Elshaer, M; Gravante, G; White, J; Livingstone, J; Riaz, A; Al-Bahrani, A
Introduction Oesophagectomy for cancer is a challenging procedure with a five-year overall survival rate of 15-20%. Early enteral nutrition following oesophagectomy is a crucial component of the postoperative recovery and carries a significant impact on the outcome. Different methods of enteral feeding were conducted in our unit. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of nasojejunal tube (NJT), jejunostomy tube (JT) and pharyngostomy tube (PT) feeding after oesophagectomy. Methods A retrospective review was carried out of prospectively collected data on patients with oesophageal cancer who underwent an oesophagectomy between 2011 and 2014. The primary outcome was feeding tube related complications such as occlusion, dislocation and leak. The secondary outcomes were length of stay and 30-day morbidity. Results A total of 90 oesophagectomies were included in the study. A NJT was inserted in 41 patients (45.6%), a JT was used in 14 patients (15.5%) and a PT was the route for enteral nutrition in 35 patients (38.9%). In total, five patients (5.5%) developed tube related complications. There were no tube related complications in the NJT group but one JT patient (7.1%) developed tube related cellulitis (p=0.189) and four PT patients (11.4%) developed tube related haemorrhage (p=0.544), tube dislocation (p=0.544) or cellulitis (p=0.189). The median length of stay and 30-day postoperative morbidity were similar between the groups. Conclusions NJT feeding is a less invasive, feasible route for early enteral nutrition following oesophagectomy. A randomised controlled trial is recommended to verify these findings.
Gravante, G; White, J; Livingstone, J; Riaz, A; Al-Bahrani, A
Introduction Oesophagectomy for cancer is a challenging procedure with a five-year overall survival rate of 15-20%. Early enteral nutrition following oesophagectomy is a crucial component of the postoperative recovery and carries a significant impact on the outcome. Different methods of enteral feeding were conducted in our unit. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of nasojejunal tube (NJT), jejunostomy tube (JT) and pharyngostomy tube (PT) feeding after oesophagectomy. Methods A retrospective review was carried out of prospectively collected data on patients with oesophageal cancer who underwent an oesophagectomy between 2011 and 2014. The primary outcome was feeding tube related complications such as occlusion, dislocation and leak. The secondary outcomes were length of stay and 30-day morbidity. Results A total of 90 oesophagectomies were included in the study. A NJT was inserted in 41 patients (45.6%), a JT was used in 14 patients (15.5%) and a PT was the route for enteral nutrition in 35 patients (38.9%). In total, five patients (5.5%) developed tube related complications. There were no tube related complications in the NJT group but one JT patient (7.1%) developed tube related cellulitis (p=0.189) and four PT patients (11.4%) developed tube related haemorrhage (p=0.544), tube dislocation (p=0.544) or cellulitis (p=0.189). The median length of stay and 30-day postoperative morbidity were similar between the groups. Conclusions NJT feeding is a less invasive, feasible route for early enteral nutrition following oesophagectomy. A randomised controlled trial is recommended to verify these findings. PMID:27388543
Wang, Gongchao; Chen, Hongbo; Liu, Jun; Ma, Yongchen; Jia, Haiyong
We examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to evaluate the validity of early EN compared to delayed EN, and to determine the appropriate time to start EN. A total of 208 esophagectomy patients who received EN postoperatively were divided into three groups (Group 1, 2 and 3) based on whether they received EN within 48 h, 48 h-72 h or more than 72 h, respectively. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH), days for first fecal passage, cost of hospitalization, and the difference in serum albumin values between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group 1 had the lowest thoracic drainage volume, the earliest first fecal passage, and the lowest LOH and hospitalization expenses of the three groups. The incidence of pneumonia was by far the highest in Group 3 (p = 0.019). Finally, all the postoperative outcomes of nutritional conditions were the worst by a significant margin in Group 3. It is therefore safe and valid to start early enteral nutrition within 48 h for postoperative esophageal cancer patients.
Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki
The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.
Finlay, Sally; Asderakis, Argiris; Ilham, Adel; Elker, Doruk; Chapman, Dawn; Ablorsu, Elijah
Early post-operative enteral nutrition is an important part of perioperative management and is strongly supported by ESPEN Guidelines. However, there is limited evidence into the use of Early Enteral Nutrition (EEN) after combined Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation (PKT). We know malnutrition in type-1 diabetics with end stage renal failure (ESRF) is a common problem and a significant risk factor. Therefore, we introduced EEN in our patients. We monitored and recorded nutritional data on 29 PKT recipients who underwent transplantation between Oct 2007 and Jan 2010 without a nutritional assessment or EEN [Monitored Group (MG)] and on 30 PKT recipients between Feb 2010 and Dec 2013 who received a nutritional assessment and EEN (Naso-jejunal feed or oral intake with supplementation, according to their nutritional status) [Fed Group (FG)]. The end-point was to assess patients' daily post-transplant nutritional intake. This was calculated as a percentage of estimated nutritional requirements using the Schofield equation with a 25% added stress factor and relevant activity factor. Following a literature search and realistic targets our aim was to reach >60% requirements: achievement of ≥60% energy requirements by day-7 (7d-60%) and at the time of discharge (total-60%) [13,14]. There was no significant difference between MG and FG patients in cold ischemic time (CIT), recipient-age and donor-age, Length of Stay and donor-creatinine. In contrast, FG patients were less frequently in predialysis status 41.4% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.001; and had higher incidence of BMI <22.5 kg/m(2) 63.3% vs. 48.3%, p = <0.005. In outcomes, FG patients more frequently achieved a higher average % of nutritional requirements in the first week 39.69% vs. 22.37%, p = <0.005; as well as during whole in-patient stay 57.24% vs. 44.43%, p = <0.005 (Table 3, Figs. 1 and 2). The FG spent a greater proportion during the first week 66.7% vs. 31%, p = <0.005; and of whole their admission 93.3% vs
Wang, Dongsheng; Zhong, Bei; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Yanbing
To observe the safety and efficacy of early oral enteral nutrition after colorectal cancer operation. A total of 88 colorectal cancer patients in our department from March 2013 to December 2013 were prospectively enrolled in the study and randomly divided into early enteral nutrition group(43 cases, receiving early water and enteral nutrition after operation) and early fasting group(45 cases, receiving conventional postoperative care protocol) based on the random number table. The postoperative recovery, complication morbidity, nutritional status and stress were compared between the two groups. Compared to early fasting group, patients in early enteral nutrition group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative fever [(53.7±5.9) h vs. (64.5±5.8) h, P<0.01], a shorter interval to flatus [(57.5±8.2) h vs. (71.8±7.2) h, P<0.01], a shorter hospital stay [(6.9±1.4) d vs. (8.5±1.9) d, P<0.01] and lower medical cost [(41 868±3168) Yuan vs. (45 950±3714) Yuan, P<0.01]. There was no significant difference in complication morbidity between the two groups [18.6%(8/43) vs. 22.2%(10/45), P>0.05]. The albumin, prealbumin, and retinol binding protein on the third and seventh postoperative days were significantly higher in early oral enteral nutrition group (P<0.05), while the rest energy expense (REE) and lnHOMA-IR were significantly lower as compared to early fasting group (all P<0.05). Early oral enteral nutrition after colorectal cancer operation is safe and effective, which is a natural route of nutrition and can reduce the stress response related to surgery, improve postoperative patients' nutritional status and accelerate rehabilitation.
Lu, Jian-Wen; Liu, Chang; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Xu-Feng
AIM: To analyze and compare postoperative morbidity between patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and early enteral nutrition supplemented with parenteral nutrition (EEN + PN). METHODS: Three hundred and forty patients receiving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) from 2009 to 2013 at our center were enrolled retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups depending on postoperative nutrition support scheme: an EEN + PN group (n = 87) and a TPN group (n = 253). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters, pathological diagnosis, intraoperative information, and postoperative complications of the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, preoperative comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters or pathological findings (P > 0.05 for all). However, patients with EEN + PN following PD had a higher incidence of delayed gastric emptying (16.1% vs 6.7%, P = 0.016), pulmonary infection (10.3% vs 3.6%, P = 0.024), and probably intraperitoneal infection (18.4% vs 10.3%, P = 0.059), which might account for their longer nasogastric tube retention time (9 d vs 5 d, P = 0.006), postoperative hospital stay (25 d vs 20 d, P = 0.055) and higher hospitalization expenses (USD10397 vs USD8663.9, P = 0.008), compared to those with TPN. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that TPN might be safe and sufficient for patient recovery after PD. Postoperative EEN should only be performed scrupulously and selectively. PMID:27076767
Zheng, Tianheng; Zhu, Xinpu; Liang, Huazheng; Huang, Haixia; Yang, Jiandao; Wang, Shaoshi
We hypothesized that early enteral nutritional support would improve the short term prognosis of acute stroke patients with dysphagia, demonstrated by lower malnutrition rates, lower complication rates, and lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at 90 days post stroke. Nutrition support is an essential element in the care of stroke patients and many studies have investigated the effect of specific nutritional elements on stroke patients. However, few studies have looked at the impact of complete enteral nutrition on Chinese patients with acute stroke. To investigate this, we conducted a randomized controlled trial of 146 patients with acute stroke and dysphagia, among whom 75 were supported with nasogastric nutrition and 71 received family managed nutrition after randomization. Nutritional status, nosocomial infection and mortality rates were recorded on day 21 of hospitalization. Neurological deficits were evaluated by the NIHSS activities of daily living Barthel index (ADLBI) and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and compared between the two groups. We found that the nasogastric nutrition group had a better nutritional status and reduced nosocomial infection and mortality rates after 21 days compared with patients in the family managed nutrition group. In addition, the nasogastric nutrition group showed a lower score on the NIHSS than the control group. However, the differences in the scores of the ADLBI and the 90 day mRS between the groups were not significant. Taken together, the present study shows that early enteral nutrition support improves the short term prognosis of acute stroke patients with dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Probst, Pascal; Keller, Daniel; Steimer, Johannes; Gmür, Emanuel; Haller, Alois; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Rühlin, Maya; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan
Suggested guidelines for nutritional support after pancreaticoduodenectomy are still controversial. Recent evidence suggests that combining enteral nutrition (EN) with parenteral nutrition (PN) improves outcome. For ten years, patients have been treated with Early Combined Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ECPEN) after PD. The aim of this study was to report on rationale, safety, effectiveness and outcome associated with this method. Consecutive PD performed between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Early EN and PN was standardized and started immediately after surgery. EN was increased to 40 ml/h (1 kcal/ml) over 24 h, while PN was supplemented based on a daily energy target of 25 kcal/kg. Standard enteral and parenteral products were used. Sixty-nine patients were nutritionally supplemented according to ECPEN. The median coverage of kcal per patients related to the total caloric requirements during the entire hospitalization (nutrition balance) was 93.4% (range: 100%-69.3%). The nutritional balance in patients with needle catheter jejunostomy (NCJ) was significantly higher than in the group with nasojejunal tube (97.1% vs. 91.6%; p < 0.0001). Mortality rate was 5.8%, while major complications (Clavien-Dindo 3-5) occurred in 21.7% of patients. Neither the presence of preoperative malnutrition nor the application of preoperative immunonutrition was associated with postoperative clinical outcome. This is the first European study of ECPEN after PD. ECPEN is safe and, especially in combination with NCJ, provides comprehensive coverage of caloric requirements during the postoperative phase. Clinical controlled trials are needed to investigate potential benefits of complete energy supplementation during the early postoperative phase after PD.
Probst, Pascal; Keller, Daniel; Steimer, Johannes; Gmür, Emanuel; Haller, Alois; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Rühlin, Maya; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan
Background Suggested guidelines for nutritional support after pancreaticoduodenectomy are still controversial. Recent evidence suggests that combining enteral nutrition (EN) with parenteral nutrition (PN) improves outcome. For ten years, patients have been treated with Early Combined Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ECPEN) after PD. The aim of this study was to report on rationale, safety, effectiveness and outcome associated with this method. Methods Consecutive PD performed between 2003 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Early EN and PN was standardized and started immediately after surgery. EN was increased to 40 ml/h (1 kcal/ml) over 24 h, while PN was supplemented based on a daily energy target of 25 kcal/kg. Standard enteral and parenteral products were used. Results Sixty-nine patients were nutritionally supplemented according to ECPEN. The median coverage of kcal per patients related to the total caloric requirements during the entire hospitalization (nutrition balance) was 93.4% (range: 100%–69.3%). The nutritional balance in patients with needle catheter jejunostomy (NCJ) was significantly higher than in the group with nasojejunal tube (97.1% vs. 91.6%; p < 0.0001). Mortality rate was 5.8%, while major complications (Clavien-Dindo 3–5) occurred in 21.7% of patients. Neither the presence of preoperative malnutrition nor the application of preoperative immunonutrition was associated with postoperative clinical outcome. Conclusion This is the first European study of ECPEN after PD. ECPEN is safe and, especially in combination with NCJ, provides comprehensive coverage of caloric requirements during the postoperative phase. Clinical controlled trials are needed to investigate potential benefits of complete energy supplementation during the early postoperative phase after PD. PMID:26955477
Axelrod, David; Kazmerski, Kimberly; Iyer, Kishore
Common to all pediatric patients receiving enteral nutrition is the inability to consume calories orally. This is often secondary to issues of inadequate weight gain, inadequate growth, prolonged feeding times, weight loss, a decrease in weight/age or weight/height ratios, or a persistent triceps skinfold thickness <5% for age. Enteral nutrition requires enteral access. In the neonatal period the nasoenteric route is usually used. In pediatric patients requiring long-term enteral access, surgically, endoscopically, or radiologically placed percutaneous feeding tubes are common. Jejunal feeding tubes are used in pediatric patients with gastric feeding intolerance or persistent gastroesophageal reflux. Low-profile enteral access devices are preferred by most pediatric patients because of their cosmetic appearance. For most children, a standard pediatric polypeptide enteral formula is well tolerated. There are specialized pediatric enteral formulas available for patients with decreased intestinal length, altered intestinal absorptive capacity, or altered pancreatic function. Weaning patients from tube feeding to oral nutrition is the ultimate nutrition goal. A multidisciplinary approach to patients with short bowel syndrome will maximize the use of enteral nutrition while preserving parenteral nutrition for patients with true enteral nutrition therapy failure.
Virgili, N; Vilarasau, M C
Enteral nutrition in the home is applied to stabilized patients who do not require hospitalization or to chronically ill patients who can stay in their homes. However, ensuring the correct administration of this treatment requires a coordinated, expert multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the conditions for use of enteral nutrition in the home, the means of access, the nutritional formulas, the administrative technique, and the complications enteral nutrition in the home may present. Furthermore, the composition and characteristics of the multidisciplinary team which will be in charge of carrying out this treatment is discussed.
Qi, S Y; Wang, W T; Chen, C Y; Chu, Z D; Liu, X J; Liu, X J
This study was designed to investigate the influence of early enteral and parenteral nutrition on immune functions of neurocritically ill patients. Patients who were admitted to the neurological intensive care unit (ICU) of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between May 2014 and January 2016 were selected. They had been hospitalized for more than one week and received enteral nutrition (EN) via nasogastric tube, with a gross energy of 25 kcal/(Kg d). Patients were divided into EN group, EN + early PN (EPN) group and EN + supplemental PN (SPN) group according to the time of PN support. Differences in patients general information and changes in serum protein and immune indexes were compared between the three groups. On admission, patients Glasgow coma scale (GCS), age, immune functions and protein indexes had no obvious differences between the three groups. After nutritional support, serum protein level reduced in the EN group while prealbumin (PALB) and retinol binding protein (RBP) increased in the EN + EPN group and EN + SPN group after one week of admission to hospital, and the differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.05). Total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), PALB and transferrin (TRF) increased significantly in the EN + EPN group and EN + SPN group compared with the EN group (p < 0.05); before and after treatment, an increase was found in ALB in the EN + EPN group in comparison with EN + SPN group, with a notable difference (p < 0.05); C3, C4, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) increased in the EN + SPN group after nutritional support compared with before treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Moreover, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA in the EN + EPN group increased after nutritional support comparing to prior to nutritional support, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). After nutritional treatment, IgA and IgG increased markedly in the EN + EPN group
Li, B; Liu, H Y; Guo, S H; Sun, P; Gong, F M; Jia, B Q
The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P < 0.05), anal exhaust time (78.8 ± 9.3 vs 85.3 ± 8.4 h, P < 0.05), and length of hospitalization (7.73 ± 2.13 vs 9.77 ± 1.76 days, P < 0.01) differed significantly. Treatment costs in thousands of dol-lars were 31.24 ± 3.21 for the experimental group and 35.61 ± 2.32 for the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups [14.0% (21/150) vs 17.3% (26/150), P > 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P < 0.05). CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Postsurgical oral EEN can improve nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.
Xu, Rui; Ding, Zhi; Zhao, Ping; Tang, Lingchao; Tang, Xiaoli; Xiao, Shuomeng
We examined colon cancer patients who received soluble dietary fiber enteral nutrition (SDFEN) to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of early SDFEN compared to EN. Sixty patients who were confirmed as having colon cancer with histologically and accepted radical resection of colon cancer were randomized into an SDFEN group and an EN group. The postoperative complications, length of hospital stay (LOH), days for first fecal passage, and the difference in nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory reaction between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. The statistical analyses were performed using the t-test and the chi square test. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. After the nutrition support, differences in the levels of albumin, prealbumin and transferrin in each group were not statistically significant (p > 0.05); the levels of CD4+, IgA and IgM in the SDFEN group were higher than that of the EN group at seven days (p < 0.05); the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the SDFEN group were lower than that of the EN group at seven days (p < 0.05); and patients in the SDFEN group had a significantly shorter first flatus time than the EN group (p < 0.05). Early post-operative SDFEN used in colon cancer patients was feasible and beneficial in immune function and reducing inflammatory reaction, gastrointestinal function and speeding up the recovery. PMID:27657124
Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun
The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD. PMID:22379336
Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun; Yoon, Dong Sup
The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD.
Manea, Aniko; Boia, Marioara; Iacob, Daniela; Dima, Mirabela; Iacob, Radu Emil
INTRODUCTION Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (i.e. preterm infants weighing < 1,000 g) often present with morphofunctional multiple organ immaturity. This study aimed to determine whether early enteral feeding improves digestive tolerance, and whether there is a difference in growth between ELBW infants who were fed with formula and those who were fed with breast milk. METHODS This study was conducted from 2012–2013 and involved 34 ELBW infants from the Preterm Neonatology Clinic of the ‘Louis Turcanu’ Clinical Children’s Hospital Timisoara, Romania. Early enteral nutrition was introduced for all the infants – Group I was fed with formula, while Group II was fed with breast milk. Infants in each group were given their designated type of milk (formula/breast milk), using the same feeding method and the same volume rate advancement. They were monitored for any evidence of digestive intolerance (i.e. clinical signs of infection and necrotising enterocolitis [NEC]). Their growth curves and signs of infection were also monitored. RESULTS The average weight gained per week was greater among the infants in Group II than in Group I (120.83 g vs 97.27 g). The incidence of infection was 100% in Group I and 66.6% in Group II. Two of the infants in Group I developed NEC. CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding helped to improve the weight of ELBW infants. Breast milk was more effective than formula at improving the weight of these infants. Feeding with formula increased the incidence of NEC, invasive infection and morbidity among ELBW infants. PMID:26767893
Azim, Asad; Haider, Ansab A; Rhee, Peter; Verma, Ket; Windell, Elizabeth; Jokar, Tahereh Orouji; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Meer, Mary; Latifi, Rifat; Joseph, Bellal
Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines recommend the early use of enteral nutrition to optimize recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our aim was to examine the effect of early feeds (≤24 hours) on clinical outcomes after TBI. We performed a 3-year retrospective study of patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score <8) who were intubated, admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and received tube feeds. Early tube feeds (early TF) were defined as initiation of tube feeds within 24 hours, whereas late tube feeds (late TF) were defined as initiation of tube feeds after 24 hours. Outcome measures included pneumonia rates, days on ventilator, hospital and ICU stay, and mortality rates. A total of 90 patients (early TF: 58, late TF: 32) were included, of which 73.3% were male, mean age was 42 (SD, 20) years, and median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 4 (range, 3-5). There was no difference in age (p = 0.1), head Abbreviated Injury Scale score (p = 0.5), or admission Glasgow Coma Scale score (p = 0.9) between the two groups. Patients with early TF were associated with higher number of ICU days (p = 0.03) and higher pneumonia rates (p = 0.04), but there was no significant difference in mortality (p = 0.44) as compared with those who underwent late TF. Although early tube feeds are known to improve outcomes in TBI patients, our data suggest that early feeds in TBI patients are associated with higher rates of pneumonia and greater hospital resource utilization. Therapeutic study, level IV.
Pereira, J L; Garrido, M; Gómez-Cía, T; Serrera, J L; Franco, A; Pumar, A; Relimpio, F; Astorga, R; García-Luna, P P
diet was very good, and only mild complications such as diarrhoea developed in two patients. Enteral nutrition is a suitable nutritional support method for patients with burns, which maintains the nitrogenous balance positive and improves the visceral protein parameters in these patients at an early stage, with very few complications.
Huang, Dongping; Sun, Zhufeng; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Zhaozai
Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nutritional support via different routes in elderly patients after surgery for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Methods: 105 patients with GI cancer were randomly divided into early enteral nutrition (EEN) group (n = 35), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group (n = 35) and EN+PN group (n = 35). Results: The nutrition status and immunity were significantly compromised in all patients, while the liver function was improved at 3 days after surgery as compared to those before surgery. At 7 days after surgery, they returned to preoperative level. The nutrition status was comparable among 3 groups at 3 and 7 days after surgery (P > 0.05). ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in TNP group were significantly higher than those in EEN group and EN+PN group (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the liver function between EEN group and EN+PN group (P > 0.05). The CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells and CD4/CD8 in EEN group and EN+PN group were significantly higher than those in TPN group (P < 0.05), but significant difference was not observed between EEN group and EN+PN group (P > 0.05). The NK cells in EN+PN group were significantly higher than in TPN group (P < 0.01). The incidence of diarrhea in EEN group was significantly higher than in TPN group and EN+PN group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: EN+PN is superior to EEN alone and TPN alone in the old patients with GI cancer in reducing the postoperative complications, improving the immunity and decreasing the hospital stay. PMID:26550350
Peng, J; Cai, J; Niu, Z-X; Chen, L-Q
Early postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patient has been reported to be correlated with a better rehabilitation than parenteral nutrition (PN). However, a robust conclusion has not been achieved. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the postoperative EN and PN in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies to be included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risk/weighted mean difference (RR/WMD) estimates and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The analysis demonstrated that the early postoperative EN could significantly decrease the pulmonary complications (RR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.22-0.62, P = 0.00, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.89) and anastomotic leakage (RR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22-0.96, P = 0.04, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.66) compared with PN. On the eighth postoperative day, the EN group had a higher levels of albumin (WMD = 1.84, 95% CI = 0.47-3.21, P = 0.01, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 84.5%, P = 0.00) and prealbumin (WMD = 12.96, 95% CI = 3.63-22.29, P = 0.01, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.63) compared with the PN group. However, there was no difference in digestive complications between these two approaches (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.79-2.13, P = 0.30, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.97). For patients with esophageal cancer following esophagectomy, the early postoperative EN support could decrease the morbidity of severe complications, such as pulmonary complications and anastomotic leakage, and maintain patients at a better nutritional status than parenteral nutrion support.
Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D
Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.
Nicolau, A E; Merlan, V; Ciupan, R; Brădiş, Alexandra; Marin, Mihaela; Plugaru, G; Marinescu, L; Micu, B
We present the case of a 51 years old multiple injured female patient who was transferred from another hospital. She suffered a car accident and at admission, the diagnosis was anterior flail chest with fractured sternum, blunt abdominal trauma with IIIrd grade kidney laceration, multiple extremities fractures, ISS = 50. We performed emergency nephrectomy, surgical fixation of the flail chest and bilateral pleurostomy. Postoperatively the evolution was difficult, she was intubated and mechanically ventilated. We started early enteral nutrition (EEN), at 24 hours with 20 ml/hour Fresubin (Fresenius-Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) and then with 40 ml/hour. In the fourth postoperative day, CT scan identified no supplementary lesions. In the seventh postoperative day, jaundice became apparent and the CT exam identified gas in the retroperitoneum. At surgery, we identified a IInd degree D2 rupture. We practiced duodenal suture, pyloric exclusion, latero-lateral gastro-entero-anastomosis. We passed a naso-gastro-entero-duodenal tube into D2 for active suction and we performed a fine needle catheter jejunostomy. Difficult postoperative evolution, intubated, febrile, with hemodynamic instability. EEN on the jejunostomy at 20-40-60 ml/hour. 10 days after the reoperation, the general condition ameliorated. Enteral nutrition was continued for 22 days after reoperation. The patient was discharged after 44 days. The particularities of this case are the complexity of the traumatic lesions: anterior costal flail chest, left kidney rupture, late duodenal perforation, multiple extremities fractures (APACHE II score = 34). The treatment involved internal pneumatic stabilization and surgical fixation of the flail chest, duodenal suture with pyloric exclusion and fine needle catheter jejunostomy, left nephrectomy. We consider that the use of EEN was of real help in this case and we recommend it in all polytraumatised patients and in all the cases where it can be used.
Armstrong, P J; Hand, M S; Frederick, G S
When oral intake is unsatisfactory or contraindicated, maintenance of nutrition by tube feeding is an alternative to the parenteral route. A large volume of research data supports the decision to use the enteral route whenever possible. Entry of food into the alimentary tract is a stimulus to structural and functional maintenance of that tract. Enteral nutrition can be given via indwelling nasoesophageal, pharyngostomy, esophagostomy, percutaneous or surgical gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube. Use of an appropriate catheter, familiarity with the technique used, and careful patient selection and monitoring are important factors in successful tube feeding. Blenderized pet food diets should be fed whenever possible; commercially available liquid diets provide an alternative when tube caliber or patient factors preclude the use of blenderized foods.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...
Silk, D B
The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely
Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong
Objective To compare the conjoint effect of enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (PN) with single EN or PN on immune function, nutritional status, complications and clinical outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Methods A prospective randomized control trial was carried out from January 2009 to May 2012 in Neurological Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Patients of STBI who met the enrolment criteria (Glasgow Coma Scale score 6~8; Nutritional Risk Screening ≥3) were randomly divided into 3 groups and were admi- nistrated EN, PN or EN+PN treatments respectively. The indexes of nutritional status, immune function, complications and clinical outcomes were examined and compared statistically. Results There were 120 patients enrolled in the study, with 40 pationts in each group. In EN+PN group, T lymthocyte subsets CD3+%, CD4+%, ratio of CD3+/CD25+, ratio of CD4+/CD8+, the plasma levels of IgA, IgM, and IgG at 20 days after nutritional treatment were significantly increased compared to the baseline(t=4.32-30.00, P<0.01), and they were significantly higher than those of PN group (t=2.44-14.70; P<0.05,or P<0.01) with exception of CD4+/CD8+, higher than those of EN group (t=2.49-13.31, P<0.05, or P<0.01) with exceptions of CD3+/CD25+, CD4+/CD8+, IgG and IgM. For the nutritional status, the serum total protein, albumin, prealbumin and hemoglobin were significantly higher in the EN (t=5.87-11.91; P<0.01) and EN+PN groups (t=6.12-13.12; P<0.01) than those in PN group after nutrition treatment. The serum prealbumin was higher in EN+PN group than that in EN group (t=2.08; P<0.05). Compared to the PN group, the complication occurrence rates of EN+PN group were significantly lower in stress ulcer (22.5% vs. 47.5%; χ(2)= 8.24, P<0.01), intracranial infection (12.5% vs 32.5%;χ(2)= 6.88, P<0.01) and pyemia (25.0% vs. 47.5%; χ(2)= 6.57, P<0.05). Compared to the EN group, the complication occurrence rates of EN+PN group were significantly lower in
Spanier, B. W. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M. H.
Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature between 1999–2009. Results. Nasogastric tube feeding appears to be safe and well tolerated in the majority of patients with severe AP, rendering the concept of pancreatic rest less probable. Enteral nutrition has a beneficial influence on the outcome of AP and should probably be initiated as early as possible (within 48 hours). Supplementation of enteral formulas with glutamine or prebiotics and probiotics cannot routinely be recommended. Conclusions. Nutrition therapy in patients with AP emerged from supportive adjunctive therapy to a proactive primary intervention. Large multicentre studies are needed to confirm the safety and effectiveness of nasogastric feeding and to investigate the role of early nutrition support. PMID:20811543
Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Singal, Anuradha; Menon, Ramesh; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Mohan, Alka; Manral, Mala; Singh, Divya; Devagouru, V.; Talwar, Sachin; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar
Background and Objectives: Adequate nutritional supplementation in infants with cardiac malformations after surgical repair is a challenge. Critically ill infants in the early postoperative period are in a catabolic stress. The mismatch between estimated energy requirement (EER) and the intake in the postoperative period is multifactorial, predisposing them to complications such as immune deficiency, more infection, and growth failure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enriched breast milk feed on postoperative recovery and growth of infants after open heart surgery. Methodology: Fifty infants <6 months of age were prospectively randomized in the trial for enteral nutrition (EN) postoperatively from day 1 to 10, after obtaining the Institute Ethics Committee's approval. They were equally divided into two groups on the basis of the feed they received: Control group was fed with expressed breast milk (EBM; 0.65 kcal/ml) and intervention group was fed with EBM + energy supplementation/fortification with human milk fortifier (7.5 kcal/2 g)/Simyl medium-chain triglyceride oil (7.8 kcal/ml). Energy need for each infant was calculated as per EER at 90 kcal/kg/day, as the target requirement. The intra- and post-operative variables such as cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times, ventilation duration, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and hospital length of stay and mortality were recorded. Anthropometric and hematological parameters and infection control data were recorded in a predesigned pro forma. Data were analyzed using Stata 14.1 software. Results: The duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay (LOIS), length of hospital stay (LOHS), infection rate, and mortality rate were lower in the intervention group compared to the control group although none of the differences were statistically significant. Infants in control group needed mechanical ventilation for about a day more (i.e., 153.6 ± 149.0 h vs. 123.2 ± 107.0 h; P = 0
Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C
Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the
Silva, Fernanda Marchetto da; Bermudes, Ana Carolina Gouvea; Maneschy, Ivie Reis; Zanatta, Graziela de Araújo Costa; Feferbaum, Rubens; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de; Tannuri, Uenis; Delgado, Artur Figueiredo
To assess the impact of early introduction of enteral nutrition therapy in reducing morbidity and mortality in pediatric intensive care unit. Search in the literature of the last 10 years, in English and the target population of individuals aged 1 month to 18 years admitted to pediatric intensive care units in the databases PubMed, Lilacs and Embase using the keywords: Critical Care, Nutritional Support and Nutrition Disorders or Malnutrition. Despite advances in the quality of clinical care, the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children remains unchanged in the last 20 years (15-30%) and has implications for the time of admission, course of illness and morbidity. Malnutrition is common and is often poorly recognized and therefore, untreated. Nutritional therapy is an essential part in the treatment of pediatric patients who have severely ill hypercatabolic state protein, which can be minimized with an effective nutritional treatment plan. In this study, we reviewed publications which have shown that there is still a paucity of randomized and controlled studies with good statistical treatment in relation to enteral nutritional therapy with outcomes related to morbidity and mortality. The current guidelines for nutritional therapy in these patients are largely based on expert opinion and data extrapolated from adult studies and studies in healthy children. The scientific evidence on the use of enteral nutrition therapy in improving the development of critically ill pediatric patients is still scarce and further studies are needed focusing on it, and better guidelines must be formulated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Mansfield, C S; James, F E; Steiner, J M; Suchodolski, J S; Robertson, I D; Hosgood, G
The putative role of the gut in amplification of systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis is gaining credence, and intraluminal nutrition has been shown to decrease inflammation in experimental models of pancreatitis. Prepyloric feeding often is used in people with acute pancreatitis, but has not been evaluated in dogs. Early intervention with enteral nutrition (EN) delivered proximal to the pylorus will be well tolerated in dogs with acute pancreatitis and provide justification for further larger trials. Ten dogs with severe acute pancreatitis in an open-label, prospective pilot study. Dogs were treated with plasma transfusion and standard care, and then consecutively assigned to receive either EN via esophagostomy tube feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN). Outcome was used to determine optimal study size for future studies, and complications were compared between the 2 groups. A significantly greater number of vomiting or regurgitating episodes occurred in dogs receiving PN. The dogs receiving EN did not demonstrate any noticeable postprandial pain. There were more catheter-related complications in the PN group. There was no difference in outcome between the 2 treatments, and 43 dogs for each treatment would be required in future studies to determine a difference in outcome. Early EN delivered proximal to the pylorus is well tolerated in dogs with severe pancreatitis and resulted in fewer complications than PN. Prospective trials in a larger cohort are justified to fully establish the potential benefit of early EN, preferably compared with minimal enteral nutrition. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Huang, S L; Lee, S T
The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine a suitable enteral alimentation formula to meet calorie and protein requirements in acute severe head injury; and 2) to evaluate the effect of different alimentation formulas on the outcomes of 60 patients, who suffered from acutely severe head injury without other major injuries and who were treated without steroids. These patients were randomly divided into three groups and enteral feeding was started within 24 hrs. of admission or postoperative. Among the two study groups Group I was fed a high protein (2.5-3.0 g/kg), high calorie (BEE x 1.2 x 1.6) diet, and Group III was fed a moderately high protein (2.0-2.5 g/kg), high calorie diet. The control group (Group II) was fed a normal protein (1-1.5 g/kg), normal calorie (30-35 Kcal/kg) diet. There were no significant differences between the three groups in anthropometric measurements, visceral protein, total lymphocyte count, and creatinine height index. The percentage of ideal body weight change in Group III patients (-4.2 +/- 1.0%) was significantly different (p less than 0.01) from Group I (-8.1 +/- 1.0%) and Group II (-11.8 +/- 1.8%). The discharge coma scale and 6-month outcomes were not significantly different between the three groups. This study demonstrated that a moderate high protein (2.0-2.5 g/kg), high calorie (BEE x 1.2 x 1.6) diet offers better nutritional status. The outcome of severe head injury patients did not change with the different enteral nutritional support formulas.
Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.
Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.
Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida; Morete, Juliana Luisi; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de
A proper diagnosis of the nutritional status is of the utmost importance for prescribing enteral nutrition therapy in the hospital environment. To assess nutritional status indicators of patients about to receive enteral nutrition therapy in a hospital unit. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional status of 100 adult patients before they were introduced to enteral nutrition therapy by calculating their body mass index . Their height and weight were estimated by prediction formulas and laboratory indicators of nutritional and metabolic statuses. Almost one-third (29%) of the patients were classified as malnourished according to their body mass index, while 80% of them had low albumin values (<3.2 g/dL). When patients were grouped according to body mass index, the distribution of the reasons for hospitalization did not differ between the groups. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases prevailed as the main reasons for hospitalization. When patients were grouped according to body mass index and diagnosis upon admission, the rates of low albumin concentration, i.e., concentration below the reference value, did not differ between the groups. The estimated body mass index was a specific indicator of nutritional status but lacked sensitivity. Meanwhile, albumin was more sensitive, demonstrating that it is necessary to use many indicators in combination to diagnose nutritional status properly.
Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth
New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.
Nikniaz, Zeinab; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Nagashi, Shahnaz; Nikniaz, Leila
The present systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EN) on postoperative nutritional and immunological outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) patients. The databases of PubMed, Embase, Springer, and Cochrane library were searched till September 2016 to identify studies which evaluated the effects of EN compared with parenteral nutrition (PN) on postoperative immunological and nutritional status and hospitalization time in GC patients. Mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference (SMD) was calculated and I-square statistic test was used for heterogeneity analysis. The present systematic review and meta-analysis have consisted of seven trials, containing 835 GC patients. According to the result of meta-analysis, compared with PN, EN significantly resulted in more increase in the level of albumin [MD = 2.07 (0.49, 3.64)], prealbumin [MD = 9.41 (049, 33.55)], weight [MD = 1.52 (0.32, 2.72)], CD3+ [SMD = 1.96 (1.50, 2.43)], CD4+ [SMD = 2.45 (1.97, 2.93)], natural killers [MD = 5.80 (3.75, 7.85)], and also a decrease in the hospitalization time [MD=-2.39 (-2.74, -2.03)]. The results demonstrated that early administration of EN is more effective in improving postsurgical nutrition status and immune index in GC patients. So, based on these results, postoperative early administration of EN is recommended for GC patients where possible.
Sánchez-Izquierdo Riera, J A; Montejo González, J C
The hypermetabolism that develops in patients with severe polytraumatism has led to the need for an aggressive metabolic-nutritional support from the start. Parenteral Nutrition is the preferred technique in many instances, due to the doubts on the effectiveness of enteral nutrition in the control of the metabolic response and to problems of gastrointestinal tolerance derived from its administration. However, the role of enteral nutrition as an important factor which limits the development of bacterial translocation and the chain of events leading to multiorganic failure appears to be more and more well-established and is an important argument for justifying the early administration of enteral nutrition in these patients. In accordance with the accumulated experience of several authors over the past few years, enteral nutrition may be administered early in polytraumatized patients. This is not only accompanied by the evidence of acceptable gastrointestinal tolerance to the diet, but also by additional advantages compared to parenteral nutrition, such as the maintenance of trophism and immunocompetence of the digestive mucosa, the reduction of septic complications and also greater nutritional effectiveness which can be evaluated by the behaviour of the seric proteins used as nutritional evolution markers. The interest of the different diet formulae which exist at present, for example diets enriched with branched-chain amino acids, diets with added fibre, peptidic diets, specific pulmonary diets or "euglycaemic diets" is evaluated in this review. All these diets may mean an increase in the effectiveness and/or tolerance of enteral nutrition in polytraumatized patients, and also contribute to the handling of specific problems such as "stress" hyperglycaemia or the withdrawal of mechanical ventilation support. The use of specific nutrients for the digestive mucosa, such as glutamine or short chain fatty acids seems to be an important factor in the reduction of
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Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas
There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469
Caccialanza, Riccardo; Cereda, Emanuele; Klersy, Catherine; Bonardi, Chiara; Cappello, Silvia; Quarleri, Lara; Turri, Annalisa; Montagna, Elisabetta; Iacona, Isabella; Valentino, Francesco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo
The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5-2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20-0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23-0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early
Wan, Xiao; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wu, Chao; Wang, Xinying
背景：尽管一些大样本临床研究已经探究了早期肠外营养（early parenteral nutrition， ePN）在危重症患者的作用，但对于其疗效并没有达成共识，而且在 这一领域也未见相关的meta 分析报道。本研究的目的就是探究早期肠外营养 在危重症患者中的治疗作用。方法：选取含有早期肠外营养的临床治疗的文 献，对其数据进行meta 分析，并根据患者是否合并使用早期肠内营养（early enteral nutrition，eEN）再进行亚组分析。结果：本研究总计纳入5 篇随机对 照研究（randomized control trials，RCTs）。结果显示，早期肠外营养组患者 与对照组患者死亡率无明显差异(相对危险度：1.05, 95%置信区间：0.96, 1.16) 。此外， 与对照组相比， 早期肠外营养组患者机械通气时间缩短 （p=0.007，相对危险度：-0.95，95%置信区间：-1.64, -0.27），但是总住院时 间延长（p<0.001，相对危险度：3.76，95%置信区间：2.25, 5.28）。结论：本 meta 分析表明，入院24-48 小时以内的早期肠外营养并不会影响危重症患者死 亡率。因此，肠内营养禁忌或者仅可使用低剂量肠内营养的患者无需使用早期 肠外营养进行补充。.
Escortell Sánchez, Raquel; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel
to identify what effect causes enteral nutrition on nutritional status of cancer. a search was performed using the keywords "Cancer" AND "Enteral Nutrition" AND "Supplementation" in four document databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, ProQuest, and Web of Science. age of the sample, major than 18 years; submitted to surgery for cancer; that the intervention program was including diet and employment or not of nutritional Supplementation; clinical trials published between January 2004 and December 2014, in scientific journals indexed. we analyzed 660 articles, of which only 2% has been included. 58% of intervention programs are applied outside Spain; 84% of the interventions was carried out in a hospitable ambient; 58% of the sample is formed by adults older than 54 years; 33% of the interventions were multidisciplinary and its duration ranges between 1 and 4 years. we found just a few national interventions in cancer participants and there two types of interventions: by exclusive polymeric enteral formula or mixed with immunonutrition. enteral nutrition shows against the parenteral and its introduction at an early stage, it helps to improve nutritional status of the patient; polymeric formulas next immunonutrition, it helps to reduce the time of hospitalization; the analytical parameters are shown as a measurement pattern when assessing the improvement in nutritional status in cancer. It is recommended to increase the research in this field, especially in children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Shu, Xiao-Liang; Kang, Kai; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Sheng
Postoperative early enteral nutrition (EEN) is useful for the effective recovery of patients that have undergone surgery. However, the feasibility and efficacy of EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery remain inconclusive. In the present meta-analysis, the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases were searched to identify controlled trials of patients with and without EEN following digestive tract surgery between October, 1966 and December, 2014. Methodological quality assessment was carried out for each of the included studies. For estimation of the analysis indexes, relative risk (RR) was used as the effect size of the the categorical variable, while the weighted mean difference (MD) was used as the effect size of the continuous variable. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. Eleven randomized controlled trials involving 1,095 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that, EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery was more effective in decreasing the incidence of infectious [RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38, 0.67; P<0.01] and non-infectious complications (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.22; P<0.05) and shortening the length of first bowel action (MD=−4.10, 95% CI: −5.38, −2.82; P<0.05). It also had a significant influence on increasing the serum albumin (MD=2.87, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.71; P<0.05) and serum prealbumin (MD=0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.05; P<0.05) levels. In conclusion, the results of the study have shown that EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery improved the nutritional status, reduced the risk of postoperative complications, shortened the length of hospital stay and promoted the functional recovery of the digestive system. PMID:27698702
Yu, Guiping; Chen, Guoqiang; Huang, Bin; Shao, Wenlong; Zeng, Guangqiao
To explore the effect of early enteral nutrition (EN) on postoperative nutritional status, intestinal permeability, and immune function in elderly patients with esophageal cancer or cardiac cancer. A total of 96 patients with esophageal cancer or cardiac cancer who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital from June 2007 to December 2010 were enrolled in this study. They were divided into EN group (n=50) and parenteral nutrition (PN) group (n=46) based on the nutrition support modes. The body weight, time to first flatus/defecation, average hospital stay, complications and mortality after the surgery as well as the liver function indicators were recorded and analyzed. Peripheral blood samples were collected on the days 1, 4 and 7 after surgery. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and D-lactate level were determined to assess the intestinal permeability. The plasma endotoxin levels were determined using dynamic turbidimetric assay to assess the protective effect of EN on intestinal mucosal barrier. The postoperative blood levels of inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After the surgery, the time to first flatus/defecation, average hospital stay, and complications were significantly less in the EN group than those in the PN group (P<0.05), whereas the EN group had significantly higher albumin levels than the PN group (P<0.05). On the 7th postoperative day, the DAO activity, D-lactate level and endotoxin contents were significantly lower in the EN group than those in the PN group (all P<0.05). In addition, the EN group had significantly higher IgA, IgG, IgM, and CD4 levels than the PN group (P<0.05) but significantly lower IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels (P<0.05). In elderly patients with esophageal cancer or cardiac cancer, early EN after surgery can effectively improve the nutritional status, protect intestinal mucosal barrier (by reducing plasma endoxins), and enhance the immune function.
Patel, Jayshil J; Kozeniecki, Michelle; Biesboer, Annie; Peppard, William; Ray, Ananda S; Thomas, Seth; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Nanchal, Rahul; Kumar, Gagan
Current guidelines provide weak recommendations for starting enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with septic shock (on vasopressor support). Outcomes of patients receiving EN in septic shock on vasopressor support have not been well studied. We hypothesize that early trophic EN in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock is associated with improved outcomes. Single-center retrospective study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted with septic shock to identify patients receiving (1) no EN, (2) <600 kcal/d within 48 hours, and (3) ≥600 kcal/d within 48 hours. Outcomes studied included in-hospital mortality, length of intensive care unit stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation (DOMV), and complications of feeding intolerance. Sixty-six patients were identified. In all, 15 received no EN, 37 received <600 kcal/d, and 14 received ≥600 kcal/d EN daily. Median LOS was 12, 5, and 13 days, respectively. The LOS was lower in patients receiving <600 kcal/d when compared to either no EN (P < .001) or those receiving ≥600 kcal/d (P < .001). Median DOMV was lower in patients receiving <600 kcal/d (median 3, P < .001) as compared to no EN (median 7, P < .001) or those receiving ≥600 kcal/d (median 7.5, P < .001). Mortality was not different. There were no significant complications among groups. In patients with septic shock, those receiving <600 kcal/d EN within 48 hours had lower DOMV and LOS when compared to those who did not receive EN or those who received ≥600 kcal/d. These observations provide strong justification for prospective evaluation of the effect of early trophic EN in patients with septic shock. © The Author(s) 2014.
Papadopoulou, A; MacDonald, A; Williams, M; Darbyshire, P; Booth, I
Accepted 16 April 1997 Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric feeding after BMT (mean duration 17 days) and in eight children (mean age 8 years, four boys) who refused enteral nutrition and who received dietetic advice only. Enteral nutrition was stopped prematurely in eight patients. Greater changes in weight and mid upper arm circumference were observed in the enteral nutrition group, while positive correlations were found between the duration of feeds and increase in weight and in mid upper arm circumference. Vomiting and diarrhoea had a similar incidence in the two groups, while fever and positive blood cultures occurred more frequently in the dietetic advice group. Diarrhoea occurring during enteral nutrition was not associated with fat malabsorption, while carbohydrate malabsorption was associated with rotavirus infection only. Enteral feeding did not, however, affect bone marrow recovery, hospital stay, general wellbeing, or serum albumin concentrations. Hypomagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia, zinc and selenium deficiency were common in both groups. In conclusion, enteral nutrition, when tolerated, is effective in limiting nutritional insult after BMT. With existing regimens nutritional biochemistry should be closely monitored in order to provide supplements when required. PMID:9301351
Lu, Tianshu; Guan, Jingyu
Stress ulcers occur frequently in neurosurgical intensive care patients and can pose serious risks. We summarized the clinical experience of the combined application of nasointestinal tubes for early restoration of enteral nutrition and of nasogastric (NG) tubes for stress ulceration treatment in patients hospitalized in a neurosurgical intensive care unit. From January 2011 to June 2011, a series of 67 patients with stress ulceration hospitalized in a neurosurgical intensive care unit were randomized to two groups. The control group (33 patients) received treatment with NG tube decompression and drainage according to international guidelines, and parenteral nutrition was changed to enteral feeding until there was no grossly visible blood in the NG tube. The nasointestinal tube group (34 patients) received treatment combining application of NG tubes and nasointestinal tubes. Drainage was performed with NG tubes as in the control group, with concurrent placement of nasointestinal tubes. Duration until resolution of stress ulceration and days until start of enteral nutrition were compared between the two groups. Duration until resolution of stress ulceration was 4.5 days in the control group and 4.3 days in the nasointestinal tube group. There was no difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Duration until start of enteral nutrition was 4.5 days in the control group and 1 day in the nasointestinal tube group. There was an obvious difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). The combined application of NG tubes and nasointestinal tubes in neurosurgical intensive care patients with stress ulceration is an effective means of treating stress ulceration and restoring early enteral nutrition.
Reddy, B Ravinder
Oral and enteral nutrition affects both the anatomical and physiological integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. It downregulates systemic immune response, reduces overall oxidative stress and limits systemic inflammatory responses. It reduces bacterial translocation, limits pathogenic bacteria in the intestines and enables the production of short-chain fatty acids in the colon. Therefore, it is the most physiologic way of providing nutritional support in all patients. The enteral formulas are available as polymeric, semi-elemental and elemental diets. The beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract and systemic organs of 'early' enteral nutrition depend on the timing, dose, location and different modalities of enteral delivery. Being familiar with the basic tenets of providing enteral nutrition - the 'Who, Why, When, Where and What' - will result in safe nutritional interventions and achieve a positive clinical outcome.
Zhang, Yu; Gu, Fang; Wang, Fengxian; Zhang, Yuanda
Objective: To evaluate the effects of early enteral nutrition on the gastrointestinal motility and intestinal mucosal barrier of patients with burn-induced invasive fungal infection. Methods: A total of 120 patients with burn-induced invasive fungal infection were randomly divided into an early enteral nutrition (EN) group and a parenteral nutrition (PN) group (n=60). The patients were given nutritional support intervention for 14 days, and the expression levels of serum transferrin, albumin, total protein, endotoxin, D-lactic acid and inflammatory cytokines were detected on the 1st, 7th and 14th days respectively. Results: As the treatment progressed, the levels of serum transferrin, albumin and total protein of the EN group were significantly higher than those of the PN group (P<0.05), while the levels of serum endotoxin and D-lactic acid of the form group were significantly lower (P<0.05). After treatment, the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased in the EN group, which were significantly different from those of the PN group (P<0.05). During treatment, the incidence rates of complications such as abdominal distension, diarrhea, sepsis, nausea, vomiting and gastric retention were similar. The mean healing time of wound surface was 9.34±0.78 days in the EN group and 12.46±2.19 days in the PN group, i.e. such time of the former was significantly shorter than that of the latter (P<0.05). Conclusion: Treating patients having burn-induced invasive fungal infection by early enteral nutrition support with arginine can safely alleviate malnutrition and stress reaction, strengthen cellular immune function and promote wound healing, thereby facilitating the recovery of gastrointestinal motility and the function of intestinal mucosal barrier. PMID:27375697
Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla
Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.
Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany
Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance.
Early jejunal feeding by bedside placement of a nasointestinal tube significantly improves nutritional status and reduces complications in critically ill patients versus enteral nutrition by a nasogastric tube.
Wan, Bing; Fu, Haiyan; Yin, Jiangtao
Unguided nasojejunal feeding tube insertion success rates are low. Controversy persists about how to safely and efficiently perform enteral nutrition (EN) in critically ill patients. This study explores an innovative blind nasointestinal tube (NIT) insertion method and compares nasogastric and nasointestinal feeding. Seventy critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were divided randomly into a nasogastric tube group (NGT; n=35) and an NIT group (NIT; n=35). After bedside NGT and blind-type NIT insertion, tube position was assessed and EN was started on day 1. Patients' nutritional status parameters, mechanical ventilation duration, average ICU stay, nutritional support costs, and feeding complications were compared. Pre-albumin and transferrin levels on days 7 and 14 were significantly higher in the NIT group than in the NGT group (p<0.01, p<0.05). Bloating, diarrhea, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and liver damage did not differ significantly between groups (p>0.05). Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels and APACHE II score were significantly lower in the NIT group than in the NGT group (p<0.01, p<0.05). Reflux and pneumonia incidences, mechanical ventilation duration, average ICU stay length, and nutritional support costs were significantly lower in the NIT group than in the NGT group (p<0.01). Blind bedside NIT insertion is convenient and its use can effectively improve nutritional status, reduce feeding complications, and decrease nutritional support costs of critically ill patients.
Early, aggressive nutrition is an important contributing factor of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. To ensure optimal growth in premature infants, adequate protein intake and optimal protein/energy ratio should be emphasized rather than the overall energy intake. Minimal enteral nutrition should be initiated as soon as possible in the first days of life, and feeding advancement should be individualized according to the clinical course of the infant. During hospitalization, enteral nutrition with preterm formula and fortified human milk represent the best feeding practices for facilitating growth. After discharge, the enteral nutrition strategy should be individualized according to the infant's weight at discharge. Infants with suboptimal weight for their postconceptional age at discharge should receive supplementation with human milk fortifiers or nutrient-enriched feeding, and the enteral nutrition strategy should be reviewed and modified continuously to achieve the target growth parameters. PMID:28194211
Li, Hui; Zhu, Huagang
To explore the value and safety of the application of enteral nutrition in pediatric surgery. Clinical data of 56 children patients who could not undertake oral feeding or those who required enteral nutrition by nasojejunal tube over 7 days in our ward from June 2007 to May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Children younger than one year old received enteral nutritional formulation Ai Er Shu mainly composed of short peptides or amino acids, and children over one year received Small peptide or Nengquansu mainly composed of short peptide. Among these 56 children patients, primary disease was pancreatitis in 20 cases, lacerated wound in 10, duodenal perforation in 6, duodenal septum-shape stenosis in 9, annular pancreas in 6, and hepatoblastoma in 5. All the patients successfully completed the enteral nutrition therapy within 7-37 (18±9.9) days with good recovery. During the treatment, 5 cases (8.9%) developed diarrhea, 3 cases (5.4%) nausea and vomiting, 2 cases (3.6%) mild abdominal distension, 5 cases(8.9%) mild abdominal pain, and the symptoms were relieved after adjustment of nutrient solution concentration and infusion rate. After enteral nutrition for 10 days, the nutritional status of children was improved, and weight, blood red cell count, hemoglobin, serum albumin, prealbumin increased significantly (P<0.05). Application of enteral nutrition in pediatric surgery is safe and effective, which can improve the nutritional status of children and promote the recovery.
Martin, Karen; Gardner, Gabriela
The true prevalence of home enteral nutrition (HEN) utilization is unclear and requires further study. HEN therapy has remained virtually unchanged for several decades. However, new trends in HEN are evolving; enteral nutrition is undergoing changes ranging from enteral feeding devices, ingredients used, practice innovations, and challenges with reimbursement. A 2006 Joint Commission call to action that reported 2 sentinel events related to misconnections set things into motion for the transition of enteral device connectors to become specific for enteral nutrition use, which will affect patients who receive HEN. Nutrition support clinicians are realizing that people fed enterally may also enjoy incorporating blended foods into their diets and may benefit from different nutrients and components (ie, phytonutrients, fiber, and prebiotics) present in natural foods, thereby resulting in the renaissance of food-based blenderized tube feedings. This article reviews HEN therapy data or the lack thereof, current practices, risks and benefits, future trends, and challenges with access devices, enteral feedings, and reimbursement. It also highlights areas where more research is needed, and it urges clinicians to get involved in legislative action or committees to facilitate improved processes and reimbursement for HEN.
