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Sample records for early esophageal cancer

  1. Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  2. Early esophageal cancer detection using RF classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse, Markus H. A.; van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the fastest rising forms of cancer in the Western world. Using High-Definition (HD) endoscopy, gastroenterology experts can identify esophageal cancer at an early stage. Recent research shows that early cancer can be found using a state-of-the-art computer-aided detection (CADe) system based on analyzing static HD endoscopic images. Our research aims at extending this system by applying Random Forest (RF) classification, which introduces a confidence measure for detected cancer regions. To visualize this data, we propose a novel automated annotation system, employing the unique characteristics of the previous confidence measure. This approach allows reliable modeling of multi-expert knowledge and provides essential data for real-time video processing, to enable future use of the system in a clinical setting. The performance of the CADe system is evaluated on a 39-patient dataset, containing 100 images annotated by 5 expert gastroenterologists. The proposed system reaches a precision of 75% and recall of 90%, thereby improving the state-of-the-art results by 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively.

  3. Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Short, Matthew W; Burgers, Kristina G; Fry, Vincent T

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate, with an estimated 16,910 new cases and 15,910 deaths projected in 2016 in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma account for more than 95% of esophageal cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common in nonindustrialized countries, and important risk factors include smoking, alcohol use, and achalasia. Adenocarcinoma is the predominant esophageal cancer in developed nations, and important risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity, and smoking. Dysphagia alone or with unintentional weight loss is the most common presenting symptom, although esophageal cancer is often asymptomatic in early stages. Physicians should have a low threshold for evaluation with endoscopy if any symptoms are present. If cancer is confirmed, integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography should be used for initial staging. If no distant metastases are found, endoscopic ultrasonography should be performed to determine tumor depth and evaluate for nodal involvement. Localized tumors can be treated with endoscopic mucosal resection, whereas regional tumors are treated with esophagectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or a combination of modalities. Nonresectable tumors or tumors with distant metastases are treated with palliative interventions. Specific prevention strategies have not been proven, and there are no recommendations for esophageal cancer screening.

  4. Esophageal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... old. There are two main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These two types look different from each other under the microscope. Squamous cell esophageal cancer is linked to smoking and drinking too much ...

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Lu, Zhongsheng; Liu, Qingsen

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, endoscopic autologous cell transplantation, endoscopic esophageal dilatation, and stent placement. This short review will focus on direct prevention and treatment, which may help guide the way forward. PMID:25386186

  6. Early diagnostic potential of APC hypermethylation in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bujiang; Song, Haojun; Jiang, Haizhong; Fu, Yangbo; Ding, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Chongchang

    2018-01-01

    The hypermethylation of APC gene is observed in various cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC). However, the association between APC methylation and the initiation and progression of EC is poorly understood. The current study systematically reviewed studies on abnormal methylation of APC in EC and quantitatively synthesized 18 studies by meta-analysis involving 1008 ECs, 570 Barrett's esophagus (BE), and 782 controls. Our results showed higher methylation of APC in EC (OR = 23.33, P < 0.001) and BE (OR = 9.34, P < 0.001) than in normal controls. Whereas APC methylation in EC was similar to that in BE ( P = 0.052), it was not associated with tumor stage ( P = 0.204). Additionally, APC methylation was not significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with EC. The performance of APC methylation for the detection of EC and BE achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.94 and 0.88, respectively. Our results imply that APC methylation detection is a potential diagnostic biomarker for EC and BE.

  7. The study of esophageal cancer in an early stage by using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2013-02-01

    The esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. In order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, we inevitably need a method to diagnose the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy. Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques for the purpose. In the present study, we apply Raman spectroscopy to obtain ex vivo spectra of normal and early tumor human esophageal sample. The result of principal component analysis indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by linear discriminant analysis which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  8. Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  9. Impact of the early detection of esophageal neoplasms in hypopharyngeal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigenobu; Ogino, Ichiro; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Madoka; Sakuma, Yasunori; Kokawa, Atsushi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Inoue, Tomio

    2017-04-01

    We examined the risk factors and prognostic factors for synchronous esophageal neoplasia (SEN) by comparing the characteristics of hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) patients with and without SEN. We examined 183 patients who were treated with definitive radiotherapy for HPC. Lugol chromoendoscopy screening of the esophagus was performed in all patients before chemoradiotherapy. Thirty-six patients had SEN, 49 patients died of HPC and two died of esophageal cancer. The patients with SEN exhibited significantly higher alcohol consumption than those without SEN (P = 0.018). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the 36 patients with SEN was lower than that of the other patients (36.2% vs 63.4%, P = 0.006). The SEN patients exhibited significantly shorter HPC cause-specific survival than the other patients (P = 0.039). Both the OS (P = 0.005) and the HPC cause-specific survival (P = 0.026) of the patients with SEN were significantly shorter than those of the patients without SEN in multivariate analysis. Category 4/T1 stage esophageal cancer was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), endoscopic treatment or chemotherapy. The 5-year survival rates for esophageal cancer recurrence for CCRT, endoscopic treatment and chemotherapy were 71.5, 43.7 and 0%, respectively. The median (range) survival time (months) of CCRT, endoscopic treatment and chemotherapy was 22.7 (7.5-90.6), 46.44 (17.3-136.7) and 7.98 (3.72-22.8), respectively. Advanced HPC patients with SEN might have a poorer prognosis than those without SEN even when the esophageal cancer is detected early and managed appropriately. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Sweet-spot training for early esophageal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, the imaging tools for endoscopists have improved drastically. This has enabled physicians to visually inspect the intestinal tissue for early signs of malignant lesions. Besides this, recent studies show the feasibility of supportive image analysis for endoscopists, but the analysis problem is typically approached as a segmentation task where binary ground truth is employed. In this study, we show that the detection of early cancerous tissue in the gastrointestinal tract cannot be approached as a binary segmentation problem and it is crucial and clinically relevant to involve multiple experts for annotating early lesions. By employing the so-called sweet spot for training purposes as a metric, a much better detection performance can be achieved. Furthermore, a multi-expert-based ground truth, i.e. a golden standard, enables an improved validation of the resulting delineations. For this purpose, besides the sweet spot we also propose another novel metric, the Jaccard Golden Standard (JIGS) that can handle multiple ground-truth annotations. Our experiments involving these new metrics and based on the golden standard show that the performance of a detection algorithm of early neoplastic lesions in Barrett's esophagus can be increased significantly, demonstrating a 10 percent point increase in the resulting F1 detection score.

  11. Endoscopic methods in the treatment of early-stage esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with early esophageal cancer restricted to the mucosa may be offered endoscopic therapy, which is similarly effective, less invasive and less expensive than esophagectomy. Selection of appropriate relevant treatment and therapy methods should be performed at a specialized center with adequate facilities. The selection of an endoscopic treatment method for high-grade dysplasia and early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma requires that tumor infiltration is restricted to the mucosa and that there is no neighboring lymph node metastasis. In squamous cell carcinoma, this treatment method is accepted in cases of tumors invading only up to the lamina propria of mucosa (m2). Tumors treated with the endoscopic method should be well or moderately differentiated and should not invade lymphatic or blood vessels. When selecting endoscopic treatments for these lesions, a combination of endoscopic resection and endoscopic ablation methods should be considered. PMID:25097676

  12. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... stage . There is no standard or routine screening test for esophageal cancer. Screening for esophageal cancer is under study with screening clinical trials taking place in many ...

  13. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound staging for early esophageal cancer: Are we denying patients neoadjuvant chemo-radiation?

    PubMed

    Luu, Carrie; Amaral, Marisa; Klapman, Jason; Harris, Cynthia; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Hoffe, Sarah; Frakes, Jessica; Pimiento, Jose M; Fontaine, Jacques P

    2017-12-14

    To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in early esophageal cancer (EC) performed in a high-volume tertiary cancer center. A retrospective review of patients undergoing esophagectomy was performed and patients with cT1N0 and cT2N0 esophageal cancer by EUS were evaluated. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment were reviewed. EUS staging was compared to surgical pathology to determine accuracy of EUS. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the cohort. Student's t test and Fisher's exact test or χ 2 test was used to compare variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine if clinical variables such as tumor location and tumor histology were associated with EUS accuracy. Between 2000 and 2015, 139 patients with clinical stageIorIIA esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy were identified. There were 25 (18%) female and 114 (82%) male patients. The tumor location included the middle third of the esophagus in 11 (8%) and lower third and gastroesophageal junction in 128 (92%) patients. Ninety-three percent of patients had adenocarcinoma. Preoperative EUS matched the final surgical pathology in 73/139 patients for a concordance rate of 53%. Twenty-nine patients (21%) were under-staged by EUS; of those, 19 (14%) had unrecognized nodal disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used in addition to EUS for clinical staging in 62/139 patients. Occult nodal disease was only found in 4 of 62 patients (6%) in whom both EUS and PET were negative for nodal involvement. EUS is less accurate in early EC and endoscopic mucosal resection might be useful in certain settings. The addition of PET to EUS improves staging accuracy.

  15. Preoperative endoscopic titanium clip placement facilitates intraoperative localization of early-stage esophageal cancer or severe dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Feng, Juan; Zhao, Qin; Chen, Ping; Yang, Guotao

    2017-08-02

    Accurate intraoperative localization of esophageal lesions is essential for successful surgical resection. We tested whether preoperative endoscopic placement of titanium clips could facilitate intraoperative localization of early-stage esophageal cancer or severe dysplasia. A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed between May 2012 and July 2014. All enrolled patients received preoperative endoscopy and esophageal endoscopic ultrasound, as well as pathological study on the biopsy specimen, to confirm early stage esophageal cancer or severe dysplasia. One day before the surgical operation, patients in the experimental group received the preoperative endoscopic titanium labeling of esophageal lesions. Then, during the surgical operation, palpitation of titanium clips was used to localize the lesions in these patients. In patients in the control group, palpitation of nodules or esophageal wall mucosal thickening, together with the consideration of the results from preoperative endoscopic and ultrasound studies, was applied to estimate the location of the esophageal lesions. Study outcomes included the proportions of patients having successful intraoperative pre-resection lesion localization, post-esophagectomy lesion visualization, negative upper surgical margin, change of surgical approaches, and positive postoperative pathological diagnosis. A total of 27 patients were enrolled into the study, with 14 in the experimental group and 13 in the control group. Compared to the patients in the control group, a higher proportion of patients in the experimental group had statistically significant successful intraoperative esophageal lesion localization (100 versus 15.3% in the experimental versus control group). Preoperative endoscopic titanium clip placement could facilitate intraoperative localization of early-stage esophageal cancer or severe dysplasia. Current study was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry and World Health Organization International

  16. Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Esophageal cancer treatment options include surgery alone for very early disease and add chemotherapy and radiation therapy for more advanced cases. Get detailed information about the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent esophageal cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  17. General Information about Esophageal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  18. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing PhotofrinR for treatment of early esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud; Teffeteller, Elmeria; Rose, S. Mark

    1993-06-01

    Four lesions of early carcinoma of the esophagus found during endoscopic biopsies in three patients were treated with photodynamic therapy. Follow-up biopsies over 9 - 24 months remain negative for carcinoma. Endoscopic ultrasonography is essential for proper staging and treatment planning for these patients. Photodynamic therapy may provide an alternative to surgical resection for early esophageal carcinoma or severe dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

  19. RNA editing of SLC22A3 drives early tumor invasion and metastasis in familial esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; Qin, Yan-Ru; Ming, Xiao-Yan; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Diao, Yu-Wen; Zhang, Li-Yi; Ai, Jiaoyu; Liu, Bei-Lei; Huang, Tu-Xiong; Cao, Ting-Ting; Tan, Bin-Bin; Xiang, Di; Zeng, Chui-Mian; Gong, Jing; Zhang, Qiangfeng; Dong, Sui-Sui; Chen, Juan; Liu, Haibo; Wu, Jian-Lin; Qi, Robert Z.; Xie, Dan; Wang, Li-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Like many complex human diseases, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known to cluster in families. Familial ESCC cases often show early onset and worse prognosis than the sporadic cases. However, the molecular genetic basis underlying the development of familial ESCC is mostly unknown. We reported that SLC22A3 is significantly down-regulated in nontumor esophageal tissues from patients with familial ESCC compared with tissues from patients with sporadic ESCCs. A-to-I RNA editing of the SLC22A3 gene results in its reduced expression in the nontumor esophageal tissues of familial ESCCs and is significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis. The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2, a familial ESCC susceptibility gene identified by our post hoc genome-wide association study, is positively correlated with the editing level of SLC22A3. Moreover, functional studies showed that SLC22A3 is a metastasis suppressor in ESCC, and deregulation of SLC22A3 facilitates cell invasion and filopodia formation by reducing its direct association with α-actinin-4 (ACTN4), leading to the increased actin-binding activity of ACTN4 in normal esophageal cells. Collectively, we now show that A-to-I RNA editing of SLC22A3 contributes to the early development and progression of familial esophageal cancer in high-risk individuals. PMID:28533408

  20. Association between polymorphisms in cancer-related genes and early onset of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Geoffrey; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Liu, Chen-Yu; Chen, Feng; Kulke, Matthew H; Heist, Rebecca S; Christiani, David C

    2011-04-01

    There is an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among younger people in the western populations. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms and the age of EA onset is unclear. In this study, 1330 functional/tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 354 cancer-related genes were genotyped in 335 white EA patients. Twenty important SNPs that have the highest importance scores and lowest classification error rate were identified by the random forest algorithm to be associated with early onset of EA (age ≤ 55 years). Subsequent logistic regression analysis indicated that 10 SNPs (rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, rs17757541 of BCL2, rs11775256 of TNFRSF10A, rs1035142 of CASP8, rs2236302 of MMP14, rs4740363 of ABL1, rs696217 of GHRL, rs2445762 of CYP19A1, and rs11941492 of VEGFR2/KDR) were significantly associated with early onset of EA (≤55 vs >55 years, all P < .05 after adjusting for co-variates and false discovery rate). Among them, five SNPs in the NOS3, BCL2, TNFRSF10A, and CASP8 genes were known to be involved in apoptosis processes. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, and rs1035142 of CASP8 were also significantly associated with early onset of EA. Moreover, there was a higher risk of developing EA at a younger age when one had more risk genotypes. In conclusion, polymorphisms in cancer-related genes, especially those in the apoptotic pathway, play an important role in the development of younger-aged EA in a dose-response manner.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the management of esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowers, Eugene A.

    2000-05-01

    Precise tumor-staging is critical in the management of early esophageal caner. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) allows the endoscopist a view beyond the esophageal wall which opens the door to a variety of new gastroenterologic techniques. Endoscopic mucosal resection, laser photoablation and photodynamic therapy may be successfully employed in early esophageal cancer management. Combination radiation therapy and chemotherapy have shown better responses in advanced cancer. Expandable metallic stents may also provide palliation with inoperable esophageal cancer. The efficacy of EUS in the management of esophageal cancer is critically reviewed.

  2. Targeted therapy in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ma, Jiaojiao; Han, Yu; Liu, Jinqiang; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Liu; Fan, Daiming

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of patients are diagnosed with esophageal cancer at an advanced stages, and only a small group of them can benefit from the traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. So far, multiple monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed, alone or in combination with traditional therapy, to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced esophageal cancer. This review summarizes the recent advances of targeted therapies against EGFR, HER2, VEGFR and c-MET in esophageal cancer. More clinical trials should be performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of various targeted therapy regimens. Future basic research should focus on investigating the molecular mechanisms of therapeutic targets in esophageal cancer.

  3. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and ... stage . There is no standard or routine screening test for esophageal cancer. Screening for esophageal cancer is under study with screening clinical trials taking place in many ...

  4. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Stage-directed individualized therapy in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goense, Lucas; van Rossum, Peter S N; Kandioler, Daniela; Ruurda, Jelle P; Goh, Khean-Lee; Luyer, Misha D; Krasna, Mark J; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide, and the incidence of esophageal carcinoma is rapidly increasing. With the advent of new staging and treatment techniques, esophageal cancer can now be managed through various strategies. A good understanding of the advances and limitations of new staging techniques and how these can guide in individualizing treatment is important to improve outcomes for esophageal cancer patients. This paper outlines the recent progress in staging and treatment of esophageal cancer, with particularly attention to endoscopic techniques for early-stage esophageal cancer, multimodality treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer, assessment of response to neoadjuvant treatment, and the role of cervical lymph node dissection. Furthermore, advances in robot-assisted surgical techniques and postoperative recovery protocols that may further improve outcomes after esophagectomy are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Esophageal diverticula and cancer.

    PubMed

    Herbella, F A M; Dubecz, A; Patti, M G

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal diverticula are rare. The association of cancer and diverticula has been described. Some authors adopt a conservative non-surgical approach in selected patients with diverticula whereas others treat the symptoms by diverticulopexy or myotomy only, leaving the diverticulum in situ. However, the risk of malignant degeneration should be may be taken in account if the diverticulum is not resected. The correct evaluation of the possible risk factors for malignancy may help in the decision making process. We performed a literature review of esophageal diverticula and cancer. The incidence of cancer in a diverticulum is 0.3-7, 1.8, and 0.6% for pharyngoesophageal, midesophageal, and epiphrenic diverticula, respectively. Symptoms may mimic those of the diverticulum or underlying motor disorder. Progressive dysphagia, unintentional weight loss, the presence of blood in the regurgitated material, regurgitation of peaces of the tumor, odynophagia, melena, hemathemesis, and hemoptysis are key symptoms. Risk factors for malignancy are old age, male gender, long-standing history, and larger diverticula. A carcinoma may develop in treated diverticula, even after resection. Outcomes are usually quoted as dismal because of a delayed diagnosis but several cases of superficial carcinoma have been described. The treatment follows the same principals as the therapy for esophageal cancer; however, diverticulectomy is enough in cases of superficial carcinomas. Patients must be carefully evaluated before therapy and a long-term follow-up is advisable. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. The early use of PET-CT alters the management of patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, R N; Ubhi, S S; Sutton, C D; Thomas, A L; Entwisle, J J; Bowrey, D J

    2009-05-01

    The routine use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in the staging of patients with esophageal carcinoma remains contentious, with conflicting reports of its benefit. In our unit, PET-CT has been used routinely in the staging of all patients considered for radical therapy (surgery or chemoradiotherapy). Our aim was to determine the frequency with which PET-CT influenced decision making in the management of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction. CT, PET-CT, and outcome information were collected on 38 patients considered for radical therapy. Patient proformas, with and without PET-CT findings, were constructed and each independently reviewed in a randomized and blinded fashion by five multidisciplinary team members (three surgeons, two oncologists) and a treatment strategy determined. PET-CT changed the staging for ten patients (26%). This translated into a change in management decision for seven patients (18%). The concordance between individual management plans and treatment intent was 79% for CT (150 of 190 decisions) and it was 92% for PET-CT (175 of 190 decisions). Full concordance between multidisciplinary team members was 66% with CT staging and 74% with the addition of PET-CT. The use of PET-CT early in the staging algorithm for esophageal carcinoma altered the staging for a quarter of patients and the management for a fifth of patients, supporting its inclusion early in the staging algorithm.

  8. Esophageal cancer in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odera, Joab Otieno; Odera, Elizabeth; Githang’a, Jessie; Walong, Edwin Oloo; Li, Fang; Xiong, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoxin Luke

    2017-01-01

    Kenya belongs to a high incidence region known as Africa’s esophageal cancer (EC) corridor. It has one of the highest incidence rates of EC worldwide, but research on EC in Kenya has gone highly unnoticed. EC in Kenya is unique in its high percentage of young cases (< 30 years of age). In this review, we show the current status of EC in the country. We mainly focus on significant risk factors such as alcohol drinking, genetic factors, malnutrition and hot food/drink. Future directions in the study and prevention of EC in Kenya are also discussed. PMID:29082268

  9. Sponge Sampling with Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization as a Screening Tool for the Early Detection of Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Haisley, Kelly R; Dolan, James P; Olson, Susan B; Toledo-Valdovinos, Sergio A; Hart, Kyle D; Bakis, Gene; Enestvedt, Brintha K; Hunter, John G

    2017-02-01

    Sponge cytology is a novel screening tool for esophageal cancer but has been unable to be validated for widespread use. Our aim was to apply fluorescent in situ hybridization to sponge cytology samples in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this modality in screening for esophageal cancer. At a single, multidisciplinary, NCI-designated cancer center, patients completed sponge cytology sampling prior to upper endoscopy. Samples were analyzed by p53 fluorescent in situ hybridization, and results were compared to the endoscopic diagnosis. Fifty patients were enrolled (96 % Caucasian, 68 % male, median age of 67). All patients successfully swallowed the capsule. No complications (string breakage, bleeding, mucosal injury) occurred. Endoscopy revealed that 38 % had normal esophageal mucosa and 62 % had an esophageal mucosal abnormality. In total, six samples demonstrated p53 loss (94 % specificity for any abnormality). The sensitivity of the p53 fluorescent in situ hybridization probe was13.3 % for any abnormality, 10 % for intestinal metaplasia, and 0 % for dysplasia or esophageal cancer. Esophageal sponge cytology is a promising, safe, and tolerable method for collecting esophageal cell samples. However, our data suggest that p53 fluorescent in situ hybridization does not improve the sensitivity for detecting cancer in these samples.

  10. SU-F-R-56: Early Assessment of Treatment Response During Radiation Therapy Delivery for Esophageal Cancer Using Quantitative CT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D; Chen, X; Li, X

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of assessing treatment response using CTs during delivery of radiation therapy (RT) for esophageal cancer. Methods: Daily CTs acquired using a CT-on-Rails during the routine CT-guided RT for 20 patients with stage II to IV esophageal cancers were analyzed. All patients were treated with combined chemotherapy and IMRT of 45–50 Gy in 25 fractions, and were followed up for two years. Contours of GTV, spinal cord, and non-specified tissue (NST) irradiated with low dose were generated on each daily CT. A series of CT-texture metrics including Hounsfield Unit (HU) histogram, mean HU, standard derivation (STD),more » entropy, and energy were obtained in these contours on each daily CT. The changes of these metrics and GTV volume during RT delivery were calculated and correlated with treatment outcome. Results: Changes in CT texture (e.g., HU histogram) in GTV and spinal cord (but not in NST) were observed during RT delivery and were consistently increased with radiation dose. For the 20 cases studied, the mean HU in GTV was reduced on average by 4.0HU from the first to the last fractions, while 8 patients (responders) had larger reductions in GTV mean HU (average 7.8 HU) with an average GTV reduction of 51% and had increased consistently in GTV STD and entropy with radiation dose. The rest of 12 patients (non-responders) had lower reductions in GTV mean HU (average 1.5HU) and almost no change in STD and entropy. For the 8 responders, 2 experienced complete response, 7 (88%) survived and 1 died. In contrast, for the 12 non-responders, 4 (33%) survived and 8 died. Conclusion: Radiation can induce changes in CT texture in tumor (e.g., mean HU) during the delivery of RT for esophageal cancer. If validated with more data, such changes may be used for early prediction of RT response for esophageal cancer.« less

  11. High resolution microendoscopy for early detection of esophageal cancer in low-resource settings (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most deaths due to ESCN occur in developing countries, with highest risk areas in northern China. Lugol's chromoendoscopy (LCE) is the gold-standard for ESCN screening; while the sensitivity of LCE for ESCN is >95%, LCE suffers poor specificity (< 65%) due to false positive findings from inflammatory lesions. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) uses a low-cost, fiber-optic fluorescence microscope to image morphology of the surface epithelium without need for biopsy. We developed a tablet-interfaced HRME with automated, real-time image analysis. In an in vivo study of 177 patients referred for endoscopy in China, use of the algorithm identified neoplasia with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 91% compared to the gold standard of histology.

  12. Persistent CXCR4 expression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy predicts early recurrence and poor prognosis in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koishi, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Reigetsu; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Kojima, Syoudou; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamamura, Takehira; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression on disease progression and prognosis in esophageal cancer. METHODS: CXCR4 expression was evaluated in 37 patients with histologically confirmed esophageal squamous carcinomas (ESCC) undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Eleven out of 37 ESCC patients showed a pathological complete response (CR) after CRT. CXCR4 protein expression was observed in cell cytoplasms of 13 tumors, and null expression was seen in 13 tumors. Distant recurrence was significantly more common in patients with positive CXCR4 expression (P = 0.0318). After a median follow-up time of 31.6 mo, 19 patients progressed (12 of 19 expressed positive CXCR4) and 11 died (10 of 11 expressed positive CXCR4). Overall survival was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (952.1 ± 53.8 d in negative group vs 475.1 ± 56.2 d in positive group, P = 0.023), distant metastasis (874.0 ± 60.4 d in negative group vs 434.9 ± 75.2 d in positive group, P = 0.014) and CRT (811.5 ± 51.2 d in responder group vs 459.6 ± 94.0 d in non-responder group, P = 0.00038) and further with an absence of CXCR4 expression or no residual tumor (959.8 ± 51.0 d in null expression or no tumor group vs 412.0 ± 57.1 d in positive expression group, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Persistent positive CXCR4 expression is implicated in tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in ESCC after CRT, and preoperative CRT may improve the prognosis of ESCC via CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway. PMID:17171785

  13. Early enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition for esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, J; Cai, J; Niu, Z-X; Chen, L-Q

    2016-05-01

    Early postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patient has been reported to be correlated with a better rehabilitation than parenteral nutrition (PN). However, a robust conclusion has not been achieved. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the postoperative EN and PN in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies to be included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risk/weighted mean difference (RR/WMD) estimates and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The analysis demonstrated that the early postoperative EN could significantly decrease the pulmonary complications (RR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.22-0.62, P = 0.00, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.89) and anastomotic leakage (RR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22-0.96, P = 0.04, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.66) compared with PN. On the eighth postoperative day, the EN group had a higher levels of albumin (WMD = 1.84, 95% CI = 0.47-3.21, P = 0.01, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 84.5%, P = 0.00) and prealbumin (WMD = 12.96, 95% CI = 3.63-22.29, P = 0.01, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.63) compared with the PN group. However, there was no difference in digestive complications between these two approaches (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.79-2.13, P = 0.30, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.97). For patients with esophageal cancer following esophagectomy, the early postoperative EN support could decrease the morbidity of severe complications, such as pulmonary complications and anastomotic leakage, and maintain patients at a better nutritional status than parenteral nutrion support. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. Clinical application of oral meglumine diatrizoate esophagogram in screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lidan; Wu, Rong; Hu, He; Zhao, Yu; Fan, Lingli; Zhao, Zhenhua; Liao, Dongbiao; Li, Musheng; Xiang, Miao; Ma, Ying; Du, Xiaobo

    2018-05-01

    Esophageal fistula is a serious and common complication of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Because of side effect of barium esophagography, it cannot be used to screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy. Meglumine diatrizoate is an ionic contrast agent, its adverse reactions were rarely seen when it was used in the body cavity. The purpose of this trial is identified the sensitivity and specificity of oral meglumine diatrizoate in an esophagogram for screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy. This trial was a prospective, multicenter, diagnostic clinical trial. A total of 105 patients with esophageal cancer will swallowed meglumine diatrizoate and underwent a radiographic examination weekly during radiotherapy, medical personnel observed the esophageal lesions to determine whether an esophageal fistula formed. If an esophageal fistula was observed, esophagofiberoscopy and/or computer tomography was used to further confirm the diagnosis. And the sensitivity and specificity of meglumine diatrizoate should be calculated for screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this study protocol is the first to identify the sensitivity and specificity of oral meglumine diatrizoate in an esophagogram for screening esophageal fistula during radiotherapy. If oral meglumine diatrizoate can be used to screening esophageal fistula, more patients will benefit from early detection and treatment.

  15. Multidisciplinary approach for patients with esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villaflor, Victoria M; Allaix, Marco E; Minsky, Bruce; Herbella, Fernando A; Patti, Marco G

    2012-01-01

    Patients with esophageal cancer have a poor prognosis because they often have no symptoms until their disease is advanced. There are no screening recommendations for patients unless they have Barrett’s esophagitis or a significant family history of this disease. Often, esophageal cancer is not diagnosed until patients present with dysphagia, odynophagia, anemia or weight loss. When symptoms occur, the stage is often stage III or greater. Treatment of patients with very early stage disease is fairly straight forward using only local treatment with surgical resection or endoscopic mucosal resection. The treatment of patients who have locally advanced esophageal cancer is more complex and controversial. Despite multiple trials, treatment recommendations are still unclear due to conflicting data. Sadly, much of our data is difficult to interpret due to many of the trials done have included very heterogeneous groups of patients both histologically as well as anatomically. Additionally, studies have been underpowered or stopped early due to poor accrual. In the United States, concurrent chemoradiotherapy prior to surgical resection has been accepted by many as standard of care in the locally advanced patient. Patients who have metastatic disease are treated palliatively. The aim of this article is to describe the multidisciplinary approach used by an established team at a single high volume center for esophageal cancer, and to review the literature which guides our treatment recommendations. PMID:23239911

  16. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  17. Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  18. [Diagnostic values of salivary versus and plasma microRNA-21 for early esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ye, Minhua; Ye, Penghui; Zhang, Weizhu; Rao, Jiaqi; Xie, Zijun

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of salivary and plasma miR-21 in patients with esophageal cancer (EC). Total RNA was extracted from saliva and plasma samples from 50 stage I and 50 stage II patients with EC and 50 healthy controls for measurement of miR-21 levels using qPCR. The diagnostic values of salivary and plasma miR-21 levels were assessed for stage I, stage II, and stage I+II EC. Salivary and plasma miR-21 were significantly higher in the EC patients than in the control group. The diagnostic sensitivities of plasma miR-21 for stage I, stage II, and stage I+II EC were 96%, 64% and 97%, with specificities of 44%, 84%, and 56%, respectively; the sensitivities of salivary miR-21 were 90%, 88%, and 89%, respectively, with the same specificities of 64%. Regardless of EC staging, the expression of plasma miR-21 showed a significant positive correlation with that of salivary miR-21, and their diagnostic values were comparable. Both salivary and plasmatic miR-21 can be sensitive biomarkers for EC, and salivary miR-21 detection has the potential to replace plasma detection for EC diagnosis.

  19. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-22

    Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer AJCC v7

  20. Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jun-Hui; Xing, Guo-Lan; Fang, Xin-Hui; Wu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Zong-Min; Wang, Li-Dong

    2017-01-01

    AIM To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis. METHODS Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ, as well as 65 cases of esophageal epithelium from fetuses at a gestational age of 3-9 mo. RESULTS After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend (P < 0.05). In fetal epithelium from fetuses at gestational age 3-6 mo, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend with age (P < 0.05). PRX6 protein expression was significantly higher in well-differentiated esophageal cancer tissues than in poorly differentiated esophageal cancer tissues (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Development and progression of esophageal cancer result from interactions of genetic changes (accumulation or superposition). PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation. PMID:28293090

  1. Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Hui; Xing, Guo-Lan; Fang, Xin-Hui; Wu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Zong-Min; Wang, Li-Dong

    2017-02-28

    To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ , as well as 65 cases of esophageal epithelium from fetuses at a gestational age of 3-9 mo. After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend ( P < 0.05). In fetal epithelium from fetuses at gestational age 3-6 mo, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend with age ( P < 0.05). PRX6 protein expression was significantly higher in well-differentiated esophageal cancer tissues than in poorly differentiated esophageal cancer tissues ( P < 0.05). Development and progression of esophageal cancer result from interactions of genetic changes (accumulation or superposition). PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation.

  2. Measuring Cell Free DNA During the Course of Treatment for Esophageal Cancer as a Marker of Response and Recurrence

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-09

    Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Neoplasms Malignancy Unspecified; Esophageal Neoplasms Malignant; Cancer of Esophagus; Cancer of the Esophagus; Esophageal Cancer; Esophagus Cancer; Neoplasm, Esophageal

  3. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-22

    Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

  5. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  6. Radiation techniques for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minsi; Wu, Abraham J

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy plays a crucial role in the curative management of localized esophageal cancer, both as definitive and preoperative therapy. For definitive therapy, the standard radiation dose is 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and should be delivered with concurrent chemotherapy. Chemoradiotherapy also has a wellestablished benefit in the preoperative setting, as established in the CROSS randomized trial. Radiation fields are typically generous, to account for subclinical extension of disease along the esophagus and to regional nodes. Three-dimensional conformal radiation is the current standard technique for esophageal cancer, though intensity-modulated radiation therapy is increasingly utilized and may improve the outcomes of esophageal radiotherapy by reducing radiation dose to critical normal tissues.

  7. Current advances in esophageal cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Norihisa; Kondo, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    We review the current status of proteomics for esophageal cancer (EC) from a clinician's viewpoint. The ultimate goal of cancer proteomics is the improvement of clinical outcome. The proteome as a functional translation of the genome is a straightforward representation of genomic mechanisms that trigger carcinogenesis. Cancer proteomics has identified the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and tumor progression, detected biomarker candidates for early diagnosis, and provided novel therapeutic targets for personalized treatments. Our review focuses on three major topics in EC proteomics: diagnostics, treatment, and molecular mechanisms. We discuss the major histological differences between EC types, i.e., esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, and evaluate the clinical significance of published proteomics studies, including promising diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets, which should be further validated prior to launching clinical trials. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between basic scientists, clinicians, and pathologists should be established for inter-institutional validation. In conclusion, EC proteomics has provided significant results, which after thorough validation, should lead to the development of novel clinical tools and improvement of the clinical outcome for esophageal cancer patients. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Utility of double endoscopic intraluminal operation for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sohda, Makoto; Saito, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Tomonori; Kumakura, Yuji; Honjyo, Hiroaki; Hara, Keigo; Ozawa, Daigo; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Tanaka, Naritaka; Sakai, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a more difficult technique for esophageal cancer than for gastric cancer because the working space for esophageal ESD is small. Further, the difficulty level gradually increases depending on the size of the carcinoma. To overcome these difficulties, double endoscopic intraluminal operation (DEILO), which enables the resection of mucosal lesions using two fine endoscopes and monopolar shears, was reported previously. Here, we report the utility of DEILO for esophageal cancer. A total of 26 esophageal cancer patients (19 men and seven women) with 26 lesions treated using DEILO between 2011 and 2014 at Gunma University Hospital were included. We evaluated the utility and safety of DEILO for early esophageal cancer. For all patients (100%), the DEILO procedure was performed successfully, and en bloc resection was achieved. The median operation time, postoperative hospital stay, and the longitudinal dimension of resected specimens were 123 min (range 45-236 min), 5 days, and 32 mm, respectively. Perioperative perforation, pneumothorax, and mediastinal emphysema were not recognized. Only one patient was diagnosed with a postoperative hemorrhage, but the bleeding was successfully treated by bleeding vessel coagulation. DEILO has good utility as a technique of ESD for early esophageal cancers. Additional improvement and advancement of the procedure will increase the indication of DEILO.

  9. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... agents to try to reduce the risk of cancer. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin and other drugs ... agents to try to reduce the risk of cancer. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin and other drugs ...

  10. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: clinical staging data.

    PubMed

    Rice, T W; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; Wijnhoven, B P L; Chen, K N; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Allum, W H; Cecconello, I; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Ishwaran, H; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    To address uncertainty of whether clinical stage groupings (cTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for clinically staged patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 22,123 clinically staged patients, 8,156 had squamous cell carcinoma, 13,814 adenocarcinoma, 116 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 37 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (18.5-25 mg/kg 2 , 47%), little weight loss (2.4 ± 7.8 kg), 0-1 ECOG performance status (67%), and history of smoking (67%). Cancers were cT1 (12%), cT2 (22%), cT3 (56%), cN0 (44%), cM0 (95%), and cG2-G3 (89%); most involved the distal esophagus (73%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for squamous cell carcinoma was not distinctive for early cT or cN; for adenocarcinoma, it was distinctive for early versus advanced cT and for cN0 versus cN+. Patients with early cancers had worse survival and those with advanced cancers better survival than expected from equivalent pathologic categories based on prior WECC pathologic data. Thus, clinical and pathologic categories do not share prognostic implications. This makes clinically based treatment decisions difficult and pre-treatment prognostication inaccurate. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient characteristics, cancer categories, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: clinical staging data

    PubMed Central

    Rice, T. W.; Apperson-Hansen, C.; DiPaola, L. M.; Semple, M. E.; Lerut, T. E. M. R.; Orringer, M. B.; Chen, L.-Q.; Hofstetter, W. L.; Smithers, B. M.; Rusch, V. W.; Wijnhoven, B. P. L.; Chen, K. N.; Davies, A. R.; D’Journo, X. B.; Kesler, K. A.; Luketich, J. D.; Ferguson, M. K.; Räsänen, J. V.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Fang, W.; Durand, L.; Allum, W. H.; Cecconello, I.; Cerfolio, R. J.; Pera, M.; Griffin, S. M.; Burger, R.; Liu, J.-F; Allen, M. S.; Law, S.; Watson, T. J.; Darling, G. E.; Scott, W. J.; Duranceau, A.; Denlinger, C. E.; Schipper, P. H.; Ishwaran, H.; Blackstone, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY To address uncertainty of whether clinical stage groupings (cTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data—simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival—for clinically staged patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 22,123 clinically staged patients, 8,156 had squamous cell carcinoma, 13,814 adenocarcinoma, 116 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 37 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (18.5–25 mg/kg2, 47%), little weight loss (2.4 ± 7.8 kg), 0–1 ECOG performance status (67%), and history of smoking (67%). Cancers were cT1 (12%), cT2 (22%), cT3 (56%), cNO (44%), cMO (95%), and cG2–G3 (89%); most involved the distal esophagus (73%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for squamous cell carcinoma was not distinctive for early cT or cN; for adenocarcinoma, it was distinctive for early versus advanced cT and for cNO versus cN+. Patients with early cancers had worse survival and those with advanced cancers better survival than expected from equivalent pathologic categories based on prior WECC pathologic data. Thus, clinical and pathologic categories do not share prognostic implications. This makes clinically based treatment decisions difficult and pre-treatment prognostication inaccurate. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient characteristics, cancer categories, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. PMID:27731549

  12. In Vivo Cancer Biomarkers of Esophageal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Summary The emergence of in vivo cancer biomarkers is promising tool for early detection, risk stratification, and therapeutic intervention in the esophagus, where adenocarcinoma is increasing at a rate that is faster than any other in industrialized nations. Exciting advances in target identification, probe development, and optical instrumentation are creating tremendous new opportunities for advancing techniques of molecular imaging. Progress in these areas is being made with small animal models of esophageal cancer using surgical approaches to induce reflux of acid and bile, and these findings are beginning to be evaluated in the clinic. Further identification of relevant targets, characterization of specific probes, and development of endoscopic imaging technologies are needed to further this direction in the field of molecular medicine. In the future, new methods that use in vivo cancer biomarkers for the early detection of neoplastic changes in the setting of Barrett's esophagus will become available. PMID:19126962

  13. Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Early Manifestation of Cancerous Phenotype in Pre-Malignant Esophageal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiangxin; Shi, Xu; Johnson, Roger H.; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity plays a pivotal role in a variety of functional processes in vivo including carcinogenesis. However, our knowledge about cell-to-cell diversity and how differences in individual cells manifest in alterations at the population level remains very limited mainly due to the lack of appropriate tools enabling studies at the single-cell level. We present a study on changes in cellular heterogeneity in the context of pre-malignant progression in response to hypoxic stress. Utilizing pre-malignant progression of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) as a disease model system we studied molecular mechanisms underlying the progression from metaplastic to dysplastic (pre-cancerous) stage. We used newly developed methods enabling measurements of cell-to-cell differences in copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA, expression levels of a set of mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved in hypoxia response pathways, and mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast to bulk cell studies reported earlier, our study shows significant differences between metaplastic and dysplastic BE cells in both average values and single-cell parameter distributions of mtDNA copy numbers, mitochondrial function, and mRNA expression levels of studied genes. Based on single-cell data analysis, we propose that mitochondria may be one of the key factors in pre-malignant progression in BE. PMID:24116039

  14. Radiation therapy and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Ravi; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Meredith, Kenneth L; Biagioli, Matthew C; Chuong, Michael D; Cruz, Alex; Hoffe, Sarah E

    2013-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma account for more than 90% of all esophageal cancer cases. Although the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma has declined, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has risen due to increases in obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The authors examine the role of radiation therapy alone (external beam and brachytherapy) for the management of esophageal cancer or combined with other modalities. The impact on staging and appropriate stratification of patients referred for curative vs palliative intent with modalities is reviewed. The authors also explore the role of emerging radiation technologies. Current data show that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection is the accepted standard of care, with 3-year overall survival rates ranging from 30% to 60%. The benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy is limited to patients with node-positive cancer. The survival benefit of surgical resection after chemoradiotherapy remains controversial. External beam radiation therapy alone results in few long-term survivors and is considered palliative at best. Radiation dose-escalation has failed to improve local control or survival. Brachytherapy can provide better long-term palliation of dysphagia than metal stent placement. Although three-dimensional conformal treatment planning is the accepted standard, the roles of IMRT and proton therapy are evolving and potentially reduce adverse events due to better sparing of normal tissue. Future directions will evaluate the benefit of induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy, the role of surgery in locally advanced disease, and the identification of responders prior to treatment based on microarray analysis.

  15. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Amy; Cha, Charles

    2006-05-28

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers. However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers.

  16. Etiology and Prevention of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Tu, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer (EC) occurs commonly, especially in Asia, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recently, great progress has been made in research on the etiology and prevention of EC. Summary The major risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, which act synergistically. Dietary parameters, including dietary carcinogens and insufficiency of micronutrients, could also be important risk factors in certain areas. A common etiological factor for both EC and some other cancers are low levels of intake of fruits and vegetables. With improvements in diet and drinking water in developing countries, the incidence of ESCC decreased. However, in economically well-developed countries, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has markedly increased in the past 40 years. The major etiological factor for EAC is gastroesophageal reflux, which is also an etiological factor for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA). In certain areas of China, the occurrence of GCA is closely related to ESCC. Susceptibility genes for EC are starting to be discovered, and this may help to identify high-risk groups that have more need for preventive measures. Mitigation of the risk factors, early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions are effective approaches for prevention. Smoking cessation, avoidance of excessive alcohol, meat and caloric consumption, increasing physical activity and frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits are prudent lifestyle modifications for the prevention of EC as well as other diseases. Key Message The etiology of EC includes tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low levels of intake of fruits and vegetables as well as gastroesophageal reflux and susceptibility genes. Practical Implications A healthy lifestyle including smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, consumption of vegetables as well as reduction of alcohol intake and caloric consumption are major

  17. Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Esophageal cancer screening is not currently recommended as a part of routine cancer screening. Get detailed information about risk factors and the possible benefits and harms related to screening for esophageal cancer in this clinician summary.

  18. Nutrition in peri-operative esophageal cancer management.

    PubMed

    Steenhagen, Elles; van Vulpen, Jonna K; van Hillegersberg, Richard; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D

    2017-07-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake are increasingly recognized as essential areas in esophageal cancer management. Nutritional management of esophageal cancer is a continuously evolving field and comprises an interesting area for scientific research. Areas covered: This review encompasses the current literature on nutrition in the pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative phases of esophageal cancer. Both established interventions and potential novel targets for nutritional management are discussed. Expert commentary: To ensure an optimal pre-operative status and to reduce peri-operative complications, it is key to assess nutritional status in all pre-operative esophageal cancer patients and to apply nutritional interventions accordingly. Since esophagectomy results in a permanent anatomical change, a special focus on nutritional strategies is needed in the post-operative phase, including early initiation of enteral feeding, nutritional interventions for post-operative complications, and attention to long-term nutritional intake and status. Nutritional aspects of pre-optimization and peri-operative management should be incorporated in novel Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programs for esophageal cancer.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Maximilien; Prat, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopy allows for the screening, early diagnosis, treatment and follow up of superficial esophageal cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection has become the gold standard for the resection of superficial squamous cell neoplasia. Combinations of endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation are the mainstay of the management of Barrett’s associated neoplasia. However, protruded, non-lifting or large lesions may be better managed by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Novel ablation tools, such as argon plasma coagulation with submucosal lifting and cryoablation balloons, are being developed for the treatment of residual Barrett’s esophagus, since iatrogenic strictures still hamper the development of extensive circumferential resections in the esophagus. Optimal surveillance modalities after endoscopic resection are still to be determined. The assessment of the risk of lymph-node metastases, as well as of the need for additional treatments based on qualitative and quantitative histological criteria, balanced to the patient’s condition, requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team decision process. The need for trained endoscopists, expert pathologists and surgeons, and specialized multidisciplinary meetings underlines the role of expert centers in the management of superficial esophageal cancer. PMID:29720850

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maximilien; Prat, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopy allows for the screening, early diagnosis, treatment and follow up of superficial esophageal cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection has become the gold standard for the resection of superficial squamous cell neoplasia. Combinations of endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation are the mainstay of the management of Barrett's associated neoplasia. However, protruded, non-lifting or large lesions may be better managed by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Novel ablation tools, such as argon plasma coagulation with submucosal lifting and cryoablation balloons, are being developed for the treatment of residual Barrett's esophagus, since iatrogenic strictures still hamper the development of extensive circumferential resections in the esophagus. Optimal surveillance modalities after endoscopic resection are still to be determined. The assessment of the risk of lymph-node metastases, as well as of the need for additional treatments based on qualitative and quantitative histological criteria, balanced to the patient's condition, requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team decision process. The need for trained endoscopists, expert pathologists and surgeons, and specialized multidisciplinary meetings underlines the role of expert centers in the management of superficial esophageal cancer.

  1. Review of the Burden of Esophageal Cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Wan-Nor-Asyikeen, Wan Adnan; Norsa'adah, Bachok

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the top leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. To date, neither the prevalence nor incidence of esophageal cancer nationally have been recorded. Esophageal cancer remains a major and lethal health problem even if it is not common in Malaysia. The late presentation of esophageal cancer makes it a difficult and challenging medical problem. Therefore, more governmental and non-governmental organizations of Malaysia should emphasize primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  2. Expression profiles of cancer stem cell markers: CD133, CD44, Musashi-1 and EpCAM in the cardiac mucosa-Barrett's esophagus-early esophageal adenocarcinoma-advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma sequence.

    PubMed

    Mokrowiecka, Anna; Veits, Lothar; Falkeis, Christina; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Lochowski, Mariusz; Kozak, Jozef; Wierzchniewska-Lawska, Agnieszka; Vieth, Michael; Malecka-Panas, Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE), which develops as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a preneoplastic condition for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A new hypothesis suggests that cancer is a disease of stem cells, however, their expression and pathways in BE - EAC sequence are not fully elucidated yet. We used a panel of putative cancer stem cells markers to identify stem cells in consecutive steps of BE-related cancer progression. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 58 patients with normal cardiac mucosa (n=5), BE (n=14), early EAC (pT1) from mucosal resection (n=17) and advanced EAC (pT1-T4) from postoperative specimens (n=22). Expression of the CD133, CD44, Musashi-1 and EpCAM was analyzed using respective monoclonal antibodies. All markers showed a heterogeneous expression pattern, mainly at the base of the crypts of Barrett's epithelium and EAC, with positive stromal cells in metaplastic and dysplastic lesions. Immuno-expression of EpCAM, CD44 and CD133 in cardiac mucosa was significantly lower (mean immunoreactivity score (IRS)=1.2; 0.0; 0.4; respectively) compared to their expression in Barrett's metaplasia (mean IRS=4.3; 0.14; 0.7; respectively), in early adenocarcinoma (mean IRS=4.4; 0.29; 1.3; respectively) and in advanced adenocarcinoma (mean IRS=6.6; 0.7; 2.7; respectively) (p<0.05). On the contrary, Musashi-1 expression was higher in BE and early ADC compared to GM and advanced ADC (NS). Our results suggest that the stem cells could be present in premalignant lesions. EpCAM, CD44 and CD133 expression could be candidate markers for BE progression, whereas Musashi-1 may be a marker of the small intestinal features of Barrett's mucosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The tumor microenvironment in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, E W; Karakasheva, T A; Hicks, P D; Bass, A J; Rustgi, A K

    2016-10-13

    Esophageal cancer is a deadly disease, ranking sixth among all cancers in mortality. Despite incremental advances in diagnostics and therapeutics, esophageal cancer still carries a poor prognosis, and thus, there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease. There is accumulating evidence that a comprehensive understanding of the molecular composition of esophageal cancer requires attention to not only tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment (TME), which contains diverse cell populations, signaling factors and structural molecules that interact with tumor cells and support all stages of tumorigenesis. In esophageal cancer, environmental exposures can trigger chronic inflammation, which leads to constitutive activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways that promote survival and proliferation. Antitumor immunity is attenuated by cell populations such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, as well as immune checkpoints like programmed death-1. Other immune cells such as tumor-associated macrophages can have other pro-tumorigenic functions, including the induction of angiogenesis and tumor cell invasion. Cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete growth factors and alter the extracellular matrix to create a tumor niche and enhance tumor cell migration and metastasis. Further study of how these TME components relate to the different stages of tumor progression in each esophageal cancer subtype will lead to development of novel and specific TME-targeting therapeutic strategies, which offer considerable potential especially in the setting of combination therapy.

  4. The Tumor Microenvironment in Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Eric W.; Karakasheva, Tatiana A.; Hicks, Philip D.; Bass, Adam J.; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a deadly disease, ranking sixth among all cancers in mortality. Despite incremental advances in diagnostics and therapeutics, esophageal cancer still carries a poor prognosis, and thus there remains a need to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease. There is accumulating evidence that a comprehensive understanding of the molecular composition of esophageal cancer requires attention to not only tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment, which contains diverse cell populations, signaling factors, and structural molecules that interact with tumor cells and support all stages of tumorigenesis. In esophageal cancer, environmental exposures can trigger chronic inflammation, which leads to constitutive activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways that promote survival and proliferation. Anti-tumor immunity is attenuated by cell populations such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), as well as immune checkpoints like programmed death-1 (PD-1). Other immune cells such as tumor-associated macrophages can have other pro-tumorigenic functions, including the induction of angiogenesis and tumor cell invasion. Cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete growth factors and alter the extracellular matrix (ECM) to create a tumor niche and enhance tumor cell migration and metastasis. Further study of how these TME components relate to the different stages of tumor progression in each esophageal cancer subtype will lead to development of novel and specific TME-targeting therapeutic strategies, which offer considerable potential especially in the setting of combination therapy. PMID:26923327

  5. Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Esophageal cancer prevention strategies include avoiding risk factors like alcohol and tobacco. Learn more about risk factors and possible protective factors for esophageal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Esophageal cancer prevention strategies include avoiding risk factors like tobacco and alcohol. Get detailed information about factors that influence the risk of esophageal cancer and research aimed at preventing it in this summary for clinicians.

  7. Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Cancer and Cardiopulmonary Physiology

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-05

    Esophageal Cancer; Radiation Pneumonitis; Pulmonary Fibrosis; Respiratory Failure; Pneumonia; Surgery; Chemotherapy Effect; Radiation Fibrosis; Radiation Toxicity; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  8. Esophagitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... which irritates the tissue. This problem is called gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). An autoimmune disorder called eosinophilic esophagitis also causes ... Barrett esophagus (BE) can develop after years of GERD. Rarely, BE may lead to cancer of the ...

  9. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement for the Palliation of Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun Yung; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Song, Ho Young; Kim, Pyeong Hwa; Park, Jung Hoon

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal stents have been used to palliate patients with dysphagia caused by esophageal cancer. Early rigid plastic prostheses have been associated with a high risk of complications. However, with the development of self-expanding stents, it has developed into a widely accepted method for treating malignant esophageal strictures and esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs). The present review covers various aspects of self-expanding metallic stent placement for palliating esophageal cancer, including its types, placement procedures, indications, contraindications, complications, and some of innovations that will become available in the future. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement for the Palliation of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal stents have been used to palliate patients with dysphagia caused by esophageal cancer. Early rigid plastic prostheses have been associated with a high risk of complications. However, with the development of self-expanding stents, it has developed into a widely accepted method for treating malignant esophageal strictures and esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs). The present review covers various aspects of self-expanding metallic stent placement for palliating esophageal cancer, including its types, placement procedures, indications, contraindications, complications, and some of innovations that will become available in the future. PMID:28581260

  11. Treatment of advanced esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    When radiation therapy is used for palliation of obstruction in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma, an improvement in dysphagia can be expected in approximately 50% of patients. Major objective responses have rarely been quantitied but, in one study, were seen in 33% patients. Recurrence of dysphagia is usually seen within 2-6 months of treatment. Radiation toxicities and complications, even when used with palliative intent, can be substantial and include esophagitis, tracheoesophageal or esophageal-aortic fistula, mediastinitis, hemorrhage, pneumonitis, and myelosuppression. (JMT)

  12. Esophageal Motility after Extensive Circumferential Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Iizuka, Toshiro; Nomura, Kosuke; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Satoshi; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Mitani, Toshifumi; Kaise, Mitsuru; Hoteya, Shu

    2018-06-05

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal cancer is sometimes extensive, and in our experience, patients not infrequently present with dysphagia after ESD even in the absence of esophageal stricture. The aim of this study was to evaluate esophageal motility using high-resolution manometry (HRM) in patients with and without dysphagia after extensive circumferential ESD. HRM was performed in a total of 52 patients who had undergone ESD for superficial esophageal cancer and a mucosal defect after ESD exceeded more than two-thirds of the esophageal circumference. The frequency and type of esophageal dysmotility and the relationship between esophageal motility and dysphagia were evaluated. Esophageal dysmotility was observed in 13 patients (25%): jackhammer esophagus in 4, esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction in 4, absent contractility in 2, and distal esophageal spasm, ineffective esophageal motility, and fragmented peristalsis in 1 patient each. Of the 22 patients with dysphagia after ESD, 9 (41%) had esophageal dysmotility. Of the 30 patients without dysphagia after ESD, 4 (13%) had esophageal dysmotility. The relationship between dysmotility and dysphagia was significant (p = 0.025). Esophageal dysmotility exists in approximately one-quarter of patients after extensive circumferential ESD, which is associated with dysphagia in the absence of esophageal stricture. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Esophageal Cancer: Associations with pN+

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Thomas W.; Ishwaran, Hemant; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Schipper, Paul H.; Kesler, Kenneth A.; Law, Simon; Lerut, Toni E.M.R.; Denlinger, Chadrick E.; Salo, Jarmo A.; Scott, Walter J.; Watson, Thomas J.; Allen, Mark S.; Chen, Long-Qi; Rusch, Valerie W.; Cerfolio, Robert J.; Luketich, James D.; Duranceau, Andre; Darling, Gail E.; Pera, Manuel; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives 1) To identify the association of positive lymph node metastases (pN+), number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification with cancer, treatment, patient, geographic, and institutional variables, and 2) to recommend extent of lymphadenectomy needed to accurately detect pN+ for esophageal cancer. Summary Background Data Limited data and traditional analytic techniques have precluded identifying intricate associations of pN+ with other cancer, treatment, and patient characteristics. Methods Data on 5,806 esophagectomy patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) were analyzed by Random Forest machine learning techniques. Results pN+, number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification were associated with increasing depth of cancer invasion (pT), increasing cancer length, decreasing cancer differentiation (G), and more regional lymph nodes resected. Lymphadenectomy necessary to accurately detect pN+ is 60 for shorter, well-differentiated cancers (<2.5 cm) and 20 for longer, poorly differentiated ones. Conclusions In esophageal cancer, pN+, increasing number of positive nodes, and increasing pN classification are associated with deeper invading, longer, and poorly differentiated cancers. Consequently, if the goal of lymphadenectomy is to accurately define pN+ status of such cancers, few nodes need to be removed. Conversely, superficial, shorter, and well-differentiated cancers require a more extensive lymphadenectomy to accurately define pN+ status. PMID:28009736

  14. Treatments for esophageal cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Masanobu

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common form of cancer worldwide. The treatments for esophageal cancer depend on its etiology. For mucosal cancer, endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection are standard, while for locally advanced cancer, esophagectomy remains the mainstay. The three most common techniques for thoracic esophagectomy are the transhiatal approach, the Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (right thoracotomy and laparotomy), and the McKeown technique (right thoracotomy followed by laparotomy and neck incision with cervical anastomosis). Surgery for carcinoma of the cervical esophagus requires an extensive procedure with laryngectomy in many cases. When the tumor is more advanced, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is added. The theoretical advantages of adding chemotherapy to the treatment of esophageal cancer are potential tumor down-staging prior to surgery, as well as targeting micrometastases and, thus, decreasing the risk of distant metastasis. Cisplatin- and 5-fluorouracil-based regimes are used worldwide. Chemoradiotherapy is the standard for unresectable esophageal cancer and could also be considered as an option for resectable tumors. For patients who are medically or technically inoperable, concurrent chemoradiotherapy should be the standard of care. Although neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery or salvage surgery after definitive chemoradiotherapy is a practical treatment; judicious patient selection is crucial. It is important to have a thorough understanding of these therapeutic modalities to assist in this endeavor.

