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Sample records for early ethylene up-regulated

  1. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  2. Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

  3. Up-regulation of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Ester; Noé, Véronique; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Lluis, Carmen; Ferrer, Isidre; Ciudad, Carlos J; Franco, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    Gene expression throughout the different stages of Alzheimer's disease was analysed in samples from cerebral cortex. The gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 was already overexpressed in early stages of the disease, and in advanced stages Kv3.4 was present at high levels in neurodegenerative structures. This subunit regulates delayed-rectifier currents, which are primary determinants of spike repolarization in neurones. In unique samples from a patient with Alzheimer's disease whose amount of amyloid plaques was decreased by beta amyloid immunization, Kv3.4 was overexpressed. The channel subunit was expressed in the neuropil, in the remaining conventional plaques in the frontal cortex and in collapsed plaques in the orbitary cortex. Therefore, amyloid deposition in plaques does not seem to be responsible for the increase in Kv3.4 levels. Nevertheless, Kv3.4 up-regulation is related to amyloid pathology, given that transgenic mice with the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein showed increased expression of Kv3.4. Up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits alters potassium currents in neurones and leads to altered synaptic activity that may underlie the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, Kv3.4 likely represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  4. 125 INCOMPLETE COMPENSATORY UP-REGULATION OF X-LINKED GENES IN BOVINE GERMLINE, EARLY EMBRYOS, AND SOMATIC TISSUES.

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Jue, N K; Jiang, Z; O'Neill, R; Wolf, E; Blomberg, L A; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Chen, J; Tian, X

    2016-01-01

    compensation (or X: A ratio ≥ 1); RXE values<0: in-complete dosage compensation; RXE value=-1: no dosage compensation (or X: A ratio=0.5). Our analyses showed a decreased RXE after fertilization, from -0.33 in matured oocytes to -0.50 at the 2-cell stage, indicating that the sperm that undergo meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) bring in inactive X chromosomes to the matured oocytes. Subsequently, the activation of the bovine embryonic genome at the 4- to 8-cell stage increased RXE from -0.54 to -0.05. This was followed by a sharp RXE decline from -0.02 at the 16-cell stage, 0.1 at the 32-cell stage to -0.29 at the compact morula stage, which is known as paternal X inactivation stage in the bovine. Finally, RXE was stabilised from blastocysts -0.19 through the Day 19 conceptuses -0.25 to somatic tissue average -0.21 with a pattern of incomplete X compensation. These findings support X expression up-regulation as proposed by Ohno. No significant RXE differences were observed between bovine female and male somatic tissues, further supporting Ohno's hypothesis, which predicts a balance in the expression of X-linked genes to that of autosomes. This study confirms Ohno's hypothesis of X dosage compensation in bovine germ cells, early embryos, and somatic tissues.

  5. Early transcriptional responses to mercury: a role for ethylene in mercury-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Montero-Palmero, M Belén; Martín-Barranco, Amanda; Escobar, Carolina; Hernández, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of plant tolerance to mercury (Hg) is important for developing phytoremediation strategies of Hg-contaminated soils. The early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings to Hg were studied using transcriptomics analysis. A Medicago truncatula microarray was hybridized with high-quality root RNA from M. sativa treated with 3 μM Hg for 3, 6 and 24 h. The transcriptional pattern data were complementary to the measurements of root growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and NADPH-oxidase activity as stress indexes. Of 559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 91% were up-regulated. The majority of DEGs were shared between the 3 and 6 h (60%) time points, including the 'stress', 'secondary metabolism' and 'hormone metabolism' functional categories. Genes from ethylene metabolism and signalling were highly represented, suggesting that this phytohormone may be relevant for metal perception and homeostasis. Ethylene-insensitive alfalfa seedlings preincubated with the ethylene signalling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopronene and Arabidopsis thaliana ein2-5 mutants confirmed that ethylene participates in the early perception of Hg stress. It modulates root growth inhibition, NADPH-oxidase activity and Hg-induced apoplastic H2 O2 accumulation. Therefore, ethylene signalling attenuation could be useful in future phytotechnological applications to ameliorate stress symptoms in Hg-polluted plants.

  6. Maternal obesity is associated with ovarian inflammation and up-regulation of early growth response factor 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity impairs reproductive functions through multiple mechanisms, possibly through disruption of ovarian function. We hypothesized that increased adiposity will lead to a pro-inflammatory gene signature and up-regulation of Egr-1 protein in ovaries from obese (OB, n=7) compared to lean (LN, n=10) ...

  7. Differential screening of mutated SOD1 transgenic mice reveals early up-regulation of a fast axonal transport component in spinal cord motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L; de Tapia, M; René, F; Lutz-Bucher, B; Gordon, J W; Mercken, L; Pradier, L; Loeffler, J P

    2000-08-01

    In the present study we analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). For this, we used a transgenic mouse model expressing the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene with a Gly(86) to Arg (G86R) mutation equivalent to that found in a subset of human FALS. Using an optimized suppression subtractive hybridization method, a cDNA specifically up-regulated during the asymptomatic phase in the lumbar spinal cord of G86R mice was identified by sequence analysis as the KIF3-associated protein (KAP3), a regulator of fast axonal transport. RT-PCR analysis revealed that KAP3 induction was an early event arising long before axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies further revealed that KAP3 protein predominantly accumulates in large motor neurons of the ventral spinal cord. We further demonstrated that KAP3 up-regulation occurs independent of any change in the other components of the kinesin II complex. However, since the ubiquitous KIF1A motor is up-regulated, our results show an early and complex rearrangement of the fast axonal transport machinery in the course of FALS pathology.

  8. Overexpression of OsMYC2 Results in the Up-Regulation of Early JA-Rresponsive Genes and Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Shishido, Hodaka; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of jasmonic acid (JA) responses and play a crucial role in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Here, we report that OsMYC2, a JAZ-interacting transcription factor in rice (Oryza sativa L.), plays an important role in the resistance response against rice bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed that OsMYC2 interacted with some OsJAZ proteins in a JAZ-interacting domain (JID)-dependent manner. The up-regulation of OsMYC2 in response to JA was regulated by OsJAZ8. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYC2 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and were more resistant to Xoo. A large-scale microarray analysis revealed that OsMYC2 up-regulated OsJAZ10 as well as many other defense-related genes. OsMYC2 selectively bound to the G-box-like motif of the OsJAZ10 promoter in vivo and regulated the expression of early JA-responsive genes, but not of late JA-responsive genes. The nuclear localization of OsMYC2 depended on a nuclear localization signal within JID. Overall, we conclude that OsMYC2 acts as a positive regulator of early JA signals in the JA-induced resistance against Xoo in rice.

  9. Early coupled up-regulation of interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 in CD8+ central memory and effector T cells for better clinical outcomes in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, S; Ozawa, K; Kaido, T; Mori, A; Fujimoto, Y; Ogawa, K

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of initial priming of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta-1 in CD8(+) central memory T cells (initial IL-12RTCM priming) and CCR7-negative subsets (CNS) in effector cell expansion and clinical outcome after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). One hundred and six patients who underwent LDLT were classified into the following three groups according to hierarchical clustering of CD8(+) CD45 isoforms before LDLT: I, naive-dominant; II, effector memory-dominant; and III, effector-dominant. The pre-existing CD8(+) effector cells (TE ) and activated immune status increased progressively from group I to group II to group III. Groups I, II and III received tacrolimus (Tac)/glucocorticoid (GC) regimens. Eighteen group III recipients received Tac/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and were defined as group IV. Initial IL-12RTCM priming was slightly, moderately and markedly decreased in droups I, II, and III, respectively. Initial priming of IL-12Rβ1 in CNS was decreased markedly in the three groups with marked decreases of TE , perforin and interferon (IFN)-γ; all parameters were restored by up-regulation of IL-12Rβ1(+) TCM through the self-renewal of TCM . The lag time required until coupled up-regulation of IL-12Rβ1 of TCM and CNS to above baseline was 12, 20 and 32 days in groups I, II and III, respectively. Inferior clinical outcomes were associated with increasing lag time. In contrast, the initial priming of IL-12Rβ1 in TCM and CNS remained above baseline in group IV due to MMF-mediated increase of IL-12Rβ1. Early coupled up-regulation of TCM and CNS leads to efficient TE differentiation and optimal clinical outcomes.

  10. Sucrose prevents up-regulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals.

    PubMed

    Hoeberichts, Frank A; van Doorn, Wouter G; Vorst, Oscar; Hall, Robert D; van Wordragen, Monique F

    2007-01-01

    cDNA microarrays were used to characterize senescence-associated gene expression in petals of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers, sampled from anthesis to the first senescence symptoms. The population of PCR fragments spotted on these microarrays was enriched for flower-specific and senescence-specific genes, using subtractive hybridization. About 90% of the transcripts showed a large increase in quantity, approximately 25% transiently, and about 65% throughout the 7 d experiment. Treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS), which blocks the ethylene receptor and prevented the normal senescence symptoms, prevented the up-regulation of almost all of these genes. Sucrose treatment also considerably delayed visible senescence. Its effect on gene expression was very similar to that of STS, suggesting that soluble sugars act as a repressor of ethylene signal transduction. Two fragments that encoded a carnation EIN3-like (EIL) protein were isolated, some of which are key transcription factors that control ethylene response genes. One of these (Dc-EIL3) was up-regulated during senescence. Its up-regulation was delayed by STS and prevented by sucrose. Sucrose, therefore, seems to repress ethylene signalling, in part, by preventing up-regulation of Dc-EIL3. Some other transcription factors displayed an early increase in transcript abundance: a MYB-like DNA binding protein, a MYC protein, a MADS-box factor, and a zinc finger protein. Genes suggesting a role in senescence of hormones other than ethylene encoded an Aux/IAA protein, which regulate transcription of auxin-induced genes, and a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, which degrades cytokinin. Taken together, the results suggest a master switch during senescence, controlling the co-ordinated up-regulation of numerous ethylene response genes. Dc-EIL3 might be (part of) this master switch.