Brisard, Laurent; Le Gouge, Amélie; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste; Dupont, Hervé; Asfar, Pierre; Sirodot, Michel; Piton, Gael; Bui, Hoang-Nam; Gontier, Olivier; Hssain, Ali Ait; Gaudry, Stéphane; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Maxime, Virginie; Schwebel, Carole; Thévenin, Didier; Nseir, Saad; Parmentier, Erika; El Kalioubie, Ahmed; Jourdain, Mercé; Leray, Véronique; Rolin, Nathalie; Bellec, Frédéric; Das, Vincent; Ganster, Frédérique; Guitton, Christophe; Asehnoune, Karim; Bretagnol, Anne; Anguel, Nadia; Mira, Jean-Paul; Canet, Emmanuel; Guidet, Bertrand; Djibre, Michel; Misset, Benoit; Robert, René; Martino, Frédéric; Letocart, Philippe; Silva, Daniel; Darmon, Michael; Botoc, Vlad; Herbrecht, Jean Etienne; Meziani, Ferhat; Devaquet, Jérôme; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Richecoeur, Jack; Martin, Stéphanie; Gréau, Emilie; Giraudeau, Bruno; Reignier, Jean
Nutritional support is crucial to the management of patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and the most commonly prescribed treatment in intensive care units (ICUs). International guidelines consistently indicate that enteral nutrition (EN) should be preferred over parenteral nutrition (PN) whenever possible and started as early as possible. However, no adequately designed study has evaluated whether a specific nutritional modality is associated with decreased mortality. The primary goal of this trial is to assess the hypothesis that early first-line EN, as compared to early first-line PN, decreases day 28 all-cause mortality in patients receiving IMV and vasoactive drugs for shock. The NUTRIREA-2 study is a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial comparing early PN versus early EN in critically ill patients requiring IMV for an expected duration of at least 48 hours, combined with vasoactive drugs, for shock. Patients will be allocated at random to first-line PN for at least 72 hours or to first-line EN. In both groups, nutritional support will be started within 24 hours after IMV initiation. Calorie targets will be 20 to 25 kcal/kg/day during the first week, then 25 to 30 kcal/kg/day thereafter. Patients receiving PN may be switched to EN after at least 72 hours in the event of shock resolution (no vasoactive drugs for 24 consecutive hours and arterial lactic acid level below 2 mmol/L). On day 7, all patients receiving PN and having no contraindications to EN will be switched to EN. In both groups, supplemental PN may be added to EN after day 7 in patients with persistent intolerance to EN and inadequate calorie intake. We plan to recruit 2,854 patients at 44 participating ICUs. The NUTRIREA-2 study is the first large randomized controlled trial designed to assess the hypothesis that early EN improves survival compared to early PN in ICU patients. Enrollment started on 22 March 2013 and is expected to end in
Dedes, Konstantin J; Schiesser, Marc; Schäfer, Markus; Clavien, Pierre-Alain
Postoperative enteral nutrition is a widely accepted route of application for nutrition formulas due to a low complication rate, a good acceptance by patients. and a favorable cost-effectiveness. We report three cases of bezoar ileus after early postoperative enteral nutrition, using a fine needle jejunostomy (FNJ) in two cases and a nasoduodenal tube in one case. A male patient who underwent gastric resection for a gastrointestinal stroma tumor and was nourished through an fine needle jejunostomy developed an acute abdomen on the seventh postoperative day. Surgical exploration revealed a mechanical ileus caused by denaturated nutrition formula distal to the catheter tip. The second case, a female patient, underwent gastric resection for a gastric cancer and on the fourth postoperative day developed acute onset of abdominal pain. Intraoperative findings were the same as described in the first case. The third case, a male patient with necrotizing cholecystitis, underwent open cholecystectomy. Postoperative enteral feeding was performed using a nasoduodenal tube. He developed a small bowel obstruction on the 17th postoperative day that was caused by an intraluminal bezoar. In conclusion, bezoar formation represents an underestimated complication of postoperative enteral feeding. Acute onset of abdominal pain and the development of small bowel obstruction are the main clinical symptoms of this severe complication. The pathogenesis of bezoar formation remains unclear.
Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831
Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.
Appropriate nutritional support is crucial in the therapeutic approach of multiple conditions, which justifies the frequent and increasing use of specific access routes for enteral and parenteral nutrition. This article reviews the relevant literature concerning indications, procedures, effectiveness and complications of enteral access routes in children. The decision between gastric and postpyloric access, and between nasogastric tube and gastrostomy is thoroughly discussed. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is the most commonly used technique when a long-term gastric access is required, given its efficacy and safety although the associated morbidity is not negligible;laparoscopic gastrostomy emerges as a potentially advantageous alternative.
de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Sagrado, Manue Gonzalez; Vallejo, Luis Angel; Carcedo, Luis María Gil; Izaola, Olatz; Cuellar, Luis; Terroba, María Concepción; Aller, Rocío
Although immune dysfunction in patients with cancer could be multifactorial, the immune system may be modulated by nutritional substrates and genetic background. Our study evaluated the effect of G308A polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene on inflammatory markers in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer who received early enteral nutrition. A population of 60 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer was enrolled. At surgery patients were treated with a hyperproteic enteral diet. Perioperatively and on postoperative day 6 the following parameters were evaluated: serum values of prealbumin, transferrin, total number of lymphocytes, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and C-reactive protein. In addition, genotyping of G308A gene polymorphism was assessed. Patients' mean age was 61.1 +/- 14.6 y (four women, 56 men) with a body mass index of 25.4 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2) and a previous weight loss of 0.35 +/- 0.2 kg. Forty patients (37 men, 3 women; 66.6%) had the genotype G308/G308 (wild group) and 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman; 23.4%) had the genotype G308/A308 (mutant group). A significant increase in prealbumin and transferrin levels was detected in both groups. C-reactive protein decreased in both groups (wild group: 105.1 +/- 60 versus 53.8 +/- 62.3 mg/dL, P < 0.05; mutant group: 99.5 +/- 46 versus 43.9 +/- 51.9 mg/dL, P < 0.05). Interleukin-6 decreased in both groups (wild group: 20.1 +/- 22 versus 6.2 +/- 4.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05; mutant group: 22.3 +/- 38 versus 9.2 +/- 7.4 pg/mL, P = NS). Lymphocytes increased in both groups (wild group: 1102 +/- 468 versus 1600 +/- 537 10(3)/mL, P = NS; mutant group: 1441 +/- 739 10(3)/mL versus 1669 +/- 614 10(6)/mL, P = NS). TNF-alpha showed no changes. The G308A polymorphism of the TNF-alpha gene did not affect levels of inflammatory markers in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer who were treated with early enteral nutrition.
Flordelís Lasierra, J L; Pérez-Vela, J L; Montejo González, J C
The benefit of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients has been demonstrated by several studies, especially when it is started early, in the first 24-48h of stay in the Intensive Care Unit, and this practice is currently advised by the main clinical guidelines. The start of enteral nutrition is controversial in patients with hemodynamic failure, since it may trigger intestinal ischemia. However, there are data from experimental studies in animals, as well as from observational studies in humans that allow for hypotheses regarding its beneficial effect and safety. Interventional clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Gentilello, L M; Cortes, V; Castro, M; Byers, P M
Early enteral nutrition is an important adjunct in the care of critically ill patients. A double-lumen gastrostomy tube with a duodenal extension has been reported to enable early enteral feeding with simultaneous gastroduodenal decompression. We tested the ability of this device to achieve these goals in critically ill patients. Noncomparative, descriptive case series. Surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Fifteen consecutive critically ill patients, who, at the time of laparotomy, were assessed likely to need long-term nutritional support and gastric decompression, underwent tube placement. Mean age was 47 +/- 21 yrs. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and Therapeutic Intervention Scores were 15 +/- 7.3 (SD) and 29 +/- 10.2, respectively, and the mean Injury Severity Score of 11 trauma patients in the group was 27 +/- 7.4. Correct tube positioning was verified by radiograph or endoscopy. Caloric and protein requirements, nutritional parameters, and problems encountered with the device were recorded. The correlation between the volume of feeding port input and suction port output was noted, and this correlation was considered significant if r2 was > or = .5. Only three (20%) of 15 patients reached full enteral nutritional support via the enteral route. None of these patients achieved this level of nutritional support within the first postoperative week. In 67% of the patients, large quantities of enteral feeding solution appeared in the gastroduodenal suction port effluent. When feeding port input was plotted against effluent volume, a correlation coefficient of > .71 (r2 = > or = .5) was found in 40% of the patients. Other complications included: a) excessive gastroduodenal drainage requiring fluid/electrolyte replacement in eight (53.3%) patients; and b) skin ulceration at the tube entrance site in seven (46.7%) patients. These data do not support the use of this device for early enteral feeding and simultaneous
Moro, Kazuki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Hanyu, Takaaki; Miura, Kohei; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Nakajima, Masato; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Junko; Toshikawa, Chie; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi
Transthoracic esophagectomy using 3-field lymphadenectomy (TTE-3FL) for esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal surgeries. Early enteral nutrition (EN) for TTE-3FL patients is useful and valid for early recovery; however, EN using a fat-containing formula risks inducing chyle leak. In the present study, we retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients treated byTTE-3FL and administered postoperative EN to elucidate the validity of lowering the fat levels in elemental formulas to prevent postoperative chyle leak and improve postoperative recovery. A total of 74 patients who received TTE-3FL for esophageal cancer were retrospectively examined. Patients were classified into two groups according to the type of postoperative EN: Group LF patients received a low-fat elemental formula, and Group F patients received a standard fat-containing polymeric formula. The following clinical factors were compared between the groups: EN start day, maximum EN calories administered, duration of respirator use, length of ICU stay, incidence of postoperative infectious complications, use of parenteral nutrition (PN), and incidence of postoperative chyle leak. Patients in Group LF were started on EN significantly earlier after surgery and they consumed significantly higher maximum EN calories compared to Group F patients (P < 0.01). Duration of respirator use and length of ICU stay were also significantly shorter, and TPN was used significantly less in Group LF compared to Group F (P < 0.05). Postoperative chyle leak was observed in six patients in total (8.1%); five patients in Group F and one patient in Group LF, although there was no significant difference in frequency of chyle leak per patient between Group LF and Group F. Early EN using low-fat elemental formula after esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy was safe and valid for postoperative recovery and potentially useful in preventing chyle leak. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published
Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.
The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.
Hopefl, A W; Herrmann, V M
A formulary for enteral nutrition products was developed at a university hospital. Advice was solicited from clinical dietetics and the medical staff. Reported important product variables were osmolality, caloric density, protein content and source, fat content and source, freedom from lactose, and, for oral supplements, available flavors. Data were also obtained from manufacturers regarding the composition of their products. Products were categorized as follows: liquid supplemental feedings, high calorie supplemental feedings, isotonic tube feedings, high caloric/high nitrogen tube feedings, high nitrogen tube feedings, and blenderized tube feedings. Bids were solicited in April 1981 (and annually thereafter) from manufacturers of the classified enteral nutrition products, and a contract was signed with the manufacturer in each category submitting the lowest bid. In contrast with previous experience, there was no loss from outdated products during the first year of the formulary. Categorizing enteral nutrition products into therapeutic categories appears to be a workable method to limit the number of products used in a hospital, thereby potentially decreasing inventory, waste, and hospital costs. The descriptive category titles also may encourage rational use of these products without promoting allegiance to a particular company or product.
Finoccchiaro, Darlene; Hook, Jane
Nutrition continues to be a concern for the older adult in the intensive care setting despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of adequate nutrition and existing evidence-based protocols. The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients ranges between 22% and 43% with the highest probability of occurrence, 50% or more, in the intensive care unit patient. The deleterious effects of malnutrition for the critically ill older adult are described with suggested and accepted screening tools for existing or acquired malnutrition. A discussion of early oral and enteral feeding interventions and strategies for overcoming barriers is explored. Enteral feeding complications are delineated, and perceived barriers or risks are disputed. This paper concludes with suggestions for future research and a definitive role for advanced nursing nutrition champions.
Ogasawara, Mihoko; Makishima, Junko; Maruyama, Makishima Michio
Home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy requires considerable time for infusion to the patients. A new method using semisolid enteral formula dramatically reduces the time of infusion. This method makes use of pectin and liquid enteral formula. The authors applied this method in two patients with total gastrectomy being given enteral nutrition at home. There were no complications such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. This new method of home enteral nutrition could enhance the patients' quality of life (QOL) by reducing the time of infusion of enteral nutrition.
Kim, Eun Ran
Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition.
Ariadel Cobo, Diana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Socas Macías, María; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Gómez Liébana, Eulalia; Morales Conde, Salvador; García Luna, Pedro Pablo
The particularity of this case is the nutritional management that has managed to avoid the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and possible complications by placing jejunal tube at the distal end in patients with short bowel. It is a 34-year-old colecistectomizado complicated with postoperative peritonitis and dehiscence; two years he studied with small bowel obstruction, he was made de-volvulus and was complicated with two leak at different times after the second escape took place jejunostomy side double barreled shotgun level dehiscence, presented high debits by afferent loop of the terminal jejunostomy; during admission, polyurethane probe enteral feeding was inserted by the efferent loop jejunostomy. He received jejunal tube feeding laundry in the efferent loop terminal with decreased weight gain and subsequent reconstruction of intestinal transit debit proximal jejunostomy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Poropat, Goran; Giljaca, Vanja; Hauser, Goran; Štimac, Davor
Acute pancreatitis is a common and potentially lethal disease with increasing incidence. Severe cases are characterised by high mortality, and despite improvements in intensive care management, no specific treatment relevantly improves clinical outcomes of the disease. Meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition is more effective than conventional treatment consisting of discontinuation of oral intake with use of total parenteral nutrition. However, no systematic review has compared different enteral nutrition formulations for the treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of different enteral nutrition formulations in patients with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases Group Specialised Register of Clinical Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (from inception to 20 August 2013), EMBASE (from inception to 2013, week 33) and Science Citation Index-Expanded (from 1990 to August 2013); we conducted full-text searches and applied no restrictions by language or publication status. We considered randomised clinical trials assessing enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. We allowed concomitant interventions if they were received equally by all treatment groups within a trial. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We performed the analysis using Review Manager 5 (Review Manager 2013) and both fixed-effect and random-effects models. We expressed results as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data, and as mean differences (MDs) for continuous data, both with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analysis was based on an intention-to-treat principle. We included 15 trials (1376 participants) in this review. We downgraded the quality of evidence for many of our outcomes on the basis of high risk of bias. Low-quality evidence suggests that immunonutrition decreases
Granell Vidal, Lina; Sánchez Juan, Carlos; Alfonso García, Antonio
Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON. SON test, carried out at the Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition Consortium Hospital General Universitario de Valencia from October 2012 to February 2013. 137 SON were evaluated in total, of which 47 were hyperproteic, 46 normoproteic and 44 enriched in fiber. Of the SON evaluated in the group of hyperproteic the following 3 SON obtained the best scores: Fresenius Prot Energy Drink® (21,27, vanilla flavor), Avant Standard Nut® (20.3 , strawberry flavor) and Resource® Protein (20.01, chocolate flavor) In the group of normoproteic SON the 3 best rated were: Ensure Plus® (22.3, banana flavor), Ensure Plus® (21.9, peach flavor) and Fresubin Energy Drink® (21, strawberry flavor) In the group of fiber-enriched the 3 SON most appreciated were: 2 Kcal Fresubin Fibre Drink® (23.78, vanilla flavor), Ensure Plus® TwoCal (22.9, banana flavor) and Fortimel Compact® (21.5, strawberry flavor) The study aims to guide clinicians on what SON may be more acceptable to the patient, so that the SON serve their purpose and restore or improve nutritional status, as the SON intervention is safe and cost - effective, since they improve both the functionality and quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Ista, Erwin; Joosten, Koen
Critical care nurses play an important role in feeding of critically ill children. Many procedures and caregiving interventions, such as placement of feeding tubes, registration of gastric retention, observation and care of the mouth, and administration of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), are within the nursing domain. This article discusses nutritional assessment techniques and enteral nutrition in critically ill children.
García-Luna, P P; Parejo Campos, J; Fenoy Macías, J L
Home enteral nutrition is the administration of enteral formulae into the digestive tract using a tube, with the objective of preventing or correcting malnutrition patients who are seen at home. Home enteral nutrition is a type of nutritional support that is growing, that improves the nutritional status of the patient with a lower cost and with a greater quality of life of the family unit than enteral nutrition in the hospital. The prevalence is clearly increasing although the data of the national registers of patients with at home enteral nutrition are under estimated. Patients who are candidates for home enteral nutrition can be all those with an indication for enteral nutrition and whose underlying disease is stabilized or does not require all the technical means of the hospital in a permanent and essential manner. Neoplasias and neurological diseases are those that benefit most from at home enteral nutrition and in all registries each group varies between 30 and 40%. All access routes and all enteral nutrition formulae can be used in patients with home enteral nutrition. The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies is ever more recommended in patients who need at home enteral nutrition for a period longer than 4 weeks. Since the publication of the Ministerial Order of June 2nd 1998, home enteral nutrition is considered a health care service that can be covered by the Social Security. This order lists a series of disease that are likely to be treated with at home enteral nutrition (in our opinion the list is not complete but it is likely to be changed in the future by an Assessing Committee), and it presents some basic norms that all patients must comply with, regardless of the autonomous community in which they live. Before beginning at home enteral nutrition the training of the patient and/or the family with regard to the management of at home enteral nutrition is essential. The existence of qualified personnel with experience in this nutritional support
Kornowski, A; Cosnes, J; Gendre, J P; Quintrec, Y
Nutritional recovery was studied during continuous enteral nutrition in 29 patients who had developed malnutrition after gastric surgery. Patients were divided into three groups according to the type of surgery involved: total gastrectomy (n = 10), partial gastrectomy (n = 12), or cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 7). The evolution of anthropometric and biological nutritional parameters in each group was compared with that observed in a control group of 10 nonoperated anorectic patients. Significant gains in body weight, arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold, serum transferrin and global nutritional status were observed after 3 to 4 weeks of enteral nutrition in each group, while serum albumin, serum cholesterol, hemoglobin, and total lymphocyte count did not change significantly. No significant difference was observed between the groups. However, weight gain tended to be slower in patients with cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy. This study confirms that enteral nutrition is an effective method of nutritional repletion after gastrectomy. Enteral nutrition can be used in undernourished gastrectomized patients when dietary measures alone have proven inadequate.
Planas, M; Castellà, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Camarero, E; Calañas, A J; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Adrio, G; Jiménez, M; Bobis, M A; Rodríguez, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Enterría, P; Zamarrón, I; Cos, A; Mancha, A; Martínez, I; Martí, E; de Luis, D; Virgili, N; Moreno, J M; Luengo, L M; de la Cuerda, C; Forga, M T; Goenaga, M A; Carrera, J A; Garde, C; Ordóñez, J; Pedrón, C
The NADYA-SENPE Working Group analyzed the registered data of patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country, during year 2001. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included on our web site (www.nadya-senpe.com). Apart from epidemiological information, the form includes the indication to prescribe this treatment, the specific nutritional treatment used and its duration, access path, complications and readmission rate in hospital, follow-up of the treatment, patient's quality of life and progress. All data were processed and analyzed by the coordinating team. Twenty two hospitals participated and 3,458 patients, aged 5.6 +/- 4.0 y for those younger than 14 y, and 67.1 +/- 19.5 y for those older than 14 y, were enrolled. Of these patients, 43.4% were diagnosed with neurological diseases and 33.5% with cancer. The mean time on HEN was 6.5 +/- 4.5 months. Oral nutrition was the preferential route (54.5%), followed by nasoenteral tube (32.3%), and in 13.3% ostomy tubes were placed. Polymeric was the formula composition mainly used (85.9%). Patients were followed (71.1%) by the hospital reference Nutritional Support Unit. The complications related to nutrition included mainly the gastrointestinal (0.16 complications/patient), and the mechanical one (0.15 complications/patient). At the end for the year, 48.3% of the patients were in the HEN program, and in 33.3% HEN was finish due to different reasons. In 22.9% of the patients no, o light, discapacity degree was found. Neurological diseases and cancer were the more frequent diagnoses in HEN patients. Oral access was the higher feeding route due, probably, to the high prevalence of cancer patients. In spite of the elevated prevalence of neurological diseases, a few number of patients, as previous years, were feed with ostomy tube. Due to the few complications observed, HEN is a safe treatment in our country.
Pasinato, Valeska Fernandes; Berbigier, Marina Carvalho; Rubin, Bibiana de Almeida; Castro, Kamila; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Perry, Ingrid Dalira Schweigert
Objective Evaluate the compliance of septic patients' nutritional management with enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients. Methods Prospective cohort study with 92 septic patients, age ≥18 years, hospitalized in an intensive care unit, under enteral nutrition, evaluated according to enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients, compliance with caloric and protein goals, and reasons for not starting enteral nutrition early or for discontinuing it. Prognostic scores, length of intensive care unit stay, clinical progression, and nutritional status were also analyzed. Results The patients had a mean age of 63.4±15.1 years, were predominantly male, were diagnosed predominantly with septic shock (56.5%), had a mean intensive care unit stay of 11 (7.2 to 18.0) days, had 8.2±4.2 SOFA and 24.1±9.6 APACHE II scores, and had 39.1% mortality. Enteral nutrition was initiated early in 63% of patients. Approximately 50% met the caloric and protein goals on the third day of intensive care unit stay, a percentage that decreased to 30% at day 7. Reasons for the late start of enteral nutrition included gastrointestinal tract complications (35.3%) and hemodynamic instability (32.3%). Clinical procedures were the most frequent reason to discontinue enteral nutrition (44.1%). There was no association between compliance with the guidelines and nutritional status, length of intensive care unit stay, severity, or progression. Conclusion Although the number of septic patients under early enteral nutrition was significant, caloric and protein goals at day 3 of intensive care unit stay were met by only half of them, a percentage that decreased at day 7. PMID:23887755
Pasinato, Valeska Fernandes; Berbigier, Marina Carvalho; Rubin, Bibiana de Almeida; Castro, Kamila; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Perry, Ingrid Dalira Schweigert
Evaluate the compliance of septic patients' nutritional management with enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients. Prospective cohort study with 92 septic patients, age ≥ 18 years, hospitalized in an intensive care unit, under enteral nutrition, evaluated according to enteral nutrition guidelines for critically ill patients, compliance with caloric and protein goals, and reasons for not starting enteral nutrition early or for discontinuing it. Prognostic scores, length of intensive care unit stay, clinical progression, and nutritional status were also analyzed. The patients had a mean age of 63.4 ± 15.1 years, were predominantly male, were diagnosed predominantly with septic shock (56.5%), had a mean intensive care unit stay of 11 (7.2 to 18.0) days, had 8.2 ± 4.2 SOFA and 24.1 ± 9.6 APACHE II scores, and had 39.1% mortality. Enteral nutrition was initiated early in 63% of patients. Approximately 50% met the caloric and protein goals on the third day of intensive care unit stay, a percentage that decreased to 30% at day 7. Reasons for the late start of enteral nutrition included gastrointestinal tract complications (35.3%) and hemodynamic instability (32.3%). Clinical procedures were the most frequent reason to discontinue enteral nutrition (44.1%). There was no association between compliance with the guidelines and nutritional status, length of intensive care unit stay, severity, or progression. Although the number of septic patients under early enteral nutrition was significant, caloric and protein goals at day 3 of intensive care unit stay were met by only half of them, a percentage that decreased at day 7.
Silva, Marco Antonio; da Graça Freitas dos Santos, Saionara; Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; da Luz, Gabrielle; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; Pizzol, Felipe Dal; Ritter, Cristiane
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between enteral nutrition discontinuation and outcome in general critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients admitted to a mixed intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital from May-August 2009 were screened for an indication for enteral nutrition. Patients were followed up until leaving the intensive care unit or a maximum of 28 days. The gastrointestinal failure score was calculated daily by adding values of 0 if the enteral nutrition received was identical to the nutrition prescribed, 1 if the enteral nutrition received was at least 75% of that prescribed, 2 if the enteral nutrition received was between 50-75% of that prescribed, 3 if the enteral nutrition received was between 50-25% of that prescribed, and 4 if the enteral nutrition received was less than 25% of that prescribed. RESULTS: The mean, worst, and categorical gastrointestinal failure scores were associated with lower survival in these patients. Age, categorical gastrointestinal failure score, type of admission, need for mechanical ventilation, sequential organ failure assessment, and Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were selected for analysis with binary regression. In both models, the categorical gastrointestinal failure score was related to mortality. CONCLUSION: The determination of the difference between prescribed and received enteral nutrition seemed to be a useful prognostic marker and is feasible to be incorporated into a gastrointestinal failure score. PMID:23525312
Chen, Jiefang; He, Xudong; Zhang, Lisan; Hu, Xingyue
To evaluate the efficacy of sequential enteral nutrition support in patients with severe cerebral stroke. Forty-nine patients with severe cerebral stroke met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into sequential enteral nutrition group (Group A, n=24) and conventional enteral nutrition group (Group B, n=25). Patients in Group A received short-peptide-based enteral nutrition support first, then gradually transferred to intact protein enteral nutrition. Meanwhile, patients in Group B constantly received intact protein enteral nutrition support. The nutritional indexes and the rate of complications were compared between two groups. The nutritional indexes were decreased in both groups within 4 weeks after admission, but the decreasing levels of hemoglobin and albumin in Group A were significantly lower than those in Group B (P<0.05), and the incidence of infections and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in Group A was also lower than that in Group B (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in body weight, BMI, triceps skinfold thickness, biceps circumference, arm muscle circumference between two groups (P>0.05). Sequential enteral nutritional support can improve the nutritional status and decrease the incidence of complications in critical patients with cerebral stroke.
At present, there is limited evidence for the role of enteral nutrition as a primary therapy in cancer patients. Cachexia commonly occurs in patients with advanced cancer. A consensus view from a large number of studies suggests that cachexia cannot be fully reversed by vigorous enteral nutritional support. A review is included of the available data on the effects of enteral nutritional support on the common indices of nutritional state and on the final outcome of patients receiving enteral nutrition in conjunction with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or both. The 'nutritional' effects are probably limited because the duration of the nutritional support in most studies consists of a few weeks while malnutrition in the cancer patients often occurs over many months. PMID:8125395
Kansal, S.; Wagner, J.; Kirkwood, C. D.; Catto-Smith, A. G.
This paper reviews the literature on the history, efficacy, and putative mechanism of action of enteral nutrition for inflammatory bowel disease in both paediatric and adult patients. It also analyses the reasoning behind the low popularity of exclusive enteral nutrition in clinical practice despite the benefits and safety profile. PMID:24382954
Canarie, Michael F; Barry, Suzanne; Carroll, Christopher L; Hassinger, Amanda; Kandil, Sarah; Li, Simon; Pinto, Matthew; Valentine, Stacey L; Faustino, E Vincent S
Delayed enteral nutrition, defined as enteral nutrition started 48 hours or more after admission to the PICU, is associated with an inability to achieve full enteral nutrition and worse outcomes in critically ill children. We reviewed nutritional practices in six medical-surgical PICUs and determined risk factors associated with delayed enteral nutrition in critically ill children. Retrospective cross-sectional study using medical records as source of data. Six medical-surgical PICUs in northeastern United States. Children less than 21 years old admitted to the PICU for 72 hours or more excluding those awaiting or recovering from abdominal surgery. A total of 444 children with a median age of 4.0 years were included in the study. Enteral nutrition was started at a median time of 20 hours after admission to the PICU. There was no significant difference in time to start enteral nutrition among the PICUs. Of those included, 88 children (19.8%) had delayed enteral nutrition. Risk factors associated with delayed enteral nutrition were noninvasive (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.69-6.72) and invasive positive-pressure ventilation (odds ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.15-3.69), severity of illness (odds ratio for every 0.1 increase in pediatric index of mortality 2 score, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.14-1.71), procedures (odds ratio, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.67-6.64), and gastrointestinal disturbances (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.14-3.68) within 48 hours after admission to the PICU. Delayed enteral nutrition was associated with failure to reach full enteral nutrition while in the PICU (odds ratio, 4.09; 95% CI, 1.97-8.53). Nutrition consults were obtained in less than half of the cases, and none of the PICUs used tools to assure the adequacy of energy and protein nutrition. Institutions in this study initiated enteral nutrition for a high percentage of patients by 48 hours of admission. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was most strongly associated with delay enteral nutrition. A better
Hammad, Sawsam Mohammad; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Darawad, Muhammad Waleed
In Jordan, there is a gap in literature regarding nurses' practices of enteral nutrition. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess nurses' practices regarding enteral nutrition of critically ill adult patients. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data through self-reported questionnaires and descriptive analyses were used to display the results of the study. The results revealed that some aspects of enteral nutrition practices were consistent with the current best evidences such as initiation time of enteral nutrition and backrest elevation. On the contrary, some aspects showed variations and inconsistency with current best evidences such as the amount of high gastric residual volume and its management. Nurses' practices regarding enteral nutrition were not consistent with international guidelines. This inconsistency can predispose patients to underfeeding. Enhancement of research utilization is highly recommended as well as establishing evidence-based guidelines.
Le, Hau D.; Fallon, Erica M.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Malkan, Alpin D.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.
Children with intestinal failure suffer from insufficient intestinal length or function, making them dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) for growth and survival. PN and its components are associated with many complications ranging from simple electrolyte abnormalities to life-threatening PN-associated liver disease, which is also called intestinal failure-associated liver disease (ILALD). From a nutrition perspective, the ultimate goal is to provide adequate caloric requirements and make the transition from PN to full enteral Nutrition (EN) successful. Upon review of the literature, we have summarized the most effective and innovative PN and EN therapies for this patient population. Antibiotic-coated catheters and antibiotic or ethanol locks can be implemented, as they appear effective in reducing catheter-related infection and thus further reduce the risk of IFALD. Lipid emulsions should be given judiciously. The use of an omega-3 fatty acid-based formulation should be considered in patients who develop IFALD. Trophic feeding is important for intestinal adaptation, and EN should be initiated early to help wean patients from PN. Long term management of children with IF continues to be an emerging field. We have entered uncharted territory as more children survive complications of IF, including IFALD. Careful monitoring and individualized management to ensure maintenance of growth with avoidance of complications are the keys to successful patient outcomes. PMID:20123271
Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Nagai, Kagami; Minami, Isao; Wakabayashi, Mai; Torigoe, Junko; Kawano, Tatsuyuki
Copper deficiency leads to functional disorders of hematopoiesis and neurological system. There have been some reports of copper deficiency occurring to the patients on enteral nutrition through a jejunostomy in long-term-care hospitals. However, it is extremely rare to find patients with copper deficiency several months after esophagectomy, regardless of enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient who experienced copper-deficiency anemia after esophagectomy and subsequent enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy. A 73-year-old man presented with pulmonary failure after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and needed long-term artificial ventilator support. Nutritional management included enteral nutrition through a jejunostomy from the early postoperative period. Copper-deficiency anemia was detected 3 months postoperatively; therefore, copper supplementation with cocoa powder was performed, and both serum copper and hemoglobin levels subsequently recovered. Copper-deficiency anemia has already been reported to occur in patients receiving enteral nutrition in long-term care hospitals. However, this is the first case report of copper deficiency after esophagectomy despite administration of standard enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy for several months. It is extremely rare to find copper-deficiency anemia several months after esophagectomy followed by enteral nutrition through the jejunostomy. However, if anemia of unknown origin occurs in such patients, copper-deficiency anemia must be considered among the differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kobayashi, Kaoru; Shirai, Atsushi; Uryu, Shinichi; Kikuchi, Shiro; Momozono, Shinobu; Shimizu, Haruyuki
Nutritional management by using enteral feeding method of nutrition is required for patients of gastroenterological disease with functional disorder in digestion-absorption, and for cases where the patients have difficulty in taking food orally. There are many cases where enteral nutrition pumps are used for administration of nutritious medicines. Approximately 150 enteral nutrition pumps (including house use and home rental) have currently been utilized at our facility. The department of ME Center takes care of enteral nutrition pumps for maintenance and control. On the other hand, we needed to conduct a study for a new pump in replacing Frenta System IV due to the pump was no longer available. At this presentation, we are introducing a new pump manufactured by Fresenius as a replacement of the Frenta System IV. In the meantime, we would like to report a comparison examination of the pump based on its functionality, performance and user friendliness from the view from a clinical technologist as well.
Kozeniecki, Michelle; Fritzshall, Rebecca
In patients unable to tolerate oral intake, multiple options of nutrient delivery are available to the clinician. Administration of enteral nutrition (EN) has long been considered the standard of care for nutrition support among patients unable to meet energy and protein requirements orally. Healthcare practitioners must make careful decisions related to ordering, administering, and monitoring EN therapy. In the hospital setting, the registered dietitian is a key resource in enteral formula selection and method of administration, monitoring for and troubleshooting EN-related complications, and transitioning to oral feeding. The hospital setting also presents many unique challenges in providing optimal nutrition to the enterally fed patient.
Increasing knowledge, both experimental and clinical, supports the fact that early and aggressive enteral nutrition has the capacity to reduce superinflammation and prevent infections in severe acute pancreatitis. Clearly, the main role of enteral nutrition is to boost the immune system, and not, at least initially, to provide calories. Whereas enteral nutrition improves, parenteral nutrition reduces immune functions. The content of enteral nutrition solutions is more important than the route of administration per se. Antioxidants, plant fibres and live lactic acid bacteria are especially important for boosting the immune system. Recent studies support the fact that enteral nutrition and the supply of fibres and live lactic acid bacteria may significantly reduce the rate of infections. So far none of the treatments has been able to reduce the incidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. A recent unpublished study indicates, however, that the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome can also be reduced if much higher doses of lactic acid bacteria and a combination of several bioactive lactic acid bacteria are used (synbiotics). Immunosupporting enteral nutrition with synbiotics is an important tool to control superinflammation and infection, and might also reduce the multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It is essential that it is supplied early, if possible in the emergency room. New autopositioning regurgitation-resistant feeding tubes are available to facilitate such a policy.
Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Thibault, Ronan; Berger, Mette M; Pichard, Claude
Undernutrition is a widespread problem in the intensive care and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Enteral nutrition is the recommended nutritional support in ICU patients. However, enteral nutrition is frequently insufficient to cover protein-energy needs. The initiation of supplemental parenteral nutrition, when enteral nutrition is insufficient, could optimize the nutritional therapy. Such a combination could allow reducing morbidity, length of stay and recovery, as well as improving quality of life and health care costs. Prospective studies are currently underway to test this hypothesis.
Meneses, J Olza; Foulquie, J Porres; Valero, G Urbano; de Victoria, E Martínez; Hernández, A Gil
Enteral nutrition is the best way to feed or supplement the diet when gastrointestinal tract functions of patients are partially or totally preserved. Whenever total enteral nutrition is needed, it represents the only source of nutrients for patients. Thus, it is mandatory to ensure that high biological value proteins are included in enteral formulae. To assess the biological quality of a protein blend constituted by 50% potassium caseinate, 25% whey protein and 25% pea protein intended to be used in enteral nutrition products. Forty Wistar rats (20 male and 20 female), with initial body weight of 51 g, where divided into four groups and feed for 10 days with: casein (Control), experimental protein blend (Experimental), liophylized normo- and hyperproteic enteral nutrition formulae adapted to the animal nutritional requirements (Normoproteic and Hyperproteic). Protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC), relationship between retained and absorbed nitrogen (R/A) and relationship between retained and consumed nitrogen (R/I) where calculated. Experimental and control groups had similar values for all analysed indices (PER, ADC, R/A and R/I). These indices where also similar between normo and hyperproteic groups, but lower than experimental and control groups, except in PER, where normoproteic group was either similar to control and hiperproteic group. The quality of the protein blend used in this study is high. It is a good protein source to be used in the development of new enteral nutritional products.
Oláh, Attila; Romics, Laszlo
The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immunoenhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis.
Zelić, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesić; Kelecić, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvarić, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Rahelić, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerović, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Sustić, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovacić, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznarić, Zeljko
Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals.
Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.
Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne
This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients.
Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne
This article discusses the use of enteral nutrition in the management of stroke. Stroke is a major source of disability, including dysphagia. The clinical manifestation of swallowing difficulties in stroke patients may lead to malnutrition which has implications for health status and clinical outcomes including morbidity, mortality and cost to the health service. The prevalence of malnutrition following an acute stroke could range from 8% to 34%. Therefore, the need to develop and implement the use of enteral nutrition support in stroke patients becomes pertinent. A range of enteral feeding tubes and feeding methods may be used to support stroke patients who are unable to meet their nutritional requirements through oral intake alone, although each of these approaches has its merits and limitations. Based on this review, there is evidence that enteral nutrition support is a useful method of providing nutrition for patients with dysphagia following a stroke in order to enhance their nutritional status and promote their health. However, there are challenges in the use of enteral tube feeding in these patients. PMID:27999383
Marks, S L
The enteral route is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients with functional gastrointestinal tracts. Many techniques for obtaining enteral access are available, and the decision regarding which one to use depends on several issues, including the functional integrity of each part of the gastrointestinal tract, the duration of anticipated nutritional support, and the risk of aspiration and gastroesophageal reflux. Nasoesophageal tubes are useful for short-term supplementation; however, patients needing nutritional support for longer than 2 weeks may be better served with a more permanent tube. Blenderized pet food diets are recommended for nutritional support because these diets do not need to be supplemented with protein or micronutrients. Commercial human enteral formulas provide a useful alternative for patients with specific nutrient requirements or for feeding via nasoesophageal or jejunostomy tubes.
Orduña Espinosa, R M; Giménez Martínez, R; Luján Selles, J M; Laguna Salguero, J I; Pérez de la Cruz, A J
One of the clearest indications for enteral nutrition is made up by patients who underwent treatment for orofacial pathology. In this way, we have reviewed retrospectively, 321 clinical histories of patients who underwent treatment (orofacial surgery), dividing these according to the pathology; neoplasia or non-neoplasia (173/148), with enteral nutrition 24 hours after the intervention. Data are collected with regard to the tolerance (vomiting, diarrhea), time needed to reach 1.500 kcal/day, need of parenteral nutritional support, transferrin, prealbumin, and albumin quantification at the start of the nutritional therapy, as well as the total duration there of. Globally, the good enteric tolerance of both groups of patients is noted, despite the fact that the oncological group showed a greater degree of protein malnutrition (statistically significant). As for the total duration of the nutrition, this is greater in the neoplasias, probably due to a more aggressive surgery. The results obtained permit modification of the basic enteral nutrition protocol (reduction of the time used to reach the maximum volume), as well as stressing the preoperative and postoperative regulated nutritional evaluation.
Martínez Augustin, O; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, E
A protein is an essential macronutrient for the growth and maintenance of corporal structures. An important concept in proteic nutrition is the protein's quality, mainly determined by the profile and proportion of the amino acids making up the protein, although other factors such as solubility and degree of glycosylation may be involved. There are different ways to evaluate protein quality that can be classified as chemical, biological and microbiological. Currently Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is routinely used. Protein quality can be altered by the technological and culinary processes to which food is subjected and also by the presence in food of anti-nutritional factors affecting the bioavailability of amino acids. Protein complementation through the formulation of low-quality protein mixtures lets us improve bioavailability, and therefore the quality of this protein mix. In the past few years, nutrition and food technology are undergoing a profound transformation due to the development of the concept of functional and nutraceutic foods. Functional proteins and bioactive peptides are gaining in importance since, in addition to their nutritional role as a source of amino acids, they are capable of exerting different biological effects on the immune system, the cardiovascular system or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, these peptides and proteins have been described as having anticancer, antibacterial or antiviral effects. This paper reviews the most relevant functional proteins and bioactive peptides from a functional standpoint, with special emphasis on those coming from milk, eggs and soy.
Cox, Jill; Rasmussen, Louisa
Prevention and healing of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients can be especially challenging because of the patients' burden of illness and degree of physiological compromise. Providing adequate nutrition may help halt the development or worsening of pressure ulcers. Optimization of nutrition can be considered an essential ingredient in prevention and healing of pressure ulcers. Understanding malnutrition in critical care patients, the effect of nutrition on wound healing, and the application of evidence-based nutritional guidelines are important aspects for patients at high risk for pressure ulcers. Appropriate screenings for nutritional status and risk for pressure ulcers, early collaboration with a registered dietician, and administration of appropriate feeding formulations and micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation to promote wound healing are practical solutions to improve the nutritional status of critical care patients. Use of nutritional management and enteral feeding protocols may provide vital elements to augment nutrition and ultimately result in improved clinical outcomes. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Gottrand, M; Muyshont, L; Couttenier, F; Beghin, L; Martigne, L; Coopman, S; Turck, D; Michaud, L; Guimber, D; Gottrand, F
The aim of this study was to assess the micronutrient status of children receiving prolonged enteral nutrition. This cross-sectional single-center study included all 64 children (median age 6.8 years) receiving enteral nutrition providing >50% of daily energy intake for more than 6 months (median duration of enteral nutrition 43 months). The characteristics of the patients and mode of enteral nutrition were recorded. The concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, selenium and vitamins A, D, E and C were measured in plasma. Twelve children (19%) had iron deficiency. A high 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was recorded in 20% of the children, but none had associated hypercalcemia. Fifty-two children (81%) had low zinc concentrations in both plasma and erythrocytes. Plasma zinc, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D concentrations were significantly lower in children receiving fiber supplementation. Abnormal micronutrient concentrations were found more frequently in the children receiving fiber supplementation. No other predisposing factors were associated with micronutrient deficiencies. Long-term enteral nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies in children, whose micronutrient concentrations may require regular checking. Fiber supplementation might reduce the bioavailability of zinc, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Olson, Christine; And Others
This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…
Mohandas, K M; Shastri, Y M; Shirodkar, M
Patients who cannot eat enough require alternatives to oral feeding. Tube feeding is one such method for patients with a functioning gut. The techniques for the placement of feeding tubes and diets for tube feeding have improved during the past 20 years. Comfortable thin-bore polyurethane tubes are replacing the thicker vinyl tubes. Long term access routes such as gastrostomy and jejunostomy are being done by endoscopic or radiological techniques. Pre-defined formula feeds have reduced the effort and labour involved in the preparation, storage and administration of blenderized tube feeds. However, the use of soft feeding tubes and commercial formulae will increase the cost of nutrition therapy in India. The ultimate cost-effectiveness of tube feeding will depend on whether it is used appropriately during an illness with adequate delivery of feeds, and whether attention is given to small details by a dedicated nutritional support team. A strong commitment to the scientific use of nutritional support is necessary for getting the best results from tube feeding in everyday practice.
De Nisi, G; Berti, M; De Nisi, M; Bertino, E
In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother milk. In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750g or with a GE< 27 weeks, are treated with parenteral nutrition and minimal enteral feeding. The newborn weighing 750-1249g and with GE > 26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE > than 26 weeks were admitted. The 90,9 % has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91,9 % was inborn, the 96,1% survived. In the 59,1 % of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40,2 % of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described.
Planas, M; Lecha, M; García Luna, P P; Parés, R M; Chamorro, J; Martí, E; Bonada, A; Irles, J A; Boris, M A; Cardona, D; Zamarrón, I; Calañas, A J; Rodríguez, A; Camarero, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Mancha, A; De Luis Román, D; Cos, A; Luengo, L M; Jiménez, M; Bayo, P; Goenaga, M A
To communicate the information available by the NADYA-SENPE Working Group from patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country during the year 2003. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included in the web site of the Working Group (www.nadya-senpe.com) available only by the authorized users. Variable included were: epidemiological information, the indication to prescribe this treatment, the access path, the specific nutritional formula used, the treatment duration, the complications and hospital readmission related to the nutritional treatment, the follow-up and the quality of life. We register 3,858 patients that belong to twenty-one hospitals. Mean age from those adults 66.2 +/- 18.9 years, and from those younger than 14, 6.0 +/- 4.3 years. Neurological and neoplasic diseases were the diagnostics more frequents (38.9% and 37.4%, respectively). Oral nutrition was the preferential rout used for the enteral nutrition (54.7%) followed by naso-enteral tube (26.6%), and only in 17.6% we used ostomy tubes. Polymeric was the enteral formula mainly utilized (80.1%). The mean time on HEN was 6.6 +/- 4.3 months; the 28.8% of patients stayed in the treatment for less than 3 months, 21.2 % between 3 and 6 months, and 50.0% more than 6 months. Patients were followed mainly by Nutritional Support Unit from the reference hospital (73.1%). While the reference hospital supplies the material (62.4%), reference hospital pharmacy (46.8%) and public pharmacies (32.0%) provides the enteral formula. Complications related to enteral nutrition included change of enteral tube (44.5%), gastrointestinal complications (30.5%), mechanical complications (21.7%), and the metabolic one (3.3%). These complications were followed by 0.02 hospitalizations/patient. At the end of the year, 54.7% of patients were in the HEN programme, and in 35.2 % HEN was finish due to accept oral conventional alimentation (49.2%) or by deceased of patients (40.9%). While 26.6% of the
Agarwal, Anil; Gulati, Divesh
To evaluate early adolescents with nutritional rickets and their responses to treatment. 203 adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years) presenting with clinical features of lower-limb deformity, carpopedal spasm, joint swelling, a significant limp, or non-traumatic joint pain were screened for nutritional rickets. Multi-specialty examinations were performed. Family size, number of earning members, number and gender of children, preference for vegetarian food, composition of the meals, and the amount of milk consumed in a day were recorded. Radiographs of wrists, knees, ankles, and pelvis, as well as serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels were evaluated. The diagnosis of nutritional rickets was made based on a combination of clinical, radiological, and biochemical criteria, and confirmed by the responses to treatment. Children with nutritional rickets were treated by a single large intramuscular dose of vitamin D (600,000 IU) along with oral calcium and supplementary vitamin D as well as advice on diet and sunlight exposure. 40 females and 11 males were diagnosed as having nutritional rickets. 65% presented with bilateral knee pain with aggravation at night, 37% presented with lower-limb deformity, 24% had joint swelling especially at the wrist and ankle, 6% had a significant limp and walked with an antalgic gait secondary to pathological fractures. No patient reported carpopedal spasm. All patients had rachitic changes on radiographs in some but not all bones (100% in the ulna, 45% in the radius, 37% in the upper tibia, 37% in the lower fibula and 22% in the lower tibia). Three patients had pathological fractures. 55% had hypocalcaemia, 41% had hypophosphataemia and 100% had raised serum alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean time for biochemical resolution was 12 (range, 3-24) weeks. For radiological resolution it was 5 (range, 2-6) months, with the lower end of ulna being last to resolve. Radiographs of the lower end of ulna and serum alkaline
Yang, Qingfan; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Huiping; Li, Miao; Wu, Xiaojian; Zhi, Min; Lan, Ping; Hu, Pinjin
To investigate the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) in induction of remission in adult active Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with intestinal fistula/abdominal abscess or inflammatory intestinal stricture. Patients diagnosed with active CD with complications were recruited between July 2013 and July 2015. Patients were offered EEN for 12 weeks. Patients with abscess received antibiotic treatment with or without percutaneous drainage. Clinical variables were recorded (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02887287). Forty-one patients with CD and with intestinal fistula/abdominal abscess or inflammatory intestinal stricture aged 18-60 years, were included. Ten patients were accompanied with stenosis and 33 with intestinal fistula/abscess. After 12 weeks of EEN, the Crohn's disease activity index significantly decreased (223.43 ± 65.5 vs. 106.77 ± 42.73, p ≤ .001), and 80.5% of patients achieved full clinical remission totally. Fistula closure after EEN was observed in 75% of patients with entero-cutaneous fistula. In patients with stenosis, 20% had no response to EEN and were transferred for surgery. Partial remission and full remission were observed in 20% and 60% of patients after 12 weeks of EEN, respectively. Intra-abdominal abscess resolved in 76% of patients. Seventeen patients who had mucosal ulcers underwent colonoscopy before and after EEN, 47% achieved mucosal healing after the treatment. The inflammatory index of patients significantly decreased (p ≤ .01), nutritional parameters increased (p ≤ .01) and the European Nutritional Risk Screening (2002) decreased (p ≤ .01). EEN is effective in inducing early clinical remission, mucosal healing, promoting fistula closure and reducing the size of abscess in adult CD patients with complications.
Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality.
Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva
The number of people currently living with dementia in the UK is estimated to be 850 000 and this is expected to rise to over 1 million by the year 2025. Dementia is a progressive terminal disease and the rate of decline is unique to each person; however, cognitive deterioration can be accelerated by undernutrition. This article discusses evidence-based approaches in the use of oral and enteral nutrition interventions for people living with dementia and ways to support their caregivers. The discussion of interventions to improve oral nutrition includes changes to the environment, support with feeding difficulties, nutritional supplements and education and training for caregivers.
Zeng, Jian; Hu, Jian; Chen, Qixun; Feng, Jianguo
We aimed to characterize the effect of home enteral nutrition (HEN) on the nutritional status and the quality of life (QOL) of esophageal cancer patients who underwent Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for cancer. Sixty patients with esophageal cancer were assigned to receive either HEN (n=30) or standard care only (n=30) from 1 week to 24 weeks following surgery. Nutritional status was evaluated using The Mini Nutritional Assessment at 1 week preoperatively and at 12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. QOL-related parameters were analyzed in all patients using the QOL-core 30 questionnaire and the supplemental QOL-esophageal module 18 questionnaire for patients with esophageal cancer from 1-24 weeks after surgery. At 12 weeks after surgery, the incidence of malnutrition or latent malnutrition in the HEN group was lower than that in the control group despite the absence of a significant difference between the two groups before surgery. Compared to the control group, the HEN group achieved higher Global QOL scores, and most of their functional index scores were better. Most of the symptomatic index scores were more reduced at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postoperatively in the HEN group. However, at 24 weeks after surgery, the incidence of malnutrition or latent malnutrition and most of the QOL indexes did not differ significantly between the two groups. HEN can reduce the incidence of malnutrition or latent malnutrition and help restore the QOL in the patients with esophageal cancer in the early period (24 weeks) after surgery.
DeBellis, Heather F; Fetterman, James W
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic disease, in which malnutrition can have an undesirable effect. Therefore, the patient's nutritional status is critical for optimizing outcomes in COPD. The initial nutrition assessment is focused on identifying calorically compromised COPD patients in order to provide them with appropriate nutrition. Nutritional intervention consists of oral supplementation and enteral nutrition to prevent weight loss and muscle mass depletion. Evaluation of nutritional status should include past medical history (medications, lung function, and exercise tolerance) and dietary history (patient's dietary habits, food choices, meal patterns, food allergy information, and malabsorption issues), in addition to physiological stress, visceral proteins, weight, fat-free mass, and body mass index. The current medical literature conflicts regarding the appropriate type of formulation to select for nutritional intervention, especially regarding the amount of calories from fat to provide COPD patients. This review article focuses on the enteral product formulations currently available, and how they are most appropriately utilized in patients with COPD.
Arribas, Lorena; Frías, Laura; Creus, Gloria; Parejo, Juana; Urzola, Carmen; Ashbaugh, Rosana; Pérez-Portabella, Cleofé; Cuerda, Cristina
The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor) with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ) to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C). Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE) and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA) of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal.
Romero Jiménez, Rosa Mª; Ortega Navarro, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina
Oral medications are often administered through enteral feeding tubes in patients with complex chronic diseases. It is important to consider possible interactions between drugs and enteral nutrition that might lead to unsuccessful treatment or tube occlusion. These patients become subjects for higher risk of problems and errors such as drug incompatibility with enteral nutrition and inappropriate dosage form selection. It is possible to minimize the risk of tube occlusion and incompatibilities problems by recognizing potential medication errors, selecting the most appropriate drug and dosage form and using appropriate administration techniques. In this context, high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases deserve special attention. Furthermore, risk exposure should be considered among healthcare professionals and patient caregivers handling hazardous drugs. Therefore, main incompatibility problems between drugs and enteral nutrition have been reviewed, including general recommendations for administration of oral medications through enteral feeding tubes and safe handling of hazardous drugs. Specific recommendations for administration of high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases are also included.
Nah, Yong Ho; Chae, Soo In; Song, Ju Hung; Choi, In Tae; Kim, Hyuk Je; Park, Suk; Cho, Won Sup
From January to October, 1986, at Wonkwang University Hospital in Iri, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy(PEG) was attempted in 26 patients and was successful in 24. This study was designed to review the technique and to evaluate the efficacy of PEG. The mean operation time was 22 minutes (range: 14 to 42 minutes). After feeding started, early positive nitrogen balance was achieved in all patients. All gastrostomies functioned well throughout the patient’s survival with the longest functioning at 10 month. There were no procedure-related deaths, and morbidity was lower and less severe as compared with large-bore nasogastric tube feeding. Complications included minor wound infection in two patients, stomal growth in one patient, leaks around the tube in two patients, and intraperitoneal leak in one patient. No patient developed aspiration pneumonia or required laparotomy for complications from PEG. The gastrostomy tube was easily removed endoscopically when treatment was completed. Feeding via a large-bore tube increased the risk of aspiration pneumonia (72%) and the feeding cost via a small-bore tube with elemental diet exceeded that of PEG by more than tenfold. This author’s experience with these 26 patients has led to the conclusion that PEG is safe, easy to perform, and effective means of creating feeding gastrostomy without laparotomy or general anesthesia. The authors suggest that PEG be the preferred route of alimentation in those patients who are unable to swallow for prolonged periods of time. PMID:3155323
Goto, Hidekazu; Tomita, Takashi; Doki, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao
We report a patient with elevated serum lithium concentration caused by switching from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition. A 73-year-old female inpatient was treated with lithium carbonate 600 mg/d for manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Her serum lithium level was maintained at 0.57-0.79 mEq/L. She was administered total parenteral nutrition owing to difficulty in oral intake. Her diet contained 4.8-5.8 g/d of sodium chloride. After this, parenteral with enteral nutrition was initiated. The total sodium chloride intake decreased from 6.3 to 3.0-4.0 g/d following this change. On day 15 after initiation of parenteral with enteral nutrition, her serum lithium level increased to 1.17 mEq/L, which is closer to the upper therapeutic range limit. Therefore enteral nutrition was stopped immediately, and an electrolyte solution was administered instead of enteral nutrition. An antibiotic agent was also simultaneously administered because of infection. The total amount of sodium chloride administered was increased to 7.0 g/d during this treatment. Four days after treatment, the serum lithium level returned to 0.57 mEq/L. This case suggests that administration of appropriate sodium chloride nutrition is important during treatment with lithium carbonate, because disposition of lithium ion is paralleled to that of sodium.
Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer.
Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Nutritional support has been widely advocated as adjunctive therapy for a variety of underlying illnesses, including surgery and medical oncotherapy (radiation or chemotherapy for cancer). Glutamine, n-3 fatty acids and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate gastrointestinal toxicity related to cancer treatments. Enteral and parenteral nutrition may help improve patient survival, functional status and QoL, yet the benefits appear to be primarily limited to patients with good functional status and with gastrointestinal disease affecting nutritional intake. Parenteral nutrition offers the possibility of increased or maintenance of the nutrient intake in patients for whom normal food intake is inadequate and for whom enteral nutrition is not feasible, is contraindicated or is not accepted by the patient. This article reviews evidence on issues relevant to enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with cancer. PMID:22977559
Anker, S D; John, M; Pedersen, P U; Raguso, C; Cicoira, M; Dardai, E; Laviano, A; Ponikowski, P; Schols, A M W J; Becker, H F; Böhm, M; Brunkhorst, F M; Vogelmeier, C
These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and are based on all relevant publications since 1985. They have been discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) or tube feeding (TF) enables nutritional intake to be maintained or increased when normal oral intake is inadequate. No data are yet available concerning the effects of EN on cachexia in CHF patients. However, EN is recommended to stop or reverse weight loss on the basis of physiological plausibility. In COPD patients, EN in combination with exercise and anabolic pharmacotherapy has the potential to improve nutritional status and function. Frequent small amounts of ONS are preferred in order to avoid postprandial dyspnoea and satiety as well as to improve compliance.
Tsuei, Betty J; Magnuson, Barbara; Swintosky, Marjorie; Flynn, Julie; Boulanger, Bernard R; Ochoa, Juan B; Kearney, Paul A
Recent surgical advances have led to the increased survival of critically ill patients requiring postoperative nutritional supplementation. One technique, which has been increasingly used, is that of the open peritoneal cavity. In these cases, the peritoneum is left open, and the viscera are protected with a temporary dressing until the abdomen can be closed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of enteral nutrition in patients who need open peritoneal cavity management techniques. Patients at a tertiary referral center requiring the use of open peritoneal cavity management who received at least 4 days of enteral nutrition were included in the study. Retrospective data were collected on patients admitted between January 1999 and December 2000, and prospective data were collected on patients between January and May 2001. Energy expenditure and actual caloric and protein intake were determined in all patients. Prealbumin levels and nitrogen balance studies were analyzed when available. Intolerance, defined as diarrhea or gastric reflux, was also evaluated. Average daily total caloric intake was 77 +/- 27%, and average daily protein intake was 68 +/- 24% of estimated needs. Initial serum prealbumin levels were low and remained below normal but increased in some patients during the study. Average nitrogen balance studies from 3 patients was -15 +/- 9.7 g/d. Diarrhea and gastric reflux occurred in 42% and 36% of patients, respectively, and were easily treated. Enteral nutrition can be effectively used in patients requiring open peritoneal cavity management after laparotomy. Overall, enteral nutrition is relatively well tolerated in this patient population.