  15. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  16. Chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Kato, Ken

    2016-09-01

    Chemoradiotherapy has been clinically indicated for patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who refuse surgical resection and in locally advanced unresectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy prolongs survival than radiation therapy alone when given as definitive treatment. Therefore, chemoradiotherapy is recognized as the standard non-invasive treatment for patients with localized esophageal cancer who opt for non-surgical treatment. JCOG9906 showed promising outcomes for stage II/III ESCC patients. But there are some problems about chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Late toxicities are sometimes lethal for patients who achieved complete response even after years. Salvage treatment for residual or recurrent disease is unestablished. Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group regimen at the dose of 50.4 Gy reduced late toxicities without reducing efficacy. Optimal timings and procedure of salvage surgery and endoscopic therapy is evaluated in JCOG0909. Strategy including salvage therapy after chemoradiotherapy should be considered at the time of starting the treatment. Targeted therapy has not shown adding effect for chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma yet. New agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, are expected to show synergistic effect with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further investigation is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for esophageal cancer: safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Bruce D.; Dumot, John A.; Abrams, Julian A.; Lightdale, Charles J.; David, Donald S.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Yachimski, Patrick; Johnston, Mark H.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Zfass, Alvin M.; Smith, Jenny O.; Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Burdick, J. Steven; Mallat, Damien; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few options exist for patients with localized esophageal cancer ineligible for conventional therapies. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy with low-pressure liquid nitrogen has demonstrated efficacy in this setting in early studies. Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy in esophageal carcinoma. Design Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Setting Ten academic and community medical centers between 2006 and 2009. Patients Subjects with esophageal carcinoma in whom conventional therapy failed and those who refused or were ineligible for conventional therapy. Interventions Cryotherapy with follow-up biopsies. Treatment was complete when tumor eradication was confirmed by biopsy or when treatment was halted because of tumor progression, patient preference, or comorbid condition. Main Outcome Measurements Complete eradication of luminal cancer and adverse events. Results Seventy-nine subjects (median age 76 years, 81% male, 94% with adenocarcinoma) were treated. Tumor stage included T1-60, T2-16, and T3/4-3. Mean tumor length was 4.0 cm (range 1–15 cm). Previous treatment including endoscopic resection, photodynamic therapy, esophagectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy failed in 53 subjects (67%). Forty-nine completed treatment. Complete response of intraluminal disease was seen in 31 of 49 subjects (61.2%), including 18 of 24 (75%) with mucosal cancer. Mean (standard deviation) length of follow-up after treatment was 10.6 (8.4) months overall and 11.5 (2.8) months for T1 disease. No serious adverse events were reported. Benign stricture developed in 10 (13%), with esophageal narrowing from previous endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, or photodynamic therapy noted in 9 of 10 subjects. Limitations Retrospective study design, short follow-up. Conclusions Spray cryotherapy is safe and well tolerated for esophageal cancer. Short-term results suggest that it is effective in those who could not receive conventional treatment, especially for

  18. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for esophageal cancer: safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Bruce D; Dumot, John A; Abrams, Julian A; Lightdale, Charles J; David, Donald S; Nishioka, Norman S; Yachimski, Patrick; Johnston, Mark H; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Zfass, Alvin M; Smith, Jenny O; Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S; Burdick, J Steven; Mallat, Damien; Wolfsen, Herbert C

    2010-04-01

    Few options exist for patients with localized esophageal cancer ineligible for conventional therapies. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy with low-pressure liquid nitrogen has demonstrated efficacy in this setting in early studies. To assess the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy in esophageal carcinoma. Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Ten academic and community medical centers between 2006 and 2009. Subjects with esophageal carcinoma in whom conventional therapy failed and those who refused or were ineligible for conventional therapy. Cryotherapy with follow-up biopsies. Treatment was complete when tumor eradication was confirmed by biopsy or when treatment was halted because of tumor progression, patient preference, or comorbid condition. Complete eradication of luminal cancer and adverse events. Seventy-nine subjects (median age 76 years, 81% male, 94% with adenocarcinoma) were treated. Tumor stage included T1-60, T2-16, and T3/4-3. Mean tumor length was 4.0 cm (range 1-15 cm). Previous treatment including endoscopic resection, photodynamic therapy, esophagectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy failed in 53 subjects (67%). Forty-nine completed treatment. Complete response of intraluminal disease was seen in 31 of 49 subjects (61.2%), including 18 of 24 (75%) with mucosal cancer. Mean (standard deviation) length of follow-up after treatment was 10.6 (8.4) months overall and 11.5 (2.8) months for T1 disease. No serious adverse events were reported. Benign stricture developed in 10 (13%), with esophageal narrowing from previous endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, or photodynamic therapy noted in 9 of 10 subjects. Retrospective study design, short follow-up. Spray cryotherapy is safe and well tolerated for esophageal cancer. Short-term results suggest that it is effective in those who could not receive conventional treatment, especially for those with mucosal cancer. Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  19. Preoperative therapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Jakhetiya, Ashish; Goel, Aakanksha; Gaur, Manish Kumar

    2016-10-21

    Esophageal cancer is an aggressive malignancy associated with dismal treatment outcomes. Presence of two distinct histopathological types distinguishes it from other gastrointestinal tract malignancies. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment in locally advanced esophageal cancer (T2 or greater or node positive); however, a high rate of disease recurrence (systemic and loco-regional) and poor survival justifies a continued search for optimal therapy. Various combinations of multimodality treatment (preoperative/perioperative, or postoperative; radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy) are being explored to lower disease recurrence and improve survival. Preoperative therapy followed by surgery is presently considered the standard of care in resectable locally advanced esophageal cancer as postoperative treatment may not be feasible for all the patients due to the morbidity of esophagectomy and prolonged recovery time limiting the tolerance of patient. There are wide variations in the preoperative therapy practiced across the centres depending upon the institutional practices, availability of facilities and personal experiences. There is paucity of literature to standardize the preoperative therapy. Broadly, chemoradiotherapy is the preferred neo-adjuvant modality in western countries whereas chemotherapy alone is considered optimal in the far East. The present review highlights the significant studies to assist in opting for the best evidence based preoperative therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy) for locally advanced esophageal cancer.

  20. Definitive radiotherapy for cervical esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Caineng; Luo, Jingwei; Gao, Li; Xu, Guozhen; Yi, Junlin; Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shiping; Qu, Yuan; Li, Suyan; Xiao, Jianping; Zhang, Zhong

    2015-02-01

    The role of contemporary radiotherapy (RT) has not yet been elucidated, mainly because of the low incidence of cervical esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome in patients with cervical esophageal cancer treated with definitive RT. A total of 115 patients with cervical esophageal cancer treated with definitive RT during January 2001 through April 2012 in our center were analyzed. Eighty patients received RT alone and 35 patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin administered either weekly (30 mg/m2) or every 3 weeks (80 mg/m2). The median follow-up time was 17.1 months. For all patients, the overall 2-year local failure-free survival (LFFS), regional failure-free survival (RFFS), distant failure-free survival (DFFS), and overall survival (OS) rate was 68.3%, 83.3%, 75.7%, and 47.6%, respectively. Definitive RT accomplished a satisfactory local control rate and contributed to organ preservation for patients with cervical esophageal cancer. 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Photodynamic therapy in early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea; Massetti, Renato; Meroni, Emmanuele

    1995-03-01

    From 1/1985 to 7/1993, 18 patients underwent endoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma -- as two patients had two synchronous esophageal cancers, 20 lesions were treated. Tumors were staged as Tis in 7 cases and T1 in 13. The average light energy delivered was 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. To obtain a more uniform distribution of laser light in 12 cases the irradiation was performed through the wall of a transparent tube previously placed over the endoscope and advanced into the stomach. The overall results show a complete response in 14/20 (70%) tumors. Three patients developed a local recurrence, 6, 12, and 14 months after therapy. After a follow-up of 5 to 75 months, there was no evidence of disease in 10/18 patients (56%). The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 79%, and 26% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications were skin reaction in one patient and esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage, in 2 patients. Endoscopic PDT proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of superficial carcinoma of the esophagus.

  2. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  3. Esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: frequency and prediction.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka; Terashima, Kotaro; Matsuki, Takaomi; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Asai, Kaori; Matsumoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    To determine clinical factors for predicting the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. The study group consisted of 109 patients with esophageal cancer of T1-4 and Stage I-III who were treated with definitive radiotherapy and achieved a complete response of their primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007. Esophageal stenosis was evaluated using esophagographic images within 3 months after completion of radiotherapy. We investigated the correlation between esophageal stenosis after radiotherapy and each of the clinical factors with regard to tumors and therapy. For validation of the correlative factors for esophageal stenosis, an artificial neural network was used to predict the esophageal stenotic ratio. Esophageal stenosis tended to be more severe and more frequent in T3-4 cases than in T1-2 cases. Esophageal stenosis in cases with full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent than that in cases without full circumference involvement. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. In the multivariate analysis, T stage, extent of involved circumference, and wall thickness of the tumor region were significantly correlated to esophageal stenosis (p = 0.031, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0011, respectively). The esophageal stenotic ratio predicted by the artificial neural network, which learned these three factors, was significantly correlated to the actual observed stenotic ratio, with a correlation coefficient of 0.864 (p < 0.001). Our study suggested that T stage, extent of involved circumference, and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region were useful to predict the frequency and severity of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcomes in the management of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Paul, Subroto; Altorki, Nasser

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal cancer rates have continued to rise in the Western World. Esophageal cancer will be responsible for an estimated 15,450 deaths in the United States in 2014 alone. Esophageal resection with or without preoperative therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Advances in surgical technique and perioperative care have improved short-term outcomes considerably by decreasing operative mortality. Despite these advances though, esophagectomy remains a procedure associated with considerable morbidity from a wide range of complications. Prompt recognition and treatment of complications can lower overall morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, long-term outcomes remain poor as the vast majority of patients present with loco-regionally advanced or metastatic disease. Surgery by itself provides poor loco-regional control and fails to address micrometastatic disease. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation provides a modest survival advantage compared to surgical resection alone. Future gains in understanding the molecular biology of esophageal cancer will hopefully lead to improved therapeutics and resultant outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, A; Bârla, R; Hoara, P; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer represents one of the most aggressive digestive tumors, with a survival rate at 5 years of only 10%. Globally, during the last three decades, there has been an increasing incidence of the esophageal cancer, approx. 400,000 new esophageal cancers being currently diagnosed annually. This represents the eighth leading cause of cancer incidence and the sixth leading cause of cancer death overall. Taking into account the population’s global aging and thus, the increase in the number of patients who will not bear surgery, PCT and radiation, or the fact that they do not want it especially because of deficiencies and associated pathology, the endoscopic ablative techniques with palliation purposes represent the alternative. If we refer to the Western Europe countries and North America, we notice an increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma rate versus squamous cancer. As for the Asian region, referring in particular to China and Japan, 9 out of 10 esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. For at least half of the patients with EC (esophageal cancer) there is no hope of healing because of the advanced regional malignant invasion (T3-4, N+, M+) with no chemo and radiotherapy response, poor preoperative patients’ conditions or systemic metastasis. The low life expectancy does not justify the risky medical procedures, the goal of the therapy consisting in the improvement of the quality of life by eliminating dysphagia (reestablishing oral feeding) which represents the most common complication of EC, the respiratory tract complication caused by eso-tracheal fistulas or by eliminating chest pain. To treat dysphagia, which is the main target of palliation, combined methods like endoscopic, chemo and radio-therapy, can be used, each one with indications, benefits and risks. Abbreviations: SEPS = self expanding plastic stent, SREMS = self expanding metal stent, EBRT = Endoscopic brachy radiotherapy, EUS = Ultra sound endoscopy, CT = Computer tomograph, UGE

  6. Endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of early esophageal squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ikeya, Takashi; Marcon, Norman; Mosko, Jeffrey D

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It carries a poor prognosis as more than half of patients present with advanced and unresectable disease. One contributing factor is the increased risk of lymph node metastases at early stages of disease. As such, it is essential to detect squamous cell neoplasia (SCN) at an early stage. In order to risk stratify lesions, endoscopists must be able to perform image enhanced endoscopy including magnification and Lugol’s chromoendoscopy. The assessment of both the horizontal extent and depth of any lesion is also of utmost importance prior to treatment. Endoscopic mucosal resection and submucosal dissection remain the standard of care with literature supportive their respective use. Radiofrequency ablation and other endoscopic treatments are currently available although should not be considered first line at this time. Our objective is to review the current options for the endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal SCN. PMID:28979708

  7. Definitive, Preoperative, and Palliative Radiation Therapy of Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Rödel, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer remains dismal despite the recent improvements in surgery, the advances in radiotherapy (RT) technology, and the refinement of systemic treatments, including the advent of targeted therapies. Although surgery constitutes the treatment of choice for early-stage disease (stage I), a multimodal approach, including preoperative or definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and perioperative chemotherapy, is commonly pursued in patients with locally advanced disease. A review of the literature was performed to assess the role of RT, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, in the management of esophageal cancer. Evidence from large, randomized phase III trials and meta-analyses supports the application of perioperative chemotherapy alone or preoperative concurrent CRT in patients with lower esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas. Preoperative CRT but not preoperative chemotherapy alone is now routinely used in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Additionally, definitive CRT without surgery has also emerged as a valuable approach in the management of resectable esophageal SCC to avoid surgery-related morbidity and mortality, whereas salvage surgery is reserved for those with persistent disease. Furthermore, brachytherapy offers a valuable option in the palliative treatment of patients with locally advanced, unresponsive disease. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can facilitate a more accurate treatment response assessment and patient selection. Finally, the development of modern RT techniques, such as intensity-modulated and image-guided RT as well as FDG-PET-based RT planning, could further increase the therapeutic ratio of CRT. Altogether, CRT constitutes an important tool in the treatment armamentarium for esophageal cancer. Further optimization of CRT using modern technology and imaging, targeted therapies, and newer chemotherapeutic agents is a major

  8. The potential of photodynamic therapy to treat esophageal candidiasis coexisting with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Haixia; Mao, Yongping; Gu, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Naiyan; Liu, Qingsen; Yang, Yunsheng

    2014-01-05

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used in recent years to deal with fungal infections because of the prevalence of fungi resistance to drugs. However, PDT for gastrointestinal fungal infection has not been reported. This study was conducted to assess the potential of PDT to deal with esophageal candidiasis. Two male patients with histological evidence of esophageal candidiasis coexisting with esophageal cancer were included in this retrospective study. Both patients were treated with PDT. This treatment was repeated at least 1month after the initial PDT if the patient still had residual cancer or esophageal candidiasis. Short-term efficacy was evaluated on the basis of endoscopy and histology findings. Further follow-up data were obtained from endoscopy results or telephone conversation. The esophageal candidiasis located 21-24cm and 25-28cm from the incisors of case 1 reached complete remission after one and two PDT sessions, respectively. The esophageal cancer coexisting with esophageal candidiasis located 21-24cm from the incisors reached complete remission after two PDT sessions. No recurrence was found at a 14-month follow-up. The esophageal cancer located 30-35cm from the incisors reached partial response after three PDT sessions. Both of the esophageal candidiasis and the coexisting esophageal cancer at 23-26cm from the incisors of case 2 reached complete remission and the esophageal cancer at 34-37cm from the incisors reached complete remission after one PDT session. No recurrence was found at a 24-month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events found in either of the two cases. Results of this preliminary study indicate that PDT may be a potential method to deal with esophageal candidiasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Seishiro; Sasahara, Katsuyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Uchida, Naohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Murota, Masayuki; Touge, Tetsuo; Kawauchi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Syuji; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes contribute to the risk for esophageal cancer. We examined ALDH2 genotypes and HLA haplotypes in 29 Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. The ratio of patients who experienced current or former intense vasodilatation upon consuming alcohol (flushing type) was much higher in individuals with the inactive form of ALDH2 encoded by the ALDH2(2)/2(2) or ALDH2(1)/2(2) genotype than in those with the active form of ALDH2 encoded by the ALDH2(1)/2(1) genotype. The ratio of inactive ALDH2 was significantly higher in patients with esophageal cancer than in control normal subjects, suggesting that alcoholics with inactive ALDH2 were susceptible to esophageal cancer. HLA haplotypes A24, A26, B54, B61 and DR9 were prevalent in patients with esophageal cancer (82.8, 24.1, 34.5, 37.9 and 44.8%, respectively). HLA haplotype of A24 and inactive ALDH2 were simultaneously found in 58.6% of patients with esophageal cancer. Furthermore, we found other primary malignancies in 6 of 29 (20.7%) patients with esophageal cancer, and 4 of these 6 patients had both the inactive form of ALDH2 and the HLA A24 haplotype. The present study showed the high prevalence of the inactive form of ALDH2 and HLA haplotypes A24, A26, B54, B61 and DR9 in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. Therefore, the examination of genotypes of ALDH2 loci and HLA haplotypes may allow the early detection of esophageal cancer in the Japanese population.

  10. Viruses, Other Pathogenic Microorganisms and Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenji; Liu, Zhongshu; Bao, Quncha; Qian, Zhikan

    2015-05-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most prevalent malignant tumor and the sixth leading cause of cancer mortality throughout the world. Despite the technical developments in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate is still low. The etiology of EC remains poorly understood; multiple risk factors may be involved and account for the great variation in EC incidence in different geographic regions. Infection with carcinogenetic pathogens has been proposed as a risk factor for EC. This review explores the recent studies on the association of human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Helicobacter pylori and esophageal bacterial biota with EC. Among the above-mentioned pathogens, HPV most likely contributes to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high-risk populations. New techniques are being applied to studies on the role of infection in EC, which will inevitably bring novel ideas to the field in the near future. Multiple meta-analyses support the finding of a higher HPV detection rate in regions associated with high risk for ESCC compared to low-risk areas. A potential role of HPV in the rise of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) was proposed recently. However, further studies are required before a firm conclusion can be drawn. Less work has been done in studying the association between EBV and ESCC, and the results are quite controversial. H. pylori infection is found to be inversely related to EC, which is probably due to the reduced incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Analysis of the esophageal bacterial biota revealed distinct clusters of bacteria in normal and diseased esophagi. A type II microbiome rich in Gram-negative bacteria potentially contributes to EAC by inducing chronic inflammation. Novel findings from such studies as these may benefit public health by justifying anti-infection measures to prevent EC.

  11. Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Esophageal cancer screening is not currently considered to be a routine part of cancer screening. Not all screening tests are helpful, and many have risks. Learn more about esophageal cancer risk factors and tests to detect it in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Nutrition therapy issues in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Miller, Keith R; Bozeman, Matthew C

    2012-08-01

    Esophageal cancer has traditionally been a disease with poor long term outcomes in terms of both survival and quality of life. In combination with surgical and pharmacologic therapy, nutrition support has been demonstrated to improve patient tolerance of treatment, quality of life, and longterm outcomes. An aggressive multi-disciplinary approach is warranted with nutrition support remaining a cornerstone in management. Historically, nutrition support has focused on adequate caloric provision to prevent weight loss and allow for tolerance of treatment regimens. Alterations in metabolism occur in these patients making their use of available calories inefficient and the future of nutritional support may lie in the ability to alter this deranged metabolism. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature surrounding the etiology, treatment, and role of nutrition support in improving outcomes in esophageal cancer.

  13. Study Points to Genetic Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a study by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network that identified distinct genetic and molecular changes in esophageal cancers that could improve their classification and identify potential new treatments.

  14. Advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of malignancy worldwide and usually requires multidisciplinary care. Radiotherapy plays an important part in management of the disease. During the past few years, researchers have made much progress about radiotherapy for esophageal cancer, which was revealed in every aspect of clinical practice. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy remains the standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer, whereas neoadjuvant chemotherapy appears to show less toxicities and non-inferior prognosis. What’s more, definitive chemoradiotherapy could be an option for non-surgical candidates and good responders to chemoradiotherapy. Advances in radiation techniques result in higher conformity, homogeneity, more normal tissue sparing and less treatment time. Promising prognoses and less toxicities were also seen in advanced techniques. As radiation dose higher than 50 Gy obtains better local control and survival, simultaneously integrated boost is designed to increase primary tumor dosage and keep prophylactic dose to subclinical areas. Elective nodal irradiation brings about better local control but do not show advantages in survival compared with involved field irradiation (IFI). As a trend, more tolerable chemoradiotherapy regimen would be taken into account in dealing with elderly patients. PMID:29666802

  15. Clinicopathological Features of Cervical Esophageal Cancer: Retrospective Analysis of 63 Consecutive Patients Who Underwent Surgical Resection.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Yukaya, Takafumi; Tajiri, Hirotada; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Sho; Nakaji, Yu; Kudou, Kensuke; Akiyama, Shingo; Kasagi, Yuta; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Sonoda, Hideto; Ohgaki, Kippei; Oki, Eiji; Yasumatsu, Ryuji; Nakashima, Torahiko; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to elucidate the clinicopathological features and recent surgical results of cervical esophageal cancer. Cervical esophageal cancer has been reported to have a dismal prognosis. Accurate knowledge of the clinical characteristics of cervical esophageal cancer is warranted to establish appropriate therapeutic strategies. The clinicopathological features and treatment results of 63 consecutive patients with cervical esophageal cancer (Ce group) who underwent surgical resection from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed and compared with 977 patients with thoracic or abdominal esophageal cancer (T/A group) who underwent surgical resection during that time. Among the patients who received curative resection, the 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates of the Ce patients were significantly better than those of the T/A patients (overall: 77.3% vs 46.5%, respectively, P = 0.0067; disease-specific: 81.9% vs 55.8%, respectively, P = 0.0135). Although total pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy procedures were less frequently performed in the recent period, the rate of curative surgical procedures was markedly higher in the recent period (2000-1013) than that in the early period (1980-1999) (44.4% vs 88.9%, P = 0.0001). The 5-year overall survival rate in the recent period (71.5%) was significantly better than that in the early period (40.7%, P = 0.0342). Curative resection for cervical esophageal cancer contributes to favorable outcomes compared with other esophageal cancers. Recent surgical results for cervical esophageal cancer have improved, and include an increased rate of curative resection and decreased rate of extensive surgery.

  16. 1H-NMR based metabonomic profiling of human esophageal cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biomarker identification of human esophageal cancer is critical for its early diagnosis and therapeutic approaches that will significantly improve patient survival. Specially, those that involves in progression of disease would be helpful to mechanism research. Methods In the present study, we investigated the distinguishing metabolites in human esophageal cancer tissues (n = 89) and normal esophageal mucosae (n = 26) using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) based assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant anlaysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyse 1H-NMR profiling data to identify potential biomarkers. Results The constructed OPLS-DA model achieved an excellent separation of the esophageal cancer tissues and normal mucosae. Excellent separation was obtained between the different stages of esophageal cancer tissues (stage II = 28; stage III = 45 and stage IV = 16) and normal mucosae. A total of 45 metabolites were identified, and 12 of them were closely correlated with the stage of esophageal cancer. The downregulation of glucose, AMP and NAD, upregulation of formate indicated the large energy requirement due to accelerated cell proliferation in esophageal cancer. The increases in acetate, short-chain fatty acid and GABA in esophageal cancer tissue revealed the activation of fatty acids metabolism, which could satisfy the need for cellular membrane formation. Other modified metabolites were involved in choline metabolic pathway, including creatinine, creatine, DMG, DMA and TMA. These 12 metabolites, which are involved in energy, fatty acids and choline metabolism, may be associated with the progression of human esophageal cancer. Conclusion Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different

  17. International cancer seminars: a focus on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G; McCormack, V; Abedi-Ardekani, B; Arnold, M; Camargo, M C; Dar, N A; Dawsey, S M; Etemadi, A; Fitzgerald, R C; Fleischer, D E; Freedman, N D; Goldstein, A M; Gopal, S; Hashemian, M; Hu, N; Hyland, P L; Kaimila, B; Kamangar, F; Malekzadeh, R; Mathew, C G; Menya, D; Mulima, G; Mwachiro, M M; Mwasamwaja, A; Pritchett, N; Qiao, Y-L; Ribeiro-Pinto, L F; Ricciardone, M; Schüz, J; Sitas, F; Taylor, P R; Van Loon, K; Wang, S-M; Wei, W-Q; Wild, C P; Wu, C; Abnet, C C; Chanock, S J; Brennan, P

    2017-09-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) have initiated a series of cancer-focused seminars [Scelo G, Hofmann JN, Banks RE et al. International cancer seminars: a focus on kidney cancer. Ann Oncol 2016; 27(8): 1382-1385]. In this, the second seminar, IARC and NCI convened a workshop in order to examine the state of the current science on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma etiology, genetics, early detection, treatment, and palliation, was reviewed to identify the most critical open research questions. The results of these discussions were summarized by formulating a series of 'difficult questions', which should inform and prioritize future research efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: pathologic staging data.

    PubMed

    Rice, T W; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; Wijnhoven, B P L; Chen, K L; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Cecconello, I; Allum, W H; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Ishwaran, H; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    We report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for patients with pathologically staged cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after resection or ablation with no preoperative therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted de-identified data using standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 13,300 patients, 5,631 had squamous cell carcinoma, 7,558 adenocarcinoma, 85 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 26 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (51%), little weight loss (1.8 kg), 0-2 ECOG performance status (83%), and a history of smoking (70%). Cancers were pT1 (24%), pT2 (15%), pT3 (50%), pN0 (52%), pM0 (93%), and pG2-G3 (78%); most involved distal esophagus (71%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was monotonic and distinctive across pTNM. Survival was more distinctive for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma when pT was ordered by pN. Survival for pTis-1 adenocarcinoma was better than for squamous cell carcinoma, although monotonic and distinctive for both. WECC pathologic staging data is improved over that of the 7th edition, with more patients studied and patient and cancer variables collected. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics, and should direct 9th edition data collection. However, the role of pure pathologic staging as the principal point of reference for esophageal cancer staging is waning. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: pathologic staging data

    PubMed Central

    Rice, T. W.; Chen, L.-Q.; Hofstetter, W. L.; Smithers, B.M.; Rusch, V. W.; Wijnhoven, B. P. L.; Chen, K. L.; Davies, A. R.; D’Journo, X. B.; Kesler, K. A.; Luketich, J. D.; Ferguson, M. K.; Räsänen, J. V.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Fang, W.; Durand, L.; Cecconello, I.; Allum, W. H.; Cerfolio, R. J.; Pera, M.; Griffin, S. M.; Burger, R.; Liu, J.-F; Allen, M. S.; Law, S.; Watson, T. J.; Darling, G. E.; Scott, W. J.; Duranceau, A.; Denlinger, C. E.; Schipper, P. H.; Lerut, T. E. M. R.; Orringer, M. B.; Ishwaran, H.; Apperson-Hansen, C.; DiPaola, L. M.; Semple, M. E.; Blackstone, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY We report data—simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non–risk-adjusted survival—for patients with pathologically staged cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after resection or ablation with no preoperative therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted de-identified data using standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 13,300 patients, 5,631 had squamous cell carcinoma, 7,558 adenocarcinoma, 85 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 26 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (51%), little weight loss (1.8 kg), 0–2 ECOG performance status (83%), and a history of smoking (70%). Cancers were pT1 (24%), pT2 (15%), pT3 (50%), pN0 (52%), pM0 (93%), and pG2–G3 (78%); most involved distal esophagus (71%). Non–risk-adjusted survival for both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was monotonic and distinctive across pTNM. Survival was more distinctive for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma when pT was ordered by pN. Survival for pTis-1 adenocarcinoma was better than for squamous cell carcinoma, although monotonic and distinctive for both. WECC pathologic staging data is improved over that of the 7th edition, with more patients studied and patient and cancer variables collected. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics, and should direct 9th edition data collection. However, the role of pure pathologic staging as the principal point of reference for esophageal cancer staging is waning. PMID:27731547

  20. Current and future treatment options for esophageal cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Plum, Patrick; Mönig, Stefan P; Hölscher, Arnulf H

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer globally and has the sixth worst prognosis because of its aggressiveness and poor survival. Data regarding cancer treatment in older patients is limited because the elderly have been under-represented in clinical trials. Therefore, we reviewed the existing literature regarding treatment results for elderly patients (70+ years). Areas covered: We used pubmed to analyze the actual literature according to elderly esophageal cancer patients with subheading of incidence, esophagectomy, chemoradiation or chemotherapy. The main points of interest were treatment options for patients with Barrett's esophagus or early carcinoma, advanced tumor stages, and inoperable cancer. Expert opinion: The incidence of esophageal cancer has been increasing over the past thirty years, with a rapid increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Western industrialized nations. Patients aged over 60 years have been particularly affected. In this review, we have shown that elderly patients with esophageal cancer have various alternatives for adequate treatment. Clinical evaluation of comorbidity is necessary to make treatment decisions. Therapeutic options for early carcinomas are endoscopic or surgical resection. For elderly patients with advanced carcinomas, preoperative chemoradiation or chemotherapy should be discussed.

  1. Risk Factors for Esophageal Fistula Associated With Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Unresectable Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Takahiro; Mizusawa, Junki; Sudo, Kazuki; Honma, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ken; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Shinoda, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Esophageal fistula is a critical adverse event in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer. However, risk factors associated with esophageal fistula formation in patients receiving CRT have not yet been elucidated. We retrospectively analyzed data obtained from 140 patients who were enrolled in a phase II/III trial comparing low-dose cisplatin with standard-dose cisplatin administered in combination with 5-flurouracil and concomitant radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were performance status (PS) 0 to 2 and histologically proven thoracic esophageal cancer clinically diagnosed as T4 and/or unresectable lymph node metastasis for which definitive CRT was applicable. Risk factors for esophageal fistula were examined with univariate analysis using Fisher exact test and multivariate analysis using logistic regression models. Esophageal fistula was observed in 31 patients (22%). Of these, 6 patients developed fistula during CRT. Median time interval between the date of CRT initiation and that of fistula diagnosis was 100 days (inter quartile range, 45–171). Esophageal stenosis was the only significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation both in univariate (P = 0.026) and in multivariate analyses (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–5.92, P = 0.025). Other clinicopathological factors, namely treatment arm, age, sex, PS, primary tumor location, T stage, lymph node invasion to adjacent organs, blood cell count, albumin level, and body mass index, were not risk factors fistula formation. Esophageal stenosis was a significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation in patients treated with CRT for unresectable locally advanced thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27196482

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman spectra of hemoglobin for esophageal cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xue; Diao, Zhenqi; Fan, Chunzhen; Guo, Huiqiang; Xiong, Yang; Tang, Weiyue

    2014-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of hemoglobin from 30 esophageal cancer patients and 30 healthy persons have been detected and analyzed. The results indicate that, there are more iron ions in low spin state and less in high for the hemoglobin of esophageal cancer patients than normal persons, which is consistent with the fact that it is easier to hemolyze for the blood of cancer patients. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate analysis, we can get a three-dimensional scatter plot of PC scores from the SERS spectra of healthy persons and cancer patients, from which the two groups can be discriminated. The total accuracy of this method is 90%, while the diagnostic specificity is 93.3% and sensitivity is 86.7%. Thus SERS spectra of hemoglobin analysis combined with PCA may be a new technique for the early diagnose of esophageal cancer.

  3. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  4. Gastrointestinal Cancers: Screening and Early Detection.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Sobel, Joyce P

    2017-05-01

    To present an overview of current practices in the screening and early detection of gastrointestinal cancers. Literature reviews. Screening for gastrointestinal cancers is less than desirable, particularly in underserved populations. There are inadequate methods of screening for early detection of esophageal and gastric cancers. Education of patients is needed to reinforce the importance of screening for gastrointestinal cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomarkers Predict Prognosis of Esophageal Cancer Patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    New treatment strategies are needed to improve outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. With five-year survival rates less than 25 percent, this is one of the deadliest forms of cancer. There are two main types of esophageal cancer—squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is frequently preceded by Barrett’s esophagus, a chronic inflammatory

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Qiang; Yang, Chun-Xia; Lu, Si-Han; Yang, Juan; Li, Bian-Yun; Lian, Shi-Yong; Qiao, You-Lin

    2011-03-01

    In 2005, a program named "Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer" (EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from RMB 2707 to RMB 4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was RMB 13 115-14 920. The cost benefit was RMB 58 944-155 110 (the saved treatment cost, RMB 17 730, plus the value of prolonged life, RMB 41 214-137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  7. Performance characteristics of optical coherence tomography in assessment of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kohli, D R; Schubert, M L; Zfass, A M; Shah, T U

    2017-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high-resolution images of the esophagus that allows cross-sectional visualization of esophageal wall layers. We conducted a systematic review to assess the utility of OCT for diagnosing of esophageal intestinal metaplasia (IM; Barrett's esophagus BE)), dysplasia, cancer and staging of early esophageal cancer. English language human observational studies and clinical trials published in PubMed and Embase were included if they assessed any of the following: (i) in-vivo features and accuracy of OCT at diagnosing esophageal IM, sub-squamous intestinal metaplasia (SSIM), dysplasia, or cancer, and (ii) accuracy of OCT in staging esophageal cancer. Twenty-one of the 2,068 retrieved citations met inclusion criteria. In the two prospective studies that assessed accuracy of OCT at identifying IM, sensitivity was 81%-97%, and specificity was 57%-92%. In the two prospective studies that assessed accuracy of OCT at identifying dysplasia and early cancer, sensitivity was 68%-83%, and specificity was 75%-82%. Observational studies described significant variability in the ability of OCT to accurately identify SSIM. Two prospective studies that compared the accuracy of OCT at staging early squamous cell carcinoma to histologic resection specimens reported accuracy of >90%. Risk of bias and applicability concerns was rated as low among the prospective studies using the QUADAS-2 questionnaire. OCT may identify intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, but its accuracy may not meet recommended thresholds to replace 4-quadrant biopsies in clinical practice. OCT may be more accurate than EUS at staging early esophageal cancer, but randomized trials and cost-effective analyses are lacking. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. From blood to breath: New horizons for esophageal cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, Roger; Jaenisch, Simone E; Watson, David I

    2016-12-14

    Esophageal cancer is a lethal cancer encompassing adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma sub-types. The global incidence of esophageal cancer is increasing world-wide, associated with the increased prevalence of associated risk factors. The asymptomatic nature of disease often leads to late diagnosis and five-year survival rates of less than 15%. Current diagnostic tools are restricted to invasive and costly endoscopy and biopsy for histopathology. Minimally and non-invasive biomarkers of esophageal cancer are needed to facilitate earlier detection and better clinical management of patients. This paper summarises recent insights into the development and clinical validation of esophageal cancer biomarkers, focussing on circulating markers in the blood, and the emerging area of breath and odorant biomarkers.

  9. From blood to breath: New horizons for esophageal cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yazbeck, Roger; Jaenisch, Simone E; Watson, David I

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a lethal cancer encompassing adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma sub-types. The global incidence of esophageal cancer is increasing world-wide, associated with the increased prevalence of associated risk factors. The asymptomatic nature of disease often leads to late diagnosis and five-year survival rates of less than 15%. Current diagnostic tools are restricted to invasive and costly endoscopy and biopsy for histopathology. Minimally and non-invasive biomarkers of esophageal cancer are needed to facilitate earlier detection and better clinical management of patients. This paper summarises recent insights into the development and clinical validation of esophageal cancer biomarkers, focussing on circulating markers in the blood, and the emerging area of breath and odorant biomarkers. PMID:28028355

  10. Androgens and esophageal cancer: What do we know?

    PubMed

    Sukocheva, Olga A; Li, Bin; Due, Steven L; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I

    2015-05-28

    Significant disparities exist between genders for the development and progression of several gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including cancer. Differences in incidence between men vs women for colon, gastric and hepatocellular cancers suggest a role for steroid sex hormones in regulation of GI carcinogenesis. Involvement of intrinsic gender-linked mechanisms is also possible for esophageal adenocarcinoma as its incidence is disproportionally high among men. However, the cause of the observed gender differences and the potential role of androgens in esophageal carcinogenesis remains unclear, even though the cancer-promoting role of androgen receptors (AR) shown in other cancers such as prostate and bladder suggests this aspect warrants exploration. Several studies have demonstrated expression of ARs in esophageal cancer. However, only one study has suggested a potential link between AR signaling and outcome - poorer prognosis. Two groups have analyzed data from cohorts with prostate cancer and one of these found a decreased incidence of esophageal squamous and adenocarcinoma after androgen deprivation therapy. However, very limited information is available about the effects of androgen and AR-initiated signaling on esophageal cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Possible mechanisms for androgens/AR involvement in the regulation of esophageal cancer growth are considered, and the potential use of AR as a prognostic factor and clinical target is highlighted, although insufficient evidence is available to support clinical trials of novel therapies. As esophageal adenocarcinoma is a gender linked cancer with a large male predominance further studies are warranted to clarify the role of androgens and ARs in shaping intracellular signaling and genomic responses in esophageal cancer.

  11. Identification of intramural metastasis in esophageal cancer using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-02-01

    Intramural metastasis (IM) of esophageal cancer is defined as metastasis from a primary lesion to the esophageal wall without intraepithelial cancer extension. Esophageal cancer with IM is more common and such cases indicate a poor prognosis. In esophageal surgery, if curative resection is possible, the complete removal of both primary tumor and associated IMs is required. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of IMs in esophageal cancer prior to surgery is of particular importance. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with subcellular resolution is well-suited for deep tissue imaging since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh biological tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, a study to identify IM in fresh tissue section using MPM is reported. In this study, the morphological and spectral differences between IM and surrounding tissue are described. These results show that MPM has the ability to accurately identify IM in esophageal tissues. With improvement of the penetration depth of MPM and the development of multiphton microendoscope, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for preoperative diagnosis of IMs in esophageal cancer in the future.

  12. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  13. Current treatment options for the management of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mawhinney, Mark R; Glasgow, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, esophageal cancer characteristics and management options have evolved significantly. There has been a sharp increase in the frequency of esophageal adenocarcinoma and a decline in the frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. A more comprehensive understanding of prognostic factors influencing outcome has also been developed. This has led to more management options for esophageal cancer at all stages than ever before. A multidisciplinary, team approach to management in a high volume center is the preferred approach. Each patient should be individually assessed based on type of cancer, local or regional involvement, and his or her own functional status to determine an appropriate treatment regimen. This review will discuss management of esophageal cancer relative to disease progression and patient functional status. PMID:23152702

  14. Adding Targeted Therapy to Treatment for Esophageal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, people with confirmed HER2-positive locally advanced esophageal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive preoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy, with or without trastuzumab.

  15. Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chun, Stephen G; Skinner, Heath D; Minsky, Bruce D

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer is controversial. For patients who are candidates for surgical resection, multiple prospective clinical trials have demonstrated the advantages of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. For patients who are medically inoperable, definitive chemoradiation is an alternative approach with survival rates comparable to trimodality therapy. Although trials of dose escalation are ongoing, the standard radiation dose remains 50.4 Gy. Modern radiotherapy techniques such as image-guided radiation therapy with motion management and intensity-modulated radiation therapy are strongly encouraged with a planning objective to maximize conformity to the intended target volume while reducing dose delivered to uninvolved normal tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances in Radiotherapy Management of Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Moreno, Amy C; Lin, Steven H

    2016-10-21

    Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data. We further discuss existing data and the potential for further development in the future, with an appraisal of the future outlook of technological advancements of RT for EC.

  17. Advances in Radiotherapy Management of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vivek; Moreno, Amy C.; Lin, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) as part of multidisciplinary oncologic care has been marked by profound advancements over the past decades. As part of multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer (EC), a prime goal of RT is to minimize not only treatment toxicities, but also postoperative complications and hospitalizations. Herein, discussion commences with the historical approaches to treating EC, including seminal trials supporting multimodality therapy. Subsequently, the impact of RT techniques, including three-dimensional conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, and proton beam therapy, is examined through available data. We further discuss existing data and the potential for further development in the future, with an appraisal of the future outlook of technological advancements of RT for EC. PMID:27775643

  18. Optimal Use of Combined Modality Therapy in the Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Talha; Meyer, Joshua E; Horwitz, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis with 5-year survival rates of approximately 15% to 20%. Although patients with early stage disease may adequately be treated with a single modality, combined therapy typically consisting of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy is being adopted increasingly in patients with locally advanced disease. In patients who are not surgical candidates, definitive chemoradiation is the preferred treatment approach. All patients with newly diagnosed esophageal cancer should be evaluated in the multidisciplinary setting by a surgeon, radiation oncologist, and medical oncologist owing to the importance of each specialty in the management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between genetic variants and esophageal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chenli; Li, Miao; Da, Chenxing; Meng, Hongtao; Lv, Shaomin; Zhao, Xinhan

    2017-07-18

    We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nuclear assembly factor 1 (NAF1) and TNFAIP3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene were associated with susceptibility to esophageal cancer in a Chinese Han population. Five SNPs were genotyped and their relationship with esophageal cancer risk was analyzed in a sample of 386 esophageal cancer patients and 495 unrelated healthy controls recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Patients with the AG genotype of rs2320615 were at lower risk of developing esophageal cancer than those with the GG genotype (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46-0.90, P = 0.009). The rs2320615 SNP was found to be associated with a decreased the risk of esophageal cancer in the dominant model (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51-0.96, P = 0.026). These results provide the first evidence that the rs2320615 in NAF1 was associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer. Further studies with larger samples are warranted to confirm our findings.

  20. Preoperative chemotherapy for resectable thoracic esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Malthaner, R; Fenlon, D

    2001-01-01

    Carcinoma of the esophagus is a relatively uncommon but lethal cancer that continues to kill over 90% of its victims within 5 years. Surgery is the treatment of choice for most localized esophageal cancer patients. However, despite curative resection, the 5-year survival rate ranges from 15% to 39%. The failure of surgery to cure clinically localized esophageal cancer is because of the advanced state of the disease before symptoms occur, high frequency of lymph node involvement, and the common occurrence of submucosal spread and extension to surrounding structures. Preoperative chemotherapy has been used in an attempt to decrease tumour activity, increase resectability, and improve disease-free and overall survival. A number of studies have investigated whether preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery leads to an improvement in cure rates, but the individual reports have not been encouraging. The role of preoperative chemotherapy in the treatment of resectable thoracic esophageal cancer remains undefined. The objective of this review is to determine the role of preoperative chemotherapy on overall survival and/or quality-of-life for patients with resectable thoracic esophageal carcinoma. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 2 - 2000), MEDLINE (1966 - 2000), EMBASE (1988 - 2000) and CancerLit (1993 - 2000). The references of all identified studies, review articles, and standard textbooks were examined. Members of the Cochrane UGPD Group and experts in the oncology field were contacted and asked to supply details of any outstanding clinical trials and relevant unpublished materials. There were no language restrictions. The searches were updated in June 2000. The clinical trial registers of the National Cancer Institute and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group were consulted for ongoing trials. Types of studies Studies (published or unpublished) that randomised patients with potentially resectable carcinoma of the

  1. Hyperinsulinemia Promotes Esophageal Cancer Development in a Surgically-Induced Duodeno-Esophageal Reflux Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Dedja, Arben; Giacometti, Cinzia; Francia, Simona; Fabris, Federico; Zaramella, Alice; Gallagher, Emily J.; Cassaro, Mauro; Rugge, Massimo; LeRoith, Derek; Alberti, Alfredo; Realdon, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett’s Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain) MKR (muscle (M)-IGF1R-lysine (K)-arginine (R) mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux. FVB/N wild-type (WT) and MKR mice underwent jejunum-esophageal anastomosis side—to end with the exclusion of the stomach. Thirty weeks after surgery, the esophagus was processed for histological, immunological and insulin/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signal transduction analyses. Most of the WT mice (63.1%) developed dysplasia, whereas most of the MKR mice (74.3%) developed squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas, both expressing Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hyperinsulinemia significantly increased esophageal cancer incidence in the presence of duodenal-reflux. Insulin receptor (IR) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) were overexpressed in the hyperinsulinemic condition. IGF1R, through ERK1/2 mitogenic pattern activation, seems to be involved in cancer onset. Hyperinsulinemia-induced IGF1R and HER2 up-regulation could also increase the possibility of forming of IGF1R/HER2 heterodimers to support cell growth/proliferation/progression in esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:29662006

  2. Hyperinsulinemia Promotes Esophageal Cancer Development in a Surgically-Induced Duodeno-Esophageal Reflux Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Diletta; Dedja, Arben; Giacometti, Cinzia; Fassan, Matteo; Nucci, Daniele; Francia, Simona; Fabris, Federico; Zaramella, Alice; Gallagher, Emily J; Cassaro, Mauro; Rugge, Massimo; LeRoith, Derek; Alberti, Alfredo; Realdon, Stefano

    2018-04-14

    Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett's Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain) MKR (muscle (M)-IGF1R-lysine (K)-arginine (R) mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux. FVB/N wild-type (WT) and MKR mice underwent jejunum-esophageal anastomosis side-to end with the exclusion of the stomach. Thirty weeks after surgery, the esophagus was processed for histological, immunological and insulin/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signal transduction analyses. Most of the WT mice (63.1%) developed dysplasia, whereas most of the MKR mice (74.3%) developed squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas, both expressing Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hyperinsulinemia significantly increased esophageal cancer incidence in the presence of duodenal-reflux. Insulin receptor (IR) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) were overexpressed in the hyperinsulinemic condition. IGF1R, through ERK1/2 mitogenic pattern activation, seems to be involved in cancer onset. Hyperinsulinemia-induced IGF1R and HER2 up-regulation could also increase the possibility of forming of IGF1R/HER2 heterodimers to support cell growth/proliferation/progression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  3. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P; Andersson, M; Joensuu, H; Vaalavirta, L; Dores, G M; Stovall, M; Holowaty, E J; Lynch, C F; Curtis, R E; Smith, S A; Kleinerman, R A; Kaijser, M; Storm, H H; Pukkala, E; Weathers, R E; Linet, M S; Rajaraman, P; Fraumeni, J F; Brown, L M; van Leeuwen, F E; Fossa, S D; Johannesen, T B; Langmark, F; Lamart, S; Travis, L B; Aleman, B M P

    2012-12-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use. Nested case-control study of esophageal cancer among 289 748 ≥5-year survivors of female breast cancer from five population-based cancer registries (252 cases, 488 individually matched controls), with individualized radiation dosimetry and information abstracted from medical records. The largest contributors to esophageal radiation exposure were supraclavicular and internal mammary chain treatments. Esophageal cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the esophageal tumor location (P(trend )< 0.001), with doses of ≥35 Gy associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-28]. Patients with hormonal therapy ≤5 years preceding esophageal cancer diagnosis had lower risk (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). Based on few cases, alkylating agent chemotherapy did not appear to affect risk. Our data were consistent with a multiplicative effect of radiation and other esophageal cancer risk factors (e.g. smoking). Esophageal cancer is a radiation dose-related complication of radiotherapy for breast cancer, but absolute risk is low. At higher esophageal doses, the risk warrants consideration in radiotherapy risk assessment and long-term follow-up.

  4. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Morton, L. M.; Gilbert, E. S.; Hall, P.; Andersson, M.; Joensuu, H.; Vaalavirta, L.; Dores, G. M.; Stovall, M.; Holowaty, E. J.; Lynch, C. F.; Curtis, R. E.; Smith, S. A.; Kleinerman, R. A.; Kaijser, M.; Storm, H. H.; Pukkala, E.; Weathers, R. E.; Linet, M. S.; Rajaraman, P.; Fraumeni, J. F.; Brown, L. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Fossa, S. D.; Johannesen, T. B.; Langmark, F.; Lamart, S.; Travis, L. B.; Aleman, B. M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use. Design Nested case–control study of esophageal cancer among 289 748 ≥5-year survivors of female breast cancer from five population-based cancer registries (252 cases, 488 individually matched controls), with individualized radiation dosimetry and information abstracted from medical records. Results The largest contributors to esophageal radiation exposure were supraclavicular and internal mammary chain treatments. Esophageal cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the esophageal tumor location (Ptrend < 0.001), with doses of ≥35 Gy associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7–28]. Patients with hormonal therapy ≤5 years preceding esophageal cancer diagnosis had lower risk (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8). Based on few cases, alkylating agent chemotherapy did not appear to affect risk. Our data were consistent with a multiplicative effect of radiation and other esophageal cancer risk factors (e.g. smoking). Conclusions Esophageal cancer is a radiation dose-related complication of radiotherapy for breast cancer, but absolute risk is low. At higher esophageal doses, the risk warrants consideration in radiotherapy risk assessment and long-term follow-up. PMID:22745217

  5. Basis for molecular diagnostics and immunotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Joe; Agrawal, Devendra K.; Mittal, Sumeet K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal cancer is an extremely aggressive neoplasm, diagnosed in about 17,000 Americans every year with a mortality rate of more than 80% within five years and a median overall survival of just 13 months. For decades, the go-to regimen for esophageal cancer patients has been the use of taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, which has yielded the field’s most dire survival statistics. Areas covered Combination immunotherapy and a more robust molecular diagnostic platform for esophageal tumors could improve patient management strategies and potentially extend lives beyond the current survival figures. Analyzing a panel of biomarkers including those affiliated with taxane and platinum resistance (ERCC1 and TUBB3) as well as immunotherapy effectiveness (PD-L1) would provide oncologists more information on how to optimize first-line therapy for esophageal cancer. Expert commentary Of the 12 FDA-approved therapies in esophageal cancer, zero target the genome. A majority of the approved drugs either target or are effected by proteomic expression. Therefore, a broader understanding of diagnostic biomarkers could give more clarity and direction in treating esophageal cancer in concert with a greater use of immunotherapy. PMID:27838937

  6. Role of silis in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Ali; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahryar

    2008-01-01

    Association of silica with diseases like cancers has been determined previously. This study was designed to determine the quantity of silis in flour produced in Golestan Province, and its relation to esophageal cancer (EC). We took flour samples from all flour millings in Golestan Province. Base-melting method in nickel cruise was used at 550°C. The extract was reduced with acids. Different silis concentrations in various regions were compared. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The median silis concentration was 0.0030 g, the mean silis concentration was 0.008760 ± 0.004265 g in each 100 g flour. The difference of mean silis concentrations in various regions was not significant. No high level of silica was found in the flour of Golestan Province. We could not find any significant difference in various areas between silica contaminations. Studies on the consumed bread and rice in various regions of Golestan Province can be helpful. PMID:18494071

  7. Association between diet and esophageal cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsin-Chia; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Lee, Jang-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hsu, Hon-Ki; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2004-06-01

    Several studies have reported the importance of dietary factors in the development of esophageal cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of several common dietary factors on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a Taiwanese population. The association between diet and esophageal cancer was examined in 284 male patients and 480 male controls, who were recruited during 6 year period. Consumption of preserved and overheated foods was found to be associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer, whereas intake of fresh fruits, vegetables, and tea was inversely associated with this risk. Men who consumed fermented bean products, salted food and preserved/pickled vegetables more than once a week after age 40 years had a 3.4-fold risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-6.2), 2.3-fold risk (95%CI: 1.2-4.2), and 2.5-fold risk (95%CI: 1.3-4.5), respectively, compared to men eating these items less than once a week. It was further found that these preserved foods were more strongly associated with esophageal cancer among men who consumed fruit less than once per day than those who consumed fruits one or more times per day. These results suggest that a high intake of preserved foods and overheated drinks might increase the risk of esophageal cancer, and intake of fruit, vegetables, and tea might be negatively associated with risk of esophageal cancer. The results also suggest that diet is an important factor in the development of esophageal cancer in Taiwan.

  8. Flavonoid consumption and esophageal cancer among Black and White men in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are bioactive polyphenolic components of fruits and vegetables that may account for part of the protective effect of raw fruit and vegetable consumption in esophageal cancer. We studied the relationship between esophageal cancer and dietary proanthocyanidins, flavon...

  9. Surface modification of esophageal stent materials by a polyethylenimine layer aiming at anti-cancer function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Bai, Yuxin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Qian; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Jingan

    2017-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is difficult to cure globally and possesses high mortality rate, and it is generally accepted that palliative care such as stent implantation is the main therapy method for esophageal cancer in later period. However, the restenosis caused by tumor cells and inflammatory cells seriously interferes the stent clinical application and limits its long-term services. To solve this problem, series of drug delivery stents were developed and proven rather effective in the early stage of implantation, but more serious restenosis occurred after the drug delivery was over, which endangered the patients' life. Therefore, endowing the esophageal stent continuous anti-cancer function become an ideal strategy for inhibiting the restenosis. In this contribution, the functional layer composed of polydopamine (PDA) and Poly-ethylenimine (PEI) with series of molecular weights (MW, 1.8 × 10 3 , 1 × 10 4 , 2.5 × 10 4 and 7 × 10 4  Da) were fabricated onto the esophageal stent material 317L stainless steel (317L SS) surface. The surface characterization including amine quantitative, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle measurement indicated successful preparation of the PDA/PEI layer. The Eca109 cells culture results proved that the PDA/PEI layers significantly improve Eca109 cells apoptosis and necrosis, suggesting excellent anti-cancer function. In addition, we also found that the anti-cancer function of the PDA/PEI layers was positively correlated to the immobilized PEIs' MW. All the results demonstrated the potential application of the PDA/PEI layers on the surface modification of esophageal stent for continuous anti-cancer function. It is generally accepted that the restenosis caused by tumor cells seriously interferes the esophageal stent clinical application. Thus, endowing the esophageal stent continuous anti-cancer function is the ideal strategy for inhibiting the restenosis. In this work, we fabricated functional layers

  10. [Current status and future prospect of internal medicine treatment for advanced esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Fan, Q X

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of common malignant tumors, and the incidence and mortality of EC in China rank the first place in the world. Because of the occult onset, the early atypical symptoms, and the lack of effective early diagnostic methods, most of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease and lost the chance of surgery. Comprehensive treatment including palliative medical treatment, molecular targeted therapy, immunotherapy and so on is appropriate for these patients. How to choose the chemotherapy regimen and formulate reasonable treatment plan has become a hot spot in clinical research. Molecular targeted drugs have become a new developmental direction in cancer treatment because of their high specificity and antitumor activity, but the effects on esophageal cancer remain controversial. With the development of immune check point blockade treatment, breakthrough has been made in tumor immunotherapy, which has become an important means in cancer comprehensive treatment and shown a good prospect of treatment.