  11. Lactoferrin up-regulates intestinal gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factors BDNF, UCHL1 and alkaline phosphatase activity to alleviate early weaning diarrhea in postnatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwei; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Ni; Chen, Yue; Gan, Hexia; Troy, Frederic A; Wang, Bing

    2014-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying how dietary lactoferrin (Lf) impacts gut development and maturation and protects against early weaning diarrhea are not well understood. In this study, we supplemented postnatal piglets with an Lf at a dose level of 155 and 285 mg/kg/day from 3 to 38 days following birth. Our findings show that the high dose of Lf up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of genes encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase (UCHL1) and, to a lesser extent, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, in the duodenum (P<.05). Piglets in the high and low Lf group had 30% and 7% larger jejunal crypts compared with the control group (P<.05). Escherichia coli 16S rRNA copy number per gram of ascending colon contents was significantly reduced (P=.001), while the copy number of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. was not affected. In addition, Lf increased intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity (P<.05) and delayed the onset of food transitional diarrhea, reducing its frequency and duration (P<.05). The incidence of diarrhea in the high and low Lf groups was decreased 54% and 15%, respectively, compared with the control group (P=.035). In summary, these findings provide new evidence that dietary Lf supplementation up-regulated gene expression of BDNF and UCHL1, decreased the colon microbiota of E. coli, improved gut maturation and reduced early weaning diarrhea in piglets. The molecular basis underlying these findings suggests that Lf may enhance gut development and immune function by providing new insight into the gut-brain-microbe axis that has not been previously reported.

  12. Prostaglandins induce early growth response 1 transcription factor mediated microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase up-regulation for colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Jimenez-Martinez, Marta; Jimenez-Segovia, Alba; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Conde, Elisa; Galán-Martínez, Javier; Ruiz, Julia; Pascual, Alejandro; Barrocal, Beatriz; López-Pérez, Ricardo; García-Bermejo, María Laura; Fresno, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase2 (COX2) has been associated with cell growth, invasiveness, tumor progression and metastasis of colorectal carcinomas. However, the downstream prostaglandin (PG)-PG receptor pathway involved in these effects is poorly characterized. We studied the PG-pathway in gene expression databases and we found that PTGS2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) and PTGES (prostaglandin E synthase) are co-expressed in human colorectal tumors. Moreover, we detected that COX2 and microsomal Prostaglandin E2 synthase 1 (mPGES1) proteins are both up-regulated in colorectal human tumor biopsies. Using colon carcinoma cell cultures we found that COX2 overexpression significantly increased mPGES1 mRNA and protein. This up-regulation was due to an increase in early growth response 1 (EGR1) levels and its transcriptional activity. EGR1 was induced by COX2-generated PGF2α. A PGF2α receptor antagonist, or EGR1 silencing, inhibited the mPGES1 induction by COX2 overexpression. Moreover, using immunodeficient mice, we also demonstrated that both COX2- and mPGES1-overexpressing carcinoma cells were more efficient forming tumors. Our results describe for the first time the molecular pathway correlating PTGS2 and PTGES in colon cancer progression. We demonstrated that in this pathway mPGES1 is induced by COX2 overexpression, via autocrine PGs release, likely PGF2α, through an EGR1-dependent mechanism. This signaling provides a molecular explanation to PTGS2 and PTGES association and contribute to colon cancer advance, pointing out novel potential therapeutic targets in this oncological context. PMID:26498686

  13. Up-regulation of Serum MiR-130b-3p Level is Associated with Renal Damage in Early Lupus Nephritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Mou, Shan; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Fang, Wei; Lu, Renhua; Qi, Chaojun; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Wang, Qin; Fang, Yan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common but severe autoimmune systemic inflammatory disease. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious complication of SLE,affecting up to 70% of SLE patients. Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are emerging as biomarkers for pathological conditions and play significant roles in intercellular communication. In present research, serum samples from healthy control, early and late stage LN patients were used to analyze the expression profile of miRNAs by microarray. Subsequent study demonstrated that miR-130b-3p in serum of patients with early stage LN were significantly up-regulated when compared with healthy controls. In addition,we have also observed that the expression of a large amount of circulating microRNAs significantly decreased in patients with late stage LN. The further analysis found that the expression of serum miR-130b-3p was positively correlated with 24-hour proteinuria and renal chronicity index in patients with early stage LN.Transfection of renal tubular cellline(HK-2)with miR-130b-3p mimics can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The opposite effects were observed when transfected with miR-130b-3p inhibitors. MiR-130b-3p negatively regulated ERBB2IP expression by directly targeting the 3‧-UTR of ERBB2IP The circulating miR-130b-3p might serve as a biomarker and play an important role in renal damage in early stage LN patients.

  14. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke.

  15. Prehospital diagnosis of massive ethylene glycol poisoning and use of an early antidote.

    PubMed

    Amathieu, Roland; Merouani, Medhi; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Smail, Nadia; Adnet, Frédéric

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a patient suspected of voluntary massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. Prehospital diagnosis was established by portable blood analyser and an early antidote with 4 MP treatment initiated in out-of-hospital setting. Use of portable blood analyser in prehospital care should be considered in case of suspected massive poisoning by ethylene glycol.

  16. Formononetin promotes early fracture healing through stimulating angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGFR-2/Flk-1 in a rat fracture model.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kwon, Na-Hyun; Baek, Young-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Dong; Choi, Do-Young; Jingushi, Seiya; Kim, Kang-il; Park, Dong-Suk

    2009-11-01

    Plant-derived phytoestrogens have bone protective effects, but the molecular mechanism behind these effects remains unclear. This study is aimed at fully characterizing the fracture healing process of formononetin, and investigating the mechanism underlying angiogenesis in calluses of a rat fracture model. Femoral fractures were produced in 2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. A 20 microg/kg or 200 microg/kg dose of formononetin was orally administrated once a day during the healing period of 21 days. The results showed that in the early stage of chondrogenesis (days 3), formononetin significantly increased the number of vessels, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2/flk-1) compared with control. However, the larger dose of formononetin had no significant difference on expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2/Flk-1 compared with that of the smaller dose of formononetin. After 7 days of administration, formononetin markedly induced differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in the fracture site. After 14 days, gene expression of mesenchymal progenitors such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN) and collagen type I (Col I), indicating osteogenic differentiation, was markedly stimulated by formononetin compared with control. These results suggest that formononetin promotes early fracture healing through angiogenesis activation in the early stage of fracture repair, and osteogenesis acceleration in the later stages, and thus may be beneficial for fracture healing.

  17. Ethylene signalling is mediating the early cadmium-induced oxidative challenge in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schellingen, Kerim; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Keunen, Els; Cuypers, Ann

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulates ethylene biosynthesis. The phytohormone ethylene is a regulator of many developmental and physiological plant processes as well as stress responses. Previous research indicated various links between ethylene signalling and oxidative stress. Our results support a correlation between the Cd-induced oxidative challenge and ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The effects of 24 or 72 h exposure to 5 μM Cd on plant growth and several oxidative stress-related parameters were compared between wild-type (WT) and ethylene insensitive mutants (etr1-1, ein2-1, ein3-1). Cadmium-induced responses observed in WT plants were mainly affected in etr1-1 and ein2-1 mutants, of which the growth was less inhibited by Cd exposure as compared to WT and ein3-1 mutants. Both etr1-1 and ein2-1 showed a delayed response in the glutathione (GSH) metabolism, including GSH levels and transcript levels of GSH synthesising and recycling enzymes. Furthermore, the expression of different oxidative stress marker genes was significantly lower in Cd-exposed ein2-1 mutants, evidencing that ethylene signalling is involved in early responses to Cd stress. A model for the cross-talk between ethylene signalling and oxidative stress is proposed.

  18. Induction of GST-P-positive proliferative lesions facilitating lipid peroxidation with possible involvement of transferrin receptor up-regulation and ceruloplasmin down-regulation from the early stage of liver tumor promotion in rats.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Sayaka; Ichimura, Ryohei; Kemmochi, Sayaka; Taniai, Eriko; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Ohishi, Takumi; Takahashi, Miwa; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate the role of metal-related molecules in hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined immunolocalization of transferrin receptor (Tfrc), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and metallothionein (MT)-1/2 in relation to liver cell foci positive for glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) in the early stage of tumor promotion by fenbendazole (FB), phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide or thioacetamide in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. To estimate the involvement of oxidative stress responses to the promotion, immunolocalization of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, malondialdehyde and acrolein was similarly examined. Our findings showed that MT-1/2 immunoreactivity was not associated with the cellular distribution of GST-P and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suggesting no role of MT-1/2 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We also found enhanced expression of Tfrc after treatment with strong tumor-promoting chemicals. With regard to Cp, the population showing down-regulation was increased in the GST-P-positive foci in relation to tumor promotion. Up-regulation of Tfrc and down-regulation of Cp was maintained in GST-P-positive neoplastic lesions induced after long-term promotion with FB, suggesting the expression changes occurring downstream of the signaling pathway involved in the formation of GST-P-positive lesions. Furthermore, enhanced accumulation of lipid peroxidation end products was observed in the GST-P-positive foci by promotion. Post-initiation treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists did not enhance any such distribution changes in GST-P-negative foci. The results thus suggest that facilitation of lipid peroxidation is involved in the induction of GST-P-positive lesions by tumor promotion from an early stage, and up-regulation of Tfrc and down-regulation of Cp may be a signature of enhanced oxidative cellular stress in these lesions.

  19. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. Results We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Conclusions Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit

  20. Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Kim, Yun-Mi; Hyun, Pung-Mi; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2015-05-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV) is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12) were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration-especially via the nasal or rectal route-could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  1. AtMRP6/AtABCC6, an ATP-Binding Cassette transporter gene expressed during early steps of seedling development and up-regulated by cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Stéphane; Jacquet, Hélène; Vavasseur, Alain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Forestier, Cyrille

    2008-01-01

    Background ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of transporters found in all living organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 120 genes encoding ABC transporters have been identified. Here, the characterization of one member of the MRP subclass, AtMRP6, is described. Results This gene, located on chromosome 3, is bordered by AtMRP3 and AtMRP7. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and the GUS reporter gene, we found that this gene is essentially expressed during early seedling development, in the apical meristem and at initiation point of secondary roots, especially in xylem-opposite pericycle cells where lateral roots initiate. The level of expression of AtMRP6 in response to various stresses was explored and a significant up-regulation after cadmium (Cd) treatment was detected. Among the three T-DNA insertion lines available from the Salk Institute library, two knock-out mutants, Atmrp6.1 and Atmrp6.2 were invalidated for the AtMRP6 gene. In the presence of Cd, development of leaves was more affected in the mutants than wild-type plants, whereas root elongation and ramification was comparable. Conclusion The position of AtMRP6 on chromosome 3, flanked by two other MRP genes, (all of which being induced by Cd) suggests that AtMRP6 is part of a cluster involved in metal tolerance, although additional functions in planta cannot be discarded. PMID:18307782

