonomous damage that should be differentiated from final damage. Moral damage is a notion very close to the loss of chance even though it reposes on the indemnization of a final damage of an affection or malady. This article deals with these matters: an insufficient amount of information, the cause of final damage or the loss of chance, the loss of chance being a function of the deficit of information. In this sense, can the failure to begin early, appropriate dento-facial orthopedic treatment be considered a loss of chance for the child?

  4. Coping with a life event in bipolar disorder: ambulatory measurement, signalling and early treatment.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Stefan E; Riemersma-van der Lek, Rixt F; Haarman, Bartholomeus C M; Schoevers, Robert A

    2016-10-13

    Disruption of the biological rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder is a known risk factor for a switch in mood. This case study describes how modern techniques using ambulatory assessment of sleep parameters can help in signalling a mood switch and start early treatment. We studied a 40-year-old woman with bipolar disorder experiencing a life event while wearing an actigraph to measure sleep-wake parameters. The night after the life event the woman had sleep later and shorter sleep duration. Adequate response of both the woman and the treating psychiatrist resulted in two normal nights with the use of 1 mg lorazepam, possibly preventing further mood disturbances. Ambulatory assessment of the biological rhythm can function as an add-on to regular signalling plans for prevention of episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. More research should be conducted to validate clinical applicability, proper protocols and to understand underlying mechanisms. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Wheezing exacerbations in early childhood: evaluation, treatment, and recent advances relevant to the genesis of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, E. Kathryn; Avila, Pedro C.; Khan, Yasmin W.; Word, Carolyn R.; Pelz, Barry J.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Peebles, R. Stokes; Heymann, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin wheezing during early childhood are seen frequently by health care providers in primary care, in hospitals and emergency departments, and by allergists and pulmonologists. When young children, like the 2 year-old case presented here, are evaluated for wheezing, a frequent challenge for clinicians is to determine whether the symptoms represent transient, viral-induced wheezing, or whether sufficient risk factors are present to suspect that the child may experience recurrent wheezing and develop asthma. Most factors influencing prognosis are not mutually exclusive, are interrelated (i.e., cofactors), and often represent gene-environment interactions. Many of these risk factors have been, and continue to be, investigated in prospective studies in order to decipher their relative importance with the goal of developing new therapies and interventions in the future. The etiologies of wheezing in young children, diagnostic methods, treatment, prognostic factors, and potential targets for prevention of the development of asthma are discussed. PMID:25213046

  6. The Benefits of Exercise and Metabolic Interventions for the Prevention and Early Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Lynch, Madelaine; Oore, Jonathan Jordan; Nagy, Paul Michael; Aubert, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, vascular pathology and cognitive decline. Furthermore, deficits in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin resistance are being increasingly recognized in AD. Many lifestyle-modifying approaches, including diet and exercise, have yielded promising results in modulating brain morphology and function for the prevention and early treatment of AD. This review focuses on the effects of physical exercise on rescuing cognition and limiting the progression of AD pathology. Specifically, the impact of exercise, in human and animal models of AD, on the stimulation and preservation of cognition, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, vasculature, glucose metabolism and insulin signaling is discussed. Studies have highlighted the potential of physical activity to improve overall brain health, which could delay or lessen AD-related cognitive deficits and pathology. Physical activity influences cognitive function, vascular health and brain metabolism, which taken together offers benefits for the aging population, including AD patients.

  7. Comparative efficacy of selegiline versus rasagiline in the treatment of early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marconi, S; Zwingers, T

    2014-07-01

    The monoamine oxidase B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline have not been compared in head-to-head clinical trials in patients with early Parkinson's disease.  The aim of this review was to compare the efficacy of these two agents in this setting. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials with an endpoint of the mean change from baseline in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total score were included. Analysis included calculation of the standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Forest Plot analyses for comparisons of pooled results. Five studies with selegiline (n = 1029) and four with rasagiline (n = 820) were included. Treatment duration was 2.5-9 months. Both selegiline and rasagiline showed significant SMDs versus placebo (-0.690, 95% CI -0.811, -0.569 and -1.025, 95% CI -1.230, -0.820; respectively), indicating a significant effect of both drugs on UPDRS. The SMD between selegiline and rasagiline was not significantly different (SMD 0.079; 95% CI -0.010, +0.167). It appears that selegiline and rasagiline have comparable efficacy in improving Parkinsonian symptoms in patients with early stage disease.