  11. Esophageal bypass operation prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy in advanced esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial invasion.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Jun; Hamai, Yoichi; Emi, Manabu; Aoki, Yoshiro; Taomoto, Junya; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2014-01-01

    In T4 esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial invasion, an esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF) often occurs during or after chemoradiotherapy. We have performed esophageal bypass operations prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy for these patients to increase the chemoradiotherapy completion rate by minimizing the potential effect of an ERF. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical outcome of esophageal bypass surgery prior to chemoradiotherapy. Between 1997 and 2010, 17 patients underwent esophageal bypass surgery followed by definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial invasion (bypass group). Ten patients in the same circumstances were treated with chemoradiotherapy alone (control group). Overall survival, the clinical effect of chemoradiotherapy, the ERF incidence rate, and the safety of esophageal bypass surgery were assessed. The overall response rate to chemoradiotherapy was 64.7% in the bypass group and 90.0% in the control group. Except for 2 patients with ERF at initial diagnosis, 4 (26.7%) of the 15 patients developed ERF in the bypass group, and 3 (30.0%) of the 10 patients developed ERF in the control group during or after chemoradiotherapy. The 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 17.6% and 17.6% in the bypass group and 20.0% and 0% in the control group, respectively (p = 0.924); long-term survival of more than 3 years was seen only in the bypass group. Esophageal bypass surgery prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy could be performed safely, and this strategy contributed to long-term survival in the patients who achieved a good response to chemoradiotherapy but developed an ERF. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances in esophageal cancer: A new perspective on pathogenesis associated with long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Xi; Hu, Qing; Sun, Binyu; Deng, Mingming; Qi, Xiaolong; Lü, Muhan

    2018-01-28

    Esophageal cancer is a malignant digestive tract cancer with high mortality. Although studies have found that esophageal cancer is involved in a complex and important gene regulation network, the pathogenesis remains unclear. The recently described long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are one effective part of the gene regulation network. However, in past decades, lncRNAs were thought to be "transcript noise" or "pseudogenes" and were thus ignored. Early studies indicated that lncRNAs play pivotal roles during evolution. However, in recent years, increasing research has revealed that many lncRNAs are associated with tumorigenesis. In particular, lncRNAs may act as important elements for epigenetic regulation, transcription, post-transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification of proteins. Additionally, they may be novel biomarkers for tumors and therapeutic targets in cancer. Here, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs in esophageal cancer, with an emphasis on lncRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms that affect the biological characteristics of esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandan, Nagarajan; Sriram, Padmanaban; Kumar, S A Syam; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanan; Saranya, Kamalakannan

    2012-01-01

    A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc (RA) against 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for esophageal cancer. Computed tomgraphy scans of 10 patients were included in the study. 3D-CRT, 4-field IMRT, and single-arc and double-arc RA plans were generated with the aim to spare organs at risk (OAR) and healthy tissue while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. The planning objective was to deliver 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on target conformity and dose-volume histograms of organs at risk (lung, spinal cord, and heart). The monitor unit (MU) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated to measure the treatment efficiency. The IMRT plan improves target conformity and spares OAR when compared with 3D-CRT. Target conformity improved with RA plans compared with IMRT. The mean lung dose was similar in all techniques. However, RA plans showed a reduction in the volume of the lung irradiated at V(₂₀Gy) and V(₃₀Gy) dose levels (range, 4.62-17.98%) compared with IMRT plans. The mean dose and D(₃₅%) of heart for the RA plans were better than the IMRT by 0.5-5.8%. Mean V(₁₀Gy) and integral dose to healthy tissue were almost similar in all techniques. But RA plans resulted in a reduced low-level dose bath (15-20 Gy) in the range of 14-16% compared with IMRT plans. The average MU needed to deliver the prescribed dose by RA technique was reduced by 20-25% compared with IMRT technique. The preliminary study on RA for esophageal cancers showed improvements in sparing OAR and healthy tissue with reduced beam-on time, whereas only double-arc RA offered improved target coverage compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT plans. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid and sensitive detection of early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with fluorescence probe targeting dipeptidylpeptidase IV

    PubMed Central

    Onoyama, Haruna; Kamiya, Mako; Kuriki, Yugo; Komatsu, Toru; Abe, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Yosuke; Yagi, Koichi; Yamagata, Yukinori; Aikou, Susumu; Nishida, Masato; Mori, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Nomura, Sachiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Urano, Yasuteru; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an important prognosticator, but is difficult to achieve by conventional endoscopy. Conventional lugol chromoendoscopy and equipment-based image-enhanced endoscopy, such as narrow-band imaging (NBI), have various practical limitations. Since fluorescence-based visualization is considered a promising approach, we aimed to develop an activatable fluorescence probe to visualize ESCCs. First, based on the fact that various aminopeptidase activities are elevated in cancer, we screened freshly resected specimens from patients with a series of aminopeptidase-activatable fluorescence probes. The results indicated that dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is specifically activated in ESCCs, and would be a suitable molecular target for detection of esophageal cancer. Therefore, we designed, synthesized and characterized a series of DPP-IV-activatable fluorescence probes. When the selected probe was topically sprayed onto endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or surgical specimens, tumors were visualized within 5 min, and when the probe was sprayed on biopsy samples, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy reached 96.9%, 85.7% and 90.5%. We believe that DPP-IV-targeted activatable fluorescence probes are practically translatable as convenient tools for clinical application to enable rapid and accurate diagnosis of early esophageal cancer during endoscopic or surgical procedures. PMID:27245876

  15. Prognostic value of circulating tumor cells in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Tao; Miao, Jing; Liu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Lian-Guo; Zhang, Qing-Guang

    2017-02-21

    To perform a meta-analysis of the related studies to assess whether circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be used as a prognostic marker of esophageal cancer. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and references in relevant studies were searched to assess the prognostic relevance of CTCs in patients with esophageal cancer. The primary outcome assessed was overall survival (OS). The meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model, with hazard ratio (HR), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) as effect measures. Nine eligible studies were included involving a total of 911 esophageal cancer patients. Overall analyses revealed that CTCs-positivity predicted disease progression (HR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.75-4.40, P < 0.0001) and reduced OS (HR = 2.67, 95%CI: 1.99-3.58, P < 0.00001). Further subgroup analyses demonstrated that CTCs-positive patients also had poor OS in different subsets. Moreover, CTCs-positivity was also significantly associated with TNM stage (RR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.07-2.06, P = 0.02) and T stage (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.13-1.84, P = 0.003) in esophageal cancer. Detection of CTCs at baseline indicates poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. However, this finding relies on data from observational studies and is potentially subject to selection bias. Prospective trials are warranted.

  16. Emerging immunotherapy for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jackie Oh, SeungJu; Han, Songhee; Lee, Wooin; Lockhart, A Craig

    2016-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is the third most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite new therapies, the prognosis for patients with these cancers remains poor with 5-year survival rates lower than 15%. Recently, immunotherapy has increasingly gained attention as a novel treatment strategy for advanced esophageal cancer. Recent success of immunotherapy in treating other solid tumors has shed light on the utility of these approaches for esophageal cancers. Here, the authors focus on antibody-based, adoptive-cell-therapy-based, and vaccine-based immunotherapies, and briefly address their rationale, clinical data, and implications. Immunotherapy is now established to be a key treatment modality that can improve the outcomes of many cancer patients and appears to be ushering in a new era in cancer treatment. Checkpoint inhibitor drugs have shown preliminary favorable results in esophageal cancer treatment. Adoptive cell therapy and vaccine studies have also shown some promise in various clinical studies. Future endeavors will need to focus on identifying patients who are likely to benefit from immunotherapy, monitoring and managing immune responses and designing optimal combination strategies where immunotherapy agents are combined with other traditional treatment modalities.

  17. Combined antegrade and retrograde esophageal dilation for head and neck cancer-related complete esophageal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Goguen, Laura A; Norris, Charles M; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Sullivan, Christopher A; Posner, Marshall R; Haddad, Robert I; Tishler, Roy B; Burke, Elaine; Annino, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Assess the safety and efficacy of combined antegrade and retrograde esophageal dilation (CARD) for complete esophageal stenosis following head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment. Review HNC dysphagia management. Retrospective review of all patients undergoing CARD following HNC treatment between May 2001 and September 2008. Forty-five patients were identified for review. Parameters assessed included: ability to obtain intraoperative esophageal patency, complications, number of dilations required, diet, and gastric tube (GT) status. Factors associated with dilation failure were analyzed. Intraoperative esophageal patency was obtained in 91% of patients. Median number of all dilations per patient was three. Median number of CARDs per patient was one. Resumption of oral intake occurred in 36/45 (80%). Diet results included: regular or soft diet 32/45 (71%), GT removal 27/45 (60%), and GT dependence with nothing by mouth 9/45 (20%). Laryngeal and pharyngeal stenosis, radionecrosis, tracheotomy dependence, and elongated stenosis were associated with dilation failure. Complications occurred in 18/63 (29%) CARD procedures: eight pneumomediastinum, seven GT site problems, two esophageal perforations, and one pharyngeal infection. All complications resolved spontaneously or with minimal interventions. CARD was safe and effective. Intraoperative patency was achieved in 91% of patients. Eighty percent resumed oral intake. The majority of patients had their GTs removed and resumed a soft or regular diet. Dilation failure was associated with laryngeal, pharyngeal, and excessively long esophageal stenosis, often resulting from radionecrosis. Complications were minor. CARD should be considered before relegating patients with complete esophageal stenosis to chronic GT dependence or subjecting them to laryngopharyngo esophagectomy.

  18. A Phase I/II Study of Oblimersen Plus Cisplatin and Fluorouracil in Gastric & Esophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-10

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  19. Imaging the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of esophageal tumor progression using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Successful strategies for primary prevention and early detection are critically needed to control this disease. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology by two-photon excited fluorescence. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and early invasive carcinoma in order to establish the morphological features to differentiate these tissues. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the significant loss of stroma, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. These results correlated well with the paired histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level.

  20. Advanced esophageal cancer with tracheobronchial fistula successfully treated by esophageal bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    When esophageal cancer infiltrates the respiratory tract and forms a fistula, a patient's quality of life falls remarkably. Abstinence from oral feeding is necessary to prevent respiratory complications including pneumonia. Surgery is sometimes necessary to maintain quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer complicated by tracheobronchial fistula. Twelve patients who underwent esophageal bypass between 2006 and 2011 in our hospital were studied. Patient characteristics, therapeutic course, outcome, and operation type were compared. Six patients among 8 who could not tolerate oral feeding could do so after bypass surgery. Ten patients were able to enjoy oral intake up until the last few days of life. Three patients survived for more than 10 months. In spite of undergoing an operation, 1 patient survived for only 2 months and another for 4 months. The only complication was postoperative delirium in 1 patient. While surgical bypass is more invasive than procedures such as endoscopic stenting, we had few complications after operative intervention and were able to maintain quality of life in our patients. This bypass procedure is a treatment option for patients with tracheobronchial fistula from advanced esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Esophageal Cancer: Associations With (pN+) Lymph Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Rice, Thomas W; Ishwaran, Hemant; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Schipper, Paul H; Kesler, Kenneth A; Law, Simon; Lerut, E M R; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Salo, Jarmo A; Scott, Walter J; Watson, Thomas J; Allen, Mark S; Chen, Long-Qi; Rusch, Valerie W; Cerfolio, Robert J; Luketich, James D; Duranceau, Andre; Darling, Gail E; Pera, Manuel; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-01-01

    To identify the associations of lymph node metastases (pN+), number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification with cancer, treatment, patient, geographic, and institutional variables, and to recommend extent of lymphadenectomy needed to accurately detect pN+ for esophageal cancer. Limited data and traditional analytic techniques have precluded identifying intricate associations of pN+ with other cancer, treatment, and patient characteristics. Data on 5806 esophagectomy patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration were analyzed by Random Forest machine learning techniques. pN+, number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification were associated with increasing depth of cancer invasion (pT), increasing cancer length, decreasing cancer differentiation (G), and more regional lymph nodes resected. Lymphadenectomy necessary to accurately detect pN+ is 60 for shorter, well-differentiated cancers (<2.5 cm) and 20 for longer, poorly differentiated ones. In esophageal cancer, pN+, increasing number of positive nodes, and increasing pN classification are associated with deeper invading, longer, and poorly differentiated cancers. Consequently, if the goal of lymphadenectomy is to accurately define pN+ status of such cancers, few nodes need to be removed. Conversely, superficial, shorter, and well-differentiated cancers require a more extensive lymphadenectomy to accurately define pN+ status.

  2. An Update on Modern Approaches to Localized Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, James; Amini, Arya; Likhacheva, Anna; Erasmus, Jeremy; Gomez, Daniel; Davila, Marta; Mehran, Reza J; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Bhutani, Manoop; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment continues to be a topic of wide debate. Based on improvements in chemotherapy drugs, surgical techniques, and radiotherapy advances, esophageal cancer treatment approaches are becoming more specific to the stage of the tumor and the overall performance status of the patient. While surgery continues to be the standard treatment option for localized disease, the current direction favors multimodality treatment including both radiation and chemotherapy with surgery. In the next few years, we will continue to see improvements in radiation techniques and proton treatment, with more minimally invasive surgical approaches minimizing postoperative side effects, and the discovery of molecular biomarkers to help deliver more specifically targeted medication to treat esophageal cancers. PMID:21365188

  3. Bypass laparoscopic procedure for palliation of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Siosaki, Marcos Duarte; Lacerda, Croider Franco; Bertulucci, Paulo Anderson; da Costa Filho, José Orlando; de Oliveira, Antônio Talvane Torres

    2013-03-26

    Esophageal cancer is a devastating disease with rapidly increasing incidence in Western countries. Dysphagia is the most common complication, causing severe malnutrition and reduced quality of life. A 69-year-old male with persistent esophageal cancer after radiation therapy was subjected to palliative by-pass surgery using a laparoscopic approach. Due to the advanced stage at diagnosis, palliative treatment was a more realistic option. Dysphagia is a most distressing symptom of this disease, causing malnutrition and reducing quality of life. The goal of palliation is to improve swallowing. The most common methods applied are endoscopic stenting, radiation therapy (external or brachytherapy), chemotherapy, yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser rechanneling or endoscopic dilatation. Palliative surgery is rarely proposed due to morbidity and complications. This paper demonstrates an update in the technique proposed by Postlethwait in 1979 for palliation of esophageal cancer. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2013.

  4. The current status of neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daniel; Leichman, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Through the contribution of a very large number of single-arm phase II trials and many less randomized phase III trials, the standard of care for locally advanced esophageal cancer has evolved to either combination chemotherapy plus radiation or combination chemotherapy. In this review, we focus on the key findings of these studies and selected meta-analyses that have led to this evolution. We note differences in outcomes for adenocarcinomas of the esophagus when compared to squamous cell esophageal cancers. Despite progress in developing a consensus for therapy, the outcome for patients with locally advanced remains poor. We complete the review by noting newer areas of investigation seeking to provide targeted and more personalized therapy to patients with esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is endoscopic ultrasound examination necessary in the management of esophageal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    DaVee, Tomas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial efforts at early diagnosis, accurate staging and advanced treatments, esophageal cancer (EC) continues to be an ominous disease worldwide. Risk factors for esophageal carcinomas include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hard-alcohol use and tobacco smoking. Five-year survival rates have improved from 5% to 20% since the 1970s, the result of advances in diagnostic staging and treatment. As the most sensitive test for locoregional staging of EC, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) influences the development of an optimal oncologic treatment plan for a significant minority of patients with early cancers, which appropriately balances the risks and benefits of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. EUS is costly, and may not be available at all centers. Thus, the yield of EUS needs to be thoughtfully considered for each patient. Localized intramucosal cancers occasionally require endoscopic resection (ER) for histologic staging or treatment; EUS evaluation may detect suspicious lymph nodes prior to exposing the patient to the risks of ER. Although positron emission tomography (PET) has been increasingly utilized in staging EC, it may be unnecessary for clinical staging of early, localized EC and carries the risk of false-positive metastasis (over staging). In EC patients with evidence of advanced disease, EUS or PET may be used to define the radiotherapy field. Multimodality staging with EUS, cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic analysis of ER, remains the standard-of-care in the evaluation of early esophageal cancers. Herein, published data regarding use of EUS for intramucosal, local, regional and metastatic esophageal cancers are reviewed. An algorithm to illustrate the current use of EUS at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is presented. PMID:28223720

  6. Is endoscopic ultrasound examination necessary in the management of esophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    DaVee, Tomas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2017-02-07

    Despite substantial efforts at early diagnosis, accurate staging and advanced treatments, esophageal cancer (EC) continues to be an ominous disease worldwide. Risk factors for esophageal carcinomas include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hard-alcohol use and tobacco smoking. Five-year survival rates have improved from 5% to 20% since the 1970s, the result of advances in diagnostic staging and treatment. As the most sensitive test for locoregional staging of EC, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) influences the development of an optimal oncologic treatment plan for a significant minority of patients with early cancers, which appropriately balances the risks and benefits of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. EUS is costly, and may not be available at all centers. Thus, the yield of EUS needs to be thoughtfully considered for each patient. Localized intramucosal cancers occasionally require endoscopic resection (ER) for histologic staging or treatment; EUS evaluation may detect suspicious lymph nodes prior to exposing the patient to the risks of ER. Although positron emission tomography (PET) has been increasingly utilized in staging EC, it may be unnecessary for clinical staging of early, localized EC and carries the risk of false-positive metastasis (over staging). In EC patients with evidence of advanced disease, EUS or PET may be used to define the radiotherapy field. Multimodality staging with EUS, cross-sectional imaging and histopathologic analysis of ER, remains the standard-of-care in the evaluation of early esophageal cancers. Herein, published data regarding use of EUS for intramucosal, local, regional and metastatic esophageal cancers are reviewed. An algorithm to illustrate the current use of EUS at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is presented.

  7. High TRAF6 Expression Is Associated With Esophageal Carcinoma Recurrence and Prompts Cancer Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyang; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhu, Qikun; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Qi, Zhan; Zhang, Jinwen; Wang, Rui

    2017-04-14

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and it has a poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms of esophageal cancer progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance and biological function of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in esophageal cancer. Expression of TRAF6 in esophageal cancer was examined, and its correlation with clinicopathological factors and patient prognosis was analyzed. A series of functional and mechanism assays were performed to further investigate the function and underlying mechanisms in esophageal cancer. Expression of TRAF6 was highly elevated in esophageal cancer tissues, and patients with high TRAF6 expression have a significantly shorter survival time than those with low TRAF6 expression. Furthermore, loss-of-function experiments showed that knockdown of TRAF6 significantly reduced the migration and invasion abilities of esophageal cancer cells. Moreover, the pro-oncogenic effects of TRAF6 in esophageal cancer were mediated by the upregulation of AEP and MMP2. Altogether, our data suggest that high expression of TRAF6 is significant for esophageal cancer progression, and TRAF6 indicates poor prognosis in esophageal cancer patients, which might be a novel prognostic biomarker or potential therapeutic target in esophageal cancer.

  8. Prognosis was not deteriorated by multiple primary cancers in esophageal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Katsuyuki; Tamaki, Yoshio; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Murata, Kazutoshi; Satoh, Yumi; Higuchi, Keiko; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer patients are often associated with multiple primary cancers (MPC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of MPC on prognosis in esophageal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. Between 2001 and 2008, esophageal cancer patients treated by definitive radiotherapy at Gunma Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Exclusion criteria were preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy, palliative radiotherapy, follow-up of <6 months, radiation dose of <50 Gy and no information on MPC. We analyzed 167 esophageal cancer patients and 56 (33.5%) were associated with MPC. Gastric cancer was the most frequent tumor (38.2%), followed by head and neck cancer (26.5%). Median follow-up time was 31.5 months (range 6.1–87.3 months). Patients with MPC included more stage I/II esophageal cancer than those without MPC (66.1% vs. 36.9%, P < 0.01). The 5-year overall survival rate for esophageal cancer with MPC was relatively better than those without MPC (46.1% vs. 26.7%), although the difference did not reach statistical significance in univariate analysis (P = 0.09). Stage I/II esophageal cancer patients had a significantly better overall survival than stage III/IV patients (P < 0.01). Among esophageal cancer patients with MPC, there was no difference in overall survival between antecedent and synchronous cancer (P = 0.59). Our study indicated that the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy was primarily determined by the clinical stage itself, but not the presence of MPC. PMID:23381956

  9. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  10. Medical expenditure for esophageal cancer in China: a 10-year multicenter retrospective survey (2002-2011).

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Wei; Huang, Hui-Yao; Shi, Ju-Fang; Lv, Li-Hong; Bai, Ya-Na; Mao, A-Yan; Liao, Xian-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Xiang; Ren, Jian-Song; Sun, Xiao-Jie; Zhu, Xin-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Gong, Ji-Yong; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Yu-Qin; Song, Bing-Bing; Du, Ling-Bin; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Lou, Pei-An; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Qi, Xiao; Wu, Shou-Ling; Cao, Rong; Lan, Li; Ren, Ying; Zhang, Kai; He, Jie; Zhang, Jian-Gong; Dai, Min

    2017-09-07

    Esophageal cancer is associated with substantial disease burden in China, and data on the economic burden are fundamental for setting priorities in cancer interventions. The medical expenditure for the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer in China has not been fully quantified. This study aimed to examine the medical expenditure of Chinese patients with esophageal cancer and the associated trends. From 2012 to 2014, a hospital-based multicenter retrospective survey was conducted in 37 hospitals in 13 provinces/municipalities across China as a part of the Cancer Screening Program of Urban China. For each esophageal cancer patient diagnosed between 2002 and 2011, clinical information and expense data were extracted by using structured questionnaires. All expense data were reported in Chinese Yuan (CNY; 1 CNY = 0.155 USD) based on the 2011 value and inflated using the year-specific health care consumer price index for China. A total of 14,967 esophageal cancer patients were included in the analysis. It was estimated that the overall average expenditure per patient was 38,666 CNY, and an average annual increase of 6.27% was observed from 2002 (25,111 CNY) to 2011 (46,124 CNY). The average expenditures were 34,460 CNY for stage I, 39,302 CNY for stage II, 40,353 CNY for stage III, and 37,432 CNY for stage IV diseases (P < 0.01). The expenditure also differed by the therapy type, which was 38,492 CNY for surgery, 27,933 CNY for radiotherapy, and 27,805 CNY for chemotherapy (P < 0.05). Drugs contributed to 45.02% of the overall expenditure. These conservative estimates suggested that medical expenditures for esophageal cancer in China substantially increased in the last 10 years, treatment for early-stage esophageal cancer costs less than that for advanced cases, and spending on drugs continued to account for a considerable proportion of the overall expenditure.

  11. Methylation of DACT2 accelerates esophageal cancer development by activating Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meiying; Linghu, Enqiang; Zhan, Qimin; He, Tao; Cao, Baoping; Brock, Malcolm V.; Herman, James G.; Xiang, Rong; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. DACT2 is frequently methylated in human lung, hepatic, gastric and thyroid cancers. The methylation status and function of DACT2 remain to be elucidated in human esophageal cancer. Ten esophageal cancer cell lines, 42 cases of dysplasia and 126 cases of primary esophageal cancer samples were analyzed in this study. The expression of DACT2 was detected in YES2 cells, while reduced DACT2 expression levels were found in TE8 and KYSE70 cells, and complete loss of DACT2 expression was found in KYSE30, KYSE140, KYSE150, KYSE410, KYSE450, TE3 and TE7 cells. Loss of expression or reduced expression of DACT2 correlated with promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cells. Restoration of DACT2 expression was induced by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. In human primary esophageal squamous carcinoma, 69% (87/126) of samples were methylated. Methylation of DACT2 was significantly associated with tumor stage and metastasis (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). DACT2 suppressed colony formation, cell migration and invasion in esophageal cancer cells, and it also suppressed esophageal cancer cell xenograft growth. DACT2 inhibited Wnt signaling in human esophageal cancer cells. In conclusion, DACT2 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and its expression is regulated by promoter region methylation. DACT2 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting Wnt signaling. PMID:26919254

  12. Association between ambient ultraviolet radiation and risk of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich; Lucas, Robyn; Kimlin, Michael; Whiteman, David; Neale, Rachel

    2012-12-01

    Ecological studies have suggested an inverse relationship between latitude and risks of some cancers. However, associations between solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and esophageal cancer risk have not been fully explored. We therefore investigated the association between nevi, freckles, and measures of ambient UVR over the life-course with risks of esophageal cancers. We compared estimated lifetime residential ambient UVR among Australian patients with esophageal cancer (330 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), 386 esophago-gastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJAC), and 279 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)), and 1471 population controls. We asked people where they had lived at different periods of their life, and assigned ambient UVR to each location based on measurements from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer database. Freckling and nevus burden were self-reported. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the magnitude of associations between phenotype, ambient UVR, and esophageal cancer risk. Compared with population controls, patients with EAC and EGJAC were less likely to have high levels of estimated cumulative lifetime ambient UVR (EAC odds ratio (OR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.99, EGJAC OR 0.55, 0.34-0.90). We found no association between UVR and risk of ESCC (OR 0.91, 0.51-1.64). The associations were independent of age, sex, body mass index, education, state of recruitment, frequency of reflux, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and H. pylori serostatus. Cases with EAC were also significantly less likely to report high levels of nevi than controls. These data show an inverse association between ambient solar UVR at residential locations and risk of EAC and EGJAC, but not ESCC.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in TERT are associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yifei; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jing; Li, Jingjie; Chen, Zhengshuai; Chen, Peng; Li, Bin; Chen, Fulin; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Chao

    2017-02-07

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TERT may be associated with susceptibility to esophageal cancer. In this study, we analyzed the association between TERT SNPs and risk of esophageal cancer in 386 esophageal cancer patients and 495 healthy subjects from the Xi'an area of China. Of the four SNPs examined, rs10069690 and rs2242652 were correlated with esophageal cancer risk. Additionally, after adjusting for age and gender, the "Trs10069690Ars2242652", "Trs10069690Grs2242652" haplotypes were associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, while the and "Crs10069690Grs2242652" haplotype was associated with a decreased risk of esophageal cancer. These findings suggest that TERT polymorphisms may contribute to the development of esophageal cancer.

  14. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  15. Complications of endoscopic dilation for esophageal stenosis after endoscopic submucosal dissection of superficial esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kakushima, Naomi; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic dilation (ED) is used for the treatment of benign strictures caused by reflux esophagitis or anastomotic stenosis after esophagectomy. Esophageal stenosis is a major complication after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large superficial esophageal cancer, but little is known regarding the incidence of complications of ED for stenosis caused by esophageal ESD. This was a retrospective study conducted at a single institution. From September 2002 to December 2012, a total of 1,337 ED procedures were performed for stenosis after esophageal ESD in 121 patients. The incidence of complications of ED and related clinical characteristics were analyzed. The incidence of bleeding was 0.8 % (1/121) per patient and 0.07 % (1/1,337) per procedure. The incidence of perforation was 4.1 % (5/121) per patient and 0.37 % (5/1,337) per procedure. Perforation occurred at a median of third time of ED procedures (range 2-9 procedures) and at a median of 18 days (range 8-29 days) after ESD. There were no significant characteristics correlated to perforation, such as location, circumferential extent, or diameter of mucosal defect after ESD. The total number of ED procedures was significantly larger among perforation cases (37, range 6-57) compared with those without perforation (7, range 1-70) (p = 0.01), and the treatment duration tended to be longer (190 vs. 69 days, respectively). The incidence of bleeding caused by ED for esophageal stenosis after ESD was very low. Relevant risk of perforation should be considered for patients requiring multiple ED procedures.

  16. Improving Outcomes for Esophageal Cancer using Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chuong, Michael D.; Hallemeier, Christopher L.; Jabbour, Salma K.

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of esophageal cancer. Because the esophagus is a centrally located thoracic structure there is a need to balance the delivery of appropriately high dose to the target while minimizing dose to nearby critical structures. Radiation dose received by these critical structures, especially the heart and lungs, may lead to clinically significant toxicities, including pneumonitis, pericarditis, and myocardial infarction. Although technological advancements in photon RT delivery like intensity modulated RT have decreased the risk of such toxicities, a growing body of evidence indicates that further risk reductions are achieved with protonmore » beam therapy (PBT). Herein we review the published dosimetric and clinical PBT literature for esophageal cancer, including motion management considerations, the potential for reirradiation, radiation dose escalation, and ongoing esophageal PBT clinical trials. We also consider the potential cost-effectiveness of PBT relative to photon RT.« less

  17. Improving Outcomes for Esophageal Cancer using Proton Beam Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Michael D; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Jabbour, Salma K; Yu, Jen; Badiyan, Shahed; Merrell, Kenneth W; Mishra, Mark V; Li, Heng; Verma, Vivek; Lin, Steven H

    2016-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of esophageal cancer. Because the esophagus is a centrally located thoracic structure there is a need to balance the delivery of appropriately high dose to the target while minimizing dose to nearby critical structures. Radiation dose received by these critical structures, especially the heart and lungs, may lead to clinically significant toxicities, including pneumonitis, pericarditis, and myocardial infarction. Although technological advancements in photon RT delivery like intensity modulated RT have decreased the risk of such toxicities, a growing body of evidence indicates that further risk reductions are achieved with proton beam therapy (PBT). Herein we review the published dosimetric and clinical PBT literature for esophageal cancer, including motion management considerations, the potential for reirradiation, radiation dose escalation, and ongoing esophageal PBT clinical trials. We also consider the potential cost-effectiveness of PBT relative to photon RT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomarkers Predict Prognosis of Esophageal Cancer Patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    New treatment strategies are needed to improve outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. With five-year survival rates less than 25 percent, this is one of the deadliest forms of cancer. There are two main types of esophageal cancer—squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is frequently preceded by Barrett’s esophagus, a chronic inflammatory condition caused by gastroesophageal reflux. It is known that communication between tumor cells and the immune system can alter the behavior of tumor cells, and chronic inflammation has been implicated in several types of human cancers, including cancer of the esophagus.

  19. Perspectives of HER2-targeting in gastric and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gerson, James N; Skariah, Sam; Denlinger, Crystal S; Astsaturov, Igor

    2017-05-01

    The blockade of HER2 signaling has significantly improved the outlook for esophagogastric cancer patients. However, targeting HER2 still remains challenging due to complex biology of this receptor in gastric and esophageal cancers. Areas covered: Here, we review complex HER2 biology, current methods of HER2 testing and tumor heterogeneity of gastroesophageal cancer. Ongoing and completed clinical research data are discussed. Expert opinion: HER2 overexpression is a validated target in gastroesophageal cancer, with therapeutic implications resulting in prolonged survival when inhibited in the front-line setting. With standardized HER2 testing in gastro-esophageal cancer, the ongoing trials are testing newer agents and combinations including combination of anti-HER2 antibodies with immunotherapy. Clonal heterogeneity and emergence of resistance will challenge our approach to treating these patients beyond the frontline settings.

  20. Head and neck and esophageal cancers after liver transplant: results from a multicenter cohort study. Italy, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Piselli, Pierluca; Burra, Patrizia; Lauro, Augusto; Baccarani, Umberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe M; Vizzini, Giovanni B; Rendina, Maria; Rossi, Massimo; Tisone, Giuseppe; Zamboni, Fausto; Bortoluzzi, Ilaria; Pinna, Antonio D; Risaliti, Andrea; Galatioto, Laura; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Di Leo, Alfredo; Nudo, Francesco; Sforza, Daniele; Fantola, Giovanni; Cimaglia, Claudia; Verdirosi, Diana; Virdone, Saverio; Serraino, Diego

    2015-07-01

    This study quantified the risk of head and neck (HN) and esophageal cancers in 2770 Italian liver transplant (LT) recipients. A total of 186 post-transplant cancers were diagnosed-including 32 cases of HN cancers and nine cases of esophageal carcinoma. The 10-year cumulative risk for HN and esophageal carcinoma was 2.59%. Overall, HN cancers were nearly fivefold more frequent in LT recipients than expected (standardized incidence ratios - SIR=4.7, 95% CI: 3.2-6.6), while esophageal carcinoma was ninefold more frequent (SIR=9.1, 95% CI: 4.1-17.2). SIRs ranged from 11.8 in LT with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) to 1.8 for LT without ALD for HN cancers, and from 23.7 to 2.9, respectively, for esophageal carcinoma. Particularly elevated SIRs in LT with ALD were noted for carcinomas of tongue (23.0) or larynx (13.7). Our findings confirmed and quantified the large cancer excess risk in LT recipients with ALD. The risk magnitude and the prevalence of ALD herein documented stress the need of timely and specifically organized programs for the early diagnosis of cancer among LT recipients, particularly for high-risk recipients like those with ALD. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  1. Expandable metallic stents for tracheobronchial stenoses in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takamori, S; Fujita, H; Hayashi, A; Tayama, K; Mitsuoka, M; Ohtsuka, S; Shirouzu, K

    1996-09-01

    Tracheobronchial stenosis in patients with esophageal cancer can be life threatening. Few reports have discussed use of expandable metallic stents for central airway stenoses in patients with esophageal cancer. Twelve patients with esophageal cancer underwent placement of expandable metallic stents for respiratory distress caused by tracheobronchial stricture. Single or double metallic stents were placed in the stenotic airways under fluoroscopic guidance. Improvement in respiratory symptoms and clinical outcome were assessed. Most stenoses were located in the trachea or the left main bronchus. From one to four expandable metallic stents were placed in each stricture site, with immediate relief of respiratory symptoms in 8 patients. One patient with tracheomalacia in alive 3 years after stent placement and another is alive 6 months after stent insertion. The other 10 patients lived from 10 to 70 days (mean; survival, 35 days) after stent placement. Death was due to progression of disease. Although metallic stents are useful for relieving respiratory distress in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, additional therapies should be considered.

  2. Pilot Trial of CRLX101 in Treatment of Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Stomach, Gastroesophageal, or Esophageal Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-08

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  3. Comparison of Salvage Total Pharyngolaryngectomy and Cervical Esophagectomy Between Hypopharyngeal Cancer and Cervical Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Katsushi; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Kamijo, Tomoyuki; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Atsushi; Nagaoka, Masato; Kitani, Takashi; Niihara, Masahiro; Booka, Eisuke; Shimada, Ayako; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Onitsuka, Tetsuro

    2017-03-01

    Total pharyngolaryngectomy and cervical esophagectomy (TPLCE) after chemoradiotherapy remains a challenge because of the high rate of complications and few available data on outcomes and safety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of salvage TPLCE and to compare treatment outcomes between hypopharyngeal cancer and cervical esophageal cancer. Data from 37 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with potentially resectable hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The survival and surgical outcomes were investigated between the hypopharyngeal cancer and cervical esophageal cancer groups. Twenty-six patients were included in hypopharyngeal cancer group and 11 patients were included in cervical esophageal cancer group. The baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups. Compared to the hypopharyngeal cancer group, the cervical esophageal cancer group had significantly more frequent tracheal-related complications (p < 0.05) and stronger association of distal margin of the cervical esophagus and radiation field with tracheal ischemia after salvage surgery. Salvage TPLCE can offer the exclusive chance of prolonged survival. Association of tracheal ischemia with salvage TPLCE was seen more frequently for cervical esophageal cancer. Therefore, the indication for salvage TPLCE must be carefully considered to maintain the balance between curability and safety.

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Lung Metastasis from Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Julian A.; Lee, Paul C.; Port, Jeffrey L.; Altorki, Nasser K.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2008-01-01

    Background While extensive research has explored the impact of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. Methods We performed a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. Results We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39/53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144/301) of patients without lung metastases (p=0.001) (summary OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology). Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR 1.89, 95%CI 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR 4.71, 95%CI 1.20-18.5) but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95%CI 0.27-1.60) was associated with lung metastasis. Compared to the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR 2.35, 95%CI 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.42-1.83) Conclusions Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship appears to be site-specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome. PMID:18843013

  5. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine targeting apoptotic mechanisms for esophageal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-shuang; Shen, Qiang; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world, and it demonstrates a distinct geographical distribution pattern in China. In the last decade, inducing apoptosis with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become an active area in both fundamental and clinical research on cancer therapy. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms by which TCM induces apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. These mechanisms are generally related but not limited to targeting the extrinsic death receptor pathway, the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. By using different monomers and composite prescriptions of TCM, it is possible to modulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, regulate the expression of caspase proteases and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, increase the expression of Fas and p53, down-regulate NF-κB pathway and the expression of Chop and survivin, and block cell cycle progression. PMID:26707140

  7. Basis for molecular diagnostics and immunotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Joe; Agrawal, Devendra K; Mittal, Sumeet K

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is an extremely aggressive neoplasm, diagnosed in about 17,000 Americans every year with a mortality rate of more than 80% within five years and a median overall survival of just 13 months. For decades, the go-to regimen for esophageal cancer patients has been the use of taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, which has yielded the field's most dire survival statistics. Areas covered: Combination immunotherapy and a more robust molecular diagnostic platform for esophageal tumors could improve patient management strategies and potentially extend lives beyond the current survival figures. Analyzing a panel of biomarkers including those affiliated with taxane and platinum resistance (ERCC1 and TUBB3) as well as immunotherapy effectiveness (PD-L1) would provide oncologists more information on how to optimize first-line therapy for EC. Expert commentary: Of the 12 FDA-approved therapies in EC, zero target the genome. A majority of the approved drugs either target or are effected by proteomic expression. Therefore, a broader understanding of diagnostic biomarkers could give more clarity and direction in treating esophageal cancer in concert with a greater use of immunotherapy.

  8. Constrictive Pericarditis 5 Months after Radiation Therapy in a 62-Year-Old Woman with Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeneneh, Beeletsega T; Allen, Sorcha; Panse, Prasad; Mookadam, Farouk; Rule, William

    2017-12-01

    Most pericardial changes appear within a few weeks in patients who have undergone radiation therapy for thoracic neoplasms. Chronic pericardial constriction typically occurs decades later, consequent to fibrosis. Early constrictive pericarditis after chest irradiation is quite rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who underwent radiation therapy for esophageal cancer and presented with constrictive pericarditis 5 months later. We searched the English-language medical literature from January 1986 through December 2015 for reports of early constrictive pericarditis after irradiation for thoracic malignancies. We defined "early" as a diagnosis within one year after radiation therapy. Five cases fit our criteria, and we summarize the findings here. To our knowledge, ours is the first definitive report of a patient with esophageal cancer to present with early radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. We conclude that constrictive pericarditis can occur early after radiation for thoracic malignancies, albeit rarely. When planning care for cancer patients, awareness of this sequela is helpful.

  9. Coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer incidence: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Bin; Hao, Chuanzheng

    2018-04-01

    In epidemiologic studies, association between coffee consumption and esophageal cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of tjis study was to evaluate the effect of coffee on esophageal cancer by combining several similar studies. We conducted a meta-analysis for association of coffee intake and esophageal cancer incidence. Eleven studies, including 457,010 participants and 2628 incident cases, were identified. A relative risk (RR, for cohort study) or odds ratio (OR, for case-control study) of heavy coffee drinkers was calculated, compared with light coffee drinkers or non-drinkers. The analysis was also stratified by cancer types (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma), sex, and geographic region. The summarized OR of having esophageal cancer in heavy coffee drinkers was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.12), compared with light coffee drinkers. When stratified by sex, pathologic type of esophageal cancer, and type of epidemiologic study, we did not find any association of coffee consumption and esophageal cancer incidence. However, an inverse association between coffee consumption and incidence of esophageal cancer was found in East Asia participants with OR of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.44-0.83), but not in Euro-America participants (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81-1.29). There is a protective role of coffee consumption against esophageal cancer in East Asians, but not in Euro-Americans.

  10. [Interpretation of update on The AJCC Esophageal Cancer Staging System, Eighth Edition].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Chen, L Q

    2017-02-01

    The recently published AJCC Esophageal Cancer Staging System, 8(th) Edition will be implemented on Januray 1, 2018, which was developed by Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration based on 22 654 esophageal cancer patients from 33 worldwide centers. The definition of T, N, M, G stage and regional lymph nodes were optimized in the 8(th) edition. And the new "2 cm" principle has simplified the definition for the cancer of esophagogastric junction. In addition to pathologic staging, the 8(th) edition also provided clinical staging and pathologic staging after neoadjuvant therapy, making the new esophageal cancer staging system more practicable and reasonable.

  11. Esophageal Cancer in Golestan Province, Iran: A Review of Genetic Susceptibility and Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Mahin; Islami, Farhad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Khoshnia, Masoud; Badakhshan, Abbas; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive tumor that is typically diagnosed only when the tumor has gained remarkable size, extended to peripheral tissues, and led to dysphagia. Five-year survival of advanced cancer is still very poor (19%), even with improved surgical techniques and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Therefore, early detection and prevention are the most important strategies to reduce the burden of ESCC. Our review will focus on the studies conducted in Golestan province, an area with a high prevalence of ESCC in northern Iran. We review three aspects of the research literature on ESCC: epidemiological features, environmental factors (including substance abuse, environmental contaminants, dietary factors, and human papillomavirus [HPV]), and molecular factors (including oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory proteins, and other relevant biomarkers). Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that some chemicals and lifestyle factors, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cigarette smoking, opium use, and hot tea drinking are associated with the development of ESCC in Golestan. HPV infects the esophageal epithelium, but so far, no firm evidence of its involvement in esophageal carcinogenesis has been provided. Some of these factors, notably hot tea drinking, may render the esophageal mucosa more susceptible to injury by other carcinogens. There are few studies at molecular level on ESCC in Golestan. Increasing awareness about the known risk factors of ESCC could potentially reduce the burden of ESCC in the region. Further studies on risk factors, identifying high risk populations, and early detection are needed. PMID:27957288

  12. Esophageal cancer stem cells and implications for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xia; Tan, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Yang, Baixia; Ge, Yangyang; Guan, Zhifeng; Cai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a lethal disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. Although the diagnosis and treatment of EC have improved considerably, EC has rapidly progressed in the clinical setting and has a poor prognosis for its metastasis and recurrence. The general idea of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is primarily based on clinical and experimental observations, indicating the existence of a subpopulation of cells that can self-renew and differentiate. The EC stem cells, which can be isolated from normal pluripotent stem cells by applying similar biomarkers, may participate in promoting esophageal tumorigenesis through renewal and repair. In this review, major emphasis is given to CSC markers, altered CSC-specific pathways, and molecular targeting agents currently available to target CSCs of esophageal cancer. The roles of numerous markers (CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CD133, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2) and developmental signaling pathways (Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, hedgehog, and Hippo) in isolating esophageal CSCs are discussed in detail. Targeting CSCs can be a logical strategy to treat EC, as these cells are responsible for carcinoma recurrence and chemoradiation resistance.

  13. Predictive factors of esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nomoto, Satoshi; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Ueda, Masanobu; Hirata, Hideki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to clarify the predictive factors correlated with esophageal stenosis within three months after radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. We enrolled 47 patients with advanced esophageal cancer with T2-4 and stage II-III who were treated with definitive radiation therapy and achieving complete response of primary lesion at Kyushu University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2005. Esophagography was performed for all patients before treatment and within three months after completion of the radiation therapy, the esophageal stenotic ratio was evaluated. The stenotic ratio was used to define four levels of stenosis: stenosis level 1, stenotic ratio of 0-25%; 2, 25-50%; 3,50-75%; 4,75-100%. We then estimated the correlation between the esophageal stenosis level after radiation therapy and each of numerous factors. The numbers and total percentages of patients at each stenosis level were as follows: level 1: n = 14 (30%); level 2: 8 (17%); level 3: 14 (30%); and level 4: 11 (23%). Esophageal stenosis in the case of full circumference involvement tended to be more severe and more frequent. Increases in wall thickness tended to be associated with increases in esophageal stenosis severity and frequency. The extent of involved circumference and wall thickness of tumor region were significantly correlated with esophageal stenosis associated with tumor regression in radiation therapy (p = 0.0006, p = 0.005). For predicting the possibility of esophageal stenosis with tumor regression within three months in radiation therapy, the extent of involved circumference and esophageal wall thickness of the tumor region may be useful.

  14. Survival analysis of patients with esophageal cancer using parametric cure model.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mahboube; Ghadimi, Mahmood Reza; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the Caspian littoral north-eastern part of Iran. The aim of this study was to calculate cure function as well as to identify the factors that are related to this function among patients with esophageal cancer in this geographical area. Three hundred fifty nine cases of esophageal cancer registered in the Babol cancer registry during the period of 1990 to 1991 (inclusive) were followed up for 15 years up to 2006. Parametric cure model was used to calculate cure fraction and investigate the factors responsible for probability of cure among patients. Sample of subjects encompassed 62.7% men and 37.3% women, with mean ages of diagnosis was 60.0 and 55.3 years, respectively. The median survival time reached about 9 months and estimated survival rates in 1, 3, and 5 years following diagnosis were 23%, 15% and 13%, respectively. Results show the family history affects the cured fraction independently of its effect on early outcome and has a significant effect on the probability of uncured. The average cure fraction was estimated to be 0.10. As the proportionality assumption of Cox model does not meet in certain circumstances, a parametric cure model can provide a better fit and a better description of survival related outcome.

  15. cDNA microarray analysis of esophageal cancer: discoveries and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yutaka; Sato, Fumiaki; Shimizu, Kazuharu; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2009-07-01

    Recent progress in molecular biology has revealed many genetic and epigenetic alterations that are involved in the development and progression of esophageal cancer. Microarray analysis has also revealed several genetic networks that are involved in esophageal cancer. However, clinical application of microarray techniques and use of microarray data have not yet occurred. In this review, we focus on the recent developments and problems with microarray analysis of esophageal cancer.

  16. Esophageal cancer management controversies: Radiation oncology point of view

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer treatment has evolved from single modality to trimodality therapy. There are some controversies of the role, target volumes and dose of radiotherapy (RT) in the literature over decades. The present review focuses primarily on RT as part of the treatment modalities, and highlight on the RT volume and its dose in the management of esophageal cancer. The randomized adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) trial, intergroup trial (INT 0116) enrolled 559 patients with resected adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. They were randomly assigned to surgery plus postoperative CRT or surgery alone. Analyses show robust treatment benefit of adjuvant CRT in most subsets for postoperative CRT. The Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) used a lower RT dose of 41.4 Gray in 23 fractions with newer chemotherapeutic agents carboplatin and paclitaxel to achieve an excellent result. Target volume of external beam radiation therapy and its coverage have been in debate for years among radiation oncologists. Pre-operative and post-operative target volumes are designed to optimize for disease control. Esophageal brachytherapy is effective in the palliation of dysphagia, but should not be given concomitantly with chemotherapy or external beam RT. The role of brachytherapy in multimodality management requires further investigation. On-going studies of multidisciplinary treatment in locally advanced cancer include: ZTOG1201 trial (a phase II trial of neoadjuvant and adjuvant CRT) and QUINTETT (a phase III trial of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant therapy with quality of life analysis). These trials hopefully will shed more light on the future management of esophageal cancer. PMID:25132924

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors of Symptomatic Hiatal Hernia Following Resection for Gastric and Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Andreas; Pesthy, Sina; Struecker, Benjamin; Dadras, Mehran; Raakow, Jonas; Knitter, Sebastian; Duwe, Gregor; Sauer, Igor M; Beierle, Anika Sophie; Denecke, Christian; Chopra, Sascha; Pratschke, Johann; Biebl, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Symptomatic hiatal hernia (HH) following resection for gastric or esophageal cancer is a potentially life-threatening event that may lead to emergent surgery. However, the incidence and risk factors of this complication remain unclear. Data of patients who underwent resection for gastric or esophageal cancer between 2005 and 2012 were assessed and the incidence of symptomatic HH was evaluated. Factors associated with an increased risk for HH were investigated. Resection of gastric or esophageal cancer was performed in 471 patients. The primary tumor was located in the stomach, cardia and esophagus in 36%, 24%, and 40% of patients, respectively. The incidence of symptomatic HH was 2.8% (n=13). All patients underwent surgical hernia repair, 8 patients (61.5%) required emergent procedure, and 3 patients (23%) underwent bowel resection. Morbidity and mortality after HH repair was 38% and 8%, respectively. Factors associated with increased risk for symptomatic HH included Body-Mass-Index (median BMI with HH 27 (23-35) vs. BMI without HH 25 (15-51), p=0.043), diabetes (HH rate: with diabetes, 6.3% vs. without diabetes, 2%, p=0.034), tumor location (HH rate: stomach, 1.2% vs. esophagus, 1.1% vs. cardia, 7.9%, p=0.001), and resection type (HH rate: total/subtotal gastrectomy, 0.7% vs. transthoracic esophagectomy, 2.7% vs. extended gastrectomy, 6.1%, p=0.038). HH is a major adverse event after resection for gastric or esophageal cancer especially among patients undergoing extended gastrectomy for cardia cancer requiring a high rate of repeat surgery. Therefore, intensive follow-up examinations for high-risk patients and early diagnosis of asymptomatic patients are essential for selecting patients for elective surgery to avoid unpredictable emergent events with high morbidity and mortality. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Temporal trends in long-term survival and cure rates in esophageal cancer: a SEER database analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubecz, Attila; Gall, Isabell; Solymosi, Norbert; Schweigert, Michael; Peters, Jeffrey H; Feith, Marcus; Stein, Hubert J

    2012-02-01

    To assess long-term temporal trends in population-based survival and cure rates in patients with esophageal cancer and compare them over the last 3 decades in the United States. We identified 62,523 patients with cancer of the esophagus and the gastric cardia diagnosed between 1973 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Long-term cancer-related survival and cure rates were calculated. Stage-by-stage disease-related survival curves of patients diagnosed in different decades were compared. Influence of available variables on survival and cure was analyzed with logistic regression. Ten-year survival was 14% in all patients. Disease-related survival of esophageal cancer improved significantly since 1973. Median survival in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results stages in local, regional, and metastatic cancers improved from 11, 10, and 4 months in the 1970s to 35, 15, and 6 months after 2000. Early stage, age 45 to 65 years at diagnosis and undergoing surgical therapy were independent predictors of 10-year survival. Cure rate improved in all stages during the study period and were 73%, 37%, 12%, and 2% in stages 0, 1, 2, and 4, respectively, after the year 2000. Percentage of patients undergoing surgery improved from 55% in the 1970s to 64% between 2000 and 2007. Proportion of patients diagnosed with in situ and local cancer remains below 30%. Long-term survival with esophageal cancer is poor but survival of local esophageal cancer improved dramatically over the decades. Complete cure of nonmetastatic esophageal cancer seems possible in a growing number of patients. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial.

  19. Statin use after esophageal cancer diagnosis and survival: A population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Chris R; Spence, Andrew D; Hughes, Carmel M; Murray, Liam J

    2017-06-01

    A recent epidemiological study of esophageal cancer patients concluded statin use post-diagnosis was associated with large (38%) and significant reductions in cancer-specific mortality. We investigated statin use and cancer-specific mortality in a large population-based cohort of esophageal cancer patients. Newly diagnosed [2009-2012] esophageal cancer patients were identified from the Scottish Cancer Registry and linked with the Prescribing Information System and Scotland Death Records (to January 2015). Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for cancer-specific mortality and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by post-diagnostic statin use (using a 6 month lag to reduce reverse causation) and to adjust these HRs for potential confounders. 1921 esophageal cancer patients were included in the main analysis, of whom 651 (34%) used statins after diagnosis. There was little evidence of a reduction in esophageal cancer-specific mortality in statin users compared with non-users after diagnosis (adjusted HR=0.93, 95% CI, 0.81, 1.07) and no dose response associations were seen. However, statin users compared with non-users in the year before diagnosis had a weak reduction in esophageal cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR=0.88, 95% CI, 0.79, 0.99). In this large population-based esophageal cancer cohort, there was little evidence of a reduction in esophageal cancer-specific mortality with statin use after diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer - indication and efficacy].

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yasuhide; Shirao, Kuniaki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    2007-10-01

    Some approaches such as adjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy have been tried to improve the efficacy of treatment for resectable esophageal cancer patients. The usefullness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, has remained a matter of controversy. However, there is a report from JCOG9907 in Japan that two courses of neoadjuvant 5-FU/CDDP improved the survival of esophageal squamous cell cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has not had a consistent evaluation because of the varying results of each trial. But from the results of meta-analysis and CALGB9781, the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy called "trimodality therapy" has been a standard treatment in the United States. We should evaluate whether there would be similar effectiveness in Japan, where the histology and operative approach are different. Some approaches such as DNA microarray and proteomics, which can predict the treatment effect, are being tried.

  1. Hepatic radiation injury mimicking metastasis in distal esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Demey, Karel; Van Veer, Hans; Nafteux, Philippe; Deroose, Christophe M; Haustermans, Karin; Coolen, Johan; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Coosemans, Willy; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2017-08-01

    A new hypermetabolic lesion on 18 FDG-PET/CT after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal esophageal cancer can be a hepatic metastasis and should be examined carefully before esophagectomy. We present a case of acute and nodular radiation-induced injury of the left liver after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal esophageal cancer, which resembles a hepatic metastasis on 18 FDG-PET/CT. Acute and nodular radiation hepatitis (RH) can be a potential cause of false-positive findings of malignancy and therefore exclude patients who could benefit from esophagectomy. 18 FDG-PET/CT images should therefore carefully be interpreted and compared with the radiation beams, dose distribution and eventually clarified by DW-MR imaging.

  2. [Efficacy of Radiation Therapy for Esophageal Cancer with Bone Metastases].

    PubMed

    Katayanagi, So; Watanabe, Takafumi; Makuuchi, Yosuke; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Sumi, Tetsuo; Takagaki, Shinichi; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tachibana, Shingo; Oosaka, Yoshiaki; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Kawachi, Shigeyuki

    2015-11-01

    We retrospectively considered the validity of radiotherapy for patients with bone metastases from esophageal cancer. Eight patients have received radiotherapy in our hospital since 2007. The median age of the patients was 63 years, with 5 men and 3 women. Bone metastatic sites were 4 to the vertebrae, 3 to the ribs, 3 to the femur and 1 each to the humerus, ulna, and radius, respectively. All of the patients had other unresectable sites of metastasis. Radiotherapy reduced pain of 3 patients of PS 1 clearly. Median survival time from the start of radiation therapy was 50 days. When PS was relatively good, the possibility of easing pain and improving QOL was suggested by our data. There is a possibility that radiation therapy for patients with bone metastases from esophageal cancer can improve the QOL and alleviate pain.

  3. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal neoplasms using the stag beetle knife

    PubMed Central

    Kuwai, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Toshiki; Imagawa, Hiroki; Miura, Ryoichi; Sumida, Yuki; Takasago, Takeshi; Miyasako, Yuki; Nishimura, Tomoyuki; Iio, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kouno, Hirotaka; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ishaq, Sauid

    2018-01-01

    AIM To determine short- and long-term outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using the stag beetle (SB) knife, a scissor-shaped device. METHODS Seventy consecutive patients with 96 early esophageal neoplasms, who underwent ESD using a SB knife at Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Japan, between April 2010 and August 2016, were retrospectively evaluated. Clinicopathological characteristics of lesions and procedural adverse events were assessed. Therapeutic success was evaluated on the basis of en bloc, histologically complete, and curative or non-curative resection rates. Overall and tumor-specific survival, local or distant recurrence, and 3- and 5-year cumulative overall metachronous cancer rates were also assessed. RESULTS Eligible patients had dysplasia/intraepithelial neoplasia (22%) or early cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, 78%). The median procedural time was 60 min and on average, the lesions measured 24 mm in diameter, yielding 33-mm tissue defects. The en bloc resection rate was 100%, with 95% and 81% of dissections deemed histologically complete and curative, respectively. All procedures were completed without accidental incisions/perforations or delayed bleeding. During follow-up (mean, 35 ± 23 mo), no local recurrences or metastases were observed. The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 83% and 70%, respectively, with corresponding rates of 85% and 75% for curative resections and 74% and 49% for non-curative resections. The 3- and 5-year cumulative rates of metachronous cancer in the patients with curative resections were 14% and 26%, respectively. CONCLUSION ESD procedures using the SB knife are feasible, safe, and effective for treating early esophageal neoplasms, yielding favorable short- and long-term outcomes. PMID:29686470

  4. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal neoplasms using the stag beetle knife.

    PubMed

    Kuwai, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Toshiki; Imagawa, Hiroki; Miura, Ryoichi; Sumida, Yuki; Takasago, Takeshi; Miyasako, Yuki; Nishimura, Tomoyuki; Iio, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kouno, Hirotaka; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ishaq, Sauid

    2018-04-21

    To determine short- and long-term outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using the stag beetle (SB) knife, a scissor-shaped device. Seventy consecutive patients with 96 early esophageal neoplasms, who underwent ESD using a SB knife at Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Japan, between April 2010 and August 2016, were retrospectively evaluated. Clinicopathological characteristics of lesions and procedural adverse events were assessed. Therapeutic success was evaluated on the basis of en bloc , histologically complete, and curative or non-curative resection rates. Overall and tumor-specific survival, local or distant recurrence, and 3- and 5-year cumulative overall metachronous cancer rates were also assessed. Eligible patients had dysplasia/intraepithelial neoplasia (22%) or early cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, 78%). The median procedural time was 60 min and on average, the lesions measured 24 mm in diameter, yielding 33-mm tissue defects. The en bloc resection rate was 100%, with 95% and 81% of dissections deemed histologically complete and curative, respectively. All procedures were completed without accidental incisions/perforations or delayed bleeding. During follow-up (mean, 35 ± 23 mo), no local recurrences or metastases were observed. The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 83% and 70%, respectively, with corresponding rates of 85% and 75% for curative resections and 74% and 49% for non-curative resections. The 3- and 5-year cumulative rates of metachronous cancer in the patients with curative resections were 14% and 26%, respectively. ESD procedures using the SB knife are feasible, safe, and effective for treating early esophageal neoplasms, yielding favorable short- and long-term outcomes.

  5. Novel liposomal technology applied in esophageal cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsieh, Yei-San; Yang, Pei-wen; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) has been commonly used as a chemotherapeutic drug, mainly used for the treatment of malignant epithelial cell tumors. We have developed a new method based on innovative lipid calcium phosphate, which encapsulated hydrophobic drugs to form liposomal nanoparticles. Esophageal cancer xenograft model was used to investigate the efficacy of liposomal nanoparticles. and it showed good therapeutic efficacy with lower side effects. Liposomal nanoparticles exhibited a better therapeutic effect than that of conventional CDDP.

  6. Recurrence risk model for esophageal cancer after radical surgery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jincheng; Tao, Hua; Song, Dan; Chen, Cheng

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct a risk assessment model which was tested by disease-free survival (DFS) of esophageal cancer after radical surgery. A total of 164 consecutive esophageal cancer patients who had undergone radical surgery between January 2005 and December 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. The cutpoint of value at risk (VaR) was inferred by stem-and-leaf plot, as well as by independent-samples t-test for recurrence-free time, further confirmed by crosstab chi-square test, univariate analysis and Cox regression analysis for DFS. The cutpoint of VaR was 0.3 on the basis of our model. The rate of recurrence was 30.3% (30/99) and 52.3% (34/65) in VaR <0.3 and VaR ≥0.3 (chi-square test, (χ) (2) =7.984, P=0.005), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of esophageal cancer after radical surgery was 70.4%, 48.7%, and 45.3%, respectively in VaR ≥0.3, whereas 91.5%, 75.8%, and 67.3%, respectively in VaR <0.3 (Log-rank test, (χ) (2) =9.59, P=0.0020), and further confirmed by Cox regression analysis [hazard ratio =2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2649-3.4751; P=0.0041]. The model could be applied for integrated assessment of recurrence risk after radical surgery for esophageal cancer.