  2. Transcriptional profiling of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) roots indicates down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and up-regulation of starch biosynthesis at an early stage of storage root formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of fibrous roots that develop into storage roots determines sweetpotato yield. The aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of storage root formation, by performing a detailed transcriptomic analysis of initiating storage roots using next-generation sequencing platforms. A two-step approach was undertaken: (1) generating a database for the sweetpotato root transcriptome using 454-Roche sequencing of a cDNA library created from pooled samples of two root types: fibrous and initiating storage roots; (2) comparing the expression profiles of initiating storage roots and fibrous roots, using the Illumina Genome Analyzer to sequence cDNA libraries of the two root types and map the data onto the root transcriptome database. Results Use of the 454-Roche platform generated a total of 524,607 reads, 85.6% of which were clustered into 55,296 contigs that matched 40,278 known genes. The reads, generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer, were found to map to 31,284 contigs out of the 55,296 contigs serving as the database. A total of 8,353 contigs were found to exhibit differential expression between the two root types (at least 2.5-fold change). The Illumina-based differential expression results were validated for nine putative genes using quantitative real-time PCR. The differential expression profiles indicated down-regulation of classical root functions, such as transport, as well as down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in initiating storage roots, and up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and starch biosynthesis. In addition, data indicated delicate control of regulators of meristematic tissue identity and maintenance, associated with the initiation of storage root formation. Conclusions This study adds a valuable resource of sweetpotato root transcript sequences to available data, facilitating the identification of genes of interest. This resource enabled us to identify genes that are involved

  3. Up-regulation of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) via ERK1/2 signals attenuates sulindac sulfide-mediated cytotoxicity in the human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Yuseok Yang, Hyun; Kim, Yung Bu

    2007-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to relieve pain and inflammation and have also received considerable attention because of their preventive effects against human cancer. However, the drug application is sometimes limited by the severe gastrointestinal ulcers and mucosal complications. In the present study, NSAID sulindac sulfide was investigated for the cytotoxic injury in the intestinal epithelial cells in association with an immediate inducible factor, early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1). Previously we reported that sulindac sulfide can suppress tumor cell invasion by inducing EGR-1. Extending the previous study, EGR-1 induction by sulindac sulfide was observed both in the non-transformed and transformed human intestinal epithelial cell lines. In terms of signaling pathway, ERK1/2 MAP kinases and its substrate Elk-1 transcription factor were involved in the sulindac sulfide-induced EGR-1 gene expression. Moreover, sulindac sulfide stimulated the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor EGR-1, which was also mediated by ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The roles of EGR-1 signals in the apoptotic cell death were assessed in the intestinal epithelial cells. Suppression of EGR-1 expression retarded cellular growth and colony forming activity in the intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, induced EGR-1 ameliorated sulindac sulfide-mediated apoptotic cell death and enhanced the cellular survival. Taken all together, sulindac sulfide activated ERK1/2 MAP kinases which then mediated EGR-1 induction and nuclear translocation, all of which played important roles in the cellular survival from NSAID-mediated cytotoxicity in the human intestinal epithelial cells, implicating the protective roles of EGR-1 in the NSAID-mediated mucosal injuries.

  4. Ethylene update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is required for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Potato tubers produce low amounts of ethylene and are highly sensitive to ethylene in the atmosphere. Several responses of potato tubers to endogenous and exogenous ethylene...

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 up-regulates AKT activity through the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Menges, Craig W; Baglia, Laurel A; Lapoint, Randi; McCance, Dennis J

    2006-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small DNA tumor viruses causally associated with cervical cancer. The early gene product E7 from high-risk HPV is considered the major transforming protein expressed by the virus. Although many functions have been described for E7 in disrupting normal cellular processes, we describe in this study a new cellular target in primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK), the serine/threonine kinase AKT. Expression of HPV type 16 E7 in HFK caused inhibition of differentiation, hyperproliferation, and up-regulation of AKT activity in organotypic raft cultures. The ability of E7 to up-regulate AKT activity is dependent on its ability to bind to and inactivate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product family of proteins. Furthermore, we show that knocking down Rb alone, with short hairpin RNAs, was sufficient to up-regulate AKT activity in differentiated keratinocytes. Up-regulation of AKT activity and loss of Rb was also observed in HPV-positive cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with normal cervical tissue. Together, these data provide evidence linking inactivation of Rb by E7 in the up-regulation of AKT activity during cervical cancer progression.

  6. Nutraceutical up-regulation of serotonin paradoxically induces compulsive behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of diet in either the etiology or treatment of complex mental disorder is highly controversial in psychiatry. However, physiological mechanisms by which diet can influence brain chemistry – particularly that of serotonin – are well established. Here we show that dietary up-regulation of br...

  7. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects.

  8. Rapid systemic up-regulation of genes after heat-wounding and electrical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, E.; Vian, A.; Vian, C.; Stankovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    When one leaf of a tomato plant is electrically-stimulated or heat-wounded, proteinase inhibitor genes are rapidly up-regulated in distant leaves. The identity of the systemic wound signal(s) is not yet known, but major candidates include hormones transmitted via the phloem or the xylem, the electrically-stimulated self-propagating electrical signal in the phloem (the action potential, AP), or the heat-wound-induced surge in hydraulic pressure in the xylem evoking a local change in membrane potential in adjacent living cells (the variation potential, VP). In order to discriminate between these signals we have adopted two approaches. The first approach involves applying stimuli that evoke known signals and determining whether these signals have similar effects on the "model" transcripts for proteinase inhibitors (pin) and calmodulin (cal). Here we show that a heat wound almost invariably evokes a VP, while an electrical stimulation occasionally evokes an AP, and both of these signals induce accumulation of transcripts encoding proteinase inhibitors. The second approach involves identifying the array of genes turned on by heat-wounding. To this end, we have constructed a subtractive library for heat-wounded tissue, isolated over 800 putatively up-regulated clones, and shown that all but two of the fifty that we have analyzed by Northern hybridization are, indeed, up-regulated. Here we show the early kinetics of up-regulation of three of these transcripts in the terminal (4th) leaf in response to heat-wounding the 3rd leaf, about 5 cm away. Even though these transcripts show somewhat different time courses of induction, with one peaking at 30 min, another at 15 min, and another at 5 min after flaming of a distant leaf, they all exhibit a similar pattern, i.e., a transient period of transcript accumulation preceding a period of transcript decrease, followed by a second period of transcript accumulation.

  9. NGF up-regulates TRPA1: implications for orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, A; Akopian, A N; Hargreaves, K M

    2007-06-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin repeat 1 (TRPA1) channel is believed to be involved in many forms of acute and chronic hyperalgesia. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) regulates chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia by controlling gene expression in sensory neurons, including genes involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia in the dental pulp. We hypothesized that NGF increases functional activities of the TRPA1 channel in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Here, we show that NGF induced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of TRPA1 mRNA in trigeminal ganglia neurons, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. In addition, NGF evoked a time-dependent increase of mustard oil (MO)-evoked TRPA1 activation in trigeminal ganglia neurons. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NGF participates in the functional up-regulation of TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglia neurons. These enhanced activities of TRPA1 could play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia following nerve injury and inflammation in the orofacial region.

  10. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T; Minas, Tsion Z; Conn, Erin J; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2016-06-17

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes.

  11. Up-regulation of the hyaluronate receptor CD44 in canine distemper demyelinated plaques.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, S; Fonfara, S; Kremmer, E; Baumgärtner, W

    2000-02-01

    CD44 antigen (CD44), the principle cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, is up-regulated in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis on fibrous astrocytes. As astrocytes are the main target cell of canine distemper virus (CDV), the consequences of a CDV infection on the CD44 expression and distribution in brains with spontaneous demyelinating canine distemper encephalitis (CDE) were of interest. Thirteen acute, 35 subacute, and 11 chronic plaques of nine dogs with immunohistologically confirmed CDE and brains of control dogs were included in the study. For light microscopy, 5-micron-thick serial sections were stained with H&E and incubated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD44 and canine distemper virus nucleoprotein and polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myelin basic protein (MBP). For immunoelectron microscopy, 90-nm-thick sections were double stained with anti-GFAP and anti-CD44 mAbs to specify CD44-expressing structures. In controls, CD44 was diffusely distributed in the white matter and single meningeal cells exhibited a marginal expression of the antigen. In acute and more prominently in subacute demyelinating encephalitis, there was a plaque-associated up-regulation of CD44 which paralleled GFAP. In chronic demyelinating lesions, a reduction of CD44 associated with a loss of GFAP-positive astrocytes was noted. Additionally, in chronic plaques, CD44 was expressed on the cell membrane of perivascular mononuclear cells. Immunoelectron microscopically, in controls, CD44 was rarely demonstrated on astrocytic cell processes. In contrast, in brains with CDE CD44 was found on the cell membrane of broadened astrocytic cell processes. In summary, CD44 is up-regulated on astrocytes in the early phase of CDE and seems to represent a marker for the activation of immune cells in the late phase of the infection.

  12. Ethylene glycol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol ; CASRN 107 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  13. Ethylene diamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene diamine ; CASRN 107 - 15 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Glutamate Transporter EAAT2 Expression is Up-Regulated in Reactive Astrocytes in Human Periventricular Leukomalacia

    PubMed Central

    DESILVA, TARA M.; BILLIARDS, SARAID S.; BORENSTEIN, NATALIA S.; TRACHTENBERG, FELICIA L.; VOLPE, JOSEPH J.; KINNEY, HANNAH C.; ROSENBERG, PAUL A.

    2010-01-01

    The major neuropathological correlate of cerebral palsy in premature infants is periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a disorder of the immature cerebral white matter. Cerebral ischemia leading to excitotoxicity is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder, implying a critical role for glutamate transporters, the major determinants of extracellular glutamate concentration. Previously, we found that EAAT2 expression is limited primarily to premyelinating oligodendrocytes early in development and is rarely observed in astrocytes until >40 weeks. In this study, we analyzed the expression of EAAT2 in cerebral white matter from PVL and control cases. Western blot analysis suggested an up-regulation of EAAT2 in PVL compared with control cases. Single- and double-label immunocytochemistry showed a significantly higher percentage of EAAT2-immunopositive astrocytes in PVL (51.8% ± 5.6%) compared with control white matter (21.4% ± 5.6%; P = 0.004). Macrophages in the necrotic foci in PVL also expressed EAAT2. Premyelinating oligodendrocytes in both PVL and control cases expressed EAAT2, without qualitative difference in expression. The previously unrecognized up-regulation of EAAT2 in reactive astrocytes and its presence in macrophages in PVL reported here may reflect a response to either hypoxic-ischemic injury or inflammation. PMID:18314905

  15. N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, Annalisa; Gaspari, Marco; Sacco, Rosario; Elia, Laura; Gabriele, Caterina; Romano, Roberto; Rizzuto, Antonia; Cuda, Giovanni

    2014-11-07

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described.