Ribeiro, Lia Mara Kauchi; Oliveira, Ronaldo Sousa; Caruso, Lucia; Lima, Patricia Azevedo; Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira; Soriano, Francisco Garcia
Objective To determine the factors that influence the adequacy of enteral nutritional therapy in an intensive care unit. Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in an intensive care unit between 2010 and 2012. Patients >18 years of age underwent exclusive enteral nutritional therapy for ≥72 hours. The energy and protein requirements were calculated according to the ICU protocols. The data regarding enteral nutrition, the causes of non-compliance, and the biochemical test results were collected daily. Results Ninety-three patients admitted to the intensive care unit were evaluated. Among these patients, 82% underwent early enteral nutritional therapy, and 80% reached the nutritional goal in <36 hours. In addition, 81.6%±15.4% of the enteral nutrition volume was infused, with an adequacy of 82.2%±16.0% for calories, 82.2%±15.9% for proteins, and a mean energy balance of -289.9±277.1kcal/day. A negative correlation of C-reactive protein with the volume infused and the energy and protein balance was observed. In contrast, a positive correlation was found between C-reactive protein and the time required to reach nutritional goals. Extubation was the main cause for interrupting the enteral nutritional therapy (29.9% of the interruption hours), and the patients >60 years of age exhibited a lower percentage of recovery of the oral route compared with the younger patients (p=0.014). Conclusion Early enteral nutritional therapy and the adequacy for both energy and protein of the nutritional volume infused were in accordance with the established guidelines. Possible inadequacies of energy and protein balance appeared to be associated with an acute inflammatory response, which was characterized by elevated C-reactive protein levels. The main cause of interruption of the enteral nutritional therapy was the time spent in extubation. PMID:25028950
Halmos, Emma P
Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Mazaherpur, Sakine; Abdi, Alireza; Pasdar, Yahia; Najafi, Farid
Introduction Nutrition support is one of the most common care, which is undertaken for patients who suffered from Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and are admitted in intensive care units. Literature indicates some controversies regarding the appropriate method of nutrition support in these patients. Aim This study was conducted for determining the effect of continuous enteral nutrition on nutrition indices, compared to the intermittent enteral and combination nutrition in TBI patients. Materials and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 60 TBI patients who were admitted to critical care units of Taleghani Hospital of Kermanshah-Iran in 2010 recruited to the study. The samples were allocated to three groups of continuous enteral nutrition, intermittent enteral nutrition and combination nutrition supports by random sampling. The tool was a researcher-made checklist. The three methods of nutrition support were performed to the participants, then nutrition indices of patients were measured before and during three weeks. Data were analysed using SPSS software, descriptive, and inferential statistics. Results The mean of received energy in the combination group (53.1± 18.3%) was higher than continuous (38.5±19.7%) and intermittent (32.2±14.7%) groups, significantly (p<0.001). The received protein was also greater in combination method (67.7±16.9%) than continuous (31.8±15.1%) and intermittent groups (17.2±10.1%), (p=0.001). The mean of nitrogen balance was improved in continuous method from -4.7± -1.6 to 7.2±5.2, (p<0.001) significantly. Conclusion In this study, received energy of patients was not enough by three methods. However, the continuous method, having a positive effect on nitrogen balance, reducing hypercatabolism and maintaining the total body protein, was preferred to brain injury patients compared with intermittent enteral and parenteral methods that demand more studies. PMID:27891355
Osina, V A; Kuz'mina, T N
The present article gives evidence-based recommendations for the indication, application and type of formula of enteral nutrition (EN) (oral nutrition supplements (ONS) or tube feeding (TF)) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), short bowel syndrome (SBS), acute and chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic steatogepatitis and cirrosis. ONS and/or TF in addition to normal food is indicates in undernourished patients with CD or UC to improve nutritional status. In active CD EN is the first line therapy in children and should be used as sole therapy in adults mainly when treatment with corticosteroids is not feasible. No significant differences have been shown in the effects of free amino acid, peptide-based and hole protein formulae for TF. In remission ONS is recommended only in steroid dependent patients in CD. In patients with SBS TF should be introduced in the adaptation phase and should be changed with progressing adaptation to ONS in addition to normal food. Special nutrition support should not be used routinely in patients with mild or moderate acute pancreatitis. EN is the preffered route in patients with pancreatitis and should be attempted before initiating parenteral nutrition. Nutrition assessment in patients with liver disease should include screening for micronutrient deficiencies. Protein restriction should be implemented for the acute management of hepatic encephalopathy and should not be implemented chronically in patients with liver disease.
Salomon Zaban, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho
According to statistical projections of the World Health Organization, during the period between 1950 and 2025, the group of elderly in Brazil will have increased 15 times. Chronic-degenerative diseases are the illnesses that most affect the elderly population, directly related to the growing demand for Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The objective of this study was to analyze the demographic, epidemiological and nutritional profile of elderly patients assisted at the public hospitals in the Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy Program, of the State Health Department of Distrito Federal. This is a retroprospective, cross-sectional and analytical study, based on primary data, which enrolled 141 elderly patients who were prescribed home enteral nutrition. The collected variables corresponded to age, gender, clinical diagnosis, enteral route and nutritional status at the beginning of Home Enteral Nutrition Therapy. The association between variables was analyzed through the t-Student and chi-square tests, with a significance level of 0.05 and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 95%. There was a higher number of female patients (53.9%) when compared to male (46.1%), average age 75.82 years old for both groups. The most prevalent diseases were cerebro-vascular accident sequels and cancer (42.6% and 22.7% respectively). It was observed a prevalence of malnutrition equal to 69.7%, independent of age and gender. The most used enteral route was the nasal. Though Brazilian policies concerning assistance to the elderly have advanced during the last few years, the need for public policies for nutritional recovery of such patients persists, to promote a better quality of life for them.
The perinatal period is critical for human development. The brain of very low birth weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants is particularly vulnerable to undernutrition. Enteral nutrition is of major importance for the growth and the development of the gastrointestinal tract, which depends on the amount and composition of feeds. Feeding intolerance and the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are key concerns with enteral nutrition in VLBW infants. Controversies exist on how to feed VLBW infants during the first weeks of life, particularly in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1,000 g) infants. Unreasonable concerns lead to iatrogenic malnutrition, gastrointestinal atrophy, and parenteral nutrition-related complications. Many studies in the field of nutrition during the past decade demonstrated that some feeding regimens have significant benefits. There is strong evidence that the use of human milk (HM) reduces the risk of NEC and provides major advantages in VLBW infants. The feeding of fortified HM should be promoted and HM banking should be further developed to allow access to pasteurized donor HM for VLBW infants with an insufficient intake of their own mother's milk. Early enteral feeding should be promoted soon after birth to enhance gastrointestinal maturation, growth and functional development. Continuous- or short-interval intermittent feeding seems to provide better gastrointestinal tolerance and faster achievement of full enteral feeding. Feeding advancements of 20-30 ml/kg/day in VLBW infants ≥1,000 g and of 15-25 ml/kg/day in ELBW infants are reasonable strategies. Any suspicion of feeding intolerance implies short-interval evaluation to decide whether interruption of enteral feeding or its restart after a transient interruption are appropriate. One should always strive for maintaining at least minimal enteral feeding, rather than complete interruption of enteral feeding. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Masuda, Syuzo; Oka, Ryusho; Uwai, Koji; Matsuda, Yumi; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshito; Shoji, Tohru; Mihara, Chie; Takeshita, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Koichiro
One of the important roles of pharmacists as members of a nutrition support team is nutritional prescription support. We developed a nutritional prescription support system (NPSS) that facilitates prescription support and analysis and evaluated its usefulness in nutritional therapy. An NPSS for prescription support and the management of patient information was created. With this NPSS, the nutritional status was assessed, and, on the basis of the results, such variables as the total energy expenditure were calculated. This system allows prescription support for parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, enteral nutrition (EN) therapy, and the transition period between them. This system was used for 2 representative patients and evaluated. In a malnourished patient receiving oral warfarin, EN solutions were compared by means of the NPSS, and an appropriate EN solution was selected. In addition, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was monitored, and favorable results were obtained regarding the adjustment of the warfarin dose and nutritional management. In a patient with aspiration pneumonia, continuous nutritional management to EN from PN therapy was straightforwardly performed with the NPSS. This NPSS allows rapid, comprehensive nutritional management during the transition period to EN from PN therapy, despite these therapies being considered separately in conventional nutritional management. The NPSS is useful for simplifying prescription support and facilitating information sharing among members of a nutrition support team.
Brown, Britta; Roehl, Kelly; Betz, Melanie
Many new enteral nutrition (EN) formulas have been created over the past several decades with a variety of intended uses. Although each is intended to promote improved outcomes, research is often unclear and, in many cases, conflicting. It is important to note that EN products are considered medical foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and therefore do not have to complete premarket review or approval and are not regulated to the same extent as pharmaceuticals. While standard EN formulas are designed to meet the basic macro- and micronutrient requirements of individuals who cannot meet nutrition needs orally, specialty EN products have been developed to exhibit pharmacologic properties, such as immune-enhancing formulas containing arginine, glutamine, nucleotides, and ω-3 fatty acids. With the vast number of products available, rising costs of healthcare, and the drive toward evidence-based practice, it is imperative that clinicians carefully consider research regarding use of specialty formulas, paying close attention to the quality, patient population, clinical end points, and cost to patient and/or facility. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Makola, Diklar; Krenitsky, Joe; Parrish, Carol; Dunston, Emily; Shaffer, Hubert A; Yeaton, Paul; Kahaleh, Michel
Elemental formula delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz has demonstrated efficacy in patients with pancreatitis, presumably by decreasing pancreatic stimulation. Few data exist on the use of standard enteral formula in such patients. This study describes the outcomes of pancreatitis patients managed with long-term standard enteral nutrition (EN). One hundred twenty-six patients managed at the University of Virginia Health System with pancreatitis requiring nutritional support between August 2000 and June 2004 received a standard formula delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz and were followed prospectively to resolution of their disease process. Predictors of improvement in CT Severity Index, duration of EN, and length of hospital stay were identified. Changes in body weight and serum albumin were determined. Mean age was 50.8 +/- 15.2 yr (male, 83). Etiology included alcohol (46), gallstones (49), idiopathic (15), post-ERCP (7), drug (5), hyperlipidemia (3), and pancreas divisum (1). EN lasted a median of 18.9 (2.4 to 111.7) wk. Median CT Severity Index decreased from 4 to 2 (p < 0.001). Underweight patients gained 9.8 lbs; overweight and obese patients lost 7.2 and 28.8 lbs, respectively. Albumin concentration increased from 3 to 3.8 g/dL (p < 0.001). Standard enteral formula is effective in the management of patients with complicated pancreatitis.
Bistrian, Bruce R
The meteoric rise in parenteral and enteral nutrition was largely a consequence of the development of total parenteral nutrition and chemically defined diets in the late 1960s and early 1970s and the recognition of the extensive prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition associated with disease in this same period. The establishment of Nutrition Support Services (NSS) using the novel, multidisciplinary model of physician, clinical nurse specialist, pharmacist, and dietitian, which, at its peak in the 1990s, approached 550 well-established services in about 10% of the US acute care hospitals, also fostered growth. The American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, a multidisciplinary society reflecting the interaction of these specialties, was established in 1976 and grew from less than 1,000 members to nearly 8,000 by 1990. Several developments in the 1990s initially slowed and then stopped this growth. A system of payments, called diagnosis-related groups, put extreme cost constraints on hospital finances which often limited financial support for NSS teams, particularly the physician and nurse specialist members. Furthermore, as the concern for the nutritional status of patients spread to other specialties, critical care physicians, trauma surgeons, gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, and nephrologists often took responsibility for nutrition support in their area of expertise with a dwindling of the model of an internist or general surgeon with special skills in nutrition support playing the key MD role across the specialties. Nutrition support of the hospitalized patient has dramatically improved in the US over the past 35 years, but the loss of major benefits possible and unacceptable risks of invasive nutritional support if not delivered when appropriate, delivered without monitoring by nutrition experts, or employed where inappropriate or ineffective will require continued attention by medical authorities, hospitals, funding agencies, and industry in
Wang, F; Hou, M X; Wu, X L; Bao, L D; Dong, P D
We studied the effects of enteral nutrition (EN) support initiated 1 week before surgery on postoperative nutritional status, immune function, and inflammatory response in gastric cancer patients. A total of 200 gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into two groups: EN starting 1 week before surgery (study group) and EN starting early after surgery (control group). The two groups received EN support, following different therapeutic schedules, until the 9th day after operation. In the patients, body weight, skinfold thickness, upper-arm circumference, white blood cell count, albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, peripheral immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM), T lymphocyte subsets, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 10 days before and after surgery and on the first day after surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in the results of recovery time of passage of gas by anus, abdominal distension, stomachache, blood glucose, hepatic and renal functions, and electrolytes between the two groups of patients (P > 0. 05). Adverse reactions occurred to both groups at 1 and 2 days after operation. Such conditions was improved after the intravenous drip rate was adjusted. The albumin and prealbumin levels of the patients in both groups decreased at 1 day after operation (P < 0. 05). The levels rose when the research was finished (P < 0. 05). The prealbumin level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The IgG level of the study group was higher than that of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). The two groups of inflammatory reaction indicators of the study group were lower than those of the control group at 10 days after operation (P < 0. 05). This study indicates that appropriate preoperative EN support for gastric cancer patients can improve their postoperative nutritional status and immune function, can reduce inflammatory response, and is
Gordon, A M
Enteral nutritional support is an important and effective means of providing needed nutrients to patients. Four levels of support can be defined. Most patients are able to eat the diet prescribed for them (level 1), but some require forced nutritional support given by nasogastric (level 2) or nasoenteral (level 3) feeding tubes or by gastroenterostomy (level 4). Selection of the appropriate tube from among the many commercially available types with different features is important to minimize the risk of medical complications. How the tube is placed depends on whether the patient can or will cooperate. Proper positioning of the tube can be checked without an x-ray film by determining if four criteria have been met in a specified order.
Kudsk, K A
Over the past 10 years, several clinical and experimental studies report the potential benefit of enteral nutrition as primary therapy after multiple system trauma. In this study, 98 patients sustaining blunt and penetrating trauma were randomised to receive either enteral or parenteral feeding for 15 days. There were significantly fewer infectious complications in patients randomised to receive enteral feeding with particular benefit shown in the most severely injured patients. Serum protein concentrations correlated with the clinical outcome with an increase in constitutive protein and decrease in acute phase protein concentrations occurring in the enteral group through a decrease in septic complications and possible direct hepatic 'reprioritisation'. Enteral feeding serves as a primary therapy affecting the outcome of critically ill patients. PMID:8125392
Shao, Feng; Xin, Fu-Ze; Yang, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Dao-Gui; Mi, Yue-Tang; Yu, Jun-Xiu; Li, Guo-Yong
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of microbial immune enteral nutrition by microecopharmaceutics and deep sea fish oil and glutamine and Peptisorb on the patients with acute radiation enteritis in bowel function and immune status. From June 2010 to January 2013, 46 acute radiation enteritis patients in Liaocheng People's Hospital were randomized into the microbial immune enteral nutrition group and the control group: 24 patients in treatment group and 22 patients in control group. The immune microbial nutrition was given to the study group, but not to the control group. The concentration of serum albumin and prealbumin and the number of CD3 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell, CD8 (+) T cell, CD4 (+)/CD8 (+) and natural killer cell of the two groups were detected on the 1, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The arm muscle circumference and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were recorded, and the tolerance of the two groups for enteral nutrition and intestinal symptoms was collected and then comparing the two indicators and get results. The tolerance of microbial immune enteral nutrition group about abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea was better than the control group (P values were 0.018, 0.04 and 0.008 after 7 days; P values were 0.018, 0.015 and 0.002 after 14 days); and the cellular immune parameters were better than the control group((△) P = 0.008,([Symbol: see text]) P = 0.039, (☆) P = 0.032); No difference was found in nutrition indicators. To the patients with acute radiation enteritis, microbial immune enteral nutrition could improve the patient's immune status, and the tolerance of enteral nutrition could be better for the bowel function and the patients' rehabilitation.
Dinenage, Sarah; Gower, Morwenna; Van Wyk, Joanna; Blamey, Anne; Ashbolt, Karen; Sutcliffe, Michelle; Green, Sue M
The organisation of services to support the increasing number of people receiving enteral tube feeding (ETF) at home varies across regions. There is evidence that multi-disciplinary primary care teams focussed on home enteral nutrition (HEN) can provide cost-effective care. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HEN Team in one UK city. A HEN Team comprising dietetians, nurses and a speech and language therapist was developed with the aim of delivering a quality service for people with gastrostomy tubes living at home. Team objectives were set and an underpinning framework of organisation developed including a care pathway and a schedule of training. Impact on patient outcomes was assessed in a pre-post test evaluation design. Patients and carers reported improved support in managing their ETF. Cost savings were realised through: (1) prevention of hospital admission and related transport for ETF related issues; (2) effective management and reduction of waste of feed and thickener; (3) balloon gastrostomy tube replacement by the HEN Team in the patient's home, and optimisation of nutritional status. This service evaluation demonstrated that the establishment of a dedicated multi-professional HEN Team focussed on achievement of key objectives improved patient experience and, although calculation of cost savings were estimates, provided evidence of cost-effectiveness.
Davidson, Patricia; Kwiatkowski, Cynthia Ann; Wien, Michelle
There has been increased attention on the importance of identifying and distinguishing the differences between stress-induced hyperglycemia (SH), newly diagnosed hyperglycemia (NDH), and hyperglycemia in persons with established diabetes mellitus (DM). Inpatient blood glucose control is now being recognized as not only a cost issue for hospitals but also a concern for patient safety and care. The reasons for the increased incidence of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients include preexisting DM, undiagnosed DM or prediabetes, SH, and medication-induced hyperglycemia with resulting transient blood glucose variability. It is clear that identifying and documenting hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with and without a previous diagnosis of DM and initiating prompt insulin treatment are important. Agreement on the optimum treatment goals for hyperglycemia remains quite controversial, and the benefits of intensive glucose management may be lost at the cost of hypoglycemia in intensive care unit patients. Nutrition support in the form of enteral nutrition (EN) increases the risk of hyperglycemia in both critical and non-critically ill hospitalized patients. Reasons for beginning a tube feeding are the same whether a person has NDH or DM. What differs is how to incorporate EN into the established insulin management protocols. The risk for hyperglycemia with the addition of EN is even higher in those without a previous diagnosis of DM. This review discusses the incidence of hyperglycemia, the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, factors contributing to hyperglycemia in the hospitalized patient, glycemic management goals, current glycemic management recommendations, and considerations for EN formula selection, administration, and treatment. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Dorner, Becky; Friedrich, Elizabeth K
Older adults living in healthcare communities (HCCs) have multiple comorbidities and are at increased risk of malnutrition and unintended weight loss. Aging affects nearly every system as well as body composition and structure, causing physiological changes that can affect nutrition status. A significant percentage (56%) of residents who live in nursing facilities require extensive help to eat and have dental problems such as ill-fitting dentures, missing teeth, and swallowing problems, which can lead to inadequate caloric intake and unintended weight loss. Alzheimer disease or dementia is prevalent in both nursing facilities and in assisted living/residential care communities, where it affects 45% of older adults. In cognitively impaired residents, most tube feeding placements occur in the acute care setting and result in significant use of additional healthcare resources, along with high postinsertion mortality rates within 60 days of insertion. Nursing facilities receiving Medicare or Medicaid funding must abide by state and federal regulations and undergo rigorous surveys while balancing complex decisions related to initial placement of feeding tubes. Healthcare professionals must recognize the importance of establishing nutrition treatment goals that are resident centered and that respect the unique values and personal decisions of the older adult. Informed choice, resident-centered care decisions, and the review of living wills and/or advance directives are essential in the decision-making process. After enteral nutrition is started, healthcare practitioners must carefully review the physician's orders and administer and monitor the resident's tolerance, checking for potential complications.
Frías, L; Puiggròs, C; Calañas, A; Cuerda, C; García-Luna, P P; Camarero, E; Rabassa-Soler, A; Irles, J A; Martínez-Olmos, M A; Romero, A; Wanden-Berghe, C; Laborda, L; Vidal, A; Gómez-Candela, C; Penacho, M A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Lecha, M; Luengo, L M; Suárez, P; de Luis, D; García, Y; Parés, R M; Garde, C
To describe the results of the home enteral nutrition (HEN) registry of the NADYA-SENPE group in 2010. We retrieved the data of the patients recorded from January 1st to December 31st 2010. We registered 6,591 patients (51% males) with 6,688 episodes of HEN, from 32 hospitals. Mean age in those younger than 14 yr (4%) was 1 ± 2 yrs (m ± SD) and 69,9 ± 17,8 yrs in those older than 14 yr. The length of HEN was longer than 2 yrs in 76% of the patients. The most frequent underlying disease was neurological disorders 42%, followed by cancer 28% (mostly head and neck cancer 18%). We had information related to the enteral access route in only 626 cases (9,4%), 51% of them used nasogastric tubes, 27% gastrostomies, 10% oral route and 3% jejunostomies. Only 251 episodes were closed during the year, mostly due to patient death 57% and progress to oral diet 14%. The activity level was limited in 29% of the patients and 39% of them were bed- or chairridden. Total or partial help was needed by 68% of the patients. The hospitals and the private pharmacies delivered the enteral formula in 63% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The hospitals and the primary care centres delivered the disposables in 83% and 16% of the cases, respectively. The results of the 2010 HEN registry are similar to those published in previous years regarding the number and characteristics of the patients. We continue finding problems in the entrance of data referred to the enteral access route and the closing of the episodes.
Márta, Katalin; Farkas, Nelli; Szabó, Imre; Illés, Anita; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Szemes, Kata; Pécsi, Dániel; Hegyi, Péter
The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome. There were 717 articles found in Embase, 831 in PubMed, and 10 in the Cochrane database. Altogether, seven SAP and six MAP articles were suitable for analyses. In SAP, forest plots were used to illustrate three primary endpoints (mortality, multiorgan failure, and intervention). In MAP, 14 additional secondary endpoints were analyzed (such as CRP (C-reactive protein), WCC (white cell count), complications, etc.). After pooling the data, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect significant differences. Funnel plots were created for testing heterogeneity. All of the primary endpoints investigated showed that EN is beneficial vs. NPO in SAP. In MAP, all of the six articles found merit in EN. Analyses of the primary endpoints did not show significant differences between the groups; however, analyzing the 17 endpoints together showed a significant difference in favor of EN vs. NPO. EN is beneficial compared to a nil per os diet not only in severe, but also in mild and moderate AP.
Márta, Katalin; Farkas, Nelli; Szabó, Imre; Illés, Anita; Vincze, Áron; Pár, Gabriella; Sarlós, Patrícia; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Párniczky, Andrea; Szemes, Kata; Pécsi, Dániel; Hegyi, Péter
The recently published guidelines for acute pancreatitis (AP) suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) should be the primary therapy in patients suffering from severe acute pancreatitis (SAP); however, none of the guidelines have recommendations on mild and moderate AP (MAP). A meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). The following PICO (problem, intervention, comparison, outcome) was applied: P: nutrition in AP; I: enteral nutrition (EN); C: nil per os diet (NPO); and O: outcome. There were 717 articles found in Embase, 831 in PubMed, and 10 in the Cochrane database. Altogether, seven SAP and six MAP articles were suitable for analyses. In SAP, forest plots were used to illustrate three primary endpoints (mortality, multiorgan failure, and intervention). In MAP, 14 additional secondary endpoints were analyzed (such as CRP (C-reactive protein), WCC (white cell count), complications, etc.). After pooling the data, the Mann–Whitney U test was used to detect significant differences. Funnel plots were created for testing heterogeneity. All of the primary endpoints investigated showed that EN is beneficial vs. NPO in SAP. In MAP, all of the six articles found merit in EN. Analyses of the primary endpoints did not show significant differences between the groups; however, analyzing the 17 endpoints together showed a significant difference in favor of EN vs. NPO. EN is beneficial compared to a nil per os diet not only in severe, but also in mild and moderate AP. PMID:27775609
Planas, M; Castellá, M; García Luna, P P; Chamorro, J; Gómez Candela, C; Carbonell, M D; Irles, J A; Jiménez, M; Morejón, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Bobis, M A; Rodríguez Pozo, A; Adrio, G; Salas, J; Calañas, A J; Gómez Enterría, P; Mancha, A; Martí Bonmatí, E; Martínez, I; Celador, A; Camarero, E; Tusón, C; Carrera, J A
Once again, the NADYA-SENPE Working Group analysed the registered data of Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country, during the year 2000. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included on our web site (www.nadya-senpe.com). Apart from epidemiological information, the form includes the indication to prescribe this treatment, the specific nutritional treatment used and its duration, access path, complications and readmission rate in hospital, follow-up of the treatment, patient's quality of life and progress. All data were processed and analysed by the co-ordinating team. Twenty two hospital participated and 2,986 patients, aged 65.1 +/- 19.7 years, were enrolled. Of these patients, 41.2% were diagnosed with neurological diseases and 33.3% with cancer. The mean time on HEN was 6.3 +/- 4.4 months. Oral nutrition was the preferential route (50.8%), followed by nasoenteral tube (30.5%), and in 17.4% ostomy tubes were placed. Polymeric was the formula composition mainly used (83.2%). Patients were followed (70.1%) by the hospital reference Nutritional Support Unit. The complications related to nutrition included the gastrointestinal (0.25 complications/patient), the mechanical one (0.19 complications/patient), and the metabolic (0.007 complications/patient). Feeding tube need to be replaced 0.3 times/patient/year. The readmission rate, for nutritional problems, was observed in 0.03 patients. At the end of the year, 54.9% of the patients were in the HEN program, and in 30.3% HEN was finish due to different reasons. In 21.9% of the patients no, o light, discapacity degree was found. Related to previous years, there is an increment in the number of enrolled patients. Neurological diseases and cancer were the more frequent diagnoses in HEN patients. Oral access was the higher feeding route due, probably, to the high prevalence of cancer patients. In spite of the elevated prevalence of neurological diseases, a few number of patients were feed with ostomy
Gil-Almagro, Fernanda; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier
Enteral nutrition has a relatively low incidence of major complications. The most common complications are mechanical problems, bronchoaspiration and diarrhoea. A rare complication associated with the use of enteral nutrition is oesophageal bezoar. A bezoar is a body of undigested and partially digested matter in the gastrointestinal tract. The main risks factors are gastric motility dysfunction and the use of opiates or sucralfate. The aim of this paper was to present two cases of oesophageal obstruction resulting from the formation of bezoars due to enteral nutrition. Both patients experienced prolonged stays in the intensive care unit and were receiving enteral nutrition, and both cases involved an obstruction of the nasogastric tube and the regurgitation of solid chunks of enteral nutrition through the mouth and the nose. Impactions of solidified enteral nutrition in the distal parts of the oesophagus were confirmed with gastroscopies. Enzymatic complexes containing papain, cellulose, pancreatin, pepsin and diastase were used to successfully dissolve the bezoars in both cases.
Boullata, Joseph I; Carrera, Amy Long; Harvey, Lillian; Escuro, Arlene A; Hudson, Lauren; Mays, Andrew; McGinnis, Carol; Wessel, Jacqueline J; Bajpai, Sarita; Beebe, Mara Lee; Kinn, Tamara J; Klang, Mark G; Lord, Linda; Martin, Karen; Pompeii-Wolfe, Cecelia; Sullivan, Jackie; Wood, Abby; Malone, Ainsley; Guenter, Peggi
Enteral nutrition (EN) is a valuable clinical intervention for patients of all ages in a variety of care settings. Along with its many outcome benefits come the potential for adverse effects. These safety issues are the result of clinical complications and of process-related errors. The latter can occur at any step from patient assessment, prescribing, and order review, to product selection, labeling, and administration. To maximize the benefits of EN while minimizing adverse events requires that a systematic approach of care be in place. This includes open communication, standardization, and incorporation of best practices into the EN process. This document provides recommendations based on the available evidence and expert consensus for safe practices, across each step of the process, for all those involved in caring for patients receiving EN.
Booth, I W
The spectacular success of parenteral nutrition in supporting patients during small intestinal adaptation after massive resection, tends to obscure the prolonged periods often needed for such adaptation to take place. After neonatal small intestinal resection for example, it may take more than five years before adaptation is complete. There is therefore a strong argument for examining ways in which adaptation can be facilitated, in particular, by the addition of novel substrates to enteral feeds. Pectin is completely fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids. In the rat, addition of pectin to enteral feeds led to a more rapid adaptive response in both the small and large intestine after massive small intestinal resection, although faecal nitrogen losses were increased. In a similar rat model, the provision of 40% of non-protein energy as short chain triglycerides facilitated the adaptive response in the jejunum, colon, and pancreas. The importance of glutamine as a metabolic substrate for the small intestine makes it another potential candidate and some, but not all animal studies, have suggested a therapeutic effect: increasing the glutamine content of feeds to 25% of total amino acids produced enhanced jejunal and ileal hyperplasia, even on a hypocaloric feed, and an improved overall weight gain. Studies in humans are very limited, but such promising results in the experimental animal suggest that this is probably a fruitful area for further study.
Lalueza Broto, M P; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Robles González, A; Fontán Caudevilla, C; Clapés Estapá, J
Some previous studies have shown that administration of contaminated enteral diets may produce nosocomial infections in critical patients. There is a series of factors in these patients which may enhance the risk of clinical complications deriving from the administration of enteral nutrition (EN) contaminated by microorganisms (alteration of the immunological state, increased stomach pH, reduced intestinal motility, reduced mucosa production, etc.). This study examines EN contamination in critical patients admitted to the ICU of the Hospital Universitario de Traumatología y Rehabilitación de las C. S. Vall d'Hebron, suffering from cranial-encephalic traumatism and/or multiple traumatism. The data made it possible to create a working design which takes account of factors which may increase the risk of EN contamination. The work was done in three phases, involving different handling procedures (Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3). The results of the three studies made it possible to describe a working method in which the following points are outstanding: handwashing with antiseptic soap prior to handling the EN, avoidance of reuse of containers (if necessary) for more than 24 hours, not to exceed 8 hours' perfusion of EN previously handled, and not to wash the container prior to adding new quantities of EN.
Freeman, Cecilia; Ricevuto, Ashleigh; DeLegge, Mark H
Patients suffering from dementia or significant cognitive impairment (SCI) due to neurologic injury routinely receive percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) due to swallowing difficulty or lack of appetite. This review discusses current data and opinion regarding the risks and benefits of PEG in these populations. The current data regarding PEG placement in patients with dementia or SCI due to neurologic injury do not confirm either improvement or worsening of survival. Significant risk factors for poor prognosis after PEG include sex, hypoalbuminemia, age, chronic heart failure, and subtotal gastrectomy. Complications associated with enteral nutrition are minor and easily controlled when managed by a nutritional team. Alternative options for feeding elderly demented patients are available for family members considering PEG. In contrast to previously published data regarding worse clinical outcomes in the dementia and SCI populations receiving PEG, recent data suggest that clinical outcomes in this population are no different than in other patient populations receiving PEG. A prospective, randomized study is needed to ascertain whether PEG is appropriate and beneficial in the dementia/SCI populations.
Barrett, Meredith; Demehri, Farokh R.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To review the benefits of enteral nutrition (EN) in contrast to the inflammatory consequences of administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral deprivation. To present the most recent evidence for the mechanisms of these immunologic changes and discuss potential areas for modification to decrease infectious complications of its administration. RECENT FINDINGS There is significant data supporting the early initiation of EN in both medical and surgical patients unable to meet their caloric goals via oral intake alone. Despite the preference for EN, some patients are unable to utilize their gut for nutritious gain and therefore require PN administration, along with its infectious complications. The mechanisms behind these complications are multifactorial and have yet to be fully elucidated. Recent study utilizing both animal and human models has provided further information regarding PN's deleterious effect on intestinal epithelial barrier function along with the complications associated with enterocyte deprivation. SUMMARY Changes associated with PN administration and enteral deprivation are complex with multiple potential areas for modification to allow for safer administration. Recent discovery of the mechanisms behind these changes present exciting areas for future study as to make PN administration in the enterally deprived patient safer. PMID:26154279
Rickard, K A; Kirksey, A; Baehner, R L; Grosfeld, J L; Provisor, A; Weetman, R M; Boxer, L A; Ballantine, T V
The effectiveness of enteral and parenteral feeding in supporting a satisfactory nutrition status and/or reversing protein-energy malnutrition was evaluated in nine children, ages 1 to 7 years (eight female), with Wilms' tumors. At the onset of treatment, eight patients received comprehensive enteral nutrition (CEN) which included intense nutritional counseling and oral supplements while one received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite CEN, the initial, intense treatment period was associated with a decreased energy intake (64 +/- 27% Recommended Dietary Allowances), dramatic weight loss (22 +/- 7% by 26 +/- 17 days from the beginning of treatment), decreased skinfold thickness (< 10th percentile), and decreased albumin concentrations (< 3.2 g/dl). Four of those who initially received CEN subsequently required TPN. A total of five patients received TPN for a mean of 31 days (range 11 to 60); kcal averaged 105 +/- 9% Recommended Dietary Allowances during weight gain. At onset of TPN, the mean albumin, transferrin, total lymphocyte count were 3.02 +/- 0.45 g/dl, 155 +/- 40 mg/dl, and, 655 +/- 437/mm3, respectively; all children had abnormal anthropometric measurements and anergy to recall skin test antigens. TPN for 28 or more days supported weight gain (+ 2.44 kg), increased serum albumin (+ 0.58 +/- 0.47 g/dl) and transferrin (+ 76 +/- 34 mg/dl), and reversed anergy despite low total lymphocyte counts. During maintenance treatment, nutritional status was maintained or restored with CEN in the group who responded. These preliminary data document the severity of protein-energy malnutrition which accompanies initial, intense treatment of children with Wilms' tumors, the nutritional and immunological benefits of TPN during continuing intense treatment and the effectiveness of CEN in maintaining a satisfactory nutritional status during maintenance treatment.
Early and intensive nutritional strategy combining parenteral and enteral feeding promotes neurodevelopment and growth at 18months of corrected age and 3years of age in extremely low birth weight infants.
Ohnishi, Satoshi; Ichiba, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Harada, Sayaka; Matsumura, Hisako; Kan, Ayako; Asada, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo
To evaluate whether aggressive nutrition can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This single-center cohort study included 137 ELBW AGA infants born in two epochs. The first group received standard nutrition (SN; n=79) consisting of amino acids started at 0.5g/kg/day on Day 4 of life and increased to 1.0g/kg/day. The second aggressive nutrition (AN) group received amino acids started at 1.5-2.0g/kg/day within 24h of life and increased to 3.5g/kg/day. Parenteral and enteral feedings were combined in both groups. Neurodevelopmental outcomes by the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development and growth were followed up to 18months of corrected age or 3years of age and compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. At 3years of age, AN children had a significantly greater mean value of head circumference, but not length or weight, than SN children (49.1 vs 48.0cm, p=0.014). The cognitive-adaptive (C-A) score in the AN group was also significantly higher than that in the SN group (98.3 vs 91.9 at 18months, p=0.039 and 89.5 vs 83.1 at 3years, p=0.047). AN infants born ≥26weeks of gestation were less likely to develop borderline disability in C-A, language-social and overall developmental scores compared to gestational age-matched SN infants. Parenteral and enteral AN after birth improved the long-term cognitive neurodevelopment in ELBW AGA infants, especially in those born ≥26weeks of gestational age, however results need to be confirmed in a larger, multi-site randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taking into account new data and recent clinical controversies regarding nutritional support within the first 7 days of critical illness, early enteral nutrition is recommended. A normocaloric goal of 25 kcal/kg body weight/day should be achieved. In case of inadequate enteral tolerance, parenteral supplementation starting between day 3 and 5 should be selectively restricted to primarily malnourished patients and those with high risk for complications and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. This can be summarized in a clinical algorithm.
Sullivan, Mary M; Sorreda-Esguerra, Pearl; Platon, Maria Bernadette; Castro, Cynthia G; Chou, Nancy R; Shott, Susan; Comer, Gail M; Alarcon, Pedro
The objective of this study was to analyze the nutritional quality and viscosity of blenderized enteral tube feedings (BTFs) from four hospitals in the Philippines. Samples of two different BTFs (one standard and one modified) were collected from each hospital on three separate occasions and analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients, and viscosity. There was considerable variation among the BTFs for the concentrations of most nutrients measured. For standard BTF samples, the caloric density ranged from 66-123 kcal/100g and the percentages of total weight for protein, carbohydrate, and fat ranged from 1.5-4.0%, 8.6-21.4%, and 0.27-3.40%, respectively. Levels of specific vitamins were undetectable in 10 standard and 15 modified BTF samples. In samples where vitamin levels were detectable, results were: vitamin A, 625-8850 IU/kg; riboflavin, 0.40-5.00 mg/kg; and pyridoxine, 0.14-3.00 mg/kg. Mineral concentrations also varied greatly (eg calcium, 64-524 mg/kg; sodium, 148-886 mg/kg; iron, 3.0-13.7 mg/kg; and zinc, 1.8- 11.5 mg/kg). Correlation coefficients were statistically significant only for carbohydrate (r = 0.48, P = 0.017). Measured values tended to be lower than expected values for all nutrients, although the difference was statistically significant only for calories (P = 0.023). The viscosity of BTF samples ranged from 2.3-45,060 centipoise, excluding three samples that were too viscous for analysis. This study demonstrates that hospital prepared blenderized enteral tube feedings render unpredictable levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and appear likely to deliver less than the desired amounts of nutrients. Additionally, the viscosity of these feedings may be unsuitable for infusion through feeding tubes.
Sanz París, A; Marí Sanchis, A; García Malpartida, K; García Gómez, M C
We review the international recommendations on oral intake of n-3 fatty acids and their content in the enteral nutrition formulas. Their metabolic actions depend on their metabolization to EPA and DHA. The activity of desaturases catalyzing this process increases with exercise, insulin, estrogens in the fertile women, and peroxisomal proliferators, whereas it decreases with fasting, protein and oligoelements deficiencies, age < 30 years, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, trans and saturated fatty acids, insulin deficiency, and stress hormones (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). Most of the guidelines recommend that 20-35% of the total energy comes from fat, being 7-10% saturated fats, 6-10% polyunsaturated, and 20% monounsaturated, in Spain. The recommendation for n-3 FA is 0.5-2 g/day or 0.5-2% of total caloric intake, with an upper limit of 3 g/day. For n-6 FA, 2.5-10% of total caloric intake, the n-6/n-3 ratio not being well established although most of the guidelines recommend 5:1. The EPA and DHA content should be at least 500 mg per day. Finally, the EPA/DHA ratio is 2:1 in most of them. Standard nutrition formulas present an appropriate fat content, although most of the products containing EPA and DHA exceed the limit of 3 g/day. Among the products with hyperprotein and/or concentrated, only of them contains EPA y DHA. Not all the formulas used for the frail elderly contain EPA or DHA, and in those containing them their concentration may be excessive and with a proportion very dissimilar to that of fish oil.
Valproate sodium (VPA) treatment is known to reduce blood carnitine levels; however, some enteral nutrition formulas contain carnitine. The objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that blood carnitine levels are lower after VPA treatment in patients on enteral nutrition than in those on normal diet. Forty-five epilepsy patients under medical treatment in our hospital were classified according to their alimentation type into normal diet group (n = 31) and 14 on enteral nutrition group (n = 14). The differences in the blood free carnitine levels between the two groups were evaluated. Plasma free carnitine levels were below the normal value in 15 of 31 patients on normal diet and 13 of 14 patients on enteral nutrition. There was a significant reduction of the levels of carnitine in the enteral nutrition group (p < 0.001). Although normal diet contains sufficient amount of carnitine, most enteral nutrition formulas lack carnitine; and hence, blood carnitine levels in patients on enteral nutrition after VPA treatment is low. It is therefore suggested that carnitine supplemented diet is necessary for patients treated with VPA, especially for those who receive enteral nutrition.
Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Hayes, Rachel M.; Vanlaeken, Amanda H.; Norris, Patrick R.; Diaz, Jose J.; May, Addison K.; Collier, Bryan R.
Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes. PMID:25347500
Kauffmann, Rondi M; Hayes, Rachel M; VanLaeken, Amanda H; Norris, Patrick R; Diaz, Jose J; May, Addison K; Collier, Bryan R
Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes.
Guo, Guang-Hua; Xu, Cheng; Bai, Xiang-Jun; Zhan, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yan-Xia; Fang, Fang; Li, Guo-Hui
To investigate the effects of arginine enriched enteral nutrition (EN) on nutritional status and cellular immunity of severely burned patients. Randomized, single blind, parallel and positive control investigation was employed in the study. Thirty severely burned patients were divided into enteral immune nutrition (EIN) group and EN group. Sixteen patients in EIN group received enteral nutrition enriched with arginine, while the other 14 patients in EN group received standard enteral nutrition. Nutritional support was continued for 14 days. Gastrointestinal reaction of patients in 2 groups was observed. Fasting venous blood was drawn from patients of both groups before receiving nutrition treatment and on the morning of 7th, 14th day of treatment. Level of serum protein, hepatic function parameters, renal function parameters, fasting-blood glucose, and subpopulations of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were determined. (1) Incidence of gastrointestinal side effect in EIN group (25.0%) was close to that of EN group (21.4% , P > 0.05). (2) Compared with pre-treatment days, levels of prealbumin and transferrin in serum of patients in 2 groups on 7th and 14th post-treatment days were significantly increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between 2 groups. The level of total serum protein on 14th day of treatment of patients was significantly increased in both groups, and that of EIN group (66 +/- 7 g/L) was significantly higher compared with that in EN group (64 +/- 11 g/L, P < 0.05). The level of serum albumin (29 +/- 5, 32 +/- 5 g/L, respectively) of patients in EIN group on 7th and 14th day of treatment were significantly higher than that (26 +/- 4 g/L, P < 0.05) in pre-treatment days, however there was no significant difference in EN group. (3) There was no significant difference in respect of hepatic function, renal function, and fasting-blood glucose between pre-treatment and post-treatment periods in both groups (P > 0.05). (4
Bechtold, Matthew L; Mir, Fazia A; Boumitri, Christine; Palmer, Lena B; Evans, David C; Kiraly, Laszlo N; Nguyen, Douglas L
Long-term nutrition support requires long-term enteral access. To ensure the success of long-term enteral access, many factors need to be taken into consideration. This article represents a guide to placing and maintaining access in patients requiring long-term nutrition and addresses many of the common questions regarding long-term enteral access, such as indications, types of access, feeding after access placed, and recognition and treatment of potential complications. This guide will help the clinician establish and maintain access to maximize nutrition in patients requiring long-term nutrition.
Enteral nutrition with eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the early treatment of sepsis: results from a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study: the INTERSEPT Study
Introduction Enteral nutrition (EN) with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/γ-linolenic acid (GLA) is recommended for mechanically ventilated patients with severe lung injury. EPA/GLA has anti-inflammatory benefits, as evidenced by its association with reduction in pulmonary inflammation, improvement in oxygenation and improved clinical outcomes in patients with severe forms of acute lung injury. This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial designed to investigate whether EPA/GLA could have an effective role in the treatment of patients with early sepsis (systemic inflammatory response syndrome with confirmed or presumed infection and without any organ dysfunction) by reducing the progression of the disease to severe sepsis (sepsis associated with at least one organ failure) or septic shock (sepsis associated with hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation). Secondary outcomes included the development of individual organ failure, increased ICU and hospital length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation and 28-day all-cause mortality. Methods Randomization was concealed, and patients were allocated to receive, for seven days, either an EPA/GLA diet or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous control diet not enhanced with lipids. Patients were continuously tube-fed at a minimum of 75% of basal energy expenditure × 1.3. To evaluate the progression to severe sepsis and/or septic shock, daily screening for individual organ failure was performed. All clinical outcomes were recorded during a 28-day follow-up period. Results A total of 115 patients in the early stages of sepsis requiring EN were included, among whom 106 were considered evaluable. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis demonstrated that patients fed the EPA/GLA diet developed less severe sepsis and/or septic shock than patients fed the control diet (26.3% versus 50%, respectively; P = 0.0259), with similar results observed for the evaluable patients (26.4% versus 50
de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges; Bragagnolo, Rosalia
In critically ill patients there is consistent evidence that significant benefits are achieved if nutrients are delivered within the gut compared with the parenteral route. However, in conditions related to gut hypoflux, enteral nutrition may play a double role in counterbalancing the installed low-flow state. On the one hand, enteral-induced postprandial hyperemia may preserve the mucosal barrier and ameliorate immune competence; on the other hand, feeding by the gut may pose a theoretical risk of intestinal ischemia. Despite limited investigation, a strategic temporary minimal enteral nutrition with hypocaloric content has been recommended recently aiming to avoid the overfeeding syndrome and the menace of gut hypoperfusion. Under these conditions, the early luminal delivery of key nutrients such as arginine, glutamine dipeptides, antioxidants, and butyrate are an attractive option for this subset of patients. Arginine may prevent intestinal injury due to hypoperfusion but may harm the gut if ischemia is established. In contrast, glutamine may promote benefits in both conditions. Further investigations by randomized trials in this field are necessary.
Zhang, Guoyu; Zou, Jianfeng
To explore the application of enteral immune nutrition preparation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and examine the improving effects on nutritional status, immune status and acute inflammatory reaction. A total of 60 cases of hospitalized COPD patients on mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit (ICU) were randomly divided into immune nutrition group (containing essential fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, energy 1.3 kcal/ml) (study, n = 30) and standard nutrition group (self-made homogenized diet 1.2 kal/ml) (control, n = 30). Two groups received an equal calorie of enteral nutrition via a nasointestinal tube. On the day of admission and every 2 weeks, venous blood samples were drawn for measuring the serum levels of albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). And the values of upper arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were recorded simultaneously bedside. The levels of mechanical ventilation and weaning rate were compared between two groups at Day 14. The weaning rate within 14 days in study group was higher than that in control group (73.3% vs 43.3%, P < 0.05). And PA at Day 14 in study group was higher than that in control group [(188.4 ± 57.5) vs (174.6 ± 65.7) mg/L, P < 0.05], ALB at Day 14 also higher than control group [(32.7 ± 4.6) vs (30.2 ± 3.8) g/L, P < 0.05], MAMC at Day 28 better than control group [(25.5 ± 2.1) cm vs (24.3 ± 1.8) cm, P < 0.05]. No significant inter-group difference in IL-6 existed at Day 14 [(250.1 ± 110.3) vs (266.1 ± 97.3) ng/L, P > 0.05]. The study group was lower than control group at Day 28 [(108.5 ± 59.6) vs (165.7 ± 76.3) ng/L, P < 0.05]. The CRP levels at Day 14 [(12.2 ± 7.3) vs (13.2 ± 6.9) mg/L, P < 0.05] and at Day 28 [(7.5 ± 5.0) vs (9.6 ± 5.6) mg/L, P < 0.05] were lower than those of control group at Days 14 and 28. Compared with homogenized diet, immune enteral nutrition may improve the nutritional status of COPD patients, lower the levels of
Iacone, Roberto; Scanzano, Clelia; Santarpia, Lidia; D'Isanto, Anna; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio
The micronutrient content in standard enteral mixtures should be closer to the dietary reference values for a healthy population since standard enteral diets are formulated for subjects with no special nutritional needs. This study compares the micronutrient content of the most common enteral nutrition (EN) formulas with European dietary reference values (DRVs) for healthy population. Sixty-two nutritionally complete enteral formulas were considered. The micronutrient content was calculated by multiplying the value reported on the nutritional information panel of each formula by the daily dose usually prescribed. The comparison between the micronutrient content of all enteral formulas evaluated and the DRVs indicates that daily fluoride and vitamin K requirements were not covered, while an oversupply of many other micronutrients was provided. Moreover, in some enteral formulas, at a dose of 2000 Kcal/day, zinc and vitamin A content exceeded the tolerable upper limits and, for one diabetes-specific enteral formula, the chromium content exceeded the relevant European standards in both 1500 and 2000 Kcal/day diets. Most enteral formulas evaluated are generally suitable for patients on long-term total EN and formulas with higher content of a specific micronutrient may be a useful tool for patients affected by specific clinical conditions, at least for a period of time, then switching to standard enteral mixtures. The availability of nutritional enteral formulas, well balanced also for micronutrient intake, will further improve individualized treatments, particularly for patients on long-term total EN.
Hebuterne, X; Bozzetti, F; Moreno Villares, J M; Pertkiewicz, M; Shaffer, J; Staun, M; Thul, P; Van Gossum, A
This study was undertaken to report indications and practice of home enteral nutrition (HEN) in Europe. A questionnaire on HEN practice was sent to 23 centres from Belgium (B), Denmark (D), France (F), Germany (G), Italy (I), Poland (P), Spain (S) and the United Kingdom (UK). This involved adult patients newly registered in HEN programme from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 1998. A total of 1397 patients (532 women, 865 men) were registered. The median incidence of HEN was 163 patients/million inhabitants/year (range: 62-457). Age distribution was 7.5%, 16-40 years; 37.1%, 41-65 years; 34.5%, 66-80 years and 20.9% >80 years. The chief underlying diseases were a neurological disorder (49.1%), or head and neck cancer (26.5%); the main reason for HEN was dysphagia (84.6%). A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (58.2%) or a naso-gastric tube (29.3%) were used to infuse commercial standard or high energy diets (65.3%), or fibre diets (24.5%); infusion was cyclical (61.5%) or bolus (34.1%). Indications and feeds were quite similar throughout the different centres but some differences exist concerning the underlying disease. There was greater variation in the choice of tubes and mode of infusion. In F, G, I, S, and UK, costs of HEN are fully funded. In B, D, and P patients have to pay part or all of the charges. In Europe, HEN was utilised mainly in dysphagic patients with neurological disorders or cancer, using a standard feed via a PEG. However, there were important differences among the countries in the underlying diseases treated, the routes used, the mode of administration and the funding.
Lionetti, Paolo; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Ferrari, Susanna; Cavicchi, Maria Chiara; Pozzi, Elena; de Martino, Maurizio; Morelli, Lorenzo
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EN) is an established primary therapy for pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). The mechanism of action of such treatment is still conjectural. The aim of the present study was to investigate if EN-induced remission is associated with modification of the fecal microflora in CD. Stool samples were collected from 5 healthy children and adolescents over a period of 3 months, and from 9 children and adolescents with active CD. To induce disease remission, children with CD received a course of exclusive EN for 8 weeks with a polymeric formula (Modulen IBD, Nestlè). At the end of the course of exclusive EN, children returned to a free diet but continued to take 40% of the daily caloric intake as polymeric formula. Fecal microflora was analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) with direct visual comparison of band profiles of PCR products. In 8 of 9 children, the exclusive EN alone induced disease remission. In 1 child, it was necessary to add steroids to the exclusive EN course to achieve remission. In all children with CD, analysis of gel band distribution revealed profound modification of the fecal microflora after exclusive EN. Variations of band distribution corresponding to different bacterial species were observed also in children on partial EN and required time to achieve stability of the band profile. In contrast, control healthy children showed a host-specific and stable TGGE profile over time. These data suggest that a possible mechanism of action of EN in inducing disease remission in CD is the capacity of modification of gut microflora. Possible explanations of such capacity are both low residue and prebiotic properties of the polymeric liquid formula.
Lomer, M C E; Gourgey, R; Whelan, K
Nutritional assessment and dietary intervention, particularly enteral nutrition, are important in the management of Crohn's disease (CD). National audits have reported that dietetic resourcing in gastroenterology is inadequate. The present study aimed to identify current practice in the nutritional assessment and dietary management of enteral nutrition in CD, as well as investigate the factors that influenced it. A nationwide questionnaire survey adopting complete population sampling of all 296 U.K. acute hospitals was undertaken aiming to determine dietetic resourcing for gastroenterology. In addition, the case-note review method was used to investigate approaches to nutritional assessment and dietary management of enteral nutrition as treatment for active CD. Data were returned from 149 (56%) hospitals, providing assessment and management information on 190 patients. The median number of dietetic sessions dedicated to gastroenterology was 2 per week (interquartile range 4). Hospitals with five or more sessions per week dedicated to gastroenterology used a greater number of components in their nutritional assessment [mean (SD) 21.5 ( 5.0)] than those with fewer sessions [mean (SD) 19.6 (SD) 6.1, P = 0.05]. Enteral nutrition was perceived to be effective in 100 (55%) of 182 patients. The major reasons for limited success were poor compliance and inadequate volumes consumed, as well as insufficient treatment duration. The components included in a nutritional assessment of CD patients are significantly lower in hospitals with fewer dietetic gastroenterology sessions. Focus on improving compliance and duration of enteral nutrition is urgently required to maximise the success of enteral nutrition in the treatment of CD. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Gupta, Babita; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil D; Yadav, Vikas; Dhakal, Roshni; Khurana, Shally; Misra, MC
Background: Adequate nutritional support is important for the comprehensive management of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Aim: The study was aimed to survey prevalent enteral nutrition practices in the trauma intensive care unit, nurses’ perception, and their knowledge of enteral feeding. Study Design: The study was conducted in the ICU of a level 1 trauma center, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. The study design used an audit. Materials and Methods: Sixty questionnaires were distributed and the results analyzed. A database was prepared and the audit was done. Results: Forty-two (70%) questionnaires were filled and returned. A majority (38) of staff nurses expressed awareness of nutrition guidelines. A large number (32) of staff nurses knew about nutrition protocols of the ICU. Almost all (40) opined enteral nutrition to be the preferred route of nutrition unless contraindicated. All staff nurses were of opinion that enteral nutrition is to be started at the earliest (within 24–48 h of the ICU stay). Everyone opined that the absence of bowel sounds is an absolute contraindication to initiate enteral feeding. Passage of flatus was considered mandatory before starting enteral nutrition by 86% of the respondents. Everyone knew that the method of Ryle's tube feeding in their ICU is intermittent boluses. Only 4 staff nurses were unaware of any method to confirm Ryle's tube position. The backrest elevation rate was 100%. Gastric residual volumes were always checked, but the amount of the gastric residual volume for the next feed to be withheld varied. The majority said that the unused Ryle's tube feed is to be discarded after 6 h. The most preferred (48%) method to upgrade their knowledge of enteral nutrition was from the ICU protocol manual. Conclusion: Information generated from this study can be helpful in identifying nutrition practices that are lacking and may be used to review and revise enteral feeding practices where
Ding, Dayong; Feng, Ye; Song, Bin; Gao, Shuohui; Zhao, Jisheng
Effects of preoperative one week enteral nutrition (EN) support on the postoperative nutritional status, immune function and inflammatory response of gastric cancer patients were investigated. 106 cases of gastric cancer patients were randomly divided into preoperative one week EN group (trial group) and early postoperative EN group (control group), which were continuously treated with EN support until the postoperative 9th day according to different treatment protocols. All the patients were checked for their body weight, skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, white blood cell count (WBC), albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), C-reactive protein (CRP), humoral immunity (IgA, IgG), T cell subsets (CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), etc. on the preoperative and the postoperative 1st and 10th day, respectively. PA and IgG levels of the experimental group were higher than those of the control group on the postoperative 10th day, whereas IL-6 level of the experimental group was lower than that of the control group. EN support for preoperative gastric cancer patients will improve the postoperative nutritional status and immune function, alleviate inflammatory response, and facilitate the recovery of patients.