  7. Recurrence risk model for esophageal cancer after radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hua; Song, Dan; Chen, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to construct a risk assessment model which was tested by disease-free survival (DFS) of esophageal cancer after radical surgery. Methods A total of 164 consecutive esophageal cancer patients who had undergone radical surgery between January 2005 and December 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. The cutpoint of value at risk (VaR) was inferred by stem-and-leaf plot, as well as by independent-samples t-test for recurrence-free time, further confirmed by crosstab chi-square test, univariate analysis and Cox regression analysis for DFS. Results The cutpoint of VaR was 0.3 on the basis of our model. The rate of recurrence was 30.3% (30/99) and 52.3% (34/65) in VaR <0.3 and VaR ≥0.3 (chi-square test, χ2 =7.984, P=0.005), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of esophageal cancer after radical surgery was 70.4%, 48.7%, and 45.3%, respectively in VaR ≥0.3, whereas 91.5%, 75.8%, and 67.3%, respectively in VaR <0.3 (Log-rank test, χ2 =9.59, P=0.0020), and further confirmed by Cox regression analysis [hazard ratio =2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2649-3.4751; P=0.0041]. Conclusions The model could be applied for integrated assessment of recurrence risk after radical surgery for esophageal cancer. PMID:24255579

  8. Esophageal Cancer: New Insights into a Heterogenous Disease.

    PubMed

    Krug, Sebastian; Michl, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer represents a heterogeneous malignancy mostly diagnosed in advanced stages. Worldwide, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) continue to be the most prevalent subtype; however, in the Western countries, the incidence of adenocarcinomas is increasing and will exceed that of SCC in the near future. During the last decade, several landmark trials contributed to a better understanding of the disease and emphasized the importance of multimodal treatment protocols. With the introduction of perioperative or neoadjuvant approaches, the survival of both subtypes of esophageal cancer has significantly improved. Several trials confirmed a survival benefit for perioperative chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiation, respectively, for patients with resectable locally advanced adenocarcinomas. However, the question of whether perioperative chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiation is more effective for the long-term survival in this population has yet to be fully elucidated. In SCCs, neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery or definitive chemoradiation in case of functional inoperability represent the preferred treatment options. Compared to neoadjuvant protocols, adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation have only minor effects and are associated with enhanced toxicities. Current preclinical and clinical trials investigate efficacy and tolerability of novel drugs aiming to modulate immune check-points and dual inhibition of HER2. In this "to-the-point" article, we review the current standard and summarize the most recent and encouraging therapeutic advances in esophageal cancer. Multimodal treatment approaches for esophageal cancer should be discussed in a multidisciplinary team based on histology, tumor localization, and patient performance status. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is beneficial for patients with locally advanced SCC and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), with perioperative chemotherapy representing a valid

  9. Current Status and Future Prospects for Esophageal Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The local control effect of esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection (3FLD) is reaching its limit pending technical advancement. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) by thoracotomy is slowly gaining acceptance due to advantages in short-term outcomes. Although the evidence is slowly increasing, MIE is still controversial. Also, the results of treatment by surgery alone are limiting, and multimodality therapy, which includes surgical and non-surgical treatment options including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endoscopic treatment, has become the mainstream therapy. Esophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard treatment for clinical stages II/III (except for T4) esophageal cancer, whereas chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is regarded as the standard treatment for patients who wish to preserve their esophagus, those who refuse surgery, and those with inoperable disease. CRT is also usually selected for clinical stage IV esophageal cancer. On the other hand, with the spread of CRT, salvage esophagectomy has traditionally been recognized as a feasible option; however, many clinicians oppose the use of surgery due to the associated unfavorable morbidity and mortality profile. In the future, the improvement of each treatment result and the establishment of individual strategies are important although esophageal cancer has many treatment options. PMID:28003586

  10. Importance of residual primary cancer after induction therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Raja, Siva; Rice, Thomas W; Ehrlinger, John; Goldblum, John R; Rybicki, Lisa A; Murthy, Sudish C; Adelstein, David; Videtic, Gregory; McNamara, Michael P; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-09-01

    To (1) assess the continuous distribution of the percentage of residual primary cancer in resection specimens after induction therapy for locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma, (2) determine the effects of residual primary cancer on survival after esophagectomy, (3) ascertain interplay between residual primary cancer and classical classifications of response to induction therapy (ypTNM), and (4) identify predictors of residual primary cancer. From January 2006 to November 2012, 188 patients (78%) underwent accelerated chemoradiotherapy, and 52 patients (22%) underwent chemotherapy alone followed by esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma. Mean age was 61 ± 9.2 years, and 89% were male. Residual primary cancer, assessed as the percentage of residual primary cancer cells in resection specimens, was quantified histologically by a gastrointestinal pathologist. Random Forest technology was used for data analysis. Twenty-five specimens (10%) had no residual primary cancer (ypT0), 79 (33%) had 1% to 25% residual cancer, 91 (38%) had 26% to 75%, and 45 (19%) had >75%. Survival was worse with increasing residual primary cancer, plateauing at 75%. Greater residual primary cancer was associated with worse survival across the spectrum of higher ypTN. Higher ypT, larger number of positive nodes, and use of induction chemotherapy rather than induction chemoradiotherapy were associated with greater residual primary cancer. Less residual primary cancer in response to preoperative therapy is associated with a linear increase in survival after esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma; however, survival is poorer than for resected early-stage cancers. Therefore, for patients with poor prognostic indicators, including higher percentage of residual primary cancer, the role of adjuvant therapy needs to be further examined in an attempt to improve survival. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Long telomere length predicts poor clinical outcome in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanyan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xinru; Ren, Xiaojuan; Wang, Meichen; Tian, Sijia; Hou, Peng; Shi, Bingyin; Yang, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal telomere length is widely reported in various human cancers, and it is considered to be an important hallmark of cancer. However, there is remarkably little consensus on the value of telomere length in the prognostic evaluation of esophageal cancers. Here, we attempted to determine the association of variable telomere length with clinical outcome of esophageal cancer patients. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined relative telomere lengths (RTL) in a cohort of esophageal cancer and normal esophageal tissues, and statistically investigated the association between RTL and clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer patients. The majority of esophageal cancers in this study had longer RTLs as compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. Enhanced tumor RTL was associated with smoking habit, poor differentiation, advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and cancer related death. In particular, a close relationship between longer RTL and poor survival was fully demonstrated by using cox regression and Kaplan-Maier survival curves. We found frequent telomere elongation in esophageal cancer tissues, and demonstrated longer RTL may be an independent poor prognostic factor for esophageal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. [Efficacy of esophageal cancer screening in high risk population: results of 105 561 subjects in Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, B; Bao, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, A R; Qiao, L

    2017-01-23

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in high risk population from high risk areas in order to provide scientific basis for evaluation of the results of early diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer. Methods: Ten high incidence cities and counties of esophageal cancer in Sichuan province were included in this study. Subjects aged 40-69 years were selected to participate in the endoscopic screening based on the cluster sampling, and the screening-positive subjects were further confirmed by pathological examination. Results: A total of 105 561 subjects were screened during 2006-2014 in 10 cities and counties in Sichuan Province. The detection rate of precancerous lesions was 5.53% (5 841/105 561), and the positive detection rate was 1.13% (1 193/105 561). The overall detection rates of low-grade hyperplasia, moderate hyperplasia, high-grade hyperplasia/carcinoma in situ, early esophageal cancer and invasive carcinoma were 3.87% (4 089/105 561), 1.66% (1 752/105 561), 0.77% (816/105 561), 0.08% (84/105 561) and 0.28% (293/105 561), respectively. The detection rates of all lesions in males were significantly higher than those in females ( P <0.05), and were gradually increased with age ( P <0.05). Conclusions: At these ten cities and counties in Sichuan Province with high incidence of esophageal cancer, the endoscopic screening has good effect. There are considerable numbers of patients aged 40-69 with precancerous lesions from the high risk areas. Improving the follow-up work of the population with precancerous lesions will achieve better results of early diagnosis and early treatment.

  13. Stem cell autocrine CXCL12/CXCR4 stimulates invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingwei; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Shirong; Chen, Zhihui; Fan, Ling; Shen, Xiaochun; Zhou, Shiwen; Chen, Dongfeng

    2017-05-30

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive tract. The greatest obstacle to the curing of esophageal cancer is its propensity to spread and metastasize. Esophageal cancer stem cells are considered the source for recurrence and metastasis of the tumors. While clinical evidence suggested that continuous up-regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer, but the role and mechanism of CXCL12/CXCR4 in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer has not been reported by far. This study found that esophageal cancer stem cells not only autocrine a great amount of CXCL12, but also high expression of its corresponding receptor CXCR4. Most importantly, the ability of esophageal cancer stem cells to spread and metastasize could be inhibited by blockage of CXCR4 with inhibitors or shRNA approaches both in vivo and in vitro studies. The important role of CXCL12 in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer stem cells was also confirmed by loss-of-function and gain-of-function strategies. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CXCL12/CXCR4 activated the ERK1/2 pathway and thereby ultimately maintained the characteristics of high-level invasion and metastasis of esophageal cancer stem cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that autocrine CXCL12/CXCR4 was one of the major mechanisms underlying the metastatic property of esophageal cancer stem cells through ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and might serve as a therapeutic target for esophageal cancer patients.

  14. Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been inversely associated with risk of several cancers. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between physical activity and risk of esophageal cancer (esophageal adenocarcinoma [EAC] and/or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [ESCC]). Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of bibliographic databases and conference proceedings from inception through February 2013 for observational studies that examined associations between recreational and/or occupational physical activity and esophageal cancer risk. Summary adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model. Results The analysis included 9 studies (4 cohort, 5 case–control) reporting 1,871 cases of esophageal cancer among 1,381,844 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of esophageal cancer was 29% lower among the most physically active compared to the least physically active subjects (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 47%). On histology-specific analysis, physical activity was associated with a 32% decreased risk of EAC (4 studies, 503 cases of EAC; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.85) with minimal heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). There were only 3 studies reporting the association between physical activity and risk of ESCC with conflicting results, and the meta-analysis demonstrated a null association (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.21-5.64). The results were consistent across study design, geographic location and study quality, with a non-significant trend towards a dose–response relationship. Conclusions Meta-analysis of published observational studies indicates that physical activity may be associated with reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity may decrease the global burden of EAC. PMID:24886123

  15. PAQR3 Inhibits the Proliferation and Tumorigenesis in Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fang; Wang, Shunchang; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-05-24

    Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member III (PAQR3), a member of the PAQR family, is frequently downregulated in different types of human cancer. However, its expression and functions in esophageal cancer are still unknown. This study aimed to explore the expression of PAQR3 in esophageal cancer cell lines and to investigate the role of PAQR3 in the development of esophageal cancer. Our data showed that PAQR3 is expressed in low amounts in human esophageal cancer cell lines. Overexpression of PAQR3 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of esophageal cancer cells. In addition, overexpression of PAQR3 downregulated the protein expression levels of RAF1, p-MEK1, and p-ERK1/2 in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of PAQR3 attenuated the tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model. In conclusion, we demonstrated that overexpression of PAQR3 suppresses cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in esophageal cancer in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, PAQR3 may act as a therapeutic target for human esophageal cancer.

  16. Intraluminal radiation for esophageal cancer: a Howard University technique.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, C R; Nibhanupudy, J R; Ashayeri, E; Goldson, A L; Espinoza, M C; Nidiry, J J; Warner, O G; Roux, V J

    1982-03-01

    The objective of radiotherapeutic management in esophageal cancer is to accomplish maximum tumor sterilization with minimal normal tissue damage. This sincere effort is most often countered by the differential in tumor dose response vs normal tissue tolerance. Intraluminal isotope radiation, with its inherent advantage of rapid dose falloff, spares the lungs, the spinal cord, and other vital structures, yet yields adequately high doses to esophageal tumor. Though in existence since the turn of the century, the method of intracavitary radium bougie application dropped out of favor due to technical difficulties imposed by the size of the radium source and radiation exposure to the personnel involved. The authors describe a simple "iridium 192 afterloading intraluminal technique" that eliminates technical problems and reduces radiation exposure considerably.

  17. Gefitinib and EGFR Gene Copy Number Aberrations in Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Petty, Russell D; Dahle-Smith, Asa; Stevenson, David A J; Osborne, Aileen; Massie, Doreen; Clark, Caroline; Murray, Graeme I; Dutton, Susan J; Roberts, Corran; Chong, Irene Y; Mansoor, Wasat; Thompson, Joyce; Harrison, Mark; Chatterjee, Anirban; Falk, Stephen J; Elyan, Sean; Garcia-Alonso, Angel; Fyfe, David Walter; Wadsley, Jonathan; Chau, Ian; Ferry, David R; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia

    2017-07-10

    Purpose The Cancer Esophagus Gefitinib trial demonstrated improved progression-free survival with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib relative to placebo in patients with advanced esophageal cancer who had disease progression after chemotherapy. Rapid and durable responses were observed in a minority of patients. We hypothesized that genetic aberration of the EGFR pathway would identify patients benefitting from gefitinib. Methods A prespecified, blinded molecular analysis of Cancer Esophagus Gefitinib trial tumors was conducted to compare efficacy of gefitinib with that of placebo according to EGFR copy number gain (CNG) and EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status. EGFR CNG was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using prespecified criteria and EGFR FISH-positive status was defined as high polysomy or amplification. Results Biomarker data were available for 340 patients. In EGFR FISH-positive tumors (20.2%), overall survival was improved with gefitinib compared with placebo (hazard ratio [HR] for death, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.00; P = .05). In EGFR FISH-negative tumors, there was no difference in overall survival with gefitinib compared with placebo (HR for death, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.18; P = .46). Patients with EGFR amplification (7.2%) gained greatest benefit from gefitinib (HR for death, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.64; P = .006). There was no difference in overall survival for gefitinib versus placebo for patients with EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, or for any mutation versus none. Conclusion EGFR CNG assessed by FISH appears to identify a subgroup of patients with esophageal cancer who may benefit from gefitinib as a second-line treatment. Results of this study suggest that anti-EGFR therapies should be investigated in prospective clinical trials in different settings in EGFR FISH-positive and, in particular, EGFR-amplified esophageal cancer.

  18. Selective inhibition of esophageal cancer cells by combination of HDAC inhibitors and Azacytidine

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Theresa D; Timme, Sylvia; Hoeppner, Jens; Ostendorp, Jenny; Hembach, Sina; Follo, Marie; Hopt, Ulrich T; Werner, Martin; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Lassmann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancers are highly aggressive tumors with poor prognosis despite some recent advances in surgical and radiochemotherapy treatment options. This study addressed the feasibility of drugs targeting epigenetic modifiers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells. We tested inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) by SAHA, MS-275, and FK228, inhibition of DNA methyltransferases by Azacytidine (AZA) and Decitabine (DAC), and the effect of combination treatment using both types of drugs. The drug targets, HDAC1/2/3 and DNMT1, were expressed in normal esophageal epithelium and tumor cells of ESCC or EAC tissue specimens, as well as in non-neoplastic esophageal epithelial (Het-1A), ESCC (OE21, Kyse-270, Kyse-410), and EAC (OE33, SK-GT-4) cell lines. In vitro, HDAC activity, histone acetylation, and p21 expression were similarly affected in non-neoplastic, ESCC, and EAC cell lines post inhibitor treatment. Combined MS-275/AZA treatment, however, selectively targeted esophageal cancer cell lines by inducing DNA damage, cell viability loss, and apoptosis, and by decreasing cell migration. Non-neoplastic Het-1A cells were protected against HDACi (MS-275)/AZA treatment. RNA transcriptome analyses post MS-275 and/or AZA treatment identified novel regulated candidate genes (up: BCL6, Hes2; down: FAIM, MLKL), which were specifically associated with the treatment responses of esophageal cancer cells. In summary, combined HDACi/AZA treatment is efficient and selective for the targeting of esophageal cancer cells, despite similar target expression of normal and esophageal cancer epithelium, in vitro and in human esophageal carcinomas. The precise mechanisms of action of treatment responses involve novel candidate genes regulated by HDACi/AZA in esophageal cancer cells. Together, targeting of epigenetic modifiers in esophageal cancers may represent a potential future therapeutic approach. PMID:25923331

  19. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: neoadjuvant pathologic staging data

    PubMed Central

    Rice, T. W.; Lerut, T. E. M. R.; Orringer, M. B.; Chen, L.-Q.; Hofstetter, W. L.; Smithers, B. M.; Rusch, V. W.; van Lanschot, J.; Chen, K. N.; Davies, A. R.; D’Journo, X. B.; Kesler, K. A.; Luketich, J. D.; Ferguson, M. K.; Rasanen, J. V.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Fang, W.; Durand, L.; Allum, W. H.; Cecconello, I.; Cerfolio, R. J.; Pera, M.; Griffin, S. M.; Burger, R.; Liu, J.-F.; Allen, M. S.; Law, S.; Watson, T. J.; Darling, G. E.; Scott, W. J.; Duranceau, A.; Denlinger, C. E.; Schipper, P. H.; Ishwaran, H.; Apperson-Hansen, C.; DiPaola, L. M.; Semple, M. E.; Blackstone, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY To address uncertainty of whether pathologic stage groupings after neoadjuvant therapy (ypTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data—simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non–risk-adjusted survival—for pathologically staged cancers after neoadjuvant therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 7,773 pathologically staged neoadjuvant patients, 2,045 had squamous cell carcinoma, 5,686 adenocarcinoma, 31 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 11 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (61 years) men (83%) with normal (40%) or overweight (35%) body mass index, 0–1 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (96%), and a history of smoking (69%). Cancers were ypT0 (20%), ypT1 (13%), ypT2 (18%), ypT3 (44%), ypN0 (55%), ypM0 (94%), and G2-G3 (72%); most involved the distal esophagus (80%). Non–risk-adjusted survival for yp categories was unequally depressed, more for earlier categories than later, compared with equivalent categories from prior WECC data for esophagectomy-alone patients. Thus, survival of patients with ypT0-2N0M0 cancers was intermediate and similar regardless of ypT; survival for ypN+ cancers was poor. Because prognoses for ypTNM and pTNM categories are dissimilar, prognostication should be based on separate ypTNM categories and groupings. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. PMID:27731548

  20. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: neoadjuvant pathologic staging data.

    PubMed

    Rice, T W; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; van Lanschot, J; Chen, K N; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Allum, W H; Cecconello, I; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Ishwaran, H; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    To address uncertainty of whether pathologic stage groupings after neoadjuvant therapy (ypTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for pathologically staged cancers after neoadjuvant therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 7,773 pathologically staged neoadjuvant patients, 2,045 had squamous cell carcinoma, 5,686 adenocarcinoma, 31 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 11 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (61 years) men (83%) with normal (40%) or overweight (35%) body mass index, 0-1 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (96%), and a history of smoking (69%). Cancers were ypT0 (20%), ypT1 (13%), ypT2 (18%), ypT3 (44%), ypN0 (55%), ypM0 (94%), and G2-G3 (72%); most involved the distal esophagus (80%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for yp categories was unequally depressed, more for earlier categories than later, compared with equivalent categories from prior WECC data for esophagectomy-alone patients. Thus, survival of patients with ypT0-2N0M0 cancers was intermediate and similar regardless of ypT; survival for ypN+ cancers was poor. Because prognoses for ypTNM and pTNM categories are dissimilar, prognostication should be based on separate ypTNM categories and groupings. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  1. Pleiotropic analysis of cancer risk loci on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Stram, Daniel O.; Ek, Weronica E.; Onstad, Lynn E; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Ye, Weimin; Lagergren, Jesper; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Murray, Liam J.; Hardie, Laura J; Gammon, Marilie D.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Risch, Harvey A.; Corley, Douglas A.; Levine, David M; Whiteman, David C.; Bernstein, Leslie; Bird, Nigel C.; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wu, Anna H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several cancer-associated loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been associated with risks of multiple cancer sites, suggesting pleiotropic effects. We investigated whether GWAS-identified risk variants for other common cancers are associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) or its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Methods We examined the associations between risks of EA and BE and 387 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been associated with risks of other cancers, by using genotype imputation data on 2,163 control participants and 3,885 (1,501 EA and 2,384 BE) case patients from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Genetic Susceptibility Study, and investigated effect modification by smoking history, body mass index (BMI), and reflux/heartburn. Results After correcting for multiple testing, none of the tested 387 SNPs were statistically significantly associated with risk of EA or BE. No evidence of effect modification by smoking, BMI, or reflux/heartburn was observed. Conclusions Genetic risk variants for common cancers identified from GWAS appear not to be associated with risks of EA or BE. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of pleiotropic genetic associations with risks of EA and BE. PMID:26364162

  2. [Eight Cases of Esophagus and Tracheobronchial Stenting for Advanced Esophageal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yujiro; Takachi, Ko; Tsujimura, Naoto; Wakasugi, Masaki; Hirota, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Oshima, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    Malignant stricture and fistula of the esophagus and tracheobronchus adversely affect the quality of life(QOL)in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Stenting is one ofthe therapies available for these patients. We investigated the outcomes ofesophagus and tracheobronchial stenting in our institution. Eight patients with advanced esophageal cancer underwent double stenting from 2010 to 2016. Among them, 4 patients underwent double stenting as planned. One patient underwent an emergency tracheal stenting because ofstenosis ofthe trachea caused by esophageal stenting. Three patients underwent tracheobronchial stenting later on because ofan increase in the tumor size after esophageal stenting. Dysphagia score was improved in 5(67.5%)out ofthe 8 patients. Respiratory symptoms were improved in all patients, and 4 patients(50.0%) were discharged. The median survival time after esophageal stenting was 70.5 days. Esophagus and tracheobronchial stenting for advanced esophageal cancer was useful for the improvement of the QOL.

  3. Preoperative serum fibrinogen is an independent prognostic factor in operable esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shui-Shen; Lei, Yi-Yan; Cai, Xiao-Li; Yang, Hong; Xia, Xin; Luo, Kong-Jia; Su, Chun-Hua; Zou, Jian-Yong; Zeng, Bo; Hu, Yi; Luo, Hong-He

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully elucidate the association between serum fibrinogen and prognosis of esophageal cancer, we examined serum fibrinogen concentrations in 1512 patients who underwent esophagectomy by the Clauss method. The impact of fibrinogen on overall survival and disease-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. Hyperfibrinogenemia was significantly associated with older age, male gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight loss, advanced pathological T stage and lymph node metastasis. Patients with hyperfibrinogenemia exhibited poor OS (HR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.04-1.38, P=0.012) and DFS (HR=1.18, 95%CI: 1.03-1.35, P=0.019). Subgroup analysis further exhibited an significant association between hyperfibrinogenemia and poor OS (P<0.001), DFS (P<0.001) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P<0.001) and early pathological stage (I-II) (P=0.001). Collectively, this study indicates that preoperative serum fibrinogen is an independent prognostic factor for survival in esophageal cancer. PMID:27009857

  4. Expression of immune checkpoints in T cells of esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinhua; Wang, Ji; Cheng, Shouliang; Zheng, Liangfeng; Ji, Feiyue; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Haoming

    2016-09-27

    Inhibition of immune checkpoint proteins (checkpoints) has become a promising anti-esophageal cancer strategy. We here tested expressions of immune checkpoints in human esophageal cancers. Our results showed the expressions of many immune checkpoints, including CD28, CD27, CD137L, programmed death 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), CD160, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CD200, CD137 and CD158, were dysregulated in peripheral T cells of esophageal cancer patients. Further, the expressions of PD-1, TIM-3 and TIGIT were upregulated in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which might be associated with TILs exhaustion. Meanwhile, the expressions of PD-1 and TIM-3 on CD4+ T cells were closely associated with clinic pathological features of esophageal cancer patients. These results indicate that co-inhibitory receptors PD-1, TIM-3 and TIGIT may be potential therapeutic oncotargets for esophageal cancer.

  5. Endoscopic therapy in early adenocarcinomas (Barrett's cancer) of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Mate; May, Andrea; Ell, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of early esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing significantly in recent decades. Prognosis depends greatly on the choice of treatment. Early cancers can be treated by endoscopic resection, whereas advanced carcinomas have to be sent for surgery. Esophageal resection is associated with high perioperative mortality (1-5%) even in specialized centers. Early diagnosis enables curative endoscopic treatment option. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a familial risk for esophageal cancer should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. High-definition endoscopes have been developed with technical add-on that helps endoscopists to find fine irregularities in the esophageal mucosa, but interpreting the findings remains challenging. In this review we discussed novel and old diagnostic procedures and their values, as well as our own recommendations and those of the authors discussed for the diagnosis and treatment of early Barrett's carcinoma. Endoscopic resection is the therapy of choice in early esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is mandatory to perform a subsequent ablation of all residual Barrett's mucosa to avoid metachronous lesions. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Utilization of surgical treatment for local and locoregional esophageal cancer: Analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lauren J; Greenberg, Caprice C; Lidor, Anne O; Leverson, Glen E; Maloney, James D; Macke, Ryan A

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that esophagectomy is severely underused for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The recent expansion of endoscopic local therapies, advances in surgical techniques, and improved postoperative outcomes have changed the therapeutic landscape. The impact of these developments and evolving treatment guidelines on national practice patterns is unknown. Patients diagnosed with clinical stage 0 to III esophageal cancer were identified from the National Cancer Database (2004-2013). The receipt of potentially curative surgical treatment over time was analyzed, and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with surgical treatment. The analysis included 52,122 patients. From 2004 to 2013, the overall rate of potentially curative surgical treatment increased from 36.4% to 47.4% (P < .001). For stage 0 disease, the receipt of esophagectomy decreased from 23.8% to 17.9% (P < .001), whereas the use of local therapies increased from 34.3% to 58.8% (P < .001). The use of surgical treatment increased from 43.4% to 61.8% (P < .001), from 36.1% to 45.0% (P < .001), and from 30.8% to 38.6% (P < .001) for patients with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, divergent practice patterns and adherence to national guidelines were noted between academic and community facilities. The use of potentially curative surgical treatment has increased for patients with stage 0 to III esophageal cancer. The expansion of local therapies has driven increased rates of surgical treatment for early-stage disease. Although the increased use of esophagectomy for more advanced disease is encouraging, significant variation persists at the patient and facility levels. Cancer 2017;123:410-419. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Esophageal cancer dose escalation using a simultaneous integrated boost technique.

    PubMed

    Welsh, James; Palmer, Matthew B; Ajani, Jaffer A; Liao, Zhongxing; Swisher, Steven G; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Allen, Pamela K; Settle, Steven H; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, James; Palmer, Matthew B.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Liao, Zhongxing; Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal RT [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy or 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results The 50.4-Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4-Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8-Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and the same normal tissue doses as the 50.4-Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4-Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8-Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation. PMID:21123005

  9. Proton Beam Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using themore » log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Conclusions: This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and

  10. Comparison of different treatments for unresectable esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Reed, C E

    1995-01-01

    Many patient with esophageal cancer have advanced disease that in not amenable to curative treatment. For these individuals the relief of dysphagia is of utmost importance to the quality of their remaining survival time. This article reviews and compares the methods of palliation with focus on indications and contraindications, advantages as well as disadvantages of each technique, success rates, and complications. Tumor characteristics, the physician's experience, the institution's capabilities, cost, and patient preference will influence choice of palliation. Methods are often complementary rather than competitive.

  11. Proton Beam Therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Materials/Methods This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with Passive Scattering PBT with 2 or 3 field beam arrangement using 180–250 MV protons. We used the method of Kaplan and Meier to assess time to event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. Results The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range 38–86). Most were males (82%), had adenocarcinomas (76%) and had stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gray-Equivalence (Gy(RBE)) (range 36–57.6). The most common grade 2–3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rate (0–1% residual cells) was 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) as compared to the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test p=0.005), there were no differences in DM free interval or OS between the two groups. Conclusions This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach

  12. Proton beam therapy and concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Steven H; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Caimiao; Myles, Bevan; Guo, Xiaomao; Palmer, Matthew; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen G; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Ajani, Jaffer A; Cox, James D

    2012-07-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with

  13. [Incidence and survival of esophageal cancer with different histological types in Linzhou between 2003 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Liu, S Z; Yu, L; Chen, Q; Quan, P L; Cao, X Q; Sun, X B

    2017-05-06

    Objective: To investigate the incidence and survival of esophageal cancer with different histological types and to understand the incidence trend and burden of esophageal cancer in Linzhou during 2003-2012. Methods: All incidence records of esophageal cancer and population reported were collected from Linzhou Cancer Registry during 2003-2012. Incidence rate was calculated using gender and histological types. Age standardized incidence rate was calculated according to world Segi's population and Chinese census data in 2000. Age standardized incidence rate by world population between 2003 and 2012 was analyzed with JoinPoint regression model and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated. 5-year survival rate was calculated with Kaplan-Meier model. Results: There were 8 229 esophageal cancer cases in Linzhou during 2003-2012. The average annual incidence rate was 80.08/100 000 (8 229/10 276 481). Among all esophageal cancer cases, 7 019 (85.3%) were diagnosed as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In Linzhou, the age standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population and by world standard population was 80.92/100 000 and 81.85/100 000 in 2003, 67.97/100 000 and 68.63/100 000 in 2012. JoinPoint regression model showed that EAPC was-12.9% (95 %CI: -16.4%--9.1%) for other and unspecified histological type between 2003 and 2012. The EAPC was-5.5% (95 %CI: -9.2%--1.6%) for esophageal cancer between 2007 and 2012,-5.4% (95 %CI: -7.0%--3.9%) for esophageal cancer in female between 2006 and 2012,-4.9% (95 %CI: -9.5%--0.1%) for ESCC between 2007 and 2012. The 5-year prevalence of esophageal cancer was 215.49 per 100 000 (2 337/1 084 493), and 5 489 died within 5 years after incidence. 5-year survival rate of esophageal cancer was 34.6% (95 %CI: 33.5%-35.6%). Conclusion: Esophageal cancer had a decreasing trend in Linzhou. The survival rate was increasing. But, esophageal cancer was still a major burden in Linzhou. The major histological type was

  14. Effects of an immuno-enhanced diet containing antioxidants in esophageal cancer surgery following neoadjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Aiko, S; Kumano, I; Yamanaka, N; Tsujimoto, H; Takahata, R; Maehara, T

    2012-02-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy-induced immunological deterioration may be a key factor in postoperative morbidity in patients with esophageal cancer. This study aimed to determine the effects of perioperative feeding with an immuno-enhanced diet on immune competence in patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Because an immuno-enhanced diet that contained several antioxidants was used, perioperative oxidative stress and the effects of the immuno-enhanced diet on this stress were also investigated. Of 39 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent similar surgical procedures, 26 patients who received chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy before surgery were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (n= 14) was given an immuno-enhanced diet for 5 days before surgery, and group 2 (n= 12) received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Group 3 (n= 13) consisted of patients that did not receive neoadjuvant therapy and received no enteral feeding products before surgery. Several markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were determined and immunological assessments were performed for each patient. To measure reactive oxygen metabolites and the total antioxidant capacity, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and OXY-adsorbent tests were performed using a free radical elective evaluator. Significant depression in lymphocyte numbers was observed in groups 1 and 2 before and early after surgery as compared to group 3. Numbers of B cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, and phytohemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation tests were also significantly decreased in groups 1 and 2 on postoperative day 1. Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products were significantly elevated in group 2 compared to group 1. d-ROMs and OXY-adsorbent test values were elevated before surgery and were decreased transiently early after surgery. Compared to groups 2 and 3, d-ROMs values were significantly lower in group 1 patients throughout the postoperative period, while OXY

  15. Silencing NKD2 by Promoter Region Hypermethylation Promotes Esophageal Cancer Progression by Activating Wnt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Baoping; Yang, Weili; Jin, Yongshuai; Zhang, Meiying; He, Tao; Zhan, Qimin; Herman, James G; Zhong, Guanglin; Guo, Mingzhou

    2016-11-01

    Naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2) was found to be frequently methylated in human breast and gastric cancers. However, the epigenetic changes and mechanisms of NKD2 in human esophageal cancer remain unclear. Nine esophageal cancer cell lines and 154 cases of primary esophageal cancer samples were analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot, and xenograft mouse models. Loss of NKD2 expression and complete methylation were found in KYSE150 and TE1 cells. Reduced NKD2 expression and partial methylation of the promoter region were observed in KYSE30, KYSE70, KYSE410, KYSE140, and COLO680 cells. High levels of NKD2 expression and unmethylation were detected in KYSE450 and TE8 cells. Reexpression of NKD2 was induced by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in cells in which NKD2 was not expressed or cells in which NKD2 expression was reduced. NKD2 was methylated in 53.2% of human primary esophageal cancer samples (82 of 154), and promoter region hypermethylation was significantly associated with reduced expression of NKD2 (p < 0.01). NKD2 methylation was associated with tumor, node, and metastasis stage and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01). Our results suggest that NKD2 is regulated by promoter region methylation and that methylation of NKD2 may serve as a prognostic marker in esophageal cancer. Our further studies demonstrate that NKD2 suppresses cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasion, and migration and also induces G1/S checkpoint arrest in esophageal cancer cells. NKD2 suppressed xenograft tumor growth and inhibited Wnt signaling in human esophageal cancer cells. NKD2 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer, and the expression of NKD2 is regulated by promoter region methylation. NKD2 suppresses esophageal cancer progression by inhibiting Wnt signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Esophageal cancer screening in achalasia: is there a consensus?

    PubMed

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2015-04-01

    Achalasia is an important but relatively uncommon disorder. While highly effective therapeutic options exist, esophageal cancer remains a long-term potential complication. The risk of esophageal cancer in achalasia remains unclear, with current guidelines recommending against routine endoscopic screening. However, given limited data and conflicting opinion, it is unknown whether consensus regarding screening practices in achalasia among experts exists. A 10-question survey to assess screening practices in achalasia was created and distributed to 28 experts in the area of achalasia. Experts were identified based on publications and meeting presentations in the field. Survey responses were received from 17 of 28 (61%) experts. Wide geographic distribution was seen among respondents, with eight (47%) from Europe or Australia, seven (41%) from the United States, and two (12%) from Asia. Screening for esophageal cancer was inconsistent, with nine (53%) experts endorsing the practice and eight (47%) not. Screening practices did not differ among geographic regions. No consensus regarding the risk for esophageal cancer in achalasia was seen, with three experts reporting no increased risk compared with the general population, eight experts a lifetime risk of 0.1-0.5%, three experts a 0.5-1% risk, two experts a 1-2% risk, and one expert a 3-5% risk. However, these differences in perception of risk did not influence screening practices. Upper endoscopy was utilized among all experts who endorsed screening. However, practices still varied with screening commencing at or within 1 year of diagnosis in two practices compared with 5 and 10 years in three respective practices each. Surveillance intervals also varied, performed every 2 years in four practices, every 3 years in four practices, and every 5 years in one practice. Practice variation in the management of achalasia itself was also seen, with initial treatment with Heller myotomy endorsed by eight experts, pneumatic

  17. [Initial results of robotic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Trugeda Carrera, M Soledad; Fernández-Díaz, M José; Rodríguez-Sanjuán, Juan Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, José Carlos; de Diego García, Ernesto Matias; Gómez-Fleitas, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is scant experience with robot-assisted esophagectomy in cases of esophageal and gastro-esophageal junction cancer. Our aim is to report our current experience. Observational cohort study of the first 32 patients who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer from September 2011 to June 2014. The gastric tube was created laparoscopically. In the thoracic field, a robot-assisted thoracoscopic approach was performed in the prone position with intrathoracic robotic hand-sewn anastomosis. Patient and tumour characteristics, surgical technique, short-term outcomes (morbidity and mortality) and oncological results (radicality and number of removed nodes) were evaluated. Thirty-two patients, with a mean age of 58 years (34-74) were treated by a totally minimally invasive esophagectomy: robotic laparoscopy and thoracoscopy (11 McKeown and 21 Ivor-Lewis). Twenty-nine received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. There were no conversions to open surgery. Console time was 218minutes (190-285). Blood loss was 170ml (40-255). One patient died from cardiac disease. Nine patients had a major complication (Dindo-Clavien grade II or higher). There was no case of respiratory complication or recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Five patients had intrathoracic fistula, 4 radiological and one clinical. Three had chylothorax, 2 cervical fistula and one gastric tube necrosis. The median hospital stay was 12 days (8-50). All the resections were R0 and the median of removed lymph nodes was 16 (2-23). Our results suggest that minimally invasive esophagectomy with robot-assisted thoracoscopy is safe and achieves oncological standards. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Esophageal cancer in high-risk areas of China: research progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; Shan, Baoen; Wang, Chaochen; Wei, Wenqiang; Qiao, Youlin; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo; He, Yutong

    2017-03-01

    The extremely high incidence of esophageal cancer in certain rural areas of China has prompted significant intellectual curiosity and research efforts both in China and abroad. We summarize the research progress over the past several decades in high-risk areas (Linxian, Cixian, Shexian, and Yanting) based on literature research and our field trip (2012-2013). Considerable progress in clarifying the environmental risk factors and pathogenesis of esophageal cancer in high-risk areas has been achieved over the past several decades. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that carcinogen exposure and nutritional deficiency, rather than smoking and drinking, may be the major risk factors for esophageal cancer in the Taihang Mountains region, where the incidence of esophageal cancer is among the highest in the world. Two genome-wide association studies have identified variants in PLCE1 at 10q23 that are significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk. Recent whole-exome studies have revealed a comprehensive mutation pattern, in which the C>T transition is the predominant mutation type. Despite extensive research, the main causative factors that contribute to esophageal cancer in high-risk areas have not yet been elucidated. Challenges in this research area include determining the causative role of nitrosamine, identifying other potential carcinogens, and conducting fruitful international collaborative studies based on a multidisciplinary approach. Increased international collaboration will contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PPMP, a novel tubulin-depolymerizing agent against esophageal cancer in patient-derived tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yuqiao; Liu, Kangdong; Wu, Qiong; Oi, Naomi; Chen, Hanyong; Reddy, Kanamata; Jiang, Yanan; Yao, Ke; Li, Haitao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Saleem, Mohammad; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2016-05-24

    Esophageal cancer is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide with a poor prognosis due to limited options for treatment. Chemotherapy agents such as the microtubule-targeting compounds are the mainstay of palliation for advanced esophageal cancer treatment. However, the toxicity and side effects of tubulin-binding agents (TBAs) have promoted the development of novel, more potent but less toxic TBAs. Herein, we identified 2-[4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-5-[(2-methylprop-2-en-1-yl)oxy] phenol (PPMP) as a novel TBA for esophageal cancer treatment. PPMP markedly inhibited tubulin polymerization, and decreased viability and anchorage-independent growth of esophageal cancer cell lines, effects that were accompanied by G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, we produced patient-derived esophageal cancer xenografts to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PPMP in a setting that best mimics the clinical context in patients with esophageal cancer. Overall, we identified PPMP as a novel microtubule-destabilizing compound and as a new therapeutic agent against esophageal carcinoma.

  20. Respiratory gating and multifield technique radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Atsushi; Kaidu, Motoki; Tanabe, Satoshi; Utsunomiya, Satoru; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Maruyama, Katsuya; Tanaka, Kensuke; Saito, Hirotake; Nakano, Toshimichi; Shioi, Miki; Takahashi, Haruna; Kushima, Naotaka; Abe, Eisuke; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a respiratory gating and multifield technique on the dose-volume histogram (DVH) in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Twenty patients who underwent four-dimensional computed tomography for esophageal cancer were included. We retrospectively created the four treatment plans for each patient, with or without the respiratory gating and multifield technique: No gating-2-field, No gating-4-field, Gating-2-field, and Gating-4-field plans. We compared the DVH parameters of the lung and heart in the No gating-2-field plan with the other three plans. In the comparison of the parameters in the No gating-2-field plan, there are significant differences in the Lung V 5Gy , V 20Gy , mean dose with all three plans and the Heart V 25Gy -V 40Gy with Gating-2-field plan, V 35Gy , V 40Gy , mean dose with No Gating-4-field plan and V 30Gy -V 40Gy , and mean dose with Gating-4-field plan. The lung parameters were smaller in the Gating-2-field plan and larger in the No gating-4-field and Gating-4-field plans. The heart parameters were all larger in the No gating-2-field plan. The lung parameters were reduced by the respiratory gating technique and increased by the multifield technique. The heart parameters were reduced by both techniques. It is important to select the optimal technique according to the risk of complications.

  1. Comparable Molecular Alterations in 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide-induced Oral and Esophageal Cancer in Mice and in Human Esophageal Cancer, Associated with Poor Prognosis of Patients

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZHENGDUO; GUAN, BAOXIANG; MEN, TAOYAN; FUJIMOTO, JUNYA; XU, XIAOCHUN

    2013-01-01

    Background The murine model of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced oral and esophageal cancer is frequently used to assess the effects of different cancer prevention/therapy agents in vivo, but the molecular mechanisms in those 4-NQO-induced carcinogenesis are unknown. This study investigated aberrant expression of cell growth-critical genes in 4-NQO-induced oral and esophageal cancer tissues in mice compared to human disease for association with survival of patients. Materials and Methods C57LB6/129Sv mice were given 4-NQO in their drinking water to induce oral and esophageal cancer. Quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to detect gene expression in the cancer tissues from mice and in 4-NQO-treated human esophageal cancer cell lines and esophageal cancer tissues. Methylation-specific PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to assess methylation of Rarb2 promoter in murine tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to associate gene expression in esophageal cancer tissues with survival data for patients with esophageal cancer. Results 4-NQO dose-dependently induced pre-malignant and malignant lesions in oral cavity and esophagus in mice that pathologically and morphologically mimicked human oral and esophageal cancer. Molecularly, 4-NQO inhibited Rarβ2 but induced expression of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2) and Cox2 proteins and Rarβ2 gene promoter methylation in murine tumors. In vitro treatment with 4-NQO altered expression of RARβ2, p-ERK1/2, and COX2 in human esophageal cancer cells. In tissues from 90 patients with esophageal cancer, expression of p-ERK1/2 and COX2 was up-regulated, and p-ERK1/2 expression was associated with advanced clinical tumor stage and consumption of hot beverages, while COX2 expression was associated with tumor de-differentiation in esophageal cancer. Furthermore, expression of p-ERK1/2 was associated

  2. Cancer Stem Cell Radioresistance and Enrichment: Where Frontline Radiation Therapy May Fail in Lung and Esophageal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Murph, Mandi M.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the role cancer stem cells (CSC) play in the development and progression of various types of cancer including lung and esophageal cancer. More recently, it has been proposed that the presence of CSCs affects treatment efficacy and patient prognosis. In reviewing this new area of cancer biology, we will give an overview of the current literature regarding lung and esophageal CSCs and radioresistance of CSC, and discuss the potential therapeutic applications of these findings. PMID:21603589

  3. NEOadjuvant therapy monitoring with PET and CT in Esophageal Cancer (NEOPEC-trial)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Surgical resection is the preferred treatment of potentially curable esophageal cancer. To improve long term patient outcome, many institutes apply neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In a large proportion of patients no response to chemoradiotherapy is achieved. These patients suffer from toxic and ineffective neoadjuvant treatment, while appropriate surgical therapy is delayed. For this reason a diagnostic test that allows for accurate prediction of tumor response early during chemoradiotherapy is of crucial importance. CT-scan and endoscopic ultrasound have limited accuracy in predicting histopathologic tumor response. Data suggest that metabolic changes in tumor tissue as measured by FDG-PET predict response better. This study aims to compare FDG-PET and CT-scan for the early prediction of non-response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with potentially curable esophageal cancer. Methods/design Prognostic accuracy study, embedded in a randomized multicenter Dutch trial comparing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for 5 weeks followed by surgery versus surgery alone for esophageal cancer. This prognostic accuracy study is performed only in the neoadjuvant arm of the randomized trial. In 6 centers, 150 consecutive patients will be included over a 3 year period. FDG-PET and CT-scan will be performed before and 2 weeks after the start of the chemoradiotherapy. All patients complete the 5 weeks regimen of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, regardless the test results. Pathological examination of the surgical resection specimen will be used as reference standard. Responders are defined as patients with < 10% viable residual tumor cells (Mandard-score). Difference in accuracy (area under ROC curve) and negative predictive value between FDG-PET and CT-scan are primary endpoints. Furthermore, an economic evaluation will be performed, comparing survival and costs associated with the use of FDG-PET (or CT-scan) to predict tumor response with survival and costs of

  4. Multimodality therapy of local regional esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, David P

    2005-12-01

    Recent trials regarding the use of multimodality therapy for patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have not conclusively shown benefit. Regimens containing cisplatin and fluorouracil administered preoperatively appear to be tolerable and do not increase operative morbidity or mortality when compared with surgery alone. Yet clinical trials have not clearly shown that such regimens improve outcome as measured by survival. Likewise, trials of postoperative chemoradiation have not reported a significant improvement in median or overall survival. The reasons for the lack of clinical benefit from multimodality therapy are not completely understood, but improvements in systemic therapy will probably be necessary before disease-free or overall survival improves substantially. Some new single agents such as the taxanes (docetaxel or paclitaxel) and the camptothecan analog irinotecan have shown modest activity for palliative therapy.

  5. [A Case of Removable Self-Expandable Metallic Stent(SEMS)Placement for Gastric Tube Stenosis after Esophageal Cancer Resection].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Masato; Kawabata, Ryohei; Yoshida, Yuta; Kawada, Masahiro; Yasuyama, Akinobu; Watase, Chikashi; Koga, Chikato; Hitora, Toshiki; Murakami, Masahiro; Hirota, Masaki; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Shimizu, Junzo; Hasegawa, Junichi

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent esophagectomy for early esophageal cancer. Postoperative upper gastrointestinal series and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed gastric tube stenosis. To improve passage, a removable self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was placed across the stenotic lesion. Two weeks later, the stent was removed, and passage through the gastric tube improved. The patient has no symptoms of stenosis. A removable SEMS could be an option for the treatment of gastric tube stenosis after esophagectomy.

  6. Cure and prevention strategy for postoperative gastrointestinal fistula after esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Han, Youkui; Zhao, Hui; Xu, HongRui; Liu, Shuzhong; Li, Li; Jiang, Chunyang; Yang, Bingjun

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal fistula is the most serious complication of esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer surgery. According to occurrence of organ, gastrointestinal fistula can be divided into anastomotic fistula, gastric fistula; According to occurrence site, fistula can be divided into cervical fistula, thoracic fistula; According to time of occurrence, can be divided into early, middle and late fistula. There are special types of fistula including ‘thoracic cavity’-stomach-bronchial fistula, ‘thoracic cavity’-stomach-aortic fistula. Early diagnosis needs familiarity with various types of clinical gastrointestinal fistulas. However, Prevention of gastrointestinal fistula is better than cure, including perioperative nutritional support, respiratory tract management, and acid suppression, positive treatment of complications, antibiotic prophylaxis, and gastrointestinal decompression and eating timing. Prevention can effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative gastrointestinal fistula. Collectively, early diagnosis and treatment, nutritional supports are key to reducing mortality of gastrointestinal fistula.

  7. Patterns of recurrence after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dorth, Jennifer A; Pura, John A; Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G; Uronis, Hope E; D'Amico, Thomas A; Czito, Brian G

    2014-07-15

    Patterns of failure after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for esophageal cancer are poorly defined. All patients in the current study were treated with trimodality therapy for nonmetastatic esophageal cancer from 1995 to 2009. Locoregional failure included lymph node failure (NF), anastomotic failure, or both. Abdominal paraaortic failure (PAF) was defined as disease recurrence at or below the superior mesenteric artery. Among 155 patients, the primary tumor location was the upper/middle esophagus in 18%, the lower esophagus in 32%, and the gastroesophageal junction in 50% (adenocarcinoma in 79% and squamous cell carcinoma in 21%) of patients. Staging methods included endoscopic ultrasound (73%), computed tomography (46%), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (54%). Approximately 40% of patients had American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II disease and 60% had stage III disease. The median follow-up was 1.3 years. The 2-year locoregional control, event-free survival, and overall survival rates were 86%, 36%, and 48%, respectively. The 2-year NF rate was 14%, the isolated NF rate was 3%, and the anastomotic failure rate was 6%. The 2-year PAF rate was 9% and the isolated PAF rate was 5%. PAF was found to be increased among patients with gastroesophageal junction tumors (12% vs 6%), especially for the subset with ≥ 2 clinically involved lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis (19% vs 4%). Few patients experience isolated NF or PAF as their first disease recurrence. Therefore, it is unlikely that targeting additional regional lymph node basins with radiotherapy would significantly improve clinical outcomes. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  8. Intervention and follow-up on human esophageal precancerous lesions in Henan, northern China, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Dong; Zhou, Qi; Feng, Chang Wei; Liu, Bin; Qi, Yi Jun; Zhang, Yan Run; Gao, Shan Shan; Fan, Zong Min; Zhou, Yun; Yang, Chang S; Wei, Jun Ping; Zheng, Shu

    2002-02-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Linzhou (formerly Linxian) and Huixian of Henan province, northern China, which has been well recognized as the highest incidence area for EC. The lack of useful chemoprevention agents and early detection methods is the key factors for stable EC incidence in these areas. Human esophageal carcinogensis has been considered as a multistep progressive process. The natural history for EC, however is not very clear. Follow-up studies with linear repeated biopsies and histopathological examination were performed on 778 subjects from Linzhou and Huixian. Of these subjects, 578 subjects were followed for 11 years (1989-2000), 400 subjects with different severity of esophageal precancerous lesions were randomly divided into 2 groups for intervention studies with calcium and decaffeinated green tea (DGT). Each group included 200 subjects (100 subjects for treatment, and 100 subjects for placebo). In calcium group, each subject received an oral supplementation of 1,200 mg of calcium daily for 11 months. In DGT group, each subject received 5 mg of DGT daily for 12 months. In placebo group, each subject received placebo pill for 11 months (calcium group) and 12 month (DGT group). At the entry and the end of the trial, esophageal biopsy specimens were taken at the middle and the lower thirds of the esophagus and from macroscopic lesions, if only, of each subject. DGT trail did not show apparent difference between the treatment and placebo group in alleviating the esophageal precancerous lesions and abnormal cell proliferation. For the calcium intervention study, after 11 years' follow-up, 10 subjects had developed into cancers in the calcium group (10%, 8 EC and 2 GCA), and 8 subjects developed into EC in the placebo group (8%). All these patients were diagnosed at very early stage of cancer (symptom-free). Of the 578 subjects, 25 (18 males and 7 females) had developed into EC (n = 23, 4.3%) and gastric

  9. Is cardiac toxicity a relevant issue in the radiation treatment of esophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Beukema, Jannet C; van Luijk, Peter; Widder, Joachim; Langendijk, Johannes A; Muijs, Christina T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several papers have been published on radiation-induced cardiac toxicity, especially in breast cancer patients. However, in esophageal cancer patients the radiation dose to the heart is usually markedly higher. To determine whether radiation-induced cardiac toxicity is also a relevant issue for this group, we conducted a review of the current literature. A literature search was performed in Medline for papers concerning cardiac toxicity in esophageal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. The overall crude incidence of symptomatic cardiac toxicity was as high as 10.8%. Toxicities corresponded with several dose-volume parameters of the heart. The most frequently reported complications were pericardial effusion, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Cardiac toxicity is a relevant issue in the treatment of esophageal cancer. However, valid Normal Tissue Complication Probability models for esophageal cancer are not available at present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Esophageal stenosis: a differential diagnosis between esophageal cancer and metastasis from other neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Paris, Ida; Prelaj, Arsela; Onesti, Concetta Elisa; Baldoni, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Bassanelli, Maria; Lauro, Salvatore; Marchetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of radiological mediastinal lymphadenopathy as the only evidence of tumor recurrence of cervical carcinoma is very rare. We report on such a case with stenosis of the esophagus. A 36-year-old Caucasian woman, without any relevant history of gynecological cancer, underwent a trans-vaginal ultrasound with evidence of any cervical lesion locally extended. After histologically-proven diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uterine, the patient was treated by neoadjuvant chemoradiation, followed by total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy. A subsequent close follow-up was negative for recurrence of disease until December 2008, two years after diagnosis. At that period, the patient experienced cough and severe dysphagia and for this reason she underwent several examinations including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, whole-body computed tomographic scan and bronchoscopy with transbronchial needle aspiration. Histology led to diagnosis of recurrence of cervical cancer, HPV31-positive, in multiple mediastinal lymphnodes, with infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Mediastinal lymphade-nopathy in patients with a history of cervical carcinoma should be suspicious of metastatic disease, even if there is no radiological evidence of distant metastases.

  11. Association of colorectal cancer susceptibility variants with esophageal cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Geng, Ting-Ting; Xun, Xiao-Jie; Li, Sen; Feng, Tian; Wang, Li-Ping; Jin, Tian-Bo; Hou, Peng

    2015-06-14

    To investigate the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) genetic susceptibility variants and esophageal cancer in a Chinese Han population. A case-control study was conducted including 360 esophageal cancer patients and 310 healthy controls. Thirty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRC risk from previous genome-wide association studies were analyzed. SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology, and genotypic frequencies in controls were tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using a Fisher's exact test. The allelic frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a χ(2) test. Associations between the SNPs and the risk of esophageal cancer were tested using various genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and additive). ORs and 95%CIs were calculated by unconditional logistic regression with adjustments for age and sex. The minor alleles of rs1321311 and rs4444235 were associated with a 1.53-fold (95%CI: 1.15-2.06; P = 0.004) and 1.28-fold (95%CI: 1.03-1.60; P = 0.028) increased risk of esophageal cancer in the allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, the C/C genotype of rs3802842 was associated with a reduced risk of esophageal cancer in the codominant model (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.88; P = 0.033) and recessive model (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.34-0.87; P = 0.010). The rs4939827 C/T-T/T genotype was associated with a 0.67-fold (95%CI: 0.46-0.98; P = 0.038) decreased esophageal cancer risk under the dominant model. In addition, rs6687758, rs1321311, and rs4444235 were associated with an increased risk. In particular, the T/T genotype of rs1321311 was associated with an 8.06-fold (95%CI: 1.96-33.07; P = 0.004) increased risk in the codominant model. These results provide evidence that known genetic variants associated with CRC risk confer risk for esophageal cancer, and may bring risk for other digestive system tumors.

  12. Multimodality approach for locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Almhanna, Khaldoun; Strosberg, Jonathan R

    2012-10-28

    Carcinoma of the esophagus is an aggressive and lethal malignancy with an increasing incidence worldwide. Incidence rates vary internationally, with the highest rates found in Southern and Eastern Africa and Eastern Asia, and the lowest in Western and Middle Africa and Central America. Patients with locally advanced disease face a poor prognosis, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 15%-34%. Recent clinical trials have evaluated different strategies for management of locoregional cancer; however, because of stage migration and changes in disease epidemiology, applying these trials to clinical practice has become a daunting task. We searched Medline and conference abstracts for randomized studies published in the last 3 decades. We restricted our search to articles published in English. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection is an accepted standard of care in the United States. Esophagectomy remains an essential component of treatment and can lead to improved overall survival, especially when performed at high volume institutions. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following curative resection is still unclear. External beam radiation therapy alone is considered palliative and is typically reserved for patients with a poor performance status.

  13. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms and oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers in Japanese alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Higuchi, S; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    2001-03-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) gene polymorphisms play roles in ethanol metabolism, drinking behavior and esophageal carcinogenesis in Japanese; however, the combined influence of ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes on other aerodigestive tract cancers have not been investigated. ADH2/ALDH2 genotyping was performed on lymphocyte DNA samples from Japanese alcoholic men (526 cancer-free; 159 with solitary or multiple aerodigestive tract cancers, including 33 oropharyngolaryngeal, 112 esophageal, 38 stomach and 22 multiple primary cancers in two or three organs). After adjustment for age, drinking and smoking habits, and ADH2/ALDH2 genotypes, the presence of either ADH2*1/2*1 or ALDH2*1/2*2 significantly increased the risk for oropharyngolaryngeal cancer [odds ratios (ORs), 6.68 with ADH2*1/2*1 and 18.52 with ALDH2*1/2*2] and esophageal cancer (ORs, 2.64 and 13.50, respectively). For patients with both ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancers were enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 121.77 and 40.40, respectively). A positive association with ALDH2*1/2*2 alone was observed for stomach cancer patients who also had oropharyngolaryngeal and/or esophageal cancer (OR = 110.58), but it was not observed for those with stomach cancer alone. Furthermore, in the presence of ALDH2*1/2*2, the risks for multiple intra-esophageal cancers (OR = 3.43) and for esophageal cancer with oropharyngolaryngeal and/or stomach cancer (OR = 3.95) were higher than the risks for solitary intra-esophageal cancer and for esophageal cancer alone, but these tendencies were not observed for ADH2*1/2*1 genotype. Alcoholics' population attributable risks due to ADH2/ALDH2 polymorphisms were estimated to be 82.0% for oropharyngolaryngeal cancer and 63.9% for esophageal cancer.