  16. Up-regulation of SLAP in FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts interferes with EpoR signaling.

    PubMed

    Lebigot, Ingrid; Gardellin, Paola; Lefebvre, Laurent; Beug, Hartmut; Ghysdael, Jacques; Quang, Christine Tran

    2003-12-15

    Rearrangement of the FLI-1 locus and ensuing overexpression of FLI-1 protein is an early event in Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced erythroleukemia. When overexpressed in primary erythroblasts, FLI-1 converts erythropoietin (Epo)-induced terminal differentiation into a proliferative response. We found that SLAP, a gene encoding a recently described negative regulator of T-cell antigen receptor function during thymocyte development, is up-regulated both at the RNA and protein levels in FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts. Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) was found in a specific complex with erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), a cytokine receptor essential to erythroid differentiation. Constitutive expression of SLAP severely impairs hemoglobinization and late survival during Epo-induced terminal differentiation of erythroblasts. This impairment is associated with the specific inhibition of several critical Epo-dependent signaling events, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and up-regulation of the expression of the antiapoptotic BCL-X gene. Our data support a model by which FLI-1 inhibits normal erythroid differentiation through the deregulation of genes encoding adaptors/effectors that modify the signaling output of cytokine receptors normally required for terminal differentiation.

  17. Ethylene glycol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  18. Bottom-Up Regulation of Capelin, a Keystone Forage Species

    PubMed Central

    Buren, Alejandro D.; Koen-Alonso, Mariano; Pepin, Pierre; Mowbray, Fran; Nakashima, Brian; Stenson, Garry; Ollerhead, Neil; Montevecchi, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The Northwest Atlantic marine ecosystem off Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, has been commercially exploited for centuries. Although periodic declines in various important commercial fish stocks have been observed in this ecosystem, the most drastic changes took place in the early 1990s when the ecosystem structure changed abruptly and has not returned to its previous configuration. In the Northwest Atlantic, food web dynamics are determined largely by capelin (Mallotus villosus), the focal forage species which links primary and secondary producers with the higher trophic levels. Notwithstanding the importance of capelin, the factors that influence its population dynamics have remained elusive. We found that a regime shift and ocean climate, acting via food availability, have discernible impacts on the regulation of this population. Capelin biomass and timing of spawning were well explained by a regime shift and seasonal sea ice dynamics, a key determinant of the pelagic spring bloom. Our findings are important for the development of ecosystem approaches to fisheries management and raise questions on the potential impacts of climate change on the structure and productivity of this marine ecosystem. PMID:24503909

  19. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Ethylene independent pathways may also exist in non-climacteric ripening as evidenced by the up-regulation of CaACO4 during ripening onset despite being negatively regulated by ethylene exposure. However, some level of ethylene perception may still be needed to induce ripening especially during the Breaker stage. A model of capsicum ripening is also presented to illustrate the probable role of ethylene in this non-climacteric fruit. PMID:24286334

  20. Ethylene preparation and its application to physiological experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Wenli; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2010-04-01

    Ethylene is the first identified gaseous hormone regulating many aspects of plant growth and development. ACC and ethephon are two widely used chemicals replacing ethylene treatment when ethylene is not available. However, the amount of ethylene converted by ACC and ethephon is not controllable, leaving it questionable whether either treatment can mimic the effects of ethylene for experiments that are sensitive to ethylene concentration, response window, and treatment durations. Ethylene can be chemically made by ethanol dehydration; however, further purification from the dehydration products is needed. We previously reported that the ethylene gas can be easily prepared by decomposing ethephon in a buffered condition and the resulting ethylene can be used directly. Ethylene responses can be estimated by the measurement of the hypocotyl length of etiolated seedlings, or by ERF1 (Ethylene Response Factor1) expression. Although ACC of low concentrations is insufficient to induce ERF1 expression, ACC of high concentrations can replace ethylene for experiments where ethylene treatment is not feasible. However, ACC may undergo early consumption. Versatile approaches were developed so that laboratories lacking ethylene and techniques for gas handling can easily perform necessary ethylene treatments.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  2. Trop-2 is up-regulated in invasive prostate cancer and displaces FAK from focal contacts

    PubMed Central

    Trerotola, Marco; Ganguly, Kirat K.; Fazli, Ladan; Fedele, Carmine; Lu, Huimin; Dutta, Anindita; Liu, Qin; De Angelis, Tiziana; Riddell, Luke W.; Riobo, Natalia A.; Gleave, Martin E.; Zoubeidi, Amina; Pestell, Richard G.; Altieri, Dario C.; Languino, Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we show that the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop-2 is up-regulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) with extracapsular extension (stages pT3/pT4) as compared to organ-confined (stage pT2) PCa. Consistent with this evidence, Trop-2 expression is found to be increased in metastatic prostate tumors of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice and to strongly correlate with α5β1 integrin levels. Using PCa cells, we show that Trop-2 specifically associates with the α5 integrin subunit, as binding to α3 is not observed, and that Trop-2 displaces focal adhesion kinase from focal contacts. In support of the role of Trop-2 as a promoter of PCa metastatic phenotype, we observe high expression of this molecule in exosomes purified from Trop-2-positive PCa cells. These vesicles are then found to promote migration of Trop-2-negative PCa cells on fibronectin, an α5β1 integrin/focal adhesion kinase substrate, thus suggesting that the biological function of Trop-2 may be propagated to recipient cells. In summary, our findings show that Trop-2 promotes an α5β1 integrin-dependent pro-metastatic signaling pathway in PCa cells and that the altered expression of Trop-2 may be utilized for early identification of capsule-invading PCa. PMID:26015409

  3. Snail up-regulates pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibits differentiation in oral keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, J. Guy; Patel, Vyomesh; Roue, Naomi C.; Fok, Sandra Y.; Soon, Lilian L.; Halliday, Gary M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor, Snail2, is over-expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) relative to non-malignant head and neck mucosal epithelium, and in locally recurrent relative to non-recurrent HNSCCs. We investigated the mechanisms by which Snails might contribute to the pathogenesis of HNSCCs using cell biological and molecular analyses. Oral keratinocytes that expressed Snails acquired an enhanced ability to attract monocytes and to invade a dense interstitial collagen matrix. They were also found to up-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), which have previously been shown to correlate with malignancy. Induction of nuclear factor-kappa B transcriptional activity by Snails was weak and not sufficient to account for the elevated levels of COX2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 or CXCL1. In addition, expression of Snails in oral keratinocytes impaired desquamation in vitro and strongly repressed expression of both ELF3 and matriptase-1, which play important roles in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Re-expression of matriptase-1 in Snail-expressing cells partially rescued desquamation. This implicates Snails as contributing to malignancy both at the early stages, by impeding terminal differentiation, and at later stages, when invasion and inflammation are important. PMID:18559496

  4. Caffeine Induces the Stress Response and Up-Regulates Heat Shock Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine has both positive and negative effects on physiological functions in a dose-dependent manner. C. elegans has been used as an animal model to investigate the effects of caffeine on development. Caffeine treatment at a high dose (30 mM) showed detrimental effects and caused early larval arrest. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the mode of action of high-dose caffeine treatment in C. elegans and found that the stress response proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)-4 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] chaperone), HSP-6 (mitochondrial chaperone), and HSP-16 (cytosolic chaperone), were induced and their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that high-dose caffeine intake causes a strong stress response and activates all three stress-response pathways in the worms, including the ER-, mitochondrial-, and cytosolic pathways. RNA interference of each hsp gene or in triple combination retarded growth. In addition, caffeine treatment stimulated a food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype), which was enhanced by RNAi depletion of the hsp-4 gene. Therefore, up-regulation of hsp genes after caffeine treatment appeared to be the major responses to alleviate stress and protect against developmental arrest.

  5. Deep Sequencing of the Medicago truncatula Root Transcriptome Reveals a Massive and Early Interaction between Nodulation Factor and Ethylene Signals1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Riely, Brendan K.; Kim, Sang Cheol; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Yu, Hee-Ju; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Oh, Mijin; Kim, Goon Bo; Surendrarao, Anandkumar K.; Chasman, Deborah; Siahpirani, Alireza F.; Penmetsa, Ramachandra V.; Lee, Gang-Seob; Kim, Namshin; Roy, Sushmita; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Cook, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is initiated through the activation of the Nodulation (Nod) factor-signaling cascade, leading to a rapid reprogramming of host cell developmental pathways. In this work, we combine transcriptome sequencing with molecular genetics and network analysis to quantify and categorize the transcriptional changes occurring in roots of Medicago truncatula from minutes to days after inoculation with Sinorhizobium medicae. To identify the nature of the inductive and regulatory cues, we employed mutants with absent or decreased Nod factor sensitivities (i.e. Nodulation factor perception and Lysine motif domain-containing receptor-like kinase3, respectively) and an ethylene (ET)-insensitive, Nod factor-hypersensitive mutant (sickle). This unique data set encompasses nine time points, allowing observation of the symbiotic regulation of diverse biological processes with high temporal resolution. Among the many outputs of the study is the early Nod factor-induced, ET-regulated expression of ET signaling and biosynthesis genes. Coupled with the observation of massive transcriptional derepression in the ET-insensitive background, these results suggest that Nod factor signaling activates ET production to attenuate its own signal. Promoter:β-glucuronidase fusions report ET biosynthesis both in root hairs responding to rhizobium as well as in meristematic tissue during nodule organogenesis and growth, indicating that ET signaling functions at multiple developmental stages during symbiosis. In addition, we identified thousands of novel candidate genes undergoing Nod factor-dependent, ET-regulated expression. We leveraged the power of this large data set to model Nod factor- and ET-regulated signaling networks using MERLIN, a regulatory network inference algorithm. These analyses predict key nodes regulating the biological process impacted by Nod factor perception. We have made these results available to the research community through a searchable online

  6. The nitrate transporter NRT2.1 functions in the ethylene response to nitrate deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dongchao; Han, Xiao; An, Y I; Guo, Hongwei; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-07-01

    The ethylene signalling pathway is closely associated with complex environmental stresses. Previous studies have reported impact of high nitrate (HN) availability on ethylene biosynthesis and regulation of ethylene on nitrate transporter 2.1 (NRT2.1) expression. However, molecular interaction between NRT2.1 transcript levels and the ethylene signalling pathway under nitrate deficiency is still elusive. Here, we report a low nitrate (LN) treatment-induced rapid burst of ethylene production and regulated expression of ethylene signalling components CTR1, EIN3 and EIL1 in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) seedlings, and enhanced ethylene response reporter EBS:GUS activity in both Col-0 and the ethylene mutants ein3-1eil1-1 and ctr1-1. LN treatment also caused up-regulation of NRT2.1 expression, which was responsible for an enhanced high-affinity nitrate uptake. Comparison of ethylene production and EBS:GUS activity between nrt1.1, nrt2.1 mutants and Col-0 indicated that this up-regulation of NRT2.1 expression caused a positive effect on ethylene biosynthesis and signalling under LN treatment. On the other hand, ethylene down-regulated NRT2.1 expression and reduced the high-affinity nitrate uptake. Together, these findings uncover a negative feedback loop between NRT2.1 expression and ethylene biosynthesis and signalling under nitrate deficiency, which may contribute to finely tuning of plant nitrate acquisition during exploring dynamic soil conditions.