Quan, Heming; Wang, Xingpeng; Guo, Chuanyong
Objective. To analyze the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. Randomized controlled trials of TPN and EN in patients with acute pancreatitis were searched in NCBI and CBM databases and The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Six studies were enrolled into the analysis, and the details about the trial designs, characters of the subjects, results of the studies were reviewed by two independent authors and analyzed by STATA 11.0 software. Results. Compared with TPN, EN was associated with a significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infection complications (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436∼0.709, P = .000), MOF (RR = 0.395, 95% CI 0.272∼0.573, P = .003), surgical interventions (RR = 0.556, 95% CI 0.436∼0.709, P = .000), and mortality (RR = 0.426, 95% CI 0.238∼0.764, P = .167). There was no statistic significance in non-pancreatitis-related complications (RR = 0.853, 95% CI 0.490∼1.483, P = .017). However, EN had a significantly higher incidence of non-infection-related complications (RR = 2.697, 95% CI 1.947∼3.735, P = .994). Conclusion. EN could be the preferred nutrition feeding method in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:21687619
Prieto, Marta Botrán; Cid, Jesús López-Herce
Malnutrition affects 50% of hospitalized children and 25–70% of the critically ill children. It increases the incidence of complications and mortality. Malnutrition is associated with an altered metabolism of certain substrates, increased metabolism and catabolism depending on the severity of the lesion, and reduced nutrient delivery. The objective should be to administer individualized nutrition to the critically ill child and to be able to adjust the nutrition continuously according to the metabolic changes and evolving nutritional status. It would appear reasonable to start enteral nutrition within the first 24 to 48 hours after admission, when oral feeding is not possible. Parenteral nutrition should only be used when enteral nutrition is contraindicated or is not tolerated. Energy delivery must be individually adjusted to energy expenditure (40–65 kcal/100 calories metabolized/day) with a protein delivery of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Frequent monitoring of nutritional and metabolic parameters should be performed. PMID:22163211
This work synthesis the quality evolution as well as innovation and technological advances that have been proven in healthcare area and specifically in enteral nutrition field. Clarifying the most relevant landmarks and the best representative characteristics of these advances.
Rice, Todd W.; Mogan, Susan; Hays, Margaret A.; Bernard, Gordon R.; Jensen, Gordon L.; Wheeler, Arthur P.
Objective Enteral nutrition is provided to mechanically ventilated patients who cannot eat normally, yet the amount of support needed is unknown. We conducted this randomized, open-label study to test the hypothesis that initial low-volume (i.e. trophic) enteral nutrition would decrease episodes of gastrointestinal intolerance/complications and improve outcomes as compared to initial full-energy enteral nutrition in patients with acute respiratory failure. Design Randomized, open-label study Patients 200 Patients with acute respiratory failure expected to require mechanical ventilation for at least 72 hours Interventions Patients were randomized to receive either initial trophic (10 ml/hr) or full-energy enteral nutrition for the initial 6 days of ventilation. Measurements and Main Results The primary outcome measure was ventilator-free days to day 28. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 98 patients randomized to trophic and the 102 patients randomized to full-energy nutrition. At enrollment, patients had a mean APACHE II score of 26.9, PaO2/FiO2 of 182 and 38% were in shock. Both groups received similar duration of enteral nutrition (5.5 vs. 5.1 days; P=0.51). The trophic group received an average of 15 ± 11% of goal calories daily through day 6 compared to 74.8 ± 38.5% (P<0.001) for the full-energy group. Both groups had a median of 23.0 ventilator-free (P=0.90) and 21.0 ICU-free days (P=0.64). Mortality to hospital discharge was 22.4% for trophic vs. 19.6% for full-energy (P=0.62). In the first 6 days, the trophic group had trends for less diarrhea (19 vs. 24% of feeding days; P=0.08) and significantly fewer episodes of elevated gastric residual volumes (2 vs. 8% of feeding days; P<0.001). Conclusions Initial trophic enteral nutrition resulted in similar clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure as early full-energy enteral nutrition but with fewer episodes of gastrointestinal intolerance. PMID:21242788
Weenen, T C; Jentink, A; Pronker, E S; Commandeur, H R; Claassen, E; Boirie, Y; Singer, P
A quantitative systematic identification and prioritization of unmet needs and research opportunities in relation to enteral nutrition was conducted by means of a tailor-made health research prioritization process. The research objectives were reached by conducting qualitative interviews followed by quantitative questionnaires targeting enteral nutrition key opinion leaders (KOLs). (1) Define disease areas that deserve more research attention; (2) Rank importance of product characteristics of tube feeding (TF) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS); (3) Assess involvement of KOLs in enteral nutrition R&D process. KOLs ranked three product characteristics and three disease areas that deserve additional research attention. From these, overall priority scores were calculated by multiplying ranks for both product characteristics and disease areas. 17 qualitative interviews were conducted and 77 questionnaires (response rate 35%) were completed and returned. (1) Disease areas in ONS and TF with highest priorities are: ONS: general malnutrition & geriatrics, TF: intensive care. (2) TF product characteristics with highest priorities are: composition and clinical evidence from a KOL perspective; tolerance and ease of use from a patient perspective. ONS product characteristics with highest priorities are: composition, clinical evidence and taste from a KOL perspective; taste from a patient perspective. We find a high discrepancy between product characteristic prioritization from a KOL and patient perspective. (3) Although 62% of all KOLs give advice to enteral nutrition companies on patient needs, they under-influence the setting of research priorities by enteral nutrition companies. This study provides a systematic approach to achieve research prioritization in enteral nutrition. In addition to providing new directions for enteral nutrition research and development, this study highlights the relevance of involving KOLs in the identification of research priorities as they
Vieira, Maricy Machado Cavalca; Santos, Valdirene Francisca Neves; Bottoni, Andrea; Morais, Tania Beninga
Serious nutritional and contamination risks may be involved in the preparation of blenderized tube-feeding diets and in the handling of commercial diets. Their nutritional and microbiological quality in home settings is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional and microbiological quality of commercial enteral and homemade blenderized whole foods diets intended to adult patients in home nutritional therapy. In a cross sectional study, 66 samples of commercial (CD) and noncommercial (NCD) enteral diets were collected at the homes of patients in home enteral nutritional therapy, 33 of each type. Commercial diets were either powder (PCD; n = 13) or liquid (LCD; n = 20). The samples were analyzed in laboratory to assess their nutritional and microbiological quality. Anthropometric data of mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold (TST) thickness were obtained from the patients' medical records. NCD presented significantly lower values for protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate and energy while water content was significantly higher. PCD and LCD did not show any statistically significant differences between them. In the NCD, the values measured for macronutrients and energy corresponded to less than 50% of the prescribed values (except for fat). In CD, protein value was about 20% more than the prescribed value; fat and energy values corresponded to approximately 100% of the prescription, while carbohydrate corresponded to 92%. Regardless the type of the diet, prevalence of undernutrition was high in both groups though patients of the NCD presented a higher percentage. Samples of NCD complied significantly less with the microbiological standards; only 6.0% complied with the standard for coliform bacteria. Escherichia coli was detected in 10, 2, and 2 samples of NCD, PCD and LCD, respectively. Homemade blenderized enteral diets showed low values of energy and macronutrients, delivered less than 50% of the prescribed values and had
Erdil, Ahmet; Saka, Mendane; Ates, Yuksel; Tuzun, Ahmet; Bagci, Sait; Uygun, Ahmet; Yesilova, Zeki; Gulsen, Mustafa; Karaeren, Necmettin; Dagalp, Kemal
Since it was described in 1980, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been a widely used method for insertion of a gastrostomy tube in patients who are unable to swallow or maintain adequate nutrition. The aim of the present paper was to determine the complications of PEG insertion and to study pre- and post-procedural nutritional status. During the period of March 1999-September 2004, placement of PEG tube was performed in 85 patients (22 women and 63 men). Patient nutritional status was assessed before and after PEG insertion via anthropometric measurements. The most frequent indication for PEG insertion was neurological disorders (65.9%). Thirty patients died due to primary disease and two patients due to PEG-related complications within 5 years. There were 14 early complications in 10 patients (15.2%; <30 days), and 18 late complications in 12 patients (19.6%). Total mortality was 37.6%. All complications other than four were minor. Before PEG insertion, patients were assessed with subjective global assessment and it was determined that 43.2% of them had severe, and 41.9% of them had mild malnutrition. After PEG insertion, significant improvements on patient nutrition levels was observed. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a minimally invasive gastrostomy method with low morbidity and mortality rates, is easy to follow up and easy to replace when clogged. (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Homann, H H; Kemen, M; Fuessenich, C; Senkal, M; Zumtobel, V
Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Although the causes of diarrhea are diverse, the enteral nutrition solution is frequently suspected of playing a leading role in causing diarrhea. Our randomized, prospective, double-blind trial with 100 patients assessed the effects of feeding a standard diet (Nutrodrip Standard) vs the same diet supplemented with 20 g of soluble fiber, containing partially hydrolyzed guar gum (Sunfiber), per 1000 mL. Thirty patients received total enteral nutrition postoperatively, and 70 patients received enteral supplementation. The patients receiving total enteral nutrition with soluble fiber had decreased diarrhea but increased flatulence. In none of these patients did enteral feeding have to be discontinued because of gastrointestinal side effects, whereas in four patients who were on a standard diet, enteral feeding had to be interrupted because of diarrhea (p < .05). Similar observations were made in patients receiving enteral supplementation. In both groups, the incidence of diarrhea decreased significantly with the soluble fiber diet compared with the standard diet (6 vs 15, p < .05). Enteral feeding with a formula supplemented with partially hydrolyzed guar gum reduces the incidence of diarrhea in patients receiving total enteral nutrition as well as in those receiving enteral supplementation, regardless of the cause of diarrhea. The increased hydrogen production and the significantly higher rate of flatulence are likely to result from fermentation of the soluble fiber in the colon, with concomitant production of short-chain fatty acids, which leads to increased absorption of short-chain fatty acids, sodium, and water by the colonocytes. This effect, together with the observed cholecystokinin-mediated decrease in colonic transit time with partially hydrolyzed guar gum, may explain the reduction in the incidence of diarrhea in this study.
Patients receiving enteral tube feeding are often encountered in the ward environment of an acute care setting. Patients may receive enteral tube feed through tubes intended for short-term feeding, or they may have a long-term feeding tube in situ. This article aims to provide a practical overview of feeding solutions and administration to enable nursing staff to understand prescribed regimens and provide patients with optimum care.
Wei, Junmin; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Mingwei; Cao, Weixin; Wang, Xinying; Shi, Hanping; Dong, Birong; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Huaihong; Zhou, Yeping; Zhou, Suming; Xu, Jingyong
The mortality and morbidity of geriatric patients is much higher than for younger patients, especially when critically ill. This may be attributed to a lower reserve capacity in most organs and systems, reduced ability to deal with physical stress and the presence of acute or chronic co-mobidities. Parenteral and enteral nutrition support can improve the clinical condition of the elderly patient and result in better outcomes, such as lower mortality, reduced hospital stay and reduced medical costs. There is a need to standardize nutrition screening and assessment, and the implementation of appropriate evidence based nutritional support of geriatric patients in China. The Chinese Medical Association's Group of Geriatric Nutrition Support has developed guidelines by researching the present situation in Chinese hospitals and by referring to the guidelines from both American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN).
Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta
This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum protein<5.0 g/dl) or a fair nutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.
Kang, Yunkyeong; Lee, Ho-Sun; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Woo-Sub; Yang, Mihi
Enteral nutritional support has been used via tube feeding for dysphagic stroke patients. We performed long and short term trials to evaluate the effects of commercial enteral nutritional supports on nutrition and health in stroke patients (mRS = 3~5) and quality of life in their caregivers. For a long term study, we recruited chronic (≥ 1 yrs) stroke patients (n = 6) and administered them 6 cans/day (1,200 kcal) of the commercial enteral formula N for 6 months according to IRB-approved protocol. We collected peripheral blood at 0, 2, 4 and 6 months. For a short term study, we recruited acute (≤ 3 months) stroke patients (n = 12) and randomly administered them two different commercial enteral formulas, N or J, for 2 weeks. We collected their blood at 0, 4, 7 and 14 day of the administration. Blood samples were analyzed to quantify 19 health and nutritional biomarkers and an oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA). In order to evaluate quality of life, we also obtained the sense of competence questionnaire (SCQ) from all caregivers at 'before' and 'after trials'. As results, the enteral formula, N, improved hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the long term trial and maintained most of biomarkers within normal ranges. The SCQ levels of caregivers were improved in the long term treatment (P < 0.05). In a case of the short term study, both of enteral formulas were helpful to maintain nutritional status of the patients. In addition, MDA levels were decreased in the acute patients following formula consumption (0.05 < P < 0.1). Most of health and nutrition outcomes were not different, even though there is a big difference in price of the two products. Thus, we evaluate the formula N has equal nutritional efficacy compared to the formula J. In addition, long term use of enteral formula N can be useful to health and nutrition of stroke patients, and the quality of life for their caregivers.
Jukic P, Nikolina; Gagliardi, Cristina; Fagnani, Donata; Venturini, Claudia; Orlandoni, Paolo
The purpose of this study was to comprehend and describe the views, experiences and adaptations of caregivers who assist older patients treated with Home Enteral Nutrition. The objective was to gather empirical evidence to improve the delivery of Home Enteral Nutrition for old patients taking into account the caregivers' support needs. A qualitative methodology with focus groups as data collection method was used to collect the testimonies of 30 informal and formal caregivers of older patients treated with Home Enteral Nutrition by the Clinical Nutrition Service of INRCA (Ancona) during 2014. Quantitative methodology was used to collect socio-demographic data. Partially modified Silver's "Home Enteral Nutrition Caregiver Task Checklist" was used to identify training needs. The constant comparison method was used to code and categorize data and to develop themes of focus groups. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarize questionnaires. Five main themes were identified from focus groups: acceptance of the therapy, skill acquisition process, need for psychological and practical support at home from healthcare professionals, lifestyle adaptation, affirmation of life and family. All caregivers testified the initial fear and refusal to manage the nutrition pump and the therapy. They expressed the need to be trained gradually, starting during a patient's hospitalization, and continuing in the community. With reference to their overall QoL, it emerged that informal caregivers suffered mostly from the reduction of their free time while formal caregivers suffered social isolation and psychological burden. For both groups the monthly home visit was the most important element of the HEN service. Informal caregivers highlighted the importance of having their loved ones at home. Unsatisfied training needs were identified by the modified Silver's "Home Enteral Nutrition Caregiver Task Checklist". This qualitative study underlined the challenges and adaptations of
Hu, Liang; Yin, Xiangdang; Chu, Haifeng; Zheng, Guangli
Objective: To evaluate the effects of early enteral micro-feeding on neonatal serum vitamin D levels, and to analyze the application value of glutamine. Methods: One hundred ninty neonates enrolled in intensive care unit were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n=95) that were both given enteral and parenteral nutrition support. Meanwhile, the treatment group was fed formula milk containing 0.3 g/(kg·d) glutamine as enteral nutrition support for 14 days. Results: The weight of the treatment group increased significantly faster than that of the control group did (P<0.05). The treatment group had significantly higher milk amount and calorie intake than those of the control group (P<0.05), and neonates in the treatment group who reached calorie intake of 50/80/100 kcal/kg/d were significantly younger (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the treatment group was significantly less prone to feeding intolerance than the control group (P<0.05). After 14 days of feeding, the serum motilin, gastrin and vitamin D levels of both groups all increased, with significant intra-group and inter-group differences. Such levels of the treatment group significantly exceeded those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementing early enteral micro-feeding with glutamine promoted the absorption of neonatal routine nutrients and vitamin D, obviously regulated gastrointestinal hormones, and elevated weight as a result. PMID:26870119
Akuzawa, Nobuhiro; Takeuchi, Aya Murata; Tsukagoshi, Jun; Kaneko, Ryoko; Naito, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Takahisa; Sunaga, Yasuo; Tashiro, Masahiko
The early institution of enteral nutrition is associated with beneficial outcomes and intestinal growth in pediatric patients. However, the number, frequency, and types of unfavorable events occurring with particular formulas are undefined. We experienced unexpected complications in two cases following a change in formula. One case diagnosed with myotubular myopathy experienced highly-increased gastric residuals and watery diarrhea leading to decreased calorie intake and weight loss. The second case with campomelic dysplasia suffered liver dysfunction and fever. In both cases, symptoms developed soon after of the change in formula and improved after resumption of the previous formula. Both cases had undergone tracheostomy and artificial ventilation, and had a history of feeding the same formula for an extended period of time. In chronic care patients such as ours, a change in formula may cause unexpected adverse events; therefore, caution is warranted. PMID:27785247
Tan, Shan-Jun; Yu, Chao; Yu, Zhen; Lin, Zhi-Liang; Wu, Guo-Hao; Yu, Wen-Kui; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Ning
Peritoneal air exposure is needed in open abdominal surgery, but long-time exposure could induce intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction followed by many postoperative complications. High-fat enteral nutrition can ameliorate intestinal injury and improve intestinal function in many gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high-fat enteral nutrition on intestinal mucosal barrier after peritoneal air exposure and the underlying mechanism. Male adult rats were administrated saline, low-fat or high-fat enteral nutrition via gavage before and after peritoneal air exposure for 3 h. Rats undergoing anesthesia without laparotomy received saline as control. Twenty four hours after surgery, samples were collected to assess intestinal mucosal barrier changes in serum D-lactate levels, intestinal permeability, intestinal tight junction protein ZO-1 and occludin levels, and intestinal histopathology. The levels of malondialdehyde and the activity of superoxide dismutase in the ileum tissue were also measured to assess the status of intestinal oxidative stress. High-fat enteral nutrition significantly decreased the serum D-lactate level and increased the intestinal tight junction protein ZO-1 level when compared to the group treated with low-fat enteral nutrition (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, histopathologic findings showed that the intestinal mucosal injury assessed by the Chiu's score and the intestinal epithelial tight junction were also improved much more in the high-fat enteral nutrition-treated group (P < 0.05). In addition, the intestinal malondialdehyde level was lower, and the intestinal superoxide dismutase activity was higher in the high-fat enteral nutrition-treated group than that in the low-fat enteral nutrition-treated group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that high-fat enteral nutrition could reduce intestinal mucosal barrier damage after peritoneal air exposure, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with its antioxidative
Lochs, H; Allison, S P; Meier, R; Pirlich, M; Kondrup, J; Schneider, St; van den Berghe, G; Pichard, C
The ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition are the first evidence-based European recommendations for enteral nutrition. They were established by European experts for a variety of disease groups. During guideline development it became evident that terms and definitions in clinical nutrition have been used inconsistently depending on medical disciplines as well as regional and personal preferences. Therefore, to increase explanatory accuracy it was necessary to unify them. In this chapter terms and definitions used throughout all guidelines are explained. Additionally answers to more general questions, which might be important in most indications are dealt with, i.e. use of fibre containing and diabetes formulae.
Rugeles, Saúl; Villarraga-Angulo, Luis Gabriel; Ariza-Gutiérrez, Aníbal; Chaverra-Kornerup, Santiago; Lasalvia, Pieralessandro; Rosselli, Diego
Appropriate caloric intake in critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition is controversial. This study evaluates the impact of different caloric regimens on severity of organ failure measured with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). We conducted a randomized prospective controlled trial. Study population included adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients expected to require enteral nutrition for more than 96 hours. Goals in the intervention group were hypocaloric (15 kcal/kg per day) enteral nutrition compared to normocaloric (25 kcal/kg per day) enteral nutrition, both with hyperproteic intake (1.7 g of protein/kg per day). Primary end point was change in SOFA score (ΔSOFA) from baseline at 48 hours. Secondary end points were ΔSOFA at 96 hours, insulin requirements, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemic episodes, length of ICU stay, days on ventilator, and 28-day mortality. After screening 443 patients, 120 patients were analyzed. There were no differences between groups in baseline characteristics. We did not find a statistically significant difference in ΔSOFA at 48 hours. Patients in the hypocaloric group showed lower average daily insulin requirements and percentage of patients requiring any insulin. Hyperproteic, hypocaloric nutrition did not show different outcomes compared to normocaloric nutrition, except lower insulin requirements. Hypocaloric nutrition could provide a more physiologic approach with lower need for care and metabolic impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kazamias, P; Kotzampassi, K; Koufogiannis, D; Eleftheriadis, E
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate whether enteral nutrition-induced postprandial intestinal hyperemia has a beneficial effect on the splanchnic ischemia due to sepsis. Fourteen dogs, after exposure to Escherichia coli endotoxin via portal vein administration were grouped according to whether they were fed enterally via a jejunostomy or given a placebo. Systemic hemodynamics; portal vein, hepatic, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow; hepatic and intestinal microcirculation; hepatic tissue PO2; intestinal pHi; and hepatic energy charge were assessed before, during, and after endotoxin infusion as well as during and after enteral or placebo feeding. All splanchnic hemodynamic parameters revealed a statistically significant decline (p = 0.001) during the endotoxin shock period relative to the baseline. After enteral feeding all parameters exhibited a statistically significant increase (p = 0.001) relative to the placebo group. The results of this study led us to suggest that enteral nutrition reverses the lipopolysaccharide infusion-induced splanchnic ischemia.
Bertullo, H; Olano, E; Ferradas, A; Barrial, N; Tihista, S
Ostomies are the nutritional route of choice when artificial nutrition could be necessary during more than thirty days. The surgical jejunostomy (SJ) is especially indicated in the patient undergoing major surgery of the digestive tract and the complications thereof. The present retrospective revision includes 57 cases of SJ followed during more than five days. The patients needed surgical treatment in nearly 80%. For the SJ the Witzel technique was used, with 18 Fr or more catheters. The mixes used were polymeric, in a closed circuit. The patients were a mean 60 +/- 13 years of age and 68.4% were male. They presented a medium level of undernourishment, with a 13% weight loss and a mean albumin level of 30.6 +/- 6.8 g/1000 cc. The Index of Nutritional Risk on average was 71.7 (normal 100). Complications appeared in 9/57 cases (15.7%), with the jejunostomy beginning to be used on average 2.3 +/- 2.4 days after surgery. Some form of support previous to the SJ was necessary in 31/57 patients, and 37/57 had another nutritional route in addition to the jejunostomy during an average of 8.9 +/- 11.1 days. In 49/57 patients (85.9%), 75% of the estimated calories were obtained in an average of 6.4 +/- 4.0 days, and in 42/57 patients (73.6%), 100% of the calories were obtained in an average of 8.6 +/- 3.0 days. Intolerance to the artificial nutrition occurred in 29/57 cases (50.8%), with diarrhoea being the most frequent in 16/57 (28.0%). The jejunostomy lasted for a mean of 28.4 +/- 43.0 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Vidal, Alfonso; de la Cuerda, Cristina; Luis Escat, José; Bretón, Irene; Camblor, Miguel; García-Peris, Pilar
External beam radiation of abdominal and pelvic cavities is a current therapy for gynaecological cancer that often produces radiation-induced bowel injury and malnutrition. A 72-year old patient underwent surgery and external beam radiation therapy for an ovarian carcinoma. Two years later she was found to have intestinal pseudoobstruction related to chronic radiation enteritis and protein-energy malnutrition. Home parenteral nutrition was prescribed due to poor oral intake, but it was discontinued after 6 catheter-related sepsis and upper cava vein thrombosis. Parenteral nutrition could be reintroduced after an angioplasty of that vein, and the patient was operated on with the finding of an incarcerated ileum eventration. Nowadays she maintains a normal nutritional status with oral diet. Radiation enteritis can lead to perforation, fistulae or strictures of the bowel. Malnutrition is common and parenteral nutrition may be necessary. Surgery can solve these complications, achieves good survival rates and can allow stopping parenteral nutrition.
Kim, Hyunjung; Choi-Kwon, Smi
This study aimed to assess the changes in nutritional status in Korean ICU patients receiving enteral feeding, and to understand the contribution of baseline nutritional status and energy intake to nutritional changes during the ICU stay. This was a prospective study of nutritional changes in 48 ICU patients receiving enteral feeding for 7 days. The Subjective Global Assessment scale was used upon admission. In addition, anthropometric measures (triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, body mass index and percent ideal body weight) and biochemical measures (albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin and total lymphocyte count) were evaluated twice, upon admission and 7 days after admission. Seventy-five percent of ICU patients were severely malnourished at admission. Although the nutritional status worsened in both the patients with suspected malnourishment and the patients with severe malnutrition at admission, the nutritional status worsened significantly more in the patients with severe malnutrition than in the patients with suspected malnourishment. Moreover, a number of nutritional measures significantly decreased more in underfed patients than in adequately fed patients. The most significant predicting factor for underfeeding was under-prescription. The ICU patients in our study were severely malnourished at admission, and their nutritional status worsened during their ICU stay even though enteral nutritional support was provided. The changes in nutritional status during the ICU stay were related to the patients' baseline nutritional status and underfeeding during their ICU stay. This study highlights an urgent need to provide adequate nutritional support for ICU patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A
It is clear that cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may or may not be indicated in these patients depending on individual patient characteristics. This review article, the first in a series of articles to examine the A.S.P.E.N. Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients Cancer Guidelines, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in cancer patients. This first article will provide background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients as well as discuss the role of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in the care of cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the Clinical Guidelines, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequent published studies. Future articles will explore the guidelines related to nutrition support in oncology patients receiving anticancer therapies.
Patel, Jyoti K.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Goldberg, David J.; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Dodds, Kathryn; Rychik, Jack
Background Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) is a challenging complication after Fontan operation. Subclinical enteric protein loss may precede development of overt PLE. We evaluated the acute effects of Fontan circulation on enteric protein loss and mesenteric vascular resistance. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed evaluating enteric protein loss in children undergoing Fontan operation. Stool alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) concentration was measured in the pre-operative, early post-operative, and intermediate post-operative (3–9 months) periods. The intestinal circulation was characterized by Doppler-derived resistance indices of the superior mesenteric artery, and serum albumin and protein levels were obtained. Results We enrolled 33 subjects at a median age at operation of 3.0 (2.5–3.3) years. No clinical PLE was observed. Six of the 93 stool A1AT samples obtained were elevated (>54 mg/dl), with two abnormal samples at each of the three time points. Two of the five subjects with elevated stool A1AT values had significant hemodynamic disturbances requiring intervention (junctional bradycardia or tricuspid stenosis). There was no difference in superior mesenteric artery resistance in the pre-operative versus early post-operative period (p=0.9). Serum albumin levels were lower in the early post-operative period compared to the pre-operative period (3.2 mg/dl [IQR 2.9–3.5] vs. 4.1 mg/dl [IQR 3.4–4.5], p=0.01) but did not correlate with abnormal stool A1AT concentration or superior mesenteric artery resistance indices. Conclusions The Fontan operation does not commonly result in acute development of increased enteric protein loss. However, increased enteric protein loss may occur in children before or after Fontan operation, particularly when hemodynamic disturbances are present. PMID:26652137
Wang, Xin-ying; Pan, Shi-hai; Liu, Xin-xin; Wu, Guo-hao; Wang, Ya-nong; Liu, Yu-xiu; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-shou
To investigate the effect of Nutrition MCT and Nutrition MF enteral nutrition on nutritional status of patients after major abdominal operation. In a double- blinded and randomized cross- cover study, Nutrition MCT and Nutrition MF enteral nutrition were fed in patients when the gut function restored after operation. The total calorie was 104.6 kJ(25 kcal) x kg(-1) x d(-1) and the period of full dose of enteral nutrition was 5 days. The blood samples were collected before operation,before enteral nutrition and the sixth day after full dose of enteral nutrition for the measurement of pre- albumin, total protein,albumin, transferrin and triglyceride. The urine, stool and drainage fluid were collected to analyze nitrogen balance. The plasma protein and fat were obviously dropped in patients after abdominal operation and improved after the enteral nutrition support in two groups. However, the pre- albumin level increased more in patients of Nutrition MCT than Nutrition MF. Nutrition MCT can obviously improve the nutritional status of patients after major abdominal operation.
[Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically ill-patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): severe acute pancreatitis].
Bordejé Laguna, L; Lorencio Cárdenas, C; Acosta Escribano, J
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) causes local and systemic complications leading to high catabolic, hypermetabolic and hyperdynamic stress states with marked morbidity and mortality. In the last decade, nutritional support has become a key element in the treatment of SAP. Thus, specialized nutrition is indicated from admission, with enteral nutrition being preferred to parenteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition should be initiated early using infusion through the jejunum beyond the ligament of Treitz to minimize pancreatic stress. There are no specific studies that establish the type of diet to be used but experts recommend the use of polymeric diets. Parenteral nutrition, without a specific formula, is indicated in patients with SAP who are intolerant to enteral nutrition or when the clinical signs of pancreatitis are exacerbated or aggravated by enteral nutrition. Even so, a minimal level of enteral infusion should be maintained to preserve the trophic effect of the intestinal mucosa. In the last few years, several studies of the administration of immunomodulatory diets in patients with SAP have been carried out to demonstrate their effects on the course of the disease. However, there are few clear recommendations on the prognostic benefits of pharmaconutrient enriched diets in these patients. There is substantial scientific evidence suggesting that the only clear indication for pharmaconutrition in patients with SAP is parenteral glutamine administration, which is recommended by all clinical guidelines with distinct grades of evidence.
Moreno, Christophe; Deltenre, Pierre; Senterre, Christelle; Louvet, Alexandre; Gustot, Thierry; Bastens, Boris; Hittelet, Axel; Piquet, Marie-Astrid; Laleman, Wim; Orlent, Hans; Lasser, Luc; Sersté, Thomas; Starkel, Peter; De Koninck, Xavier; Negrin Dastis, Sergio; Delwaide, Jean; Colle, Isabelle; de Galocsy, Chantal; Francque, Sven; Langlet, Philippe; Putzeys, Virginie; Reynaert, Hendrik; Degré, Delphine; Trépo, Eric
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening disease for which adequate oral nutritional support is recommended. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether the combination of corticosteroid and intensive enteral nutrition therapy is more effective than corticosteroid therapy alone in patients with severe AH. We enrolled 136 heavy consumers of alcohol (age, 18-75 y) with recent onset of jaundice and biopsy-proven severe AH in our study, performed at 18 hospitals in Belgium and 2 in France, from February 2010 through February 2013. Subjects were assigned randomly (1:1) to groups that received either intensive enteral nutrition plus methylprednisolone or conventional nutrition plus methylprednisolone (controls). In the intensive enteral nutrition group, enteral nutrition was given via feeding tube for 14 days. The primary end point was patient survival for 6 months. In an intention-to-treat analysis, we found no significant difference between groups in 6-month cumulative mortality: 44.4% of patients died in the intensive enteral nutrition group (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.2%-55.9%) and 52.1% of controls died (95% CI, 39.4%-63.4%) (P = .406). The enteral feeding tube was withdrawn prematurely from 48.5% of patients, and serious adverse events considered to be related to enteral nutrition occurred in 5 patients. Regardless of group, a greater proportion of patients with a daily calorie intake less than 21.5 kcal/kg/day died (65.8%; 95% CI, 48.8-78.4) than patients with a higher intake of calories (33.1%; 95% CI, 23.1%-43.4%) (P < .001). In a randomized trial of patients with severe AH treated with corticosteroids, we found that intensive enteral nutrition was difficult to implement and did not increase survival. However, low daily energy intake was associated with greater mortality, so adequate nutritional intake should be a main goal for treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01801332. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by
Tran, Micheline; Raynard, Bruno; Bataillard, Anne; Duguet, Agnès; Garabige, Valérie; Lallemand, Yolande; Meuric, Jocelyne; Rossignol, Ginette; Schneider, Stéphane; Simon, Mireille; Bachmann, Patrick; Nitenberg, Gérard; Combret, Dominique; Piquet, Marie-Astrid; Arnaud-Battandier, Franck; Bredeau, Olivier; Petit, Françoise; Triqueneau, Olivier; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Bonnet-Pommatau, Laure
The "Standards, Options and Recommendations" (SOR) project, which started in 1993, is a collaboration between the French Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC), the 20 French Regional Cancer Centers, and specialists from French public universities, general hospitals and private clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and the outcome of cancer patients. To develop good practice guidelines for a good practice of enteral nutrition in oncology, in collaboration with three French learned societies involved in this area. The methodology is based on a literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts who define the CPGs according to the definitions of the Standards, Options and Recommendations project. Once the guideline has been defined, the document is submitted for review by independent reviewers. The good practices suggested in the document approach seven topics: indications and counter-indications, conditions of the installation of the enteral nutrition, monitoring, prevention of complications, education of the patient, specificities of enteral nutrition in children and at home. In the setting of enteral nutrition, feeding tubes, type of insertion, enteral nutrition products, material and techniques of administration are described as well as the criteria permitting their selection.
Xi, Fengchan; Li, Ning; Geng, Yanxia; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Juanjuan; Jun, Tanshan; Lin, Zhiliang; Li, Weiqin; Zhu, Weiming; Yu, Wenkui; Li, Jieshou
Although different studies suggest that early enteral nutrition (EEN) has benefits in reducing infectious complications, there is no data that addresses whether delayed enteral nutrition (EN) is detrimental and if it may have effects on inflammatory responses and immune function. Forty-five critically ill patients with long fasting were randomly allocated in two groups according to the type of nutritional support. The first group included patients assuming a standard enteral nutrition (EN, n = 22) and the second group assuming a parenteral nutrition (PN, n = 23). The daily nutritional amount was 25 kcal (105 kJ)/kg for all patients. The inflammatory markers white blood cells (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-4, IL- 10 and the immune T-lymphocyte sub-populations CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and HLA-DR+ were evaluated at day 1, and after 2, 3 and 7 days. IL-4, IL-10, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were not statistically different between the two groups. WBC and TNF-α in EN patients were higher than those in PN after 3 and 7 days (P < 0.05). CRP and IL-6 levels were higher in EN patients than those assuming a PN after 2 and 3 days (P < 0.05). HLA-DR levels in patients assuming an EN were found higher than those in PN at day 7 (P < 0.05). Delayed EN for critically ill patients with long-term fasting increased systemic inflammatory responses, whereas EN could modify immune function, therefore reducing hospital stay and costs.
Planas, M; Lecha, M; García Luna, P P; Chamorro, J; Zamarrón, I; Parés, R M; Bonada, A; Cardona, D; Jiménez, M; Irles, J A; Boris, M A; Rodríguez, A; Calañas, A J; Camarero, E; Martí, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Mancha, A; Gómez Enterría, P; de Luis, D; Muñoz, A; Bayo, P; Luengo, L M
To communicate the information available by the NADYA-SENPE Working Group from patients on Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in our country during the year 2002. The data were collected through a closed questionnaire included in the web site of the Working Group (www.nadya-senpe.com) available only by the authorized users. Variable included were: epidemiological information, the indication to prescribe this treatment, the access path, the specific nutritional formula used, the treatment duration, the complications and hospital readmission related to the nutritional treatment, the follow-up and the quality of life. We register 3967 patients that belong to twenty-one hospitals. Mean age from those adults 69.2 +/- 19.2 years, and from those younger than 14, 5.6 +/- 4.1 years. Neurological and neoplasic diseases were the diagnostics more frequents (39.2% and 34.6%, respectively). Oral nutrition was the preferential rout used for the enteral nutrition (53.6%) followed by naso-enteral tube (30.6%), and only in 15.8% we used ostomy tubes. Polymeric was the enteral formula mainly utilized (81.5%). The mean time on HEN was 5.8 +/- 4.4 months; the 35.7% of patients stayed in the treatment for less than 3 months, 22.4% between 3 and 6 months, and 41.6% more than 6 months. Patients were followed mainly by Nutritional Support Unit from the reference hospital (75.3%). While the reference hospital supplies the material (65.7%), reference hospital pharmacy (43%) and public pharmacies (37.3%) provides the enteral formula. Complications related to enteral nutrition included change of enteral tube (29.7%), mechanical complications (22.9%), gastrointestinal complications (22.9%), and the metabolic one (9.2%). These complications were followed by 0.02 hospitalizations/patient. At the end of the year, 49.3% of patients were in the HEN programme, and in 41.5% HEN was finish due to accept oral conventional alimentation (47.3%) or by deceased of patients. While 31.8% of the patients were
Dai, Gaiguo; Wu, Denghai; Lian, Jianan; Ma, Hongmei; Jiang, Binhua
To evaluate the effect of microecologic treatment combined enteral nutrition on serum endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-18 (IL-18), blood ammonia levels and nutritional status in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. 60 patients with hepatic encephalopathy were allocted randomly into 3 groups, on the basis of conventional liver protective therapy and uragogue with one group given probiotics plus enteral nutrition, one given probiotics only, and the 3rd group given intravenous nutrition. The whole course of treatment was four weeks. Serum levels of endotoxin, TNF-α, IL-18, ammonia and albumin were determined before and on the 7th and 14th day after treatment. The levels of serum endotoxin, TNF-α, IL-18 and blood ammonia in the combined treatment group decreased remarkably after treatment, while the level of serum albumin elevated markedly. The difference was significant at statistics as compared with the only probiotics group and intravenous nutrition group (P < 0.05). Microecologic treatment combined enteral nutrition could effectively reduce blood ammonia and serum endotoxin levels, protect intestinal mucosal barrier, as well as improve nutritional status of patients with hepatic encephalopathy, which was considered as a safe and efficient therapy.
Baker, S D; Cotugna, N
The British Dietetic Association and the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations are developing an international model for dietetics practice as an aid in providing evidence-based practice. In the USA, undergraduate programmes are mandated by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association) to incorporate the nutrition care process (NCP) into the curriculum so that students can use the process during their dietetic internship and later practice. The present study aimed to assess interns' readiness in the NCP prior to beginning a dietetic internship. Before starting the internship, the 40 interns in the 2009-2010 class of a university-based internship were sent an e-mail requesting they complete an online survey. Questions inquired about their NCP background with respect to: academic preparation, work or volunteer experiences, knowledge and confidence in ability to apply the NCP. Survey results were analysed with SPSS statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The 39 interns completing the survey indicated they had prior exposure to the NCP. All but one reported that their academic coursework covered the NCP. Approximately half of the interns worked or volunteered in settings that used the NCP. Overall, students correctly answered most of the questions assessing their basic knowledge in the NCP. Thirty-seven of the 39 interns had some confidence or felt confident in their ability to apply the NCP during internship rotations. This distance internship attracts students from all over the USA, and so the findings of the present study shed light on current undergraduate preparation in the NCP. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M.; Rioja, Luis F.; DeRosier, Leo C.; de la Torre, Jorge I.
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition in burn patients minimizes the drop in fT3 levels, reduces the potential for euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), and shortens the length of hospital stay (LHS). Subjects and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated the statistical association of serum fT3, fT4, and TSH at the first (2nd–5th day) and second sample collection (9th–12th day) after the burn injury in 152 burn patients. Three groups were established depending on time of initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition: <24 h before the injury (Group 1), 24–48 h after the injury (Group 2), and >48 h after the injury (Group 3). Results. They were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. We found that LHS and the fT3 levels were statistically different in the 3 groups. The LHS (in days) was, respectively, in each group, 16.77 ± 4.56, 21.98 ± 4.86, and 26.06 ± 5.47. Despite the quantifiable drop in fT3, ESS was present only at the first sample collection (2.61 ± 0.92 days) in Group 3, but there was no group with ESS at the second sample collection (9.89 ± 1.01 days). Our data suggest that early initiation of nutritional supplementation decreases the length of hospitalization and is associated with decreasing fT3 serum concentration depression. Conclusion. Early initiation of oral/enteral nutrition counteracts ESS and improves the LHS in burn patients. PMID:23401683
Colomar, A; Guardiola, B; Llompart-Pou, J A; Ayestarán, I; Rodríguez-Pilar, J; Ferreruela, M; Raurich, J M
To evaluate the effect of enteral nutrition volume, gastrointestinal function and the type of acid suppressive drug upon the incidence of lower respiratory tract infections in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). A retrospective secondary analysis was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital. Patients≥18-years-old expected to need MV for more than four days, and receiving enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube within 24h of starting MV. We correlated enteral nutrition volume administered during the first 10 days, gastrointestinal function and the type of acid suppressive therapy with the episodes of lower respiratory tract infection up until day 28. Cox proportional hazards ratios in univariate and adjusted multivariate models were used. Statistical significance was considered for p<0.05. Lower respiratory tract infection episodes. Sixty-six out of 185 patients (35.7%) had infection; 27 patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia; and 39 presented ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. Uninfected and infected groups were similar in terms of enteral nutrition volume (54±12 and 54±9mL/h; p=0.94) and caloric intake (19.4±4.9 and 19.6±5.2kcal/kg/d; p=0.81). The Cox proportional hazards model showed neurological indication of MV to be the only independent variable related to infection (p=0.001). Enteral nutrition volume, the type of acid suppressive therapy, and the use of prokinetic agents were not significantly correlated to infection. Enteral nutrition volume and caloric intake, gastrointestinal dysfunction and the type of acid suppressive therapy used were not associated to lower respiratory tract infection in patients on MV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Amaral Felicio, B; Oliveira Medrado Pinto, R; Andrade Villela Dessimoni Pinto, N; Ferreira da Silva, D
The Enteral Nutrition Therapy (ENT) has been widely used in hospital and home care assistance. However, research works are needed to make this technique more efficient and cheaper. Evaluate the nutritional quality of handmade enteral diets used in a charity hospital in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil, and propose qualitative and quantitative adjustments, when necessary, and compare the data available in tables of chemical composition of foods with the data achieved by laboratory analyses. The study was carried out in partnership with a charity organization of the region and the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, where the collection of the handmade enteral diets was performed. The analyses of the physical-chemical and centesimal composition of 36 samples of diets were carried out in the laboratories of the university. It was observed that the daily energy offer of the diets was below the recommended standards and presented a percentage distribution different from that estimated for patients receiving ENT. Besides, it can be seen that the nutrient values of the data achieved in laboratory do not agree with those available in tables of food chemical composition. Significant losses of nutrients were verified during the processing and preparation of handmade enteral diets. It challenges nutritionists to standardize these diets and corroborates the relevance of new studies to determine the nutritional content of handmade enteral diets, since these diets have been widely used in poor regions of Brazil and in other countries.
Lake, A M; Kleinman, R E; Walker, W A
This review has focused on the enteric nutritional management of infants with abnormalities of volume tolerance, digestion, and/or absorption. The necessity of individually assessing the patient's needs vis-à-vis the alternatives cannot be overemphasized. In some patients, enteral feedings are precluded and IV alimentation is the only alternative. For a discussion of IV nutrition options we refer the physician to an excellent review. We also wish to emphasize that in a review of this nature we cannot discuss the relative virtues of closely related formulas. We therefore encourage the physician to obtain product handbooks from the manufacturers.
Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Angelini, Micol; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro
Human milk (HM) is known as the best nutrition for newborns and support the optimal growth of infants, providing essential substances, nutrients, bioactive and immunologic constituents. HM also grants a favorable microbial colonization with attendant priming/maturation of the gut. The bioactive and immunologic elements of HM demonstrated to protect offspring against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation. Some of these elements are being investigated in order to be used to ameliorate formula milk. A formula milk similar to breast milk may help neonatal gut to build a microbiota near to the one of the breast fed infants, improving the neonate's protection against pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the most significant bioactive constituents of HM that own natural anti-infectious properties and contribute to neonatal immune defense.
... disease The inflammation can also involve the stomach ( gastritis ) and large intestine ( colitis ). Risk factors include: Recent ... Crohn disease Dehydration Diarrhea - overview Fever Food poisoning Gastritis Radiation enteritis Salmonella enterocolitis Shigellosis Review Date 5/ ...
Ramírez Puerta, R; Yuste Ossorio, E; Narbona Galdó, S; Pérez Izquierdo, N; Peñas Maldonado, L
Objetivos: Analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con el soporte nutricional enteral en los pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica que forman parte de nuestro programa de ventilación mecánica domiciliaria, haciendo especial hincapié en las gastrointestinales. Método: Estudio retrospectivo de tipo descriptivo de enfermos que se incluyeron en nuestro Programa de Ventilación Mecánica Domiciliaria (PVMD) dirigido por médicos intensivistas, mediante la revisión sistemática de historias clínicas (procedentes de una base de datos de Microsoft Access), durante los años 2004-2011. Resultados: Entre los años 2004-2011 se siguieron 73 pacientes con diagnostico de Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: 34 de ellos (46,6%) rechazaron el aporte nutricional a través de gastrostomía o de sonda nasogástrica, mientras que 39 (53,4%) aceptaron su colocación. De los 39 pacientes en los que se inició la NED: 20 eran mujeres mujeres (51,3%). La edad media de los pacienes fue de 60,6 + 13,4 años (IC 95% 56,4-64,8). Los diagnósticos al ingreso en el PVMD fueron: ELA, 21 casos (53,8%), y ELA con afectación bulbar, 18 (43,1%). Se alimentaron a través de GEP 34 pacientes (87,2%), con gastrostomía quirúrgica 3 (7,7%) y mediante sonda nasogástrica 3 (7,7%). La gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica se realizó tras la inclusión de los pacientes en el programa, con una media días de 222,7 + 356,6 (IC 95% 110,8-334,7). En pacientes con ELA la media fue de 271,4 + 449,5 días (IC 95% 130,3-412,1), con ELA y afectación bulbar de 126,4 + 131,3 días (IC 95% 90-172,6). El recambio de sonda fue de 7,3 + 4,8 meses (IC 95% 4-10,6). La nutrición enteral tuvo una duración media de 578,6 + 872,9 días (IC 95% 304,7-852,6). Se hallaron complicaciones en 35 pacientes (89,7%), y solamente en 4, no se encontró ninguna (10,3%). Ver tabla 2. El estreñimiento se manifestó, después del inicio de la NE, en 30 pacientes (76,9%); sin embargo, ya existía previamente en 18 de ellos
Chen, W; Yu, J C; Li, Z J; Wu, G H
As people are getting a better understanding of organism's metabolism and the concept of disease treatment is being continuously updated, parenteral and enteral nutrition become an inter discipline subject that serves for the clinic and involves a number of disciplines. Just in the past five years, related guidelines at home and abroad have been published as much as more than 40. In order to better serve the clinical decision making, this text attempts to give a carding and interpretation from the three aspects of nutrition screening and assessment, the implementing of nutritional intervention and the progress of special nutrition support. It is observed that the standard clinical nutrition diagnosis and treatment process has been formed consensus. But in the practical application, there are still many details need to confirm and further study.
Minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) may induce a diet-dependent stimulation of gut adaptation following intestinal resection. Bovine colostrum is rich in growth factors, and we hypothesized that MEN with colostrum would stimulate intestinal adaptation, compared with formula, and would be well tolerated ...
We previously showed that parenteral nutrition (PN) compared with formula feeding results in hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in neonatal pigs. The current aim was to test whether the route of feeding (intravenous [IV] vs enteral) rather than other feeding modalities (diet, pattern) had cont...
Ferreira Silva, Renata; Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria
Enteral nutrition (EN) provides calories, macronutrients and micronutrients in adequate quantity and quality to meet the patient's needs. Some drugs when crushed and diluted may have their properties altered, including the reduction of bioavailability causing the reduction of the serum concentration of the drug; tube obstruction; drug-drug interaction or drug-nutrient interaction. The study was conducted through review of submitted articles in the databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL): MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, USA), Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) PUBMED - NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and COCHRANE. For this survey, 42 articles were identified during database searching. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 08 articles were selected, obtained from the MEDLINE and Lilacs. Some interactions were found such as the aluminium hydroxide and lactulose with the enteral nutrition, which may result in a precipitation and reduction of drug bioavailability. Mineral oil will alter the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and reduces the tube light. Others results were found as phenytoin, warfarin, captopril and furosemide with enteral nutrition may reduce the maximum serum concentration. Drug interactions are more common in day-to-day activities than health professionals may suppose. Knowledge on the matter may also assist in reducing cases of obstruction of tubes, through which enteral nutrition and medications are administered. Thus, the multidisciplinary team, acting together, may have more beneficial effects to the patient. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...
Intestinal atrophy is an adverse outcome associated with prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) partly due to disruption of normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Previously we showed that enteral treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a dual agonist for the nuclear receptor, farne...
Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Hernández Moreno, Ana; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D
Nutritional support for malnourished patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery reduces the complication rate and shortens the length of stay. The efficacy of nutritional support after hospital discharge was analyzed in this systematic review. The search strategy (nutrition OR "enteral nutrition" OR "nutritional supplements" OR "oral nutritional supplements" OR "sip feed" OR "sip feeding" OR "dietary counseling") AND ("patient discharge" OR discharge OR postdischarge) AND (surgery OR operation OR "surgical procedure") was followed in Medline, CENTRAL, and Trip databases. Inclusion criteria comprised: type of study (randomized controlled trial), language (English, Spanish), and subjects (patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery). The risk of bias was assessed by using the Cochrane methodology. Five studies which were published in six different articles and recruited 446 patients were included. A high risk of bias was detected for most of them. Nutritional support improved energy intake and protein intake when high-protein oral supplements were provided. The intervention was associated with better weight prognosis, but the data about body composition were inconsistent. In most of the trials, nutritional intervention did not enhance functional capacity or quality of life. None of the studies analyzed the effects on complications after discharge. Nutritional support provided at discharge may increase dietary intake and improve body weight, but the low quality of studies can weaken the validity of results.
Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Matía Martín, P; Luengo Pérez, L M; Cuerda Compes, C; Burgos Peláez, R; Alvarez Hernández, J; Calleja Fernández, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Candela, C; Leyes García, P; Laborda González, L; Martínez Olmos, M A; Campos Martín, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Gonzalo Marín, M; Salas Salvadó, J; Irles Rocamora, J A; Cánovas Gaillemin, B; Carrero Caballero, M C; Moreno Villares, J M; Garde Orbaiz, C; Miserachs Aranda, N; Del Olmo García, M D; Apezetxea Celaya, A; Mauri, S
Objetivos: Describir los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del grupo NADYASENPE de los años 2011 y 12. Material y métodos: Se recopilaron los datos introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012. Resultados: Hubo 3021 pacientes en el registro durante el periodo, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que da una prevalencia de 65,39 casos por millón de habitantes. 97.95% fueron adultos, 51,4% varones. La edad media fue 67,64 ± 19,1 años y la mediana 72 años para los adultos y 7 meses para los niños. La duración media de la NED fue 351 días y para el 97,5% fue el primer episodio con NED. La mayoría de pacientes tenían NED por una enfermedad neurológica (57,8%). La vía de acceso fue sonda nasogástrica para el 43,5% y gastrostomía para el 33,5%. La mayoría de pacientes tuvieron un nivel de actividad física limitado y, respecto a la autonomía, 54,8% necesitaba ayuda total. La fórmula de nutrición se suministró desde las oficinas de farmacia para el 73,8% y los fungibles, cuando fueron necesarios, desde los hospitales para el 53,8%. La NED se suspendió en 1.031 pacientes (34,1%) durante el periodo de estudio, 56,6% debido a fallecimiento y 22,2% debido a recuperación de la vía oral. Conclusiones: Los datos del registro NADYA-SENPE deben ser interpretados con precaución ya que se trata de un registro voluntario. A pesar del cambio de metodología del registro en 2010, las tendencias en NED se han mantenido, salvo la importancia cuantitativa de la vía oral.
Bonada, A; Gómez-Gener, A; Boj, M; Salvador, P; Salas-Salvadó, J
At our hospital, there is an At-Home Enteral Nutrition programme (NED in its Spanish acronym) with participation of the Clinical Nutrition Unit and the Pharmacy Service. The products and all necessary material are dispensed directly to the patient's home and nutritional follow-up is carried out. As a lack of information on various aspects of NED was detected among prescribing doctors, we decided to carry out a survey to assess the level of awareness and the opinion of doctors in the province of Tarragona with regard to NED. They were asked if they knew the indications and characteristics of the different enteral nutrition preparations, as well as their opinion on who should do the follow-up of the patients and on how dispensation should be organized. With the results obtained, we conclude that doctors rarely prescribe NED and are not familiar with the indications nor with enteral nutrition preparations (77.5% and 89%, respectively), although they are interested in the subject. They feel that dispensation should be done directly at the patient's home (43%) and that follow-up should be through a specialized team (57.6%).
Gómez-López, L; Martínez-Costa, C; Pedrón-Giner, C; Calderón-Garrido, C; Navas López, V M; Martínez Zazo, A; Moreno Villares, J M
Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is a type of enteral nutrition (EN) which is becoming progressively more widespread in pediatrics due to the benefits it affords to patients, their families and to reducing hospital costs. However, the true extent of its use is unknown in Spain as the data-base set up for this purpose is still underused (Registro de Nutrición Enteral Pediátrica Ambulatoria y Domiciliaria -NEPAD-). More thorough registration of patients in the NEPAD online register will provide information about the characteristics of HEN in Spain: prevalence, diagnosis, the population sector being administered HEN, complications and developments. Likewise, forecast and planning of the necessary resources could be made while those in use could be analysed.
[Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): gastrointestinal surgery].
Sánchez Álvarez, C; Zabarte Martínez de Aguirre, M; Bordejé Laguna, L
Gastrointestinal surgery and critical illness place tremendous stress on the body, resulting in a series of metabolic changes that may lead to severe malnutrition, which in turn can increase postsurgical complications and morbidity and mortality and prolong the hospital length of stay. In these patients, parenteral nutrition is the most widely used form of nutritional support, but administration of enteral nutrition early in the postoperative period is effective and well tolerated, reducing infectious complications, improving wound healing and reducing length of hospital stay. Calorie-protein requirements do not differ from those in other critically-ill patients and depend on the patient's underlying process and degree of metabolic stress. In patients intolerant to enteral nutrition, especially if the intolerance is due to increased gastric residual volume, prokinetic agents can be used to optimize calorie intake. When proximal sutures are used, tubes allowing early jejunal feeding should be used. Pharmaconutrition is indicated in these patients, who benefit from enteral administration of arginine, omega 3 and RNA, as well as parenteral glutamine supplementation. Parenteral nutrition should be started in patients with absolute contraindication for use of the gastrointestinal tract or as complementary nutrition if adequate energy intake is not achieved through the enteral route.
López-Herce, Jesús; Mencía, Santiago; Sánchez, César; Santiago, Maria J; Bustinza, Amaya; Vigil, Dolores
Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. A prospective, observational study was performed including critically ill children with shock who received postpyloric enteral nutrition (PEN). The type of nutrition used, its duration, tolerance, and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. The 65 children with shock who received PEN were compared with 461 non-shocked critically ill children who received PEN. Sixty-five critically ill children with shock, aged between 21 days and 22 years, received PEN. 75.4% of patients with shock received PEN exclusively. The mean duration of the PEN was 25.2 days and the maximum calorie intake was 79.4 kcal/kg/day. Twenty patients with shock (30.7%) presented gastrointestinal complications, 10 (15.4%) abdominal distension and/or excessive gastric residue, 13 (20%) diarrhoea, 1 necrotising enterocolitis, and 1 duodenal perforation due to the postpyloric tube. The frequency of gastrointestinal complications was significantly higher than in the other 461 critically ill children (9.1%). PEN was suspended due to gastrointestinal complications in 6 patients with shock (9.2%). There were 18 deaths among the patients with shock and PEN (27.7%). In only one patient was the death related to complications of the nutrition. Although most critically ill children with shock can tolerate postpyloric enteral nutrition, the incidence of gastrointestinal complications is higher in this group of patients than in other critically ill children.