  14. The long-term spatial-temporal trends and burden of esophageal cancer in one high-risk area: A population-registered study in Feicheng, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiubin; Zhao, Deli; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yunxia; Yuan, Zhongshang; Wang, Jialin; Xue, Fuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Background Feicheng County is a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in Shandong province, China. It is important to determine the long-term spatio-temporal trends in epidemiological characteristics and the burden of esophageal cancer, especially since the implementation of the national esophageal cancer screening program for early detection and treatment in 2005. Methods The data collected in Feicheng County from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the whole-population cancer registry system. The incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and changing trends in esophageal cancer according to age and sex were calculated and described. Results The incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Feicheng was consistently high, and increased significantly for male, but not for female from 2001 to 2012, according to the joinpoint regression analysis. The highest and lowest yearly crude incidence rates were 160.78 and 95.97 per 100000 for males, and 81.36 and 52.17 per 100000 for females. The highest and lowest crude yearly mortality rates were 122.26 and 94.40 per 100000 for males, and 60.75 and 49.35 per 100000for females. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was the main pathology type and the tumor location changed significantly from 2001 to 2012. Overall, the DALY remained roughly stable and was estimated as 11.50 for males and 4.90 for females per 1000 people. The burden was mainly caused by premature death. There is an obvious spatial pattern in the distribution of incidence density and burden. Conclusion Esophageal cancer remains a public health issue in Feicheng County with a high incidence, mortality and disease burden. The incidence and burden have obvious spatial heterogeneity, and further studies should be conducted to identify geographical risk factors for precise local prevention and control measures. PMID:28267769

  15. A Prospective Study of Proton Beam Reirradiation for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Annemarie, E-mail: Annemarie.fernandes@gmail.com; Berman, Abigail T.; Mick, Rosemarie

    Purpose: Reirradiation to the esophagus carries a significant risk of complications. Proton therapy may offer an advantage in the reirradiation setting due to the lack of exit dose and potential sparing of previously radiated normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Between June 2010 and February 2014, 14 patients with a history of thoracic radiation and newly diagnosed or locally recurrent esophageal cancer began proton beam reirradiation on a prospective trial. Primary endpoints were feasibility and acute toxicity. Toxicity was graded according Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0. Results: The median follow-up was 10 months (2-25 months) from the start of reirradiation. Eleven patients receivedmore » concurrent chemotherapy. The median interval between radiation courses was 32 months (10-307 months). The median reirradiation prescription dose was 54.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) (50.4-61.2 Gy[RBE]), and the median cumulative prescription dose was 109.8 Gy (76-129.4 Gy). Of the 10 patients who presented with symptomatic disease, 4 patients had complete resolution of symptoms, and 4 had diminished or stable symptoms. Two patients had progressive symptoms. The median time to symptom recurrence was 10 months. Maximum acute nonhematologic toxicity attributable to radiation was grade 2 (64%, N=9), 3 (29%, N=4), 4 (0%), and 5 (7%, N=1). The acute grade 5 toxicity was an esophagopleural fistula more likely related to tumor progression than radiation. Grade 3 nonhematologic acute toxicities included dysphagia, dehydration, and pneumonia. There was 1 late grade 5 esophageal ulcer more likely related to tumor progression than radiation. There were 4 late grade 3 toxicities: heart failure, esophageal stenosis requiring dilation, esophageal ulceration from tumor, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence. The median time to local failure was 10 months, and the median overall survival was 14 months. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate

  16. A Prospective Study of Proton Beam Reirradiation for Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Annemarie; Berman, Abigail T; Mick, Rosemarie; Both, Stefan; Lelionis, Kristi; Lukens, John N; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Metz, James M; Plastaras, John P

    2016-05-01

    Reirradiation to the esophagus carries a significant risk of complications. Proton therapy may offer an advantage in the reirradiation setting due to the lack of exit dose and potential sparing of previously radiated normal tissues. Between June 2010 and February 2014, 14 patients with a history of thoracic radiation and newly diagnosed or locally recurrent esophageal cancer began proton beam reirradiation on a prospective trial. Primary endpoints were feasibility and acute toxicity. Toxicity was graded according Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0. The median follow-up was 10 months (2-25 months) from the start of reirradiation. Eleven patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median interval between radiation courses was 32 months (10-307 months). The median reirradiation prescription dose was 54.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) (50.4-61.2 Gy[RBE]), and the median cumulative prescription dose was 109.8 Gy (76-129.4 Gy). Of the 10 patients who presented with symptomatic disease, 4 patients had complete resolution of symptoms, and 4 had diminished or stable symptoms. Two patients had progressive symptoms. The median time to symptom recurrence was 10 months. Maximum acute nonhematologic toxicity attributable to radiation was grade 2 (64%, N=9), 3 (29%, N=4), 4 (0%), and 5 (7%, N=1). The acute grade 5 toxicity was an esophagopleural fistula more likely related to tumor progression than radiation. Grade 3 nonhematologic acute toxicities included dysphagia, dehydration, and pneumonia. There was 1 late grade 5 esophageal ulcer more likely related to tumor progression than radiation. There were 4 late grade 3 toxicities: heart failure, esophageal stenosis requiring dilation, esophageal ulceration from tumor, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence. The median time to local failure was 10 months, and the median overall survival was 14 months. Our data demonstrate that proton reirradiation is feasible, with an encouraging symptom control

  17. Clinical outcome of definitive radiation therapy for superficial esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Koide, Yutaro; Kodaira, Takeshi; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Natsuo; Makita, Chiyoko; Itoh, Makoto; Abe, Tetsuya; Muro, Kei; Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the clinical outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in superficial esophageal cancer patients. We retrospectively analyzed data for 123 patients with superficial esophageal cancer who received external beam radiotherapy without intracavitary brachytherapy plus systemic chemotherapy during 1998-2015. Elective nodal irradiation was not performed. The dosage to planning treatment volume was 60 Gy in 30 fractions. The main outcome measure was overall survival. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age, 66 (41-83) years; male/female ratio, 106/17; squamous cell carcinoma/other, 122/1; cT1a/cT1b, 27/96; cervical esophagus/upper thoracic esophagus/middle thoracic esophagus/lower thoracic esophagus, 7/9/66/41 and concurrent chemoradiotherapy/radiotherapy alone, 100/23. Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were the most commonly used agents (85%). At the last follow-up (median 60.5 months), 91 (74%) patients were alive. Complete response was achieved in 116 (94.4%) patients. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival and local control rates were 77.0, 46.9 and 62.7%, respectively, similar to that in the elderly patients (P = 0.878, 0.754 and 0.648, respectively). There were 55 failures: 42 local, 10 regional and 3 distant failures. Nine local and seven regional failures developed out-of-field. Thirty-eight local failures (90%) were successfully salvaged, of which 30 (71%) were salvaged via endoscopic removal; only 2 regional failures (20%) were salvaged. Fifteen G3 acute toxicities occurred. One pneumonitis (G3), one pneumothorax (G3) and two pericardial effusion (G2) were the late toxicities observed. There were no G4 toxicities or treatment-related deaths. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy without intracavitary brachytherapy was effective and safe for superficial esophageal cancer, even in elderly patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Staging resection of multiple primary esophageal cancer by endoscopic submucosal dissection and esophagectomy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yufeng; Wu, Yimin; Chai, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Multiple primary esophageal cancer pose great risks to patients and are always challenging to resect surgically. In order to reduce the risk of postoperative complication and meet the needs of minimally invasive and precision medicine, new treatment plans have been always developed for patients with multiple primary esophageal cancer. A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for aggravated dysphagia. No significant abnormalities were identified on physical examination. Endoscopic examination detected 3 masses in the esophagus and biopsy confirmed multiple primary esophageal cancer. The patient received a new staging treatment procedure firstly and an innovative single-position, minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy in our hospital. This patient discharged one week after the surgery and enjoyed a good health during our follow up for 30 month. We believe our procedure provides a beneficial new alternative approach for patients with multiple primary esophageal cancer.

  19. [A case-control study on the risk factors of esophageal cancer in Linzhou].

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Lian, S; Sun, X; Zhang, Z; Dai, D; Li, B; Cheng, L; Wei, J; Duan, W

    2000-12-01

    To explore the characteristics of prevalence and influencing factors on the genesis of esophageal cancer. A population-based 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in Linzhou. A total number of 352 pairs of cases and controls matched on sex, age and neighborhoods. Data was analysed by SAS software to calculate the odds ratio of and to evaluate the relative risks. It was found that lower socio-economic status, environmental pollution around the residential areas, lampblack in room, lower body mass index (BMI), more pickled food intake, cigarette smoking, alcoholic drinking, vigor mental-trauma and depression were risk factors of esophageal cancer. It also showed that the subjects having had history of upper digestive tract operation, dysplasia of esophagus and family history of carcinoma markedly increased the risks of developing esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer seemed to be resulted from the combination of genetic and environmental factor, hence called for of medical surveillance and comprehensive prevention.

  20. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer after metallic stent placement

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You-Tao; Yang, Guang; Liu, Yan; Shen, Bao-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer after expandable metallic stent placement. METHODS: Ten cases of advanced esophageal cancer were evaluated, 7 having complete obstruction and 3 with digestive-respiratory fistula. Ten nitinol stents were placed at the site of stenosis. Patients were treated with a total dose of 1200 cGy divided into 3 fractions of 400 cGy 4-7 d after stents placement. RESULTS: All the 10 stents were placed successfully at one time. After radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer, the survival period of the cases ranged from 14 to 22 mo, with a mean survival of 17 mo. No re-stenosis occurred among all the 10 cases. CONCLUSION: Stent placement combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer is helpful to prolong patients’ survival and reduce occurrence of re-stenosis. PMID:15237455

  1. [Optimal lymphadenectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer: three-field or modified two-field lymphadenectomy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuoyan; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Feng

    2016-09-25

    Differences in operative procedure and knowledge of esophageal cancer exist among surgeons from different countries and regions. There is controversy in the surgical treatment of esophageal cancer, especially in the extent of lymphadenectomy. Until now, results of the three-field lymphadenectomy and two-field lymphadenectomy are mostly reported by retrospective studies from Japan and China. Three-field lymphadenectomy has been initiated in Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital since 1990s. After evaluating our database, we found that three-field was superior to two-field lymphadenectomy in terms of long-term survival for patients with upper thoracic esophageal cancer, whereas for those with middle or lower thoracic esophageal cancer, the survival benefit of three-field lymphadenectomy was reduced. Therefore, we propose to perform three-field lymphadenectomy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer. In middle or lower thoracic esophageal cancer, we suggest to perform modified two-field lymphadenectomy in most cases, and three-field lymphadenectomy in selective cases. Video-assisted two-field lymphadenectomy is feasible. Based on the national condition of China, we advise to perform thoracic duct removal only in patients with posterior mediastinal or peri-ductus node metastasis to achieve curative effect.

  2. Non-coding RNAs: new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhipeng; Zhang, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignant diseases and there is still no effective treatment. The incidence of esophageal cancer in the world is relatively high and on the increase year by year. Thus, the elaboration on the carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer and the identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets is quite beneficial to optimizing the current therapeutic regimen for treating such deadly disease. More and more evidence has shown that non-coding RNAs play an important role in the development and progression of multiple human cancers, including esophageal cancer. microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are two functional kinds of non-coding RNAs that have been well investigated. They exert tumor suppressive or promoting effect by specifically regulating the expression of certain downstream target genes, which is tumor specific. It is also proved that miRNAs and lncRNAs level in tissue and plasma from esophageal cancer patients are closely correlated with the survival and disease progression, which could be used as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target for esophageal cancer. PMID:28388588

  3. Non-coding RNAs: new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaobin; Wen, Jiaxin; Ren, Zhipeng; Zhang, Guoliang

    2017-06-27

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignant diseases and there is still no effective treatment. The incidence of esophageal cancer in the world is relatively high and on the increase year by year. Thus, the elaboration on the carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer and the identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets is quite beneficial to optimizing the current therapeutic regimen for treating such deadly disease. More and more evidence has shown that non-coding RNAs play an important role in the development and progression of multiple human cancers, including esophageal cancer. microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are two functional kinds of non-coding RNAs that have been well investigated. They exert tumor suppressive or promoting effect by specifically regulating the expression of certain downstream target genes, which is tumor specific. It is also proved that miRNAs and lncRNAs level in tissue and plasma from esophageal cancer patients are closely correlated with the survival and disease progression, which could be used as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target for esophageal cancer.

  4. Cervical esophageal cancer: a gap in cancer knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoeben, A; Polak, J; Van De Voorde, L; Hoebers, F; Grabsch, H I; de Vos-Geelen, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the diagnosis, treatment options and treatment-related complications of cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) and to subsequently provide recommendations to improve quality of care. Studies were identified in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. A total of 107 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included. CEC is uncommon, accounting for 2%-10% of all esophageal carcinomas. These tumors are often locally advanced at presentation and have a poor prognosis, with a 5-year overall survival of 30%. Tobacco and alcohol consumption seem to be the major risk factors for developing CEC. Surgery is usually not possible due to the very close relationship to other organs such as the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. Therefore, the current standard of care is definitive chemoradiation (dCRT) with curative intent. Treatment regimens used to treat CEC are adapted by established regimens in lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, dCRT may be accompanied by severe side-effects and complications. Several diagnostic and predictive markers have been studied, but currently, there is no other biomarker than clinical stage to determine patient management. Suggestions to improve patient outcomes are to determine the exact radiation dose needed for adequate locoregional control and to combine radiotherapy with optimal systemic therapy backbone. CEC remains unchartered territory for many practising physicians and patients with CEC have a poor prognosis. To improve the outcome for CEC patients, future studies should focus on the identification of new diagnostic biomarkers or targets for radiosensitizers, amelioration of radiation schedules, optimal combination of chemotherapeutic agents and/or new therapeutic targets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For

  5. Biology of telomeres: importance in etiology of esophageal cancer and as therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jagannath; Gold, Jason S; Munshi, Nikhil C; Shammas, Masood A

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of telomeres, the mechanisms implicated in their maintenance, and their role in the etiology as well as the treatment of human esophageal cancer. We will also discuss the role of telomeres in the maintenance and preservation of genomic integrity, the consequences of telomere dysfunction, and the various factors that may affect telomere health in esophageal tissue predisposing it to oncogenesis. There has been growing evidence that telomeres, which can be affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, contribute to genomic instability, oncogenesis, as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Telomeres are the protective DNA-protein complexes at chromosome ends. Telomeric DNA undergoes progressive shortening with age leading to cellular senescence and/or apoptosis. If senescence/apoptosis is prevented as a consequence of specific genomic changes, continued proliferation leads to very short (ie, dysfunctional) telomeres that can potentially cause genomic instability, thus, increasing the risk for activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms and oncogenesis. Like many other cancers, esophageal cancer cells have short telomeres and elevated telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres in most cancer cells. Homologous recombination, which is implicated in the alternate pathway of telomere elongation, is also elevated in Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that both telomerase and homologous recombination contribute to telomere maintenance, DNA repair, and the ongoing survival of esophageal cancer cells. This indicates that telomere maintenance mechanisms may potentially be targeted to make esophageal cancer cells static. The rate at which telomeres in healthy cells shorten is determined by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including those associated with lifestyle. Avoidance of factors that may directly or indirectly injure esophageal tissue

  6. Effective palliation for advanced esophageal cancer using intralumenal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, R; Czechowicz, W; Kabacińska, R

    1996-01-01

    Palliative treatment by intracavitary irradiation alone has been used in 15 patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Most of them had already failed other palliative modalities including external irradiation, chemoradiotherapy, laserotherapy and dilatation. Intracavitary irradiation was carried out with a microSelectron HDR afterloading device and usually 22.5 Gy was given in three fractions repeated weekly. Up to three month after treatment, complete endoscopic regression was seen in 1 patient, partial endoscopic regression in 8 patients, no response in one and progressive disease in 5 patients. The median survival time is 6.2 months. There were not severe complications. We conclude that high dose rate intracavitary irradiation is a useful palliative modality in patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal cancer.

  7. Intraoperative assisting diagnosis of esophageal submucosal cancer using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yaping; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Qun; Kang, Deyong; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2018-07-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation can achieve high-resolution images of biological tissues at the cellular and subcellular levels. In this work, we used MPM imaging of intraoperative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained frozen sections (FSs) of esophagus to explore whether MPM can provide complementary information to the auxiliary diagnosis of esophageal submucosal cancer during the intraoperative period. It was found that MPM has the ability not only to clearly reveal biological tissue microstructure and its morphological changes, but can reveal information not distinguishable in H&E-stained images. The complementary information of nonlinear spectral analysis, orientation and morphology changes in the collagen showed that MPM has important accessory diagnostic value for the differential diagnosis of submucosal carcinoma of the esophagus during the intraoperative period.

  8. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  9. Cancer stem cells with increased metastatic potential as a therapeutic target for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Plukker, J Th M; Coppes, R P

    2017-06-01

    Esophageal cancers (EC) are highly aggressive tumors, commonly presented in a locally advanced stage with a poor prognosis and survival. Up to 50% of the patients are eligible for treatment with curative intent and receive the standard treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and surgery. Currently, pathologic complete response to nCRT is 20-30%, with a partial or no response in about 50% and 20%, respectively. EC recurrences occur frequently even after successful anti-cancer treatment, suggesting high aggressiveness with increased metastatic potential. A tumor sub-population of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), is known to display a high metastatic potential and resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapy, hereby being responsible for the unbeneficial clinical features. In this review, a concise overview will be given of the current literature on esophageal CSCs and related metastases. Esophageal CSC markers will be discussed followed by the pathways that initiate and sustain these cells. In addition, the cellular processes, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), hypoxia and autophagy, known to contribute to cancer stemness and metastasis will be explained. Finally, potential options for treatment also related to cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data on EC will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermometric analysis of intra-cavitary hyperthermia for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, C; Li, D J

    1999-01-01

    Thermometric analysis was carried out in 51 patients with esophageal cancer treated with intra-cavitary hyperthermia combined with radio chemotherapy, to test whether temperature index (T20, T50) and T90) could be used as an indicator for tumour control. Hyperthermia was administered by intra-cavitary microwave applicator. The T20, T50 and T90 were deducted from the temperature sensors T0 and T3 situated at the center of the tumour surface and 3cm from it. Eighteen patients with local control > or =36 months were named long term control patients (LC), 24 patients with local recurrence within 24 months (LR) (there were no events occurring between 24 and 36 months) and nine patients died of metastasis without local recurrence (DM). The overall survival rates were 80.4 +/- 5.6% at 1 year, 38.3 +/- 6.9% at 3 years and 31 +/- 6.7% at 5 years, respectively. Chi-square test showed no influence of the number of hyperthermia sessions on the local control (p > 0.25). The 5-year local control rate was 18.8% for the patients with T90 < 43 degrees C and 45% for those with T90 > or = 43 degrees C (p < 0.01). The average T90 was 43.76 +/- 0.74 degrees C for the LC patients and 43.17 +/- 0.57 degrees C for those LR (p = 0.024). The mean T90 was higher than 43 degrees C in 94.4% of LC, whereas in 58.8% of LR. The study suggested that T90 was a good parameter for thermal dose in the intracavitary hyperthermia for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  11. Lymphocyte Nadir and Esophageal Cancer Survival Outcomes After Chemoradiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Davuluri, Rajayogesh; Jiang, Wen; Fang, Penny; Xu, Cai; Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel R; Welsh, James; Cox, James D; Crane, Christopher H; Hsu, Charles C; Lin, Steven H

    2017-09-01

    Host immunity may affect the outcome in patients with esophageal cancer. We sought to identify factors that influenced absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) nadir during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer (EC) and looked for clinically relevant associations with survival. 504 patients with stage I-III EC (2007-2013) treated with neoadjuvant or definitive CRT with weekly ALC determinations made during treatment were analyzed. Grade of lymphopenia from ALC nadir during CRT was based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Associations of ALC nadir with survival were examined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis (MVA) and competing risks regression analysis. The median follow-up time was 36 months. The incidences of grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ALC nadir during CRT were 2%, 12%, 59%, and 27%, respectively. The impact was lymphocyte-specific because this was not seen for monocyte or neutrophil count. On MVA, grade 4 ALC nadir (G4 nadir) was significantly associated with worse overall and disease-specific survival outcomes. Predictors of G4 nadir included distal tumor location, definitive CRT, taxane/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, and photon-based radiation type (vs proton-based). Radiation type strongly influenced the mean body dose exposure, which was a strong predictor for G4 nadir (odds ratio 1.22 per Gray, P<.001). G4 nadir during CRT for EC was associated with poor outcomes, suggesting a role of host immunity in disease control. This observation provides a rationale to prospectively test chemotherapeutic and radiation treatment strategies that may have a lower impact on host immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multimodality treatment with intensity modulated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    La, T H; Minn, A Y; Su, Z; Fisher, G A; Ford, J M; Kunz, P; Goodman, K A; Koong, A C; Chang, D T

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility and report the outcome of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with preoperative or definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Between 2003 and 2007, 30 patients with non-cervical esophageal cancer received concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT at Stanford University. Eighteen patients were planned for definitive CRT and 12 were planned for preoperative CRT. All patients had computed tomography-based treatment planning and received IMRT. The median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy. Patients planned for preoperative CRT underwent surgery 4-13 weeks (median 8.3 weeks) following completion of CRT. Median follow-up of surviving patients from start of RT was 24.2 months (range 8.2-38.3 months). The majority of tumors were adenocarcinomas (67%) and poorly differentiated (57%). Tumor location was 7% upper, 20% mid, 47% lower, and 27% gastroesophageal junction. Actuarial 2-year local-regional control (LRC) was 64%. High tumor grade was an adverse prognostic factor for LRC and overall survival (OS) (P= 0.015 and 0.012, respectively). The 2-year LRC was 83% vs. 51% for patients treated preoperatively vs. definitively (P= 0.32). The 2-year disease-free and OS were 38% and 56%, respectively. Twelve patients (40%) required feeding tube placement, and the average weight loss from baseline was 4.8%. Twelve (40%) patients experienced grade 3+ acute complications and one patient died of complications following feeding tube placement. Three patients (10%) required a treatment break. Eight patients (27%) experienced grade 3 late complications. No grade 4 complications were seen. IMRT was effective and well tolerated. Disease recurrence remains a challenge and further investigation with dose escalation to improve LRC and OS is warranted.

  13. Qigesan inhibits migration and invasion of esophageal cancer cells via inducing connexin expression and enhancing gap junction function.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijuan; Shi, Dongxuan; Wu, Yansong; Shen, Qiang; Li, Jing

    2016-09-28

    Qigesan (QGS), a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal formula, has long been used to treat patients with esophageal cancer. However, the anticancer mechanisms of action of QGS remain unknown. This study aims to determine whether QGS regulates gap junction (GJ) function and affects the invasiveness of esophageal cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that QGS markedly inhibits the migration and invasion of esophageal cancer cells in vitro. We further show that QGS enhances the function of GJ in esophageal cancer cells. We therefore hypothesized that enhanced connexin expression leads to enhanced GJ function and inhibition of metastasis. We found that QGS enhances expression of connexin 26 and connexin 43 in esophageal cancer cells. This study suggests that QGS increases GJ function via enhancing the expression of connexins, resulting in reduced esophageal cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Xiang, JianBo; Qian, Nong; Sun, SuPing; Hu, LiJun; Yuan, YongGui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were included, Another 25 cases of esophageal cancer patients but without theory of mind deficits (control group) were enrolled. Each patient completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity intensities within the cerebral regions in the DMN of all the enrolled patients were analyzed. The results of each group were compared. The functional connectivity of the bilateral prefrontal central region with the precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral ventral anterior cingulate gyrus in the patients of the test group were all reduced significantly (P < 0.05). In the resting state, the functional connectivity is abnormal in the cerebral regions in the DMN of esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits. The theory of mind deficits might have an important function in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.

  15. Identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in esophageal cancer by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the gastrointestinal cancers and carries poorer prognosis than other gastrointestinal cancers. In general practice, the depth of tumor infiltration in esophageal wall is crucial to establishing appropriate treatment plan which is established by detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Connective tissue is one of the main structures that form the esophageal wall. So, identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue is helping for detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Our aim is to evaluate whether multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. MPM is well-suited for real-time detecting morphologic and cellular changes in fresh tissues since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). In this work, microstructure of tumor cells and connective tissue are first studied. Then, morphological changes of collagen fibers after the infiltration of tumor cells are shown. These results show that MPM has the ability to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. In the future, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for detecting tumor cells in esophageal cancer.

  16. Telomerase antagonist imetelstat inhibits esophageal cancer cell growth and increases radiation-induced DNA breaks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuping; Smavadati, Shirin; Nordfjäll, Katarina; Karlsson, Krister; Qvarnström, Fredrik; Simonsson, Martin; Bergqvist, Michael; Gryaznov, Sergei; Ekman, Simon; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva

    2012-12-01

    Telomerase is mainly active in human tumor cells, which provides an opportunity for a therapeutic window on telomerase targeting. We sought to evaluate the potential of the thio-phosphoramidate oligonucleotide inhibitor of telomerase, imetelstat, as a drug candidate for treatment of esophageal cancer. Our results showed that imetelstat inhibited telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner in esophageal cancer cells. After only 1 week of imetelstat treatment, a reduction of colony formation ability of esophageal cancer cells was observed. Furthermore, long-term treatment with imetelstat decreased cell growth of esophageal cancer cells with different kinetics regarding telomere lengths. Short-term imetelstat treatment also increased γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci staining in the esophageal cancer cell lines indicating a possible induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We also found that pre-treatment with imetelstat led to increased number and size of 53BP1 foci after ionizing radiation. The increase of 53BP1 foci number was especially pronounced during the first 1h of repair whereas the increase of foci size was prominent later on. This study supports the potential of imetelstat as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective trial of biodegradable stents for refractory benign esophageal strictures after curative treatment of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yano, Tomonori; Yoda, Yusuke; Nomura, Shogo; Toyosaki, Kayo; Hasegawa, Hiromi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Masaki; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Horimatsu, Takahiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Sato, Akihiro

    2017-09-01

    Biodegradable stents are reportedly effective for refractory benign esophageal strictures; however, little is known about their use in patients with refractory stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of biodegradable stents for these patients. Patients with refractory benign esophageal stricture with a dysphagia score (DS) of 2 or worse and for whom the passage of a standard size endoscope was not possible were eligible. The primary endpoint was the proportion of those who improved their DSs (% DS improved) at 12 weeks after stent placement, and the secondary endpoints were the proportion of those who improved their DSs at 24 weeks, dysphagia-free survival (DFS), and adverse events. Eighteen patients (men:women, 15:3; median age, 72 years; range, 53-80) were enrolled. Twelve patients improved their DS at 12 weeks (% DS improved, 66.7%; 90% CI, 44.6%-84.4%). Also, 8 of 11 patients (72.7%) after esophagectomy, 4 of 6 patients (66.7%) after ESD, and 3 of 4 patients (75%) after CRT improved at 12 weeks. Three patients who were treated with esophagectomy maintained their DS improvement at 24 weeks (% DS improved, 16.7%; 95% CI, 3.6%-41.4%). The median DFS was 14.1 weeks (95% CI, 13.0-19.0). One patient who had ESD and CRT developed an esophagobronchial fistula 3 months after stent placement. Biodegradable stents are effective and tolerable for refractory benign esophageal strictures after treatment for esophageal cancer; however, long-term efficacy was limited, especially after ESD or CRT. (Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000008054.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mean esophageal radiation dose is predictive of the grade of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Aytul; Hayran, Mutlu; Kahraman, Fatih

    2012-11-01

    The intention of this research was to define the predictive factors for acute esophagitis (AE) in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The data for 72 lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between 2008 and 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Mean lung dose, mean dose of esophagus, volume of esophagus irradiated and percentage of esophagus volume treated were analysed according to esophagitis grades. The mean esophageal dose was associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). However, the mean lung dose and the volume of esophagus irradiated were not associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.50 and P = 0.41, respectively). The mean radiation dose received by the esophagus was found to be highly correlated with the duration of Grade 2 esophagitis (Spearman test, r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The mean dose of esophagus ≥28 Gy showed statistical significance with respect to AE Grade 2 or worse (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 95% CI, 0.929-1.014). In conclusion, the mean esophageal dose was significantly associated with a risk of esophageal toxicity in patients with lung cancer treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  19. Mean esophageal radiation dose is predictive of the grade of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ozgen, Aytul; Hayran, Mutlu; Kahraman, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this research was to define the predictive factors for acute esophagitis (AE) in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The data for 72 lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between 2008 and 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Mean lung dose, mean dose of esophagus, volume of esophagus irradiated and percentage of esophagus volume treated were analysed according to esophagitis grades. The mean esophageal dose was associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.001). However, the mean lung dose and the volume of esophagus irradiated were not associated with an increased risk of esophageal toxicity (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.50 and P = 0.41, respectively). The mean radiation dose received by the esophagus was found to be highly correlated with the duration of Grade 2 esophagitis (Spearman test, r = 0.82, P < 0.001). The mean dose of esophagus ≥28 Gy showed statistical significance with respect to AE Grade 2 or worse (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 95% CI, 0.929–1.014). In conclusion, the mean esophageal dose was significantly associated with a risk of esophageal toxicity in patients with lung cancer treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:22915782

  20. Biomechanical and morphological multi-parameter photoacoustic endoscope for identification of early esophageal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dayang; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2017-09-01

    The combination of phase-sensitive photoacoustic (PA) imaging of tissue viscoelasticity with the esophagus-adaptive PA endoscope (PAE) technique allows the characterization of the biomechanical and morphological changes in the early stage of esophageal disease with high accuracy. In this system, the tissue biomechanics and morphology are obtained by detecting the PA phase and PA amplitude information, respectively. The PAE has a transverse resolution of approximately 37 μm and an outer diameter of 1.2 mm, which is suitable for detecting rabbit esophagus. Here, an in-situ biomechanical and morphological study of normal and diseased rabbit esophagus (tumors of esophagus and reflux esophagitis) was performed. The in-situ findings were highly consistent with those observed by histology. In summary, we demonstrated the potential application of PAE for early clinical detection of esophageal diseases.

  1. Safety and benefit of curative surgical resection for esophageal squamous cell cancer associated with multiple primary cancers.

    PubMed

    Otowa, Y; Nakamura, T; Takiguchi, G; Yamamoto, M; Kanaji, S; Imanishi, T; Oshikiri, T; Suzuki, S; Tanaka, K; Kakeji, Y

    2016-03-01

    Enhancements in surgical techniques have led to improved outcomes for esophageal cancer. Recent findings have showed that esophageal cancer is frequently associated with multiple primary cancers, and surgical resection is usually complicated in such cases. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of surgery for patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer associated with multiple primary cancers. The clinical outcomes of surgical resection for esophageal cancer were compared among 79 patients with antecedent and/or synchronous cancers (Multiple cancer group) and 194 patients without antecedent and/or synchronous cancers (Single cancer group). The most common site of multiple primary cancers was the pharynx (36 patients; 29.7%), followed by the stomach (24 patients; 19.8%). The reconstruction method was more complicated in the Multiple cancer group as a result of the prolonged surgery time and increased blood loss. However, postoperative morbidity and overall survival (OS) did not differ between the two groups. After esophagectomy, metachronous cancers were observed in 26 patients, with 30 regions in total, and 93.1% were found to be curable. Sex was the only independent risk factors for developing metachronous cancer after esophagectomy. The presence of antecedent and synchronous cancers complicates the surgical resection of esophageal cancer; however, no differences were found in the OS and postoperative morbidity between the two groups. Therefore, surgical intervention should be selected as a first-line treatment. Because second primary cancers are often observed in esophageal cancer, we recommend a close follow-up using esophagogastroduodenoscopy and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  3. Late esophageal toxicity after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen M; Li, Bao-Qing; Jennelle, Richard L S; Lau, Derick H; Yang, Claus C; Courquin, Jean; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of esophageal toxicity after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. The records of 211 patients treated by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer were reviewed to identify those with dysphagia lasting more than 90 days after therapy. Late toxicity criteria established by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group were used to score the symptoms. The incidence of grade 3+ esophageal toxicity at 3 and 6 months was 30% and 19%, respectively. The rate of gastrotomy-tube dependence at 3 and 6 months was 20% and 11%, respectively. Hypopharyngeal and unknown primary site (p = .01, for both), T4 disease (p = .01), and the use of concurrent chemotherapy (p = .001) were associated with grade 3+ esophageal toxicity and stricture formation. A significant proportion of patients exhibit symptoms of esophageal toxicity after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Therefore, preventive strategies need further investigation. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The low IGFBP-3 level is associated with esophageal cancer patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Guiqin; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Xiaolin; Shen, Yuewu; Wang, Wan; Shi, Guidong; Li, Qing; Duan, Yi; Zhao, Yunxia; Feng, Gang

    2016-12-15

    Esophageal cancer was a vital cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and the insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) has been proved to be an important factor of multiple types of tumors. There is a controversy that whether the IGFBP-3 level is associated with the clinical pathological characteristics and overall survival of esophageal cancer patients. Herein, we aimed to comprehensively assess the association between the low IGFBP-3 level and the risk, overall survival and clinical pathological characteristics of esophageal cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis using seven eligible studies. The overall odds ratios (OR)/relative risk (RR) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each parameter. For the risk of esophageal cancer, the OR was 2.342 (p = 0.000), indicating that individuals with lower IGFBP-3 level were more likely to suffer from esophageal cancer, compared to those with relatively high IGFBP-3 level. With respect to the 3-year survival rate, the RR was 2.163 (p = 0.027), which demonstrated that esophageal cancer patients with low IGFBP-3 level had significantly lower 3-year survival rate; in terms of clinical pathological characteristics, significantly lower IGFBP-3 level was found for patients in all categories; for survival status, patients in low IGFBP-3 level are more likely to be in the dead survival status (OR = 4.480, p = 0.000). Our meta-analysis suggests that for esophageal cancer, the low IGFBP-3 level is associated with high cancer risk, poor prognosis, and unfavorable tumor stage and metastasis.

  5. The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer and their relationship to development in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Momenimovahed, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer is the most common cancer in less developed countries. It is necessary to understand epidemiology of the cancer for planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer, and its relationship with Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Methods This study was an Ecological study, which conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian counters. We assess the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of esophageal cancer with HDI and its components with using of SPSS18. Results A total of 337,698 incidence (70.33% were males and 29.87% females. Sex ratio was 2.37) and 296,734 death (69.45% in men and 30.54% in women. The sex ratio was 2.27) esophageal cancer was recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR and SMR of esophageal cancer were Turkmenistan, Mongolia and Tajikistan, Bangladesh and China respectively. Correlation between HDI and SIR was −0.211 (P=0.159), in men −0.175 (P=0.244) and in women −0.231 (P=0.123). Also between HDI and SMR −0.250 (P=0.094) in men −0.226 (P=0.131) and in women −0.251 (P=0.037). Conclusions The incidence of esophageal cancer is more in less developed and developing countries. Statistically significant correlation was not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer, and HDI and its dimensions, except for life expectancy at birth. PMID:26889482

  6. The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer and their relationship to development in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid; Momenimovahed, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the most common cancer in less developed countries. It is necessary to understand epidemiology of the cancer for planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer, and its relationship with Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. This study was an Ecological study, which conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian counters. We assess the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of esophageal cancer with HDI and its components with using of SPSS18. A total of 337,698 incidence (70.33% were males and 29.87% females. Sex ratio was 2.37) and 296,734 death (69.45% in men and 30.54% in women. The sex ratio was 2.27) esophageal cancer was recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR and SMR of esophageal cancer were Turkmenistan, Mongolia and Tajikistan, Bangladesh and China respectively. Correlation between HDI and SIR was -0.211 (P=0.159), in men -0.175 (P=0.244) and in women -0.231 (P=0.123). Also between HDI and SMR -0.250 (P=0.094) in men -0.226 (P=0.131) and in women -0.251 (P=0.037). The incidence of esophageal cancer is more in less developed and developing countries. Statistically significant correlation was not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer, and HDI and its dimensions, except for life expectancy at birth.

  7. Hot Food and Beverage Consumption and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrici, Juliana; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a neoplasm with a poor prognosis. Its two histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have been associated with different risk factors. The possibility of an association between the consumption of hot food and beverages and esophageal cancer, especially ESCC, has long been suspected, presenting a potentially modifiable risk factor. A meta-analysis of existing observational studies was performed to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. A search was conducted through MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Current Contents Connect to November 11, 2014. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model for the risk of esophageal cancer associated with the consumption of hot food and drink. Subgroup analyses were conducted for ESCC and EAC, as well as for studies that adjusted for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, two well-recognized risk factors for ESCC. Consumption of hot food and drink was associated with an increased risk of any esophageal cancer (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.46, 2.48). Heterogeneity was observed. There was an increased risk of ESCC (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.79, 2.93), which remained even after adjusting for significant confounding variables (OR=2.39, 95% CI=1.71, 3.33). The relationship was not significant for EAC. The consumption of hot food and beverages was associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer, particularly ESCC. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Berberine displays antitumor activity in esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Xian; Qi, Bo; Yao, Wen-Jian; Gu, Cheng-Wei; Wei, Xiu-Feng; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yu-Zhen; Zhao, Bao-Sheng

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the effects of berberine on esophageal cancer (EC) cells and its molecular mechanisms. Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line KYSE-70 and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line SKGT4 were used. The effects of berberine on cell proliferation were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. For cell cycle progression, KYSE-70 cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI) staining buffer (10 mg/mL PI and 100 mg/mL RNase A) for 30 min and cell cycle was analyzed using a BD FACSCalibur flow cytometer. For apoptosis assay, cells were stained with an Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit. The rate of apoptotic cells was analyzed using a dual laser flow cytometer and estimated using BD ModFit software. Levels of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by western blotting. Berberine treatment resulted in growth inhibition of KYSE-70 and SKGT4 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. KYSE-70 cells were more susceptible to the inhibitory activities of berberine than SKGT4 cells were. In KYSE-70 cells treated with 50 μmol/L berberine for 48 h, the number of cells in G 2 /M phase (25.94% ± 5.01%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (9.77% ± 1.28%, P < 0.01), and berberine treatment resulted in p21 up-regulation in KYSE-70 cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that berberine significantly augmented the KYSE-70 apoptotic population at 12 and 24 h post-treatment, when compared with control cells (0.83% vs 43.78% at 12 h, P < 0.05; 0.15% vs 81.86% at 24 h, P < 0.01), and berberine-induced apoptotic effect was stronger at 24 h compared with 12 h. Western blotting showed that berberine inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6K, and enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in a sustained manner. Berberine is an inhibitor of human EC cell growth and could be considered as a potential drug for the treatment

  9. Berberine displays antitumor activity in esophageal cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Xian; Qi, Bo; Yao, Wen-Jian; Gu, Cheng-Wei; Wei, Xiu-Feng; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yu-Zhen; Zhao, Bao-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of berberine on esophageal cancer (EC) cells and its molecular mechanisms. METHODS Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line KYSE-70 and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line SKGT4 were used. The effects of berberine on cell proliferation were evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. For cell cycle progression, KYSE-70 cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI) staining buffer (10 mg/mL PI and 100 mg/mL RNase A) for 30 min and cell cycle was analyzed using a BD FACSCalibur flow cytometer. For apoptosis assay, cells were stained with an Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit. The rate of apoptotic cells was analyzed using a dual laser flow cytometer and estimated using BD ModFit software. Levels of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by western blotting. RESULTS Berberine treatment resulted in growth inhibition of KYSE-70 and SKGT4 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. KYSE-70 cells were more susceptible to the inhibitory activities of berberine than SKGT4 cells were. In KYSE-70 cells treated with 50 μmol/L berberine for 48 h, the number of cells in G2/M phase (25.94% ± 5.01%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (9.77% ± 1.28%, P < 0.01), and berberine treatment resulted in p21 up-regulation in KYSE-70 cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that berberine significantly augmented the KYSE-70 apoptotic population at 12 and 24 h post-treatment, when compared with control cells (0.83% vs 43.78% at 12 h, P < 0.05; 0.15% vs 81.86% at 24 h, P < 0.01), and berberine-induced apoptotic effect was stronger at 24 h compared with 12 h. Western blotting showed that berberine inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and p70S6K, and enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in a sustained manner. CONCLUSION Berberine is an inhibitor of human EC cell growth and could be considered as a

  10. SATB1 plays an oncogenic role in esophageal cancer by up-regulation of FN1 and PDGFRB.

    PubMed

    Song, Guiqin; Liu, Kang; Yang, Xiaolin; Mu, Bo; Yang, Junbao; He, Lang; Hu, Xin; Li, Qiujiang; Zhao, Yunxia; Cai, Xiaoming; Feng, Gang

    2017-03-14

    Esophageal cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with very poor overall prognosis. Given the strong clinical relevance of SATB1 in esophagus cancer and other cancers suggested by previous studies, the exact function of SATB1 in esophagus cancer development is still unknown. Here we showed that the knockdown of SATB1 in esophageal cancer cell lines diminished the cell proliferation, survival and invasion. Whole genome transcriptome analysis of SATB1 knockdown cells revealed the different gene expression profiles between TE-1 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Network analysis and functional experiments further identified FN1 and PDGFRB to be key downstream genes regulated by SATB1 in esophageal cancer cells. Importantly, FN1 and PDGFRB were found to be highly expressed in human esophageal cancer. In summary, we provided the first molecular evidence that SATB1 played an oncogenic role in esophageal cancer by up-regulation of FN1 and PDGFRB.

  11. Orthotopic Esophageal Cancers: Intraesophageal Hyperthermia-enhanced Direct Chemotherapy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaoping; Zhang, Feng; Bai, Zhibin; Wang, Jianfeng; Qiu, Longhua; Li, Yonggang; Meng, Yanfeng; Valji, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of using intraesophageal radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia to enhance local chemotherapy in a rat model with orthotopic esophageal squamous cancers. Materials and Methods The animal protocol was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee and the institutional review board. Human esophageal squamous cancer cells were transduced with luciferase lentiviral particles. Cancer cells, mice with subcutaneous cancer esophageal xenografts, and nude rats with orthotopic esophageal cancers in four study groups of six animals per group were treated with (a) combination therapy of magnetic resonance imaging heating guidewire–mediated RF hyperthermia (42°C) plus local chemotherapy (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil), (b) chemotherapy alone, (c) RF hyperthermia alone, and (d) phosphate-buffered saline. Bioluminescent optical imaging and transcutaneous ultrasonographic imaging were used to observe bioluminescence signal and changes in tumor size among the groups over 2 weeks, which were correlated with subsequent histologic results. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparisons of variables. Results Compared with chemotherapy alone, RF hyperthermia alone, and phosphate-buffered saline, combination therapy with RF hyperthermia and chemotherapy induced the lowest cell proliferation (relative absorbance of formazan: 23.4% ± 7, 44.6% ± 7.5, 95.8% ± 2, 100%, respectively; P < .0001), rendered the smallest relative tumor volume (0.65 mm3 ± 0.15, P < .0001) and relative bioluminescence optical imaging photon signal (0.57 × 107 photons per second per square millimeter ± 0.15, P < .001) of mice with esophageal cancer xenografts, as well as the smallest relative tumor volume (0.68 mm3 ± 0.13, P < .05) and relative photon signal (0.56 × 107 photons per second per square millimeter ± 0.11. P < .001) of rat orthotopic esophageal cancers. Conclusion Intraesophageal RF hyperthermia can enhance the effect of chemotherapy

  12. Prevalence and management of colorectal neoplasia in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Komatsu, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akira; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2015-05-01

    The existence of other primary tumors during the treatment of esophageal cancer patients has been an important issue. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and management of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) in surgically treated esophageal cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 93 patients with esophageal cancer were surgically treated. Seventy-three patients underwent subtotal esophagectomy and 20 underwent lower esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Colonoscopy was available for detecting CRN before and after surgery. Eighty-nine (95.7%) of the 93 patients were screened by colonoscopy preoperatively or within a year from the operation. Thirty-nine patients (43.8%) with CRN were synchronously identified: adenoma in 34 (38.2%) and adenocarcinoma in 5 patients (5.6%). Eleven adenomas with high grade-dysplasia and 8 adenomas with low grade-dysplasia were removed endoscopically. Three superficial adenocarcinomas were endoscopically removed before surgery, and 2 adenocarcinomas were surgically removed. Seventy-four patients (83.1%) were followed using colonoscopy, and 11 subsequent CRN, including 2 superficial adenocarcinomas, were endoscopically detected in 8 patients (10.8%). The size of esophageal cancer was larger in the patients with than without CRN (p = 0.036). The body mass index in esophageal cancer patients with CRN tended to be higher than in those without CRN (p = 0.065). We noted that esophageal cancer is frequently associated with synchronous and/or metachronous colorectal cancer and adenomas. Colonoscopy is useful to detect and manage CRN before and after esophagectomy, although a few limitations exist. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensitizes human esophageal cancer cell to radiation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xue-Li; He, Gang; Liu, Yang-Bo; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-21

    To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cancer radiotherapy and its molecular mechanism. Tunicamycin (TM) was applied to induce ER stress in human esophageal cancer cell line EC109, and the radiosensitization effects were detected by acute cell death and clonogenic survival assay. Cell cycle arrest induced by TM was determined by flow cytometric analysis after the cellular DNA content was labeled with propidium iodide. Apoptosis of EC109 cells induced by TM was detected by annexin V staining and Western blotting of caspase-3 and its substrate poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Autophagic response was determined by acridine orange (AO) staining and Western blotting of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3) and autophagy related gene 5 (ATG5). In order to test the biological function of autophagy, specific inhibitor or Beclin-1 knockdown was used to inhibit autophagy, and its effect on cell apoptosis was thus detected. Additionally, involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was also detected by Western blotting. Finally, male nude mice inoculated subcutaneously with EC109 cells were used to confirm cell model observations. Our results showed that TM treatment enhanced cell death and reduced the colony survival fraction induced by ionizing radiation (IR), which suggested an obvious radiosensitization effect of TM. Moreover, TM and IR combination treatment led to a significant increase of G2/M phase and apoptotic cells, compared with IR alone. We also observed an increase of AO positive cells, and the protein level of LC3-II and ATG5 was induced by TM treatment, which suggested an autophagic response in EC109 cells. However, inhibition of autophagy by using a chemical inhibitor or Beclin-1 silencing led to increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell viability, which suggested a cytoprotective role of autophagy in stressed EC109 cells. Furthermore, TM treatment also

  14. Clinical value of integrated-signature miRNAs in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng-Chao; Tang, Kai-Fu

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression in tumorigenesis and are of great interest to researchers, but miRNA profiles are often inconsistent between studies. The aim of this study was to confirm candidate miRNA biomarkers for esophageal cancer from integrated-miRNA expression profiling data and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data in tissues. Here, we identify five significant miRNAs by a comprehensive analysis in esophageal cancer, and two of them (hsa-miR-100-5p and hsa-miR-133b) show better prognoses with significant difference for both 3-year and 5-year survival. Additionally, they participate in esophageal cancer occurrence and development according to KEGG and Panther enrichment analyses. Therefore, these five miRNAs may serve as miRNA biomarkers in esophageal cancer. Analysis of differential expression for target genes of these miRNAs may also provide new therapeutic alternatives in esophageal cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Preclinical testing of an Atr inhibitor demonstrates improved response to standard therapies for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B; Dobrynin, Greg; Leslie, Rhea E; Ient, Jonathan; Boumelha, Adam J; Senra, Joana M; Hawkins, Maria A; Maughan, Tim; Mukherjee, Somnath; Hammond, Ester M

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal cancer has a persistently low 5-year survival rate and has recently been classified as a cancer of unmet need by Cancer Research UK. Consequently, new approaches to therapy are urgently required. Here, we tested the hypothesis that an ATR inhibitor, VX-970, used in combination with standard therapies for esophageal cancer could improve treatment outcome. Using esophageal cancer cell lines we evaluated the efficacy of combining VX-970 with cisplatin and carboplatin in vitro and with radiation in vitro and in vivo. Radiation experiments were also carried out in hypoxic conditions to mimic the tumor microenvironment. Combining VX-970 with cisplatin, carboplatin and radiation increased tumor cell kill in vitro. A significant tumor growth delay was observed when VX-970 was combined with radiotherapy in vivo. VX-970 is an effective chemo/radiosensitizer which could be readily integrated in the current treatment paradigm to improve the treatment response in esophageal cancer and we plan to test it prospectively in the forthcoming phase I dose escalation safety study combining the ATR inhibitor VX-970 with chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancer (EudraCT number: 2015-003965-27). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating leptin and inflammatory response in esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer-related cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) and non-malignant CAS of the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Diakowska, Dorota; Krzystek-Korpacka, Malgorzata; Markocka-Maczka, Krystyna; Diakowski, Witold; Matusiewicz, Malgorzata; Grabowski, Krzysztof

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the association between esophageal cancer and cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) of the alimentary tract and leptin, an adipocytokine crucial for body weight regulation, a modulator of inflammatory/immune response, implication of which in cancer and CAS development remains debatable. Circulating leptin was measured in 135 esophageal cancer patients (51 non-cachectic and 84 cachectic) and 83 controls (63 non-cachectic and 20 cachectic) and referred to cancer stage, CAS, and inflammatory and nutritional indices. Leptin was down-regulated in cancer patients and cachectic controls as compared to non-cachectic controls, with more pronounced hypoleptinemia in advanced cancers. Leptin correlated directly with BMI, TNF-alpha, albumin, and hemoglobin and indirectly with IL-6, IL-8, and hsCRP. The correlations, except for hsCRP, were more pronounced in females. BMI alone (females) and BMI and hsCRP (males) were independent predictors of leptin explaining over 60% of its variability. Following adjustment for BMI and gender, cancer-related CAS but not cancer itself negatively affected leptin. Leptin and BMI were independently associated with cancer-related and non-malignant CAS with diagnostic accuracy of 93% in identifying subjects with CAS. Pro-inflammatory, angiogenic and mitogenic properties of leptin do not seem to be important for esophageal cancer development but hypoleptinemia, independently from co-occurring reduction of adiposity, appears to be strongly associated with esophageal cancer-related CAS and non-malignant CAS of the alimentary tract. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Esophageal Cancer Metastases to Unexpected Sites: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The most common pattern of esophageal cancer metastases (ECM) is to the lymph nodes, lung, liver, bones, adrenal glands, and brain. On the other hand, unexpected metastasis (UM) spread to uncommon sites has increasingly reported and consequently affected the pathway of diagnosis, staging, and management. Using the PubMed database, a systematic search of the following headings “Esophageal” and “Metastasis” or “Metastases” was performed, 10049 articles were identified, and the articles were included if they demonstrated unexpected ECM. 84% of cases were men with an average age of 60.7 years. EC was located in the lower third in 65%. Two-thirds of the UM originated from the lower esophagus, and the two major histological types were adenocarcinoma 40% and squamous cell carcinoma 60%. Metastases were disseminated toward five main anatomical sites: the head and neck (42%), thoracic (17%), abdomen and pelvis (25%), extremities (9%), and multiple skin and muscle metastases (7%). The EC metastases were found to be synchronous 42% and metachronous 58%, isolated in 53.5% and multiple in 46.5%. The overall survival rate was 10.2 months. Since distant metastases are responsible for most EC-related deaths, understanding of ECM dissemination patterns needs more extensive studies. These critical data are the cornerstone of optimal cancer approach and treatment. PMID:28659974

  18. Curcumin Induces Cell Death in Esophageal Cancer Cells through Modulating Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Battafarano, Richard J.; Anant, Shrikant; Sharma, Prateek

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin inhibits the growth of esophageal cancer cell lines; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been associated with the development of esophageal cancer. Here, we have determined that curcumin inhibits esophageal cancer growth via a mechanism mediated through the Notch signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we show that curcumin treatment resulted in a dose and time dependent inhibition of proliferation and colony formation in esophageal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, curcumin treatment induced apoptosis through caspase 3 activation, confirmed by an increase in the ratio of Bax to Bcl2. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that curcumin treatment induced cell death and down regulated cyclin D1 levels. Curcumin treatment also resulted in reduced number and size of esophagospheres. Furthermore, curcumin treatment led to reduced Notch-1 activation, expression of Jagged-1 and its downstream target Hes-1. This reduction in Notch-1 activation was determined to be due to the down-regulation of critical components of the γ-secretase complex proteins such as Presenilin 1 and Nicastrin. The combination of a known γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT and curcumin further decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Finally, curcumin treatment down-regulate the expressions of Notch-1 specific microRNAs miR-21 and miR-34a, and upregulated tumor suppressor let-7a miRNA. Conclusion/Significance Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of esophageal cancer growth that targets the Notch-1 activating γ-secretase complex proteins. These data suggest that Notch signaling inhibition is a novel mechanism of action for curcumin during therapeutic intervention in esophageal cancers. PMID:22363450

  19. Optimal treatment for localized esophageal cancer still uncertain.

    PubMed

    Lord, R V

    2000-01-01

    These articles both report the results of multi-institutional, randomized, phase 3 trials for the treatment of patients with localized (T1-3 N0-1 M0) esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or esophageal adenocarcinoma. Both studies were initiated and coordinated by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) but included patients enrolled by other study groups as well. Cooper et al. report late follow-up results for the RTOG 85-01 trial that was conducted between 1986 and 1990. This trial randomized patients to either radiation therapy (RT) alone (RT, 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6.4 wk, n = 62) or combined RT and chemotherapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 wk, plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 i.v. on first day of wk 1, 5, 8, and 11, and continuous infusion fluorouracil (5FU) 1 g/m2 per day on the first 4 days of the same weeks, n = 61). Most (82%) of the patients had SCC. Eight percent of the cohort randomly assigned to combined modality therapy experienced acute life-threatening toxic effects, and an additional 2% died as a direct consequence of treatment. The randomized trial was halted in 1990 when an interim analysis found a highly significant difference in survival favoring the combined therapy group, after which 73 consecutive patients were enrolled into a nonrandomized study offering only the combined therapy regimen. At 5-yr of follow-up, the overall survival rate for the combined therapy group in the randomized study was 26% (95% CI, 15-37%) compared with 0% for RT alone. In the nonrandomized study, the 5-yr overall survival rate was 14% (95% CI, 6-23%). The histopathological type of tumor did not significantly influence survival. Cooper et al. now report that 22% of the randomized combined modality group survived at least 8 yr after treatment, and that there were no deaths caused by esophageal cancer after 5 yr post-treatment. The study reported by Kelsen et al. included 440 patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 236) or SCC (n = 204) randomized to either

  20. Esophageal cancer: 5-year survival rate at south-east of Caspian sea of northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Taziki, Mohammad Hussin; Rajaee, Siamak; Behnampour, Naser; Tadrisee, Massoud; Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Locating at southern margin of Caspian sea and Asian esophagus cancer cordon Golestan state is one of the most common sites of this cancer. This study designed to evaluate the 5-years survival rate of esophagus cancer. 55 patients with esophagus cancer diagnosed by pathologic examination, age, gender, type of tumor, clinical manifestation on the time of tumor metastases, treatment and patient survival time studied. The collecting data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5, and life table and Kaplan Meier methods were applied. 55 patients studied included 11 females and 44 males respectively with average survival life time of 12.8 months for the 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed at early stage was 0.025, patients with systemic symptoms such as weight loss was 0.00. Far metastases adverse effect on highest survivals was observed among patients who underwent surgery; the survival rate for such patients was about 0.014. Esophageal cancer is high in southern margin of Caspian Sea, it is suggested to design studies to find the probable risk factors and the screening tests for on-time diagnosis.

  1. Characterizing Esophageal Cancerous Cells at Different Stages Using the Dielectrophoretic Impedance Measurement Method in a Microchip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Lin, Rui-Yi; Jen, Chun-Ping

    2017-05-06

    Analysis of cancerous cells allows us to provide useful information for the early diagnosis of cancer and to monitor treatment progress. An approach based on electrical principles has recently become an attractive technique. This study presents a microdevice that utilizes a dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method for the identification of cancerous cells. The proposed biochip consists of circle-on-line microelectrodes that are patterned using a standard microfabrication processes. A sample of various cell concentrations was introduced in an open-top microchamber. The target cells were collectively concentrated between the microelectrodes using dielectrophoresis manipulation, and their electrical impedance properties were also measured. Different stages of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lines could be distinguished. This result is consistent with findings using hyperspectral imaging technology. Moreover, it was observed that the distinguishing characteristics change in response to the progression of cancer cell invasiveness by Raman spectroscopy. The device enables highly efficient cell collection and provides rapid, sensitive, and label-free electrical measurements of cancerous cells.