  7. Tobacco carcinogen mediated up-regulation of AP-1 dependent pro-angiogenic cytokines in head and neck carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Wade G; Wuertz, Beverly R K; Ondrey, Frank G

    2011-09-01

    Tobacco is notably genotoxic and associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. Cigarette carcinogens have the capacity to alter early response gene expression in tobacco-related malignancies via genes such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). A number of early response gene activation events are also facilitated by fos/jun activator protein 1 (AP-1) associated pathways. In the present study, we hypothesize that tobacco products may induce microenvironment alterations, promoting angiogenesis and providing a permissive environment for head and neck cancer progression. In an in vitro analysis, we employed immortalized oral keratinocyte (HOK-16B) and laryngeal squamous carcinoma (UM-SCC-11A) cells to investigate interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). IL-8 and VEGF expression is based on interactions between NFκB, AP-1, and NF-IL6. We identified at least 1.5-fold dose-dependent induction of AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene activity after 24 h exposure to CSC. Next, we stably transfected UM-SCC-11A cells with A-Fos, a dominant negative AP-1 protein. Treatment with CSC of the A-Fos cell lines compared to empty vector controls significantly down-regulated AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene expression. We also performed ELISAs and discovered significant up-regulation of IL-8 and VEGF secretion by UMSCC 11A after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and CSC, which was down-regulated by the A-Fos dominant negative protein. We conclude tobacco carcinogens up-regulate AP-1 activity and AP-1 dependent IL-8 and VEGF gene expression in head and neck cancer. This up-regulation may promote an angiogenic phenotype favoring invasion in both premalignant and squamous cancer cells of the head and neck.

  8. Phosphoproteomics reveals the effect of ethylene in soybean root under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Flooding has severe negative effects on soybean growth. To explore the flooding-responsive mechanisms in early-stage soybean, a phosphoproteomic approach was used. Two-day-old soybean plants were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and root tip proteins were then extracted and analyzed at each time point. After 3 h of flooding exposure, the fresh weight of soybeans increased, whereas the ATP content of soybean root tips decreased. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, a total of 114 phosphoproteins were identified in the root tip samples, and 34 of the phosphoproteins were significantly changed with respect to phosphorylation status after 3 h of flooding stress. Among these phosphoproteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factors were dephosphorylated, whereas several protein synthesis-related proteins were phosphorylated. The mRNA expression levels of sucrose phosphate synthase 1F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G were down-regulated, whereas UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase mRNA expression was up-regulated during growth but down-regulated under flooding stress. Furthermore, bioinformatic protein interaction analysis of flooding-responsive proteins based on temporal phosphorylation patterns indicated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G was located in the center of the network during flooding. Soybean eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G has homology to programmed cell death 4 protein and is implicated in ethylene signaling. The weight of soybeans was increased with treatment by an ethylene-releasing agent under flooding condition, but it was decreased when plants were exposed to an ethylene receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role, via the protein phosphorylation, in mechanisms of plant tolerance to the initial stages of flooding stress in soybean root tips.

  9. The E3 ubiquitin ligase HOS1 is involved in ethylene regulation of leaf expansion in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyounghee; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as flowering, senescence, abscission, and fruit ripening. In particular, leaf expansion is also controlled by ethylene in Arabidopsis. Exogenous treatment with ethylene inhibits leaf expansion, and consistently, ethylene insensitive mutants show increased leaf area. Here, we report that the RING finger-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES 1 (HOS1) regulates leaf expansion in an ethylene signaling pathway. The HOS1-deficient mutant showed reduced leaf area and was insensitive to ethylene perception inhibitor, silver thiosulfate (STS). Accordingly, genes encoding ethylene signaling components were significantly up-regulated in hos1-3. This study demonstrates that the HOS1 protein is involved in ethylene signal transduction for the proper regulation of leaf expansion possibly under environmentally stressful conditions.

  10. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ −1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea. PMID:28300183

  11. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P

    2017-03-16

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea.

  12. The Wnt Inhibitor Sclerostin Is Up-regulated by Mechanical Unloading in Osteocytes in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Jordan M.; Wein, Marc N.; Gooi, Jonathan H.; Qu, Yili; Garr, Jenna L.; Liu, Shawn; Barry, Kevin J.; Uda, Yuhei; Lai, Forest; Dedic, Christopher; Balcells-Camps, Mercedes; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Babij, Philip; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2015-01-01

    Although bone responds to its mechanical environment, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the skeleton to mechanical unloading are not completely understood. Osteocytes are the most abundant but least understood cells in bones and are thought to be responsible for sensing stresses and strains in bone. Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene, is produced postnatally primarily by osteocytes and is a negative regulator of bone formation. Recent studies show that SOST is mechanically regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. During prolonged bed rest and immobilization, circulating sclerostin increases both in humans and in animal models, and its increase is associated with a decrease in parathyroid hormone. To investigate whether SOST/sclerostin up-regulation in mechanical unloading is a cell-autonomous response or a hormonal response to decreased parathyroid hormone levels, we subjected osteocytes to an in vitro unloading environment achieved by the NASA rotating wall vessel system. To perform these studies, we generated a novel osteocytic cell line (Ocy454) that produces high levels of SOST/sclerostin at early time points and in the absence of differentiation factors. Importantly, these osteocytes recapitulated the in vivo response to mechanical unloading with increased expression of SOST (3.4 ± 1.9-fold, p < 0.001), sclerostin (4.7 ± 0.1-fold, p < 0.001), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) (2.5 ± 0.7-fold, p < 0.001) ratio. These data demonstrate for the first time a cell-autonomous increase in SOST/sclerostin and RANKL/OPG ratio in the setting of unloading. Thus, targeted osteocyte therapies could hold promise as novel osteoporosis and disuse-induced bone loss treatments by directly modulating the mechanosensing cells in bone. PMID:25953900

  13. Thrombospondin-1 up-regulates expression of cell adhesion molecules and promotes monocyte binding to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Narizhneva, Natalya V.; Razorenova, Olga V.; Podrez, Eugene A.; Chen, Juhua; Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; DiCorleto, Paul E.; Plow, Edward F.; Topol, Eric J.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) responsible for leukocyte-endothelium interactions plays a crucial role in inflammation and atherogenesis. Up-regulation of vascular CAM-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin expression promotes monocyte recruitment to sites of injury and is considered to be a critical step in atherosclerotic plaque development. Factors that trigger this initial response are not well understood. As platelet activation not only promotes thrombosis but also early stages of atherogenesis, we considered the role of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matricellular protein released in abundance from activated platelets and accumulated in sites of vascular injury, as a regulator of CAM expression. TSP-1 induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 on endothelium of various origins, which in turn, resulted in a significant increase of monocyte attachment. This effect could be mimicked by a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of TSP-1 and known to interact with CD47 on the cell surface. The essential role of CD47 in the cellular responses to TSP-1 was demonstrated further using inhibitory antibodies and knockdown of CD47 with small interfering RNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that secretion of endogenous TSP-1 and its interaction with CD47 on the cell surface mediates endothelial response to the major proinflammatory agent, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Taken together, this study identifies a novel mechanism regulating CAM expression and subsequent monocyte binding to endothelium, which might influence the development of anti-atherosclerosis therapeutic strategies. PMID:15833768

  14. The Wnt Inhibitor Sclerostin Is Up-regulated by Mechanical Unloading in Osteocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Jordan M; Wein, Marc N; Gooi, Jonathan H; Qu, Yili; Garr, Jenna L; Liu, Shawn; Barry, Kevin J; Uda, Yuhei; Lai, Forest; Dedic, Christopher; Balcells-Camps, Mercedes; Kronenberg, Henry M; Babij, Philip; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2015-07-03

    Although bone responds to its mechanical environment, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the skeleton to mechanical unloading are not completely understood. Osteocytes are the most abundant but least understood cells in bones and are thought to be responsible for sensing stresses and strains in bone. Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene, is produced postnatally primarily by osteocytes and is a negative regulator of bone formation. Recent studies show that SOST is mechanically regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. During prolonged bed rest and immobilization, circulating sclerostin increases both in humans and in animal models, and its increase is associated with a decrease in parathyroid hormone. To investigate whether SOST/sclerostin up-regulation in mechanical unloading is a cell-autonomous response or a hormonal response to decreased parathyroid hormone levels, we subjected osteocytes to an in vitro unloading environment achieved by the NASA rotating wall vessel system. To perform these studies, we generated a novel osteocytic cell line (Ocy454) that produces high levels of SOST/sclerostin at early time points and in the absence of differentiation factors. Importantly, these osteocytes recapitulated the in vivo response to mechanical unloading with increased expression of SOST (3.4 ± 1.9-fold, p < 0.001), sclerostin (4.7 ± 0.1-fold, p < 0.001), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) (2.5 ± 0.7-fold, p < 0.001) ratio. These data demonstrate for the first time a cell-autonomous increase in SOST/sclerostin and RANKL/OPG ratio in the setting of unloading. Thus, targeted osteocyte therapies could hold promise as novel osteoporosis and disuse-induced bone loss treatments by directly modulating the mechanosensing cells in bone.

  15. Up-regulation of endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by coplanar PCB77 is caveolin-1-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Majkova, Zuzana; Smart, Eric; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-05-15

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of heart disease and stroke is initiated in the vascular endothelium, and risk factors for its development include environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Caveolae are membrane microdomains involved in regulation of many signaling pathways, and in particular in endothelial cells. We tested the hypothesis that intact caveolae are required for coplanar PCB77-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endothelium-derived chemokine that attracts monocytes into sub-endothelial space in early stages of the atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis-prone LDL-R{sup -/-} mice (control) or caveolin-1{sup -/-}/LDL-R{sup -/-} mice were treated with PCB77. PCB77 induced aortic mRNA expression and plasma protein levels of MCP-1 in control, but not caveolin-1{sup -/-}/LDL-R{sup -/-} mice. To study the mechanism of this effect, primary endothelial cells were used. PCB77 increased MCP-1 levels in endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by caveolin-1 silencing using siRNA. Also, MCP-1 up-regulation by PCB77 was prevented by inhibiting p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK1/2, suggesting regulatory functions via p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Finally, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibitor {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) partially blocked MCP-1 up-regulation. Thus, our data demonstrate that coplanar PCB77 can induce MCP-1 expression by endothelial cells and that this effect is mediated by AhR, as well as p 38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Intact caveolae are required for these processes both in vivo and in vitro. This further supports a key role for caveolae in vascular inflammation induced by persistent organic pollutants.