Feng, Yongjia; Barrett, Meredith; Hou, Yue; Yoon, Hong Keun; Ochi, Takanori
Feeding strategies to care for patients who transition from enteral nutrient deprivation while on total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feedings generally proceed to full enteral nutrition once the gastrointestinal tract recovers; however, an increasing body of literature suggests that a subgroup of patients may actually develop an increased incidence of adverse events, including death. To examine this further, we studied the effects of acute refeeding in a mouse model of TPN. Interestingly, refeeding led to some beneficial effects, including prevention in the decline in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. However, refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as an upregulation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). Refeeding also failed to prevent TPN-associated increases in IEC apoptosis, loss of epithelial barrier function, and failure of the leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive stem cell expression. Transitioning from TPN to enteral feedings led to a partial restoration of the small bowel microbial population. In conclusion, while acute refeeding led to some restoration of normal gastrointestinal physiology, enteral refeeding led to a significant increase in mucosal inflammatory markers and may suggest alternative strategies to enteral refeeding should be considered. PMID:26635320
Providing versus foregoing enteral nutrition is a central issue in end-of-life care, affecting patients, families, nurses, and other health professionals. The aim of this article is to examine Jewish ethical perspectives on nourishing the dying and to analyze their implications for nursing practice, education, and research. Jewish ethics is based on religious law, called Halacha. Many Halachic scholars perceive withholding nourishment in end of life, even enterally, as hastening death. This reflects the divide they perceive between allowing a fatal disease to naturally run its course until an individual's vitality (life force or viability) is lost versus withholding nourishment for the vitality that still remains. The latter they maintain introduces a new cause of death. Nevertheless, coercing an individual to accept enteral nourishment is generally considered undignified and counterproductive. A minority of Halachic scholars classify withholding enteral nutrition as refraining from prolonging life, permitted under certain circumstances, especially in situations where nutritional problems flow directly from a fatal pathology. In the very final stages of dying, moreover, there is a general consensus that enteral nourishment may be withheld, providing that this reflects the dying individuals' wishes. In the event of enteral nourishment becoming a source of overwhelming discomfort, two Halachic ethical mandates would come into conflict: sustaining life by providing nourishment and alleviating suffering. As in all moral conflicts, these would have to be resolved in practice. This article presents the issue of enteral nourishment as it unfolds in Halacha in comparison to secular and other religious perspectives. It is meant to serve as a foundation for nurses to reflect on their own practice and to explore the implications for nursing practice, education, and research. In a world that remains broadly religious, it is important to sensitize health practitioners to the
Duque-Guimarães, Daniella; Ozanne, Susan
Ageing, a complex process that results in progressive decline in intrinsic physiological function leading to an increase in mortality rate, has been shown to be affected by early life nutrition. Accumulating data from animal and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to a suboptimal nutritional environment during fetal life can have long-term effects on adult health. In this paper, we discuss the impact of early life nutrition on the development of age-associated diseases and life span. Special emphasis is given to studies that have investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. These include permanent structural and cellular changes including epigenetics modifications, oxidative stress, DNA damage and telomere shortening. Potential strategies targeting these mechanisms, in order to prevent or alleviate the detrimental effects of suboptimal early nutrition on lifespan and age-related diseases, are also discussed. Although recent reports have already identified effective therapeutic interventions, such as antioxidant supplementation, further understanding of the extent and nature of how early nutrition influences the ageing process will enable the development of novel and more effective approaches to improve health and extend human lifespan in the future.
Araújo-Junqueira, L; De-Souza, Daurea A
Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Uberlándia, MG, Brazil. Were established in the algorithm a following sequential steps: After a clinical-surgical diagnosis, including the assessment of hemodynamic stability, were requested passage of a feeding tube in post-pyloric position and a drainage tube in gastric position. After hemodynamic stability it should be done the nutritional status diagnosis, calculated nutritional requirements, as well as chosen formulation of enteral feeding. Unless contraindicated, aiming to increase tolerance was started infusion with small volumes (15 ml/h) of a semi-elemental diet, normocaloric, hypolipidic (also hyperproteic, with addition of glutamine). To ensure infusion of the diet, as well as the progressive increase of infusion rates, the patient was monitored for moderate or severe intestinal intolerance. The schedule and infusion rates were respected and diet was not routinely suspended for procedures and diagnostic tests, unless indicated by the medical team. For nutrition therapy success it is essential routine monitoring and extensive interaction between the professionals involved. Nutritional conducts should be reevaluated and improved, seeking complete and specialized care to the critically ill patients. Adherence to new practices is challenging, though instruments such as protocols and algorithms help making information more accessible and comprehensible.
Maciel Barbosa, J; Pedrosa, F; Coelho Cabral, P
Individualized nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated to the overall treatment of these patients. Analyze the nutritional status of cancer patients submitted to enteral nutrition (EN) and assess the adequacy of this form of nutrition. A case series study was carried out at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of the Institute of Integrative Medicine Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, Brazil, Recife-PE) between January and December 2009. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained from medical charts and nutritional follow-up charts. Z scores for height for age, weight for age and body mass index for age indicators (H/A, W/A and BMI/A, respectively) were calculated using the AnthroPlus program. Caloric and protein requirements were calculated based on the recommendations of the Brazilian National Council of Oncologic Nutrition. At the beginning of EN, 32.4% of the sample had short stature and 23.9% were underweight based on the BMI/A indicator. The assessment of EN adequacy demonstrated that 49.3% reached the caloric requirements and 76.1% reached the protein requirements, with maximal intakes of 65.6 Kcal/Kg/day and 1.95 g of protein/kg/day. Malnourished patients had greater mean Z scores for W/A and BMI/A at the end of EN, whereas no significant changes were found among patients with adequate nutritional status and significant reductions in these indicators were found among those with overweight or obesity. The patients either maintained or achieved a significant improvement in nutritional status, which demonstrates the importance of nutritional support and follow up during hospitalization.
Hergenroeder, Georgene W; Ward, Norman H; Yu, Xiaoying; Opekun, Antone; Moore, Anthony N; Kozinetz, Claudia A; Powner, David J
Catecholamines and inflammatory mediators, with elevated levels after brain death, are associated with reduced function and survival of transplanted organs. Enteral nutrition reduces tissue damage and may benefit organs. To evaluate the effects of immunomodulating enteral nutrition in organ donors. Prospective, randomized, open-label study. Intensive care unit. Thirty-six brain-dead organ donors. Donors were randomized to receive enteral nutrition containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, antioxidants, and glutamine or standard care (fasting). Donors received hormonal replacement therapy of corticosteroid, levothyroxine, dextrose, and insulin. Gastrointestinal assimilation (measured by 13 carbon-labeled uracil breath analysis), quantity of organs recovered, resting energy expenditure, urine level of urea nitrogen, and serum levels of albumin, prealbumin, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein were evaluated. Thirteen patients (36%) assimilated 13C-labeled uracil. Resting energy expenditure was significantly higher than predicted between 10 and 14 hours after baseline in 33 donors (P= .007). Other measures were not conclusively different between fed and fasting groups. No adverse events occurred that were related to the enteral feeding. About 30% of donors metabolized 13C-labeled uracil, although no difference in oxidation rate was found between fasting and fed donors. Corticosteroid administration lowers plasma levels of interleukin 6 and most likely contributes to greater than predicted resting energy expenditure. Thus energy needs may not be met during fasting if hormones are given. Consequences of this possible energy deficit warrant further study.
Rugeles, Saúl-Javier; Rueda, Juan-David; Díaz, Carlos-Eduardo; Rosselli, Diego
Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of hyperproteic hypocaloric enteral feeding on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients, particularly on severity of organic failure measured with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Materials and Methods: In a double blind clinical trial, 80 critically ill adult patients were randomized to hyperproteic hypocaloric or to isocaloric enteral nutrition; all patients completed follow-up of at least 4 days. Prescribed caloric intake was: Hyperproteic hypocaloric enteral nutrition (15 kcal/kg with 1.7 g/kg of protein) or isocaloric enteral nutrition (25 kcal/kg with 20% of the calories as protein). The main outcome was the differences in delta SOFA at 48 h. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, days on ventilator, hyperglycemic events, and insulin requirements. Results: There were no differences in SOFA score at baseline (7.5 (standard deviation (SD) 2.9) vs 6.7 (SD 2.5) P = 0.17). The total amount of calories delivered was similarly low in both groups (12 kcal/kg in intervention group vs 14 kcal/kg in controls), but proteic delivery was significantly different (1.4 vs 0.76 g/kg, respectively P ≤ 0.0001). The intervention group showed an improvement in SOFA score at 48 h (delta SOFA 1.7 (SD 1.9) vs 0.7 (SD 2.8) P = 0.04) and less hyperglycemic episodes per day (1.0 (SD 1.3) vs 1.7 (SD 2.5) P = 0.017). Discussion: Enteral hyperproteic hypocaloric nutrition therapy could be associated with a decrease in multiple organ failure measured with SOFA score. We also found decreased hyperglycemia and a trend towards less mechanical ventilation days and ICU length of stay. PMID:24501485
Burgermaster, Marissa; Slattery, Eoin; Islam, Nafeesa; Ippolito, Paul R; Seres, David S
Nursing home admission policies are one driver of increased and earlier gastrostomy placement, a procedure that is not always medically or ethically indicated among patients needing short-term nutrition support. This important clinical decision should be based upon patient prognosis, goals, and needs. We compared nursing home enteral nutrition-related admission policies in New York City and other regions of the United States. We also explored motivations for these policies. We conducted a telephone survey with skilled nursing facility administrators in New York City and a random sample of facilities throughout the United States about enteral nutrition-related admission policies. Survey data were matched with publically available data about facility characteristics from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The relationship between facility location and admission policies was described with regression models. Reasons for these policies were thematically analyzed. New York City nursing homes were significantly less likely to admit patients with nasogastric feeding tubes than were nursing homes nationwide, after we controlled for facility characteristics (odds ratio = 0.111; 95% CI, 0.032-0.344). Reasons for refusing nasogastric tubes fell into 5 categories: safety, capacity, policy, perception of appropriate level of care, and patient quality of life. Our findings indicate that enteral nutrition-related admission policies vary greatly between nursing homes in New York City and nationwide. Many administrators cited safety and policy as factors guiding their institutional policies and practices, despite a lack of evidence. This gap in research, practice, and policy has implications for quality and cost of care, length of hospital stay, and patient morbidity and mortality. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Peng, Bin; Su, Ying-ying; Cui, Li-ying; Wang, Shao-shi; Guan, Yang-tai; Zhou, Dong; Zhao, He-qing
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of enteral nutritional suspension (TPF-FOS) JEVITY in acute stroke patients. A multicenter, prospective, post-marketing observational study was conducted. A total of 103 acute stroke patients with dysphagia received a 10-day regimen of enteral nutritional suspension (TPF-FOS) JEVITY via nasal gastric tube feeding. The parameters of serum prealbumin, serum albumin and percentage of abnormal blood glucose were evaluated and compared. The incidence of adverse events was recorded. The data were analyzed by paired t-test. At the end of the study in comparison with the baselines, the serum prealbumin increased significantly (213 mg/L ± 56 mg/L vs 219 mg/L ± 66 mg/L) and serum albumin decreased markedly (38 g/L ± 5 g/L vs 36 g/L ± 5 g/L) but stayed stable during tube feeding. No significant changes were found in percentage of abnormal blood glucose (40.78% vs 38.76%), body mass index (23.1 kg/m(2) ± 3.0 kg/m(2) vs 22.8 kg/m(2) ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and C-reactive protein (13 mg vs 14 mg). Only 18 adverse events were related with the study product. And most of them were gastrointestinal reactions. Enteral nutritional suspension (TPF-FOS) JEVITY may increase the level of serum prealbumin in acute stroke patients and improve the patient nutritional status. With a low incidence of adverse events, it is a preferred option for enteral nutrition formulas in stroke.
Whitman, Craig B; Ablordeppey, Enyo; Taylor, Beth
Nutritional protein may decrease levodopa absorption and has resulted in withdrawal and neuroleptic malignant-like syndromes in critically ill patients. A 72-year-old male was admitted with shortness of breath. His medical history included Parkinson's disease for over 30 years for which he took carbidopa/levodopa 5 times daily. The patient's home medications were continued. On day 2, he was intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). He was extubated the next day and reintubated on day 4. Enteral nutrition was initiated at 85 mL/h overnight. The patient's carbidopa/levodopa was administered to limit coadministration with nutrition. Throughout his ICU stay, the patient did not demonstrate changes in mental status. Despite resolution of his pneumonia, he developed fever after administration of one dose overlapping with nutrition, with defervescence throughout the rest of the day. On hospital day 10, that dose was empirically increased. After this dosing change, the patient failed to develop fever during the rest of his hospital stay. On day 16, the patient was discharged to a long-term care facility without any other complications. Our case highlights the interaction between levodopa and enteral nutrition and the potential of fever as the sole sign of withdrawal.
Immunonutrition – the influence of early postoperative glutamine supplementation in enteral/parenteral nutrition on immune response, wound healing and length of hospital stay in multiple trauma patients and patients after extensive surgery
Lorenz, Kai J.; Schallert, Reiner; Daniel, Volker
Introduction: In the postoperative phase, the prognosis of multiple trauma patients with severe brain injuries as well as of patients with extensive head and neck surgery mainly depends on protein metabolism and the prevention of septic complications. Wound healing problems can also result in markedly longer stays in the intensive care unit and general wards. As a result, the immunostimulation of patients in the postoperative phase is expected to improve their immunological and overall health. Patients and methods: A study involving 15 patients with extensive ENT tumour surgery and 7 multiple-trauma patients investigated the effect of enteral glutamine supplementation on immune induction, wound healing and length of hospital stay. Half of the patients received a glutamine-supplemented diet. The control group received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous diet. Results: In summary, we found that total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of activated CD4+DR+ T helper lymphocytes, the in-vitro response of lymphocytes to mitogens, as well as IL-2 plasma levels normalised faster in patients who received glutamine-supplemented diets than in patients who received isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets and that these parameters were even above normal by the end of the second postoperative week. Summary: We believe that providing critically ill patients with a demand-oriented immunostimulating diet is fully justified as it reduces septic complications, accelerates wound healing, and shortens the length of ICU (intensive care unit) and general ward stays. PMID:26734536
Zeng, Jing; Zhao, Xiao-yu; Huang, Qiong; Wang, En-ren
To investigate the effects of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on the nutritional status and prognosis of patients with severe head injury. Thirty-three patients with severe head injury were randomly divided into control group (C, 15 cases) and glutamine-enriched group (Gln, 18 cases). Patients in both groups were given routine treatment and enteral nutrition with the same amount of nitrogen and calorie. Patients in Gln group were given glutamine 0.5 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) additionally added into the nutrient fluid. Vital signs and the occurrence of side effects of all patients were observed before and after nutrition support. Venous blood and urine sample of all patients were collected before and 7, 14 days after treatment to determine the parameters of blood, urine routine and hepatorenal function. At the same time points, body mass, skin fold thickness at the region of triceps brachii (TSF), upper arm circumference (AC), upper arm muscle circumference (AMC) and fasting blood glucose of all patients were detected and determined, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scoring was performed. The length of hospital stay of all patients was recorded. Vital signs and parameters of blood, urine routine and hepatorenal function of patients in 2 groups after nutrition treatment were close to those before treatment. Side effects, such as nausea and diarrhea occurred with spontaneous remission in a few patients. There was no statistical significant difference between 2 groups, and within each group before and after treatment, in respect of body mass and TSF (P > 0.05). Values of AC and AMC of patients in Gln group were obviously higher than those of C group (P < 0.01) on post-treatment day 14. Fasting blood glucose and GCS score of all patients before treatment were close to those on post-treatment day 14 (P > 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and GCS score of patients was respectively lower and higher in Gln group than that in C group on post-treatment day 7 (P < 0.05). Length of hospital
Shah, Ankoor Y; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mitchell, Tarissa; Shetty, Sharmila; Warner, Catherine; Oladele, Alawode; Reines, Susan
This study determines the nutritional status among refugee children entering one of the largest resettlement counties in the United States and identifies differences between incoming populations. Medical records of all newly arriving pediatric refugees (0-18 years) entering DeKalb County, Georgia between October 2010 and July 2011 were reviewed. Refugee children were grouped as African, Bhutanese, or Burmese (resettling from either Thailand or Malaysia) for comparative analysis. Approximately one in five refugees were anemic or malnourished, while a quarter had stool parasites, and nearly half had dental caries. African refugees had the highest anemia but the lowest underweight prevalence (p < 0.05). Compared to Burmese resettling from Malaysia, Burmese children from Thailand had a higher prevalence of anemia, underweight, and stool parasites (p < 0.05). Clinicians should use CDC medical screening guidelines for newly arriving pediatric refugees, as well as ensure proper nutritional support and follow-up care.
Dama, Madhuri; Rao, Uday; Gollow, Ian; Bulsara, Max; Rao, Shripada
Introduction There are no evidence-based strategies to improve feed tolerance in gastroschisis. Early commencement of enteral feeds (CEF) is known to improve feed tolerance in preterm infants. It is possible that infants with gastroschisis may also benefit from early CEF. Objectives To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the relationship between time of CEF, and time to reach full enteral feeds (FEF), duration of parenteral nutrition (PN), and duration of hospital stay (HS). Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and relevant conference abstracts were searched in December 2015. Studies of any design reporting on time to CEF and one or more of the outcomes of interest were included. Meta-regression analysis was conducted to find the association between time to CEF and the outcomes of interest. Results There were no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing early (≤7 days from birth) versus delayed (>7 days) CEF. Forty-two observational studies on gastroschisis (4,835 infants) where feed-related information was available were included. Meta-regression results indicated that each day delay in CEF was associated with a delay of an additional 1.4 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.85) to FEF, 2.05 days (95% CI: 1.50, 2.59) to the duration of PN, and 1.91 days (95% CI: 1.37, 2.45) to the duration of HS. Sensitivity analysis after excluding studies that provided information exclusively on complex gastroschisis continued to show beneficial effects of early CEF. Conclusions Early CEF may be associated with early attainment of FEF in gastroschisis. RCTs comparing early versus delayed CEF are needed urgently. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G
Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.
Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise
To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Epp, Lisa; Lammert, Lisa; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Hurt, Ryan T; Mundi, Manpreet S
Long-term use of enteral nutrition (EN) continues to increase due to significant noted benefits. Patients also continue to express significant desire to pursue holistic and organic diets. Despite this, many nutrition providers are not well versed in assisting patients with blenderized tube feeding (BTF), and prevalence of its use is unknown. A validated survey was administered to Oley Foundation members or individuals with access to the Oley website to assess the prevalence of BTF. A total of 216 participants took the survey, of whom 125 (57.8%) were pediatric patients with a mean age of 5.4 ± 3.5 years and 91 (42.2%) were adults with a mean age of 51.7 ± 19.5 years. Of pediatric patients, 112 (89.6%) used BTF for an average of 71% of their total daily nutrition intake; 93 (83%) reported that BTF comprised >50% of their daily EN, 12 (10.7%) reported it comprised 25%-50% of their daily enteral intake, and 7 (6.3%) reported BTF comprised < 25% of their daily intake. In the adult population, 60 (65.9%) used BTF for an average of 56% of total daily nutrition intake; 41 (68.4%) reported BTF comprised >50% of their daily nutrition intake, 11 (18.3%) reported it compromised 25%-50%, and 8 (13.3%) reported BTF comprised <25% of their daily intake. Most of the pediatric and adult patients surveyed use BTF as some portion of their enteral intake, making it essential that clinicians expand their knowledge related to BTF to appropriately care for this patient population.
Stippler, Dietmar; Bode, Volker; Fischer, Magnus; Kollex, Katrin; Rohde, Evelyn; Tisowsky, Berta; Künstner, Jana; Pahne, Norbert
Changes in the EU regulation on food for specific groups (FSG)  and within the German social law  combined with various definitions in the legal and the scientific background led to the need for development of a categorization system for "Food for special medical purposes" (FSMP) for enteral use . The system was developed by an interdisciplinary working group of two German industry associations, which represent the leading manufacturers and distributors of FSMP in Europe. It aims to minimize the misunderstandings surrounding the different definitions used in relation to enteral nutritional products and incorporate the latest scientific knowledge and medical guidelines . The new proposal consists of a table which shows the product categories and briefly the definitions of the used terms. The text contains the relevant definitions of terms often used within the field of enteral nutrition. This provides health care professionals with support and the decision making process for the prescription and use of such products. Additionally it also benefits the responsible authorities to formulate new directives, which are user-friendly and reflect the latest knowledge in medical nutrition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Agostoni, C; Buonocore, G; Carnielli, V P; De Curtis, M; Darmaun, D; Decsi, T; Domellöf, M; Embleton, N D; Fusch, C; Genzel-Boroviczeny, O; Goulet, O; Kalhan, S C; Kolacek, S; Koletzko, B; Lapillonne, A; Mihatsch, W; Moreno, L; Neu, J; Poindexter, B; Puntis, J; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Riskin, A; Salle, B; Sauer, P; Shamir, R; Szajewska, H; Thureen, P; Turck, D; van Goudoever, J B; Ziegler, E E
The number of surviving children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last 2 decades. The major goal of enteral nutrient supply to these infants is to achieve growth similar to foetal growth coupled with satisfactory functional development. The accumulation of knowledge since the previous guideline on nutrition of preterm infants from the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in 1987 has made a new guideline necessary. Thus, an ad hoc expert panel was convened by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition in 2007 to make appropriate recommendations. The present guideline, of which the major recommendations are summarised here (for the full report, see http://links.lww.com/A1480), is consistent with, but not identical to, recent guidelines from the Life Sciences Research Office of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences published in 2002 and recommendations from the handbook Nutrition of the Preterm Infant. Scientific Basis and Practical Guidelines, 2nd ed, edited by Tsang et al, and published in 2005. The preferred food for premature infants is fortified human milk from the infant's own mother, or, alternatively, formula designed for premature infants. This guideline aims to provide proposed advisable ranges for nutrient intakes for stable-growing preterm infants up to a weight of approximately 1800 g, because most data are available for these infants. These recommendations are based on a considered review of available scientific reports on the subject, and on expert consensus for which the available scientific data are considered inadequate.
Khan, Zahra; Marinschek, Sabine; Pahsini, Karoline; Scheer, Peter; Morris, Nicholas; Urlesberger, Berndt; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite
The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status and growth of medically fragile children receiving long-term enteral nutritional support (ENS). A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Growth features and nutritional intake of children (n = 287) receiving ENS were evaluated. During a period of 5 years (2009-2013), study patients in the age group of 1 to 36 months had been referred for the explicit reason of tube weaning. Data were documented with the help of ARCHIMED (version 46.2) and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 21. Nutritional/growth status was determined by using World Health Organization growth standard tables. Anthropometric parameters of children were compared with World Health Organization standards, and the prevalence of underweight, wasting, and stunting was very high despite being exclusively or predominantly on ENS. Results revealed that the age of a child, inadequate amount of caloric supply/day, the diagnosis of small-for-gestational age, and the type of tube (nasogastric tube) were significantly associated with growth/nutritional status (P < 0.05). Duration of ENS in the percentage of the cohort's lifetime and the main diagnosis were not associated with nutritional/growth outcomes. In medically fragile children, ENS does not ensure adequate growth per se. ENS requires highly specialized and individually tailored management and in many cases regular adjustments. Long-term tube feeding plans often seem unable to ensure the required amount of nutritional support, which surely compromise the individual efficacy of ENS.
Dupont, B; Dao, T; Joubert, C; Dupont-Lucas, C; Gloro, R; Nguyen-Khac, E; Beaujard, E; Mathurin, P; Vastel, E; Musikas, M; Ollivier, I; Piquet, M-A
Malnutrition and jaundice are independent prognostic factors in cirrhosis. To assess the impact of enteral nutrition on the survival of alcoholic cirrhotic patients with jaundice but without acute alcoholic hepatitis. The study was a multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial comparing effects of enteral nutrition vs. a symptomatic support in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and jaundice (bilirubin ≥51 µmol/L) but without severe acute alcoholic hepatitis. A total of 99 patients were randomised to receive either the conventional symptomatic treatment (55 patients) or the symptomatic support associated with 35 kcal/Kg/day of enteral nutrition during 4 weeks followed by an oral nutritional support during 2 months (44 patients). Randomisation was stratified on nutritional status. One-year survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Logrank test. Populations in both arms were similar. One-year survival was similar in the overall population (27/44 patients (61.4%) in the enteral nutrition arm vs. 36/55 (65.5%) in the control arm; Logrank P = 0.60) and in the subgroup suffering from malnutrition [18/29 patients (62.1%) in the enteral nutrition arm vs. 20/32 (62.5%) in the control arm; Logrank P = 0.99]. There was no statistical difference for bilirubin, prothrombin rate, Child-Pugh score, albumin or nutritional assessment. Complications during treatment (bleeding, encephalopathy, infection) occurred in 23% of patients in the enteral nutrition group (10/44) vs. 16% (9/55) of the control patients (P = 0.59). Enteral nutrition does not improve the survival and hepatic or nutritional parameters of cirrhotic patients with jaundice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
de Haan, Jacco J; Hadfoune, M'hamed; Lubbers, Tim; Hodin, Caroline; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ito, Akihiko; Verbaeys, Isabelle; Skynner, Michael J; Cailotto, Cathy; van der Vliet, Jan; de Jonge, Wouter J; Greve, Jan-Willem M; Buurman, Wim A
Nutritional stimulation of the cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1R) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated vagal reflex was shown to reduce inflammation and preserve intestinal integrity. Mast cells are important early effectors of the innate immune response; therefore modulation of mucosal mast cells is a potential therapeutic target to control the acute inflammatory response in the intestine. The present study investigates intestinal mast cell responsiveness upon nutritional activation of the vagal anti-inflammatory reflex during acute inflammation. Mucosal mast cell degranulation was induced in C57/Bl6 mice by administration of Salmonella enterica LPS. Lipid-rich enteral feeding prior to LPS significantly decreased circulatory levels of mouse mast cell protease at 30 min post-LPS compared with isocaloric low-lipid nutrition or fasting. CCK-1R blockage reversed the inhibitory effects of lipid-rich feeding, whereas stimulation of the peripheral CCK-1R mimicked nutritional mast cell inhibition. The effects of lipid-rich nutrition were negated by nAChR blockers chlorisondamine and α-bungarotoxin and vagal intestinal denervation. Accordingly, release of β-hexosaminidase by MC/9 mast cells following LPS or IgE-ovalbumin complexes was dose dependently inhibited by acetylcholine and nicotine. Application of GSK1345038A, a specific agonist of the nAChR α7, in bone marrow-derived mast cells from nAChR β2-/- and wild types indicated that cholinergic inhibition of mast cells is mediated by the nAChR α7 and is independent of the nAChR β2. Together, the present study reveals mucosal mast cells as a previously unknown target of the nutritional anti-inflammatory vagal reflex.
Both the German statutory and private health insurances cover enteral nutrition (EN) products. Approximately 100,000 patients receive reimbursed EN; 70% are tube fed for an average 9 months. 70% of the tube-fed patients are cared for in institutions (i.e. for the elderly) and 30% at home. The prescription and reimbursement of EN is covered by Volume Five of the Social Legislation Code (Social Code Book No. 5). Reimbursement for EN depends on medical prescription and is in principle guaranteed whenever normal food intake is impaired and modification of normal nutrition and other measurements do not improve nutritional status. It is unclear what effect the reform laws will have on EN but they may impact the prices for medical devices and negotiations between health insurance funds and product manufacturers. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Osland, Emma J; Ali, Azmat; Isenring, Elizabeth; Ball, Patrick; Davis, Melvyn; Gillanders, Lyn
This work represents the first part of a progressive review of AuSPEN's 1999 Guidelines for Provision of Micronutrient Supplementation in Adult Patients receiving Parenteral Nutrition, in recognition of the developments in the literature on this topic since that time. A systematic literature review was undertaken and recommendations were made based on the available evidence and with consideration to specific elements of the Australian and New Zealand practice environment. The strength of evidence underpinning each recommendation was assessed. External reviewers provided feedback on the guidelines using the AGREE II tool. Reduced doses of manganese, copper, chromium and molybdenum, and an increased dose of selenium are recommended when compared with the 1999 guidelines. Currently the composition of available multi-trace element formulations is recognised as an obstacle to aligning these guidelines with practice. A paucity of available literature and limitations with currently available methods of monitoring trace element status are acknowledged. The currently unknown clinical impact of changes to trace element contamination of parenteral solutions with contemporary practices highlights need for research and clinical vigilance in this area of nutrition support practice. Trace elements are essential and should be provided daily to patients receiving parenteral nutrition. Monitoring is generally only required in longer term parenteral nutrition, however should be determined on an individual basis. Industry is encouraged to modify existing multi-trace element solutions available in Australia and New Zealand to reflect changes in the literature outlined in these guidelines. Areas requiring research are highlighted.
Hanachi, Mouna; Melchior, Jean Claude; Crenn, Pascal
Aminotransferase abnormalities have been reported in malnourished patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to identify prevalence and risk factors of hyperaminotransferasemia in an adult cohort of AN patients and to describe evolution during nutritional rehabilitation with enteral nutrition for a period of 4 weeks. Retrospective study of all consecutive malnourished (BMI <16) AN adult patients, without previous liver diseases or hepatotoxic drugs or alcohol consumption, hospitalized for enteral nutrition in a single center between 1998 and 2008. Hypertransaminasemia was defined by an increase in AST and (or) ALT >2N. In all, 126 AN patients (117 W, 9 M), age 30 ± 10.8 years, were included. At admission, 54 (43%) patients presented hypertransaminasemia. In univariate analysis, risk factors for hypertransaminasemia were: lower BMI (11.2 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 2, p < 0.0001) and age (28 ± 9 vs. 32 ± 12, p < 0.05), male sex (p < 0.05) and the pure restrictive form (p = 0.07). In multivariate analysis only BMI, at a threshold of 12, remained significant [OR 3.7, CI: 95% 2.24-5.2]. Normalization of aminotransferases at the end of week 4 of enteral nutrition was obtained in 96%. Only 2/54 patients (4%) presented a worsening of aminotransferases during the refeeding period, including one that died of liver failure. None of the patients without hypertransaminasemia admission presented a subsequent elevation. At the end of the 4-week refeeding period, the increase in BMI was greater in patients without hypertransaminasemia than in those with it (2.0 ± 0.8 vs. 1.5 ± 1.0, p < 0.0001). Elevated transaminases is common in severe malnourished AN patients. Four risk factors were identified: young age, low BMI (the only independent factor in multivariate analysis), the pure restrictive form of the disease and male sex. After 4 weeks of enteral nutrition the evolution is in most cases favourable, albeit with a lower increase in BMI, but can
Halmos, E P; Muir, J G; Barrett, J S; Deng, M; Shepherd, S J; Gibson, P R
Although it is recognized that diarrhoea commonly complicates enteral nutrition, the causes remain unknown. To identify factors associated with diarrhoea in patients receiving enteral nutrition with specific attention to formula composition. Medical histories of in-patients receiving enteral nutrition were identified by ICD-10-AM coding and randomly selected from the year 2003 to 2008. Clinical and demographic data were extracted. Formulas were classified according to osmolality, fibre and FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols) content. Formula FODMAP levels ranged from 10.6 to 36.5 g/day. Of 160 patients receiving enteral nutrition, 61% had diarrhoea. Univariate analysis showed diarrhoea was associated with length of stay >21 days (OR 4.2), enteral nutrition duration >11 days (OR 4.0) and antibiotic use (OR 2.1). After adjusting for influencing variables through a logistic regression model, a greater than five-fold reduction in risk of developing diarrhoea was seen in patients initiated on Isosource 1.5 (P = 0.029; estimated OR 0.18). The only characteristic unique to this formula was its FODMAP content, being 47-71% lower than any other formula. Length of stay and enteral nutrition duration independently predicted diarrhoea development, while being initiated on a lower FODMAP formula reduced the likelihood of diarrhoea. As retrospective evaluation does not support a cause-effect relationship, an interventional study investigating FODMAPs in enteral formula is indicated. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Miller, Malki; Vaidya, Ruben; Rastogi, Deepa; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Shantanu
Nutrition practices for preterm infants include phases of parenteral nutrition (PN), full enteral nutrition (EN), and the transitional phase in between. Our aim was to identify the nutrition phases during which infants are most likely to exhibit poor growth that would affect risk for growth failure (GF) at discharge and to examine factors associated with GF. A retrospective chart review was conducted on infants born <32 weeks' gestation. The neonatal intensive care unit stay was divided into 3 nutrition phases: (1) full PN, (2) transitional PN + EN, and (3) full EN. Weekly growth rates were calculated, and for each growth velocity <10 g/kg/d, the coinciding phase was recorded. GF was defined as a discharge weight below the 10th percentile. The nutrition phases during which growth inadequacy predicted GF at discharge were determined, correcting for other clinical factors associated with GF. In total, 156 eligible infants were identified. Seventy-six infants (49%) were discharged with weights <10%. Incidence of poor growth was highest during the transitional phase (46%) and was predictive of GF when adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, and severity of illness. Although energy intakes during the transitional phase were comparable to baseline parenteral provision, protein intakes progressively decreased ( P < .0001), consistently providing 3 g/kg/d as PN was weaned. Serum urea nitrogen also declined and was correlated with protein intake (r = -0.32, P < .001). Growth was compromised during the transitional phase, likely related to decreased protein intake. Optimizing protein provision while PN is weaned is an important strategy to prevent postnatal growth failure.
Tavares de Araujo, Viviane Maeve; Gomes, Paulo César; Caporossi, Cervantes
Enteral nutrition therapy (ENT) is an essential part in the management of critically ill patients, having a significant impact on these patients' clinical results. It can be administered on a continuous or intermittent basis using an infusion pump. There is a discussion on which of these techniques has the best performance, involving a number of factors such as nausea, diarrhea, and particularly the relationship between diet volume and the ratio of programed calories to calories effectively supplied to the critical patients. To compare the forms of continuous or intermittent infusion of enteral nutrition, using as primary outcome the level of estimated caloric needs daily supplied. Observational prospective randomized clinical study carried out in an intensive care unit on 41 patients divided into two groups, of intermittent (ENT during 18 hours with a 6-hour nocturnal pause), or continuous (ENT during 24 hours continuously) administration. The secondary outcome variables measured in this study were bowel evacuation, distension, emesis, with the primary outcome variable being the relationship between infusion volume and the estimated-to-supplied ratio of caloric needs. The rejection index of the null hypothesis was established at 5% for all the tests. Most of the patients received more than 60% infusion of enteral diet over the 5 days of study (p = 1.0), with no difference regarding the provision of caloric needs. No statistically significant difference between groups was found in the variables vomiting, abdominal distension or diarrhea. The administration modalities of continuous or intermittent enteral nutrition are similar in which regards the comparison of the variables included in this study. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
De Luis, D A; Izaola, O; Cuellar, L A; Terroba, M C; Cabezas, G; De La Fuente, B
The wide spread use of long-term enteral nutrition and the substantive costs dictate a need to study the outcome, as well as the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, of these patients. The present study aimed to analyse the incidence and characteristics of a cohort of patients on home enteral nutrition (HEN) over 12 years. A prospective observational study was performed between January 1999 and December 2010. All adult patients living in Valladolid West area who were discharged from the hospital on HEN were prospectively studied and followed up. The incidence of HEN ranged between 9.52 per 100, 000 inhabitants in 2001 to 30.0 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2009. HEN was administered orally in 472 patients (68.28%) (group 1), and through a nasogastric tube in 168 patients (24.30%), a percutaneous enteral gastrostomy tube in 47 patients (6.80%) and a jejunostomy in four patients (0.60%) (group 2; 219 patients). During the course of HEN, 31 patients had diarrhoea (4.5%), 17 patients had constipation and 12 patients had nausea. The mean (SD) duration of HEN was 159.9 (97) days. In multivariable analysis, an independent factor associated with death was age (hazard ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval - 1.01-1.05), adjusted by sex, route and diagnosis. HEN has a high incidence in our area and it is a valid and safe technique for nutrition support. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
5 weekly sessions of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and #14 h of weekly screen time (TV, video viewing, computer/ video game use) as...of genetic variants and nutrition in early maturation, obesity patterns and bone density. 7 REFERENCES 1. Henderson BE, Ross RK, Pike MC...physical activity, and energy intake. In a multivariate analysis focusing on the trunk:peripheral fat ratio, this measure of central obesity was
Sökülmez, Pınar; Demirbağ, Ali Eba; Arslan, Perihan; Dişibeyaz, Selçuk
To investigate the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by subjective global assessment (SGA) and the effects of oral nutritional support on the clinical parameters, consumption of energy, macronutrients and fiber intake in the Study and Control groups, prospectively. A total of 38 (28 Male; 10 Female) hospitalized patients with moderate or severe IBD (13 with Crohn's disease (CD); 25 with Ulcerative colitis (UC)) were included. At stage 1, the disease severity, clinical symptoms and, signs, food consumption and nutritional status by using subjective global assessment (SGA) were recorded. At stage 2, the patients were blindly randomized into a Study Group and Controls. In the Study Group, a standard enteral product was added into the regulated hospital diets, but for the Controls, deficits were regulated by only hospital diets for 3 weeks. the independent variables were the group, the disease and its activity, age, Body body mass index (BMI), weight loss history, the hospitalization period; the dependent variables were SGA, bowel movements, change in nutritional status, disease severity, clinical findings, and also consumption of macronutrients. Prevalance of malnutrition (SGA-B or SGA-C) for all the patients was 92.1% at the beginning and 71.1% at the end of study. Improvements in disease activity score for the patients with UC were statistically significant in both the Study Group and the Controls (p=0.006 for the Study Group and p=0.001 for the Controls, respectively). Macronutrients, total and water soluble fiber consumption levels improved, with statistically significant differences for all the groups. The prevalence of malnutrition is a major problem in patients with IBD. Not only the regulation of hospital food, but also enteral nutritional support, improved their levels of malnutrition, as well as their energy, macronutrients, and fiber consumption, and SGA is an easy method for nutritional monitoring.
Reinisch, Alexander; Liese, Juliane; Woeste, Guido; Bechstein, Wolf; Habbe, Nils
Enteroatmospheric fistulas (EAFs) represent a challenging problem in patients with an open abdomen (OA). A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the effects of enteral alimentation on wound status and management and nutrition. All patients with an EAF in an OA treated between October 2012 and December 2014 at a university hospital in Germany were included without criteria for exclusions. Demographic and morbidity-related data collected included age, gender, surgeries, OA grading, body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, and serum creatinin. Underlying diseases and time between the index operation and the formation of the OA and EAFs were analyzed in relation to the initiation of enteral nutrition (EN), which can aggravate and contaminate the OA due to intestinal secretions necessary for digestion. The OA was described in size and area of the fascia defect and classified according to the Björck Scale. The number and location of the fistulas and the duration of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) were documented. Outcome parameters included fistula volume, wound management (eg, dressing change frequency, need for wound revision), feeding tolerance, systemic impact of nutrition, nutrition status at discharge, and mortality. Data were analyzed using primary descriptive statistics. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate changes in fistula volume and BMI; categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Ten (10) patients (8 women, median age of participants 55.4 [range 44-71] years) were treated during the study time period. Seven (7) patients had the first fistula orifice in the upper jejunum (UJF); 8 had more than 1 fistula. EN was initiated with high caloric liquid nutrition and gradually increased to a 25 kcal/kg/day liquid or solid nutrition. All patients were provided NPWT at 75 mm Hg to 100 mm Hg. EN was not followed by a significant increase of median daily fistula volume
Yang, Qing; Ayers, Kathleen; Chen, Yuegang; Helderman, Jennifer; Welch, Cherrie D; O'Shea, T Michael
To test the hypothesis that in the premature infant with an enterostomy, early enteral supplementation with Microlipid (fat supplement) and fish oil increases enteral fat absorption and decreases the requirement for Intralipid (intravenous fat emulsion). Premature infants (<2 months old) with an enterostomy after surgical treatment for necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation and tolerating enteral feeding at 20 mL/kg/day were randomized to usual care (control 18 infants) or early supplementing enteral fat and fish oil (treatment 18 infants). Intravenous fat emulsion was decreased as enteral fat intake was increased. Daily weight, ostomy output, and nutrition data were recorded. Weekly 24-hour ostomy effluent was collected until bowel reanastomosis, and fecal fat, fecal liquid, and dry feces were measured. Fat absorption (g/kg/d) was calculated by subtracting fecal fat from dietary fat. The fecal liquid and dry feces were reported as mg/g wet stool. Date were analyzed by using ANOVA and mixed-effects model. The interval from initial postoperative feeding to bowel reanastomosis varied from 2 to 10 weeks. The treatment group received more dietary fat and less intravenous fat emulsion and had higher enteral fat absorption, less fecal liquid, and drier feces than the control group. These effects were greater among infants with a high ostomy compared with those with a low ostomy. Enteral fat intake was significantly correlated with fat absorption. Early enteral fat supplement and fish oil increases fat absorption and decreases the requirement for intravenous fat emulsion. This approach could be used to promote bowel adaptation and reduce the use of intravenous fat emulsion in the premature infant with an enterostomy. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou
Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients.
Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou
Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613
Luttikhold, Joanna; van Norren, Klaske; Minor, Marcel; Buijs, Nikki; van den Braak, Claudia C M; Ludwig, Thomas; Abrahamse, Evan; Rijna, Herman; van Leeuwen, Paul A M
A serious complication seen in critically ill patients is the solidification of enteral nutrition causing gastrointestinal obstruction. It has been suggested that enteral nutrition enriched with insoluble fibers may increase the risk of this complication. Therefore, we investigate the effect of soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on the coagulation of a casein-based enteral nutrition in an artificial gastric digestion model. A 100% casein-based enteral nutrition was enriched with increasing concentrations of soluble fibers (acacia fiber, oligofructose and inulin) and insoluble fibers (soy polysaccharide, resistant starch and alpha cellulose). After digestion in an artificial gastric model, the chyme was poured over sequentially placed sieves, separating the coagulate into size fractions of larger than 2 mm, between 1 and 2 mm, and between 0.25 and 1 mm. Of these fractions we measured wet weight, dry weight and protein content. A significant effect on the fraction larger than 2 mm was considered to be clinically relevant. Addition of high concentrations soy polysaccharide and resistant starch to a casein-based enteral nutrition, did not alter the wet weight, whereas dry weight and protein content of the coagulate was significantly reduced. When high concentrations of soy polysaccharide and resistant starch are added to a 100% casein-based enteral nutrition, the coagulate consist of more water and less proteins, which may lead to an increased protein digestion and absorption in a clinical setting. The suggestion that insoluble fibers increase the risk of gastrointestinal obstruction in critically ill patients is not supported by these data.
Chaer Borges, V; Teixeira da Silva, M de L; Gonçalves Dias, M C; González, M C; Linetzky Waitzberg, D
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is used to control the nutritional state after severe intestinal resections. Whenever possible, enteral nutrition (EN) is used to promote intestinal rehabilitation and reduce PN dependency. Our aim is to verify whether EN + oral intake (OI) in severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) surgical adult patients can maintain adequate nutritional status in the long term. This longitudinal retrospective study included 10 patients followed for 7 post-operative years. Body mass index (BMI), percentage of involuntary loss of usual body weight (UWL), free fat mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM) composition assessed by bioelectric impedance, and laboratory tests were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 months after surgery. Energy and protein offered in HPN and at long term by HEN+ oral intake (OI), was evaluated at the same periods. The statistical model of generalized estimating equations with p < 0,05 was used. With long term EN + OI there was a progressive increase in the UWL, a decrease in BMI, FFM, and FM (p < 0,05). PN weaning was possible in eight patients. Infection due to central venous catheter (CVC) contamination was the most common complication (1.2 episodes CVC/patient/year). There was an increase in energy and protein intake supply provided by HEN+OI (p < 0.05). All patients survived for at least 2 years, seven for 5 years and six for 7 years of follow-up. In the long term SBS surgical adult patients fed with HEN+OI couldn't maintain adequate nutritional status with loss of FM and FFM.
Baker, M L; Halliday, V; Robinson, P; Smith, K; Bowrey, D J
This study evaluated nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection and the influence of home jejunostomy feeding in the six months after surgery. Data on nutritional intake and physiologic measures were collected as part of a randomised trial with measurements taken before and up to six months after surgery. A total of 41 participants (32 oesophagectomy, 9 total gastrectomy) received home jejunostomy feeding (n=18) or usual care without feeding (n=23). At hospital discharge, oral intakes were adequate for energy and protein in 9% and 6%, respectively. By three and six months, these values had increased to 61% and 55%, 94% and 77% respectively. Six participants (26%) who received usual care required rescue feeding. Six weeks after hospital discharge, energy intakes were met in those who received jejunal feeding because of the contribution of enteral nutrition. Jejunal feeding did not affect oral intake, being similar in both groups (fed: 77% estimated need, usual care: 79%). At three months, inadequate micronutrient intakes were seen in over one third. Compared to baseline values, six weeks after surgery, weight loss exceeding 5% was seen in 5/18 (28%) who received feeding, 14/17 (82%) who received usual care and 5/6 (83%) of those who required rescue feeding, P=0.002. Weight loss averaged 4.1% (fed), 10.4% (usual care) and 9.2% (rescue fed), P=0.004. These trends persisted out to six months. Supplementary jejunostomy feeding made an important contribution to meeting nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection. Importantly, oral nutritional intake was not compromised dispelling the assertion that jejunal feeding deincentivises patients from eating.
Baker, Melanie L; Halliday, Vanessa; Robinson, Pauline; Smith, Karen; Bowrey, David J
Background/Objectives This study evaluated nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection and the influence of home jejunostomy feeding in the six months after surgery. Subjects/Methods Data on nutritional intake and physiologic measures were collected as part of a randomised trial with measurements taken before and up to six months after surgery. Results 41 participants (32 oesophagectomy, 9 total gastrectomy) received home jejunostomy feeding (n=18) or usual care without feeding (n=23). At hospital discharge, oral intakes were adequate for energy and protein in 9% and 6% respectively. By three and six months, these values had increased to 61% & 55%, 94% & 77% respectively. Six participants (26%) who received usual care required rescue feeding. Six weeks after hospital discharge, energy intakes were met in those who received jejunal feeding due to the contribution of enteral nutrition. Jejunal feeding did not affect oral intake, being similar in both groups (fed: 77% estimated need, usual care: 79%). At three months, inadequate micronutrient intakes were seen in over one third. Compared to baseline values, six weeks after surgery, weight loss exceeding 5% was seen in 5/18 (28%) who received feeding, 14/17 (82%) who received usual care and 5/6 (83%) of those who required rescue feeding, p=0.002. Weight loss averaged 4.1% (fed), 10.4% (usual care) and 9.2% (rescue fed), p=0.004. These trends persisted out to six months. Conclusions Supplementary jejunostomy feeding made an important contribution to meeting nutrition after oesophago-gastric resection. Importantly, oral nutritional intake was not compromised dispelling the assertion that jejunal feeding deincentivises patients from eating. PMID:28656968
Gavazzi, Cecilia; Colatruglio, Silvia; Valoriani, Filippo; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Sabbatini, Annarita; Biffi, Roberto; Mariani, Luigi; Miceli, Rosalba
Weight loss is frequent in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Nutritional status deteriorates throughout anti-cancer treatment, mostly after major surgery, increasing complications, reducing tolerance and worsening the final prognosis. Enteral nutrition is safe and effective in malnourished patients undergoing major GI surgery. Randomised trials aimed at investigating the effects of home enteral nutrition (HEN) in post-surgical patients with GI cancer are lacking. This study compares HEN and counselling in limiting weight loss during oncologic treatment. Patients with upper GI cancer and candidate to major surgery were included in the protocol when the nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002) score was ≥3. All patients were supported with enteral nutrition through a jejunostomy after surgery and randomly assigned to continue enteral nutrition or receiving nutritional counselling after discharge. Nutritional and performance status, quality of life (QoL) and tolerance to cancer treatment have been evaluated at 2 and 6 months after discharge. Seventy-nine patients were randomised; 38 continued enteral nutrition at home and 41 patients received nutritional counselling only. After 2 months, patients on HEN maintained their mean body weight, while patients in the nutritional counselling group showed a weight loss of 3.6 kg. Patients supported on HEN had a higher chance to complete chemotherapy as planned (48% versus 34%). QoL was not worsened by HEN. No complications were reported. HEN is a simple and feasible treatment to support malnourished patients with upper GI cancer after major surgery and during chemotherapy in order to limit further weight loss. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Maoming; Meng, Xiangling; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng
目的：评价胃癌患者全胃切除术后，早期肠内营养（EEN）与全肠外营养 （TPN）的差异。方法：收集2011 年5 月至2013 年5 月我科收治的胃癌全胃 切除患者，术后随机选择EEN 或TPN，对EEN 组和TPN 组患者术前及术后 的营养指标、肝功能、癌症患者营养评估标准（PG-SGA）、术后并发症、住 院时间以及住院费用进行对照研究。结果：符合入选标准的胃癌全胃切除患 者共72 例，其中EEN 组37 例，TPN 组35 例。EEN 组在术后3～5 天低白蛋 白血症逐渐改善，而TPN 组术后21 天才逐渐恢复。EEN 组术后14 天体重较 术前减轻，术后21 天逐渐恢复，而TPN 组在术后21 天内体重无明显恢复 （p<0.05）。两组营养指标有明显统计学差异（p<0.05）。ENN 组和TPN 组 并发症发生率分别为8.1%和25.7%，两组间无明显统计学差异（p>0.05）。 ENN 组住院时间为12.2±2.5 天，TPN 组为14.9±2.9 天（p<0.05），ENN 组和 TPN 组住院费用分别为36472±4833 元人民币和40140±3927 元人民币 （p<0.05）。结论：与TPN 相比，胃癌全胃切除术后选择EEN 安全、患者耐 受性好，并且可以缩短住院时间，减少住院总费用。
de Regil, Luz María; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón
Enzymatically modified soy proteins have the amino acid profile and functional properties required for dietary support. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and technological properties of an enzymatically modified soy protein ultrafiltered fraction with bound methionine (F(1-10)E) to be used as a protein ingredient for infant enteral formulas. F(1-10)E was chemically characterized and biologically evaluated. Thirty-six weaning Wistar rats were fed during 3 weeks with a 4% casein-containing diet. Rats were divided into three groups and recovered for 3 weeks with 18% protein-containing diets based on: (1) F(1-10)E, (2) casein or (3) soy isolate+methionine. Nutritional indicators were weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, plasma proteins, apparent digestibility and protein in the carcass. Additionally, F(1-10)E was added as a protein ingredient of an enteral formula, and its sensory and rheological properties were compared with a hydrolyzed-whey protein commercial formula. F(1-10)E contained 68% protein and 5% sulphur amino acids, with 60% of peptides =6 kDa. Casein-based and F(1-10)E-based diets were comparable (P>0.05) in weight gain (108 g and 118 g, respectively), protein efficiency ratio (2.7), apparent digestibility (93% and 95%), plasma proteins (5.7 mg/100 ml) and carcass protein (61%), and better than soy isolate-based+methionine diet (P<0.05). Viscosity of the commercial formula and our formula was similar during a 24-h period. Sensory acceptability was 8 for our formula and 3.5 for the commercial one, on a scale of 1-10 (P<0.05). Due to its nutritional, sensorial and rheological properties, F(1-10)E could be used as a protein source in infant enteral formulas.
Knip, Mikael; Akerblom, Hans K
Early feeding may modify the risk of both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. The information generated so far is, however, controversial. When evaluating studies on the impact of early feeding on risk of later diabetes, the data have to be assessed critically and possible confounding factors have to be considered. The study design may induce biases and there are considerable differences in early feeding practices across various countries and cultures. Accordingly it may not be possible to generalise observations based on one population. Long breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding in particular, and supplementation with vitamin D in infancy have been reported to confer partial protection against beta-cell autoimmunity and TID. In contrast, early exposure to cow's milk proteins and cereals and heavy weight in infancy have been implicated as risk factors for T1D. Long breastfeeding has also been observed to protect against T2D in aboriginal populations. Poor fetal nutrition resulting in low birth weight has been identified as a factor contributing to later insulin resistance and T2D. Recent data indicate that current overweight and obesity are stronger determinants of insulin resistance than birth weight among preschool children. High-nutrient diet and rapid growth in early infancy have been reported to adversely programme the principal components of the metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance and T2D. It is an important scientific and public-health objective to define protective and predisposing effects of early nutrition on the development of diabetes, since early feeding can potentially be modified to minimise the risk of later chronic diseases.
Maruyama, Michio; Nagahama, Takeshi; Sugano, Norihide; Satoh, Eigo; Maruyama, Shouji; Tanami, Hideo; Chiba, Tetsuma; Murakata, Ayano; Mitsuhashi, Yosuke; Uehira, Daisuke; Akazawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Keiichirou
In over the 10 years from 2000-2010, 21 gastric cancer patients received loco-regional chemotherapy with home enteral nutrition (HEN) at an outpatient clinic because of insufficient oral intake. These loco-regional chemotherapy regimens consisted of 5 intra-aortic chemotherapies, 4 hepato-arterial infusions and 12 intra-peritoneal chemotherapies. Five out of 8 cases that had measurable lesions showed PR, and 3 cases revealed PD. The patients received HEN with peptide central formula, 400-1,200 kcal/day in night time. The average duration of HEN was 12.9 months. The post-operative nutritional management was needed for continuation and securing of outpatient chemotherapy. The author reported an experience of the outpatient loco-regional chemotherapy with HEN for the gastric cancer patients who could not eat a sufficient volume of food.
Consensus statement of the academy of nutrition and dietetics/american society for parenteral and enteral nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition)
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagno...
Quilliot, Didier; Zallot, Camille; Malgras, Aurélie; Germain, Adeline; Bresler, Laurent; Ayav, Ahmet; Bigard, Marc-André; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier
Enteral tube feeding can be a source of discomfort and reluctance from patients. We evaluated for the first time the tolerability of self-insertion of a nasogastric (NG) tube for home enteral nutrition (EN). All patients requiring enteral tube feeding for chronic diseases were enrolled in a therapeutic patient education (TPE) program at Nancy University Hospital. In our department, between November 2008 and August 2012, 66 patients received EN with an NG tube. Twenty-nine of 66 had self-insertion of the NG tube (median age, 44 years), 17 had an anatomical contraindication, and 20 were excluded because of cognitive disability or language barrier or refusal. Twenty-eight of 29 patients completed the TPE program. One patient died of pancreatic cancer in palliative care during the study. Median follow-up was 20 months (interquartile range [IQR], 4-31). Median gain weight was 3.1 kg (IQR, 1.8-6.0) (P = .0002). Median duration of self-insertion of the NG tube was 3 months (IQR, 2-5), and it was well tolerated by all 29 patients. Two patients described minor adverse events: abdominal pain and nausea for 1 patient and epistaxis leading to temporary discontinuation of EN for another patient. A group of 10 consecutive patients previously had a long-term NG tube for EN. If they had the choice between a self-inserted NG tube and a long-term NG tube, all 10 patients reported they would prefer to start again with the self-inserted NG tube. This pilot study suggests that self-insertion of an NG tube may be efficacious and well tolerated in patients receiving EN for chronic conditions. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Prantil, Lori R; Markovich, Jessica E; Heinze, Cailin R; Linder, Deborah E; Tams, Todd R; Freeman, Lisa M
To determine the prevalence of nutrients less than or greater than accepted standards in commercially available enteral diets for cats, and to identify contamination incidence in enteral diets for cats. Prospective cross-sectional study. University teaching hospital. Seven commercial enteral diets for cats. Labels were evaluated to determine if diets were intended to be nutritionally complete and balanced. One diet under storage techniques partially representative of clinical conditions was sampled on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 of storage for aerobic bacterial culture. All 7 diets were analyzed for key nutrients and results were compared to Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) Nutrient Profiles for Adult Cats for maintenance and National Research Council recommended allowance (NRC-RA). From label information, 4 diets were classified as complete and balanced and 3 diets were classified as not complete and balanced. All 7 diets had at least 1 nutrient less than the AAFCO minimums and the NRC-RA. The total number of nutrients less than AAFCO minimums ranged from 3 to 9 (median = 4), with iron, potassium, and manganese being the most common. Concentrations of some nutrients were undetectable. None of the samples tested had a positive aerobic culture at baseline (day 0) or on subsequent samples from days 1, 3, 5, and 7 under any storage condition. None of the diets analyzed met all of the minimum nutrient concentrations. While short-term feeding may not be of concern for an individual patient, clinicians should be aware of potential nutritional limitations when feeding enteral diets to ill or injured cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.
Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; van Stijn, Mireille F M; Visser, Marlieke; Lemmens, Stéphanie M P; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M
Nutrition studies in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown that adequate enteral nutrition (EN) support has clinical benefits. However, the course of amino acid concentrations in plasma has never been investigated in patients admitted with shock receiving EN. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations, when deficit, increase during EN and that persistent deficiency is associated with poor outcome. In 33 septic or cardiogenic shock patients receiving EN, plasma amino acid concentrations were measured during 5 days. Changes in amino acid concentrations, correlations with clinical outcome variables, and regression analyses were studied. On ICU admission, several plasma concentrations were deficient. Plasma concentrations of almost all amino acids increased. In contrast, taurine decreased by >50%, from 47.6 µmol/L on admission to 20.0 µmol/L at day 1, and remained low at day 5. Taurine (admission) correlated with time on mechanical ventilation (R = -0.42, P = .015). Taurine decrease within 24 hours correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II predicted mortality (R = 0.43, P = .017) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (R = 0.36, P = .05). Regression analyses confirmed correlations. Several amino acids were deficient in plasma on ICU admission but increased during EN. Taurine concentrations declined and were associated with longer periods of mechanical ventilation and ICU support. Fast taurine decline correlated with severity of organ failure. These findings support the role of taurine during ischemia, reperfusion, and inflammation. Taurine may be an essential candidate to enrich nutrition support for critically ill patients, although more research is required. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Mundi, Manpreet S; Pattinson, Adele; McMahon, Megan T; Davidson, Jacob; Hurt, Ryan T
Malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Studies continue to reveal significant clinical benefits with nutrition support, including improved wound healing, reduction in complications and length of stay, and mortality. Due to these benefits, the prevalence of home parenteral and enteral nutrition (HPEN) continues to increase worldwide. In the United States, given our healthcare insurance landscape, it has been very difficult to ascertain the true prevalence of HPEN. Medicare beneficiary data for 2013 were obtained from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Commonly used Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes were used for home enteral nutrition (HEN) and home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Data regarding number of patients and insurance providers were also obtained from 3 of the largest home infusion providers in the United States (Coram CVS, Option Care Enterprises, and BioScrip Inc). Based on the ratio of Medicare to non-Medicare billing, an estimate of HPEN prevalence was obtained. For 2013, there were 6778 Medicare beneficiaries for HPN and 114,287 for HEN. The ratio of Medicare to non-Medicare was 0.271 for HPN and 0.261 for HEN, leading to an estimated prevalence of 25,011 patients receiving HPN (79 per million U.S. inhabitants) and 437,882 patients receiving HEN (1385 per million U.S. inhabitants). There are an estimated 4129 pediatric patients and 20,883 adult patients receiving HPN; for HEN, 189,036 pediatric patients and 248,846 adult patients. Compared with results from 1992, the prevalence of HEN has increased dramatically, while the prevalence of HPN has declined.
Swaminath, A; Feathers, A; Ananthakrishnan, A N; Falzon, L; Li Ferry, S
Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. To see if current literature supports the use of EEN versus CS in paediatric populations. All studies with comparator arms of exclusive enteral nutrition and an exclusive corticosteroids, with remission clearly defined were identified by searching eight online databases. Of 2795 identified sources, nine studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight of these (n = 451), had data that could be abstracted into our meta-analysis. Exclusive enteral nutrition was as effective as corticosteroids in inducing remission (OR = 1.26 [95% CI 0.77, 2.05]) in paediatric Crohn's disease. There was no difference between Exclusive enteral nutrition and corticosteroids efficacy when comparing newly diagnosed Crohn's (OR = 1.61 [95% CI .87, 2.98]) or relapsed (OR = 0.76 [95% CI .29-1.98]). Intestinal healing was significantly more likely among patients receiving Exclusive enteral nutrition compared to corticosteroids (OR = 4.5 [95% CI 1.64, 12.32]). There was no difference in the frequency of biomarker normalisation including CRP (OR = 0.85 [95% CI .44, 1.67]) and faecal calprotectin (OR 2.79 [95% CI .79-10.90]). There is no difference in efficacy between exclusive enteral nutrition and corticosteroids in induction of remission in Crohn's disease in a paediatric population. Exploratory analyses suggest that a greater proportion of patients treated with exclusive enteral nutrition achieved mucosal healing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Assa, Amit; Shamir, Raanan
Enteral nutrition as a treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases is an ongoing area of interest. Even in the era of biologic agents, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) offers a unique, drug-free measure for induction of remission in luminal Crohn's disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of EEN in the evolving therapeutic scheme for Crohn's disease, to report on new evidence for short and long-term efficacy and highlight findings on the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN in light of current understanding of disease pathogenesis. Recent clinical studies have suggested that EEN has an established advantage over corticosteroids for inducing remission in children with luminal Crohn's disease with comparable clinical efficacy but superior mucosal healing effect as well as better safety profile. Preoperative EEN therapy can also improve postoperative outcome of intestinal resection. Basic research has demonstrated that EEN has direct anti-inflammatory properties, can correct localization of tight junction proteins, alter micro RNAs expression, and profoundly affect the intestinal microbiota. EEN is an effective treatment for induction of remission in pediatric luminal Crohn's disease and should be offered as a first-line treatment. Accumulating evidence suggest that EEN has direct anti-inflammatory properties with an effect on the intestinal microbiota. However, the relationships between these effects and the specific triggers for these changes have yet to be elucidated.
Sabir, Sharjeel H; Armstrong, Ryan; Elting, Linda S; Wallace, Michael J; Gupta, Sanjay; Tam, Alda L
To report the results of early enteral feeding in patients with cancer after outpatient placement of a percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided gastrostomy (PFG). From January 2008 through December 2008, 121 consecutive patients with cancer underwent outpatient placement of a PFG for nutrition. Of these patients, 118 patients met criteria for early feeding, and 113 were successfully fed early (after at least 3 hours). Of the patients fed early, 5 had insufficient follow-up for further analysis leaving 108 patients for outcomes analysis. After placement of the PFG, patients were put on low-wall suction via the PFG for 1 hour followed by feeding via the PFG at least 3 hours after placement. Follow-up evaluation was done the next business day. The medical records were reviewed for 30-day outcomes of early feeding, technical aspects of the procedures, and complications. After placement of the PFG, 98% (118 of 121) of patients met criteria for early feeding, and 93% (113 of 121) of patients were successfully fed early. The median time between the end of the procedure and initiation of feeding was 4 hours (interquartile range, 3.7-4.4 h). The 30-day minor complication rate was 14% (15 of 108), and the 30-day major complication rate was 1% (1 of 108). No complications were directly attributable to early feeding. Early initiation of tube feedings after outpatient placement of a PFG was well tolerated in patients with cancer and carried comparable risks to previously reported results using traditional delayed feeding protocols. Early feeding provided patients with prompt enteral nutrition and eliminated the need for routine hospital admission after the procedure. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Botella Romero, F; Alfaro Martínez, J J; Luna López, V; Galicia Martín, I
Vitamin D deficiency produces inadequate bone mineralization, proximal muscle weakness, abnormal gait and increased risk of falls and fractures. Moreover, in epidemiological studies, has been associated with increased risk of cancer, autoimmune diseases, type 1 and 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and depression. When synthesis through the skin by sun exposure is not possible and the patient can not eat by mouth, as in the advanced stages of various neurological diseases, the supply of vitamin D has to be done by enteral nutrition. The aim of this study is to review the role of vitamin D in a common group of neurological conditions that often require artificial nutrition and analyze whether the vitamin D of different enteral nutrition formulas is adequate to meet the needs of this group of patients. Numerous studies have shown the association between vitamin D deficiency and increased incidence of dementia, stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases. Interventions aimed to increase levels of vit. D and its effects on functional (falls, pain, quality of life) and cardiovascular goals (cardiovascular death, stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular risk factors) have obtained as highlight data a clear reduction of falls and fractures, while the evidence for the other parameters studied is still limited and inconsistent. The content of calcium and vitamin D of enteral formulas is legislated in our country. The total amount of vitamin D for a daily intake of 1,500-2,000 kcal ranges between 300 and 1,600 IU/d (mean ± SD: 32.9 ± 8.5 mg/100 kcal) in the complete formulas for enteral nutrition most commonly used. 50% of the diets studied, for an intake of 2,000 kcal/d, and 90% for an intake of 1,500 kcal/d, provide less than 600 IU/d of vitamin D. Some revised recently guidelines published recommendations of daily intake of vitamin D. The document published by the U.S. Institute of Medicine
Alférez, M J; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; López-Aliaga, I
The digestive and metabolic utilization of protein (50% lactoalbumin + 50% casein) and fat (43.0% butter, 29.5% olive oil, 14.7% soy oil, 9.8% MCT and 3.0% lecithin) provided by two commercial diets used in clinical enteral nutrition (normoproteic, 16.1% protein and 20.8% fat, and hyperproteic, 23.1% protein and 14.9% fat), was studied in adult rats (mean body weight 180 g). The diet containing the greater amount of protein improved the digestive utilization of nitrogen, and although nitrogen retention was optimal, it failed to rise further when the dietary protein supply was increased. The digestive utilization of fat in both diets was excellent.
Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232
Han, Gang; Yu, Zhenwei; Ma, Ke
Purpose The aim of the study reported here was to assess the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN), and the prevalence of PN and EN formulas, in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Fifty-nine hospitals in the People’s Republic of China participated in a nutrition survey. The resulting information on nutritional support was analyzed. Results We received 379,584 nutritional-support prescriptions over 40 days in 2013. PN provided approximately 63.2% and EN provided approximately 36.8% of nitrogen intake. PN provided 63.5% and EN provided 36.5% of lipid intake. There were obvious differences in nitrogen and lipid intake between PN and EN in different regions, departments, and diseases. The percentage of nourishment provided by PN in different regions was highest in Chengdu, followed by the Beijing, Guangzhou, and Hangzhou areas. The percentage of nourishment provided by PN in different departments was highest in general surgery, followed by gastroenterology and the intensive care unit. The percentage of nourishment provided by PN in different diseases/conditions was highest in acute pancreatitis, followed by cancer, and burns. The main source of nitrogen in PN was balanced amino-acid preparations, and in EN, it was protein. The main source of lipids in PN was long- and medium-chain triglyceride lipid emulsion injection. Conclusion Despite recent improvements in the application of nutritional support in the People’s Republic of China, a much higher percentage of nitrogen and lipids is delivered through PN than through EN. Furthermore, there are marked regional, departmental, and disease-based differences in the selection of PN versus EN. The rationale for use of nutritional support needs to be improved. PMID:25709462
[Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): neurocritical patient].
Acosta Escribano, J; Herrero Meseguer, I; Conejero García-Quijada, R
Neurocritical patients require specialized nutritional support due to their intense catabolism and prolonged fasting. The preferred route of nutrient administration is the gastrointestinal route, especially the gastric route. Alternatives are the transpyloric route or mixed enteral-parenteral nutrition if an effective nutritional volume of more than 60% cannot be obtained. Total calore intake ranges from 20-30 kcal/kg/day, depending on the period of the clinical course, with protein intake higher than 20% of total calories (hyperproteic diet). Nutritional support should be initiated early. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications is generally higher to other critically-ill patients, the most frequent complication being an increase in gastric residual volume. As in other critically-ill patients, glycemia should be closely monitored and maintained below 150 mg/dL. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC) and Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Elke, Gunnar; van Zanten, Arthur R H; Lemieux, Margot; McCall, Michele; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed N; Kott, Matthias; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G; Heyland, Daren K
Enteral nutrition (EN) is recommended as the preferred route for early nutrition therapy in critically ill adults over parenteral nutrition (PN). A recent large randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no outcome differences between the two routes. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of the route of nutrition (EN versus PN) on clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. An electronic search from 1980 to 2016 was performed identifying relevant RCTs. Individual trial data were abstracted and methodological quality of included trials scored independently by two reviewers. The primary outcome was overall mortality and secondary outcomes included infectious complications, length of stay (LOS) and mechanical ventilation. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine the treatment effect by dissimilar caloric intakes, year of publication and trial methodology. We performed a test of asymmetry to assess for the presence of publication bias. A total of 18 RCTs studying 3347 patients met inclusion criteria. Median methodological score was 7 (range, 2-12). No effect on overall mortality was found (1.04, 95 % CI 0.82, 1.33, P = 0.75, heterogeneity I(2) = 11 %). EN compared to PN was associated with a significant reduction in infectious complications (RR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.48, 0.87, P = 0.004, I(2) = 47 %). This was more pronounced in the subgroup of RCTs where the PN group received significantly more calories (RR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.37, 0.82, P = 0.003, I(2) = 0 %), while no effect was seen in trials where EN and PN groups had a similar caloric intake (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.80, 1.10, P = 0.44, I(2) = 0 %; test for subgroup differences, P = 0.003). Year of publication and methodological quality did not influence these findings; however, a publication bias may be present as the test of asymmetry was significant (P = 0.003). EN was associated with significant reduction in ICU LOS (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.80, 95 % CI -1.23, -0.37, P = 0.0003, I(2
Wong, A; Goh, G; Banks, M D; Bauer, J D
Studies are lacking in the health economic implications of home enteral nutrition (HEN) in home-residing and long-term care/institutionalized patients. The aims of this review were to determine the total costs, the cost-effectiveness and other economic outcomes for HEN. A systematic search of randomized trials and observational studies available from January 2000 to April 2016 was performed using standard literature and electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were adults receiving HEN with economic outcomes in the long-term care or home settings. There was no restriction to the control groups used in the studies. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were not specifically designed for economic evaluation. Cost per QALY was lower in residents residing in home compared to long-term care facilities, and HEN appeared to be cost-effective for those with pressure ulcers. Higher costs were incurred for patients with dementia on HEN. Lower hospitalization costs and infection rates were reported for patients who switched to commercial feeds from blenderized food. The availability of nutritional support teams may decrease overall costs but these studies were of poor study quality. The lack of good quality economic evaluation studies affected the ability to conclude the overall cost-effectiveness of HEN. There is a trend for cost-saving and improved clinical outcomes in some populations. HEN is unlikely beneficial for patients with dementia. The availability of a nutrition support team may lead to cost savings and improved clinical outcomes for HEN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Mara, Jackie; Gentles, Emma; Alfheeaid, Hani A; Diamantidi, Krystalia; Spenceley, Neil; Davidson, Mark; Young, David; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos
Provision of optimal nutrition in children in critical care is often challenging. This study evaluated exclusive enteral nutrition (EN) provision practices and explored predictors of energy intake and delay of EN advancement in critically ill children. Data on intake and EN practices were collected on a daily basis and compared against predefined targets and dietary reference values in a paediatric intensive care unit. Factors associated with intake and advancement of EN were explored. Data were collected from 130 patients and 887 nutritional support days (NSDs). Delay to initiate EN was longer in patients from both the General Surgical and congenital heart defect (CHD) Surgical groups [Median (IQR); CHD Surgical group: 20.3 (16.4) vs General Surgical group: 11.4 (53.5) vs Medical group: 6.5 (10.9) hours; p ≤ 0.001]. Daily fasting time per patient was significantly longer in patients from the General Surgical and CHD Surgical groups than those from the Medical group [% of 24 h, Median (IQR); CHD Surgical group: 24.0 (29.2) vs General Surgical group: 41.7 (66.7) vs Medical group: 9.4 (21.9); p ≤ 0.001]. A lower proportion of fluids was delivered as EN per patient (45% vs 73%) or per NSD (56% vs 73%) in those from the CHD Surgical group compared with those with medical conditions. Protein and energy requirements were achieved in 38% and 33% of the NSDs. In a substantial proportion of NSDs, minimum micronutrient recommendations were not met particularly in those patients from the CHD Surgical group. A higher delivery of fluid requirements (p < 0.05) and a greater proportion of these delivered as EN (p < 0.001) were associated with median energy intake during stay and delay of EN advancement. Fasting (31%), fluid restriction (39%) for clinical reasons, procedures requiring feed cessation and establishing EN (22%) were the most common reasons why target energy requirements were not met. Provision of optimal EN support remains challenging and varies during
Cao, L; Ye, X H; Li, J; Zhang, L N; Li, L; Zhang, W Y; Deng, L L
Objective: To explore the effect of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support. Method: From March to August 2016, 70 critically neurological patients with continues enteral nutrition who admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were randomized into two groups. The observation group applied the bedside ultrasound monitoring gastric residual volume every day to guide the implementation of enteral nutrition. The control group used syringes withdrawing every 8 hours to measure the gastric residual volume. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of complications include regurgitation and aspiration in this two group patients (P=0.356; P=1.000), while the times of interrupting enteral nutrition was lower in the observation group(25.7% vs 5.7%, 74.3% vs 94.3%, P=0.045), the length of target feeding time and the length of ICU stay, the operation time was shortened, with a statistically significant difference[(2.37±0.69) d vs (3.49±0.74) d, P=0.028; (8.52±5.45) d vs (6.40±2.71) d, P=0.022; (58.29±11.22)s vs (67.60±7.05) s, P=0.000]. Conclusion: The application of bedside ultrasound to measure gastric residual volume can be a scientific method to guide enteral nutrition in neurosurgical critical patients, which can reduce the times of interrupting enteral nutrition and shorten the length of target feeding time and ICU length of stay, reduce the workload of nurses.
O'Keefe, Stephen J D
In this review, I focus on the extreme of the short bowel syndrome where the loss of intestine is so great that patients cannot survive without intravenous feeding. This condition is termed short bowel intestinal failure. The review outlines the principles behind diagnosis, assessing prognosis and management. The advent of intravenous feeding (parenteral nutrition) in the 1970s enabled patients with massive (>90%) bowel resection to survive for the first time and to be rehabilitated back into normal life. To achieve this, central venous catheters were inserted preferably into the superior vena cava and intravenous infusions were given overnight so that the catheter could be sealed by day in order to maximize ambulation and social integration. However, quality of life has suffered by the association of serious complications related to permanent catheterization - mostly in the form of septicemias, thrombosis, metabolic intolerance and liver failure - from the unphysiological route of nutrient delivery. This has led to intense research into restoring gut function. In addition to dietary modifications and therapeutic suppression of motility, novel approaches have been aimed at enhancing the natural adaptation process, first with recombinant growth hormone and more recently with gut-specific glucagon-like peptide-2 analogues, e.g. teduglutide. These approaches have met with some success, reducing the intravenous caloric needs by approximately 500 kcal/day. In controlled clinical trials, teduglutide has been shown to permit >20% reductions in intravenous requirements in over 60% of patients after 6 months of treatment. Some patients have been weaned, but more have been able to drop infusion days. The only approach that predictably can get patients with massive intestinal loss completely off parenteral nutrition is small bowel transplantation, which, if successful (1-year survival for graft and host >90%) is accompanied by dramatic improvements in quality of life.
Yones, Doaa A; Galal, Lamia A; Abdallah, Alameldin M; Zaghlol, Khaled S
Enteric parasitic infections still the cause of major health problems among Egyptian children as they have great morbid effect on their physical and cognitive development. Malnutrition makes children more prone to micronutrient deficiency and subsequently more vulnerable to parasitic infection. The present study aimed to identify the effect of intestinal parasitism on micronutrient serum level and children nutritional status. A case control study was carried out on children from 1 to 6 years old who were attending the Assiut University Children Hospital outpatient clinic, after parasitological stool examination they were divided into Group 1 (G1, n: 60) positive with enteric parasite and Group 2 (G2, n: 60) age and sex matched and free of parasites. Anthropometric measurements were expressed as weight for age (WFA), height for age (HFA), and weight for height (WFH) parameters. Serum zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Intestinal parasitic infection rate was 55.7%; more commonly detected parasites were Giardia lamblia 28%, Cryptosporidium sp. 20%, and polyparasitism 18%. All children (G1 and G2) were underweight (WFA) while 63% of G1 were malnourished, either in the form of wasting (WFH) or stunting (HFA) or both aspects. Stunting and wasting were more dominant among children infected with G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp. and most of them were below 2 years old. Coincident decrease in serum Zn level and an increase of serum Cu was more prominent among G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp. patients. G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp. were found to be more associated with nonstandard children nutritional status beside to an altered micronutrient level.
Yones, Doaa A; Galal, Lamia A; Abdallah, Alameldin M; Zaghlol, Khaled S
Introduction: Enteric parasitic infections still the cause of major health problems among Egyptian children as they have great morbid effect on their physical and cognitive development. Malnutrition makes children more prone to micronutrient deficiency and subsequently more vulnerable to parasitic infection. The present study aimed to identify the effect of intestinal parasitism on micronutrient serum level and children nutritional status. Materials and Methods: A case control study was carried out on children from 1 to 6 years old who were attending the Assiut University Children Hospital outpatient clinic, after parasitological stool examination they were divided into Group 1 (G1, n: 60) positive with enteric parasite and Group 2 (G2, n: 60) age and sex matched and free of parasites. Anthropometric measurements were expressed as weight for age (WFA), height for age (HFA), and weight for height (WFH) parameters. Serum zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Intestinal parasitic infection rate was 55.7%; more commonly detected parasites were Giardia lamblia 28%, Cryptosporidium sp. 20%, and polyparasitism 18%. All children (G1 and G2) were underweight (WFA) while 63% of G1 were malnourished, either in the form of wasting (WFH) or stunting (HFA) or both aspects. Stunting and wasting were more dominant among children infected with G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp. and most of them were below 2 years old. Conclusions: Coincident decrease in serum Zn level and an increase of serum Cu was more prominent among G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp. patients. G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp. were found to be more associated with nonstandard children nutritional status beside to an altered micronutrient level. PMID:25709950
Hurt, Ryan T; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Epp, Lisa M; Pattinson, Adele K; Lammert, Lisa M; Lintz, Jennifer E; Mundi, Manpreet S
Use of long-term enteral nutrition (EN) has increased dramatically in the United States. It has been the authors' experience that most home EN (HEN) patients use blenderized tube feeding (BTF) in addition to commercial EN. There are limited resources available for patients interested in BTF, and studies evaluating safety and effectiveness are limited. The authors conducted a prospective cross-sectional study (n = 54). age >18 years, follow-up in HEN clinic, prescribed commercial EN. Participants were provided the survey at HEN follow-up appointments after receiving HEN for at least 3 weeks. Median age (range) was 60.5 (22-87) years with 42.6% females (n = 23). BTF was used by 55.5% of patients (n = 30). Most (57%; n = 31) received HEN for >6 months. BTF use was a median of 4 (1-7) days per week. Most common reasons for using BTF were as follows: it is more natural (43%), like eating what their family does (33%), and tolerate BTF better (30%). In patients who use BTF, 80% reported maintaining goal body weight. BTF resulted in significantly less reported nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation compared with commercial EN. This is the first study to evaluate BTF use in an adult HEN population. More than 50% of our patients used and approximately 80% expressed a desire to use BTF if provided with adequate information. With new connection tube changes coming in the near future, adequate adapters for BTF need to be developed. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Kamarul Zaman, Mazuin; Chin, Kin-Fah; Rai, Vineya; Majid, Hazreen Abdul
AIM: To investigate fiber and prebiotic supplementation of enteral nutrition (EN) for diarrhea, fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, and Web of Science databases were searched for human experimental and observational cohort studies conducted between January 1990 and June 2014. The keywords used for the literature search were fiber, prebiotics and enteral nutrition. English language studies with adult patient populations on exclusive EN were selected. Abstracts and/or full texts of selected studies were reviewed and agreed upon by two independent researchers for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Tools used for the quality assessment were Jadad Scale and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Critical Appraisal of the Medical Literature. RESULTS: A total of 456 possible articles were retrieved, and 430 were excluded due to lack of appropriate data. Of the 26 remaining studies, only eight investigated the effects of prebiotics. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that overall, fiber reduces diarrhea in patients receiving EN (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.29-0.77; P = 0.02). Subgroup analysis revealed a positive effect of fiber supplementation in EN towards diarrhea in stable patients (OR = 0.31; 95%CI: 0.19-0.51; P < 0.01), but not in critically ill patients (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.41-1.92; P = 0.77). Prebiotic supplementation in EN does not improve the incidence of diarrhea despite its manipulative effect on bifidobacteria concentrations and SCFA in healthy humans. In addition, the effect of fiber and/or prebiotic supplementation towards fecal microbiota and SCFA remain disputable. CONCLUSION: Fiber helps minimize diarrhea in patients receiving EN, particularly in non-critically ill patients. However, the effect of prebiotics in moderating diarrhea is inconclusive. PMID:25954112
Gentles, Emma; Mara, Jackie; Diamantidi, Krystalia; Alfheeaid, Hani A; Spenceley, Neil; Davidson, Mark; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos
Provision of optimal nutrition is often difficult to achieve in the critically ill child, but can improve with better nutritional support practices. This study evaluated the joint impact of the introduction of enteral feeding practice guidelines and participation of dietitians in daily ward rounds on enteral nutrition (EN) intake and practices in children in intensive care. Nutritional intake and EN practices were audited before (period A) and after (period B) the introduction of enteral feeding practice guidelines and participation of dietitians in daily ward rounds in a pediatric intensive care unit. Information was collected on a daily basis and nutritional intake was compared with predefined targets and the United Kingdom dietary reference values. There were 65 patients and 477 nutritional support days in period A and 65 patients and 410 nutritional support days in period B. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) energy requirements were achieved in a larger proportion of nutritional support days in period B (BMR achieved [% nutritional support days]; period A: 27% vs period B: 48.9%; P<0.001). In patients admitted for nonsurgical reasons, median energy, protein, and micronutrient intake improved significantly. In the same group, the percentage of daily fluid intake delivered as EN increased post implementation (period A: median=66.8%; interquartile range=40.9 vs period B: median=79.6%; interquartile range=35.2; P<0.001). No significant changes were seen in patients admitted for corrective heart surgery. Implementation of better EN support practice can improve nutritional intake in some patients in critical care, but can have limited benefit for children admitted for corrective heart surgery.
Scarborough, Anita A.; Spiker, Donna; Mallik, Sangeeta; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Bailey Jr., Donald B.; Simeonsson, Rune J.
The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is the first study of Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) early intervention system with a nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers with disabilities. This article presents national estimates of characteristics of infants and toddlers and their…
Haas, J D; Murdoch, S; Rivera, J; Martorell, R
Several important studies within the past 20 years have examined the impact of acute nutrient deficiencies upon physical work capacity. Spurr et al. and Satyanarayana et al. extended that line of research to explore the apparent effects of chronic or lifelong undernutrition upon the work capacity of adolescent males. These studies conducted in Colombia and India, as well as others in Tanzania and Guatemala, are discussed. The authors believe that there is enough evidence to conclude that poor early childhood nutritional status, as indicated by the low dietary energy intakes and subsequent stunted growth, leads to many undesirable functional consequences. The studies of physical work capacity, together with other measures such as cognitive functioning and reproductive performance, provide strong evidence in support of policies and programs designed to eliminate the causes of environmental stunting in poor populations.
Isabel-Martinez, L.; Skinner, C.; Parkin, A.; Hall, R.I.
Plasma triglyceride turnover was measured during steady-state conditions in 22 postoperative patients. Nine had received nutritional support with an enteral regimen, seven had received an equivalent regimen as continuous parenteral nutrition, and six received the same parenteral regimen as a cyclical infusion. After 5 days of nutritional support, each patient received an intravenous bolus of tritiated glycerol. Plasma radiolabeled triglyceride content was measured during the subsequent 24 hours. The data were analyzed by means of a simple deterministic model of plasma triglyceride kinetics and compared with the results obtained by stochastic analysis. The rates of hepatic triglyceride secretion obtained by deterministic analysis were higher than those obtained by the stochastic approach. However, the mode of delivery of the nutritional regimen did not affect the rate of hepatic triglyceride secretion regardless of the method of analysis. The results suggest that neither complete nutritional bypass of the gastrointestinal tract nor interruption of parenteral nutrition in an attempt to mimic normal eating has any effect on hepatic triglyceride secretion. Any beneficial effect that enteral feeding or cyclical parenteral nutrition may have on liver dysfunction associated with standard parenteral nutrition appears to be unrelated to changes in hepatic triglyceride secretion.
Büyükçoban, Sibel; Akan, Mert; Koca, Uğur; Eğlen, Merih Yıldız; Çiçeklioğlu, Meltem; Mavioğlu, Ömür
Objective In this study, two enteral nutrition protocols with different gastric residual volumes (GRVs) and different monitoring intervals were compared with respect to gastrointestinal intolerance findings in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods The study was carried out prospectively in 60 patients in the anaesthesiology and reanimation ICU under mechanical ventilation support, who were scheduled to take enteral feeding. Patients were sequentially divided into two groups: Group 1, GRV threshold of 100 mL, and monitoring interval of 4 hours, and Group 2, GRV threshold of 200 mL, monitoring interval of 8 hours. To test the significant difference between the groups, Student’s t test, chi-square text and Fisher exact test were used. Results In Group 1, 3.3% vomiting, 6.6% diarrhoea was observed; in Group 2, 16.6% vomiting, 10% diarrhoea. In terms of total intolerance (vomiting and/or diarrhoea) of the two groups, the incidence was significantly higher in Group 2 (33.3%) than in Group 1 (10%) (p=0.02). Conclusion According to the results of the study, a lower gastrointestinal intolerance rate was detected in the GRV threshold 100 mL, monitoring interval for 4 hours protocol (Group 1) than in GRV threshold 200 mL, monitoring interval for 8 hours protocol (Group 2); Group 1 may be preferred renovation. PMID:27909608
Yamaoka, Ippei; Kagawa, Tomohiro; Mizugai, Kazuya; Ebisu, Goro
Enteral nutrition (EN) residues that persist in feeding tubes provide substrates for microorganisms to proliferate and occlude the tubes. Visible EN residues in tubes are easily identified, but smaller residues can persist. We developed a new imaging technique to visualize EN residues and proliferation of microorganisms in feeding tubes. (1) Feeding tubes containing EN labeled with fluorescent dye and either with or without various types or amounts of thickeners were flushed once with water and then seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen05 with recombinant luciferase DNA. (2) Because EN fluoresces intrinsically, EN in the feeding tubes without fluorescent dye was repeatedly flushed until the intrinsic fluorescence levels reached background levels. Fluorescent images of EN residues and bioluminescent images of microorganisms were acquired via an optical imaging system. (1) Fluorescence images showed that the amount of EN residues increased at various sites in tubes depending on EN viscosity and the thickening agent, and bioluminescence images showed that microorganism proliferation was associated with a commensurate increase in EN residues. (2) The intrinsic fluorescence of EN also enabled the detection of EN residues in tubes even in the absence of fluorescence dye. Higher EN viscosity required more flushes to reach undetectable levels. EN residues and microorganism proliferation in enteral feeding tubes were detected on fluorescence and bioluminescence images, respectively. This simplified approach allowed the real-time visualization of EN residues and microorganisms in feeding tubes.
Hyeda, Adriano; Costa, Élide Sbardellotto Mariano da
To conduct an economic analysis of enteral and parenteral diet costs according to the type of disease and outcome (survivors versus deaths). It is a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study with a qualitative and quantitative design, based on analysis of hospital accounts from a healthcare insurance provider in the Southern region of Brazil. We analyzed 301 hospital accounts of individuals who used enteral and parenteral diets. The total cost of the diet was 35.4% of hospital account total costs. The enteral modality accounted for 59.8% of total dietary costs. The major costs with diets were observed in hospitalizations related to infections, cancers and cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. The major costs with parenteral diet were with admissions related by cancers (64.52%) and dementia syndromes (46.17%). The highest ratio between total diet costs with the total of hospital account costs was in dementia syndromes (46.32%) and in cancers (41.2%). The individuals who died spent 51.26% of total of hospital account costs, being 32.81% in diet (47.45% of total diet value and 58.81% in parenteral modality). Enteral and parenteral nutritional therapies account for a significant part of the costs with hospitalized individuals, especially in cases of cancers and dementia syndromes. The costs of parenteral diets were higher in the group of patients who died. Realizar uma análise econômica de custos da terapia nutricional enteral e parenteral, conforme o tipo de doença e o desfecho (sobreviventes versus óbitos). Estudo transversal, observacional, retrospectivo, com estratégia qualitativa e quantitativa, a partir da análise de contas hospitalares de uma operadora de saúde da Região Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas 301 contas hospitalares de usuários que utilizaram dieta enteral e parenteral. O custo total com dieta foi de 35,4% do custo total das contas hospitalares. A modalidade enteral representou 59,8% do custo total em dieta. Os maiores custos com dieta
Leyes, P; Forga, M T; Montserrat, C; Coronas, R
The use of Enteral Nutrition at Home (ENH) in the Hospital Clínico de Barcelona has grown greatly over the last decade, with a certain trend towards stabilization being observed in the last two years, but still growing at a rate of 9.2% per annum. A transverse analysis of the active patients on our ENH register at a given moment has revealed a total of 315 patients receiving treatment. The retrospective analysis of our series during 1998 gave a figure of 643 new cases. The most frequent indication for ENH was neoplasia (44%), followed by neurological pathology (28%). The administration route most frequently used was oral (66% of cases). In the oral route, oncological diagnoses were dominant (52%), whereas administration by means of a naso-gastric tube was mainly due to neurological disorders (72%). The use of PEG (12.5% of administrations via tube) was distributed between oncological and neurological patients, with a slight predominance of the first. Of those patients completing ENH in the same year, duration was in most cases (67%) less than one month. The decrease of the patient due to the underlying disorder was the main cause of termination, followed by the need for short-term nutritional support following discharge from hospital.
Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Nagafuchi, Shinya; Kurihara, Rina; Okuda, Kenji; Kanesaka, Takeshi; Ogawa, Norihiro; Kanematsu, Takayoshi; Takasugi, Satoshi; Yamaji, Taketo; Takami, Masao; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Mitsuo
We investigated the effect of prebiotics on the immunological response after influenza vaccination in enterally fed elderly individuals. The intervention group was given an enteral formula containing lactic acid bacteria-fermented milk products. In addition, two different types of other prebiotics, galacto-oligosaccharide and bifidogenic growth stimulator, were also given. The two prebiotics improved intestinal microbiota differently. In a control group, a standard formula without prebiotics was given. An enteral formula with (intervention group [F]) or without (control group [C]) prebiotics was given through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy to elderly participants for 10 weeks. Influenza vaccine was inoculated at week 4. Nutritional and biochemical indices, intestinal micro bacteria and immunological indices were analyzed. The Bifidobacterium count in groups F and C at week 0 was 6.4 ± 1.9 and 6.6 ± 3.0 (log10 [count/g feces]), respectively. Although the count in group C decreased at week 10, the count in group F increased. The Bacteroides count in group F increased from 10.7 ± 0.9 to 11.4 ± 0.5, but decreased in group C from 11.2 ± 0.2 to 10.7 ± 0.4. Although the enhanced titers of H1N1, H3N2 and B antigens against the vaccine decreased thereafter in group C, these enhanced titers in group F could be maintained. Our findings suggest that prebiotics affect the intestinal microbiota and might maintain the antibody titers in elderly individuals. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Wills, Anne-Marie; Hubbard, Jane; Macklin, Eric A.; Glass, Jonathan; Tandan, Rup; Simpson, Ericka P; Brooks, Benjamin; Gelinas, Deborah; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Hanes, Gregory P.; Ladha, Shafeeq S.; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Katz, Jonathan; Lou, Jau-Shin; Mahoney, Katy; Grasso, Daniela; Lawson, Robert; Yu, Hong; Cudkowicz, Merit
Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease with few therapeutic options. Mild obesity is associated with greater survival in ALS patients and calorie-dense diets increase survival in an ALS mouse model. We therefore hypothesized that hypercaloric diets might lead to weight gain and slow ALS disease progression. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial, we enrolled adults with ALS without a history of diabetes, significant liver or cardiovascular disease, who were already receiving percutaneous enteral nutrition. We randomly assigned participants to one of three dietary interventions: replacement calories using an isocaloric diet (controls) vs. a high-carbohydrate hypercaloric diet (HC/HC), vs. a high-fat hypercaloric diet (HF/HC). Participants received the intervention diets for four months and were followed for five months. The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included measures of disease progression, survival, and metabolism. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00983983. Findings A total of 24 participants were enrolled of whom 20 initiated study diet (six control, eight HC/HC, six HF/HC). Baseline demographics were similar among the three study arms. The HC/HC diet was better tolerated with fewer serious adverse events than the control diet (zero vs. nine, p<0·001) and fewer dose discontinuations due to adverse events (0% vs. 50%). There were no deaths in the HC/HC arm vs. three deaths (43%) in the control arm (logrank p = 0·03). The HF/HC arm was not statistically different from the controls in adverse events, tolerability, deaths or disease progression. Interpretation Our results suggest that hypercaloric enteral nutrition is safe and tolerable in ALS and support the study of nutritional interventions at earlier stages of the disease. Funding The Muscular Dystrophy Association with additional support from the National
Background Provision of optimal nutrition in children in critical care is often challenging. This study evaluated exclusive enteral nutrition (EN) provision practices and explored predictors of energy intake and delay of EN advancement in critically ill children. Methods Data on intake and EN practices were collected on a daily basis and compared against predefined targets and dietary reference values in a paediatric intensive care unit. Factors associated with intake and advancement of EN were explored. Results Data were collected from 130 patients and 887 nutritional support days (NSDs). Delay to initiate EN was longer in patients from both the General Surgical and congenital heart defect (CHD) Surgical groups [Median (IQR); CHD Surgical group: 20.3 (16.4) vs General Surgical group: 11.4 (53.5) vs Medical group: 6.5 (10.9) hours; p ≤ 0.001]. Daily fasting time per patient was significantly longer in patients from the General Surgical and CHD Surgical groups than those from the Medical group [% of 24 h, Median (IQR); CHD Surgical group: 24.0 (29.2) vs General Surgical group: 41.7 (66.7) vs Medical group: 9.4 (21.9); p ≤ 0.001]. A lower proportion of fluids was delivered as EN per patient (45% vs 73%) or per NSD (56% vs 73%) in those from the CHD Surgical group compared with those with medical conditions. Protein and energy requirements were achieved in 38% and 33% of the NSDs. In a substantial proportion of NSDs, minimum micronutrient recommendations were not met particularly in those patients from the CHD Surgical group. A higher delivery of fluid requirements (p < 0.05) and a greater proportion of these delivered as EN (p < 0.001) were associated with median energy intake during stay and delay of EN advancement. Fasting (31%), fluid restriction (39%) for clinical reasons, procedures requiring feed cessation and establishing EN (22%) were the most common reasons why target energy requirements were not met. Conclusions Provision of optimal EN support remains
Moore, F A; Feliciano, D V; Andrassy, R J; McArdle, A H; Booth, F V; Morgenstein-Wagner, T B; Kellum, J M; Welling, R E; Moore, E E
This two-part meta-analysis combined data from eight prospective randomized trials designed to compare the nutritional efficacy of early enteral (TEN) and parenteral (TPN) nutrition in high-risk surgical patients. The combined data gave sufficient patient numbers (TEN, n = 118; TPN, n = 112) to adequately address whether route of substrate delivery affected septic complication incidence. Phase I (dropouts excluded) meta-analysis confirmed data homogeneity across study sites, that TEN and TPN groups were comparable, and that significantly fewer TEN patients experienced septic complications (TEN, 18%; TPN, 35%; p = 0.01). Phase II meta-analysis, an intent-to-treat analysis (dropouts included), confirmed that fewer TEN patients developed septic complications. Further breakdown by patient type showed that all trauma and blunt trauma subgroups had the most significant reduction in septic complications when fed enterally. In conclusion, this meta-analysis attests to the feasibility of early postoperative TEN in high-risk surgical patients and that these patients have reduced septic morbidity rates compared with those administered TPN. PMID:1386982
Kang, Yunkoo; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sang Yong; Koh, Hong
Background/Aims To analyze the effect of short-term supportive temporary partial enteral nutrition therapy for treating severe pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods We conducted a prospective, open-label study in pediatric patients with CD (n=78) from January 2007 to December 2011. The CD patients were divided into three groups according to disease severity (mild, moderate, and severe). Seventeen patients with severe CD received short-term partial enteral nutrition (SPEN) in addition to their general diet for 4 weeks after the induction of remission with medical treatment. This SPEN group was further divided into two groups by age (<13 years, ≥13 years). Nutritional parameters and Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index scores were analyzed at the initial enrollment and following 1 year of treatment for all groups. Results Nutritional status improved substantially after 1 year of treatment in the severe CD group. Nutritional status in the SPEN group improved considerably more than that in the non-SPEN group. Additionally, the <13-year-old group demonstrated better nutritional status improvement than the ≥13-year-old group. Conclusions SPEN may be effective in pediatric patients with severe CD for improving nutritional status and moderating disease severity. PMID:25170058
Kang, Yunkoo; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sang Yong; Koh, Hong
To analyze the effect of short-term supportive temporary partial enteral nutrition therapy for treating severe pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). We conducted a prospective, open-label study in pediatric patients with CD (n=78) from January 2007 to December 2011. The CD patients were divided into three groups according to disease severity (mild, moderate, and severe). Seventeen patients with severe CD received short-term partial enteral nutrition (SPEN) in addition to their general diet for 4 weeks after the induction of remission with medical treatment. This SPEN group was further divided into two groups by age (<13 years, ≥13 years). Nutritional parameters and Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index scores were analyzed at the initial enrollment and following 1 year of treatment for all groups. Nutritional status improved substantially after 1 year of treatment in the severe CD group. Nutritional status in the SPEN group improved considerably more than that in the non-SPEN group. Additionally, the <13-year-old group demonstrated better nutritional status improvement than the ≥13-year-old group. SPEN may be effective in pediatric patients with severe CD for improving nutritional status and moderating disease severity.
Chen, Zhi-hua; Lin, Su-yong; Dai, Qi-bao; Hua, Jin; Chen, Shao-qin
We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal–jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, 68 patients confirmed to have GOO with upper-gastrointestinal contrast and who accepted the operation were randomized into an EN group and a PN group. The differences in nutritional status, immune function, post-operative complications, weight of patients, first bowel sound and first flatus time, pull tube time, length of hospital stay (LOH), and cost of hospitalization between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi square test and t-test; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. The success rate of the placement was 91.18% (three out of 31 cases). After pre-EN, the levels of weight, albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and transferrin (TNF) in the EN group were significantly increased by pre-operation day compared to admission day, but were not significantly increased in the PN group; the weights in the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group by pre-operation day and day of discharge; total protein (TP), ALB, PA, and TNF of the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group on pre-operation and post-operative days one and three. The levels of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgM in the EN group were higher than those of the PN group at pre-operation and post-operation; the EN group had a significantly lower incidence of poor wound healing, peritoneal cavity infection, pneumonia, and a shorter first bowel sound time, first flatus time, and post-operation hospital stay than the PN group. Pre-EN through a nasal–jejunum feeding tube and placed under a gastroscope in GOO patients was safe, feasible, and beneficial to the nutrition status, immune
Chen, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Su-Yong; Dai, Qi-Bao; Hua, Jin; Chen, Shao-Qin
We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal-jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, 68 patients confirmed to have GOO with upper-gastrointestinal contrast and who accepted the operation were randomized into an EN group and a PN group. The differences in nutritional status, immune function, post-operative complications, weight of patients, first bowel sound and first flatus time, pull tube time, length of hospital stay (LOH), and cost of hospitalization between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi square test and t-test; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. The success rate of the placement was 91.18% (three out of 31 cases). After pre-EN, the levels of weight, albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and transferrin (TNF) in the EN group were significantly increased by pre-operation day compared to admission day, but were not significantly increased in the PN group; the weights in the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group by pre-operation day and day of discharge; total protein (TP), ALB, PA, and TNF of the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group on pre-operation and post-operative days one and three. The levels of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgM in the EN group were higher than those of the PN group at pre-operation and post-operation; the EN group had a significantly lower incidence of poor wound healing, peritoneal cavity infection, pneumonia, and a shorter first bowel sound time, first flatus time, and post-operation hospital stay than the PN group. Pre-EN through a nasal-jejunum feeding tube and placed under a gastroscope in GOO patients was safe, feasible, and beneficial to the nutrition status, immune function
Hayasaka, M; Ogasawara, H; Hotta, Y; Tsukagoshi, K; Kimura, O; Kura, T; Tarumi, T; Muramatsu, H; Endo, T
The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in the scalp hair of geriatric patients in Japan who received the enteral or parenteral nutrition formula were measured to assess nutritional status. The relations among δ(13)C, δ(15)N, calorie intake, BMI, albumin concentration, total cholesterol (T-CHO) and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) in the patients were investigated. Furthermore, the enrichment of δ(13)C and δ(15)N from the nutrients to the hair was investigated. The δ(13)C values in the hair of patients who received enteral nutrition decreased with decreases in the calories received, while the δ(15)N values increased, suggesting malnutrition in some patients with a low calorie intake due to a negative nitrogen balance. The distribution of patients with a low calorie intake (below 20 kcal/kg/day) when δ(13)C was plotted against δ(15)N differed from that of control subjects, but the distribution of patients with a high calorie intake (above 20 kcal/kg/day) was similar to that of control subjects. No significant differences were observed in BMI, albumin concentration, T-CHO or GNRI between the low and high calorie groups. The enrichment of δ(13)C and δ(15)N from the enteral nutrients to the hair were inversely correlated with the δ(13)C and δ(15)N in the enteral nutrients. The enrichment levels of δ(13)C and δ(15)N tended to be higher and lower, respectively, in the high calorie group. On the other hand, the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in the hair of patients who received parenteral nutrition were higher and lower than those in the control subjects and in the patients who received enteral nutrition, respectively, reflecting the higher δ(13)C and lower δ(15)N contents of the parenteral nutrients. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in the hair of patients who received enteral nutrition may be effective indicators for evaluating the long-term nutritional status of geriatric patients. A calorie intake of 20 kcal/kg/day may be a cut-off value for malnutrition in
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically fed a high unsaturated fat diet for 130 d using total enteral nutrition (TEN), or the same diet in which ethanol (EtOH) isocalorically replaced carbohydrate calories. Additional control and EtOH-treated groups were supplemented with the antioxidant N-acetylc...
Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically fed low carbohydrate-containing ethanol (EtOH) diets via total enteral nutrition for up to 49 d. Induction of EtOH metabolism and appearance of steatosis preceded development of oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. A transitory peak of tumor necro...
Allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have been associated with nutritionally-depleting side effects. Total parental nutrition (TPN) has become the standard, but it has not been demonstrated that TPN is the appropriate method of nutritional support. Therefore, in a prospective, randomized clinical trial TPN and enteral feeding were compared for their effectiveness in maintaining the nutritional status of patients through the first 29 post-transplant days. Nutritional assessment included measurement of serum proteins, body weight, anthropometry and isotope dilution analysis of body composition. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular fluid (ECF) were quantified by standard radioisotope dilution techniques using tritiated water and /sup 169/ytterbium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, respectively as the tracers. Consenting patients 10-58 years of age were stratified by type of BMT (autologous or allogeneic) and randomized to either TPN plus ad libitum oral feeding or the individualized enteral feeding program (EFP), which included one-on-one counseling, meal-by-meal menu selection, special snacks and tube feeding. There were no differences in the rate of hematologic recovery, incidence of graft-versus-host disease, organ toxicity, length of hospitalization or survival. Therefore, the observed changes in body composition were not clinically significant. Even allowing for increased dietary service, the EFP was only half as expensive as TPN. It was concluded that TPN is not superior to the EFP and therefore, TPN should be reserved for patients who demonstrate intolerance to enteral feeding.
Pedrón-Giner, C; Puiggrós, C; Calañas, A; Cuerda, C; García-Luna, P P; Irles, J A; Romero, A; Rabassa-Soler, A; Camarero, E; Martínez-Olmos, M A; Lecha, M; Penacho, M A; Gómez Candela, C; Parés, R M; Zapata, A; Laborda, L; Vidal, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Luengo, L M; de Luis, D; Wanden-Berghe, C; Suárez, P; Sánchez-Migallón, J M; Matía, P; García, Y; Martí, E; Muñoz, A; Martínez, C; Bobis, M A; Garde, C; Ordóñez, J; Cánovas, B
To present the results of the Spanish home enteral nutrition (HEN) registry of the year 2008 from the NADYA-SENPE group. We recorded the HEN registry data from January 1st to December 31st 2008. The number of patients registered in this period was 6206 (51% male) with up to 6,279 episodes of HEN, from 31 Spanish hospitals. Most of the patients (95%) were older than 14 yr. Mean age was 4.83±3.29 yr in the children group, and 70.75±18.14 yr in the adult group (older than 14 yr). Neurological disorders (39%) and cancer (27%) were the two most prevalent diagnoses. The oral route was the most frequently used (43,4%), followed by nasogastric tube (40,4%), and gastrostomy tube (14,7%). Mean length of treatment was 305,36 days (10 months). The principal reasons for discontinuing treatment were death (43%) and progress to oral diet (40%). Only 33% of the patients had a normal activity level, being limited in different grades in the rest of the patients. Most of the patients required partial (25%) or total help (38%). The enteral formula was provided by the hospital in 65% of the cases and by private pharmacies in 32%. The disposables were provided by the hospital (82,4%) and primary care services (17,2%). The number and the age of the patients registered have increased comparing to previous years, with little variations in the rest of analyzed variables. The increase in the length of treatment could reflect misreporting of the weaning process in the registry.
Pérez Méndez, L F; García-Mayor, R V
To determinate the prevalence of patients with Home Enteral Nutrition (HEN) in Galicia. Transversal study. Patients aged > or = 14 years, treated with HEN in our community since January 1998 to December 1999. Population of reference was 1.789.983. Questionnaire previously designed. During the study period were treated 2,784 patients which represent a prevalence of 10.34 cases/10,000 inhabitants, being 18.8 for La Coruña, 1.3 for Lugo, 0.4 for Ourense and of the 20.85 for Pontevedra. The mean age of the patients was of 56 +/- 2.29 years (range 14-96). The Clinics units that required more frequently HEN were the Medical Units (48.3%), followed of the Surgery Units (20.2%) and the Primary Care Units (19.2%). Neurological abnormalities (43.6%), Neoplasias (30.7%) and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease (10.5%) were patients more frequently required HEN. Regarding to administration route 58.3%, 28.46%, 9.87%, 0.5% and 0.65% used oral, nasogastric tube, PEG, gastrostomy and yeyunostomy respectively. The Index of complications was 0.18 of patient-year, due to gastrointestinal anomalies 0.12 patient-year, mechanical 0.09 patient-year. The index of hospitalizations in relation to the nutritional treatment was 0.026 patient-year. The prevalence of HEN in our community is of 10.34 cases/10,000 inhabitants. This kind of treatment is more frequently in the areas with high-density population. The frequency of complications was low. This data may be useful to compare with date from other areas and countries.
Jensen, Amanda R; Renaud, Elizabeth; Drucker, Natalie A; Staszak, Jessica; Senay, Ayla; Umesh, Vaibhavi; Williams, Regan F; Markel, Troy A
Early initiation of feedings after gastrostomy tube (GT) placement may reduce associated hospital costs, but many surgeons fear complications could result from earlier feeds. We hypothesized that, irrespective of placement method, starting feedings within the first 6h following GT placement would not result in a greater number of post-operative complications. An IRB-approved retrospective review of all GTs placed between January 2012 and December 2014 at three academic institutions was undertaken. Data was stratified by placement method and whether the patient was initiated on feeds at less than 6h or after. Baseline demographics, operative variables, post-operative management and complications were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and P-values <0.05 were considered significant. One thousand and forty-eight patients met inclusion criteria. GTs were inserted endoscopically (48.9%), laparoscopically (44.9%), or via an open approach (6.2%). Demographics were similar in early and late fed groups. When controlling for method of placement, those patients who were fed within the first 6h after gastrostomy placement had shorter lengths of stay compared to those fed greater than 6h after placement (P<0.05). Total post-operative outcomes were equivalent between feeding groups for all methods of placement (laparoscopic (P=0.87), PEG (P=0.94), open (P=0.81)). Early initiation of feedings following GT placement was not associated with an increase in complications. Feeds initiated earlier may shorten hospital stays and decrease overall hospital costs. Multi-institutional retrospective. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David
Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William
Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup.
Cai, Jun; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Sheng; Wu, Bin; Song, Hua-Rong; Xuan, Zheng-Rong
To observe the effect of perioperative application of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation. In this prospective, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial, fifty-nine patients with gastric cancer were randomly divided into three groups: control group (n=20) and two study groups (group A, n=21; group B, n=18). Sjunzi Decoction (100 ml) was administered via nasogastric tube to the patients in the study group B from the second postoperation day to the 9th postoperation day. Patients in the two study groups were given an isocaloric and isonitrogonous enteral diet, which was started on the second day after operation, and continued for eight days. Patients in the control group were given an isocaloric and isonitrogonous parenteral diet for 9 days. All variables of nutritional status such as serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), transferrin (TRF) and T-cell subsets were measured one day before operation, and one day and 10 days after operation. All the nutritional variables and the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD4(+)/CD8(+) were decreased significantly after operation. Ten days after operation, T-cell subsets and nutritional variables in the two study groups were increased as compare with the control group. The levels of ALB, TRF and T-cell subsets in the study group B were increased significantly as compared with the study group A (P<0.05). Enteral nutrition assisted with Sijunzi Decoction can positively improve and optimize cellular immune function and nutritional status in the patients with gastric cancer after operation.
Yang, Qing; Ayers, Kathleen; Welch, Cherrie D; O'Shea, T Michael
To test the hypothesis that early enteral supplementing fat and fish oil decreases the duration of parenteral nutrition (PN) and increases enteral nutrition (EN) before bowel reanastomosis in premature infants with an enterostomy. Premature infants (<2 months old) who had an enterostomy and tolerated enteral feeding at 20 mL/kg/day were randomized to usual care (control=18) or early supplementing enteral fat supplement and fish oil (treatment=18). Intravenous lipid was decreased as enteral fat intake was increased. Daily weight, clinical and nutrition data, and weekly length and head circumference were recorded. The primary outcomes were the duration of PN and volume of EN intake, and the secondary outcomes were weight gain (g/day), ostomy output (mL/kg/d), and serum conjugated bilirubin level (mg/dL) from initiating feeding to reanastomosis. Data were analyzed by Student t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. There were no differences in the duration of PN, ostomy output, and weight gain between the 2 groups before reanastomosis. However, supplemented infants received less intravenous lipid, had greater EN intake, and lower conjugated bilirubin before reanastomosis, and they also received greater total calorie, had fewer sepsis evaluations and less exposure to antibiotics and central venous catheters before reanastomosis, and had greater weight and length gain after reanastomosis (all P<.05). Early enteral feeding of a fat supplement and fish oil was associated with decreased exposure to intravenous lipid, increased EN intake, and reduced conjugated bilirubin before reanastomosis and improved weight and length gain after reanastomosis in premature infants with an enterostomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Xiao-Li; Tao, Li-Ping; Wu, Jian-Sheng; Chen, Xiang-Rong
Aim. This study was performed to evaluate the additional enteral nutrition (EN) in the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) compared with the conventional therapy in managing Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with intestinal fistulas. Methods. A total of 42 CD with intestinal fistulas were randomly divided into infliximab treatment group (n = 20) and conventional therapy group (n = 22). We evaluated the laboratory indexes, Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), Crohn's disease simplified endoscopic score (SES-CD), and healing of fistula in the two groups before treatment, at 14 weeks, and at 30 weeks, respectively. Results. In the IFX treatment group, the CDAI score, the SES-CD, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly decreased during treatment compared with those before treatment. The body mass index and albumin levels were increased in both groups. Moreover, in the IFX treatment group, fistula healing was found in 8 at the 14th week and 18 at the 30th week, respectively, which was greater than that in the conventional therapy group. Conclusion. Our study suggested that infliximab combined with EN is an effective treatment for CD patients complicated with intestinal fistulas. PMID:27738427
Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; de Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima; de Faria, Leila Marcia Pereira; de Oliveira, Regina Célia; Zago, Karine Santana de Azevedo; Cavelagna, Milena Ferreira; Silva, Adriano Gomes; Neto, Manoel Luis; Cassiani, Silvia Helena de Bortoli
This is a multicenter, cross-sectional retrospective study, which aimed to determine the prevalence of interactions drug-enteral nutrition (EN) in Intensive Care Units (ICU) of seven teaching hospitals in Brazil, and to analyze the clinical significance of them. Information on medications and EN administered with 24 hours and 120 hours of hospitalization were collected. For identification of drug-EN interaction was employed software Drug Reax®. It was investigated 1.124 records. Of these, 320 patients, with 24 hours of hospitalization, were on EN, and 20 (6.3%) had drug-EN interaction. Of the 504 patients with 120 hours of hospitalization, 39 (7.7%) had drug-EN interaction. The most frequent drug-EN interactions of clinical significance were phenytoin-EN, warfarin-EN and levothyroxine-EN. Drug-EN interactions may interfere with the quality and cost effectiveness of care in ICU, so it is essential that the health team has knowledge about them.