  2. Symptomatic pericardial effusion after chemoradiation therapy in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Junichi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Ohashi, Toshio; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Hanada, Takashi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Yuko; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-11-01

    We investigated clinical and treatment-related factors as predictors of symptomatic pericardial effusion in esophageal cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiation therapy. We reviewed 214 consecutive primary esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy between 2001 and 2010 in our institute. Pericardial effusion was detected on follow-up computed tomography. Symptomatic effusion was defined as effusion ≥grade 3 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 criteria. Percent volume irradiated with 5 to 65 Gy (V5-V65) and mean dose to the pericardium were evaluated employing dose-volume histograms. To evaluate dosimetry for patients treated with two-dimensional planning in the earlier period (2001-2005), computed tomography data at diagnosis were transferred to a treatment planning system to reconstruct three-dimensional plans without modification. Optimal dosimetric thresholds for symptomatic pericardial effusion were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curves. Associating clinical and treatment-related risk factors for symptomatic pericardial effusion were detected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The median follow-up was 29 (range, 6-121) months for eligible 167 patients. Symptomatic pericardial effusion was observed in 14 (8.4%) patients. Dosimetric analyses revealed average values of V30 to V45 for the pericardium and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those with asymptomatic pericardial effusion (P<.05). Pericardial V5 to V55 and mean pericardial doses were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion than in those without pericardial effusion (P<.001). Mean pericardial doses of 36.5 Gy and V45 of 58% were selected as optimal cutoff values for predicting symptomatic pericardial effusion. Multivariate analysis identified mean pericardial dose as the strongest risk factor for symptomatic

  3. Physical ExeRcise Following Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PERFECT) study: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Vulpen, Jonna K; Siersema, Peter D; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Groenendijk, Richard P R; van der Peet, Donald L; Hazebroek, Eric J; Rosman, Camiel; Schippers, Carlo C G; Steenhagen, Elles; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2017-08-18

    Following esophagectomy, esophageal cancer patients experience a clinically relevant deterioration of health-related quality of life, both on the short- and long-term. With the currently growing number of esophageal cancer survivors, the burden of disease- and treatment-related complaints and symptoms becomes more relevant. This emphasizes the need for interventions aimed at improving quality of life. Beneficial effects of post-operative physical exercise have been reported in several cancer types, but so far comparable evidence in esophageal cancer patients is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of physical exercise on health-related quality of life in esophageal cancer patients following surgery. The Physical ExeRcise Following Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PERFECT) study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial including 150 esophageal cancer patients after surgery with curative intent. Patients are randomly allocated to an exercise group or usual care group. The exercise group participates in a 12-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise program, supervised by a physiotherapist near the patient's home-address. In addition, participants in the exercise group are requested to be physically active for at least 30 min per day, every day of the week. Participants allocated to the usual care group are asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Secondary outcomes include esophageal cancer specific quality of life, fatigue, anxiety and depression, sleep quality, work-related factors, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2peak ), muscle strength, physical activity, malnutrition risk, anthropometry, blood markers, recurrence of disease and survival. All questionnaire outcomes, diaries and accelerometers are assessed at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks post-baseline) and 24 weeks post-baseline. Physical fitness, anthropometry and blood markers are assessed

  4. Meat consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cross, Amanda J; Freedman, Neal D; Ren, Jiansong; Ward, Mary H; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi; Abnet, Christian C

    2011-03-01

    Red and processed meats could increase cancer risk through several potential mechanisms involving iron, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and N-nitroso compounds. Although there have been multiple studies of meat and colorectal cancer, other gastrointestinal malignancies are understudied. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between meat, meat components, and meat cooking by-products and risk of esophageal or gastric cancer in a large cohort study. During ∼10 years of follow-up, we accrued 215 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 630 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 454 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, and 501 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas. Red meat intake was positively associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR for the top versus bottom quintile=1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-3.01, P for trend=0.019). Individuals in the highest intake quintile of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) had an increased risk for gastric cardia cancer (HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.01-2.07, P for trend=0.104). Furthermore, those in the highest quintile of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), or heme iron intake had a suggestive increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR=1.35, 95% CI: 0.97-1.89, P for trend=0.022; HR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.99-2.12, P for trend=0.463; or HR=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-2.20, P for trend=0.063, respectively). Benzo[a]pyrene, nitrate, and nitrite were not associated with esophageal or gastric cancer. We found positive associations between red meat intake and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and between DiMeIQx intake and gastric cardia cancer.

  5. miR-124 radiosensitizes human esophageal cancer cell TE-1 by targeting CDK4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y H; Wang, Q Q; Li, H; Ye, T; Gao, F; Liu, Y C

    2016-06-03

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important treatments for esophageal cancer, but radioresistance remains a major challenge. Previous studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are involved in human cancers. miR-124 has been widely reported in various cancers and it is intimately involved in proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the miR-124/cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) axis and the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. In this study, we identified the reduced expression of miR-124 in 18 paired esophageal cancer tissues compared to their matched normal tissues. In order to investigate the physiological role of miR-124 in esophageal cancer, the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and wound healing assay were performed, and the results suggest that miR-124 overexpression decreases tumor growth and aggression. Next, we detected the effects of ectopic miR-124 expression on the apoptosis of an esophageal cancer cell line (TE-1) following radiotherapy. Using the CCK-8 assay and Hoechst 332528 stain, we found that ectopic expression of miR-124 led to a higher percentage of apoptotic cells. Finally, we identified that CDK4 is a direct target of miR-124 in TE-1 cells using target prediction algorithms and a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, western blot assay confirmed that CDK4 was downregulated during miR-124 transfection. Taken together, we illustrate that the miR-124/CDK4 axis plays an important role in radiation sensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells by targeting CDK4.

  6. Failure-to-rescue in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal or gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Busweiler, L A; Henneman, D; Dikken, J L; Fiocco, M; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Wijnhoven, B P; van Hillegersberg, R; Rosman, C; Wouters, M W; van Sandick, J W

    2017-10-01

    Complex surgical procedures such as esophagectomy and gastrectomy for cancer are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in postoperative morbidity, mortality, and associated failure-to-rescue (FTR), in patients who underwent a potentially curative resection for esophageal or gastric cancer in the Netherlands, and to investigate differences between the two groups. All patients with esophageal or gastric cancer who underwent a potentially curative resection, registered in the Dutch Upper GI Cancer Audit (DUCA) between 2011 and 2014, were included. Primary outcomes were (major) postoperative complications, postoperative mortality and FTR. To investigate groups' effect on the outcomes of interest a mixed model was used. Overall, 2644 patients with esophageal cancer and 1584 patients with gastric cancer were included in this study. In patients with gastric cancer, postoperative mortality (7.7% in 2011 vs. 3.8% in 2014) and FTR (38% in 2011 and 19% in 2014) decreased significantly over the years. The adjusted risk of developing a major postoperative complication was lower (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.42-0.70), but the risk of FTR was higher (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.05-3.27) in patients with gastric cancer compared to patients with esophageal cancer. Once a postoperative complication occurred, patients with gastric cancer were more likely to die compared to patients with esophageal cancer. Underlying mechanisms like patient selection, and differences in structure and organization of care should be investigated. Next to morbidity and mortality, failure-to-rescue should be considered as an important outcome measure after esophagogastric cancer resections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  7. miR-34a inhibits the in vitro cell proliferation and migration in human esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Zhou, Shengluan; Liu, Junhua; Zhu, Jun; Xue, Jianhua; Gu, Luo; Chen, Yijiang

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies demonstrate that reduced expression of miR-34a is involved in the initiation and progression of cancers, and it has been characterized as a tumor suppressor in various types of cancers. In present study, we investigated the expression and role of miR-34a in esophageal cancer. qRT-PCR assays were performed to analyze the expression of miR-34a in human esophageal cancer tissues and adjacent esophageal tissues. CCK8 assay, flow cytometry analysis and in vitro migration assays were performed to analyze the role of miR-34a in human esophageal cancer cell. MSP assay was performed to analyze the DNA methylation of the miR-34a promoter. The expression of miR-34a was down-regulated in human esophageal cancer tissues. miR-34a ectopic expression affected esophageal cancer cells survival, proliferation and capabilities of migration in vitro. p53 status was not correlated with miR-34a. Subsequently, aberrant DNA methylation of the miR-34a promoter was found in human esophageal cancer, and 5-AZA-dC inhibited DNA methylation of the miR-34a promoter. our data showed that miR-34a acted as a tumor suppressor in human esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Anxiety and depressive disorders among patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Yu; Ku, Fan-Chen; Wang, Yen-Po; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lu, Ti; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Teng, Chung-Jen; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of depression with anxiety disorders is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, worse quality of life, poorer adherence to treatment, and greater suicide risk in cancer patients. To assess the risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders after the diagnosis of esophageal cancer compared with a matched cohort by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We conducted a retrospective study of 28,454 patients (14,227 patients with esophageal cancer and 14,227 matched patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 12 years to determine the incidence of new-onset anxiety and depressive disorders for which antidepressants had been prescribed. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in esophageal cancer patients. The cumulative incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders in the esophageal cancer patients was significantly higher than that in the matched cohort (P < .001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.24 (95 % confidence interval, CI = 1.95-2.56, P < .001) in the esophageal cancer cohort compared with the matched cohort. Independent risk factors for developing anxiety and depressive disorders among the patients with esophageal cancer included cirrhosis, cerebrovascular disease, and surgical treatment. Esophageal cancer may be a prominent risk factor for anxiety and depressive disorders. Based on our data, we suggest that attention should be focused on esophageal cancer patients with comorbid cirrhosis and cerebrovascular disease and those who have received surgical interventions.

  9. The Utility of Proton Beam Therapy with Concurrent Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Esophageal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The standard of care for the management of locally advanced esophageal cancers in the United States is chemotherapy combined with radiation, either definitively, or for those who could tolerate surgery, preoperatively before esophagectomy. Although the appropriate radiation dose remains somewhat controversial, the quality of the radiation delivery is critical for the treatment of esophageal cancer since the esophagus is positioned close to vital structures, such as the heart and lung. The volume and relative doses to these normal tissues affect acute and late term complications. Advances in radiation delivery from 2D to 3D conformal radiation therapy, to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or charged particle therapy (carbon ion or proton beam therapy (PBT)), allow incremental improvements in the therapeutic ratio. This could have implications in non-cancer related morbidity for long term survivors. This article reviews the evolution in radiation technologies and the use of PBT with chemotherapy in the management of esophageal cancer. PMID:24213126

  10. Esophageal cancer detection based on tissue surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2013-01-01

    The capability of using silver nanoparticle based near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) to differentiate esophageal cancer tissue from normal tissue was presented. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent SERS bands were observed between normal and cancer tissues. PCA-LDA multivariate analysis of the measured tissue SERS spectra achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 97.8%. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for developing label-free tissue SERS analysis into a clinical tool for esophageal cancer detection.

  11. Review of the gut microbiome and esophageal cancer: Pathogenesis and potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2017-06-01

    Esophageal cancer ranks among the most aggressive malignant diseases. The limited improvements in treatment outcomes provided by conventional therapies have prompted us to seek innovative strategies for treating this cancer. More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play a crucial role in health and disease conditions, including cancer. The human intestinal microbiome is thought to influence tumor development and progression in the gastrointestinal tract by various mechanisms. For example, Fusobacterium nucleatum , which primarily inhabits the oral cavity and causes periodontal disease, might contribute to aggressive tumor behavior through activation of chemokines such as CCL20 in esophageal cancer tissue. Composition of the intestinal microbiota is influenced by diet, lifestyle, antibiotics, and pro- and prebiotics. Therefore, by better understanding how the bacterial microbiota contributes to esophageal carcinogenesis, we might develop novel cancer prevention and treatment strategies through targeting the gastrointestinal microflora. This review discusses the current knowledge, available data and information on the relationship of microbiota with esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-06-08

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer.

  13. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49–0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49–0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:27338463

  14. Fruit Consumption Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer in Yanting, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingkun; Zhao, Lin; Li, Jun; Ren, Jun

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the contribution of fruit and family history to esophageal cancer, among residents with abnormal esophagus discovered in screening. The study was a frequency-matched case-control design in groups of normal esophagus, abnormal esophagus but not carcinoma, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Odds ratio (OR) was estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Fruit intake (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06-0.56) and positive family history of esophageal cancer (OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.41-10.63) were associated with esophageal cancer compared to individuals with abnormal conditions of the esophagus. In individuals who consumed fruits at least once per week, the OR for family cancer history is reduced to a nonsignificant level (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.07-15.91). In the individuals with abnormal esophagus at screening, fruit intake was possibly protective against esophageal cancer, even in the ones with positive family history. Local public health strategies should focus on the improvement in fruit intake. © 2014 APJPH.

  15. Associated factors of radiation pneumonitis induced by precise radiotherapy in 186 elderly patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhen; Tian, Ye; He, Bin; Li, Hongwei; Li, Duojie; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hanfei; Lou, Jianjun; Jiang, Hao; Shen, Xueming; Peng, Kaigui

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is one of the most severe complications of esophageal cancer. To explore the factors correlated to radiation pneumonitis induced by precise radiotherapy for elderly patients with esophageal cancer. The retrospective analysis was used to collect clinical data from 186 elderly patients with esophageal cancer. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was observed, followed by statistical analysis through ANVON or multiple regression analysis. 27 in 186 cases of esophageal cancer suffered from radiation pneumonitis, with incidence of 14.52%. The single factor analysis showed that, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, gross tumor volume (GTV) dose, lung V20, mean lung dose (MLD) and planning target volume (PTV) were associated with radiation pneumonitis. The logistic regression analysis indicated that, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, GTV dose, lung V20 and PTV were the independent factors of radiation pneumonitis. The concurrent chemoradiotherapy, GTV dose, lung V20, MLD and PTV are the major risk factors of radiation pneumonitis for elderly patients with esophageal cancer.

  16. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  17. Differential role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis and treatment of Esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hemmatzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Hamed; Karimi, Mohammad; Musavishenas, Mohammad Hossein; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-08-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the most invasive disease associated with inclusive poor prognosis. EC usually is found as either adenocarcinoma (EAC) or squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). ESCC forms in squamous cells and highly occurs in the upper third of the esophagus. EAC appears in glandular cells and ordinarily develops in the lower one third of the esophagus near the stomach. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic precursor of EAC. There is a persistent need for improving our understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) demonstrate an uncovered class of small, non-coding RNAs that can negatively regulate the protein coding gene, and are associated with approximately all known physiological and pathological processes, especially cancer. MiRNAs can affect cancer pathogenesis, playing a crucial role as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The recent emergence of observations on the role of miRNAs in cancer and their functions has induced many investigations to examine their relevance to esophageal cancer. In esophageal cancer, miRNA dysregulation plays a crucial role in cancer prognosis and in patients' responsiveness to neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapies. In this review, the oncogenic, tumor suppressive, and drug resistance related roles of miRNAs, and their involvement in the pathogenesis and treatment of esophageal cancer were summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA profile identifies differentially expressed lncRNAs associated with Esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yiyang; Chen, Min; Shi, Liangliang; Xu, Lei; Zou, Xiaoping

    2018-06-21

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. However, the mechanism of esophageal cancer pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) dysregulation have been reported to involve in various human cancers, which highlights the potential of lncRNAs used as novel biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Although more efforts have been made to identify novel lncRNAs signature in esophageal cancer, the expression pattern, prognostic value, and biological function of most lncRNAs in esophageal cancer still need to be systematically investigated. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the expression profile of lncRNAs in more than 200 esophageal cancer patients tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We identified thousands of lncRNAs are differentially expressed in esophageal cancer tissues, and many of those lncRNAs expression are associated with patients overall survival or recurrence-free survival time. Moreover, copy number variation analyses revealed that genomic loci copy number amplification or deletion might contribute to these lncRNAs dysregulation. Among these lncRNAs, DUXAP8 and LINC00460 were significantly upregulated, and GO enrichment analyses indicated that the two lncRNAs associated protein-coding genes involve with many known biological processes, such as cell cycle and cell-cell adherens junction. Further experimental validation revealed that knockdown of DUXAP8 could impair esophageal cancer cells proliferation and invasion in vitro. Taken together, our findings identified more aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in esophageal cancer that may provide a useful resource for identifying novel esophageal cancer associated lncRNAs. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for lung and esophageal cancers in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer in northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue Ke; Mao, Yi Min; Meng, Hui; Song, Xin; Hu, Shou Jia; Lv, Shuang; Cheng, Rang; Zhang, Tang Juan; Han, Xue Na; Ren, Jing Li; Qi, Yi Jun; Wang, Li Dong

    2017-01-01

    Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population. A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson's Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival. Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107-1.509; P = 0.02), rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100-1.495; P = 0.04), rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098-1.525; P = 0.04) and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089-1.447; P = 0.04). All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with gender, TNM stage, histopathological type

  20. Shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for lung and esophageal cancers in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin; Hu, Shou Jia; Lv, Shuang; Cheng, Rang; Zhang, Tang Juan; Han, Xue Na; Ren, Jing Li; Qi, Yi Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population. Methods A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson’s Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival. Results Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107–1.509; P = 0.02), rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100–1.495; P = 0.04), rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098–1.525; P = 0.04) and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089–1.447; P = 0.04). All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with

  1. Heat treatment of human esophageal tissues: Effect on esophageal cancer detection using oxygenated hemoglobin diffuse reflectance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Si, J. L.; Wei, H. J.; Yang, H. Q.; Wu, G. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Guo, X.; Zhong, H. Q.; Li, L. Q.; Li, X. Y.

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of the present work is to study the influence of heat treatment on the esophageal cancer detection using the diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral intensity ratio R540/R575 of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) absorption bands to distinguish the epithelial tissues of normal human esophagus and moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at different heat treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, 50, and 60°C, respectively. The DR spectra for the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC in vitro at different heat-treatment temperature in the wavelength range 400-650 nm were measured with a commercial optical fiber spectrometer. The results indicate that the average DR spectral intensity overall enhancement with concomitant increase of heat-treatment temperature for the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC, but the average DR spectral intensity for the normal esophageal epithelial tissues is relatively higher than that for ESCC epithelial tissues at the same heat-treatment temperature. The mean R540/R575 ratios of ESCC epithelial tissues were always lower than that of normal esophageal epithelial tissues at the same temperature, and the mean R540/R575 ratios of the epithelial tissues of the normal esophagus and ESCC were decreasing with the increase of different heat-treatment temperatures. The differences in the mean R540/R575 ratios between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC were 13.33, 13.59, 11.76, and 11.11% at different heat-treatment temperature of 20, 37, 42, and 50°C, respectively. These results also indicate that the DR intensity ratio R540/R575 of the hemoglobin bands is a useful tool for discrimination between the epithelial tissues of normal esophagus and ESCC in the temperature range from room temperature to 50°C, but it was non-effective at 60°C or over 60°C.

  2. Laparoscopic percutaneous jejunostomy with intracorporeal V-Loc jejunopexy in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Mao; Hsiao, Wei-Ling; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Huang, Pei-Ming; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Barbed sutures are widely used in various laparoscopic digestive surgeries. The purpose of this paper is to present our initial experience of laparoscopic percutaneous jejunostomy with unidirectional barbed sutures in esophageal cancer patients and compare it with our early cases using traditional transabdominal sutures. A total of 118 esophageal cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic percutaneous jejunostomy were identified in a single institution in Taiwan from June 2014 to May 2016. The authors' traditional technique consisted of using transabdominal sutures with bolsters to fix a jejunum loop onto the anterior abdominal wall. A novel technique was introduced using intracorporeal suturing with knotless unidirectional barbed monofilament absorbable sutures (V-Loc) to attain a seal around the feeding catheter. A comparison between these two techniques was performed. Twenty cases with barbed V-Loc sutures and 98 cases with transabdominal sutures were identified. The V-Loc sutures appeared to reduce peristomal skin ulcers (19.4 vs. 0 %, p = 0.040), postoperative pain scores during the first 24 h (1.8 ± 1.4 vs. 0.9 ± 1.1, p = 0.007) and on postoperative day 2 (1.7 ± 1.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.8, p = 0.026) when compared to patients receiving transabdominal sutures. The mean suturing time using V-Loc sutures was 22 min (14-60 min). The mean onset to resumption of enteral feeding was 1.8 ± 0.8 days and the mean duration of postoperative hospital stay was 8 ± 5.1 days, both of which were comparable in the two groups. There was no surgical mortality in our series. In the study cohort, the use of knotless unidirectional barbed sutures instead of traditional transabdominal sutures had similar outcomes and appears to be a feasible option for intracorporeal jejunopexy when performing laparoscopic jejunostomy in patients with esophageal cancer.

  3. The outcomes of esophageal and gastric cancer treatments in a retrospective study, single center experience.

    PubMed

    Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Jalali, Arash; Aliabadi, Leyla Sharifi; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Maheri, Roghieh; Eini, Ezzat; Mashhadireza, Maryam; Mousavi, Seied Asadollah; Bahar, Babak; Jahani, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are among the most common cancers in Iran. Usually survival of these cases is poor despite of treatment. Here we studied outcome of these cases in our center to have an estimation of general prognosis of patients. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the data of patient's files before treatment, including cancer stage at diagnosis, types of treatments and outcomes. We studied 368 patients treated between 1995 and 2011. The study included 368 patients (248 [67.4%] males and 120 [32.6%] females) with a median age of 58 (range: 23 - 94). Sixty nine patients (18.8%) had esophageal cancer with a median age of 58.5 years (range: 33 - 84), and 47.8% (33/69) of whom were male. Sixty five (17.7%) were reported to have gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) with a median age of 62.0 (range: 32 - 94), among them 72.3% (47/65) of whom were male and finally Two hundred thirty four (63.6%) had gastric cancer with a median age of 57.0 (range: 23 - 82), which 71.8% (168/234) of whom were male. The Median follow-up was 10 months. The majority of patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease. Stage III or IV was observed in 65.0% (39/60) of patients with esophageal cancer, 75.0% (33/44) with GEJ cancer and 65.4% (121/185) with gastric cancer. In this study, 58% of patients with esophageal cancer, 50.8% with GEJ and gastric cancers had unresectable disease or metastases at presentation. One-year EFS was 51.8% (95% CI: 39.8 - 67.3%), 32.8% (95% CI: 22.1 - 48.7%), and 56.7% (95% CI: 50.1 - 64.3%) in patients with esophageal, GEJ and gastric cancers, respectively (p = 0.002). The 1-year OS was 54.5% (95% CI: 42.6 - 69.8%), 39.5% (95 CI: 28.1 - 55.5%), and 68.2% (95% CI: 61.8 - 75.3%), respectively (p < 0.001). Cancers of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract contribute to the high mortality and morbidity rates because they are more likely to be diagnosed at late or advanced stages of disease. Cancer of the GEJ has a poor prognosis compared to

  4. The bidirectional association between oral cancer and esophageal cancer: A population-based study in Taiwan over a 28-year period

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chang-Hsien; Huang, Cih-En; Chen, Min-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that patients with oral or esophageal cancer are at higher risk for subsequently developing a second primary malignancy. However, it remains to be determined what association exists between oral cancer and esophageal cancer particularly in Asian countries where squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant type of esophageal cancer. A population-based study was carried out in Taiwan, where the incidence rates of both oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas are high, to test the hypothesis that oral cancer or esophageal cancer predisposes an individual to developing the other form of cancer. Our results showed that patients with primary oral cancer (n=45,859) had ten times the risk of second esophageal cancer compared to the general population. Within the same cohort, the reciprocal risk of oral cancer as a second primary in primary esophageal cancer patients (n=16,658) was also increased seven-fold. The bidirectional relationship suggests common risk factors between these two cancers. The present study is not only the first population-based study in Asia to validate the reciprocal relationship between oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but also will aid in the appropriate selection of high-risk patients for a future follow-up surveillance program. PMID:28562351

  5. The bidirectional association between oral cancer and esophageal cancer: A population-based study in Taiwan over a 28-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan-Der; Wang, Ting-Yao; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Huang, Cih-En; Chen, Min-Chi

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have revealed that patients with oral or esophageal cancer are at higher risk for subsequently developing a second primary malignancy. However, it remains to be determined what association exists between oral cancer and esophageal cancer particularly in Asian countries where squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant type of esophageal cancer. A population-based study was carried out in Taiwan, where the incidence rates of both oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas are high, to test the hypothesis that oral cancer or esophageal cancer predisposes an individual to developing the other form of cancer. Our results showed that patients with primary oral cancer (n=45,859) had ten times the risk of second esophageal cancer compared to the general population. Within the same cohort, the reciprocal risk of oral cancer as a second primary in primary esophageal cancer patients (n=16,658) was also increased seven-fold. The bidirectional relationship suggests common risk factors between these two cancers. The present study is not only the first population-based study in Asia to validate the reciprocal relationship between oral and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but also will aid in the appropriate selection of high-risk patients for a future follow-up surveillance program.

  6. Cord blood-derived cytokine-induced killer cellular therapy plus radiation therapy for esophageal cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Huang, Shigao; Dang, Yazheng; Li, Ming; Bai, Wen; Zhong, Zhanqiang; Zhao, Hongliang; Li, Yang; Liu, Yongjun; Wu, Mingyuan

    2014-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a serious malignancy with regards to mortality and prognosis. Current treatment options include multimodality therapy mainstays of current treatment including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Cell therapy for esophageal cancer is an advancing area of research. We report a case of esophageal cancer following cord blood-derived cytokine-induced killer cell infusion and adjuvant radiotherapy. Initially, she presented with poor spirit, full liquid diets, and upper abdominal pain. Through cell therapy plus adjuvant radiotherapy, the patient remitted and was self-reliant. Recognition of this curative effect of sequent therapy for esophageal cancer is important to enable appropriate treatment. This case highlights cord blood-derived cytokine-induced killer cell therapy significantly alleviates the adverse reaction of radiation and improves the curative effect. Cell therapy plus adjuvant radiotherapy can be a safe and effective treatment for esophageal cancer.

  7. Dosimetric correlations of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Ken; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Haruo

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We examined 35 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 27, 77%) and small-cell lung cancer (n = 8, 23%) treated with thoracic radiotherapy between February 2003 and November 2004. The median patient age was 70 years (range, 50-83 years). The disease stage was Stage I in 2 patients (6%), Stage II in 1 (3%), Stage IIIa in 10 (28%), Stage IIIb in 9 (26%), and Stage IV in 9 (26%); 4 patients (11%) had recurrent disease after surgery. Amore » median dose of 60 Gy (range, 50-67 Gy) was given to the isocenter and delivered in single daily fractions of 1.8 or 2 Gy. With heterogeneity corrections, the median given dose to the isocenter was 60.3 Gy (range, 49.9-67.2 Gy). Of the 35 patients, 30 (86%) received concurrent chemotherapy consisting of a platinum agent, cisplatin or carboplatin, combined with paclitaxel in 18 patients (52%), irinotecan hydrochloride in 7 (20%), vincristine sulfate and etoposide in 2 (5%), vinorelbine ditartrate in 1 (3%), etoposide in 1 (3%), and docetaxel in 1 patient (3%). Three of these patients underwent induction therapy with cisplatin and irinotecan hydrochloride, administered before thoracic radiotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy. Esophageal toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The following factors were analyzed with respect to their association with Grade 1 or worse esophagitis by univariate and multivariate analyses: age, gender, concurrent chemotherapy, chemotherapeutic agents, maximal esophageal dose, mean esophageal dose, and percentage of esophageal volume receiving >10 to >65 Gy in 5-Gy increments. Results: Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) developed acute esophagitis, with Grade 1 in 20 (57%) and Grade 2 in 5 (14%). None of the patients had Grade 3 or worse toxicity. The most significant correlation was between esophagitis and percentage

  8. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

  9. Sex difference in survival of patients treated by surgical resection for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Hideki; Hotokezaka, Masayuki; Nakashima, Shinya; Uchiyama, Shuichiro; Maehara, Naoki; Chijiiwa, Kazuo

    2007-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for most of the esophageal cancers in Japan and is often related to excessive smoking and drinking. Although esophageal cancer occurs far more frequently in men than in women, it is not certain whether there are sex-specific differences in morbidity and mortality after surgical resection of the esophagus. We conducted a study to determine the influence of sex on the short- and long-term results of surgical resection in patients with esophageal cancer. There were 295 patients with a newly diagnosed primary malignant neoplasm of the esophagus treated at our University hospital between January 1978 and December 2005. There were 185 patients (166 men, 19 women; age range 39-86 years) who underwent surgical resection for primary esophageal malignant neoplasms. Survival rates were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and tested with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess independent predictors of survival. The cumulative amount of alcohol consumed and number of cigarettes smoked were significantly higher in men than in women. Postoperative complications occurred in 101 men (60.8%) and 9 women (47.4%), but significant sex differences in postoperative morbidity and mortality were not observed. Overall survival was significantly better for women than for men. Postoperative morbidity and mortality do not appear to differ between men and women with esophageal cancer treated by surgical resection. Long-term survival after surgical resection of the esophagus appears to be significantly better for women than for men.

  10. Protective Effect of Dietary Calcium Intake on Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianwen; Cui, Lingling; Tian, Yalan; Cui, Han; Li, Li; Dou, Weifeng; Li, Haixia; Wang, Ling

    2017-05-18

    Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary calcium intake and the risk of esophageal cancer, the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to make a comprehensive evaluation regarding the association between calcium intake and risk of esophageal cancer through a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant articles from the inception to April 2017, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge. The pooled odds ratio (ORs) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of calcium intake was calculated using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. In total, 15 articles reporting 17 studies including 3396 esophageal cancer cases and 346,815 controls were selected for the meta-analysis. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest levels of dietary calcium intake, we found that dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.71-0.91, I ² = 33.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated that the protective function of dietary calcium intake were observed in esophageal squamous cell cancer, but not in esophageal adenocarcinoma in the studies conducted in Asia, but not those in Europe and America. In conclusion, our results suggest that higher dietary calcium intake is associated with a lower risk of esophageal cancer-especially esophageal squamous cell cancer-in Asian populations, though more data from prospective cohort studies are needed.

  11. Rigid Esophagoscopy for Head and Neck Cancer Staging and the Incidence of Synchronous Esophageal Malignant Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    McGarey, Patrick O; O'Rourke, Ashli K; Owen, Scott R; Shonka, David C; Reibel, James F; Levine, Paul A; Jameson, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Rigid esophagoscopy (RE) was once an essential part of the evaluation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) due to the high likelihood of identifying a synchronous malignant neoplasm in the esophagus. Given recent advances in imaging and endoscopic techniques and changes in the incidence of esophageal cancer, the current role for RE in HNSCC staging is unclear. To analyze the current role of RE in evaluating patients with HNSCC, and to determine the incidence of synchronous esophageal malignant neoplasms in patients with HNSCC. In this retrospective study performed at an academic tertiary care center, 582 patients were studied who had undergone RE for HNSCC staging from July 1, 2004, through October 31, 2012. To assess the incidence of synchronous esophageal malignant neoplasms, a literature review was performed, and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data set was queried. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of synchronous esophageal malignant neoplasms, as measured by retrospective review at our institution, SEER data set analysis, and literature review. Secondary outcome measures were RE complications and nonmalignant findings during RE. A total of 601 staging REs were performed in 582 patients. The mean age was 60.2 years and 454 (78.0%) were men. There were 9 complications (1.5%), including 1 esophageal perforation (0.2%). Rigid esophagoscopy was aborted in 50 cases. Of the 551 completed REs, no abnormal findings were noted in 523 patients (94.9%), and nonmalignant pathologic findings were identified in 28 patients (5.1%). No synchronous primary esophageal carcinomas were detected. The incidence of synchronous esophageal malignant neoplasms found on screening endoscopy based on literature review and on SEER data set analysis was very low and has decreased from 1980 to 2010 in North America. The incidence reported in South America and Asia was relatively high. Rigid esophagoscopy

  12. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-05: Quantitative ADC Measurement of Esophageal Cancer Before and After Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L; UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Son, JB

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We investigated whether quantitative diffusion imaging can be used as an imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment response of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients with esophageal cancer underwent a baseline and an interim MRI studies during chemoradiation on a 3T whole body MRI scanner with an 8-channel torso phased array coil. Each MRI study contained two axial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) series with a conventional DWI sequence and a reduced field-of-view DWI sequence (FOCUS) of varying b-values. ADC maps with two b-values were computed from conventional DWI images using a mono-exponential model. For each of DWI sequences, separate ADCallmore » was computed by fitting the signal intensity of images with all the b-values to a single exponential model. For the FOCUS sequence, a bi-exponential model was used to extract perfusion and diffusion coefficients (ADCperf and ADCdiff) and their contributions to the signal decay. A board-certified radiologist contoured the tumor region and mean ADC values and standard deviations of tumor and muscle ROIs were recorded from different ADC maps. Results: Our results showed that (1) the magnitude of ADCs from the same ROIs by the different analysis methods can be substantially different. (2) For a given method, the change between the baseline and interim muscle ADCs was relatively small (≤10%). In contrast, the change between the baseline and interim tumor ADCs was substantially larger, with the change in ADCdiff by FOCUS DWI showing the largest percentage change of 73.2%. (3) The range of the relative change of a specific parameter for different patients was also different. Conclusion: Presently, we do not have the final pathological confirmation of the treatment response for all the patients. However, for a few patients whose surgical specimen is available, the quantitative ADC changes have been found to be useful as a potential predictor for treatment response.« less

  13. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of platelet to lymphocyte ratio in esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Juhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yue; Peng, Ping; Huang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The prognostic and clinicopathological significance of the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been studied in various cancers. However, studies examining the role of PLR in esophageal cancer have not yielded consistent results. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the prognostic and clinicopathological significance of PLR in esophageal cancer patients. We performed a literature search in three major databases: PubMed, Web of Science and Embase (up until May 1, 2017). The clinicopathologic significance of PLR and its prognostic significance were analyzed. Our meta-analysis consisted of 13 studies with 4,621 patients. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) showed that a high PLR was associated with poor survival of esophageal cancer [HR =1.283; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.173-1.404; P<0.001]. Subgroup analysis revealed that elevated PLR was associated with poor survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.281; 95% CI: 1.098-1.493; P=0.002). The pooled odds ratio (OR) indicated that high PLR was also associated with the depth of tumor invasion (OR =1.543, 95% CI: 1.269-1.876, P<0.001), lymph node metastasis (OR =1.427, 95% CI: 1.195-1.705, P<0.001), tumor length (OR =1.81, 95% CI: 1.331-2.461, P<0.001), and Tumor stage (OR =1.459, 95% CI: 1.235-1.724, P<0.001). Our results demonstrate that elevated PLR was significantly associated with poor prognosis of esophageal cancer. Furthermore, the high PLR might predict worse clinicopathological features of esophageal cancer patients.

  14. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Abraham J; Bosch, Walter R; Chang, Daniel T; Hong, Theodore S; Jabbour, Salma K; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Mamon, Harvey J; Thomas, Charles R; Goodman, Karyn A

    2015-07-15

    Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expert consensus contouring guidelines for IMRT in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Abraham J.; Bosch, Walter R.; Chang, Daniel T.; Hong, Theodore S.; Jabbour, Salma K.; Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Thomas, Charles R.; Goodman, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional two-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and do not provide sufficient anatomical detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials Eight expert academically-based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophageal cancer. Uniform CT simulation datasets and an accompanying diagnostic PET-CT were distributed to each expert, and he/she was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results Kappa statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the three test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the three test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets utilizing these guidelines may require modification in the future. PMID:26104943

  16. Lapatinib in combination with paclitaxel plays synergistic antitumor effects on esophageal squamous cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Fang; Li, Sai-Sai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Dou, Qiao-Hua; Liu, Duan

    2018-06-16

    Paclitaxel-based chemoradiotherapy was proven to be efficacious in treating patients with advanced esophageal cancer. However, the toxicity and the development of resistance limited its anticancer efficiency. The present study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of lapatinib, a dual tyrosine inhibitor of both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), combined with paclitaxel on the esophageal squamous cancer. MTT assays were used to evaluate the effects of the combination of lapatinib and paclitaxel on the growth of esophageal squamous cancer cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE450, KYSE510 and TE-7). The activity of the combination of two agents on cell invasion, migration and apoptosis was measured by wound healing assay, transwell assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI stain assay. Western blot assay was used to analyze the effects of the two agents on the EGFR/HER2 signaling. The in vivo efficacy was evaluated in KYSE450 xenograft nude mouse model. The combination of lapatinib and paclitaxel was highly synergistic in inhibiting cell growth with a combination index of < 1, and suppressed significantly the invasion and migration capability of esophageal squamous cancer cells. Esophageal squamous cancer cells displayed increased rates of apoptosis after treatment with lapatinib plus paclitaxel. The phosphorylated EGFR and HER2 as well as the activation of downstream molecules MAPKs and AKT significantly decreased when exposed to lapatinib and paclitaxel. In vivo studies showed that the combination of two agents had greater antitumor efficacy than either agent alone. The combination of lapatinib with paclitaxel showed synergistic antitumor activity, suggesting their potential in treating patients with esophageal squamous cancer.

  17. Endoscopic ultrasonography predicts early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Men, Changjun; Zhang, Guoliang

    2017-04-01

    Bleeding esophageal and gastric varices constitute a serious complication in liver cirrhosis. Previous studies have shown that endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can be used to predict early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis. We report a case of a 46-year-old man with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (CTP score, 5; Child-Pugh class, A) who was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased appetite lasting 1 week. He was initially diagnosed with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis; an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan indicated a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PHT). Common endoscopic examination showed no evidence of gastroesophageal varices; EUS revealed distinct varices of the esophageal and gastric veins. Six months after discharge, the patient was rehospitalized because of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic ligation was implemented as well as esophageal varices loop ligature (EVL). Six months later, EUS showed obvious collateral and perforator veins. We should strongly recommend that patients with liver cirrhosis undergo EUS in addition to a routine endoscopic examination. EUS can play an important role in evaluating the risk for bleeding in PHT and can be used to assess the efficacy of EVL.

  18. Effects of food insecurity on the women esophageal cancer in the Zanjan Province.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays one of the principal challenges of any country is improving the chronic disease and cancers. One of the most important of cancers is esophageal cancer in Iran. No doubt, esophageal cancer is an outcome of the interaction and combination of different factors. Cancer of the esophagus is one of the most common causes of death in adults (especially women) in Iran, where the incidence of this cancer is among the highest in the world. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that food insecurity could create esophageal cancer among women in Iran (Zanjan Province). The method of this paper has been based on the analytical and descriptive research using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) method. The subjects were 580 women aged 40-70 years (150 women have esophageal cancer), and they are selected randomly in the Zanjan Province of Iran. The food insecurity (such as hunger and hidden hunger) in the Zanjan Province, according to the 24 h food-recall questionnaire was 23% and 38%, respectively. Only 39% of the study population was secure in terms of having access to all key nutrients. The accuracy of the questionnaire for screening for hunger in the population was 88.78%, respectively, and the corresponding value for hidden hunger was 83.4%. The average value of esophageal cancer predicted using fuzzy cognitive maps is equal to 75.43% (for 36 months). Our findings showed an association of food insecurity and body mass index (BMI) in the study population. Food insecurity increased the rate of underweight and decreased the rates of overweight and obesity.

  19. Molecular Phenotyping in Predicting Response in Patients With Stage IB-III Esophageal Cancer Receiving Combination Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-16

    Stage IB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIB Esophageal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIC Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

  20. Influence of esophagectomy on the gastroesophageal reflux in patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, D; Min, Y W; Park, J G; Lee, H; Min, B-H; Lee, J H; Rhee, P-L; Kim, J J; Zo, J I

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of esophagectomy with gastric transposition on the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastric acidity in patients with esophageal cancer. Data on 53 esophageal cancer patients who underwent 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring after esophagectomy were retrospectively analyzed. We used a solid-state esophageal pH probe in which the esophageal pH sensor is placed 1.5 cm distal to the upper esophageal sphincter and the gastric pH sensor is located 15 cm distal to the esophageal pH channel. 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring data and other clinical data including anastomosis site stricture and incidence of pneumonia were collected. We defined pathologic reflux with reference to known normative data. Stricture was defined when an intervention such as bougienage or balloon dilatation was required to relieve dysphagia. The esophageal and gastric mean pH were 5.47 ± 1.51 and 3.33 ± 1.64, respectively. The percent time of acidic pH (<4) was 6.66 ± 12.49% in the esophagus and 70.53 ± 32.19% in the stomach. Esophageal pathologic acid reflux was noticed in 32.1%, 20.8%, and 35.8% during total, upright, and recumbent time, respectively. Esophageal pathologic bolus reflux was noted in 83.0%, 77.4%, and 64.2% during total, upright, and recumbent time, respectively. Gastric acidity increased with time after esophagectomy. Esophageal acid exposure time correlated with intragastric pH. However, esophageal pathologic acid reflux was not associated with anastomosis site stricture or pneumonia. In conclusion, GER frequently occurs after esophagectomy. Thus, strict lifestyle modifications and acid suppression would be necessary in patients following esophagectomy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Evaluation of the invasion of esophageal cancer to the aorta by cine-MR imaging].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, I; Nishimura, H; Uchida, M; Ueda, H; Fujimoto, K; Meno, S; Hayabuchi, N; Fujita, H

    1993-01-25

    We examined the usefulness of cine-MR imaging for evaluation of the invasion of esophageal cancer to the aorta in 12 cases. We used the technique of field echo pulse sequence. When the low intensity stripe was recognized between the tumor and the wall of aorta, we interpreted it as negative finding of the direct tumor invasion. By using this criteria, 11 of the 12 cases (92%) of the esophageal cancer for aortic wall invasion were correctly diagnosed as compared with 75% correct diagnosis by conventional MR imaging.

  2. Optoacoustic imaging of tissue blanching during photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Viator, John A.; Paltauf, Guenther

    2000-05-01

    Esophageal cancer patients often present a highly inflamed esophagus at the time of treatment by photodynamic therapy. Immediately after treatment, the inflamed vessels have been shut down and the esophagus presents a white surface. Optoacoustic imaging via an optical fiber device can provide a depth profile of the blanching of inflammation. Such a profile may be an indicator of the depth of treatment achieved by the PDT. Our progress toward developing this diagnostic for use in our clinical PDT treatments of esophageal cancer patients is presented.

  3. Jumonji/Arid1b (Jarid1b) protein modulates human esophageal cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    KANO, YOSHIHIRO; KONNO, MASAMITSU; OHTA, KATSUYA; HARAGUCHI, NAOTSUGU; NISHIKAWA, SHIMPEI; KAGAWA, YOSHINORI; HAMABE, ATSUSHI; HASEGAWA, SHINICHIRO; OGAWA, HISATAKA; FUKUSUMI, TAKAHITO; NOGUCHI, YUKO; OZAKI, MIYUKI; KUDO, TOSHIHIRO; SAKAI, DAISUKE; SATOH, TAROH; ISHII, MASARU; MIZOHATA, EIICHI; INOUE, TAKESHI; MORI, MASAKI; DOKI, YUICHIRO; ISHII, HIDESHI

    2013-01-01

    Although esophageal cancer is highly heterogeneous and the involvement of epigenetic regulation of cancer stem cells is highly suspected, the biological significance of epigenetically modified molecules that regulate different subpopulations remains to be firmly established. Using esophageal cancer cells, we investigated the functional roles of the H3K4 demethylase Jumonji/Arid1b (Jarid1b) (Kdm5b/Plu-1/Rbp2-h1), an epigenetic factor that is required for continuous cell growth in melanoma. JARID1B knockdown resulted in the suppression of esophageal cancer cell growth, sphere formation and invasion ability and was associated with loss of epithelial marker expression. However, these inhibitory effects observed on tumor formation were reverted subsequent to subcutaneous inoculation of these cells into immune-deficient mice. These results indicated that JARID1B plays a role in maintaining cancer stem cells in the esophagus and justifies the rationale for studying the effects of continuous inhibition of this epigenetic factor in esophageal cancer. PMID:24649241

  4. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is less controlled at delayed phase in patients with esophageal cancer: a prospective registration study by the CINV Study Group of Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Baba, Hideo; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Shimada, Hideaki; Shibata, Tomotaka; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Aiba, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy is an indispensable therapeutic approach for esophageal cancer. Although chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most crucial adverse events, the current state of CINV in patients with esophageal cancer remains unclear. This multicenter prospective observational study analyzed data for 192 patents with esophageal cancer who underwent moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). The patients recorded their CINV incidence and severity daily for 7 days after receiving chemotherapy, using visual analog scales (VAS). Of the 192 patients, 181 received HEC including cisplatin, and 11 patients received MEC including nedaplatin. Approximately 81% of HEC and 82% of MEC patients received antiemetic therapy in compliance with guidelines. Although CINV was controlled relatively well in the early phase (days 1-4), it was not fully controlled in late phase (days 5-7) for both the HEC and MEC groups. Female sex was a major risk factor for delayed vomiting (P=0.034). Multivariate logistic regression analysis for VAS revealed that motion sickness, age, and use of other antiemetics were risk factors for delayed nausea. Adherence to antiemetic guidelines effectively controls vomiting but is less effective against delayed CINV in both HEC and MEC patients. Identification of individual risk factors, such as female sex, will help develop personalized treatments for CINV. In the clinical setting for esophageal cancer, regimens that include nedaplatin might need to be treated as HEC. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  5. [Early flat colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Castelletto, R H; Chiarenza, C; Ottino, A; Garay, M L

    1991-01-01

    We report three cases of flat early colorectal carcinoma which were detected during the examination of 51 surgical specimens of colorectal resection. Two of them were endoscopically diagnosed, but the smallest one was not seen in the luminal instrumental examination. From the bibliographic analysis and our own experience we deduce the importance of flat lesions in the development of early colorectal carcinoma, either originated from pre-existent adenoma or de novo. Flat variants of adenoma, and presumably flush or depressed ones, must be considered as important factors in the early sequence adenoma-cancer. An appropriate endoscopic equipment with employment of additional staining techniques (such as carmine indigo and methylene blue) and the correct investigation during inflation-deflation procedures facilitates the identification of small lesions, their eradication and prevention from advanced forms of colorectal carcinoma.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Lian; Liao, Zhongxing; Liu, Helen; Ajani, Jaffer; Swisher, Stephen; Cox, James D; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2006-09-14

    To evaluate the dosimetry, efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer. A retrospective study was performed on 7 patients who were definitively treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Patients who did not receive IMRT radiation and concurrent chemotherapy were not included in this analysis. IMRT plans were evaluated to assess the tumor coverage and normal tissue avoidance. Treatment response was evaluated and toxicities were assessed. Five- to nine-beam IMRT were used to deliver a total dose of 59.4-66 Gy (median: 64.8 Gy) to the primary tumor with 6-MV photons. The minimum dose received by the planning tumor volume (PTV) of the gross tumor volume boost was 91.2%-98.2% of the prescription dose (standard deviation [SD]: 3.7%-5.7%). The minimum dose received by the PTV of the clinical tumor volume was 93.8%-104.8% (SD: 4.3%-11.1%) of the prescribed dose. With a median follow-up of 15 mo (range: 3-21 mo), all 6 evaluable patients achieved complete response. Of them, 2 developed local recurrences and 2 had distant metastases, 3 survived with no evidence of disease. After treatment, 2 patients developed esophageal stricture requiring frequent dilation and 1 patient developed tracheal-esophageal fistula. Concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy resulted in an excellent early response in patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer. However, local and distant recurrence and toxicity remain to be a problem. Innovative approaches are needed to improve the outcome.

  7. Comparing Treatment Plan in All Locations of Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jang-Chun; Tsai, Jo-Ting; Chang, Chih-Chieh; Jen, Yee-Min; Li, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Wei-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare treatment plans of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for all esophageal cancer (EC) tumor locations. This retrospective study from July 2009 to June 2014 included 20 patients with EC who received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with radiation doses >50.4 Gy. Version 9.2 of Pinnacle3 with SmartArc was used for treatment planning. Dosimetric quality was evaluated based on doses to several organs at risk, including the spinal cord, heart, and lung, over the same coverage of gross tumor volume. In upper thoracic EC, the IMRT treatment plan had a lower lung mean dose (P = 0.0126) and lung V5 (P = 0.0037) compared with VMAT; both techniques had similar coverage of the planning target volumes (PTVs) (P = 0.3575). In middle thoracic EC, a lower lung mean dose (P = 0.0010) and V5 (P = 0.0145), but higher lung V20 (P = 0.0034), spinal cord Dmax (P = 0.0262), and heart mean dose (P = 0.0054), were observed for IMRT compared with VMAT; IMRT provided better PTV coverage. Patients with lower thoracic ECs had a lower lung mean dose (P = 0.0469) and V5 (P = 0.0039), but higher spinal cord Dmax (P = 0.0301) and heart mean dose (P = 0.0020), with IMRT compared with VMAT. PTV coverage was similar (P = 0.0858) for the 2 techniques. IMRT provided a lower mean dose and lung V5 in upper thoracic EC compared with VMAT, but exhibited different advantages and disadvantages in patients with middle or lower thoracic ECs. Thus, choosing different techniques for different EC locations is warranted. PMID:25929910

  8. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingya; Wei, Caimiao; Tucker, Susan L.; Myles, Bevan; Palmer, Matthew; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Lin, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ2 or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. Results The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104–3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03–2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365–7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78–3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. PMID:23845841

  9. Predictors of Postoperative Complications After Trimodality Therapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingya; Wei, Caimiao; Tucker, Susan L.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ{sup 2} or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factorsmore » that were significant on univariate analysis. Results: The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. Conclusions: The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.« less

  10. Esophageal cancer among Brazilian agricultural workers: case-control study based on death certificates.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armando; Alexandre, Pedro Celso Braga; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Markowitz, Steven B; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Several studies suggest that agricultural workers are at higher risk to develop and die by certain types of cancer. Esophageal cancer is not commonly listed among these types. However, some recent studies indicated that if there is an association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer, it s more likely to be observed among workers highly exposed to pesticides. In the present study, the magnitude of the association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer mortality was evaluated in a high pesticide use area in Brazil, through a death certificate-based case-control study. Cases were individuals from both genders, 30-59 years old, for whom basic cause of death was ascertained as cancer of the esophagus. For each case, one control was randomly selected from all possible controls for which the basic cause of death was ascertained as different from neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. In addition, controls matched their cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were then calculated to estimate the magnitude of the risk. Results showed that, in general, agricultural workers were at significantly higher risk to die by esophageal cancer, when compared to non-agricultural workers. Stratified analysis also revealed that the magnitude of such risk was slightly higher among illiterate agricultural workers, and simultaneous adjustment for several covariates showed that the risk was quantitatively higher among younger southern agricultural workers. These results suggest the esophageal cancer may be included among those types of cancer etiologically associated to agricultural working. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The FREGAT biobank: a clinico-biological database dedicated to esophageal and gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Mariette, Christophe; Renaud, Florence; Piessen, Guillaume; Gele, Patrick; Copin, Marie-Christine; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Delaeter, Christine; Dib, Malek; Clisant, Stéphanie; Harter, Valentin; Bonnetain, Franck; Duhamel, Alain; Christophe, Véronique; Adenis, Antoine

    2018-02-06

    While the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers is increasing, the prognosis of these cancers remains bleak. Endoscopy and surgery are the standard treatments for localized tumors, but multimodal treatments, associated chemotherapy, targeted therapies, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are needed for the vast majority of patients who present with locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. Although survival has improved, most patients still present with advanced disease at diagnosis. In addition, most patients exhibit a poor or incomplete response to treatment, experience early recurrence and have an impaired quality of life. Compared with several other cancers, the therapeutic approach is not personalized, and research is much less developed. It is, therefore, urgent to hasten the development of research protocols, and consequently, develop a large, ambitious and innovative tool through which future scientific questions may be answered. This research must be patient-related so that rapid feedback to the bedside is achieved and should aim to identify clinical-, biological- and tumor-related factors that are associated with treatment resistance. Finally, this research should also seek to explain epidemiological and social facets of disease behavior. The prospective FREGAT database, established by the French National Cancer Institute, is focused on adult patients with carcinomas of the esophagus and stomach and on whatever might be the tumor stage or therapeutic strategy. The database includes epidemiological, clinical, and tumor characteristics data as well as follow-up, human and social sciences quality of life data, along with a tumor and serum bank. This innovative method of research will allow for the banking of millions of data for the development of excellent basic, translational and clinical research programs for esophageal and gastric cancer. This will ultimately improve general knowledge of these diseases, therapeutic strategies and

  12. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of gene modules for the prognosis of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Qian

    2017-06-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignant tumor, whose pathogenesis and prognosis factors are not fully understood. This study aimed to discover the gene clusters that have similar functions and can be used to predict the prognosis of esophageal cancer. The matched microarray and RNA sequencing data of 185 patients with esophageal cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and gene co-expression networks were built without distinguishing between squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The result showed that 12 modules were associated with one or more survival data such as recurrence status, recurrence time, vital status or vital time. Furthermore, survival analysis showed that 5 out of the 12 modules were related to progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS). As the most important module, the midnight blue module with 82 genes was related to PFS, apart from the patient age, tumor grade, primary treatment success, and duration of smoking and tumor histological type. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that "glycoprotein binding" was the top enriched function of midnight blue module genes. Additionally, the blue module was the exclusive gene clusters related to OS. Platelet activating factor receptor (PTAFR) and feline Gardner-Rasheed (FGR) were the top hub genes in both modeling datasets and the STRING protein interaction database. In conclusion, our study provides novel insights into the prognosis-associated genes and screens out candidate biomarkers for esophageal cancer.

  13. Current status of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Norihisa; Kondo, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy has been proven to be extremely valuable and is widely used for advanced esophageal cancer. However, a significant proportion of treated patients (60%-70%) does not respond well to neoadjuvant treatments and develop severe adverse effects. Therefore, predictive markers for individualization of multimodality treatments are urgently needed in esophageal cancer. Recently, molecular biomarkers that predict the response to neoadjuvant therapy have been explored in multimodal approaches in esophageal cancer and successful examples of biomarker identification have been reported. In this review, promising candidates for predictive molecular biomarkers developed by using multiple molecular approaches are reviewed. Moreover, treatment strategies based on the status of predicted biomarkers are discussed, while considering the international differences in the clinical background. However, in the absence of adequate treatment options related to the results of the biomarker test, the usefulness of these diagnostic tools is limited and new effective therapies for biomarker-identified nonresponders to cancer treatment should be concurrent with the progress of predictive technologies. Further improvement in the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients can be achieved through the introduction of novel therapeutic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:25133032

  14. Recursive Partitioning Analysis for New Classification of Patients With Esophageal Cancer Treated by Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Motoo, E-mail: excell@hkg.odn.ne.jp; Department of Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya; Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya

    2012-11-01

    Background: The 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system does not include lymph node size in the guidelines for staging patients with esophageal cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the prognostic impact of the maximum metastatic lymph node diameter (ND) on survival and to develop and validate a new staging system for patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer who were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods: Information on 402 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing CRT at two institutions was reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses of data from one institution were used to assessmore » the impact of clinical factors on survival, and recursive partitioning analysis was performed to develop the new staging classification. To assess its clinical utility, the new classification was validated using data from the second institution. Results: By multivariate analysis, gender, T, N, and ND stages were independently and significantly associated with survival (p < 0.05). The resulting new staging classification was based on the T and ND. The four new stages led to good separation of survival curves in both the developmental and validation datasets (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed that lymph node size is a strong independent prognostic factor and that the new staging system, which incorporated lymph node size, provided good prognostic power, and discriminated effectively for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing CRT.« less

  15. Esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Pang, John; Orosco, Ryan K; Weissbrod, Philip A; Brumund, Kevin T; Weisman, Robert A; Brigger, Matthew T; Coffey, Charles S

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the safety profile and effectiveness of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. A systematic review was undertaken for articles reporting outcomes of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. The Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Complications related to esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients was the primary outcome of interest. Success rates, demographic data, cancer staging, and treatment data were assessed secondarily. Statistical analyses included both qualitative and quantitative assessments. A limited meta-analysis and pooling of the data was performed using a random effects model. Of the collective 8,243 initial candidate articles, 15 retrospective studies containing data for a collective 449 patients were ultimately included in the analysis. There was significant heterogeneity in the outcomes data. With an overall complication rate of 10.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1%,17%) and a pooled success rate of 72.9% (95% CI: 65.7%,80.1%) per patient, the articles generally supported the use of dilation. Head and neck cancer patients experience a higher rate of complications following dilation compared to patients with other causes of benign stricture. Esophageal dilation is effective in improving dysphagia, but these benefits are often transient and thus necessitate repeat interventions. Laryngoscope, 128:111-117, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. A versatile nanoplatform for synergistic combination therapy to treat human esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Shuai; Kong, De-Jiu; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Li, Xiao-Cen; Izumiya, Yoshihiro; Ding, Xue-Zhen; Zhang, Li; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Yang, Jun-Qiang; Gao, She-Gan; Lam, Kit S; Li, Yuan-Pei

    2017-06-01

    One of the major goals of precision oncology is to promote combination therapy to improve efficacy and reduce side effects of anti-cancer drugs based on their molecular mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate new nanoformulations of docetaxel (DTX) and bortezomib (BTZ) for targeted combination therapy to treat human esophageal cancer. By leveraging our versatile disulfide cross-linked micelles (DCMs) platform, we developed nanoformulations of DTX and BTZ (named DTX-DCMs and BTZ-DCMs). Their physical properties were characterized; their anti-cancer efficacies and mechanisms of action were investigated in a human esophageal cancer cell line in vitro. Furthermore, the in vitro anti-tumor activities of combination therapies (concurrent drug treatment, sequential drug treatment, and treatment using different ratios of the drugs) were examined in comparison with the single drug treatment and free drug strategies. These drug-loaded nanoparticles were spherical in shape and relatively small in size of approximately 20-22 nm. The entrapment efficiencies of DTX and BTZ into nanoparticles were 82.4% and 84.1%, respectively. The drug release rates of DTX-DCMs and BTZ-DCMs were sustained, and greatly increased in the presence of GSH. These nanodrugs were effectively internalized by KYSE30 esophageal cancer cells, and dose-dependently induced cell apoptosis. We further revealed a strong synergistic effect between DTX-DCMs and BTZ-DCMs against KYSE30 esophageal cancer cells. Sequential combination therapy with DTX-DCMs followed by BTZ-DCMs exhibited the best anti-tumor efficacy in vitro. This study demonstrates that DTX and BTZ could be successfully nanoformulated into disulfide cross-linked micelles. The nanoformulations of DTX and BTZ demonstrate an immense potential for synergistic combination therapy to treat human esophageal cancer.