  16. Mechanisms of Hypoxic Up-Regulation of Versican Gene Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Staples, Karl J.; Chrysanthou, Elvina; Pearson, Helen; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Burke, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of many pathological tissues. Macrophages accumulate in hypoxic sites and up-regulate a range of hypoxia-inducible genes. The matrix proteoglycan versican has been identified as one such gene, but the mechanisms responsible for hypoxic induction are not fully characterised. Here we investigate the up-regulation of versican by hypoxia in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), and, intriguingly, show that versican mRNA is up-regulated much more highly (>600 fold) by long term hypoxia (5 days) than by 1 day of hypoxia (48 fold). We report that versican mRNA decay rates are not affected by hypoxia, demonstrating that hypoxic induction of versican mRNA is mediated by increased transcription. Deletion analysis of the promoter identified two regions required for high level promoter activity of luciferase reporter constructs in human macrophages. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1 has previously been implicated as a key potential regulator of versican expression in hypoxia, however our data suggest that HIF-1 up-regulation is unlikely to be principally responsible for the high levels of induction observed in HMDM. Treatment of HMDM with two distinct specific inhibitors of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY290042 and wortmannin, significantly reduced induction of versican mRNA by hypoxia and provides evidence of a role for PI3K in hypoxic up-regulation of versican expression. PMID:26057378

  17. Retinoic acids up-regulate functional eosinophil-driving receptor CCR3.

    PubMed

    Ueki, S; Nishikawa, J; Yamauchi, Y; Konno, Y; Tamaki, M; Itoga, M; Kobayashi, Y; Takeda, M; Moritoki, Y; Ito, W; Chihara, J

    2013-07-01

    Eotaxins and their receptor CCR3 have a definitive role for tissue accumulation of eosinophils both under homeostatic and pathologic conditions. However, physiological stimuli that can up-regulate CCR3 in blood-derived human eosinophils have not been recognized. As a prior gene microarray study revealed up-regulation of CCR3 in eosinophils stimulated with retinoic acids (RAs), the expression of functional CCR3 was examined. We found that 9-cis RA and all-trans RA (ATRA) significantly induced surface CCR3 expression regardless of the presence of IL-3 or IL-5. Pharmacological manipulations with receptor-specific agonists and antagonists indicated that retinoic acid receptor-α activation is critical for CCR3 up-regulation. RA-induced CCR3 was associated with its functional capacity, in terms of the calcium mobilization and chemotactic response to eotaxin-1 (CCL11). Our study suggests an important role of vitamin A derivatives in the tissue accumulation of eosinophils.

  18. Up-regulating of RASD1 and apoptosis of DU-145 human prostate cancer cells induced by formononetin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Yun-Qian; Chen, Qiu-Yue; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; Zeng, Si-En

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant cancers in men. The isoflavone formononetin is a main active component of red clover plants. In the present study, we assessed the effect of formononetin on human prostate cancer DU-145 cells in vitro, and elucidated possible mechanisms. DU-145 cells were treated with different concentrations of formononetin and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry, and protein levels of RASD1, Bcl-2 and Bax by Western blotting. The results showed that formononetin inhibited the proliferation of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner. DU-145 cells treated with different concentrations of formononetin displayed obvious morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence microscopy. In addition, formononetin increased the proportion of early apoptotic DU-145 cells, down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2 and up-regulated those of RASD1 and Bax. The level of RASD1 reached its maximum at 48 h post-treatment, and rapidly decreased thereafter. Together, we present evidence that formononetin triggered cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by up-regulating RASD1.

  19. Social stress up-regulates inflammatory gene expression in the leukocyte transcriptome via β-adrenergic induction of myelopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Nicole D.; Sloan, Erica K.; Bailey, Michael T.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Kobor, Michael S.; Reader, Brenda F.; Sheridan, John F.; Cole, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Across a variety of adverse life circumstances, such as social isolation and low socioeconomic status, mammalian immune cells have been found to show a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving increased expression of proinflammatory genes. The present study examines whether such effects might stem in part from the selective up-regulation of a subpopulation of immature proinflammatory monocytes (Ly-6chigh in mice, CD16− in humans) within the circulating leukocyte pool. Transcriptome representation analyses showed relative expansion of the immature proinflammatory monocyte transcriptome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from people subject to chronic social stress (low socioeconomic status) and mice subject to repeated social defeat. Cellular dissection of the mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptome confirmed these results, and promoter-based bioinformatic analyses indicated increased activity of transcription factors involved in early myeloid lineage differentiation and proinflammatory effector function (PU.1, NF-κB, EGR1, MZF1, NRF2). Analysis of bone marrow hematopoiesis confirmed increased myelopoietic output of Ly-6chigh monocytes and Ly-6cintermediate granulocytes in mice subject to repeated social defeat, and these effects were blocked by pharmacologic antagonists of β-adrenoreceptors and the myelopoietic growth factor GM-CSF. These results suggest that sympathetic nervous system-induced up-regulation of myelopoiesis mediates the proinflammatory component of the leukocyte CTRA dynamic and may contribute to the increased risk of inflammation-related disease associated with adverse social conditions. PMID:24062448

  20. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Melega, Simone; Stöber, Regina; Schug, Markus; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Cadenas, Cristina; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-12-01

    The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were chosen that neither induce a decrease in reduced glutathione or ATP depletion. Analysis of the gene array data showed a large overlap of gene expression alterations induced by the four drugs. This 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' included 101 up-regulated and 309 down-regulated probe sets (p < 0.05; FDR adjusted). In the up-regulated genes, GO groups of cholesterol biosynthesis represented a dominant overrepresented motif. Key enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis up-regulated by all four piperazine drugs include sterol C4-methyloxidase, isopentyl-diphosphate-Δ-isomerase, Cyp51A1, squalene epoxidase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Additionally, glycoprotein transmembrane nmb, which participates in cell adhesion processes, and fatty acid desaturase 1, an enzyme that regulates unsaturation of fatty acids, were also up-regulated by the four piperazine designer drugs. Regarding the down-regulated probe sets, only one gene was common to all four piperazine derivatives, the betaine-homocysteine-S-methyltransferase 2. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites of the 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' identified the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) as strongly overrepresented in the up-regulated genes. SREBP transcription factors are known to regulate multiple genes of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present

  1. Mu opioid receptor up-regulation and participation in excitability of hippocampal pyramidal cell electrophysiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moudy, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic administration of opiate antagonists to rats results in up-regulation of their brain opioid receptors. Using subcellular fractionation techniques, brain opioid receptors were resolved into two membrane populations, one associated with synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and the other enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi (microsomes). This study addressed in part the question of whether an antagonist induces up-regulation uniformly in these two populations. Rats were administered naltrexone by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Forebrain mu receptor levels were determined by homologous displacement of ({sup 3}H)D-ala{sup 2}-mePhe{sup 4}-gly-ol{sup 5}-enkephalin (DAGO) followed by computer estimation of binding parameters. Receptor levels in crude membranes rose 77% after treatment. Microsomes displayed a 92% increase, a two-fold greater change than in SPMs (51%). These results establish that naltrexone induces up-regulation of both membrane populations; and that microsomal and SPM receptors represent discrete populations of intracellular and cell surface sites, respectively. Binding experiments on isolated hippocampi also demonstrated up-regulation (71%) of mu receptors. To demonstrate up-regulation of opioid receptors electrophysiologically, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats which had been chronically treated with naltrexone. After superfusion with DAGO, these slices showed a 42% greater population spike output than controls in response to the same EPSP input. Hippocampi from animals treated for two weeks showed an additional increase in sensitivity. The results support a disinhibitory role for opioids in pyramidal cell hyper-excitability. More importantly, they demonstrate a significant physiological correlate to opioid receptor up-regulation.

  2. Optimization of Rutaecarpine as ABCA1 Up-Regulator for Treating Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key transporter and receptor in promoting cholesterol efflux, and increasing the expression level of ABCA1 is antiatherogenic. In our previous study, rutaecarpine (RUT) was found to protect ApoE–/– mice from developing atherosclerosis through preferentially up-regulating ABCA1 expression. In the present work, a series of RUT derivatives were synthesized and examined as ABCA1 expression up-regulators. Compounds CD1, CD6, and BCD1–2 were found to possess the most potential activity as antiatherosclerotic agents among all compounds tested. PMID:25147608

  3. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R.; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Bielenberg, Diane R.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. PMID:26877262

  4. Microarray and KOG analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi genes up-regulated by mouse-brain passage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Long-term cultivation in a laboratory could reduce the virulence of Acanthamoeba. To identify virulence factors of Acanthamoeba, the authors compared the transcription profiles of long-term cultivated Acanthamoeba healyi (OLD) and three times mouse-brain passaged A. healyi (MBP) using microarray analysis and eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments. Microarray analysis revealed that 601 genes were up-regulated by mouse-brain passage. The results of real-time PCR of 8 randomly selected genes up-regulated in the MBP strain confirmed microarray analysis findings. KOG assignments showed relatively higher percentages of the MBP strain up-regulated genes in T article (signal transduction mechanism), O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones), C article (energy production and conversion), and J article (translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis). In particular, the MBP strain showed higher expressions of cysteine protease and metalloprotease. A comparison of KOG assignments by microarray analysis and previous EST (expressed sequence tags) analysis showed similar populations of up-regulated genes. These results provide important information regarding the identification of virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba.