Takatori, Satoshi; Okamoto, You; Kitagawa, Yoko; Hori, Shinjiro; Izumi, Shun-Ichiro; Makino, Tsunehisa; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki
The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) from medical products made of polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) to enteral nutrition (EN) for neonatal patients was determined in a simulated study. The study simulated a typical case of EN administration to a neonatal patient (body weight, 3 kg) in a neonatal care unit (temperature, 25 degrees C); the medical products used were an irrigator and catheter containing DEHP (9.1-31.8%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The worst-case daily exposures of the neonatal patient to DEHP and MEHP by the administration of EN were estimated to be 148 and 3.72 microg/(kg day), respectively, as assessed from the levels of these compounds leaching from the medical products to the EN. The use of DEHP-free medical products reduced the exposure of DEHP and MEHP to the minimum levels contained in the EN at preparation. A transition to DEHP-free medical products for neonatal patients would be effective in reducing the exposure of neonatal patients to DEHP via EN administration.
Li, Ranran; Ren, Jianan; Wu, Qin; Wang, Gefei; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Li, Guanwei; Hong, Zhiwu; Ren, Huajian; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou
The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is prevalent among patients with enterocutaneous fistula and is associated with poor outcomes. The present study aimed to explore the role of enteral nutrition (EN) therapy on thyroid function among patients with enterocutaneous fistula and NTIS. We conducted a retrospective observational study among patients with enterocutaneous fistula between January 2013 and April 2014. All enrolled patients received EN therapy. Thyroid function and other parameters were measured. After administration of 4 weeks of EN therapy, NTIS was resolved in 66 patients (Group A), while it persisted in 14 patients (Group B). The overall treatment success rate was 82.50 %. There were no significant differences between groups A and B at baseline for all parameters, except for the time from admission to start of EN therapy. The logistic analysis revealed that the time from admission to start of EN therapy was a significant independent indicator for achieving resolution of NTIS in our cohort. This retrospective observational cohort study demonstrated that EN therapy can aid in the resolution of NTIS among patients with enterocutaneous fistula. These findings confirm the benefit of EN in the treatment of enterocutaneous fistula.
Pierre, Joseph F.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Feliciano, Rodrigo P.; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Krueger, Christian G.; Reed, Jess D.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.
Scope Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) decreases gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function, including fewer Peyer’s patch lymphocytes, lower levels of the tissue Th2 cytokines and mucosal transport protein polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), leading to lower luminal sIgA levels. Since we recently demonstrated cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) maintain the Th2 cytokine IL-4 when added to EEN, we hypothesized the addition of PACs to EEN would normalize other GALT parameters and maintain luminal levels of sIgA. Methods and Results ICR mice were randomized (12/group) to receive Chow, EEN, or EEN+PACs (100 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days, starting 2 days after intra-gastric cannulation. Ileum tissue was collected to measure IL-4 by ELISA, pIgR by western blot, and phosphorylated STAT6 by microarray. Intestinal wash fluid was collected to measure sIgA by western blot. Compared with Chow, EEN significantly decreased tissue IL-4, Phosphorylated STAT6, and pIgR. The addition of PACs to EEN prevented these alterations. Compared with Chow, EEN resulted in significantly lower levels of luminal sIgA. The addition of PACs to EEN increased luminal sIgA levels compared to EEN alone. Conclusions This study suggests the addition of PACs to EEN may support GALT function and maintain intestinal sIgA levels compared with EEN alimentation alone. PMID:23359014
Malta, Monica Alexandre; Carvalho-Junior, Antonio Franco de; Andreollo, Nelson Adami; Freitas, Maria Isabel Pedreira de
The correct placement of a nasogastric tube for enteral nutrition is subject of several investigations, demonstrating the controversy of the procedure. To establish an external measure that can correspond to the internal measurement which determines the insertion length of nasogastric feeding tube up to the stomach. External measures were obtained between points: nose tip vs earlobe vs xiphoid appendix vs umbilicus and height correlated with the standard measures obtained from patients undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy. It was found a significative statistical correlation between esophagogastric junction, identified during the esophagogastroduodenoscopy, with the distance measured between the anatomic points of the earlobe and xiphoid appendix (r= 0.75) and from this line with the orthostatic height (r=0.72). The distance between the earlobe to the xiphoid appendix (0.75) and the distance between the earlobe to the xiphoid appendix to the midpoint of the umbilicus, subtracting the distance from tip of nose to earlobe, were safe anatomical parameters to reach the esophagogastric junction. The height in the standing position (r= 0.72) also can be used as an indicator of the length necessary to insert the tube into the stomach. The height in the standing position (r= 0.72) also can be used as an indicator of the length necessary to insert the tube into the stomach.
Van Limbergen, Johan; Haskett, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anne M; Critch, Jeff; Huynh, Hien; Ahmed, Najma; deBruyn, Jennifer C; Issenman, Robert; El-Matary, Wael; Walters, Thomas D; Kluthe, Cheryl; Roy, Marie-Eve; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Crandall, Wallace V; Cohen, Stan; Ruemmele, Frank M; Levine, Arie; Otley, Anthony R
The treatment armamentarium in pediatric Crohn disease (CD) is very similar to adult-onset CD with the notable exception of the use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN [the administration of a liquid formula diet while excluding normal diet]), which is used more frequently by pediatric gastroenterologists to induce remission. In pediatric CD, EEN is now recommended by the pediatric committee of the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition as a first-choice agent to induce remission, with remission rates in pediatric studies consistently >75%. To chart and address enablers and barriers of use of EEN in Canada, a workshop was held in September 2014 in Toronto (Ontario), inviting pediatric gastroenterologists, nurses and dietitians from most Canadian pediatric IBD centres as well as international faculty from the United States and Europe with particular research and clinical expertise in the dietary management of pediatric CD. Workshop participants ranked the exclusivity of enteral nutrition; the health care resources; and cost implications as the top three barriers to its use. Conversely, key enablers mentioned included: standardization and sharing of protocols for use of enteral nutrition; ensuring sufficient dietetic resources; and reducing the cost of EEN to the family (including advocacy for reimbursement by provincial ministries of health and private insurance companies). Herein, the authors report on the discussions during this workshop and list strategies to enhance the use of EEN as a treatment option in the treatment of pediatric CD in Canada. PMID:26076398
Van Limbergen, Johan; Haskett, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anne M; Critch, Jeff; Huynh, Hien; Ahmed, Najma; deBruyn, Jennifer C; Issenman, Robert; El-Matary, Wael; Walters, Thomas D; Kluthe, Cheryl; Roy, Marie-Eve; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Crandall, Wallace V; Cohen, Stan; Ruemmele, Frank M; Levine, Arie; Otley, Anthony R
The treatment armamentarium in pediatric Crohn disease (CD) is very similar to adult-onset CD with the notable exception of the use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN [the administration of a liquid formula diet while excluding normal diet]), which is used more frequently by pediatric gastroenterologists to induce remission. In pediatric CD, EEN is now recommended by the pediatric committee of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition as a first-choice agent to induce remission, with remission rates in pediatric studies consistently >75%. To chart and address enablers and barriers of use of EEN in Canada, a workshop was held in September 2014 in Toronto (Ontario), inviting pediatric gastroenterologists, nurses and dietitians from most Canadian pediatric IBD centres as well as international faculty from the United States and Europe with particular research and clinical expertise in the dietary management of pediatric CD. Workshop participants ranked the exclusivity of enteral nutrition; the health care resources; and cost implications as the top three barriers to its use. Conversely, key enablers mentioned included: standardization and sharing of protocols for use of enteral nutrition; ensuring sufficient dietetic resources; and reducing the cost of EEN to the family (including advocacy for reimbursement by provincial ministries of health and private insurance companies). Herein, the authors report on the discussions during this workshop and list strategies to enhance the use of EEN as a treatment option in the treatment of pediatric CD in Canada.
Orlandoni, Paolo; Jukic Peladic, Nikolina; Spazzafumo, Liana; Venturini, Claudia; Cola, Claudia; Sparvoli, Debora; Giorgini, Natascia; Basile, Redenta; Fagnani, Donata
To determine whether the outcomes of home enteral nutrition for frail older patients can be improved by video consultation between home visiting staff and a hospital physician, specialized in clinical nutrition, during monthly home visits. A randomized prospective study out of patients aged older than 65 years receiving home enteral nutrition from the Department of Clinical Nutrition of an Italian geriatric hospital in 2013 was carried. A total of 100 patients were randomly assigned to receive video consultation in addition to regular monthly home visits, 88 patients only had regular monthly home visits. Therapy outcomes - incidence rates of complications, outpatient hospital visits and hospitalizations - were compared between two groups. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of the video consultation to improve therapy outcomes. Incidence rates for metabolic and gastrointestinal complications were significantly lower for patients who received a video consultation, respectively: 0.032/year "video consultation" versus 0.055/year "no video consultation" (P = 0.0001) and 0.006/year "video consultation" versus 0.028/year "no video consultation" (P < 0.0001). No differences were found for incidence rates of mechanical complications, outpatient hospital visits and hospitalizations. Logistic regression showed that the video consultation was significantly correlated with a reduction of metabolic complications (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.00-6.91; P = 0.049 after adjustment for duration of home enteral nutrition and diabetes mellitus 2). The present study provides evidence that a video consultation between home visiting staff and hospital physicians specialized in clinical nutrition during monthly home visits is associated with a reduction of metabolic complications in a population of frail older patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.
The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301
Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Botella-Romero, Francisco; León-Sanz, Miguel; Martín-Palmero, Ángela; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Olveira, Gabriel
The aim of this study was to develop evidence-based recommendations for glycemic control of patients with diabetes mellitus or stress hyperglycemia who are receiving enteral nutrition (EN). A Delphi survey method using Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria was utilized for evaluation of suitable studies. In patients with diabetes or stress hyperglycemia who were on EN support, the following results were found: CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations and suggestions regarding enteral feeding in patients with diabetes and hyperglycemia have direct clinical applicability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Navas-López, V M; Blasco-Alonso, J; Lacasa Maseri, S; Girón Fernández-Crehuet, F; Serrano Nieto, M J; Vicioso Recio, M I; Sierra Salinas, C
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been to be more effective than corticosteroids in achieving mucosal healing without their side effects. To determine the efficacy of EEN in terms of inducing clinical remission in newly diagnosed CD children and to study the efficacy of this therapeutic approach in improving the degree of intestinal mucosa inflammation. The medical records of patients with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease treated with EEN were reviewed retrospectively. The degree of mucosal inflammation was assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC). Remission was defined as a PCDAI<10. Forty patients (24 males) were included, the age at diagnosis was 11.6 ± 3.6 years. Of the 34 patients who completed the EEN period, 32 (94% per-protocol analysis) achieved clinical remission. This percentage fell to 80% in the intention-to-treat analysis. The compliance rate was 95%. Duration of EEN was 6.42 weeks (IQR 6.0-8.14). FC was significantly higher in patients with moderate and severe disease. Median baseline FC levels (680 μg/g) decreased significantly to 218 μg/g (P<0.0001) after EEN. We found a statistically significant correlation between FC and PCDAI (rho=0.727; P<0.0001). Early use of thiopurines (< 8 weeks) versus subsequent use was not associated with improved outcomes during the follow-up. EEN administered for 6-8 weeks is effective for inducing clinical remission and decreasing the degree of mucosal inflammation. We did not find differences in terms of maintenance of remission in patients treated early with thiopurines. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Toh Yoon, Ezekiel; Nishihara, Kazuki; Murata, Hirohiko
For nutritional support of critically ill patients, the enteral route is preferred over the parenteral route. Although nasojejunal feeding can be superior to gastric feeding when gastrointestinal symptoms occur, it does not necessarily solve the problem of large gastric residual volumes. We report the successful use of a newly developed nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function in an 84-year-old man with severe pneumonia. After gastric feeding was considered not well tolerated, the use of this tube improved the delivery of nutrition until the patient was stable enough to undergo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Toh Yoon, Ezekiel Wong; Nishihara, Kazuki; Murata, Hirohiko
For nutritional support of critically ill patients, the enteral route is preferred over the parenteral route. Although nasojejunal feeding can be superior to gastric feeding when gastrointestinal symptoms occur, it does not necessarily solve the problem of large gastric residual volumes. We report the successful use of a newly developed nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function in an 84-year-old man with severe pneumonia. After gastric feeding was considered not well tolerated, the use of this tube improved the delivery of nutrition until the patient was stable enough to undergo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. PMID:27746430
Serpa, Letícia Faria; Kimura, Miako; Faintuch, Joel; Ceconello, Ivan
Enteral alimentation is the preferred modality of support in critical patients who have acceptable digestive function and are unable to eat orally, but the advantages of continuous versus intermittent administration are surrounded by controversy. With the purpose of identifying the benefits and complications of each technique, a prospective controlled study with matched subjects was conducted. Twenty-eight consecutive candidates for enteral feeding were divided into 2 groups (n = 14 each) that were matched for diagnosis and APACHE II score. A commercial immune-stimulating polymeric diet was administered via nasogastric tube by electronic pump in the proportion of 25 kcal/kg/day, either as a 1-hour bolus every 3 hours (Group I), or continuously for 24 hours (Group II), over a 3-day period. Anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, recording of administered drugs and other therapies, thorax X-ray, measurement of abdominal circumference, monitoring of gastric residue, and clinical and nutritional assessments were performed at least once daily. The principal measured outcomes of this protocol were frequency of abdominal distention and pulmonary aspiration, and efficacy in supplying the desired amount of nutrients. Nearly half of the total population (46.4%) exhibited high gastric residues on at least 1 occasion, but only 1 confirmed episode of pulmonary aspiration occurred (3.6%). Both groups displayed a moderate number of complications, without differences. Food input during the first day was greater in Group II (approximately 20% difference), but by the third day, both groups displayed similarly small deficits in total furnished volume of about 10%, when compared with the prescribed diet. Both administration modalities permitted practical and effective administration of the diet with frequent registered abnormalities but few clinically significant problems. The two groups were similar in this regard, without statistical differences, probably because of meticulous
Jin, Meng; Zhang, Huimin; Lu, Bo; Li, Yi; Wu, Dong; Qian, Jiaming; Yang, Hong
Early enteral nutrition (EN) can improve the prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP), but the optimal initiation time is unknown. In this study, the optimal time of early EN was analyzed to disclose the application of early EN in AP. Data of 104 patients with AP were prospectively collected. With secondary infection (infected pancreatic necrosis and extrapancreatic infection) as the primary outcome variable, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the optimal cut-off time of early EN. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for covariates. Secondary outcomes include acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grades, serum albumin level, and EN-related complications. The ROC curve analysis showed that the third day after hospital admission was the best cut-off time of early EN (with the area under the curve of 0.744). After PS matching, the proportion of secondary infection in the early EN group was significantly lower than the late EN group (8.6% vs. 36.5%, P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that early EN was a protective factor against secondary infection (OR 0.161, 95%CI 0.036-0.718, P < 0.05). The AGI grades and serum albumin levels were better improved in the early EN group (AGI F = 4.468, P < 0.05; serum albumin F = 3.794, P < 0.05).The proportion of EN-related abdominal distension in the early EN group was significantly lower (8.8% vs. 38.5%, P < 0.05). Early EN initiated within three days could reduce the risk of secondary infection and improve the nutritional status of patients with acute pancreatitis, with a better tolerance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Cappello, Gianfranco; Franceschelli, Antonella; Cappello, Annalisa; De Luca, Paolo
Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN) is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Most patients (97%) successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2%) and constipation (5%). Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.
Faiman, Abi; Mutalib, Mohamed; Moylan, Alexander; Morgan, Natalie; Crespi, Daniel; Furman, Mark; Kader, Ajmal
In paediatric Crohn's disease (PCD), 6-8 weeks of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is effective in 60-80% cases. EEN is followed by gradual food reintroduction over variable (1-5 weeks) periods. Currently, there is no recommended duration or method for food reintroduction. The rationale for slow reintroduction is unclear and may be because of concerns about food intolerance or to maintain longer remission. The aims of this study were as follows: to compare relapse rates following standard and rapid reintroduction of food after EEN in PCD and to determine the duration of maintained remission in two groups of PCD patients. Two groups with PCD were compared: group A received standard food reintroduction over 5 weeks and group B received rapid reintroduction over 3 days. Data were collected over two consecutive time periods: group A (2005-2009) and group B (2009-2011). Only patients with a new diagnosis of PCD were included. Those with strictures and those on steroids or biologicals during EEN were excluded. The minimum duration of follow-up was 1 year. Group A included 20 patients and group B included 19 patients. In these groups, EEN led to clinical remission in 80% of the patients in group A and in 76% of the patients in group B. At 6 months, one-third of the patients from each group had developed relapse and a year after EEN, 50% of the patients in group A and 47% of the patients in group B developed relapse. Time to first relapse was 188 days (group A) and 136 days (group B). None of these results were statistically significant. In PCD, rapid food reintroduction following 6-week EEN is safe and equally effective as longer food reintroduction. We propose that a rapid food reintroduction schedule be recommended as the most tolerable approach for food reintroduction. Relapse rate and duration of remission are uninfluenced by the type of food reintroduction.
Pierre, Joseph F.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Feliciano, Rodrigo P.; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Roenneburg, Drew A.; Krueger, Christian G.; Reed, Jess D.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.
Background Lamina propria Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, stimulate goblet cell (GC) proliferation and mucin2 (MUC2) production, which protects the intestinal mucosa. Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) reduces tissue IL-4 and impairs barrier function. Since proanthocyanidins (PAC) stimulate oral mucin levels, we hypothesized that adding PAC to EEN would maintain Th2 cytokines – without stimulating Th1 cytokines - and preserve luminal MUC2 vs. EEN alone. Materials and Methods 70 mice were randomized to 5 diet groups (14/group): Standard Chow, intragastric EEN, EEN+lowPAC (8 mg), EEN+midPAC (50 mg), or EEN+highPAC (100 mg PAC/kg body weight) for 5 days, starting 2 days after gastric cannulation. Ileal tissue was analyzed for histomorphology and the cytokines IL-4, IL-13, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α by ELISA. MUC2 was measured in intestinal washes by western blot. Results EEN lowered IL-13 (p<0.05) compared to Standard Chow, while IL-4 did not reach significance (p<0.07). However, EEN+lowPAC and EEN+midPAC increased IL-13 (p<0.05), while EEN+highPAC increased both IL-4 and IL-13 (p<0.05), compared with EEN alone. All EEN diets reduced (P<0.05) crypt depth compared to the Standard Chow group. Compared with Standard Chow, GC numbers and luminal MUC2 were reduced with EEN (p<0.05). These effects were attenuated (p<0.05) with EEN+midPAC and EEN+highPAC. No changes were observed in tissue Th1 cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusions Adding PACs to EEN reverses the impaired intestinal barrier resulting from EEN by improving the gut mucous layer morphology and function through increased size and number of GC as well as increased levels of MUC2 and ileal IL-4 and IL-13. PMID:23064255
Rayar, Michel; Sulpice, Laurent; Meunier, Bernard; Boudjema, Karim
Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a common complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Our retrospective study aimed to evaluate the influence of enteral nutrition (EN) on DGE incidence after standard PD with antrectomy and Child reconstruction. We retrospectively analyzed 275 consecutive patients who underwent standard PD between January 2000 and September 2009. Patients operated on after January 2005 received EN (EN group, n = 152) until total oral alimentation. Patients operated on prior to 2005 did not receive EN (control group, n = 123) and were orally fed after removing the nasogastric tube. Primary endpoint was the incidence of DGE according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery criteria. Secondary endpoints were the incidence of any other complications. The incidence of DGE was 26% vs. 38% (p = 0.04) in the EN and control groups, respectively, with 17% vs. 19% for grade B DGE (NS) and 9% vs. 19% for grade C DGE (p = 0.02). The differences in DGE did not significantly decrease the duration of stay (18 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 13 days; NS). Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage was significantly reduced in the EN group (8% vs. 20%, p = 0.008), with the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula being similar in both groups (15% vs. 12%; NS). Using multivariate analysis, EN (p = 0.047, OR = 0.559 [0.315; 0.994]), operative time (p < 0.001, OR = 1.007 [1.003; 1.010]), and patient age (p = 0.014, OR = 1.031 [1.006; 1.057]) were independent factors affecting the incidence of DGE. EN reduces DGE and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage after PD.
Cai, Bingna; Pan, Jianyu; Wu, Yuantao; Wan, Peng; Sun, Huili
Oyster peptides were produced from Crassostrea hongkongensis and used as a new protein source for the preparation of an oyster peptide-based enteral nutrition formula (OPENF). Reserpineinduced malabsorption mice and cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression mice were used in this study. OPENF powder is light yellow green and has a protein-fat-carbohydrate ratio of 16:9:75 with good solubility in water. A pilot study investigating immune functional impacts of the OPENF on mice show that the OPENF enhanced spleen lymphocyte proliferation and the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, OPENF can improve intestinal absorption, increase food utilization ratio, and maintain the normal physiological function of mice. These results suggest that oyster peptides could serve as a new protein source for use in enteral nutrition formula, but more importantly, also indicate that OPENF has an immunostimulating effect in mice.
Parenteral nutrition is a life-saving nutritional support for more than half a million premature and hospitalized infants in the U.S. annually. Lipids in parenteral nutrition provide essential fatty acids and are a major source of energy. Intralipid (IL) is the only approved lipid emulsion in the U....
Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A
The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.
Kuz'mina, V V
The review presents data on the activity and some temperature characteristics of proteases in the potential food objects of fishes and some enteral microbiota representatives that provide induced autolysis and symbiotic digestion. It is shown that during the active feeding period the total protease activity in the prey tissues exceeds the total protease activity in the fish gastric mucosa by 5-10 times. At low temperature, the relative activity of the prey tissue lysosomal hydrolases (20-35%) and the enteral microbiota enzymes (up to 45%) may exceed that of proteases synthesized by the hepatopancreas and functioning in the consumers' intestinal mucosa (less than 10% maximal activity). The data presented indicate the important role of proteases of food objects and enteral microbiota in nutritive adaptations of the fish digestive system.
Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Lardies-Sanchez, Beatriz; Perez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.
Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p < 0.001), days spent at hospital (64.1%; p < 0.001) and emergency visits (57.7%; p < 0.001). Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p < 0.001) during the intervention. Glycemic control (short- and long-term) and the need of pharmacological treatment did not change, while some nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p < 0.001; hemoglobin: +6.4%, p = 0.026). In conclusion, using HDSF in malnourished older type-2 diabetic patients may allow increasing energy intake while maintaining glucose control and improving nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention. PMID:27005661
Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Lardies-Sanchez, Beatriz; Perez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J
Diabetes-specific formulas are an effective alternative for providing nutrients and maintaining glycemic control. This study assesses the effect of treatment with an oral enteral nutrition with a hypercaloric diabetes-specific formula (HDSF) for one year, on health-care resources use, health-care costs, glucose control and nutritional status, in 93 type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) malnourished patients. Changes in health-care resources use and health-care costs were collected the year before and during the year of intervention. Glucose status and nutritional laboratory parameters were analyzed at baseline and one-year after the administration of HDSF. The administration of HDSF was significantly associated with a reduced use of health-care resources, fewer hospital admissions (54.7%; p < 0.001), days spent at hospital (64.1%; p < 0.001) and emergency visits (57.7%; p < 0.001). Health-care costs were reduced by 65.6% (p < 0.001) during the intervention. Glycemic control (short- and long-term) and the need of pharmacological treatment did not change, while some nutritional parameters were improved at one year (albumin: +10.6%, p < 0.001; hemoglobin: +6.4%, p = 0.026). In conclusion, using HDSF in malnourished older type-2 diabetic patients may allow increasing energy intake while maintaining glucose control and improving nutritional parameters. The use of health-care resources and costs were significantly reduced during the nutritional intervention.
Felekis, Dimitrios; Eleftheriadou, Anna; Papadakos, Georgios; Bosinakou, Irini; Ferekidou, Eliza; Kandiloros, Dimitrios; Katsaragakis, Stylianos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Manolopoulos, Leonidas
Administration of immuno-enhanced nutritional support may decrease postoperative morbidity, mortality, and infectious complications in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to verify that perioperative enteral diet, enriched with the nutrients arginine, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and ω-3 fatty acids improves outcomes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing major surgery. Forty patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were studied. Group 1 received no preoperative nutritional support, whereas Group 2 received an oral formula with nutrients arginine, RNA, and ω-3 fatty acids. After surgery, Group 1 received a standard enteral formula, whereas Group 2 received an enriched enteral formula. Albumin (g/dl), prealbumin, fibrinogen, CRP, Il-6, and TNFa were measured 5 days before and 8 days after surgery. No statistically significant difference was observed for all the evaluated markers between postoperative and preoperative levels for both groups. The rate of complications was significantly reduced in the total number of patients receiving immunonutrition and in the particular subgroup of well-nourished patients receiving an immuno-enhanced diet. Perioperative enteral immuno-enhanced feeding in head and neck cancer patients undergoing major surgery may influence the postoperative outcomes by reducing the frequency rate of infections and wound complications.
Chopy, Katelyn; Winkler, Marion; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; Melanson, Kathleen; Greene, Geoffrey
Support and educational organizations have been shown to improve quality of life of consumers of home nutrition support. One such organization, The Oley Foundation, offers resources for the home parenteral and enteral nutrition (HPEN) consumer. While research has shown proven benefits to HPEN consumers affiliated with The Oley Foundation, no studies have investigated the perceived value of membership to the consumer or the way in which consumers are introduced to the organization. Qualitative methodology was used to gain a deeper understanding of the perceived value of membership in The Oley Foundation. Audiotaped, in-depth, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to explore participants' experiences with The Oley Foundation and HPEN. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze data and identify themes associated with membership value. The value of The Oley Foundation lies in programs and resources and the competency, inspiration, normalcy, and advocacy gained from membership, helping individuals adjust to life with HPEN dependency. More than half of participants found the organization through self-initiated Internet searches, but all participants clearly expressed the desire "I wish I knew about it sooner." This study identifies the value of membership in The Oley Foundation and the important role the organization has in the lives of HPEN-dependent consumers. Nutrition support clinicians should introduce the organization to patients when the need for HPEN is established and prior to hospital discharge. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in nutrition support.
Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth
This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based on the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the following six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services; facilitate evidence-based practice; and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize in or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Consensus statement: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition).
White, Jane V; Guenter, Peggi; Jensen, Gordon; Malone, Ainsley; Schofield, Marsha
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagnostic nomenclature that incorporates a current understanding of the role of the inflammatory response on malnutrition's incidence, progression, and resolution is proposed. Universal use of a single set of diagnostic characteristics will facilitate malnutrition's recognition, contribute to more valid estimates of its prevalence and incidence, guide interventions, and influence expected outcomes. This standardized approach will also help to more accurately predict the human and financial burdens and costs associated with malnutrition's prevention and treatment and further ensure the provision of high-quality, cost-effective nutrition care.
Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition).
White, Jane V; Guenter, Peggi; Jensen, Gordon; Malone, Ainsley; Schofield, Marsha
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic characteristics be used to identify and document adult malnutrition in routine clinical practice. An etiologically based diagnostic nomenclature that incorporates a current understanding of the role of the inflammatory response on malnutrition's incidence, progression, and resolution is proposed. Universal use of a single set of diagnostic characteristics will facilitate malnutrition's recognition, contribute to more valid estimates of its prevalence and incidence, guide interventions, and influence expected outcomes. This standardized approach will also help to more accurately predict the human and financial burdens and costs associated with malnutrition's prevention and treatment, and further ensure the provision of high quality, cost effective nutritional care.
Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: indicators recommended for the identification and documentation of pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition).
Becker, Patricia J; Nieman Carney, Liesje; Corkins, Mark Richard; Monczka, Jessica; Smith, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan Elizabeth; Spear, Bonnie A; White, Jane V
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, utilizing an evidence-informed, consensus-derived process, recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic indicators be used to identify and document pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition) in routine clinical practice. The recommended indicators include z scores for weight for height/length, body mass index for age, length/height for age, or mid-upper arm circumference when a single data point is available. When two or more data points are available, indicators may also include weight-gain velocity (younger than 2 years of age), weight loss (2 to 20 years of age), deceleration in weight for length/height z score, and inadequate nutrient intake. The purpose of this consensus statement is to identify a basic set of indicators that can be used to diagnose and document undernutrition in the pediatric population (ages 1 month to 18 years). The indicators are intended for use in multiple settings, such as acute, ambulatory care/outpatient, residential care, etc. Several screening tools have been developed for use in hospitalized children. However, identifying criteria for use in screening for nutritional risk is not the purpose of this paper. Clinicians should use as many data points as available to identify and document the presence of malnutrition. The universal use of a single set of diagnostic parameters will expedite the recognition of pediatric undernutrition, lead to the development of more accurate estimates of its prevalence and incidence, direct interventions, and promote improved outcomes. A standardized diagnostic approach will also inform the prediction of the human and financial responsibilities and costs associated with the prevention and treatment of undernutrition in this vulnerable population, and help to further ensure the provision of high-quality, cost-effective, nutrition care. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the American
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development.
Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T
Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors.
American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (Competent, Proficient, and Expert) in Nutrition Support.
Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth
This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitians Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based upon the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services, facilitate evidence-based practice, and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice.
Navas-López, Victor Manuel; Martín-de-Carpi, Javier; Segarra, Oscar; García-Burriel, José Ignacio; Díaz-Martín, Juan José; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Medina, Enrique; Juste, Mercedes
Objetivos: La nutrición enteral exclusiva (NEE) es una de las estrategias terapéuticas empleadas para inducir la remisión en niños con enfermedad de Crohn (EC). Pese a que la NEE se recomienda en las guías de práctica clínica y en los documentos de consenso, la frecuencia real de su empleo en España es desconocida. Métodos: Encuesta compuesta por 70-items (PRESENT: PREScription of Enteral Nutrition in pediaTric Crohn’s disease in Spain) que se distribuyó a través de la lista de distribución de Sociedad Española de Gastroenterología, Hepatología y Nutrición Pediátrica (SEGHNP). Resultados: Se recibieron los datos de 51 unidades de Gastroenterología Pediátrica del territorio español. De los 287 pacientes recién diagnosticados de EC durante los años 2011-12 en esos centros (139 en 2011 y 148 en 20212), 182 (63%) recibieron NEE (58% en 2011 y 68% en 2012). El 26% de los pacientes que recibieron NEE estaban en recaída. Todos los facultativos que respondieron pensaban que la NEE es efectiva para inducir la remisión clínica en los brotes leves-moderados. El 24,5% no emplean la NEE durante las recaídas. Las formulas enterales empleadas más frecuentemente fueron las específicas para EC (70,6%), la vía oral fue la más utilizada, el 60,8% utilizaron saborizantes y el 9,8% de las unidades permitían un porcentaje variable de calorías en forma de otros alimentos durante el periodo de NEE. El 65% emplearon 5-ASA junto con la NEE, el 69% antibióticos y hasta un 95% inmunomoduladores. La duración de la NEE fue de 8 semanas en el 47,1% de los casos, la transición hacia una dieta normal se realizó de forma secuencial. En relación a las barreras y factores limitantes encontrados por los respondedores para instaurar la NEE destacaban la falta de aceptación por el paciente y/o la familia (71%), falta de tiempo o de personal auxiliar (69%) y la dificultad para convencer al paciente o su familia de la idoneidad del tratamiento (43%). Conclusiones
Effect of three different doses of arginine enhanced enteral nutrition on nutritional status and outcomes in well nourished postsurgical cancer patients: a randomized single blinded prospective trial.
De Luis, D A; Izaola, O; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L; Ventosa, M; Martin, T
Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high occurrence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients, using an enhanced enteral formula with three different doses of arginine could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcome, depending of arginine dose. A population of 84 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer was enrolled. At surgery patients were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups, each one containing at less 28 patients. Group I (28 patients) received an enteral diet supplements with a low physiological dose of arginine (5.7 g per day), group II (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a medium dose of arginine (12.3 g per day) and group III (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a high dose of arginine (18.9 g per day). The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). No differences were detected in postoperative infections complications and diarrhea. Fistula was less frequent in groups II and III than I (10.7% group I vs 3.6% group II vs 3.6% group III: p = 0.033), The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). Our results suggest that these patients could benefit from a high dose of arginine enhanced enteral formula to decrease length of hospital stay and fistula wound complications.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a vital support for neonatal infants with congenital or acquired gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and requiring small bowel resection. An adverse outcome associated with prolonged TPN use is parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC). We previously showed t...
benefits of enteral nutrition (EN), the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition ( ASPEN ) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM...care unit LOS and decreased incidences of wound infections (p 0.030 and p 0.010) . Although the ASPEN /SCCM guidelines address timing for both...the past, the ASPEN /SCCM guidelines recommend not holding EN for GRVs less than 500 mL . Desachy’s study examined the initiation of EN, not the re
Reignier, Jean; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Le Gouge, Amelie; Boulain, Thierry; Desachy, Arnaud; Bellec, Frederic; Clavel, Marc; Frat, Jean-Pierre; Plantefeve, Gaetan; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste
Monitoring of residual gastric volume is recommended to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients receiving early enteral nutrition. However, studies have challenged the reliability and effectiveness of this measure. To test the hypothesis that the risk of VAP is not increased when residual gastric volume is not monitored compared with routine residual gastric volume monitoring in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and early enteral nutrition. Randomized, noninferiority, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from May 2010 through March 2011 in adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 2 days and given enteral nutrition within 36 hours after intubation at 9 French intensive care units (ICUs); 452 patients were randomized and 449 included in the intention-to-treat analysis (3 withdrew initial consent). Absence of residual gastric volume monitoring. Intolerance to enteral nutrition was based only on regurgitation and vomiting in the intervention group and based on residual gastric volume greater than 250 mL at any of the 6 hourly measurements and regurgitation or vomiting in the control group. Proportion of patients with at least 1 VAP episode within 90 days after randomization, as assessed by an adjudication committee blinded to patient group. The prestated noninferiority margin was 10%. In the intention-to-treat population, VAP occurred in 38 of 227 patients (16.7%) in the intervention group and in 35 of 222 patients (15.8%) in the control group (difference, 0.9%; 90% CI, -4.8% to 6.7%). There were no significant between-group differences in other ICU-acquired infections, mechanical ventilation duration, ICU stay length, or mortality rates. The proportion of patients receiving 100% of their calorie goal was higher in the intervention group (odds ratio, 1.77; 90% CI, 1.25-2.51; P = .008). Similar results were obtained in the per-protocol population. Among adults requiring mechanical ventilation and receiving
Kuppinger, David D; Rittler, Peter; Hartl, Wolfgang H; Rüttinger, Dominik
In critically ill patients, the optimal procedure to monitor upper gastrointestinal function is controversial. Several authors have proposed gastric residual volume (GRV) as a tool to guide enteral nutrition. The aim of this contribution is to briefly discuss corresponding studies. We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL for studies relevant to the subject. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six prospective observational studies were identified. Each analyzed different thresholds of GRV to guide enteral nutrition and to avoid complications (e.g., vomiting, aspiration, nosocomial pneumonia) in artificially ventilated patients. Due to heterogeneity in outcome measures, patient populations, type and diameter of feeding tubes, and randomization procedures, combination of the results of the six RCTs into a meta-analysis was not appropriate. High-quality RCTs studying medical patients could not demonstrate an association between complication rate and the magnitude of GRV. The only observational study that adjusted results to potential confounders and that studied surgical patients found, however, that the frequency of aspiration increased significantly if a GRV > 200 mL was registered more than once. For mechanically ventilated patients with a medical diagnosis at admission to the intensive care unit, monitoring of GRV appears unnecessary to guide nutrition. Surgical patients might profit, however, from a low GRV threshold (200 mL). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabatino, Alice; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Gandolfini, Ilaria; Delsante, Marco; Fani, Filippo; Gregorini, Maria Cristina; Fiaccadori, Enrico
The clinical data available on dietary requirements of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis are limited and largely inconclusive in terms of the renal, cardiovascular and nutritional outcomes achievable through dietary modifications. Restriction of protein intake during the early stages of CKD may in fact slow its progression, but at the same time this approach may also lead to protein-energy wasting, if energy intake is not adequate and properly monitored. Unfortunately, compliance to dietary recommendations is traditionally low in this patient population. A switch from saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated fats is generally recognized as advantageous for cardiac health; however, the benefits in term of renal function are largely unknown. Similarly, the association between dietary fiber intake and kidney disease is largely unknown. In fact, while there is evidence on the positive health effects of dietary fibers in the general population, nutritional guidelines for CKD lack formal recommendations concerning fiber intake. This paper reviews data and evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses on renal and cardiovascular outcomes related to modifications in protein, fat and fiber intake. Suggestions for maintaining nutritional status through patient-oriented dietary patterns and enteral supplementation in CKD patients on conservative therapy are also presented.
Salehi, Omran Abbas; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Hosseini, Saeed; Shojaifard, Abolfazl; Khorgami, Zhamak
Background Today, early diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies and their surgical resection is becoming more feasible. One of the important side effects in upper GI tract malignancies is malnutrition which has direct relationship with postoperative complications. Nonetheless, there is no easy regimen of nutrition for these patients especially for the first week after operation. Accordingly we present a simple method for improving feeding such patients via tube jejunostomy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early enteral feeding (EEF) on postoperative course after complete resection of upper gastrointestinal tract malignancy and reconstruction. Methods Between September 2005 to September 2008, 60 consecutive patients (22 female, 38 male) with upper GI tract malignancies who had undergone complete resection and reconstruction enrolled in this study. The patients randomly divided equally in two groups of control and EEF. Control group was treated with traditional management of nil by mouth and intravenous fluids for the first five postoperative days and then with liquids and enteral regular diet when tolerated. In EEF group the patients were fed by tube jejunostomy from 1st postoperative day and assessed for nutritional status before surgery and 5 days after surgery. Both groups were monitored on the basis of weight gain, clinical and paraclinical parameters and postoperative complications. Results Sixty patients were randomly divided to two equal groups. Surgical procedures were similar in two groups and no significant difference in demographic and basic nutritional status were found. On 5th postoperative day serum albumin was 4.2±0.4 g/dl in EEF and 3.6±0.3 g/dl in control group (p= 0.041). Also serum transferrin was 260.8±2.5 mg/dl and 208±1.8 mg/dl in EEF and control group respectively (p < 0.001). Moreover, hospital stay was shorter in EEF group (7.7±3.1 vs. 14±2.5 days, p = 0.009).There were four (13
Botrán, Marta; López-Herce, Jesús; Mencía, Santiago; Urbano, Javier; Solana, Maria José; García, Ana; Carrillo, Angel
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between energy expenditure (EE), biochemical and anthropometric nutritional status and severity scales in critically ill children. We performed a prospective observational study in forty-six critically ill children. The following variables were recorded before starting nutrition: age, sex, diagnosis, weight, height, risk of mortality according to the Paediatric Risk Score of Mortality (PRISM), the Revised Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2) and the Paediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scales, laboratory parameters (albumin, total proteins, prealbumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, cholesterol and TAG, and nitrogen balance) and EE measured by indirect calorimetry. The results showed that there was no relationship between EE and clinical severity evaluated using the PRISM, PIM2 and PELOD scales or with the anthropometric nutritional status or biochemical alterations. Finally, it was concluded that neither nutritional status nor clinical severity is related to EE. Therefore, EE must be measured individually in each critically ill child using indirect calorimetry.
Lavery, I.C.; Steiger, E.; Fazio, V.W.
Five patients who would have been unable to survive because of intestinal complications of radiation therapy were able to lead an otherwise normal life with the use of parenteral nutrition administered at home. One patient died of recurrent carcinoma of the cervix after 14 months. Another patient died as the result of a totally avoidable pharmaceutical error after 2 1/2 years. The remaining three are still disease free without morbidity relating to the parenteral nutrition.
Abdelhadi, Ruba A; Rahe, Katina; Lyman, Beth
Enteral nutrition (EN) support has proven to be a nutrition intervention that can provide full or partial calories to promote growth and development in infants and children. To supply these nutrients, an enteral access device is required, and the use of these devices is growing. Placement of the proper device for the patient need, along with appropriate care and monitoring, is required for individualized patient management. When complications arise, early identification and management can prevent more serious morbidity. Complication management requires a tiered approach starting with staff nurses and ending with a physician expert. In addition to this, each institution needs to have an approach that is coordinated among disciplines and departments to promote consistency of practice. The formation of an enteral access team is a conduit for clinical experts to provide education to families, patients, and healthcare professionals while serving as a platform to address product and practice issues. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Malone, Ainsley; Hamilton, Cynthia
Malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients has been a significant issue for almost 40 years. Changes in 2007 to the diagnosis related groups reimbursement methodology, as outlined by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, provided an impetus to improve the diagnosis and documentation of malnutrition in adult patients. Being able to accurately assess, diagnose, and document malnutrition has been challenged by the lack of a standard malnutrition definition. In 2012 a workgroup of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition published a consensus paper outlining characteristics for the diagnosis of adult hospital malnutrition. Using the etiology approach for defining malnutrition as outlined by Jensen and colleagues, 6 general characteristics are outlined with specific thresholds to delineate severe and nonsevere malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to provide practical strategies for criteria implementation and to describe one institution's experience in implementing a broad-based "malnutrition program" within its healthcare system.
Maitines, Gennaro; Ugenti, Ippazio; Memeo, Riccardo; Clemente, Nicola; Iambrenghi, Onofrio Caputi
Enteral nutrition can be administered via a nasogastric tube or, in selected patients, via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. In patients with neurogenic dysphagia, the choice of nutritional administration, and above all the timing, are crucial. Our aim was to retrospectively assess the impact of new guidelines for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion adopted since January 2002 and compare them with our previous experience. From January 1992 to June 2007, 285 gastrostomies (168 M, 117 F) were positioned in our institute. We analysed 232 patients (139 M, 93 F) in whom a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was applied for neurogenic dysphagia: Group A (from January 1992 to December 2001) consisting of 174 patients; Group B (from January 2002 to June 2007) consisting of 58 patients. The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was positioned in all the cases with neurogenic dysphagia after a period of not less than 3 weeks of nutrition by nasogastric tube. A total of 6 major complications (2.3 %) occurred, almost all in group A. The mortality rate (3 patients, 2%) correlated with the complications in group A. In cases of neurogenic dysphagia we believe that greater methodological rigour in the multidisciplinary decision-making process, and a period of about 6-8 weeks' nutrition by nasogastric tube after the acute neurological damage may be useful to ensure a better prognostic evaluation of the patient and hence of the indications for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Van Bokhorst-de Van der Schuer, M A; Langendoen, S I; Vondeling, H; Kuik, D J; Quak, J J; Van Leeuwen, P A
This study evaluated the use of perioperative nutritional support on Quality of Life (QOL) in malnourished head and neck cancer patients undergoing surgery. 49 Malnourished (weight loss >10%) head and neck cancer patients who were included in a nutrition intervention trial were randomized to receive either no preoperative and standard postoperative tube-feeding (group I), standard preoperative and postoperative tube-feeding (group II) or arginine-supplemented preoperative and postoperative tube-feeding (group III). Of these patients, 31 completed a full QOL assessment on the first day of preoperative nutritional support, one day before surgery, and 6 months after surgery. Both a disease-specific (EORTC QLQ-C30) and a generic questionnaire (COOP-WONCA) were used. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for testing differences in scores between groups. Between baseline and the day before surgery, both preoperatively fed groups revealed a positive change for the dimensions physical and emotional functioning and dyspnea (with significance in group II, P=0.050,0.031,0.045 respectively). Group III showed a negative change in appetite (P=0.049). Between baseline and 6 months after surgery, there were no differences between group I and both pre-fed groups. There were no differences in favour of group III compared to group II. Enteral nutrition improves QOL of severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients in the period preceding surgery. No benefit of preoperative enteral feeding on QOL could be demonstrated 6 months after surgery. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Harvey, Sheila E; Parrott, Francesca; Harrison, David A; Bear, Danielle E; Segaran, Ella; Beale, Richard; Bellingan, Geoff; Leonard, Richard; Mythen, Michael G; Rowan, Kathryn M
Uncertainty exists about the most effective route for delivery of early nutritional support in critically ill adults. We hypothesized that delivery through the parenteral route is superior to that through the enteral route. We conducted a pragmatic, randomized trial involving adults with an unplanned admission to one of 33 English intensive care units. We randomly assigned patients who could be fed through either the parenteral or the enteral route to a delivery route, with nutritional support initiated within 36 hours after admission and continued for up to 5 days. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days. We enrolled 2400 patients; 2388 (99.5%) were included in the analysis (1191 in the parenteral group and 1197 in the enteral group). By 30 days, 393 of 1188 patients (33.1%) in the parenteral group and 409 of 1195 patients (34.2%) in the enteral group had died (relative risk in parenteral group, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.08; P=0.57). There were significant reductions in the parenteral group, as compared with the enteral group, in rates of hypoglycemia (44 patients [3.7%] vs. 74 patients [6.2%]; P=0.006) and vomiting (100 patients [8.4%] vs. 194 patients [16.2%]; P<0.001). There were no significant differences between the parenteral group and the enteral group in the mean number of treated infectious complications (0.22 vs. 0.21; P=0.72), 90-day mortality (442 of 1184 patients [37.3%] vs. 464 of 1188 patients [39.1%], P=0.40), in rates of 14 other secondary outcomes, or in rates of adverse events. Caloric intake was similar in the two groups, with the target intake not achieved in most patients. We found no significant difference in 30-day mortality associated with the route of delivery of early nutritional support in critically ill adults. (Funded by the United Kingdom National Institute for Health Research; CALORIES Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN17386141.).
Lenhartova, N; Matasova, K; Lasabova, Z; Javorka, K; Calkovska, A
The normal retinal development is interrupted by preterm birth and a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may develop as its consequence. ROP is characterized by aberrant vessel formation in the retina as a response to multiple risk factors influencing the process of retinal angiogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in the process of normal retinal vascularization. Insufficient nutrition during the first 4 postnatal weeks results in low serum levels of IGF-1, which is essential for correct retinal vessels formation, ensuring survival of the newly formed endothelial cells. Low IGF-1 level results in stop of angiogenesis in the retina, leaving it avascular and prompting the onset of ROP. Keeping the newborns in a positive energetic balance by providing enough nutrients and energy has a beneficial impact on their growth, neurodevelopment and decreased incidence of ROP. The best way to achieve this is the early parenteral nutrition with the high content of nutrients combined with early enteral feeding by the own mother´s breast milk. Multiple studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of early aggressive nutrition but information about its long-term effects on the metabolism, growth and development is still needed.
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Poston, Lucilla; Godfrey, Keith; Demmelmair, Hans
Increasing evidence from the EU Project EARNEST and many other investigators demonstrates that early nutrition and lifestyle have long-term effects on later health and the risk of common non-communicable diseases (known as 'developmental programming'). Because of the increasing public health importance and the transgenerational nature of the problem, obesity and associated disorders are the focus of the new EU funded project 'EarlyNutrition'. Currently, three key hypotheses have been defined: the fuel mediated 'in utero' hypothesis suggests that intrauterine exposure to an excess of fuels, most notably glucose, causes permanent changes of the fetus that lead to obesity in postnatal life; the accelerated postnatal weight gain hypothesis proposes an association between rapid weight gain in infancy and an increased risk of later obesity and adverse outcomes; and the mismatch hypothesis suggests that experiencing a developmental 'mismatch' between a sub-optimal perinatal and an obesogenic childhood environment is related to a particular predisposition to obesity and corresponding co-morbidities. Using existing cohort studies, ongoing and novel intervention studies and a basic science programme to investigate those key hypotheses, project EarlyNutrition will provide the scientific foundations for evidence-based recommendations for optimal nutrition considering long-term health outcomes, with a focus on obesity and related disorders. Scientific and technical expertise in placental biology, epigenetics and metabolomics will provide understanding at the cellular and molecular level of the relationships between early life nutritional status and the risk of later adiposity. This will help refine strategies for intervention in early life to prevent obesity.
Baker, Jannah; Janda, Monika; Graves, Nick; Bauer, Judy; Banks, Merrilyn; Garrett, Andrea; Chetty, Naven; Crandon, Alex J; Land, Russell; Nascimento, Marcelo; Nicklin, James L; Perrin, Lewis C; Obermair, Andreas
Malnutrition is common in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), longer hospital stay and higher risk of treatment-related adverse events. This phase III multi-centre randomised clinical trial tested early enteral feeding versus standard care on postoperative QoL. From 2009 to 2013, 109 patients requiring surgery for suspected advanced EOC, moderately to severely malnourished were enrolled at five sites across Queensland and randomised to intervention (n=53) or control (n=56) groups. Intervention involved intraoperative nasojejunal tube placement and enteral feeding until adequate oral intake could be maintained. Despite being randomised to intervention, 20 patients did not receive feeds (13 did not receive the feeding tube; 7 had it removed early). Control involved postoperative diet as tolerated. QoL was measured at baseline, 6weeks postoperatively and 30days after the third cycle of chemotherapy. The primary outcome measure was the difference in QoL between the intervention and the control group. Secondary endpoints included treatment-related adverse event occurrence, length of stay, postoperative services use, and nutritional status. Baseline characteristics were comparable between treatment groups. No significant difference in QoL was found between the groups at any time point. There was a trend towards better nutritional status in patients who received the intervention but the differences did not reach statistical significance except for the intention-to-treat analysis at 7days postoperatively (11.8 intervention vs. 13.8 control, p 0.04). Early enteral feeding did not significantly improve patients' QoL compared to standard of care but may improve nutritional status. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jae Gil; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Young Ju; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Cho, Min Jung; Cho, Younsoo; Lee, Jong Ho
We investigated whether high-protein enteral nutrition with immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) enriched with β-glucan stimulates immune function in critically ill patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 30 patients consumed one of three types of enteral nutrition: a control or IMHP with and without β-glucan. The IMHP with β-glucan group showed increases in natural killer (NK) cell activities relative to the baseline, and greater increases were observed in NK cell activities relative to the control group after adjusting for age and gender. The IMHP groups with and without β-glucan had greater increases in serum prealbumin and decreases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) than the control group. The control group had a greater decrease in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) interleukin (IL)-12 production than the IMHP with and without β-glucan groups. In all patients, the change (Δ) in hs-CRP was correlated with Δ prealbumin and Δ PBMC IL-12, which were correlated with ΔNK cell activity and Δ prealbumin. This study showed beneficial effects of a combination treatment of β-glucan and IMHP on NK cell activity. Additionally, strong correlations among changes in NK cell activity, PBMC IL-12, and hs-CRP suggested that β-glucan could be an attractive candidate for stimulating protective immunity without enhanced inflammation (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02569203).
Lee, Jae Gil; Kim, Young Sam; Lee, Young Ju; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Cho, Min Jung; Cho, Younsoo; Lee, Jong Ho
We investigated whether high-protein enteral nutrition with immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) enriched with β-glucan stimulates immune function in critically ill patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 30 patients consumed one of three types of enteral nutrition: a control or IMHP with and without β-glucan. The IMHP with β-glucan group showed increases in natural killer (NK) cell activities relative to the baseline, and greater increases were observed in NK cell activities relative to the control group after adjusting for age and gender. The IMHP groups with and without β-glucan had greater increases in serum prealbumin and decreases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) than the control group. The control group had a greater decrease in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) interleukin (IL)-12 production than the IMHP with and without β-glucan groups. In all patients, the change (Δ) in hs-CRP was correlated with Δ prealbumin and Δ PBMC IL-12, which were correlated with ΔNK cell activity and Δ prealbumin. This study showed beneficial effects of a combination treatment of β-glucan and IMHP on NK cell activity. Additionally, strong correlations among changes in NK cell activity, PBMC IL-12, and hs-CRP suggested that β-glucan could be an attractive candidate for stimulating protective immunity without enhanced inflammation (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02569203). PMID:27271657
Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Katayose, Kozo; Kohga, Shin; Takase, Mitsunori; Imawari, Michio
The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of a novel immune-enhancing enteral formula, Prem-8, which contains lactoferrin as an immunonutrient. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 5 hospitals in Japan, and 71 tube-fed bedridden patients with serum albumin concentrations between 2.5 and 3.5 g/dL were allocated to Prem-8 (n = 38) or control formula (n = 33) groups for an observation period of 12 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing immunological (natural killer cell activity, neutrophil-phagocytic activity, neutrophil-sterilizing activity, and C-reactive protein), and nutritional (anthropometric measurements and serum levels of nutritional assessment proteins and total cholesterol) variables. Safety was assessed by comparing the incidence of adverse events. In a secondary analysis, patients were subgrouped according to the amount of protein supplemented (1 g/kg/d) so that immunological and nutritional variables and safety could be further compared. Natural killer activity and neutrophil functions were normal for both groups throughout the study period, without significant between-group differences at any point. Nutritional status was stably maintained in both groups, although the body mass index at 12 weeks was marginally lower in the Prem-8 group than in the control group (p < 0.01). The incidence of adverse events were comparable between both groups, but the incidence of fever in the Prem-8 group (7/14) was significantly lower than in the control group (10/11) in a subgroup of patients whose supplemented protein was less than 1 g/kg/d (p < 0.05). Prem-8 did not demonstrate superiority to the control formula with respect to immunological and nutritional variables, whereas the body mass index of patients in the Prem-8 group marginally decreased. However, Prem-8 had a favorable effect on the incidence of fever in a subgroup of patients with low protein intake.
Cappello, Gianfranco; Franceschelli, Antonella; Cappello, Annalisa; De Luca, Paolo
Only protein diet has been used successfully to prevent loss of lean body mass first in post-surgical and then in obese patients. We studied overweight and obese patients receiving short treatments of an exclusively protein-based nutritional solution as 24-hour enteral infusion. 19,036 patients (age 44.3 ± 13, M:F = 2:5) with an initial body mass index of 36.5 ± 7.1 underwent 10-day cycles of enteral nutrition through a fine nasogastric tube. The nutritional solution consisted solely of 50-65 g of proteins, plus vitamins and electrolytes. The 24-hour infusion was controlled with a small portable pump. Before and after each 10-day cycle body composition was checked with a Handy 3000 impedance analyzer. At the onset of treatment, average fat mass was 40.9 ± 12.8 kg while body cell mass was 42.7 ± 7.2 kg in males and 27.4 ± 4.6 kg in females. After an average of 2.5 cycles the patients lost 10.2 ± 7.0 kg of body weight, 5.8 ± 5.5 kg of fat mass and 2.2 ± 3.3 kg of body cell mass. No significant adverse effects were recorded except asthenia and constipation which were easily controlled with therapy. Long-term results were obtained from 15,444 patients and after an average of 362 ± 296 days we found a mean weight regain of 15.4%. Ketogenic Enteral Nutrition treatment of over 19,000 patients induced a rapid 10% weight loss, 57% of which was Fat Mass. No significant adverse effects were found. The treatment is safe, fast, inexpensive and has good one-year results for weight maintenance.
Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M
There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung
With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.
Lee, Sun Eun
With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy. PMID:26996550
Miralles-Arnau, Silvia; Nácher, Amparo; Jiménez, Africa; Jiménez-Torres, N Víctor; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde
To investigate the absorption and relative bioavailability of leucine administered orally as part of an enteral diet in well and malnourished animals. Two groups - RN (regular nutrition) and PCR (protein-calorie restricted) - were fed with different diets for 23-25 days. Rats from each group were assigned randomly to one of three treatments (water, T-Diet Plus Standard(®) (problem) or Isosource ST(®) (reference)) administered in single (N = 76) or multiple (N = 39) doses. Blood samples were assayed for leucine content. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Log-transformed AUC(s) were statistically compared by analysis of variance, and 90% confidence intervals (CI 90%) of the ratio of the log-transformed AUC(s) between problem and reference diets, and between enteral diet and water were determined. The AUC (last) between the problem and reference diets was not statistically different. 90% CIs for single and multiple doses were 58.4-137.5% and 78-134.6% for RN and 76.7-172.2% and 72-167.2% for PCR, respectively. Leucine absorption was 12% higher among malnourished animals when multiple doses were administered, but the differences detected were not statistically different. In spite of the different composition of proteins in the enteral diets tested, the absorption of leucine, even though slightly higher in the malnourished state, is similar in both of them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Abakumov, M M; Kostiuchenko, L N
Decompensated cicatrices stricture of upper alimentary canal is a complex disease clinically presenting a high mechanical blocking and leads to expressed abnormality of homeostasis, which requires its pathogenetic correction of urgency evidence. The greatest difficulty is correct protein-energy malnutrition and water-electrolyte metabolism. Prior to the imposition of stoma for feeding should begin immediately with standard parenteral nutrition solutions. In a subsequent it is nessesary to resort more physiologecal tube alimentasion. As with esophageal postambustion stricture electrical activity of the stomach inhibiting and in essentially remains small bowel function, preference should be given to ways of enteral threpsology support. This can be used as a balanced composition in breeding (primary breeding should be 1: 2) and special blends for intraintestinal alimentation (close chyme on line carrying the major components). In the case of postambustion struck of outlet termination stomach department when identified violations of the underlying functions of the digestive canal division, rational come to gentle tactics of enteral alimentation using mixtures, completely similar in composition to himus. At stricture janitor ulcer genesis appropriate tactics is enteral correction, similar to that used in the event of postambustion strictures of the zones when bowel function is largely preserved.
Ribeiro Salomon, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita
Introducción: Con el objeto de garantizar la calidad del producto ofrecido a los clientes en sus domicilios, las unidades hospitalarias necesitan adecuar sus áreas físicas para poder desarrollar todas las actividades especializadas que conlleva la nutrición enteral. Objetivo: Proporcionar una planificación funcional y las herramientas para la reorganización del espacio físico de una unidad de nutrición enteral, describiendo el proceso de preparación, la descripción de sus características y funciones laborales. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental, proporcionando las herramientas para la planificación funcional y de gestión de calidad en una unidad de preparación de la nutrición enteral en un hospital público del Distrito Federal, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Resultados. A través de la creación de un programa de nutrición enteral en el Departamento de Salud Pública del Distrito Federal y según lo dispuesto por la legislación nacional, se efectuó un plan de alta complejidad respecto de la nutrición enteral en atención al perfil demográfico y epidemiológico de la población. Este trabajo consiste en una propuesta de implementación de terapia nutricional dentro de un plan de alta complejidad, y de acuerdo a lo prescrito por la legislación del Ministerio de Salud Brasileño. El número de pacientes atendidos por esta modalidad terapéutica se ha ido incrementando, por consiguiente se hace necesario garantizar la calidad del servicio, por medio de la organización de los espacios funcionales. Conclusión. Por medio de la planificación funcional de un Laboratorio de Nutrición Enteral, se puede garantizar la asistencia nutricional especializada y de calidad, a la población hospitalaria o domiciliaria, tomando las precauciones necesarias en la manipulación de las fórmulas enterales.
Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Akishita, Masahiro; Ogawa, Sumito
Proper artificial nutrition for patients who are unable to eat normally is an ongoing, unresolved concern in geriatric medicine and home medical care. Controversy surrounds prognostic differences between parenteral and enteral nutrition, 2 methods for artificial nutrition. Short-term outcomes of parenteral and enteral nutrition for patients who are unable to eat normally were compared and analyzed. Data were acquired from patients selected from a national inpatient database covering 1057 hospitals in Japan. Participants had received artificial nutrition between April 2012 and March 2013, were aged ≥20 y, and did not have cancer. They were separated into 2 groups: those who received parenteral nutrition and those who received enteral nutrition. We performed one-to-one propensity score matching between the groups. The primary outcome measurements were mortality rates at 30 and 90 d after the start of the procedure. The secondary outcomes were postprocedural complications, pneumonia, and sepsis. We analyzed survival length of stay after the procedure with the use of a Cox proportional hazards model. There were 3750 patients in the parenteral group and 22,166 patients in the enteral group. Propensity score matching created 2912 pairs in the 2 groups. Patients with a similar propensity score (probability of being assigned to the enteral group) calculated from the baseline condition were matched. Mortality rates at 30 and 90 d after start of treatment were 7.6% and 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 12.3% and 9.9% (P = 0.002) in the parenteral and enteral groups, respectively. In Cox regression analysis, the HR for the enteral group relative to the parenteral group was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.71; P < 0.001). The incidences of postprocedural pneumonia and sepsis were 11.9% and 15.5% (P < 0.001) and 4.4% and 3.7% (P = 0.164) for the parenteral and enteral groups, respectively. The present analysis showed the better survival rate with enteral compared with parenteral nutrition for adults
Grant, John P
Nutritional support can have a significant beneficial impact on the course of moderate to severe acute pancreatitis. Enteral nutrition is preferred, with emphasis on establishment of jejunal access; however, parenteral nutrition can also be of value if intestinal failure is present. Early initiation of nutritional support is critical, with benefits decreasing rapidly if begun after 48 hours from admission. Severe malnutrition in chronic pancreatitis can be avoided or treated with dietary modifications or enteral nutrition.
Cognigni, Paola; Bailey, Andrew P; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene
The gastrointestinal tract is emerging as a key regulator of appetite and metabolism, but daunting neuroanatomical complexity has hampered identification of the relevant signals. Invertebrate models could provide a simple and genetically amenable alternative, but their autonomic nervous system and its visceral functions remain largely unexplored. Here we develop a quantitative method based on defecation behavior to uncover a central role for the Drosophila intestine in the regulation of nutrient intake, fluid, and ion balance. We then identify a key homeostatic role for autonomic neurons and hormones, including a brain-gut circuit of insulin-producing neurons modulating appetite, a vasopressin-like system essential for fluid homeostasis, and enteric neurons mediating sex peptide-induced changes in intestinal physiology. These conserved mechanisms of visceral control, analogous to those found in the enteric nervous system and hypothalamic/pituitary axis, enable the study of autonomic control in a model organism that has proved instrumental in understanding sensory and motor systems.
To use nutrition in order to limit the negative consequences of physical and mental stress is not new. Recent advances in immunology and particularly in the understanding of the chemical language used to communicate both by eukarytic and prokarotic cells has made it easier to objectively evaluate effects of various immunomodulating efforts including the use of nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants in preventing or limiting the development of disease and its late consequences.
Borghi, Roseli; Dutra Araujo, Thalita; Airoldi Vieira, Roberta Ianni; Theodoro de Souza, Telma; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky
Blenderized tube diets (BTD) are used in some parts of Brazil and few studies have analyzed their features in comparison with industrialized preparations. Among 14 randomly collected BTD recipes 9 were poorly described or failed to standardize foodstuffs and portions and, consequently, nutrient and energy composition was difficult to define. Only five BTD allowed theoretical estimation of their nutritional properties. Macronutrient content was highly variable, often conflicting with accepted daily recommendations. According to the literature there are further disadvantages with BTD use including diet high risk of contamination, physical and chemical instability, and high osmolarity and viscosity. Nominal cost of BTD was comparatively low in relation to industrialized formulas; however we did not compute labor and indirect expenses, probably rendering final value more expensive than with the industrialized alternative. It is likely that within such circumstances, hospital and home care malnutrition will not be adequately dealt with and related complications may occur. It is concluded that the continued use of blenderized tube feeding diets requires careful assessment, prioritizing correction of potencial nutritional deficits by means of safe, balanced, chemically complete and effective nutritional prescriptions.
Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo
A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.
Gavazzi, Cecilia; Colatruglio, Silvia; Sironi, Alessandro; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Miceli, Rosalba
In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between nutritional status, disease stage and quality of life (QoL) in 100 patients recently diagnosed with gastric carcinoma. The patients' nutritional status was investigated with anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables; and we also evaluated the nutritional risk with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Oncological staging was standard. QoL was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire. The statistical correlation between nutritional risk score (NRS) and oncological characteristics or QoL was evaluated using both univariable and multivariable analyses. Weight loss and reduction of food intake were the most frequent pathological nutritional indicators, while biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables were in the normal range. According to NRS, thirty-six patients were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Patients with NRS ≥ 3 presented a significantly greater percentage of stage IV gastric cancer and pathological values of C-reactive protein, while no correlation was found with the site of tumour. NRS was negatively associated with QoL (P < 0·001) and this relation was independent from oncological and inflammatory variables as confirmed by multivariable analysis. In the present study, we found that in patients with gastric cancer malnutrition is frequent at diagnosis and this is likely due to reduction in food intake. Moreover, NRS is directly correlated with tumour stage and inversely correlated with QoL, which makes it a useful tool to identify patients in need of an early nutritional intervention during oncological treatments.
A disease-specific enteral nutrition formula improves nutritional status and functional performance in patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy: results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial.
Fietkau, Rainer; Lewitzki, Victor; Kuhnt, Thomas; Hölscher, Tobias; Hess, Clemens-F; Berger, Bernhard; Wiegel, Thomas; Rödel, Claus; Niewald, Marcus; Hermann, Robert M; Lubgan, Dorota
In patients with head and neck and esophageal tumors, nutritional status may deteriorate during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on body composition and nutritional and functional status. In a controlled, randomized, prospective, double-blind, multicenter study, 111 patients with head and neck and esophageal cancer undergoing concurrent CRT received either an enteral standard nutrition (control group) or disease-specific enteral nutrition Supportan®-containing EPA+DHA (experimental group) via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. The primary endpoint was the change of body cell mass (BCM) following CRT at weeks 7 and 14 compared with the baseline value. Secondary endpoints were additional parameters of body composition, anthropometric parameters, and nutritional and functional status. The primary endpoint of the study, improvement in BCM, reached borderline statistical significance. Following CRT, patients with experimental nutrition lost only 0.82 ± 0.64 kg of BCM compared with 2.82 ± 0.77 kg in the control group (P = .055). The objectively measured nutritional parameters, such as body weight and fat-free mass, showed a tendency toward improvement, but the differences were not significant. The subjective parameters, in particular the Kondrup score (P = .0165) and the subjective global assessment score (P = .0065) after follow-up improved significantly in the experimental group, compared with the control group. Both enteral regimens were safe and well tolerated. Enteral nutrition with EPA and DHA may be advantageous in patients with head and neck or esophageal cancer by improving parameters of nutritional and functional status during CRT. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Tao, Yulong; Tang, Chengwu; Feng, Wenming; Bao, Ying; Yu, Hongbin
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: From July 2008 to July 2014,185 patients with SAP admitted to our centre were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were divided into EN group (n=89) and TPN group (n=96) based on the nutrition support modes. Patients in EN group received nasogastric EN support, while patients in TPN group received TPN support within 72 hours of disease onset. The medical records were reviewed and clinical factors were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between two groups. EN group had significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infections (P=0.0333) and extrapancreatic infections (P=0.0431). Significantly shorter hospital stay (P=0.0355) and intensive-care stay (P=0.0313) were found in EN group. TPN group was found to have significantly greater incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (P=0.0338) and mortality (P=0.0382). Moreover, the incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN group (P=0.0454). Conclusions: Early nasogastric EN was feasible and significantly decreased the incidence of infectious complications as well as the frequency of MODS and mortality caused by SAP. PMID:28083056
Consensus statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: indicators recommended for the identification and documentation of pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition).
Becker, Patricia; Carney, Liesje Nieman; Corkins, Mark R; Monczka, Jessica; Smith, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan E; Spear, Bonnie A; White, Jane V
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (the Academy) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), utilizing an evidence-informed, consensus-derived process, recommend that a standardized set of diagnostic indicators be used to identify and document pediatric malnutrition (undernutrition) in routine clinical practice. The recommended indicators include z scores for weight-for-height/length, body mass index-for-age, or length/height-for-age or mid-upper arm circumference when a single data point is available. When 2 or more data points are available, indicators may also include weight gain velocity (<2 years of age), weight loss (2-20 years of age), deceleration in weight for length/height z score, and inadequate nutrient intake. The purpose of this consensus statement is to identify a basic set of indicators that can be used to diagnose and document undernutrition in the pediatric population ages 1 month to 18 years. The indicators are intended for use in multiple settings (eg, acute, ambulatory care/outpatient, residential care). Several screening tools have been developed for use in hospitalized children. However, identifying criteria for use in screening for nutritional risk is not the purpose of this paper. Clinicians should use as many data points as available to identify and document the presence of malnutrition. The universal use of a single set of diagnostic parameters will expedite the recognition of pediatric undernutrition, lead to the development of more accurate estimates of its prevalence and incidence, direct interventions, and promote improved outcomes. A standardized diagnostic approach will also inform the prediction of the human and financial responsibilities and costs associated with the prevention and treatment of undernutrition in this vulnerable population and help to further ensure the provision of high-quality, cost-effective nutritional care.
Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Urzua, Sergio
There is a strongly held view that a narrow window exists for effective nutritional interventions and a widely known stylized depiction of age-dependent economic rates of returns to investments in cognitive and socioemotional development. Both indicate critical periods in early life. Moreover, the fact that both the physical and cognitive development of a child in these early years are highly dependent on childcare practices and on the characteristics of the caregivers motivates an interest in finding effective means to enhance stimulation in the context of nutritional programs, or vice versa. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence to date on how to align integrated interventions to these age-specific patterns and how to undertake benefit-cost analyses for integrated interventions. Thus, many core questions need further consideration in order to design integrated nutritional and stimulation programs. This paper looks at some of these questions and provides some guidelines as to how the economic returns from joint nutrition and stimulation programs might be estimated.
Wanden-Berghe, C; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Lobo Tamer, G; Calleja Fernández, A; Gómez Candela, C; Zugasti Murillo, A; Apezetxea Celaya, A; Torres Corts, A; Moreno Villarés, J M; de Luis, D; Penacho, Ma Á; Laborda, L; Burgos, R; Irles, J A; Cuerda Compes, C; Virgili Casas, Ma N; Martínez Olmos, M A; García Luna, P P
To evidence by means of a SWOT-R analysis performed by an expert consensus the most worrying characteristics of the register on Home-based and Outpatient Artificial Nutrition. SWOT-R analysis with expert consensus. We requested the participation of the active members of the NADYA group within the last 5 years with the premise of structuring the SWOT-R based on the characteristics of the NADYA registry from its beginning. 18 experts from hospitals all over Spain have participated. The internal analysis seems to be positive, presenting the registry as having important resources. The external analysis did not show a great number of threats, there are very potent factors, "the voluntariness" of the registry and the "dependence on external financing". The opportunities identified are important. The recommendations are aimed at stabilizing the system by decreasing the threats as one of the main focus of the strategies to develop as well as promoting the items identified as opportunities and strengths. The analysis shows that the NADYA register shows a big potentiality for improvement. The proposed recommendations should be structured in order to stay on the track of development and quality improvement that has characterized the NADYA register from the beginning.
Pinzón-Espitia, Olga Lucia; Chicaiza-Becerra, Liliana; Garcia-Molina, Mario; González-Rodríguez, Javier Leonardo
Introducción: el presente artículo estudia el caso de la prescripción del soporte nutricional enteral por sonda en Colombia, analizada desde el marco del Sistema de Seguridad Social en Salud, y lo explica como resultado de un problema de coordinación institucional. Para ello se identifican el papel y los incentivos de los distintos agentes y se muestra cómo la interacción de los mismos desincentiva el uso de la nutrición enteral, en casos en los que esta es necesaria, con su correspondiente efecto clínico para el paciente y el aumento de costes para el sistema. Métodos: análisis de los efectos que puede tener en la práctica clínica el problema de la coordinación institucional de los entes reguladores del país. Analiza su origen y los incentivos e intereses de los distintos agentes involucrados, previa síntesis de la revisión bibliográfica pertinente. Se realizó la búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect y Embase. Conclusiones: la situación actual del soporte nutricional enteral en Colombia es un equilibrio subóptimo, resultado de un problema de coordinación institucional que solo puede ser resuelto cuando los agentes miren más allá de sus incentivos locales, ya que el soporte nutricional es un componente fundamental de la atención hospitalaria y se constituye en un medio para lograr el objetivo de la salud de la población atendida.
Kenler, A S; Swails, W S; Driscoll, D F; DeMichele, S J; Daley, B; Babineau, T J; Peterson, M B; Bistrian, B R
OBJECTIVES: The authors compared the safety, gastrointestinal tolerance, and clinical efficacy of feeding an enteral diet containing a fish oil/medium-chain triglyceride structured lipid (FOSL-HN) versus an isonitrogenous, isocaloric formula (O-HN) in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies suggest that feeding with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil can alter eicosanoid and cytokine production, yielding an improved immunocompetence and a reduced inflammatory response to injury. The use of n-3 fatty acids as a structured lipid can improve long-chain fatty acid absorption. METHODS: This prospective, blinded, randomized trial was conducted in 50 adult patients who were jejunally fed either FOSL-HN or O-HN for 7 days. Serum chemistries, hematology, urinalysis, gastrointestinal complications, liver and renal function, plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid analysis, urinary prostaglandins, and outcome parameters were measured at baseline and on day 7. Comparisons were made in 18 and 17 evaluable patients based a priori on the ability to reach a tube feeding rate of 40 mL/hour. RESULTS: Patients receiving FOSL-HN experienced no untoward side effects, significant incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid into plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids, and a 50% decline in the total number of gastrointestinal complications and infections compared with patients given O-HN. The data strongly suggest improved liver and renal function during the postoperative period in the FOSL-HN group. CONCLUSION: Early enteral feeding with FOSL-HN was safe and well tolerated. Results suggest that the use of such a formula during the postoperative period may reduce the number of infections and gastrointestinal complications per patient, as well as improve renal and liver function through modulation of urinary prostaglandin levels. Additional clinical trials to fully quantify clinical benefits and optimize nutritional
Kuhn, M; Nakib, S; De Bandt, J P; Cynober, L; Loï, C
Existing methods for simultaneous measurements of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in enteral formulas require large sample and solvent volumes and are time-consuming and costly. We have developed a simple, sensitive, cost-effective method for the determination of these vitamins in polymeric diets that can easily be applied to standard quality control of large numbers of samples. Our analytical procedure comprises deproteinization with pure ethanol, saponification with a 3.6M KOH solution in a sonicator for 30 min at 65 degrees C under a nitrogen atmosphere, solubilization of samples in phosphate buffer and extraction with hexane. Vitamins are separated by reversed-phase HPLC and quantified by dual-wavelength spectrophotometry. The method gives satisfactory results, with recovery rates of 106.3+/-1.5% for retinol and 102.3+/-1.5% for alpha-tocopherol and RSDs ranging between 1.2 and 4.8% for precision. This method is suitable for the quality control of enteral formulas.
Cognigni, Paola; Bailey, Andrew P.; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene
Summary The gastrointestinal tract is emerging as a key regulator of appetite and metabolism, but daunting neuroanatomical complexity has hampered identification of the relevant signals. Invertebrate models could provide a simple and genetically amenable alternative, but their autonomic nervous system and its visceral functions remain largely unexplored. Here we develop a quantitative method based on defecation behavior to uncover a central role for the Drosophila intestine in the regulation of nutrient intake, fluid, and ion balance. We then identify a key homeostatic role for autonomic neurons and hormones, including a brain-gut circuit of insulin-producing neurons modulating appetite, a vasopressin-like system essential for fluid homeostasis, and enteric neurons mediating sex peptide-induced changes in intestinal physiology. These conserved mechanisms of visceral control, analogous to those found in the enteric nervous system and hypothalamic/pituitary axis, enable the study of autonomic control in a model organism that has proved instrumental in understanding sensory and motor systems. PMID:21195352
Mizock, Barry A
Upper digestive feeding intolerance, as evidenced by high gastric residual volume and vomiting, is the most common complication among hospitalized patients receiving enteral nutrition. These patients are at high risk of developing aspiration pneumonia, which in turn is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality. Most episodes of aspiration are small in volume and do not lead to pneumonia. The likelihood of pneumonia increases with multiple aspirations. Pneumonia is also more common in critically ill patients who have bacterial colonization of the oropharynx. Gastric residual volume is commonly used as a means to assess aspiration risk during tube feeding. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this measurement has limited sensitivity. The approach to minimizing the frequency of aspiration during tube feeding involves assessment of the patient's degree of risk and initiation of appropriate measures directed at risk reduction.
Boulton, T John; Garnett, Sarah P; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A; Magarey, Anthea M; Landers, Margot C G
This paper addresses the questions of whether early nutritional experience affects later somatic growth, the growth of the adipose tissue, or the levels of scrum lipids among well-nourished children. The analyses are based on data from three prospective studies. Postnatal nutrition and growth: there were differences in growth between breast-fed and formula-fed children. There was no association between linear growth and differences in food energy or macronutrient intake. Birth size and postnatal growth: there was no association between ponderal index (PI) at birth and body mass index (BMI) in the second year. For boys, the PI at 3 and 6 months of age was significantly positively correlated with BMI at the ages of 8 and 15 years, but not for girls. Childhood growth and lipids: there was no association between lipids at the age of 8 years and either birth weight or length, but children who had had a low PI at birth had higher lipid levels at the age 8 years. A positive association was found between serum lipids and abdominal fat and BMI. We conclude that, although early diet may influence growth rate beyond infancy, the evidence for fat patterning resulting from differences in fetal or early postnatal nutrition is still open to question.
Casas Rodera, P; de Luis, D A; Gómez Candela, C; Culebras, J M
Significant malnutrition exists in a high percentage of patients with head and neck cancer. Malnutrition is associated with defects in immune function that may impair the host response to malignancy. Malnutrition and immunosupression make patients highly susceptible to postoperative infections and complications. Some studies of patients receiving immuno-nutrition in the perioperative period in head and neck cancer have shown beneficial effects on clinical outcome and inmune status. The authors carried out a systematic review of randomised control trials to determine whether perioperative immunonutrition has a role in the treatment of head and neck cancer. 14 trials of polymeric nutritional supplementation with immunonutrition were identified. Two studies compared two types of immunonutrition. A reduction in the length of postoperative hospital stay was seen in some trials, but the reason for this reduction is not clear. Some studides showed statistical differences with less complications in arginine-enhanced group and also showed a significant decrease of fistula complications in patients treated with a high arginine dose enhanced formula, if compared with a medium dose of arginine. [corrected] Those planning future studies face challenges. A suitable powered clinical trial is required before firm recommendations can be made on the use of immunonutrition in head and neck cancer patients postoperatively.
Harris, Jamie; Poirier, Jennifer; Selip, Debra; Pillai, Srikumar; N. Shah, Ami; Jackson, Carl-Christian; Chiu, Bill
Objectives: Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly affecting 2.3-4.4/10,000 births. Previous studies show initiation of early enteral feeds predicts improved outcomes. We hypothesize that earlier definitive closure after silo placement; can lead to earlier enteral feed initiation. Design/ Setting/ Duration: Retrospective review of patients with gastroschisis from 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. Material and Methods: The data, including ethnicity, gestational age, birth weight, time to definitive closure, and time of first and full feeds, were analyzed using both Spearman’s rho and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test where appropriate; a p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Forty-three patients (24 males, 19 females) born with gastroschisis were identified. Overall survival rate was 88% (38/43). Forty of the 43 patients had a silo placed prior to definitive closure. Median days to closure were 6 (0 to 85) days. First feeds on average began on day of life (DOL) 17, and full feeds on DOL 25. Earlier closure of gastroschisis correlated with early initiation of feeds (p=0.0001) and shorter time to full feeds (p=0.018), closure by DOL4 showed a trend toward earlier feeding (p=0.13). Conclusion: Earlier closure of gastroschisis after silo placement was associated with earlier feed initiation and shorter time to full feeds. PMID:26290810
Li, Yu-xiu; Pan, Shi-hai; Zeng, Jing-bo; Yu, Kang; Sun, Qi; Liu, Qiu-ying; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Qing-rong; Yu, Jian-chun; Xu, Tao; Han, Shao-mei; Wang, Heng
To investigate the effect of a new enteral nutrition suspension (diabetes) (TPF-DM) (Dixson 0.75 kcal/ml) (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) on blood glucose, serum insulin and lipids as compared with a standard formula (Nutrition MF 0.75 kcal/ml) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A randomized, controlled, paralleled and single center trial was carried out. A total of 76 patients with type 2 diabetes without using insulin and obvious complications were randomized into a study group and a control group. 36 patients in the study group and 35 in the control group completed the trial. The observation lasted 6 days. All calories came from enteral nutrition. At baseline all the patients had standard mixed meal (bread 50 g, egg 50 g, milk 250 ml, total calorie 400 kcal) test and at the end of the trial a enteral nutrient meal (enteral nutrient 400 ml, total calorie 300 kcal) test. Blood samples were taken before the meal and 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after the meal to test plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum lipids and some safety parameters. The area under curve (AUC) for plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum lipids was calculated. Compared with the mixed meal test, the AUC of plasma glucose and serum insulin during both Dixson 0.75 kcal/ml test and standard formula (Nutrition MF 0.75 kcal/ml) test were significantly lower (P < 0.01). The change at baseline in the study group was more than that in the control group [the change of AUC for plasma glucose (-6.42 +/- 8.62) h x mmol x L(-1) vs (-1.87 +/- 5.30) h x mmol x L(-1), P < 0.01; that of AUC for serum insulin (-36.94 +/- 49.77) h x mIU x L(-1) vs (-18.20 +/- 32.62) h x mIU x L(-1), P < 0.05]. Both the enteral nutrition formula can reduce insulin resistance (calculated by HOMA-IR), but there was no difference between them. There was no significant effect on total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. AUC of serum triglycerides was lower during the tests with both enteral nutrients than that during mixed
Ferreyra, Jessica A.; Ng, Katharine M.; Sonnenburg, Justin L.
Summary The gut microbiota is a dense and diverse microbial community governed by dynamic microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions, the status of which influences whether enteric pathogens can cause disease. Here we review recent insights into the key roles that nutrients play in bacterial pathogen exploitation of the gut microbial ecosystem. We synthesize recent findings to support a five-stage model describing the transition between a healthy microbiota and one dominated by a pathogen and disease. Within this five-stage model, two stages are critical to the pathogen: (i) an initial expansion phase that must occur in the absence of pathogen-induced inflammation, followed by (ii) pathogen-promoting physiological changes such as inflammation and diarrhoea. We discuss how this emerging paradigm of pathogen life within the lumen of the gut is giving rise to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24720567
Sánchez-Tamayo, Tomás; Espinosa Fernández, María Gracia; Affumicato, Laura; González López, María; Fernández Romero, Verónica; Moreno Algarra, María Concepción; Salguero García, Enrique
An unexpected increase in the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) cases was observed in our hospital. Just in case, our feeding policy could be responsible, it was decided to conduct a systematic review and develop a clinical guideline regarding enteral nutrition of very low birth weight infants (VLBW). To assess the impact of the new feeding protocol in the incidence of NEC. A "before" (2011) and "after" (May 2012 - April 2013) study was performed on the new feeding protocol. This included initiation of enteral feeding in the absence of haemodynamic problems, a trophic feeding period of 5-7 days, and subsequent increments of 20-30ml/kg/day, of breast milk/donor human milk from the beginning. Probiotics were not administered. incidence of NEC II 2 Bell's stage. focal intestinal perforation, overall mortality and mortality due to NEC, nosocomial sepsis; weight at 28 days and 36 weeks; % of infants with weight
Donohoe, C L; Healy, L A; Fanning, M; Doyle, S L; Hugh, A Mc; Moore, J; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V
The aim of this prospective cohort study is to analyze the impact of supplemental home enteral nutrition (HEN) post-esophageal cancer surgery on nutritional parameters, quality of life (QL), and patient satisfaction. A systematic review reported that over 60% of patients lose >10% of both body weight and BMI by 6 months after esophagectomy. Enteral feeding (EF) is increasingly a modern standard postoperatively; however, the impact of extended HEN postdischarge has not been systematically studied. One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients [mean age 62 ± 9, 80% male,76% adenocarcinoma, 66% on multimodal protocols, and 69% with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2] were studied. Jejunal EF commenced day 1 postoperatively, and supplemental overnight HEN (764 kcal; 32g protein) continued on discharge for a planned further 4 weeks. Weight, BMI, and body composition analysis (bioimpedance analysis) were measured at baseline, preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months, along with the EORTC QLQ-C30/OES18 QL measures. A patient satisfaction questionnaire addressed eight key items in relation to HEN (max score 100/item). Median (range) total duration of EF was 49 days (28-96). Overall compliance was 96%. At 6 months, compared with preoperatively, 58 (39%) patients lost >10% weight, with median (IQR) loss of 6.8 (4-9) kg, and 62 (41%) patients lost >10% BMI. Lean body mass and body fat were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased. Mean global QL decreased (p < 0.01) from 82 to 72. A high mean satisfaction score (>70 ± 11/100) was reported, >80 for practical training, activities of daily living, pain, anxiety, recovery and impact on caregivers, with lower scores for appetite (33 ± 24) and sleep (63 ± 30). Supplemental HEN for a minimum of one month postdischarge is associated with high compliance and patient satisfaction. Weight and BMI loss may still be substantial, however this may be less than published literature, in addition the impact on HR-QL may be attenuated. HEN has both
Bonada Sanjaume, Anna; Gils Contreras, Anna; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
the administration of enteral nutrition by gravity is a very useful method in clinical practice; nevertheless, it may not be very precise. Indeed, this method presents some important limitations, such as the difficulty in establishing a precise dripping rate and the possibility for the dripping rate decrease depending on the formula. assess the administration time and the risk of clogging of 5 fiber-enriched enteral nutrition formulas with different protein concentrations and caloric density, all administered by gravity through nasogastric (NG) tubes of different sizes. Assess the influence of the composition on the dripping rate, by gravity, of the tested formulas. 5 fiber-enriched EN formulas were compared by using nasogastric tubes of the calibers 8, 10 and 12 Fr. The fluidity of these gravity-administered NE formulas was estimated by timing the complete passage of each formula at full speed, thus allowing one to calculate the mean time of free fall (MTFF) and to register any possible obstruction. Subsequently, an in vitro simulation of a 1 500 ml administration was performed for each formula at a particular speed, so that the administration time was 5 hours. Slowing flow and stagnated flow were detected as indicators of the risk of obstruction. the two products that especially differed in MTFF were the ones with the highest energy concentration. The passage time in free fall of these two products through the 8 Fr tube exceeded four hours. For the rest of the products and NG tubes used, this time was less than 2 hours and 5 minutes. No slowing flow or tube obstruction was detected in free fall and at maximum speed. When the dripping was adjusted to be administered in 5 hours, three of the studied products (those with the least caloric concentration and viscosity) showed slowing flow and, in some cases, the dripping stopped completely. The most important factor associated to the MTFF was the lipid content, followed by viscosity, energy and protein content. The
Arevalo-Manso, J J; Martinez-Sanchez, P; Juarez-Martin, B; Fuentes, B; Ruiz-Ares, G; Sanz-Cuesta, B E; Parrilla-Novo, P; Diez-Tejedor, E
To meet the current recommendations for enteral tube feeding (ETF), we updated our previous practice in 2011 and began to use a 24-h delivery set hang time (DSHT). We evaluated the impact of this update on the risk of diarrhoea and in diarrhoea-free survival. Observational, retrospective study with historical controls on ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke patients undergoing ETF. Diarrhoea occurrence (≥ 3 liquid stools in 24 h) was compared between patients with a 24 h DSHT (2011-2014) and a 72/96 h DSHT (2010-2011). The analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model. A total of 175 patients were included [median age 81 years (IQR = 12), 46.9% males], 103 in the group with a 24 h DSHT and 72 in the group with a 72/96 h DSHT. The group with a 24 h DSHT had a lower diarrhoea frequency (13.6% vs. 34.7%, risk ratio: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.22-0.70, p = 0.001) and a lower diarrhoea incidence rate (0.87 vs. 2.32 cases of diarrhoea/100 patient*day, rate ratio: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.19-0.72, p = 0.004). The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a longer diarrhoea-free survival for this group (p = 0.003, log-rank test). A 24 h DSHT was associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea (HR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.61, p = 0.002), adjusted by albumin, stroke severity, intravenous thrombolysis, the administration of clindamycin and cefotaxime, and the administration of an enteral formula for diabetic patients. The 24 h DSHT was independently associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea and longer diarrhoea-free survival in hospitalised patients with acute stroke under ETF, compared with a 72/96 h DSHT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lillycrop, Karen A; Hoile, Samuel P; Grenfell, Leonie; Burdge, Graham C
It is well established that genotype plays an important role in the ageing process. However, recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may also influence the onset of ageing-associated diseases and longevity. Epigenetics is defined as processes that induce heritable changes in gene expression without a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence. The major epigenetic mechanisms are DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNA. Such processes are involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression, cell differentiation and genomic imprinting. However, epigenetic dysregulation is frequently seen with ageing. Relatively little is known about the factors that initiate such changes. However, there is emerging evidence that the early life environment, in particular nutrition, in early life can induce long-term changes in DNA methylation resulting in an altered susceptibility to a range of ageing-associated diseases. In this review, we will focus on the changes in DNA methylation that occur during ageing; their role in the ageing process and how early life nutrition can modulate DNA methylation and influence longevity. Understanding the mechanisms by which diet in early life can influence the epigenome will be crucial for the development of preventative and intervention strategies to increase well-being in later life.
Pedrón-Giner, C; Navas-López, V M; Martínez-Zazo, A B; Martínez-Costa, C; Sánchez-Valverde, F; Blasco-Alonso, J; Moreno-Villares, J M; Redecillas-Ferreiro, S; Canals-Badía, M J; Rosell-Camps, A; Gil-Ortega, D; Gómez-López, L; García-Romero, R; Gutierrez-Junquera, C; Balmaseda-Serrano, E M; Bousoño-García, C; Marugán-Miguelsanz, J M; Peña-Quintana, L; González-Santana, D; López-Ruzafa, E; Chicano-Marín, F J; Cabrera-Rodriguez, R; Murray-Hurtado, M; Pérez-Moneo, B
The home enteral nutrition (HEN) provides nutritional support to children with chronic diseases who are nutritionally compromised and allows them to be discharged more quickly from hospitals. In 2003, a web-based registry (Nutrición Enteral Pediátrica Ambulatoria y Domiciliaria, Pediatric Ambulatory and Home Enteral Nutrition -NEPAD-) was created with the objective of gathering information about pediatric HEN practices in Spain. The aim of this study was to report the implementation of the NEPAD (Nutrición Enteral Pediátrica Ambulatoria y Domiciliaria, Pediatric Ambulatory and Home Enteral Nutrition) registry of pediatric HEN in Spain and to analyze data evolution trends from 2003 to 2010. The data from the Spanish NEPAD registry were analyzed according to the following variables: demographic data, diagnosis, indication for HEN, nutritional support regime and administration route. Over the study period, 952 patients (1048 episodes) from 20 Spanish hospitals were included in the NEPAD registry. The most frequent indication for HEN was decreased oral intake (64%), and neurological disease was the most prevalent illness. HEN was delivered via a nasogastric tube in 573 episodes (54.7%), by gastrostomy in 375 episodes (35.8%), oral feeding in 77 episodes (7.3%) and by jejunal access in 23 episodes (2.2%). Significant differences in the mode of administration were observed based on the pathology of the child (χ(2), P<0.0001). The cyclic feeding was the most widely used technique for the administration of HEN. Most of the patients used a pump and a polymeric formula. Transition to oral feeding was the primary reason for discontinuation of this type of support. Since the NEPAD registry was established in Spain, the number of documented patients has increased more than 25-fold. Many children with chronic illness benefit from HEN, mainly those suffering from neurological diseases.
Vaes, N; Lentjes, M H F M; Gijbels, M J; Rademakers, G; Daenen, K L; Boesmans, W; Wouters, K A D; Geuzens, A; Qu, X; Steinbusch, H P J; Rutten, B P F; Baldwin, S H; Sharkey, K A; Hofstra, R M W; van Engeland, M; Vanden Berghe, P; Melotte, V
Promoter methylation of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 4 (NDRG4) in fecal DNA is an established early detection marker for colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite its connection to CRC, NDRG4 is predominantly studied in brain and heart, with little to no knowledge about its expression or role in other organs. In this study, we aimed to determine the whole-body expression of NDRG4, with a focus on the intestinal tract. We investigated NDRG4 expression throughout the body by immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting and in situ mRNA hybridization using tissues from NDRG4 wild-type, heterozygous and knockout mice and humans. In addition, we explored cell-specific expression of NDRG4 in murine whole-mount gut preparations using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. NDRG4 is specifically expressed within nervous system structures throughout the body. In the intestinal tract of both mouse and man, NDRG4 immunoreactivity was restricted to the enteric nervous system (ENS), where it labeled cell bodies of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses and interconnecting nerve fibers. More precisely, NDRG4 expression was limited to neurons, as NDRG4 always co-localized with HuC/D (pan-neuronal marker) but never with GFAP (an enteric glial cell marker). Furthermore, NDRG4 was expressed in various neuropeptide Y positive neurons, but was only found in a minority (~10%) of neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase. NDRG4 is exclusively expressed by central, peripheral and enteric neurons/nerves, suggesting a neuronal-specific role of this protein. Our findings raise the question whether NDRG4, via the ENS, an understudied component of the tumor microenvironment, supports CRC development and/or progression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pacheco, Alline R; Sperandio, Vanessa
Host bacterial associations have a profound impact on health and disease. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is inhabited by trillions of commensal bacteria that aid in the digestion of food and vitamin production and play crucial roles in human physiology. Disruption of these relationships and the structure of the bacterial communities that inhabit the gut can contribute to dysbiosis, leading to disease. This fundamental relationship between the host and microbiota relies on chemical signaling and nutrient availability and exchange. GI pathogens compete with the endogenous microbiota for a colonization niche (1, 2). The ability to monitor nutrients and combine this information with the host physiological state is important for the pathogen to precisely program the expression of its virulence repertoire. A major nutrient source is carbon, and although the impact of carbon nutrition on the colonization of the gut by the microbiota has been extensively studied, the extent to which carbon sources affect the regulation of virulence factors by invading pathogens has not been fully defined. The GI pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) gages sugar sources as an important cue to regulate expression of its virulence genes. EHEC senses whether it is in a gluconeogenic versus a glycolytic environment, as well as fluctuations of fucose levels to fine tune regulation of its virulence repertoire.
García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Celaya, S; García Cofrades, M; García Luna, P P; García Peris, P; León-Sanz, M; Jiménez, C P; Olveira, G; Smeets, M
It has been well documented in medical literature that hyponutrition is a common issue at all healthcare levels, from primary to specialized health care, as well as geriatric healthcare facilities. This problem is not limited to countries with scarce economic resources or limited social development; it is also a universal issue in Europe. Hyponutrition increases the rates of morbidity, mortality, hospital admissions, and hospital stay. These higher figures also represent a higher use of healthcare resources. In spite of this, hyponutrition may often go undetected and the patient may not receive the necessary treatment. This problem requires the cooperation of multiple agents such as the Governments, the healthcare professionals, and the citizens themselves. The VIII Discussion Forum concludes on the need to establish a clear-cut plant for action (similar to the European Alliance for Health Nutrition) and the creation of a platform (coalition) encompassing the voices of healthcare professionals associations, institutions, professional colleges, patients associations, the pharmaceutical companies, and insurance companies. The goals of this platform will be to inform about the extent of this issue, to identity and promote leaders that will convey the aims of this initiative to regional and national healthcare authorities, to present solutions and to collaborate in their implementation, and finally to assess/control the actions taken.
PACHECO, ALLINE R.; SPERANDIO, VANESSA
Host bacterial associations have a profound impact on health and disease. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is inhabited by trillions of commensal bacteria that aid in the digestion of food and vitamin production and play crucial roles in human physiology. Disruption of these relationships and the structure of the bacterial communities that inhabit the gut can contribute to dysbiosis, leading to disease. This fundamental relationship between the host and microbiota relies on chemical signaling and nutrient availability and exchange. GI pathogens compete with the endogenous microbiota for a colonization niche (1, 2). The ability to monitor nutrients and combine this information with the host physiological state is important for the pathogen to precisely program the expression of its virulence repertoire. A major nutrient source is carbon, and although the impact of carbon nutrition on the colonization of the gut by the microbiota has been extensively studied, the extent to which carbon sources affect the regulation of virulence factors by invading pathogens has not been fully defined. The GI pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) gages sugar sources as an important cue to regulate expression of its virulence genes. EHEC senses whether it is in a gluconeogenic versus a glycolytic environment, as well as fluctuations of fucose levels to fine tune regulation of its virulence repertoire. PMID:26185079
Drevon, Christian A.; Klein, Ulla I.; Kleemann, Robert; van Ommen, Ben
Human nutrition and metabolism may serve as the paradigm for the complex interplay of the genome with its environment. The concept of nutrigenomics now enables science with new tools and comprehensive analytical techniques to investigate this interaction at all levels of the complexity of the organism. Moreover, nutrigenomics seeks to better define the homeostatic control mechanisms, identify the de-regulation in the early phases of diet-related diseases, and attempts to assess to what extent an individual‘s sensitizing genotype contributes to the overall health or disease state. In a comparative approach nutrigenomics uses biological systems of increasing complexity from yeast to mammalian models to define the general rules of metabolic and genetic mechanisms in adaptations to the nutritional environment. Powerful information technology, bioinformatics and knowledge management tools as well as new mathematical and computational approaches now make it possible to study these molecular mechanisms at the cellular, organ and whole organism level and take it on to modeling the processes in a “systems biology” approach. This review summarizes some of the concepts of a comparative approach to nutrigenomics research, identifies current lacks and proposes a concerted scientific effort to create the basis for nutritional systems biology. PMID:18830658
Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Cuerda Compes, Cristina; Matía Martín, Pilar; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Laborda González, Lucía; Campos Martín, Cristina; Leyes García, Pere; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Cardona Pera, Daniel; Gonzalo Marín, Monserrat; Penacho Lázaro, María Ángeles; Ballesta Sáncez, Carmen; Rabasa Soler, Antoni; Garde Orbaiz, Carmen; Cánovas Gaillemin, Bárbara; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; del Olmo García, María Dolores; Carabaña Pérez, Fátima; Arraiza Irigoyen, Carmen; Mauri, Silvia; Sánchez-Vilar Burdiel, Olga; Virgili Casas, Nuria; Miserachs Aranda, Nuria; Apezetxea Celaya, Antxón; Pereira Soto, Manuel Ángel; Ponce González, Miguel Ángel
Objetivo: exponer los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del año 2013 del Grupo NADYA-SENPE. Material y métodos: se recopilaron los pacientes introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2013, procediendo al análisis descriptivo y analítico de los datos. Resultados: durante este periodo se registraron 3.223 pacientes, (50,6% varones) y un total de 3.272 episodios de NED en 33 hospitales españoles. La tasa de prevalencia fue de 67,11pacientes/millón de habitantes/año 2013. El 98,24% de los enfermos tenía más de 14 años. La media de edad de los adultos fue de 69,14 años (dt 17,64) y la mediana se situó en 73 años (IIQ 58-83), siendo los varones más jóvenes que las mujeres; p-valor < 0,001. Los niños tuvieron una edad media de 2,38 años (dt 4,35). La enfermedad que con más frecuencia motivó el uso de la NED fue la patología neurológica en niños (49,1%) y en adultos (60,6%). La vía de administración más utilizada en los niños fue la gastrostomía (51%), siendo los niños más pequeños los que se alimentaban por SNG (p-valor 0,003) y en los adultos (48%), siendo estos pacientes los de mayor edad (p-valor.
Fine bore nasogastric (NG) tubes are often required for patients who have insufficient nutrition to meet their daily requirements, as well as for feeding or medications when there are difficulties with swallowing. "Death or severe harm as a result of a naso […] gastric tubes being misplaced in the respiratory tract" is one of the Department of Health's list of "never events". Noble's Hospital, Isle of Man, has local guidelines based on the National Patient Safety Agency's 2005 guidelines and 2011 update, regarding the initial insertion and confirmation of placement of NG tubes. Retrospective baseline data looking at 13 case notes across 10 hospital wards showed that the majority of NG tube insertions took place on the stroke unit. A three-point quality of guidelines score showed that 8/13 (62%) cases were following guidelines appropriately. A seven-point quality of documentation score showed no case notes had full documentation. A teaching intervention for junior doctors and nurses was devised. However, there was no significant improvement in quality scores after 90 days (49 NG tube insertions). Therefore, an NG tube bundle, which included a pro forma for the case notes, information poster, and sticker for the nurse notes, was trialled on the stroke unit for six weeks. This showed that 10/12 (83%) cases were following guidelines appropriately. While only 2/12 (16%) of case notes had full documentation, this represented the two occasions when the pro forma was filled in and filed correctly. It is hoped that there could be a roll out of the intervention hospital-wide with identification of ways to improve usage of the NG tube bundle.
Scarborough, Anita A; Hebbeler, Kathleen M; Spiker, Donna; Simeonsson, Rune J
This study examined the nature and correlates of the behavioral characteristics of a nationally representative sample of 1612 toddlers 18-31 months of age entering Part C early intervention services in the U.S. Factor analysis of 15 items describing child behavior collected as part of an extensive telephone interview of parents yielded four dimensions of behavior: difficult behaviors, lack of persistence, distractible, and withdrawn. Demographic and personal characteristics of the child and family were found to be related to the four behavioral dimensions. Parent reports of behavior of toddlers with fair or poor health or those with communication difficulties were less positive for all behavioral dimensions, suggesting the development of toddler behavioral characteristics is influencing or being influenced by other facets of development.
Legumes containing condensed tannins (CT) have been shown to reduce enteric CH4 in ruminants; however, research is lacking on how increased CT levels affect forage nutritive value and CH4 output. A 4-unit, dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess CH4 output of CT legumes in a...
We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...
Oztekin, Mehmet Gurdal; Erel, Serap; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Gencay, Cem; Astarci, Hesna Müzeyyen; Akkus, Mehmet Ali
We planned to evaluate the effects of different enteral nutrients on the levels of serum leptin, protein and albumin changes and also to compare their effects on mucosal morphology of small intestine. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups each including 10 animals. Group I rats were given rat chow and water. Group II rats were fed with standard enteral nutrient. Group III rats were fed with calorie enriched enteral nutrient. Group IV rats were given enteral nutrition supplemented with fiber. Group V rats were fed with immunonutrient. Serum albumin, protein, leptin levels were measured. Terminal ileum of each rat was scored. We found no difference in serum leptin, protein and albumin levels. The average mucosal atrophy of rats fed with standard chow was significantly different than that of rats fed with standard and calorie enriched nutrients. Feeding with nutrients supplemented with fiber and immunonutrient did not cause significant distortion in mucosal integrity when compared with feeding with standard chow. Low levels of leptin may show malnutrition but for determination of nutritional status of a patient receiving enteral nutrition, studies with long duration are required.
Liu, Jie; Kong, Kaimeng; Tao, Yexuan; Cai, Wei
目的：确定危重新生儿行肠内营养（enteral nutrition，EN）的最佳时间。方 法：本研究为前瞻性队列研究，观察时间为2013 年6 月1 日至2013 年11 月 30 日。纳入对象是进入新生儿重症监护室（NICU）接受治疗且日龄为1-28 天 的所有危重新生儿。记录这部分患儿在NICU 期间营养摄入情况和临床结局相 关指标，评价早期EN（入监护室24 hrs 内）和延迟开始的EN（大于24 hrs） 对患儿临床结局的影响。结果：热卡摄入不足在危重症新生儿中很普遍： 84.7%的患儿住NICU 期间热卡摄入无法达到推荐摄入量。生长迟缓在患儿住 NICU 期间普遍存在，尤其是早产儿：低于同日龄体重第10 百分位的患儿入 院时的比例为21.6%，出院时增加到 67.6%。入院24 hrs 内开始EN 相比延迟 开始EN，可以缩短入院后体重持续下降时间（0 d vs 6 d, p=0.0002），减少肠 外营养使用率（41.7% vs 95.9%，p<0.0001）和肺炎发生率（37.5% vs 56%， p=0.005）, 缩短住NICU 时间（195.5 hrs vs 288 hrs，p=0.0001）和呼吸机使用 时间，并且增加患儿住NICU 期间平均每天能量摄入量。使用机械通气患儿与 非机械通气患儿相比：入院后体重持续下降时间长，呼吸窘迫发生率和肠外营 养使用率高。 结论：危重新生儿需尽早开始EN 支持治疗，推荐入NICU 后 24 hrs 内进行，机械通气新生儿住NICU 期间营养摄入情况应引起重视。.
Cuív, Páraic Ó; Begun, Jakob; Keely, Simon; Lewindon, Peter J; Morrison, Mark
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic disease characterized by episodic and disabling inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract in genetically susceptible individuals. The incidence and prevalence of CD is rising rapidly across the world emphasising that disease risk is also influenced by environmental and lifestyle factors, as well as the microbial community resident in the gut. Childhood-onset CD is associated with an aggressive disease course that can adversely impact patient growth and development. There is no cure for CD however new onset and recurrent cases of paediatric CD are often responsive to exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) treatment. EEN treatment involves the exclusive consumption of an elemental or polymeric formula for several weeks and it is well established as a primary intervention strategy. EEN treatments typically achieve remission rates of over 80% and importantly they are associated with a high rate of mucosal healing, far superior to steroids, which is prognostic of improved long-term health outcomes. Furthermore, they are safe, have few side effects, and improve nutritional status and linear growth. Surprisingly, despite the utility of EEN our understanding of the host-microbe-diet interactions that underpin clinical remission and mucosal healing are limited. Here, we review the current state of knowledge and propose that the induction of autophagy, in addition to modulation of the microbiota and coordinated effects on inflammation and epithelial cell biology, may be critical for the therapeutic effects associated with EEN. A better understanding of EEN treatment will provide new opportunities to restore gut homeostasis and prolong periods of remission, as well as provide new insights into the factors that trigger and perhaps prevent CD.
Breuillard, Charlotte; Darquy, Sylviane; Curis, Emmanuel; Neveux, Nathalie; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Cynober, Luc; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal
Obese and type 2 diabetic patients present metabolic disturbance-related alterations in nonspecific immunity, to which the decrease in their plasma arginine contributes. Although diabetes-specific formulas have been developed, they have never been tested in the context of an acute infectious situation as can be seen in intensive care unit patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of a diabetes-specific diet enriched or not with arginine in a model of infectious stress in a diabetes and obesity situation. As a large intake of arginine may be deleterious, this amino acid was given in graded fashion. Randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Gastrostomized Zucker diabetic fatty rats were submitted to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide administration and fed for 7 days with either a diabetes-specific enteral nutrition without (G group, n=7) or with graded arginine supply (1-5 g/kg/day) (GA group, n=7) or a standard enteral nutrition (HP group, n=10). Survival rate was better in G and GA groups than in the HP group. On day 7, plasma insulin to glucose ratio tended to be lower in the same G and GA groups. Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α (G: 5.0±1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 3.7±0.8 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.7±0.6 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; p<.05 G vs. HP) and nitric oxide (G: 4.5±1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 5.1±1.0 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.0±0.5 nmol/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; p<.05 G and GA vs. HP) productions were higher in the G and GA groups compared to the HP group. Macrophages from the G and GA groups exhibited increased arginine consumption. In diabetic obese and endotoxemic rats, a diabetes-specific formula leads to a lower mortality, a decreased insulin resistance, and an improvement in peritoneal macrophage function. Arginine supplementation has no additional effect. These data support the use of such disease-specific diets in critically ill
Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti
The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.
Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto
Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at age 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children. PMID:25388499
Yoon, So Ra; Lee, Jong Hwa; Lee, Jae Hyang; Na, Ga Yoon; Lee, Kyun-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Jung, Gu-Hun; Kim, Oh Yoen
Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) are poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates that play an important role in inducing functional gut symptoms. A low-FODMAP diet improves abdominal symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. However, there were no study for the effect of FODMAP content on gastrointestinal intolerance and nutritional status in patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN). In this randomized, multicenter, double-blind, 14-day clinical trial, eligible hospitalized patients receiving EN (n = 100) were randomly assigned to three groups; 84 patients completed the trial (low-FODMAP EN, n = 30; moderate-FODMAP EN, n = 28; high-FODMAP EN, n = 26). Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured; stool assessment was performed using the King's Stool Chart and clinical definition. Baseline values were not significantly different among the three groups. After the 14-day intervention, diarrhea significantly improved in the low-FODMAP group than in the moderate- and high-FODMAP groups (P < 0.05). King's Stool scores in diarrhea subjects were significantly and steadily reduced in the low-FODMAP group compared with the other two groups (P for time and EN type interaction <0.05). BMI increased significantly in the low- and high-FODMAP groups during the intervention (P < 0.05 for both), and showed a trend toward increasing in the moderate-FODMAP group (P < 0.10). Serum prealbumin increased significantly in all groups by 14-day; by 3-day, it had increased to the levels at 14-day in the low-FODMAP group. At 14-day, serum transferrin had increased significantly in the moderate-FODMAP group. In addition, subjects were classified by final condition (unimproved, normal maintenance, diarrhea only improved, constipation only improved, and recurrent diarrhea/constipation improved). Seventy-five percent of the diarrhea improved group consumed the low
Kreissl, Alexandra; Sauerzapf, Elisabeth; Repa, Andreas; Binder, Christoph; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Jilma, Bernd; Ristl, Robin; Berger, Angelika; Haiden, Nadja
This study compared the impact of using either single donor breastmilk or formula to start enteral feeding in preterm infants, on the time to full enteral feeding, growth and morbidity. The milk was provided by other preterm mothers. This was an observational prospective study, carried out from June 2012 to March 2013 at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, on the effects of preterm single donor milk on 133 very low birthweight infants with a birthweight <1500 g and a gestational age <32 weeks until they were on full enteral feeding. They were compared to a retrospective group of 150 infants from March 2011 to May 2012 who received preterm formula. The time to full enteral feeding, defined as 140 mL/kg, was significantly shorter in the donor milk group than in the formula group (18 vs. 22 days, p = 0.01). Feeding donor milk was also associated with a lower incidence for retinopathy of prematurity (4% vs. 13%, p < 0.01) and culture-proven sepsis (11% vs. 23%, p < 0.01). Feeding preterm infants breastmilk from a single donor rather using formula was associated with a shorter time to full enteral feeding and lower incidences of retinopathy of prematurity and sepsis. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.