  17. Incidence and survival for gastric and esophageal cancer diagnosed in British Columbia, 1990 to 1999

    PubMed Central

    Bashash, Morteza; Shah, Amil; Hislop, Greg; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu; Bajdik, Chris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geographical variation and temporal trends in the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers vary according to both tumour morphology and organ subsite. Both diseases are among the deadliest forms of cancer. The incidence and survival rates for gastric and esophageal carcinoma in British Columbia (BC) between 1990 and 1999 are described. METHODS: Incidence data for the period 1990 to 1999 were obtained from the BC Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted incidence and survival rates were computed by anatomical subsite, histological type and sex. All rates were standardized to the 1996 Canadian population. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was used to measure incidence changes over time. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to show survival rates, and log-rank tests were used to test for differences in the curves among various groups. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 1999, 1741 esophageal cancer cases and 3431 gastric cancer cases were registered in BC. There was an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus over time (EAPC=9.6%) among men, and of gastric cardia cancer among both women (EAPC=9.2%) and men (EAPC=3.8%). Patients with proximal gastric (cardia) cancer had significantly better survival rates than patients with cancer in the lower one-third of the esophagus. Among gastric cancers, patients with distal tumours had a significantly better survival rate than patients with proximal tumours. DISCUSSION: The incidences of proximal gastric cancer and esophageal adenocarcinoma are increasing, and their survival patterns are different. Examining these cancers together may elucidate new etiological and prognostic factors. PMID:18299732

  18. Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case–control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1Rα (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon α2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

  19. Office-based esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer: Safety, feasibility, and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Howell, Rebecca J; Schopper, Melissa A; Giliberto, John Paul; Collar, Ryan M; Khosla, Sid M

    2018-02-08

    To review experience, safety, and cost of office-based esophageal dilation in patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNCA). The medical records of patients undergoing esophageal dilation in the office were retrospectively reviewed between August 2015 and May 2017. Patients were given nasal topical anesthesia. Next, a transnasal esophagoscopy (TNE) was performed. If the patient tolerated TNE, we proceeded with esophageal dilation using Seldinger technique with the CRE™ Boston Scientific (Boston Scientific Corp., Marlborough, MA) balloon system. Patients were discharged directly from the outpatient clinic. Forty-seven dilations were performed in 22 patients with an average of 2.1 dilations/patient (range 1-10, standard deviation [SD] ± 2.2). Seventeen patients (77%) were male. The average age was 67 years (range 35-78 years, SD ± 8.5). The most common primary site of cancer was oral cavity/oropharynx (n = 10), followed by larynx (n = 6). All patients (100%) had history of radiation treatment. Four patients were postlaryngectomy. The indication for esophageal dilation was esophageal stricture and progressive dysphagia. All dilations occurred in the proximal esophagus. There were no major complications. Three focal, superficial lacerations occurred. Two patients experienced mild, self-limited epistaxis. One dilation was poorly tolerated due to discomfort. One patient required pain medication postprocedure. Office-based esophageal dilation generated $15,000 less in health system charges compared to traditional operating room dilation on average per episode of care. In patients with history of HNCA and radiation, office-based TNE with esophageal dilation appears safe, well-tolerated, and cost-effective. In a small cohort, the technique has low complication rate and is feasible in an otolaryngology outpatient office setting. 4. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Alpha-Tocopherol prevents esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating PPARγ-Akt signaling pathway at the early stage of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiannan; Lu, Ping; Feng, Yongquan; Geng, Xue; Zhang, Lishi; Jia, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    The poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) emphasizes the urgent need to better understand the carcinogenesis and develop prevention strategies. Previous studies have highlighted the potential of using Vitamin E (tocopherols) for cancer chemoprevention, but the preventive activity of α-Tocopherol against ESCC remains to be elucidated. Our data showed that early-stage supplementation with α-Tocopherol significantly prevented esophageal carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) in ESCC rat model. In the Het-1A cell model, α-Tocopherol markedly suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell cycle G2-phase arrest and increased apoptosis. Gene microarray and proteins array analysis indicated that Akt signaling was a potential target for α-Tocopherol. We further demonstrated that α-Tocopherol increased the expression of PPARγ and its downstream tumor suppressor PTEN. Knockdown of PPARγ activated Akt signaling transduction, whereas this process was attenuated by the presence of α-Tocopherol and PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone. In contrast, the effect of α-Tocopherol on Akt inhibition was not observed in established tumors, neither in cancerous cell lines which constitutively expressed higher levels of PPARγ. These results were closely correlated with the ineffectiveness of α-Tocopherol in the late stage of ESCC carcinogenesis. Taken together, our study suggested that α-Tocopherol may serve as a PPARγ agonist for the chemoprevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:29221176

  1. Variation in palliative care of esophageal cancer in clinical practice: factors associated with treatment decisions.

    PubMed

    Opstelten, Jorrit L; de Wijkerslooth, Laetitia R H; Leenders, Max; Bac, Dirk Jan; Brink, Menno A; Loffeld, Boudewijn C A J; Meijnen-Bult, Mariëlle J F; Minderhoud, Itta M; Verhagen, Marc A M T; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D

    2017-02-01

    Various treatments are available for the palliation of esophageal cancer, but the optimal therapeutic approach is unclear. This study aimed to assess the palliative treatment modalities used in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer and to identify factors associated with treatment decisions. A population-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry and medical records of seven participating hospitals. Patients diagnosed with stage III-IV inoperable esophageal or gastric cardia cancer in the central part of the Netherlands between 2001 and 2010 were included. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of treatment choices. In total, 736 patients were initially treated with best supportive care (21%), stent placement (19%), chemotherapy (18%), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (16%), brachytherapy (6%), a combination of EBRT and brachytherapy (6%), a combination of chemotherapy and EBRT (5%) or another treatment (9%). The palliative approach varied for disease stage (P < 0.01) and hospital of diagnosis (P < 0.01). Independent factors affecting treatment decisions were age, degree of dysphagia, tumor histology, tumor localization, disease stage, and hospital of diagnosis. For example, patients diagnosed in one hospital were less likely to be treated with EBRT than with stent placement compared to patients in another hospital (odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.59). In conclusion, the initial palliative approach of patients with inoperable esophageal cancer varies widely and is not only associated with patient- and disease-related factors, but also with hospital of diagnosis. These findings suggest a lack of therapeutic guidance and highlight the need for more evidence on palliative care strategies for esophageal cancer. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Utility of Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation and Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Burt, Bryan M; Groth, Shawn S; Sada, Yvonne H; Farjah, Farhood; Cornwell, Lorraine; Sugarbaker, David J; Massarweh, Nader N

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy is associated with improved overall survival for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer, and to evaluate how pathologic disease response to neoadjuvant treatment impacts this effect. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is currently the preferred management approach for locoregional esophageal cancer. Although there is interest in the use of AC, the benefit of systemic therapy after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy is unclear. Retrospective cohort study of patients with esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy in the National Cancer Data Base (2006-2012). Among 3592 patients with esophageal cancer (84.7% adenocarcinoma, 15.2% squamous cell carcinoma), 335 (9.3%) were treated with AC. AC was not associated with a significantly lower risk of death among patients with no residual disease (ypT0N0) or residual non-nodal disease (ypT+N0). Among patients with residual nodal disease (ypTanyN+), AC was associated with a 30% lower risk of death in the overall cohort [hazard ratio (HR) 0.70, (0.57-0.85)] and among those with adenocarcinoma [HR 0.69 (0.57-0.85)]. Using a 90-day postoperative landmark, findings were similar. Among patients with postoperative length of stay ≤10 days and no unplanned readmission, AC was associated with approximately 40% lower risk of death among patients with residual nodal disease [overall cohort, HR 0.63 (0.48-0.84); adenocarcinoma, HR 0.66 (0.49-0.88)]. AC after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and esophagectomy is associated with improved survival in patients with residual nodal disease. Our findings suggest AC may provide additional benefit for esophageal cancer patients, and merits further investigation.

  3. Long-term outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with elective nodal irradiation for inoperable esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Xuebang; Wu, Shixiu

    2017-09-01

    Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) might improve overall survival in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer. We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the long-term survival and toxicity of esophageal cancer patients treated with ENI versus conventional-field irradiation (CFI). All data in the present study were based on our institutional experience from 2000 to 2005 of patients with inoperable esophageal cancer treated with ENI or CFI plus two concurrent cycles of paclitaxel/cisplatin. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 89 patients were included in the analysis. Of these patients, 51 were treated with ENI, whereas 38 were treated with CFI. For the per-protocol population, the patients in the ENI group significantly improved in terms of their 10-year disease-specific overall survival (43.1% vs 10.5%, P = 0.019), 10-year disease-free survival (36.7% vs 10.2%, P = 0.040) and 10-year local recurrence-free survival (47.2% vs 17.2%, P = 0.018) compared with the CFI group. Aside from radiation esophagitis, the incidence of grade 3 or greater acute toxicities did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that radiation field, tumor length and clinical stage were independent prognostic factors associated with OS. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with ENI improves both disease-specific overall survival and loco-regional control in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer receiving per-protocol treatment. The regimen has a manageable tolerability profile. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. Expert Consensus Contouring Guidelines for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Esophageal and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Abraham J., E-mail: wua@mskcc.org; Bosch, Walter R.; Chang, Daniel T.

    Purpose/Objective(s): Current guidelines for esophageal cancer contouring are derived from traditional 2-dimensional fields based on bony landmarks, and they do not provide sufficient anatomic detail to ensure consistent contouring for more conformal radiation therapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Therefore, we convened an expert panel with the specific aim to derive contouring guidelines and generate an atlas for the clinical target volume (CTV) in esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Methods and Materials: Eight expert academically based gastrointestinal radiation oncologists participated. Three sample cases were chosen: a GEJ cancer, a distal esophageal cancer, and a mid-upper esophagealmore » cancer. Uniform computed tomographic (CT) simulation datasets and accompanying diagnostic positron emission tomographic/CT images were distributed to each expert, and the expert was instructed to generate gross tumor volume (GTV) and CTV contours for each case. All contours were aggregated and subjected to quantitative analysis to assess the degree of concordance between experts and to generate draft consensus contours. The panel then refined these contours to generate the contouring atlas. Results: The κ statistics indicated substantial agreement between panelists for each of the 3 test cases. A consensus CTV atlas was generated for the 3 test cases, each representing common anatomic presentations of esophageal cancer. The panel agreed on guidelines and principles to facilitate the generalizability of the atlas to individual cases. Conclusions: This expert panel successfully reached agreement on contouring guidelines for esophageal and GEJ IMRT and generated a reference CTV atlas. This atlas will serve as a reference for IMRT contours for clinical practice and prospective trial design. Subsequent patterns of failure analyses of clinical datasets using these guidelines may require modification in the future.« less

  5. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with endoscopic ultrasound for the treatment of esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Timothy A.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2000-05-01

    In 1995, PDT was approved for palliative use in patients with esophageal cancer. We report our experience using PDT to treat esophageal cancer patients previously treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In our series, nine patients referred for PDT with persistent esophageal cancer after chemo-radiation therapy. We found: (1) All patients were men with a mean age of 63 years and eight out of nine had adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus; (2) All patients required endoscopic dilation after PDT; (3) At a mean follow up of 4 months, two T2N0 patients had no demonstrable tumor and all three T3N0 patients had greater than 50% tumor reduction (the partially responsive T3N0 patients will be offered repeat PDT); (4) Patients with metastatic disease (T3N1 or M1) had effective dysphagia palliation. Thus, PDT is safe and effective in ablating all or most tumor in patients with persistent esophageal cancer after chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  6. On endocytoscopy and posttherapy pathologic staging in esophageal cancers, and on evidence-based methodology.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Kawada, Kenro; Kumagai, Youichi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Wang, Helen H

    2014-09-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the value of endocytoscopy to replace biopsy histology for squamous cell carcinoma and the clinical significance of posttherapy pathologic stage in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma following preoperative chemoradiation; a short discussion of evidence-based methodology is also included. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Knockdown of Zinc Transporter ZIP5 by RNA Interference Inhibits Esophageal Cancer Growth In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Jin, Jing; Liu, Jianghui; Wang, Liqun; He, Yutong

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that SLC39A5 (ZIP5), a zinc transporter, is overexpressed in esophageal cancer. Downregulation of ZIP5 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of the esophageal cancer cell line KYSE170 in vitro. In this study, we found that downregulation of SLC39A5 (ZIP5) by interference resulted in a significant reduction in esophageal cancer tumor volume and weight in vivo. COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2) expression was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased in the KYSE170K xenografts, which was caused by the downregulation of ZIP5. However, we did not find that the downregulation of ZIP5 caused a change in the relative expressions of cyclin D1, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), MMP9 (matrix metalloprotein 9), and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma/leukmia-2) mRNA or an alteration in the average level of zinc in the peripheral blood and xenografts in vivo. Collectively, these findings indicate that knocking down ZIP5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) might be a novel treatment strategy for esophageal cancer with ZIP5 overexpression.

  8. [Effect of EMP-1 gene on human esophageal cancer cell line].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-tao; Liu, Zhi-hua; Wang, Xiu-qin; Wu, Min

    2002-03-01

    EMP-1 was selected from a series of differential expressed genes obtained from cDNA microarray in the authors' lab. Epithelial membrane pnteiu-1 gene (EMP-1) was expressed 6 fold lower in esophageal cancer than in normal tissue. The authors further designed the experiment to study the effect of human EMP-1 gene on human esophageal cancer cell line in order to explain the function of this gene on the carcinogensis and progression esophageal cancer. EMP-1 gene was cloned into eukaryotic vector and transfected into the human esophageal cancer cell line. The transfection effect was qualified by Western blot and RT-PCR method. The cell growth curve was observed and the cell cycle was checked by FACS method. EMP-1 was transfected into EC9706 cell line and its expression was up-regulated. The cell growth is accelerated and expression of EMP-1 is linked to induction of S phase arrest. EMP-1 gene has some relationship with carcinogenesis of esophagus.

  9. Esophageal Cancer: Genomic and Molecular Characterization, Stem Cell Compartment and Clonal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Ugo; Castelli, Germana; Pelosi, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of histologic subtypes of EC, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), display considerable geographic variation. EAC arises from metaplastic Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in the context of chronic inflammation secondary to exposure to acid and bile. The main risk factors for developing ESCC are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The main somatic genetic abnormalities showed a different genetic landscape in EAC compared to ESCC. EAC is a heterogeneous cancer dominated by copy number alterations, a high mutational burden, co-amplification of receptor tyrosine kinase, frequent TP53 mutations. The cellular origins of BE and EAC are still not understood: animal models supported a cellular origin either from stem cells located in the basal layer of esophageal epithelium or from progenitors present in the cardia region. Many studies support the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) able to initiate and maintain EAC or ESCC. The exact identification of these CSCs, as well as their role in the pathogenesis of EAC and ESCC remain still to be demonstrated. The reviewed studies suggest that current molecular and cellular characterization of EAC and ESCC should serve as background for development of new treatment strategies. PMID:28930282

  10. Comparison of curative surgery and definitive chemoradiotherapy as initial treatment for patients with cervical esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Katsushi; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Satoru; Kawamorita, Keisuke; Niihara, Masahiro; Tsushima, Takahiro; Yokota, Tomoya; Sato, Hiroshi; Onozawa, Yusuke; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Kamijo, Tomoyuki; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Yasui, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    Esophagectomy and definitive chemoradiotherapy are recognized standard initial treatment modalities for cervical esophageal cancer. The goal of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of curative surgery with those of chemoradiotherapy in patients who had potentially resectable tumor and who were candidates for surgery. We evaluated the data from 49 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with potentially resectable cervical esophageal cancer and who were deemed candidates for surgery. Thirteen patients were included in the surgery group, and 36 patients were included in chemoradiotherapy group. Baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups. In the chemoradiotherapy group, the complete response rate was 58.3%. There was no significant difference in 5-year overall survival when comparing the surgery group and the chemoradiotherapy group (surgery, 60.6%; chemoradiotherapy, 51.4%; P = 0.89). In the chemoradiotherapy group, of the 15 patients who failed to respond to initial treatment, 11 patients subsequently underwent salvage surgery. In conclusion, curative surgery and chemoradiotherapy as initial treatment for cervical esophageal cancer have comparable survival outcomes. Chemoradiotherapy should be selected as the initial larynx-preserving treatment for patients with cervical esophageal cancer although chemoradiotherapy non-responders require additional treatment, including salvage surgery. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Esophageal Cancer Treatment Is Underutilized Among Elderly Patients in the USA.

    PubMed

    Molena, Daniela; Stem, Miloslawa; Blackford, Amanda L; Lidor, Anne O

    2017-01-01

    Large numbers of elderly patients in the USA receive no treatment for esophageal cancer, despite evidence that multimodality treatment can increase survival. Our goal is to identify factors that may contribute to lack of treatment. Using Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare Linked Database (2001-2009), we identified regional esophageal cancer patients ≥65 years old. Treatment was defined as receiving any medical or surgical therapy for esophageal cancer. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with failure to receive treatment. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. There were 5072 patients (median age, 75 years; interquartile range (IQR), 71-81 years). Majority were treated with definitive chemoradiation (48.49 %). Factors associated with lack of treatment included West geographic region and ≥80 years old. Patients who received therapy had better OS (log-rank, p < 0.001). Compared with treated patients, non-treated patients had worse adjusted OS (HR, 1.43; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.33-1.55; p < 0.001). Elderly patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who received treatment had improved 5-year survival compared with patients without treatment. Disparities in utilization of treatment are associated with regional and socioeconomic factors, not presence of comorbidities.

  12. Esophageal cancer: outcomes of surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and three-dimension conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Eric; Buck, David A; Kaplan, Brian J; Chung, Theodore D; Shaw, James E; Kachnic, Lisa A; Neifeld, James P

    2004-08-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation are being utilized with increasing frequency in the multimodal treatment of esophageal cancer, although their effects on morbidity, mortality, and survival remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of multimodal treatment in patients with localized esophageal cancer treated at a single institution. Between 1995 and 2002, 118 patients underwent treatment for localized esophageal cancer, utilizing surgery alone, chemoradiation alone, or surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity, mortality, or length of stay between the patients who received multimodal therapy when compared to surgery alone. A surgical resection after down-staging was possible in 9 out of 28 patients (32%) with a clinically non-resectable tumor (T4 or M1a). Forty-seven percent of the patients who received neoadjuvant therapy had a complete pathologic response with a 3-year survival of 59% as compared to only 20 months in those patients who did not achieve a complete response (P = 0.037). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy administered concomitantly with conformal radiotherapy can be performed safely in the treatment of esophageal cancer, without increasing the operative morbidity, mortality, or length of stay. The higher complete response rates to neoadjuvant treatment (as compared to other reports) may be due to the use of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or the novel use of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Neoadjuvant paclitaxel poliglumex, cisplatin, and radiation for esophageal cancer: a phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Dipetrillo, Thomas; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Ng, Thomas; Fontaine, Jacques; Horiba, Naomi; Oldenburg, Nicklas; Perez, Kimberly; Birnbaum, Ari; Battafarano, Richard; Burrows, Whitney; Safran, Howard

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the pathologic complete response (CR) rate and safety of paclitaxel poliglumex (PPX), cisplatin, and concurrent radiation for patients with esophageal cancer. Patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction with no evidence of distant metastasis received PPX (50 mg/m(2)/wk) and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2)/wk) for 6 weeks with 50.4 Gy concurrent radiation. Six to eight weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy, patients underwent surgical resection. Forty patients were enrolled, 37 patients with adenocarcinoma and 3 patients with squamous cell cancer. The treatment-related grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities included esophagitis (7%), nausea (7%), and fatigue (5%). Three patients with clinical endoscopic CR (2 with squamous cell cancer) refused surgery. Twelve of the remaining 37 patients (32%) had a pathologic CR. The 12 patients with pathologic CR all had adenocarcinoma. PPX, cisplatin, and concurrent radiation are well tolerated, easily administered regimen for esophageal cancer with a low incidence of significant esophagitis and a high pathologic CR rate consistent with the preclinical data of PPX and radiation.

  14. Prevalence of pharyngeal and esophageal stenosis following radiation for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam P; Smith, Herbert J; Moltz, Candace C; Frank, Cheryl; Millar, Carrie; Dutta, Suresh; Lee, Howard; North, Debra; Karlsson, Ulf; Vos, Paul; Nguyen, Ly M; Sallah, Sabah

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the risk and outcome of pharyngoesophageal stenosis in patients who complained of dysphagia following radiation for head and neck cancer. Retrospective study. Veterans Administration hospital. Patients who complained of persistent dysphagia following radiation alone or combined with surgery or chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. Patients were selected if they were cancer free at the time of the swallowing study. All patients had modified barium swallow (MBS) and an endoscopic examination for initial evaluation of their dysphagia. Traditional barium swallow was requested when there was a suspicion of pharyngoesophageal stenosis on MBS. Two hundred twenty-two patients underwent MBS for evaluation of dysphagia posttreatment. Traditional barium swallow confirmed the diagnosis of pharyngeal (n = 2) or esophageal (n = 14) stenosis in 16 patients. Eight patients had esophageal stenosis on endoscopic examination. All patients underwent dilatation for relief of their dysphagia. The number of dilatations performed was, respectively, one in 12 patients, two in 4 patients, three in 3 patients, four in 3 patients, five in one patient, and six in one patient. Pharyngeal and/or cervical esophageal stenosis may be the cause of dysphagia following radiation for head and neck cancer. Esophageal dilatations often offer temporary relief of the dysphagia.

  15. Recent advances in intensity modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xi, Mian; Lin, Steven H

    2017-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an important component of the standard of care for esophageal cancer. In the past decades, significant improvements in the planning and delivery of radiation techniques have led to better dose conformity to the target volume and improved normal tissue sparing. Areas covered: This review focuses on the advances in radiotherapy techniques and summarizes the availably dosimetric and clinical outcomes of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy, proton therapy, and four-dimensional radiotherapy for esophageal cancer, and discusses the challenges and future development of proton therapy. Expert commentary: Although three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is the standard radiotherapy technique in esophageal cancer, the retrospectively comparative studies strongly suggest that the dosimetric advantage of IMRT over three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy can translate into improved clinical outcomes, despite the lack of prospective randomized evidence. As a novel form of conventional IMRT technique, volumetric modulated arc therapy can produce equivalent or superior dosimetric quality with significantly higher treatment efficiency in esophageal cancer. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy has the potential to achieve further clinical improvement due to their physical properties; however, prospective clinical data, long-term results, and cost-effectiveness are needed.

  16. Local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Takuya; Yamazaki, Hideya; Suzuki, Gen; Aibe, Norihiro; Masui, Koji; Tatekawa, Kotoha; Sasaki, Naomi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Satoaki; Yamada, Kei

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer; however, the optimal treatment field remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of local field radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. We retrospectively investigated 35 patients treated for a postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer with local field radiotherapy between December 2008 and March 2016. The median irradiation dose was 60 Gy (range: 50-67.5 Gy). Thirty-one (88.6%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 18 months (range: 5-94 months). The 2-year overall survival was 55.7%, with a median survival time of 29.9 months. In the univariate analysis, the maximal diameter ≤20 mm (P = 0.0383), solitary lesion (P = 0.0352), and the complete remission after treatment (P = 0.00411) had a significantly better prognosis. A total of 27 of 35 patients (77.1%) had progressive disease (loco-regional failure [n = 9], distant metastasis [n = 7], and both loco-regional failure and distant metastasis [n = 11]). No patients had Grade 3 or greater mucositis. Local field radiotherapy is a considerable treatment option for postoperative loco-regional recurrence of esophageal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430071

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, wemore » showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.« less

  18. Outcomes following laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cash, J Christian; Zehetner, Joerg; Hedayati, Bobak; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A; Katkhouda, Namir; Mason, Rodney J; Lipham, John C

    2014-02-01

    Most published minimally invasive esophagectomy techniques involve a multiple field approach, including laparoscopic and thoracoscopic esophageal mobilization. Laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (LTE) should potentially reduce the complications associated with thoracotomy. This study aims to compare outcomes of LTE with open transhiatal esophagectomy (OTE) and en-bloc esophagectomy (EBE). Retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who had an LTE for cancer between July 2008 and July 2012 at our institution. Data was compared with an historic cohort of patients who underwent OTE and EBE at the same institution from July 2002 to July 2008. There were 33 patients with LTE, compared with 60 patients with OTE and 139 with EBE. The presence of minor operative complications was similar (p = 0.36), but major complications were significantly less common in the LTE group (12, 23 and 33 %, respectively; p = 0.04). The median number of blood transfusions during hospitalization was significantly lower in the LTE group (0, 2.5 and 3, respectively; p = 0.005). Median tumor size was significantly smaller (1.5, 2.2, and 3 cm, respectively; p = 0.03), but the LTE group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with neoadjuvant treatment (39, 14 and 29 %, respectively; p = 0.008). Median lymph node yield for LTE was lower (24, 36 and 48, respectively; p < 0.0001), but the percentage of patients with positive nodes was similar (33, 33 and 39 %, respectively; p = 0.69). Mortality was equivalent among the groups (0, 2 and 4 %, respectively; p = 0.38). The median LOS for the LTE group was significantly lower (10, 13 and 15 days, respectively; p < 0.0001). Overall survival was not different between the three groups (p = 0.65), with median survival at 24 months of 70, 65 and 65 %, respectively. LTE can be performed safely with less major complications and shorter hospital stay than open esophagectomy. The reduced lymph-node harvest did

  19. WASH overexpression enhances cancer stem cell properties and correlates with poor prognosis of esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Lian, Jingyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Qin, Guohui; Zheng, Yujia; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that cytoskeleton remodeling is involved in cancer progression. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family represents a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. However, the underlying mechanism of the WASP family in cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we studied the role of WASP and SCAR Homolog (WASH), a recently identified WASP family member, in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Using three human ESCC cell lines, we found that WASH expression was significantly elevated in cancer stem-like cells enriched by sphere formation assay. WASH knockdown decreased the sphere-forming capacity of esophageal cancer cells whereas WASH over-expression exhibited the opposite effect. Mechanistically, we identified interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a key downstream target of WASH. IL-8 knockdown completely attenuated tumor sphere formation induced by WASH overexpression. WASH knockdown also delayed the growth of human ESCC xenografts in BALB/c nude mice. Importantly, high WASH levels were associated with poor clinical prognosis in a total of 145 human ESCC tissues. Collectively, our results suggest an essential role of the WASH/IL-8 pathway in human ESCC by maintaining the stemness of cancer cells. Hence, targeting this pathway might represent a promising strategy to control human esophageal carcinoma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Genetic features of metachronous esophageal cancer developed in Hodgkin's lymphoma or breast cancer long-term survivors: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Elisa; Rumiato, Enrica; Fassan, Matteo; Cappellesso, Rocco; Rugge, Massimo; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Ruol, Alberto; Alfieri, Rita; Cagol, Matteo; Castoro, Carlo; Amadori, Alberto; Saggioro, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of novel therapeutic drugs and regimens for cancer treatment has led to improvements in patient long-term survival. This success has, however, been accompanied by the increased occurrence of second primary cancers. Indeed, patients who received regional radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) or breast cancer may develop, many years later, a solid metachronous tumor in the irradiated field. Despite extensive epidemiological studies, little information is available on the genetic changes involved in the pathogenesis of these solid therapy-related neoplasms. Using microsatellite markers located in 7 chromosomal regions frequently deleted in sporadic esophageal cancer, we investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 46 paired (normal and tumor) samples. Twenty samples were of esophageal carcinoma developed in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors: 14 squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and 6 adenocarcinomas (EADC), while 26 samples, used as control, were of sporadic esophageal cancer (15 ESCC and 11 EADC). We found that, though the overall LOH frequency at the studied chromosomal regions was similar among metachronous and sporadic tumors, the latter exhibited a statistically different higher LOH frequency at 17q21.31 (p = 0.018). By stratifying for tumor histotype we observed that LOH at 3p24.1, 5q11.2 and 9p21.3 were more frequent in ESCC than in EADC suggesting a different role of the genetic determinants located nearby these regions in the development of the two esophageal cancer histotypes. Altogether, our results strengthen the genetic diversity among ESCC and EADC whether they occurred spontaneously or after therapeutic treatments. The presence of histotype-specific alterations in esophageal carcinoma arisen in HL or breast cancer long-term survivors suggests that their transformation process, though the putative different etiological origin, may retrace sporadic ESCC and EADC carcinogenesis.

  1. Intakes of citrus fruit and risk of esophageal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenyue; Liu, Lu; Xu, Shun

    2018-03-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most frequent cause of cancer death in the whole world. Many studies have investigated the association between citrus fruit intake and the risk of EC, but the results are inconsistent and not analyzed by category. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of studies to evaluate the incidence between citrus fruit consumption and subtypes of esophageal cancer and derive a more precise estimation.Through searches of PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science we updated 1988 systematic review up to April 2016. Based on an inclusion and exclusion criteria, conventional meta-analysis according to DerSimonian and Laird method was used for the pooling of the results. Random-effect models were used to calculate subgroups.Twenty-five English articles (20 case-control studies and 5 cohort studies) comprising totally 5730 patients of esophageal cancer would be suitable for use in this study. The result indicated the inverse associations between intakes of citrus fruit and EC (relative risk [RR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.75, I  = 51.1%, P = .001), Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.76, I  = 60.7%, P = .002), no significant relationship between citrus fruit and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.01, I  = 0.0%, P = .598).This meta-analysis indicates that intakes of citrus fruit significantly reduce the risk of ESCC and is no obvious relationship with EAC. Further studies about constituents in citrus fruit and its mechanism are warranted.

  2. Neoadjuvant irinotecan, cisplatin, and concurrent radiation therapy with celecoxib for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cleary, James M; Mamon, Harvey J; Szymonifka, Jackie; Bueno, Raphael; Choi, Noah; Donahue, Dean M; Fidias, Panos M; Gaissert, Henning A; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Kulke, Matthew H; Lynch, Thomas P; Mentzer, Steven J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Swanson, Richard S; Wain, John; Fuchs, Charles S; Enzinger, Peter C

    2016-07-13

    Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who are treated with trimodality therapy have a high recurrence rate. Preclinical evidence suggests that inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) increases the effectiveness of chemoradiation, and observational studies in humans suggest that COX-2 inhibition may reduce esophageal cancer risk. This trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining a COX2 inhibitor, celecoxib, with neoadjuvant irinotecan/cisplatin chemoradiation. This single arm phase 2 trial combined irinotecan, cisplatin, and celecoxib with concurrent radiation therapy. Patients with stage IIA-IVA esophageal cancer received weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) plus irinotecan 65 mg/m(2) on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5 concurrently with 5040 cGy of radiation therapy. Celecoxib 400 mg was taken orally twice daily during chemoradiation, up to 1 week before surgery, and for 6 months following surgery. Forty patients were enrolled with stage IIa (30 %), stage IIb (20 %), stage III (22.5 %), and stage IVA (27.5 %) esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer (AJCC, 5th Edition). During chemoradiation, grade 3-4 treatment-related toxicity included dysphagia (20 %), anorexia (17.5 %), dehydration (17.5 %), nausea (15 %), neutropenia (12.5 %), diarrhea (10 %), fatigue (7.5 %), and febrile neutropenia (7.5 %). The pathological complete response rate was 32.5 %. The median progression free survival was 15.7 months and the median overall survival was 34.7 months. 15 % (n = 6) of patients treated on this study developed brain metastases. The addition of celecoxib to neoadjuvant cisplatin-irinotecan chemoradiation was tolerable; however, overall survival appeared comparable to prior studies using neoadjuvant cisplatin-irinotecan chemoradiation alone. Further studies adding celecoxib to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal cancer are not warranted. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00137852 , registered August 29, 2005.

  3. Esophageal cancer: the latest on chemoprevention and state of the art therapies

    PubMed Central

    Le Bras, Gregoire F.; Farooq, Muhammad H.; Falk, Gary W.; Andl, Claudia D

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is currently the 8th most common cancer worldwide and the 6th leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Despite remarkable advances, the mortality for those suffering from esophageal cancer remains high, with 5-year survival rates of less than 20%. In part, because most patients present with late-stage disease, long-term survival even after resection and therapy is disappointingly low. As we will discuss in this review, multiple characteristics specific to the disease stage and patient must be considered when choosing a treatment plan. This article will summarize current standard therapies, potential application of chemoprevention drugs and the promise and partial failure of personalized medicine, as well as novel treatments addressing this disease. PMID:27565381

  4. Esophageal cancer: The latest on chemoprevention and state of the art therapies.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Gregoire F; Farooq, Muhammad H; Falk, Gary W; Andl, Claudia D

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal cancer is currently the 8th most common cancer worldwide and the 6th leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Despite remarkable advances, the mortality for those suffering from esophageal cancer remains high, with 5-year survival rates of less than 20%. In part, because most patients present with late-stage disease, long-term survival even after resection and therapy is disappointingly low. As we will discuss in this review, multiple characteristics specific to the disease stage and patient must be considered when choosing a treatment plan. This article will summarize current standard therapies, potential application of chemoprevention drugs and the promise and partial failure of personalized medicine, as well as novel treatments addressing this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. METHODS: A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44+CD271+ expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. RESULTS: The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44+CD271+ cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem

  6. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-12-28

    To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics. A serum-free medium (SFM) suspension was used to culture esophageal cancer stem cell lines and enrich the esophageal stem-like spheres. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect stem cell gene expression in the spheroid cells. Radiosensitivity of stem-like spheres and parental cells were evaluated by clonogenic assays. Furthermore, different cells after different doses of irradiation were tested to evaluate the change in sphere formation, cell cycle and CD44(+)CD271(+) expression of tumor stem-like spheroid cells using flow cytometry before and after irradiation. The cells were observed to generate an increased number of spheres in SFM with increasing cell passage. Radiation increased the rate of generation of stem-like spheres in both types of cells. The average survival fraction (SF2) of the cultured KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 stem-like spheres after 2 Gy of radiation was 0.81 ± 0.03 vs 0.87 ± 0.01 (P < 0.05), while the average SF2 of KYSE-150 compared with TE-1 parental cells was 0.69 ± 0.04 vs 0.80 ± 0.03, P < 0.05. In the esophageal parental cells, irradiation dose-dependently induced G2 arrest. Stem-like esophageal spheres were resistant to irradiation-induced G2 arrest without significant changes in the percentage population of irradiated stem-like cells. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for KYSE150 parental cells was 1.08% ± 0.03% vs 1.29% ± 0.07% vs 1.11% ± 0.09%, respectively; the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for TE1 parental cells was 1.16% ± 0.11% vs 0.97% ± 0.08% vs 1.45% ± 0.35%, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. Under irradiation at 0, 4, and 8 Gy, the CD44(+)CD271(+) cell percentage for KYSE-150 stem-like spheres was

  7. Zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine increase the radiosensitivity of human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Wang, Cong; Guan, Shanghui; Liu, Yuan; Han, Lihui; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase is a type of reverse transcriptase that is overexpressed in almost all human tumor cells, but not in normal tissues, which provides an opportunity for radiosensitization targeting telomerase. Zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine are reverse transcriptase inhibitors that have been applied in clinical practice for several years. We sought to explore the radiosensitization effect of these three drugs on human esophageal cancer cell lines. Eca109 and Eca9706 cells were treated with zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine for 48 h before irradiation was administered. Samples were collected 1 h after irradiation. Clonal efficiency assay was used to evaluate the effect of the combination of these drugs with radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy. DNA damage was measured by comet assay. Telomerase activity (TA) and relative telomere length (TL) were detected and evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis rates were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The results showed that all the drugs tested sensitized the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines to radiation through an increase in radiation-induced DNA damage and cell apoptosis, deregulation of TA and decreasing the shortened TL caused by radiation. Each of the drugs investigated (zidovudine, abacavir and lamivudine) could be used for sensitizing human esophageal cancer cell lines to radiation. Consequently, the present study supports the potential of these three drugs as therapeutic agents for the radiosensitization of esophageal squamous cell cancer.

  8. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in The Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Keszei, A P; Schouten, L J; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A

    2012-09-01

    Prospective data on red and processed meat in relation to risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are scarce. We present analyses of association between red and processed meat and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes within The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. 120 852 individuals aged 55-69 years were recruited in 1986, and meat intake was assessed using a 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 107 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 145 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 163 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, 489 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas, and 3923 subcohort members were included in a case-cohort analysis. Processed as well as red meat intake was positively associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in men. Hazard ratios for highest versus lowest quintile of processed and red meat were 3.47 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.21-9.94; P for trend: 0.04] and 2.66 (95% CI: 0.94-7.48; P for trend: 0.06), respectively. No association was seen for adenocarcinomas or gastric cancer subtypes or for any of the four subtypes among women. Our findings suggest that red and processed meat consumption is associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in men but not with cancers of other esophageal and gastric subtypes.

  9. Pulmonary outcome of esophageal atresia patients and its potential causes in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, René; Stock, Philippe; Rothe, Karin; Degenhardt, Petra

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the pulmonary long term outcome of patients with repaired esophageal atresia and to further examine causes and correlations that might have led to this outcome. Twenty-seven of 62 possible patients (43%) aged 5-20years, with repaired esophageal atresia were recruited. Body plethysmography and spirometry were performed to evaluate lung function, and the Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test to assess physical fitness. Results were correlated to conditions such as interpouch distance, gastroesophageal reflux or duration of post-operative mechanical ventilation. Seventeen participants (63%) showed abnormal lung function at rest or after exercise. Restrictive ventilatory defects (solely restrictive or combined) were found in 11 participants (41%), and obstructive ventilatory defects (solely obstructive or combined) in 13 subjects (48%). Twenty-two participants (81%) performed the Bruce protocol treadmill exercise test to standard. The treadmill exercise results were expressed in z-score and revealed to be significantly below the standard population mean (z-score=-1.40). Moreover, significant correlations between restrictive ventilatory defects and the interpouch distance; duration of post-operative ventilation; gastroesophageal reflux disease; plus recurrent aspiration pneumonia during infancy; were described. It was shown that esophageal atresia and associated early complications have significant impact on pulmonary long term outcomes such as abnormal lung function and, in particular restrictive ventilatory defects. Long-running and regular follow-ups of patients with congenital esophageal atresia are necessary in order to detect and react to the development and progression of associated complications such as ventilation disorders or gastroesophageal reflux disease. Prognosis study, Level II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Multicomponent Prediction Model for Acute Esophagitis in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Ruyck, Kim, E-mail: kim.deruyck@UGent.be; Sabbe, Nick; Oberije, Cary

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To construct a model for the prediction of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy by combining clinical data, treatment parameters, and genotyping profile. Patients and Methods: Data were available for 273 lung cancer patients treated with curative chemoradiotherapy. Clinical data included gender, age, World Health Organization performance score, nicotine use, diabetes, chronic disease, tumor type, tumor stage, lymph node stage, tumor location, and medical center. Treatment parameters included chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy technique, tumor dose, mean fractionation size, mean and maximal esophageal dose, and overall treatment time. A total of 332 genetic polymorphisms were considered in 112 candidatemore » genes. The predicting model was achieved by lasso logistic regression for predictor selection, followed by classic logistic regression for unbiased estimation of the coefficients. Performance of the model was expressed as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic and as the false-negative rate in the optimal point on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 110 patients (40%) developed acute esophagitis Grade {>=}2 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0). The final model contained chemotherapy treatment, lymph node stage, mean esophageal dose, gender, overall treatment time, radiotherapy technique, rs2302535 (EGFR), rs16930129 (ENG), rs1131877 (TRAF3), and rs2230528 (ITGB2). The area under the curve was 0.87, and the false-negative rate was 16%. Conclusion: Prediction of acute esophagitis can be improved by combining clinical, treatment, and genetic factors. A multicomponent prediction model for acute esophagitis with a sensitivity of 84% was constructed with two clinical parameters, four treatment parameters, and four genetic polymorphisms.« less

  11. Assessment of safety and efficacy of an indigenous self-expandable fully covered esophageal metal stent for palliation of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Padhan, R K; Nongthombam, S K; Venuthurimilli, A; Dhingra, R; Sahni, P; Garg, P K

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unresectable esophageal cancer require palliation for dysphagia. Placement of a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is the procedure of choice for palliation of dysphagia. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an indigenous fully-covered SEMS in patients with esophageal cancer. Eligible patients with unresectable esophageal cancer requiring palliation for dysphagia were included in the study. An indigenous fully covered SEMS of appropriate length was placed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Outcome measures assessed were adverse events and improvement in dysphagia. Twenty one patients (mean age 57.71±13.14 years; 17 males) were included. After stenting, dysphagia score decreased from 3.2+0.4 to 0.35+0.74 at 4 weeks. Adverse events included retrosternal pain, respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia in 12, 2 and 1 patients respectively. Five patients required repeat stenting due to stent migration in 4 (following radiotherapy in 3) and tumour ingrowth in 1. There was primary stent malfunction in one patient. The median survival of patients was 140 (76-199) days, which was higher in those who received radiotherapy. The stent was reasonably safe and effective to relieve dysphagia due to unresectable esophageal cancer.

  12. Aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Ueno, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jinichi; Igarashi, Shohei; Sato, Tsugumi; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2017-08-15

    Autoimmune diseases are sometimes associated with neoplasms. A 70-year-old Japanese woman with myelitis, seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody, was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD); thereafter an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was identified. Immunohistochemically, her cancer was anti-AQP4 antibody negative. Her symptoms, imaging findings and AQP4 titer markedly improved with corticosteroid and anti-cancer therapies. Although AQP4 may be a paraneoplastic antigen, paraneoplastic syndrome could not be definitively diagnosed in this case. Nevertheless, this is the first report of an association between AQP4 antibody-seropositive NMOSD and esophageal cancer. The possibility of underlying malignancy should be considered in patients diagnosed with NMOSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. FOLFOX-6 Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Esophagectomy and Post-operative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastric Cardia; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer

  14. PD-L1 Expression Promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lujun; Xiong, Yuqi; Li, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Zhou, Qi; Turner, Abbey; Wu, Changping; Lu, Binfeng; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-01-01

    PD-L1 (Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, PD-L1), an essential immune checkpoint molecule in the tumor microenvironment, is an important target for cancer immunotherapy. We have previously reported that its expression in human gastric and esophageal cancer tissues is significantly associated with cancer progression and patients' postoperative prognoses. Its expression in cancer cells is well known to inhibit the T cell-mediated anti-tumor response, and this mechanism of action has been targeted for cancer immunotherapy. As of now, the autonomous effect of PD-L1 on cancer cells is not well understood, thus our present study aimed to examine the role of PD-L1 intervention in cellular biological functions, especially epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), of the human esophageal cancer cell line, Eca-109 cells. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to investigate the correlation between expression of PD-L1 and EMT markers in human esophageal cancer tissues. Intervention of PD-L1 by using RNAi and over-expression methods were used to study the role of PD-L1 in regulation of biological behaviors and EMT in Eca-109 cells. Our clinical and pathological data demonstrated that tumor samples in the EMT positive subgroup had higher PD-L1 expression than those in the EMT negative subgroup. By manipulating PD-L1 expression in Eca-109 cells either through ablation or overexpression of wild type and the cytoplasmic domain-truncated mutant, we demonstrated that PD-L1 expression significantly promoted the cell viability, migration and EMT phenotype. Furthermore, our study also indicated that PD-1 fusion protein mediated stimulation of PD-L1 and the cytoplasmic domain of PD-L1 played a critical role in promoting EMT phenotype of Eca-109 cells, thereby suggesting that PD-1 receptor usually by triggering the reverse signaling can effect PD-L1 mediated regulation of esophageal cancer cell response. Our present study reveals a tumor cell-autonomous role of PD-L1 signaling in promoting

  15. Esophageal cancer diagnosed by high-resolution manometry of the esophagus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, RONGBEI; CHU, HUA; XU, FEI; CHEN, SHUJIE

    2016-01-01

    A 48-year-old female who presented with a history of dysphagia for 5 months and regurgitation for 1 week was referred to the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (Hangzhou, China) for further evaluation, since the gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasound performed in local hospitals did not reveal the presence of cancer. High-resolution manometry (HRM) of the esophagus was performed to determine the patient's condition, and revealed an abnormal high-pressure zone that was located 33 cm from the incisor and did not relax upon swallowing. Synchronous waves were observed, and the pressure of the esophageal lumen was found to increase with secondary synchronous peristaltic waves. The lower esophageal sphincter was 39 cm from the incisor and relaxed upon swallowing. The abnormal high-pressure zone could have been caused by an obstruction, and therefore an upper gastrointestinal series (barium swallow) test and gastroscopy were recommended to further pinpoint the cause. Following the two examinations, mid-esophageal cancer was considered as a possible diagnosis. A biopsy was performed and the final diagnosis was that of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The findings of the present study suggest that, for patients with evident symptoms of esophageal motor dysfunction without significant gastroscopy findings, HRM is recommended. PMID:27123076

  16. Improved Overall Survival with Aggressive Primary Tumor Radiotherapy for Patients with Metastatic Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, David M; Mitra, Nandita; Bekelman, Justin; Metz, James M; Plastaras, John; Feng, Weiwei; Swisher-McClure, Samuel

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize utilization and survival outcomes associated with primary tumor-directed radiotherapy (PTDRT) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic esophageal cancer. We conducted an observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate patients with newly diagnosed metastatic esophageal cancer between 2004 and 2012. Overall survival outcomes after treatment with chemotherapy plus conventional palliative dose radiotherapy (<5040 cGy), chemotherapy plus definitive dose radiotherapy (≥5040 cGy), or chemotherapy alone were compared by using Cox proportional hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score. Potential unmeasured confounding was assessed through sensitivity analyses. The final cohort consisted of 12,683 patients: 57% were treated with chemotherapy alone, 24% were treated with chemotherapy plus palliative dose radiotherapy, and 19% were treated with chemotherapy plus definitive dose radiotherapy. Compared with chemotherapy alone, chemotherapy plus definitive dose radiotherapy was associated with improved survival (median overall survival of 8.3 versus 11.3 months [hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.74, p ≤ 0.001]), whereas chemotherapy plus palliative dose radiotherapy was associated with slightly inferior outcomes (median overall survival of 8.3 months versus 7.5 months (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.13, p ≤ 0.001). These findings were robust to potential unmeasured confounding in sensitivity analyses. Additionally, landmark analyses confirmed these findings in patients surviving 12 months or longer. Definitive dose, but not conventional palliative dose, PTDRT is associated with improved overall survival in metastatic esophageal cancer, suggesting that local control may be important to prognosis. These findings support integrating PTDRT into future clinical trials aimed at refining personalized treatment for

  17. Andrographolide radiosensitizes human esophageal cancer cell line ECA109 to radiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z-M; Kang, Y-H; Yang, X; Wang, J-F; Zhang, Q; Yang, B-X; Zhao, K-L; Xu, L-P; Yang, L-P; Ma, J-X; Huang, G-H; Cai, J; Sun, X-C

    2016-01-01

    To explore the radiosensitivity of andrographolide on esophageal cancer cell line ECA109. The inhibition effects of andrographolide were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Clonogenic survival assay was used to evaluate the effects of andrographolide on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. Immunofluorescence was employed to examine Bax expression. The changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. The expression of NF-κb/Cleaved-Caspase3/Bax/Bcl-2 was measured using Western blot analysis. DNA damage was detected via γ-H2AX foci counting. With a clear dose and time effects, andrographolide was found to inhibit the proliferation of esophageal cell line ECA109. The results of the clonogenic survival assay show that andrographolide could markedly enhance radiosensitivity (P < 0.05) with a sensitizing enhancement ratio of 1.28. Andrographolide caused a dose-dependent increase in Cleaved-Caspase3/Bax protein expression and a decrease in Bcl-2/NF-κb expression. Apoptosis in andrographolide-treated ECA-109 increased significantly compared with the apoptosis in the simple drug and radiation combined with drug groups (P < 0.001; P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the independent radiation group, the andrographolide combined with radiation group increased the number of DNA double chain breaks. Andrographolide can increase the radiosensitivity of esophageal cell line ECA109. This result may be associated with the decrease in the NF-κb level and the induced apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  18. Incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury after esophageal cancer surgery: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Tong; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Sun, Li

    2017-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been increasingly recognized as a common and serious postoperative complication. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate postoperative AKI after thoracic surgery, little is known about AKI after esophageal surgery. Thus, we conducted this study to determine the incidence and identify risk factors of postoperative AKI after esophageal cancer surgery. A retrospective nested case-control study of patients undergoing elective esophageal cancer surgery between July 2013 and July 2016 in a single tertiary specialized cancer hospital was performed. The primary outcome was development of AKI. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for AKI. Of 2094 patients, 51 (2.4%) developed postoperative AKI after esophageal cancer surgery. In multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, four risk factors for AKI after esophageal surgery for cancer were identified: preoperative serum creatinine level (OR 1.040; 95% CI 1.012-1.069), duration of surgery (OR 1.009; 95% CI 1.005-1.014), smoking history (OR 3.029; 95% CI 1.092-8.399) and hypertension (OR 6.422; 95% CI 2.736-15.070). Postoperative AKI occurred in 2.4% of patients after esophageal surgery for cancer. Preoperative serum creatinine level, duration of surgery, smoking history and hypertension were independent risk factors for postoperative AKI. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio predicts poor prognosis after esophagectomy in T1 esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenichi; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Yoshifumi; Kosumi, Keisuke; Uchihara, Tomoyuki; Kiyozumi, Yuki; Ohuchi, Mayuko; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2017-06-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to predict the prognosis of various malignant tumors, including esophageal cancer. However, no previous reports have supported the use of the preoperative NLR as an independent prognostic marker focused on superficial (T1) esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the prognostic impact of the preoperative NLR in T1 esophageal cancer. This retrospective study recruited 245 consecutive patients with T1 esophageal cancer who underwent subtotal esophagectomy between 2005 and 2016. The relationship between the preoperative NLR and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The preoperative NLR was significantly higher in male patients (p = 0.029), patients with T1b esophageal cancer (p = 0.0274), and patients with venous vessel invasion (p = 0.0082). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the elevated preoperative NLR was significantly associated with a poorer disease-free survival (p < 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0004). In the multivariate Cox model, the elevated preoperative NLR was an independent prognostic marker for both disease-free survival (p = 0.0013) and overall survival (p = 0.0027). An elevated preoperative NLR predicts poor prognosis in T1 esophageal cancer, suggesting the utility of the NLR as an easily measurable and generally available independent prognostic marker.

  20. Worldwide trends in surgical techniques in the treatment of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, L; Seesing, M F J; Ruurda, J P; Boone, J; V Hillegersberg, R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide trends in surgical techniques for esophageal cancer surgery by comparing it to our survey from 2007. In addition, new questions were added for gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. An international survey on surgery of esophageal and GEJ cancer was performed among surgical members of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus, the World Organization for Specialized Studies on Disease of the Esophagus, the International Gastric Cancer Association. Also, surgeons from personal networks were contacted. The participants filled out a web based questionnaire about surgical strategies for esophageal and gastroesophageal cancer. The overall response rate was 478/1147 (42%). The respondents represented 49 different countries and 6 different continents. The annual cumulative number of esophageal and gastric resections per surgeon was low (≤11) in 11%, medium (11-21) in 17%, and high (≥21) in 72% of respondents. In a subgroup analysis of esophageal surgeons the number of high volume surgeons increased from 45 to 54% over the past 7 years. The preferred lymph node dissection was two-field in 86%. A gastric conduit was the preferred method of reconstruction in 95%. In 2014, the preferred approach to esophagectomy was minimally invasive transthoracic in 43%, compared with 14% in 2007. In minimally invasive transthoracic esophagectomy the cervical anastomosis was favored in 54% of respondents in 2014 compared with 87% in 2007. The preferred technique of construction of the cervical anastomosis was hand-sewn in 64% and stapled in 36%, whereas the thoracic anastomosis was stapled in 77% and hand-sewn in 23%. The preferred surgical approach for Siewert type 1 tumors (5-1 cm proximal of the GEJ) was esophagectomy in 93% of respondents, whereas 6% favored gastrectomy and 3% combined a distal esophagectomy with a proximal gastrectomy. For Siewert type 2 tumors (1-2 cm from the GEJ) an extended gastrectomy was

  1. Acute Cardiac Impairment Associated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: Magnetic Resonance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakenaka, Masamitsu, E-mail: mhatakenaka@sapmed.ac.jp; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo; Yonezawa, Masato

    2012-05-01

    difference (p < 0.05) after CCRT between the groups. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer impairs LVF from an early treatment stage. This impairment is prominent in patients with high LV dose.« less

  2. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Matsushita, S; Yoshimizu, H; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    1999-11-01

    Studies have consistently demonstrated that inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by ALDH2*1/2*2, is closely associated with alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Recently, the contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) polymorphism to alcoholism, esophageal cancer, and the flushing response have also been described. To determine the effects of ALDH2 and ADH2 genotypes in genetically based cancer susceptibility, lymphocyte DNA samples from 668 Japanese alcoholic men more than 40 years of age (91 with and 577 without esophageal cancer) were genotyped and the results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). This study also tested 82 of the alcoholics with esophageal cancer to determine whether cancer susceptibility is associated with patients' responses to simple questions about current or former flushing after drinking a glass of beer. The frequencies of ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2 were significantly higher in alcoholics with, than in those without, esophageal cancer (0.473 vs. 0.289 and 0.560 vs. 0.099, respectively). After adjustment for drinking and smoking, the analysis showed significantly increased cancer risk for alcoholics with either ADH2*1/2*I (OR = 2.03) or ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 12.76). For those having ADH2*1/2*1 combined with ALDH2*1/2*2, the esophageal cancer risk was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 27.66). Responses to flushing questions showed that only 47.8% of the ALDH2*1/2*2 heterozygotes with ADH2*1/ 2*1, compared with 92.3% of those with ALDH2*1/2*2 and the ADH2*2 allele, reported current or former flushing. Genotyping showed that for alcoholics who reported ever flushing, the questionnaire was 71.4% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*2 and 87.9% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*1. Japanese alcoholics can be divided into cancer susceptibility groups on the basis of their combined ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes. The flushing questionnaire can predict high risk ALDH2*1/2*2 fairly accurately in persons with ADH2*2 allele, but a reliable

  3. Outcomes of nutritional interventions to treat dysphagia in esophageal cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Modi, R M; Mikhail, S; Ciombor, K; Perry, K A; Hinton, A; Stanich, P P; Zhang, C; Conwell, D L; Krishna, S G

    2017-11-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is increasing in prevalence due to rising incidence and improved treatment strategies. Dysphagia is a significant morbidity in patients with EC requiring nutritional intervention. We sought to evaluate outcomes of nutritional interventions for EC patients hospitalized with dysphagia at a population level. The National Inpatient Sample (2002-2012) was utilized to include all adult inpatients (≥18 years of age) with EC and presence of dysphagia and stricture that underwent nutritional interventions including feeding tube (FT) placement, esophageal stenting, or parenteral nutrition (PN). Temporal trends were examined with multivariate analysis performed for mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization. A total of 509,593 EC patients had 12,205 hospitalizations related to dysphagia. The hospitalization rates doubled over the study period (1.52% vs. 3.28%, p < 0.001). The most common nutritional intervention was FT (27%), followed by esophageal stenting (13%), and PN (11%). PN was more frequently associated with a diagnosis of sepsis (6.1%, p = 0.023) compared to FT (2.5%) or esophageal stenting (1.8%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated FT and esophageal stenting had comparable mortality (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.49, 2.32); however, PN was associated with higher mortality (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.63), cost of hospitalization ($5,510, 95% CI: 2,262, 8,759), and LOS (2.13 days, 95% CI: 0.72, 3.54). This study shows that hospitalizations for EC with dysphagia and related nutritional interventions are increasing. As a single modality, parenteral nutrition should be avoided. Among our esophageal stent and FT population, further studies are necessary to determine adequate interventions based on disease stage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Vorinostat differentially alters 3D nuclear structure of cancer and non-cancerous esophageal cells.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Hansen, Nanna; Glenn, Honor L; Han, Jessica H; Helland, Stephanie; Hernandez, Kathryn; Senechal, Patti; Johnson, Roger H; Bussey, Kimberly J; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2016-08-09

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat has received significant attention in recent years as an 'epigenetic' drug used to treat solid tumors. However, its mechanisms of action are not entirely understood, particularly with regard to its interaction with the aberrations in 3D nuclear structure that accompany neoplastic progression. We investigated the impact of vorinostat on human esophageal epithelial cell lines derived from normal, metaplastic (pre-cancerous), and malignant tissue. Using a combination of novel optical computed tomography (CT)-based quantitative 3D absorption microscopy and conventional confocal fluorescence microscopy, we show that subjecting malignant cells to vorinostat preferentially alters their 3D nuclear architecture relative to non-cancerous cells. Optical CT (cell CT) imaging of fixed single cells showed that drug-treated cancer cells exhibit significant alterations in nuclear morphometry. Confocal microscopy revealed that vorinostat caused changes in the distribution of H3K9ac-marked euchromatin and H3K9me3-marked constitutive heterochromatin. Additionally, 3D immuno-FISH showed that drug-induced expression of the DNA repair gene MGMT was accompanied by spatial relocation toward the center of the nucleus in the nuclei of metaplastic but not in non-neoplastic cells. Our data suggest that vorinostat's differential modulation of 3D nuclear architecture in normal and abnormal cells could play a functional role in its anti-cancer action.