  5. Executive functions and the down-regulation and up-regulation of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in executive functions (EF; assessed by measures of working memory, Stroop, trail making, and verbal fluency) and ability to down-regulate and up-regulate responses to emotionally evocative film clips. To ensure a wide range of EF, 48 participants with diverse neurodegenerative disorders and 21 older neurologically normal aging participants were included. Participants were exposed to three different movie clips that were designed to elicit a mix of disgust and amusement. While watching the films they were either instructed to watch, down-regulate, and up-regulate their visible emotional responses. Heart-rate and facial behaviors were monitored throughout. Emotion regulatory ability was operationalized as changes in heart-rate and facial behavior in the down- and up-regulation conditions, controlling for responses in the watch condition. Results indicated that higher verbal fluency scores were related to greater ability to regulate emotion in both the down-regulation and up-regulation conditions. This finding remained significant even after controlling for age and general cognitive functioning. No relationships were found between emotion regulation and the other EF measures. We believe these results derive from differences among EF measures, with verbal fluency performance best capturing the complex sequence of controlled planning, activation, and monitoring required for successful emotion regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of emotion-cognition interaction, suggesting a link between emotion-regulatory abilities and individual differences in complex executive functions. PMID:21432634

  6. Up-regulated miR-145 Expression Inhibits Porcine Preadipocytes Differentiation by Targeting IRS1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yunxue; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:23197937

  7. Up-regulated miR-145 expression inhibits porcine preadipocytes differentiation by targeting IRS1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunxue; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering.

  8. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells.

  9. MDP up-regulates the gene expression of type I interferons in human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qingshan; Yang, Mei; Liu, Xueting; Zhou, Lina; Xiao, Zhilin; Chen, Xiaobin; Chen, Meifang; Xie, Xiumei; Hu, Jinyue

    2012-03-23

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP), the minimum essential structure responsible for the immuno-adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan, is recognized by intracellular nuclear-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2). Here, we obtained evidence that the treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with MDP up-regulated the gene expression of type I interferons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MDP also up-regulated the expression of the receptor NOD2, suggesting that MDP may induce a positive feedback response. The up-regulation of interferons was not dependent on the TNFa signaling, as HAECs did not express TNFa with the stimulation of MDP, and TNFa neutralizing antibody did not decrease the induction of IFNs induced by MDP. RT-PCR results showed that HAECs expressed the gene transcripts of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 1, 2, 3, 9. The western blot results showed that MDP induced the phosphorylation of IRF3. These results suggested that MDP induced the up-regulation of gene transcript of interferons through the activation of IRF3 signaling pathway. Meanwhile, MDP induced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-8, and MCP-1. Taken together, these results suggested that HAECs may play roles in the anti-infection immune response and in the induction of innate immunity.

  10. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun; Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Il-Whan; Jeong, Yongsu; Shin, Jae-Gook; Oh, Sangtaek

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  11. The emerging role of m-TOR up-regulation in brain Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Ryskalin, Larisa; Limanaqi, Fiona; Biagioni, Francesca; Frati, Alessandro; Esposito, Vincenzo; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Lenzi, Paola; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    The present manuscript is an overview of various effects of mTOR up-regulation in astrocytoma with an emphasis on its deleterious effects on the proliferation of Glioblastoma Multiforme. The manuscript reports consistent evidence indicating the occurrence of mTOR up-regulation both in experimental and human astrocytoma. The grading of human astrocytoma is discussed in relationship with mTOR up-regulation. In the second part of the manuscript, the biochemical pathways under the influence of mTOR are translated to cell phenotypes which are generated by mTOR up-regulation and reverted by its inhibition. A special section is dedicated to the prominent role of autophagy in mediating the effects of mTOR in glioblastoma. In detail, autophagy inhibition produced by mTOR up-regulation determines the fate of cancer stem cells. On the other hand, biochemical findings disclose the remarkable effects of autophagy activators as powerful inducers of cell differentiation with a strong prevalence towards neuronal phenotypes. Thus, mTOR modulation acts on the neurobiology of glioblastoma just like it operates in vivo at the level of brain stem cell niches by altering autophagy-dependent cell differentiation. In the light of such a critical role of autophagy we analyzed the ubiquitin proteasome system. The merging between autophagy and proteasome generates a novel organelle, named autophagoproteasome which is strongly induced by mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma cells. Remarkably, when mTOR is maximally inhibited the proteasome component selectively moves within autophagy vacuoles, thus making the proteasome activity dependent on the entry within autophagy compartment.

  12. Up-regulation of Fas (CD95) expression in tumour cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peshes-Yaloz, Naama; Rosen, Dalia; Sondel, Paul M; Krammer, Peter H; Berke, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    Both the function and regulation of Fas expression in tumours is poorly understood. Our laboratory has reported that cultured, low Fas-expressing tumours undergo massive, yet reversible, up-regulation of cell surface Fas expression when injected into mice. The present study was aimed at determining what causes this enhanced Fas expression and whether the newly expressed Fas functions as a death receptor. Newly expressed Fas is indeed capable of inducing apoptosis. Based on our observation that Fas induction is reduced when tumour cells are injected into immune-deficient mice, we propose that Fas up-regulation in vivo involves the host's immune system. Accordingly, Fas up-regulation occurs in vitro when low Fas-expressing tumour cells are cocultured with lymphoid cells. Furthermore ascitic fluid extracted from tumour-bearing mice trigger Fas up-regulation in low Fas expressing tumours. This last finding suggests that a soluble factor(s) mediates induction of Fas expression. The best candidate for this soluble factor is nitric oxide (NO) based on the following observations: the factor in the ascites is unstable; Fas expression is induced to a lesser degree after injection into inducible NO synthase (NOS)-deficient (iNOS–/–) mice when compared to control mice; similarly, coculture with iNOS–/– splenocytes induces Fas less effectively than coculture with control splenocytes; and finally, the NO donor SNAP induces considerable Fas up-regulation in tumours in vitro. Our model is that host lymphoid cells in response to a tumour increase NO synthesis, which in turn causes enhanced Fas expression in the tumour. PMID:17343612

  13. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  15. Mycoplasma gallisepticum Lipid Associated Membrane Proteins Up-regulate Inflammatory Genes in Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Cells via TLR-2 Ligation through an NF-κB Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Sanjukta; Zappulla, Frank; Silbart, Lawrence K.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated respiratory inflammation in chickens is associated with accumulation of leukocytes in the tracheal submucosa. However the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes have not been well described. We hypothesized that the initial inflammatory events are initiated upon ligation of mycoplasma lipid associated membrane proteins (LAMP) to TLRs expressed on chicken tracheal epithelial cells (TEC). To test this hypothesis, live bacteria or LAMPs isolated from a virulent (Rlow) or a non-virulent (Rhigh) strain were incubated with primary TECs or chicken tracheae ex vivo. Microarray analysis identified up-regulation of several inflammatory and chemokine genes in TECs as early as 1.5 hours post-exposure. Kinetic analysis using RT-qPCR identified the peak of expression for most genes to be at either 1.5 or 6 hours. Ex-vivo exposure also showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes in epithelial cells by 1.5 hours. Among the commonly up-regulated genes were IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, CCL-20, and NOS-2, all of which are important immune-modulators and/or chemo-attractants of leukocytes. While these inflammatory genes were up-regulated in all four treatment groups, Rlow exposed epithelial cells both in vitro and ex vivo showed the most dramatic up-regulation, inducing over 100 unique genes by 5-fold or more in TECs. Upon addition of a TLR-2 inhibitor, LAMP-mediated gene expression of IL-1β and CCL-20 was reduced by almost 5-fold while expression of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-8 and NOS-2 mRNA was reduced by about 2–3 fold. Conversely, an NF-κB inhibitor abrogated the response entirely for all six genes. miRNA-146a, a negative regulator of TLR-2 signaling, was up-regulated in TECs in response to either Rlow or Rhigh exposure. Taken together we conclude that LAMPs isolated from both Rhigh and Rlow induced rapid, TLR-2 dependent but transient up-regulation of inflammatory genes in primary TECs through an NF-κB dependent pathway. PMID:25401327

  16. Ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene differentially regulate gene expression during onion sprout suppression.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Chope, Gemma A; Hammond, John P; Thompson, Andrew J; Terry, Leon A

    2011-07-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is regarded as a nonclimacteric vegetable. In onions, however, ethylene can suppress sprouting while the ethylene-binding inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) can also suppress sprout growth; yet, it is unknown how ethylene and 1-MCP elicit the same response. In this study, onions were treated with 10 μL L(-1) ethylene or 1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP individually or in combination for 24 h at 20°C before or after curing (6 weeks) at 20°C or 28°C and then stored at 1°C. Following curing, a subset of these same onions was stored separately under continuous air or ethylene (10 μL L(-1)) at 1°C. Onions treated with ethylene and 1-MCP in combination after curing for 24 h had reduced sprout growth as compared with the control 25 weeks after harvest. Sprout growth following storage beyond 25 weeks was only reduced through continuous ethylene treatment. This observation was supported by a higher proportion of down-regulated genes characterized as being involved in photosynthesis, measured using a newly developed onion microarray. Physiological and biochemical data suggested that ethylene was being perceived in the presence of 1-MCP, since sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and ethylene applied in combination but not when applied individually. A cluster of probes representing transcripts up-regulated by 1-MCP alone but down-regulated by ethylene alone or in the presence of 1-MCP support this suggestion. Ethylene and 1-MCP both down-regulated a probe tentatively annotated as an ethylene receptor as well as ethylene-insensitive 3, suggesting that both treatments down-regulate the perception and signaling events of ethylene.

  17. Up-regulation of calcyon results in locomotor hyperactivity and reduced anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Dai, Rujuan; Terry, Alvin; Bergson, Clare

    2008-06-03

    Gene linkage and association studies have implicated the region of chromosome 10q containing the calcyon locus with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia susceptibility. In addition, levels of calcyon protein and transcripts are also significantly increased in postmortem tissue from schizophrenic brains. But whether altered calcyon expression might be part of the disease etiology or merely a patho-physiological side effect is not known. To begin to address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse line (Cal(OE)) using the human calcyon cDNA in which calcyon expression is up-regulated in a number of forebrain structures including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, and amygdala. Compared to control littermates, the Cal(OE) mice display a range of abnormal behaviors including spontaneous hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and/or impaired restraint (harm avoidance) that would indicate that calcyon up-regulation leads to deficits in control over behavioral output.

  18. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by product-prostaglandin E2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of prostate cancer has been linked to high level of dietary fat intake. Our laboratory investigates the connection between cancer cell growth and fatty acid products. Studying human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells, we found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cell growth and up-regulated the gene expression of its own synthesizing enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). PGE2 increased COX-2 mRNA expression dose-dependently with the highest levels of stimulation seen at the 3-hour period following PGE2 addition. The NSAID flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous PGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and cell growth. These data suggest that the levels of local intracellular PGE2 play a major role in the growth of prostate cancer cells through an activation of COX-2 gene expression.

  19. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation.