  5. Esophageal cancer: anatomic particularities, staging, and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Encinas de la Iglesia, J; Corral de la Calle, M A; Fernández Pérez, G C; Ruano Pérez, R; Álvarez Delgado, A

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is usually diagnosed in advanced stages. The absence of serosa allows it to spread quickly to neighboring mediastinal structures, and an extensive lymphatic drainage network facilitates tumor spread even in early stages. The current TNM classification, harmonized with the classification for gastric cancer, provides new definitions for the anatomic classification, adds non-anatomic characteristics of the tumor, and includes tumors of the gastroesophageal junction. Combining endoscopic ultrasound, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging provides greater accuracy in determining the initial clinical stage, and these imaging techniques play an essential role in the selection, planning, and evaluation of treatment. In this article, we review some particularities that explain the behavior of this tumor and we describe the current TNM staging system; furthermore, we discuss the different imaging tests available for its evaluation and include a diagnostic algorithm. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical results of proton beam therapy for twenty older patients with esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takashi; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Azami, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Hisashi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Motohisa; Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Tsukiyama, Iwao; Hareyama, Masato; Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nemoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background In an aging society, increasing number of older patients are diagnosed with esophageal cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of proton beam therapy for older patients with esophageal cancer. Patients and methods. Older patients (age: ≥ 65 years) newly diagnosed with esophageal cancer between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent either proton beam therapy alone or proton beam therapy with initial X-ray irradiation. Toxicities were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Twenty patients were eligible for this study and all completed the treatment. The median age was 78 years (range: 65–89 years) and the median follow-up time was 26.5 months (range: 6–62 months). Seven patients had lymph node metastases and 10 had stage II/III cancer. The median dose of proton beam therapy was 72.6 Gy relative biological dose effectiveness (RBE) (range: 66–74.8 Gy [RBE]) for proton beam therapy alone and 33 Gy (RBE) (range: 30.8–39.6 Gy [RBE]; total dose range: 66.8–75.6 Gy [RBE]) for proton beam therapy with initial X-ray irradiation. The 2-year overall survival rate was 81.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.4%–100%), and the 2-year local control rate was 89.4% (95% CI: 75.5%–100%). Grade 2 or 3 toxicities occurred in some cases; however, no grade 4 or 5 toxicity was observed. Conclusions High-dose (66–75.6 Gy [RBE]) proton beam therapy without chemotherapy was an efficacious and safe treatment for older patients with esophageal cancer. PMID:26834524

  7. Fatal hemoptysis in patients with advanced esophageal cancer treated with apatinib

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Xie, Yan; Zhen, Tianchang; Su, Gongzhang; Zang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Targeted therapy is commonly used for treating advanced malignant tumors. Compared with cytotoxic drugs, targeted drugs have the characteristics of good curative results, less adverse effects, and convenient oral administration. Hence, they are especially suitable for patients with cancer who are not able to tolerate chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic therapy can achieve the objective by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels in tumors. Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the intracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. It has been proven to be effective and safe in treating patients with gastric carcinoma and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma. So far, no reports are available on the treatment of esophageal cancer with apatinib. Two patients with advanced esophageal cancer were treated with oral apatinib because of their poor physical condition. After treatment, the dyspnea symptoms disappeared and quality of life significantly improved. Chest computed tomography showed massive necrosis of tumor tissues in each patient. The tumors significantly reduced and a cavity was formed locally in each patient. However, both patients died of massive hemoptysis, probably due to the rupture of the bronchial artery eroded by tumors. The results indicated that apatinib was effective in treating some patients with advanced esophageal cancer, and adverse effects were controllable. However, doctors should choose appropriate candidates according to apatinib’s indications. In addition, the use of apatinib should be carefully controlled for patients with esophageal cancer, especially in those with large vessels and trachea or bronchus eroded by tumor, so as to avoid or reduce the occurrence of fatal hemorrhage. PMID:29765235

  8. Long-term complications of definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer using the classical method

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hitoshi; Itasaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Araki, Norio; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiation therapy is widely used to treat both inoperable and operable patients, and is less invasive than surgery. Although the number of long-term survivors who have received chemoradiation therapy is increasing, the long-term toxicity pattern and cumulative incidence of toxicity regarding this modality are poorly understood. Classically, chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer consists of an anterior–posterior field and a subsequent oblique boost field. We retrospectively analyzed patients who were treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer using this classical method from 1999 to 2008. For the assessment of toxicity, the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Version 3.0 was adopted. A total of 101 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up time was 16 months for all patients and 62 months for the surviving patients. Eleven patients experienced late toxicities of ≥Grade 3. Two patients died of late toxicities. The 3- and 5-year cumulative incidences for the first late cardiopulmonary toxicities of ≥Grade 3 were 17.4% and 20.8%, respectively. Cardiopulmonary effusions were observed within the first 3 years of completion of the initial treatment in seven out of eight patients. Sudden death and cardiac ischemia were observed over a 10-year period. Older age was found to be a risk factor for late toxicity after definitive chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer. Substantial toxicities were observed in patients who had received chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer using the classical method. To minimize the incidence of late toxicity, more sophisticated radiation techniques may be useful. PMID:27475126

  9. Long-term complications of definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer using the classical method.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hitoshi; Itasaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Katsuyuki; Araki, Norio; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiation therapy is widely used to treat both inoperable and operable patients, and is less invasive than surgery. Although the number of long-term survivors who have received chemoradiation therapy is increasing, the long-term toxicity pattern and cumulative incidence of toxicity regarding this modality are poorly understood. Classically, chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer consists of an anterior-posterior field and a subsequent oblique boost field. We retrospectively analyzed patients who were treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer using this classical method from 1999 to 2008. For the assessment of toxicity, the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Version 3.0 was adopted. A total of 101 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up time was 16 months for all patients and 62 months for the surviving patients. Eleven patients experienced late toxicities of ≥Grade 3. Two patients died of late toxicities. The 3- and 5-year cumulative incidences for the first late cardiopulmonary toxicities of ≥Grade 3 were 17.4% and 20.8%, respectively. Cardiopulmonary effusions were observed within the first 3 years of completion of the initial treatment in seven out of eight patients. Sudden death and cardiac ischemia were observed over a 10-year period. Older age was found to be a risk factor for late toxicity after definitive chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer. Substantial toxicities were observed in patients who had received chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer using the classical method. To minimize the incidence of late toxicity, more sophisticated radiation techniques may be useful. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  10. Nimotuzumab combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer: A phase I study.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken; Ura, Takashi; Koizumi, Wasaburo; Iwasa, Satoru; Katada, Chikatoshi; Azuma, Mizutomo; Ishikura, Satoshi; Nakao, Yoshinori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Muro, Kei

    2018-03-01

    Nimotuzumab is a humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor IgG1 monoclonal antibody. This phase I study assessed the tolerability, safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of nimotuzumab in combination with chemoradiotherapy in Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. Patients with stage II, III, and IV esophageal cancer were enrolled. Patients were planned to receive nimotuzumab (level 1: 200 mg/wk for 25 weeks; or level 2: 400 mg/wk in the chemoradiation period, 400 mg biweekly in an additional chemotherapy period [8 weeks after the chemoradiation period] and a maintenance therapy period [after chemotherapy to 25 weeks]) combined with cisplatin (75 mg/m 2 on day 1) and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m 2 on days 1-4) in the chemoradiation and additional chemotherapy periods. Radiotherapy was given concurrently at 50.4 Gy. A total of 10 patients were enrolled in level 1. Dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 2 patients (grade 3 infection and renal disorder). Maximum-tolerated dose was estimated to be at least 200 mg/wk and the dose was not escalated to level 2. The most common grade ≥3 toxicities were lymphopenia (90%), leukopenia (60%), neutropenia (50%), and febrile neutropenia, decreased appetite, hyponatremia, and radiation esophagitis (30% each). Neither treatment-related death nor grade ≥3 skin toxicity was observed in any patient. Complete response rate was 50%. Progression-free survival was 13.9 months. One- and 3-year survival rates were 75% and 37.5%, respectively. Immunogenicity was not reported in any patient. Nimotuzumab in combination with concurrent chemoradiotherapy was tolerable and effective for Japanese patients with esophageal cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Fatal hemoptysis in patients with advanced esophageal cancer treated with apatinib.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Xie, Yan; Zhen, Tianchang; Su, Gongzhang; Zang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Targeted therapy is commonly used for treating advanced malignant tumors. Compared with cytotoxic drugs, targeted drugs have the characteristics of good curative results, less adverse effects, and convenient oral administration. Hence, they are especially suitable for patients with cancer who are not able to tolerate chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic therapy can achieve the objective by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels in tumors. Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the intracellular domain of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. It has been proven to be effective and safe in treating patients with gastric carcinoma and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma. So far, no reports are available on the treatment of esophageal cancer with apatinib. Two patients with advanced esophageal cancer were treated with oral apatinib because of their poor physical condition. After treatment, the dyspnea symptoms disappeared and quality of life significantly improved. Chest computed tomography showed massive necrosis of tumor tissues in each patient. The tumors significantly reduced and a cavity was formed locally in each patient. However, both patients died of massive hemoptysis, probably due to the rupture of the bronchial artery eroded by tumors. The results indicated that apatinib was effective in treating some patients with advanced esophageal cancer, and adverse effects were controllable. However, doctors should choose appropriate candidates according to apatinib's indications. In addition, the use of apatinib should be carefully controlled for patients with esophageal cancer, especially in those with large vessels and trachea or bronchus eroded by tumor, so as to avoid or reduce the occurrence of fatal hemorrhage.

  12. Clinical outcome and molecular characterization of brain metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, Michele; Petrelli, Fausto; Hahne, Jens Claus; De Giorgi, Annamaria; Toppo, Laura; Pizzo, Claudio; Ratti, Margherita; Barni, Sandro; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Tomasello, Gianluca

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to collect the available data on central nervous system (CNS) metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer. A PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, LILACS, Ovid and Cochrane Library search was performed. Thirty-seven studies including 779 patients were considered. Among the data extracted, treatment of tumor and brain metastases (BMs), time to BMs development, number and subsite, extracerebral metastases rate, median overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were included. For esophageal cancer, the median OS from diagnosis of BMs was 4.2 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: performance status, multimodal therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, single BM, brain only disease and surgery. For gastric cancer, median OS was 2.4 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: recursive partitioning analysis class 2, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRT) and use of intrathecal therapy. HER2-positive gastric cancer was shown to be associated with a higher risk and shorter time to CNS relapse. Patients harboring BMs from gastric and esophageal tumors, except cases with single lesions that are treated aggressively, have a poor prognosis. SRT (plus or minus surgery and whole brain radiotherapy) seems to give better results in terms of longer OS after brain relapse.

  13. Relationship between HER-2 overexpression and brain metastasis in esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hejleh, Taher; DeYoung, Barry R; Engelman, Eric; Deutsch, Jeremy M; Zimmerman, Bridget; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Berg, Daniel J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Lynch, William R; Iannettoni, Mark D; Bhatia, Sudershan; Clamon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if HER-2 overexpression by locally advanced esophageal cancers increase the chance of brain metastasis following esophagectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2000 and 2010. Data analyzed consisted of demographic and clinical variables. The brain metastasis tissue was assayed for HER-2 overexpression utilizing the FDA approved DAKO Hercept Test®. RESULTS: One hundred and forty two patients were reviewed. Median age was 64 years (36-86 years). Eighty eight patients (62%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pathological complete and partial responses were achieved in 17 (19%) and 71 (81%) patients. Cancer relapsed in 43/142 (30%) patients. The brain was the first site of relapse in 9/43 patients (21%, 95% CI: 10%-36%). HER-2 immunohistochemistry testing of the brain metastasis tissue showed that 5/9 (56%) cases overexpressed HER-2 (3+ staining). CONCLUSION: HER-2 overexpression might be associated with increased risk of brain metastasis in esophageal cancer patients following esophagectomy. Further studies will be required to validate this observation. PMID:22645633

  14. Endoscopic therapy of neoplasia related to Barrett's esophagus and endoscopic palliation of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Shivakumar; Hoffe, Sarah E; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shridhar, Ravi; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Gupta, Akshay K

    2013-04-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most important identifiable risk factor for the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This article reviews the current endoscopic therapies for BE with high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer and briefly discusses the endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer. The diagnosis of low-grade or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) is based on several cytologic criteria that suggest neoplastic transformation of the columnar epithelium. HGD and carcinoma in situ are regarded as equivalent. The presence of dysplasia, particularly HGD, is also a risk factor for synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia is a marker of adenocarcinoma and also has been shown to be the preinvasive lesion. Esophagectomy has been the conventional treatment for T1 esophageal cancer and, although debated, is an appropriate option in some patients with HGD due to the presence of occult cancer in over one-third of patients. Endoscopic ablative modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation) and endoscopic resection techniques (eg, endoscopic mucosal resection) have demonstrated promising results. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy makes endoscopic treatment an attractive potential option.

  15. Value of screening endoscopy in evaluation of esophageal, gastric and colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Tae H; Mathew, Michelle A; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers are deadly diseases that continue to plague our world today. The value of screening endoscopy in evaluating these types of cancers is a critical area of discussion due to a potential reduction in morbidity and mortality. This article describes how to identify a good screening test and explains what are important criteria in the field of screening endoscopy. Furthermore, the current status and progress of screening endoscopy for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer will be evaluated and discussed. Mass screening programs have not been implemented for esophageal and gastric carcinomas in those with average or low risk populations. However, studies of high-risk populations have found value and a cost-benefit in conducting screening endoscopy. Colorectal cancer, on the other hand, has had mass screening programs in place for many years due to the clear evidence of improved outcomes. As the role of endoscopy as a screening tool has continued to develop, newer technology and techniques have emerged to improve its utility. Many new image enhancement techniques and computer processing programs have shown promise and may have a significant role in the future of endoscopic screening. These developments are paving the way for improving the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of endoscopy in the field of gastroenterology. PMID:26361416

  16. Identification of the Lymphatic Drainage Pattern of Esophageal Cancer with Near-Infrared Fluorescent Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Francisco; Barbetta, Arianna; Mungo, Benedetto; Lidor, Anne O; Molena, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Nodal status is one of the most important long-term prognostic factors for esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared (NIR) light fluorescent imaging to identify the lymphatic drainage pattern of esophageal cancer. Patients with distal esophageal cancer or esophagogastric junction cancer scheduled for esophagectomy were enrolled in this study. Before surgery, an endoscopy was performed with submucosal injection of 2 cc of indocyanine green (ICG) around the tumor. Real-time NIR images from the surgical field were obtained for each patient to visualize the lymphatic ICG drainage. A total of nine patients were included in this study. Ivor Lewis esophagectomy was performed in all cases. ICG drainage was visualized to first drain along the left gastric nodes in eight patients (88.9%) and toward the diaphragmatic nodes in one patient (11.1%). The median number of resected nodes was 32. Three patients (33.3%) presented nodal involvement. All of them had positive nodes in the first nodal station identified with ICG. Evaluation of the lymphatic drainage pattern with real-time NIR light fluorescent technique is feasible. Distal and esophagogastric junction tumors showed to drain first in the left gastric nodes in most of the cases.

  17. [Remission of acquired hemophilia A following radiation therapy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kunio; Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Mitsui, Takeki; Noguchi, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Takuma; Handa, Hiroshi; Ieko, Masahiro; Ichinose, Akitada; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2016-04-01

    Although acquired hemophilia A (AHA) often develops in patients with neoplasms, there are few reports on the efficacy of radiation therapy during the bleeding phase of AHA in the prior literature. We herein present a case of AHA experiencing remission soon after radiation therapy for esophageal cancer. A man in his seventies, who had a history of radical nephrectomy for left renal cell carcinoma, received a diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Three months later, he noticed a right thigh hematoma, and was transferred to our hospital. Laboratory data revealed a marked reduction of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) activity at 0.9% and the inhibitor to FVIII was detected in his serum at 21.8 BU/ml. Under a diagnosis of AHA, the patient received high-dose oral prednisolone, which failed to achieve disease remission. He then underwent radiation therapy to eradicate the underlying esophageal cancer. Despite tapering of the prednisolone dosage, FVIII inhibitor declined to undetectable levels. In this case, radiation therapy for the underlying cancer was associated with achieving complete remission of AHA.

  18. Outcome of Radiation Monotherapy for High-risk Patients with Stage I Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Noma, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Naoaki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Kuroda, Shinji; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Katsui, Kuniaki; Katayama, Norihisa; Kanazawa, Susumu; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Currently, chemoradiation is the most widely used nonsurgical treatment for esophageal cancer. However, some patients, particularly the very elderly or those with severe vital organ dysfunction, face difficulty with the chemotherapy component. We therefore examined the outcome of radiation therapy (RT) alone for patients with esophageal cancer at our facility. Between January 2005 and December 2014, 84 patients underwent RT at our hospital, and 78 of these patients received concomitant chemotherapy. The remaining 6 patients underwent RT alone; these patients were considered to be high-risk and to have no lymph node metastasis (stage I). Five of them received irradiation up to a curative dose: 4 showed a complete response (CR) and 1 showed a partial response (PR). Of the patients exhibiting CR, 3 are currently living recurrence-free, whereas 1 patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as salvage therapy for local recurrence, with no subsequent recurrence. High-risk stage I esophageal cancer patients can be treated radically with RT alone under certain conditions. In the future, to broaden the indications for RT monotherapy to include some degree of advanced cancers, a novel concurrent therapy should be identified.

  19. Value of screening endoscopy in evaluation of esophageal, gastric and colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Ro, Tae H; Mathew, Michelle A; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-09-07

    Esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancers are deadly diseases that continue to plague our world today. The value of screening endoscopy in evaluating these types of cancers is a critical area of discussion due to a potential reduction in morbidity and mortality. This article describes how to identify a good screening test and explains what are important criteria in the field of screening endoscopy. Furthermore, the current status and progress of screening endoscopy for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer will be evaluated and discussed. Mass screening programs have not been implemented for esophageal and gastric carcinomas in those with average or low risk populations. However, studies of high-risk populations have found value and a cost-benefit in conducting screening endoscopy. Colorectal cancer, on the other hand, has had mass screening programs in place for many years due to the clear evidence of improved outcomes. As the role of endoscopy as a screening tool has continued to develop, newer technology and techniques have emerged to improve its utility. Many new image enhancement techniques and computer processing programs have shown promise and may have a significant role in the future of endoscopic screening. These developments are paving the way for improving the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of endoscopy in the field of gastroenterology.

  20. Nimotuzumab combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer: preliminary study of a Phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; E, Mingyan; Wu, Gang; Zhao, Lujun; Li, Xia; Xiu, Xia; Li, Ning; Chen, Bo; Hui, Zhouguang; Lv, Jima; Fang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Bi, Nan; Wang, Wenqing; Zhai, Yirui; Li, Tao; Chen, Dongfu; Zou, Shuangmei; Lu, Ning; Perez-Rodríguez, Rolando; Zheng, Junqi; Wang, Luhua

    2013-01-01

    To determine the safety and therapeutic effects of nimotuzumab (h-R3) combined with radiotherapy in esophageal cancer. This Phase II clinical trial involved 42 patients with stage II (inoperable or refused surgery) to stage IV (supraclavicular lymph node metastasis only) esophageal cancers treated between November 2008 and July 2010. All patients had squamous cell carcinomas, and all received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and 200 mg nimotuzumab per week during radiotherapy. There were 9, 25, and 8 patients with stage II, III and IV disease, respectively. All except two patients received 50-70 Gy radiation; 37 patients (88.1%) received more than five nimotuzumab doses. Grade III toxicities (21.4% of all adverse events) included esophagitis and gastrointestinal, dermatological and hematological toxicities. Complete response, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease were observed in 0, 22 (52.4%), 17 (40.5%) and 3 (7.1%) patients at 1 month after the treatment. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression rate was 95.2%. After a median follow-up of 37 months, the median survival time (MST) was 14 months. The 2 year and 3 year overall survival (OS) rates were 33.3% and 26.2%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 10 months. The 2 year and 3 year PFS rates were 24.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The MST in the 13 patients with (+++) EGFR expression (group A) and 7 patients with (++) EGFR expression (group B) was 15 and 11 months, respectively. The 2 year and 3 year OS rates were 46.2% and 38.5% in group A and 28.6% and 28.6% in group B, respectively (P = 0.405). Although concurrent chemoradiotherapy was the standard care for locally advanced esophageal cancer, radiotherapy was the choice for those who were refused or could not tolerate chemoradiotherapy. Our study shows that nimotuzumab combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with esophageal cancer. EGFR overexpression was more common

  1. Detection of esophageal fiducial marker displacement during radiation therapy with a 2-dimensional on-board imager: analysis of internal margin for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Junichi; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshio; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Ogata, Haruhiko; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-03-15

    To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in the right-left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Esophageal Fiducial Marker Displacement During Radiation Therapy With a 2-dimensional On-board Imager: Analysis of Internal Margin for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Junichi, E-mail: fukada@rad.med.keio.ac.jp; Hanada, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Osamu

    Purpose: To quantify the interfraction displacement of esophageal fiducial markers for primary esophageal cancer radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Orthogonal 2-dimensional (2D) matching records fused to vertebrae were analyzed in clinically staged T1/2N0 esophageal cancer patients undergoing endoscopic clipping as fiducial metal markers. Displacement of the markers between the digitally reconstructed radiographs and on-board kilovoltage images during radiation therapy was analyzed according to direction and esophageal site. Results: Forty-four patients, with 81 markers (10 proximal, 42 middle, and 29 distal), underwent 367 2D matching sessions during radiation therapy. The mean (SD) absolute marker displacement was 0.26 (0.30) cm in themore » right–left (RL), 0.50 (0.39) cm in the superior–inferior (SI), and 0.24 (0.21) cm in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction. Displacement was significantly larger in the SI than in the RL and AP directions (P<.0001). In the SI direction, mean absolute displacements of the distal, middle, and proximal esophagus were 0.67 (0.45) cm, 0.42 (0.32) cm, and 0.36 (0.30) cm, respectively. Distal esophagus displacement was significantly larger than those of the middle and proximal esophagus (P<.0001). The estimated internal margin to cover 95% of the cases was 0.75 cm in the RL and AP directions. In the SI direction, the margin was 1.25 cm for the proximal and middle esophagus and 1.75 cm for the distal esophagus. Conclusions: The magnitude of interfraction displacement of esophageal clips was larger in the SI direction, particularly in the distal esophagus, but substantial displacement was observed in other directions and at other esophageal sites. It is practical to take estimated movements into account with internal margins, even if vertebrae-based 2D matching is performed.« less

  3. Folate intake, serum folate levels and esophageal cancer risk: an overall and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Guo, Chenyang; Hu, Hongtao; Zheng, Lin; Ma, Junli; Jiang, Li; Zhao, Erjiang; Li, Hailiang

    2017-02-07

    Previously reported findings on the association between folate intake or serum folate levels and esophageal cancer risk have been inconsistent. This study aims to summarize the evidence regarding these relationships using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We performed electronic searches of the Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane Library electronic databases to identify studies examining the effect of folate on the risk of esophageal cancer. Ultimately, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using a random effects model. A linear regression analysis of the natural logarithm of the OR was carried out to assess the possible dose-response relationship between folate intake and esophageal cancer risk. The pooled ORs for esophageal cancer in the highest vs. lowest levels of dietary folate intake and serum folate were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56-0.71) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55-0.92), respectively. The dose-response meta-analysis indicated that a 100 μg/day increment in dietary folate intake reduced the estimate risk of esophageal cancer by 12%. These findings suggest that dietary and serum folate exert a protective effect against esophageal carcinogenesis.

  4. Near-infrared confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with PCA-LDA multivariate analysis for detection of esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Yue; Liu, Nenrong; Lin, Duo; Weng, Cuncheng; Zhang, Jixue; Zhu, Lihuan; Chen, Weisheng; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan

    2013-06-01

    The diagnostic capability of using tissue intrinsic micro-Raman signals to obtain biochemical information from human esophageal tissue is presented in this paper. Near-infrared micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was applied for discrimination of esophageal cancer tissue from normal tissue samples. Micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on 54 esophageal cancer tissues and 55 normal tissues in the 400-1750 cm-1 range. The mean Raman spectra showed significant differences between the two groups. Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured tissue spectra suggested some changes in protein structure, a decrease in the relative amount of lactose, and increases in the percentages of tryptophan, collagen and phenylalanine content in esophageal cancer tissue as compared to those of a normal subject. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 87.0% and specificity of 70.9% for separating cancer from normal esophageal tissue samples. The result demonstrated that near-infrared micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with PCA-LDA analysis could be an effective and sensitive tool for identification of esophageal cancer.

  5. Auraptene Attenuates Malignant Properties of Esophageal Stem-Like Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Saboor-Maleki, Saffiyeh; Rassouli, Fatemeh B; Matin, Maryam M; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2017-08-01

    The high incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has been reported in selected ethnic populations including North of Iran. Low survival rate of esophageal carcinoma is partially due to the presence of stem-like cancer cells with chemotherapy resistance. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of auraptene, an interesting dietary coumarin with various biological activities, on malignant properties of stem-like esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, in terms of sensitivity to anticancer drugs and expression of specific markers. To do so, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of auraptene, cisplatin, paclitaxel, and 5-fluorouracil were determined on esophageal carcinoma cells (KYSE30 cell line). After administrating combinatorial treatments, including nontoxic concentrations of auraptene + cisplatin, paclitaxel, or 5-fluorouracil, sensitivity of cells to chemical drugs and also induced apoptosis were assessed. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to study changes in the expression of tumor suppressor proteins 53 and 21 ( P53 and P21), cluster of differentiation 44 ( CD44), and B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 ( BMI-1) upon treatments. Results of thiazolyl blue assay revealed that auraptene significantly ( P < .05) increased toxicity of cisplatin, paclitaxel, and 5-fluorouracil in KYSE30 cells, specifically 72 hours after treatment. Conducting an apoptosis assay using flow cytometry also confirmed the synergic effects of auraptene. Results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed significant ( P < .05) upregulation of P53 and P21 upon combinatorial treatments and also downregulation of CD44 and BMI-1 after auraptene administration. Current study provided evidence, for the first time, that auraptene attenuates the properties of esophageal stem-like cancer cells through enhancing sensitivity to chemical agents and reducing the expression of CD44 and BMI-1

  6. Choice of radiotherapy planning modality influences toxicity in the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mackley, Heath B; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Reddy, Chandana A; Adelstein, David J; Rice, Thomas W; Saxton, Jerrold P; Videtic, Gregory M M

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomography-based radiotherapy planning (3DCTP) is increasingly employed in the treatment of esophageal cancer. It is unknown whether a 3DCTP approach influences outcomes compared to two-dimensional planning (2DP). This study compares clinical outcomes for homogeneously treated patient cohorts stratified by planning modality. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with T3/4 and/or node-positive esophageal carcinoma treated at the Cleveland Clinic between July 1, 2003 and May 31, 2006 who were managed with an institutional regimen consisting of preoperative radiotherapy, whether 3DCTP or 2DP [30 Gy/20 fractions/1.5 Gy twice daily over 2 weeks], with concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil the first week. Following definitive resection, an identical postoperative course of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) was delivered. One hundred and forty-one patients completed preoperative CRT and were available for review. The median follow-up of living patients is 21.7 months. Fifty-five percent underwent 3DCTP and 45% had 2DP. The treatment groups were similar, with the exception of clinical stage group, with 2DP having more stage II and fewer stage III patients than 3DCTP (p = 0.02). 3DCTP plans had significantly smaller field sizes by area (p < 0.0001). Pathologic response, locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival were equivalent between the two planning modalities. Esophagitis was significantly less common with a 3D approach compared to 2D planning (49% vs. 71%, p = 0.0096), with other toxicities equivalent between the groups. 3DCTP reduces acute esophagitis in patients receiving multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer without compromising clinical outcomes.

  7. Analysis of different fractionations of three-dimensional conformable radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiqian; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Xiaofang; Liu, Chaoxing; Xu, Huijun; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe and discuss the curative and side effects of three different fractionation regimen of three-dimensional conformable radiotherapy (3DCRT) for esophageal cancer. A total of 169 untreated patients of esophageal cancer were randomized into three groups: groups A (conventional group, 2.0 Gy per time), B (2.5 Gy group, 2 Gy per time), and C (3.0 Gy group, 3.0 Gy per time), respectively. Groups A, B, and C are similar in terms of partial response (P = 0.35). However, the three groups had no significant differences in terms of the complete response (P = 0.63). The three-year survival rate of group B was higher than those of the other two groups, and the difference was significant (P = 0.047). For the three-year local control rate, that of group B was also higher than those of groups A and C, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.067). The incidence rate of 3 level esophagitis and bronchitis was highest in group C (P = 0.023 and P = 0.064). The 3 level tardive radioactive esophagitis in group C was higher than those in other two groups (P = 0.037 and P = 0.04). The incidence rate of the 3 level advanced lung reaction was also the highest in the three groups (P = 0.041). The effect is better and the side effect is tolerable for the 2.5 Gy per fraction, 5 times per week; thus, it can be used clinically for 3DCRT for esophageal carcinoma.

  8. Preoperative enteral access is not necessary prior to multimodality treatment of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas K; Lopez, Alexandra N; Sarosi, George A; Ben-David, Kfir; Thomas, Ryan M

    2018-04-01

    Surgical enteral access prior to multimodality treatment for esophageal cancer is controversial as dysphagia is often used for feeding tube referral. We hypothesized that enteral access before neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal cancer provides no benefit compared to that placed during definitive esophagectomy. Patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal malignancy from 2007 - 2014 were retrospectively identified. Clinicopathologic factors were recorded including preoperative enteral access, weight change, nutritional laboratory works, and perioperative complications. Of 156 identified patients, 99 (63.5%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation and comprised the study cohort. Fifty (50.5%) underwent enteral access (gastrostomy [14], jejunostomy [32], other [4]; "Access Group") prior to chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy and were compared to 49 "No-Access" patients who underwent enteral access during esophagectomy. Clinicopathologic variables were similar between cohorts. The Access and No-Access cohorts had similar reported dysphagia (86% vs 75.5%, respectively; P = .2) and mean preesophagectomy serum albumin (3.9 vs 4 gm/dL, respectively; P = .2). Weight loss ± 6-month periesophagectomy was similar between access versus No-Access cohorts (-11.2% vs -15.4%, respectively; P = .1). Weight loss during this period was likewise similar for patients with dysphagia in the Access (-11%) versus No-Access group (-15.2%, P = .1). No difference in complication rates was noted between Access (64%) and No-Access groups (51%, P = .2). Despite healthcare provider bias, there seems to be no nutritional or perioperative benefit for enteral access before neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal malignancy. Patients with esophageal malignancy should therefore proceed to appropriate neoadjuvant and surgical therapy with enteral access performed during definitive resection or reserved for those with frank obstruction on endoscopy. Published by

  9. Can involved-field irradiation replace elective nodal irradiation in chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Miao, Chuanwang; Chen, Zhen; Li, Wanhu; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yu, Jinming; Hu, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is the most common treatment for inoperable esophageal cancer. However, there is no consensus on the delineation of the clinical target volume. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is recommended for inoperable esophageal cancer. A few studies have reported a decrease in the incidence of radiation-related toxicity of involved-field irradiation (IFI) for esophageal cancer. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed to determine whether IFI in definitive chemoradiotherapy was more beneficial than ENI for esophageal cancer. The results showed no significant differences in the overall survival and local control rates between the IFI and ENI arms. Meanwhile, the incidences of esophageal and lung toxicities were significantly decreased in the IFI arm. These results suggest that IFI is a feasible treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer, especially to minimize irradiation-related toxicity.

  10. Can involved-field irradiation replace elective nodal irradiation in chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Miao, Chuanwang; Chen, Zhen; Li, Wanhu; Yuan, Shuanghu; Yu, Jinming; Hu, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy is the most common treatment for inoperable esophageal cancer. However, there is no consensus on the delineation of the clinical target volume. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) is recommended for inoperable esophageal cancer. A few studies have reported a decrease in the incidence of radiation-related toxicity of involved-field irradiation (IFI) for esophageal cancer. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed to determine whether IFI in definitive chemoradiotherapy was more beneficial than ENI for esophageal cancer. The results showed no significant differences in the overall survival and local control rates between the IFI and ENI arms. Meanwhile, the incidences of esophageal and lung toxicities were significantly decreased in the IFI arm. These results suggest that IFI is a feasible treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer, especially to minimize irradiation-related toxicity. PMID:28442917

  11. [Using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and gene ontology to establish pathological staging model for esophageal cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wang, K; Chen, W; Jiang, H; Deng, P C; Li, Z J; Peng, J; Zhou, Z Y; Yang, H; Huang, G X; Zeng, J

    2016-07-01

    By combining the metabolomics and computational biology, to explore the relationship between metabolic phenotype and pathological stage in esophageal cancer patients, to find the mechanism of metabolic network disturbance and develop a new method for fast preoperative clinical staging. A prospective cohort study (from April 2013 to January 2016) was conducted. The preoperative patients from Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, who were diagnosed with esophageal cancer from May 2013 to April 2014 were included, and their serum samples were collected to detect (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics for the purpose of drawing the metabolic fingerprinting in different stages of patients with esophageal cancer. The data were processed with these methods-principal components analysis: partial least squares regression and support vector machine, for the exploration of the enzyme-gene network regulatory mechanism in abnormal esophageal cancer metabolic network regulation and to build the quantitative prediction model of esophageal cancer staging in the end. All data were processed on high-performance computing platforms Matalab. The comparison of data had used Wilcoxon test, variance analysis, χ(2) test and Fisher exact test. Twenty patients with different stages of esophageal cancer were included; and their serum metabolic fingerprinting could differentiate different tumor stages. There were no difference among the five teams in the age (F=1.086, P>0.05), the body mass index (F=1.035, P>0.05), the distance from the incisors to tumor (F=1.078, P>0.05). Among the patients with different TNM stages, there was a significant difference in plasma metabolome. Compared to ⅡB, ⅢA, Ⅳstage patients, increased levels of butanone, ethanol amine, homocysteine, hydroxy acids and estriol, together with decreased levels of glycoprotein, creatine, choline, isobutyricacid, alanine, leucine, valine, were observed inⅠB, ⅡA stage patients. Four metabolic markers

  12. Preoperative noninvasive EUS evaluation in patients with esophageal cancer considered for esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Stanescu, Codrut; Gheorghe, Liana; Bancila, Ion; Herlea, Vlad; Becheanu, Gabriel; Voinea, Daniela; Iacob, Razvan; Lupescu, Ioana; Anghel, Rodica; Croitoru, Adina; Popescu, Irinel

    2006-06-01

    Worldwide, esophageal cancer ranks fifth in the mortality rate regarding tumor locations. EUS is an essential tool in the evaluation of these patients allowing accurate staging and permitting stratified treatment options. AIM. We have studied prospectively the impact of EUS in the evaluation and decision for therapy of patients with esophageal cancer diagnosed in our center. From March 2001 through March 2006, 220 patients were hospitalized at the Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Fundeni Clinical Institute, with the diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Out of the 220 patients, 41 patients, with no major comorbidities contraindicating esophagectomy already having been screened by abdominal and thoracic CT to disclose distant metastases, had EUS with the definite purpose of staging esophageal carcinoma and selecting adequate therapy. Assuming that without preoperative staging by EUS, all 41 patients in the study group would have been offered surgical treatment, we evaluated the number of patients and the modality in which EUS resulted in changes to the therapeutic plan. Depth of invasion was recorded for the 41 patients as follows: T1 in 2 patients (4.9%), T2 in 6 patients (14.6%), T3 in 24 patients (58.5%), and T4 in 10 patients (22%). Regional lymph node (N) status as determined by EUS criteria was as follows: N0 in 7 patients (17%) and N1 in 34 patients (83%). Assessment of distant metastases (M) was recorded showing 4 patients with celiac axis lymph nodes metastases (M1). Preoperative EUS staging changed the decision for surgery in 18 of 41 patients (44%) (p<0.0001) and allowed primary esophagectomy in only 6 patients (15%) (p<0.0001). Compared to histopathology, the overall accuracy of EUS staging for pT1 and pT2 was 80% for staging pT3 and pT4 77% and for lymph node evaluation was approximately 75%. Esophageal EUS offers useful information to clinicians caring for patients with esophageal cancer, impacts clinical decision making, and should be used in

  13. Profiling and bioinformatics analyses reveal differential circular RNA expression in radioresistant esophageal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Huafang; Lin, Fuqiang; Deng, Xia; Shen, Lanxiao; Fang, Ya; Fei, Zhenghua; Zhao, Lihao; Zhang, Xuebang; Pan, Huanle; Xie, Deyao; Jin, Xiance; Xie, Congying

    2016-07-28

    Acquired radioresistance during radiotherapy is considered as the most important reason for local tumor recurrence or treatment failure. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently been identified as microRNA sponges and involve in various biological processes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of circRNAs in the radioresistance of esophageal cancer. Total RNA was isolated from human parental cell line KYSE-150 and self-established radioresistant esophageal cancer cell line KYSE-150R, and hybridized to Arraystar Human circRNA Array. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the circRNA expression profiles obtained from the microarray data. Bioinformatic tools including gene ontology (GO) analysis, KEGG pathway analysis and network analysis were done for further assessment. Among the detected candidate 3752 circRNA genes, significant upregulation of 57 circRNAs and downregulation of 17 circRNAs in human radioresistant esophageal cancer cell line KYSE-150R were observed compared with the parental cell line KYSE-150 (fold change ≥2.0 and P < 0.05). There were 9 out of these candidate circRNAs were validated by real-time PCR. GO analysis revealed that numerous target genes, including most microRNAs were involved in the biological processes. There were more than 400 target genes enrichment on Wnt signaling pathway. CircRNA_001059 and circRNA_000167 were the two largest nodes in circRNA/microRNA co-expression network. Our study revealed a comprehensive expression and functional profile of differentially expressed circRNAs in radioresistant esophageal cancer cells, indicating possible involvement of these dysregulated circRNAs in the development of radiation resistance.

  14. Advanced Age is Not a Contraindication for Treatment With Curative Intent in Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voncken, Francine E M; van der Kaaij, Rosa T; Sikorska, Karolina; van Werkhoven, Erik; van Dieren, Jolanda M; Grootscholten, Cecile; Snaebjornsson, Petur; van Sandick, Johanna W; Aleman, Berthe M P

    2017-07-31

    The objective of this study is to compare long-term outcomes between younger and older (70 y and above) esophageal cancer patients treated with curative intent. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and locoregional recurrence-free interval were compared between older (70 y and above) and younger (below 70 y) esophageal cancer patients treated between 1998 and 2013. Treatment consisted of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with surgery or definitive chemoradiotherapy: 36 to 50.4 Gy in 18 to 28 fractions combined with 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin or carboplatin/paclitaxel. The study comprised 253 patients, of whom 76 were 70 years and older. Median age was 64 years (range, 41 to 83). Most patients had stage II-IIIA disease (83%). Planned treatment was neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with surgery for 169 patients (41 patients aged 70 y and older) and definitive chemoradiotherapy for 84 patients (31 patients aged 70 y and older). The compliance to radiotherapy was 92%, with no difference between older and younger patients. In 33 patients (13 patients aged 70 y and older) planned surgery was not performed. Median follow-up was 4.9 years. Three-year OS was 42%. The multivariable analysis showed no statistical difference in OS or in DFS comparing older and younger patients: OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.28), DFS (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.60-1.25). Elderly showed a longer locoregional recurrence-free interval; HR, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.30-0.92; P=0.02) and a higher pathologic complete response rate (50% vs. 25%; P=0.02). Long-term outcomes of older esophageal cancer patients (70 y and above) selected for treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery or definitive chemoradiotherapy were comparable with the outcomes of their younger counterparts. Advanced age alone should not be a contraindication for potentially curative chemoradiotherapy-based treatment in esophageal cancer patients.

  15. Genomic profiling of 766 cancer-related genes in archived esophageal normal and carcinoma tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Guo, Liping; Peiffer, Daniel A; Zhou, Lixin; Chan, Owen Tsan Mo; Bibikova, Marina; Wickham-Garcia, Eliza; Lu, Shih-Hsin; Zhan, Qimin; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Wei; Fan, Jian-Bing

    2008-05-15

    We employed the BeadArraytrade mark technology to perform a genetic analysis in 33 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human esophageal carcinomas, mostly squamous-cell-carcinoma (ESCC), and their adjacent normal tissues. A total of 1,432 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 766 cancer-related genes were genotyped with partially degraded genomic DNAs isolated from these samples. This directly targeted genomic profiling identified not only previously reported somatic gene amplifications (e.g., CCND1) and deletions (e.g., CDKN2A and CDKN2B) but also novel genomic aberrations. Among these novel targets, the most frequently deleted genomic regions were chromosome 3p (including tumor suppressor genes FANCD2 and CTNNB1) and chromosome 5 (including tumor suppressor gene APC). The most frequently amplified genomic region was chromosome 3q (containing DVL3, MLF1, ABCC5, BCL6, AGTR1 and known oncogenes TNK2, TNFSF10, FGF12). The chromosome 3p deletion and 3q amplification occurred coincidently in nearly all of the affected cases, suggesting a molecular mechanism for the generation of somatic chromosomal aberrations. We also detected significant differences in germline allele frequency between the esophageal cohort of our study and normal control samples from the International HapMap Project for 10 genes (CSF1, KIAA1804, IL2, PMS2, IRF7, FLT3, NTRK2, MAP3K9, ERBB2 and PRKAR1A), suggesting that they might play roles in esophageal cancer susceptibility and/or development. Taken together, our results demonstrated the utility of the BeadArray technology for high-throughput genetic analysis in FFPE tumor tissues and provided a detailed genetic profiling of cancer-related genes in human esophageal cancer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Adjuvant radiation therapy and lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer: a SEER database analysis.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Ravi; Weber, Jill; Hoffe, Sarah E; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Karl, Richard; Meredith, Kenneth

    2013-08-01

    This study seeks to determine the effects of postoperative radiation therapy and lymphadenectomy on survival in esophageal cancer. An analysis of patients with surgically resected esophageal cancer from the SEER database between 2004 and 2008 was performed to determine association of adjuvant radiation and lymph node dissection on survival. Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank analysis. Multivariate analysis (MVA) was performed by the Cox proportional hazard model. We identified 2109 patients who met inclusion criteria. Radiation was associated with increased survival in stage III patients (p = 0.005), no benefit in stage II (p = 0.075) and IV (p = 0.913) patients, and decreased survival in stage I patients (p < 0.0001). Univariate analysis revealed that radiation therapy was associated with a survival benefit node positive (N1) patients while it was associated with a detriment in survival for node negative (N0) patients. Removing >12 and >15 lymph nodes was associated with increased survival in N0 patients, while removing >8, >10, >12, >15, and >20 lymph nodes was associated with a survival benefit in N1 patients. MVA revealed that age, gender, tumor and nodal stage, tumor location, and number of lymph nodes removed were prognostic for survival in N0 patients. In N1 patients, MVA showed the age, tumor stage, number of lymph nodes removed, and radiation were prognostic for survival. The number of lymph nodes removed in esophageal cancer is associated with increased survival. The benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy on survival in esophageal cancer is limited to N1 patients.

  17. Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Pearl: a nationwide clinical biobanking project in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, L; Parry, K; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; van Laarhoven, H W; Bonenkamp, J J; Bisseling, T M; Siersema, P D; Sosef, M N; Stoot, J H; Beets, G L; de Steur, W O; Hartgrink, H H; Verspaget, H W; van der Peet, D L; Plukker, J T; van Etten, B; Wijnhoven, B P L; van Lanschot, J J; van Hillegersberg, R; Ruurda, J P

    2016-07-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancer is associated with a poor prognosis since many patients develop recurrent disease. Treatment requires specific expertise and a structured multidisciplinary approach. In the Netherlands, this type of expertise is mainly found at the University Medical Centers (UMCs) and a few specialized nonacademic centers. Aim of this study is to implement a national infrastructure for research to gain more insight in the etiology and prognosis of esophageal and gastric cancer and to evaluate and improve the response on (neoadjuvant) treatment. Clinical data are collected in a prospective database, which is linked to the patients' biomaterial. The collection and storage of biomaterial is performed according to standard operating procedures in all participating UMCs as established within the Parelsnoer Institute. The collected biomaterial consists of tumor biopsies, blood samples, samples of malignant and healthy tissue of the resected specimen and biopsies of recurrence. The collected material is stored in the local biobanks and is encoded to respect the privacy of the donors. After approval of the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, the first patient was included in October 2014. The target aim is to include 300 patients annually. In conclusion, the eight UMCs of the Netherlands collaborated to establish a nationwide database of clinical information and biomaterial of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer. Due to the national coverage, a high number of patients are expected to be included. This will provide opportunity for future studies to gain more insight in the etiology, treatment and prognosis of esophageal and gastric cancer. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  18. Long-term survival based on pathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiesi, Gregory; Park, Wungki; Gunder, Meredith; Rubio, Gustavo; Berger, Michael; Ardalan, Bach; Livingstone, Alan; Franceschi, Dido

    2017-08-01

    Neoadjuvant treatment is standard for locally advanced esophageal cancer. However, whether the addition of radiation to neoadjuvant regimen improves survival remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare survival in locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus chemoradiation. A prospectively maintained database of esophagectomies (1999-2012) was analyzed. We identified 297 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer that underwent either neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 231) or chemoradiation (n = 66) followed by esophagectomy. Pretreatment and pathologic staging were compared to assess response. Overall survival was recorded. Most patients in the chemotherapy and chemoradiation groups had pretreatment stage III disease (66.7% versus 65.2%; P = 0.44). Median follow-up was 79.3 and 64.9 mo for chemotherapy and chemoradiation cohorts, respectively. Complete response rate was higher in chemoradiation than chemotherapy groups (30.3% versus 13.8%; P < 0.001). Overall survival was similar between complete responders in both groups (median not reached versus 121.1 mo; chemotherapy versus chemoradiation). However, partial responders in the chemotherapy cohort had improved median survival (147.2 mo) versus those in the chemoradiation cohort (83.7 mo, P < 0.03). Within the chemotherapy-only group, partial responders had improved survival compared with nonresponders (P = 0.041); however, there was no difference in survival between partial and complete responders (P = 0.36). In patients undergoing esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an equivalent overall survival, when compared with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Adding neoadjuvant radiation may enhance complete response rates but does not appear to be associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exhaled gases online measurements for esophageal cancer patients and healthy people by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue; Zhou, Wenzhao; Lu, Yan; Shen, Chengyin; Hu, Zongtao; Wang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal cancer is a prevalent malignancy. There is a considerable demand for developing a fast and noninvasive method to screen out the suspect esophageal cancer patients who may undergo further clinical diagnosis. The exhaled breathes from 29 esophageal cancer patients and 57 healthy people were directly measured using our home-made proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Mann-Whitney U test and stepwise discriminant analysis were applied to identify the ions in the breath mass spectral data which can distinguish cancer cohort from healthy group. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was also performed. Seven kinds of ions in the breath mass spectrum, viz., m/z 136, m/z 34, m/z 63, m/z 27, m/z 95, m/z 107 and m/z 45, have been found to distinguish between the esophageal cancer patients and healthy people with a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 89.5%, respectively. Compared with that from the healthy people, the breath mass spectra from esophageal cancer patients show that the mediant intensities of five kinds of ions were decrease and the rest two kinds of ions were increase. ROC analysis gave the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.943. This pilot study shows that the ionic characteristics of exhaled VOCs detected by PTR-MS may be used to differentiate between the esophageal cancer patients and the healthy people. Although the breath tests for more patients are needed to confirm such results, the present work indicates that the PTR-MS may be a promising method in the esophageal cancer screening. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Clinical significance of preoperative and postoperative cytokeratin 19 messenger RNA level in peripheral blood of esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Y-F; Chen, C-G; Yue, J; Ma, Z; Yu, Z-T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between preoperative/postoperative Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) messenger RNA (mRNA) level in peripheral blood (PB) and the clinical significance in esophageal cancer patients with different clinicopathological factors. We detected the preoperative and postoperative CK19 mRNA level in the PB of 139 esophageal cancer patients who underwent complete resection and evaluated its clinical significance. We found that both the preoperative and postoperative CK19 mRNA level increased in the esophageal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis, relapse or distant metastasis compared with that in cancers without lymph node metastasis, relapse or distant metastasis. High postoperative CK19 mRNA levels indicate a short disease-free survival (DFS) for the whole cohort esophageal cancer patients, whereas the high preoperative CK19 mRNA levels only indicate a short DFS for the esophageal cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma, TNM III stage, and lymph node metastasis. The dynamic change of CK19 mRNA levels could indicate the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients. The patients with decreasing CK19 mRNA level after surgery had good prognosis, and the patients with changeless CK19 mRNA level had poor prognosis. Taken together, CK19 mRNA levels could be a promising marker in assessing prognosis or assigning treatment for the esophageal cancer patients according to different clinicopathological factors. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  1. Health care access and poverty do not explain the higher esophageal cancer mortality in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jordan A G; Rege, Robert V; Ko, Clifford Y; Livingston, Edward H

    2004-07-01

    Esophageal cancer mortality is increased in African Americans relative to white patients. The reasons for this are unknown but are thought to be related to inadequate access to health care secondary to a higher poverty rate in African American populations. The National Health Interview Survey database for years 1986 to 1994 were combined and linked to the National Death Index. Individuals who died from esophageal carcinoma were assessed in the combined database, thus enabling detailed analysis of their socioeconomic status, race, and health care access. Poverty was 4-fold more frequent in African Americans who died from esophageal carcinoma than whites. Despite poverty, African American patients' access to health care was good and was not statistically related to increased mortality. Although the esophageal carcinoma mortality rate is higher in African Americans than in whites, it is not clearly related to the presence of poverty or to limited health care access. The higher mortality may be related to lifestyle differences, environmental exposure, or difference in disease biology, but it is not related exclusively to socioeconomic factors.

  2. The role of radiation therapy in resected T2 N0 esophageal cancer: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeremiah T; Worni, Mathias; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Gloor, Beat; Pietrobon, Ricardo; D'Amico, Thomas A; Berry, Mark F

    2013-02-01

    The prognosis of even early-stage esophageal cancer is poor. Because there is not a consensus on how to manage T2 N0 disease, we examined survival after resection of T2 N0 esophageal cancer, with or without radiation therapy. Patients who underwent resection for T2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the mid or distal esophagus, with or without radiation therapy, were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry from 1998 to 2008. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) after resection alone and combined resection with radiation therapy were compared using the Kaplan-Meier approach, risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, and competing risk models. The 5-year OS of 490 T2 N0 patients was 40.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35.2% to 45.4%). Surgical resection alone was used in 267 patients (54%) and combined therapy in 223 (46%). The 5-year OS was 38.6% (95% CI, 31.7% to 45.5%) in patients undergoing resection only and 42.3% (95% CI, 34.7% to 49.6%) for combined therapy (p = 0.48). No difference in OS was found, even after risk adjustment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.14; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.48; p = 0.35). However, in landmark studies with left truncation for 3 and 6 months, resection only showed better OS than combined therapy (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.75; p = 0.04 vs HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.83; p = 0.04, respectively). No such difference for CSS was detected, even for the landmark study after 6 months (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.39, p = 0.09). Combining radiation therapy with esophagectomy did not result in improved outcomes compared with esophagectomy alone for patients with T2 N0 esophageal cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Nutritional screening before surgery for esophageal cancer - current status and evaluation results].

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, Takeshi; Asaka, Shinich; Sagawa, Masano; Shimazaki, Asako; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Usui, Takebumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of postoperative complications and mortality are usually higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition. Malnutrition often preexists, particularly in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer, which is substantially invasive. It is therefore important to understand the nutritional condition of patients and actively control perioperative nutrition.Our hospital has been providing nutritional status screening for patients before resection of esophageal cancer, and we report the current status and evaluation results in this article.This screening included 158 patients requiring radical resection of esophageal cancer.Age, comorbidity with diabetes, body mass index(BMI), serum albumin(Alb), Onodera's prognostic nutritional index(PNI), and Glasgow prognostic score(GPS)were used as nutritional indicators to stratify patients for analysis.Evaluation parameters included the incidence of postoperative complications(any complication, pulmonary complications, psychiatric disorder, and anastomotic leakage)and rates of long-term postoperative hospitalization.The analysis indicated that age, BMI, serum Alb, PNI, and GPS are useful for predicting the onset of postoperative complications and prolonged postoperative hospitalization.For such patients, more active nutritional control should be provided.

  4. Genomic Alterations in Advanced Esophageal Cancer May Lead to Subtype-Specific Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of targeted agents for metastatic esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors has been limited when compared with that for other common tumors. To date, the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) antibody, trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, is the only approved novel agent for these cancers, and its use is limited to the small population of patients whose tumors overexpress HER-2. Despite recent progress in the field, median overall survival remains only 8–12 months for patients with stage IV esophageal or GEJ cancer. In this article, we examine the molecular aberrations thought to drive the development and spread of esophageal cancer and identify promising targets for specific tumor inhibition. Data from clinical studies of targeted agents are reviewed, including epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, HER-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor-directed therapy. Current and future targets include MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and immune-based therapies. Evidence from trials to date suggests that molecularly unselected patient cohorts derive minimal benefit from most target-specific agents, suggesting that future collaborative investigation should focus on preselected molecular subgroups of patients with this challenging heterogeneous disease. PMID:23853247

  5. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk for Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Zhizhong; Xu, Jian; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2017-09-02

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. All eligible studies were identified by electronic searches in PubMed and Embase through February 2015. Dose-response, subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were performed. A total of 15 studies involving 16,885 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.43-0.64). Stratified analyses for tumor subtype, study design, geographic location, fiber type, publication year, total sample size, and quality score yielded consistent results. Dose-response analysis indicated that a 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber inta