  20. Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Yusmazura; Rahmat, Asmah; Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah Lope; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Houghton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Background Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells. Results The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis. Conclusion The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. PMID:19508737

  1. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  2. TLR4 signaling induces TLR3 up-regulation in alveolar macrophages during acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xibing; Jin, Shuqing; Tong, Yao; Jiang, Xi; Chen, Zhixia; Mei, Shuya; Zhang, Liming; Billiar, Timothy R.; Li, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening inflammatory response caused by severe infection. Toll-like receptors in alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) recognize the molecular constituents of pathogens and activate the host’s innate immune responses. Numerous studies have documented the importance of TLR-TLR cross talk, but few studies have specifically addressed the relationship between TLR4 and TLR3. We explored a novel mechanism of TLR3 up-regulation that is induced by LPS-TLR4 signaling in a dose- and time-dependent manner in AMΦ from C57BL/6 mice, while the LPS-induced TLR3 expression was significantly reduced in TLR4−/− and Myd88−/− mice and following pretreatment with a NF-κB inhibitor. The enhanced TLR3 up-regulation in AMΦ augmented the expression of cytokines and chemokines in response to sequential challenges with LPS and Poly I:C, a TLR3 ligand, which was physiologically associated with amplified AMΦ-induced PMN migration into lung alveoli. Our study demonstrates that the synergistic effect between TLR4 and TLR3 in macrophages is an important determinant in acute lung injury and, more importantly, that TLR3 up-regulation is dependent on TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling. These results raise the possibility that bacterial infections can induce sensitivity to viral infections, which may have important implications for the therapeutic manipulation of the innate immune system. PMID:28198368

  3. Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Paradisi, Andrea; Maisse, Carine; Coissieux, Marie-May; Gadot, Nicolas; Lépinasse, Florian; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Svrcek, Magali; Neufert, Clemens; Fléjou, Jean-François; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-κB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-κB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression. PMID:19721007

  4. Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Andrea; Maisse, Carine; Coissieux, Marie-May; Gadot, Nicolas; Lépinasse, Florian; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Svrcek, Magali; Neufert, Clemens; Fléjou, Jean-François; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-10-06

    Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-kappaB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-kappaB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression.

  5. General up regulation of Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins and chymotrypsins allows its adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brioschi, Daniela; Nadalini, Larissa D; Bengtson, Mario H; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2007-12-01

    The existence of a diverse serine proteinase gene family in lepidopteran insects suggests they play a significant role in the insect adaptation to plant proteinase inhibitors. These proteinases have been shown to be involved in the process of proteolytic digestion in insect larvae. We carried out a selective transcriptome study of midguts from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae fed on a diet supplemented with soybean proteinase inhibitor (SPI). Using subtracted cDNA libraries made of gut-expressed transcripts, a total of 2100 partial sequences were obtained, of those 38% were related to digestive process. Two large and diverse groups of chymotrypsins and trypsins were obtained, and some of these proteinase-encoding genes were further characterized by quantitative RT-PCR. The transcription analyses revealed two groups: one group of genes constitutively expressed in the control larvae that is up regulated by introducing SPI to the diet, and a second group that is absent in the control but is induced by the SPI-rich diet. This observation suggests that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI involves de novo synthesis and also up regulation of existing enzymes. Proteases from intestines of larvae reared on a diet with SPI showed insensitivity to the inhibitor. The proteases were also insensitive to a broad-spectrum potato proteinase inhibitor preparation. We propose that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI follows a "shotgun" approach, based on a general up regulation of a large set of endoproteinases.

  6. Uterine Expression of NDRG4 Is Induced by Estrogen and Up-Regulated during Embryo Implantation Process in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Mei; He, Ya-Ping; Shi, Yan; Sun, Zhao-Gui; Shi, Hui-Juan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation is an essential step for the establishment of pregnancy and dynamically regulated by estrogen and progesterone. NDRG4 (N-myc down-regulated gene 4) is a tumor suppressor that participates in cell survival, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of NDRG4 in embryo implantation. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitive RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that uterine expression of NDRG4 was increased along with puberal development, and its expression in adult females reached the peak at the estrus stage during the estrus cycle. Furthermore, uterine NDRG4 expression was significantly induced by the treatment of estradiol (E2) both in pre-puberty females and ovariectomized adult females. Uterine expression pattern of NDRG4 during the peri-implantation period in mice was determined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that NDRG4 expression was up-regulated during the implantation process, and its expression level at the implantation sites was significantly higher than that at the inter-implantation sites. Meanwhile, an increased expression in NDRG4 was associated with artificial decidualization as well as the activation of delayed implantation. By qRT-PCR and Western blot, we found that the in vitro decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was accompanied by up-regulation of NDRG4 expression, whereas knockdown of its expression in these cells by siRNA inhibited the decidualization process. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that NDRG4 protein expression was decreased in human villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients compared to normal pregnant women. Collectively, these data suggested that uterine NDRG4 expression could be induced by estrogen, and NDRG4 might play an important role during early pregnancy. PMID:27175791

  7. Up-regulation of antioxidants in tobacco by low concentrations of H₂O₂ suppresses necrotic disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Yaser Mohamed; Bacsó, Renáta; Király, Zoltán; Künstler, András; Király, Lóránt

    2012-09-01

    Pretreatment of tobacco leaves with low concentrations (5 to 10 mM) of H₂O₂ suppressed hypersensitive-type necrosis associated with resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The same pretreatment resulted in suppression of normosensitive necrosis associated with susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. This type of H₂O₂-mediated, induced disease symptom resistance correlated with enhanced host antioxidant capacity, i.e., elevated enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POX) after viral and bacterial infections. Induction of genes that encode the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, and APX was also enhanced early after TMV infection. Artificial application of SOD and CAT suppressed necroses caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens similarly as H₂O₂ pretreatment, implying that H₂O₂-mediated symptom resistance operates through enhancement of plant antioxidant capacity. Pathogen multiplication was not significantly affected in H₂O₂-pretreated plants. Salicylic acid (SA), a central component of plant defense, does not seem to function in this type of H₂O₂-mediated symptom resistance, indicated by unchanged levels of free and bound SA and a lack of early up-regulation of an SA glucosyltransferase gene in TMV-infected H₂O₂-pretreated tobacco. Taken together, H₂O₂-mediated, induced resistance to necrotic symptoms in tobacco seems to depend on enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  8. Cinnamon and its Components Suppress Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Up-Regulating Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyeeun; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Won-Kyung; Gu, Min Jung; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum cassia bark has been used in traditional herbal medicine to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the antiproliferative effect of cinnamon extract on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the corresponding restenosis has not been explored. Hence, after examining the effect of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation, we investigated the possible involvement of signal transduction pathways associated with early signal and cell cycle analysis, including regulatory proteins. Besides, to identify the active components, we investigated the components of cinnamon extract on VSMC proliferation. Cinnamon extract inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and suppressed the PDGF-stimulated early signal transduction. In addition, cinnamon extract arrested the cell cycle and inhibited positive regulatory proteins. Correspondingly, the protein levels of p21 and p27 not only were increased in the presence of cinnamon extract, also the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was inhibited by cinnamon extract. Besides, among the components of cinnamon extract, cinnamic acid (CA), eugenol (EG) and cinnamyl alcohol significantly inhibited the VSMC proliferation. Overall, the present study demonstrates that cinnamon extract inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs through a G0/G1 arrest, which down-regulated the expression of cell cycle positive regulatory proteins by up-regulating p21 and p27 expression.

  9. Up-regulation of CD81 inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion and mediates maternal endothelial cell dysfunction in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Diao, Zhenyu; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Yan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Ruo-Tian; Dai, Yimin; Wang, Jingmei; Li, Jie; Ding, Hailing; Zhao, Guangfeng; Zheng, Mingming; Xue, Pingping; Liu, Mo; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is initiated by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy, followed by systemic activation of endothelial cells of the maternal small arterioles in the late second or third trimester (TM) of pregnancy. During normal pregnancy, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) invade the maternal uterine wall and spiral arteries, whereas this process is interrupted in PE. However, it is not known how the malformed placenta triggers maternal endothelial crisis and the associated manifestations. Here, we have focused on the association of CD81 with PE. CD81, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, plays significant roles in cell growth, adhesion, and motility. The function of CD81 in human placentation and its association with pregnancy complications are currently unknown. In the present study, we have demonstrated that CD81 was preferentially expressed in normal first TM placentas and progressively down-regulated with gestation advance. In patients with early-onset severe PE (sPE), CD81 expression was significantly up-regulated in syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs), CTBs and the cells in the villous core. In addition, high levels of CD81 were observed in the maternal sera of patients with sPE. Overexpressing CD81 in CTBs significantly decreased CTB invasion, and culturing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence of a high dose of exogenous CD81 resulted in interrupted angiogenesis and endothelial cell activation in vitro. Importantly, the phenotype of human PE was mimicked in the CD81-induced rat model. PMID:28167787

  10. Ethylene modulates development and toxin biosynthesis in aspergillus possibly via an ethylene sensor-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Roze, L V; Calvo, A M; Gunterus, A; Beaudry, R; Kall, M; Linz, J E

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene, a biologically active natural compound, inhibited aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus parasiticus on a solid growth medium in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.1 to 150 ppm. The activity of the nor-1 promoter (an early aflatoxin gene) was reduced to nondetectable levels by similar quantities of ethylene, suggesting that the inhibitory effect on toxin synthesis occurred, at least in part, at the level of transcription. The inhibitory effect of ethylene on aflatoxin accumulation was also observed when A. parasiticus was grown on raw peanuts. Under similar growth conditions and doses, ethylene strongly inhibited development of asci and ascospores in Aspergillus nidulans, with no detectable effect on Hülle cell formation, conidiation, or sterigmatocystin accumulation. During early growth, A. parasiticus and A. nidulans produced ethylene with approximately twofold higher quantities measured in continuous light than in the dark. 1-Methylcyclopropene (an inhibitor of ethylene receptors in plants), light, CO2, temperature, and growth medium composition altered the effect of ethylene on A. nidulans and A. parasiticus. These observations are consistent with the existence of an ethylene sensor molecule that mediates the function of an ethylene-responsive signaling pathway(s) in Aspergillus.

  11. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic EtOH up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative ...

  12. Urban Air Pollution Produces Up-Regulation of Myocardial Inflammatory Genes and Dark Chocolate Provides Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (Nuclear Factor κ B), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  13. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-05

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans.

  14. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness.

  15. Gene and functional up-regulation of the BCRP/ABCG2 transporter in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is one member of ABC transporters proteins super family responsible of drug resistance. Since data on ABCG2 expression in liver malignances are scanty, here we report the expression of ABCG2 in adult human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both in vivo and in vitro models with different degree of malignancy. Methods In cell lines derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma, ABCG2 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative real time PCR and function by Hoechst 33342 efflux assay; protein content was assessed by SDS-PAGE Western blot. Results ABCG2 expression was found to be highest in the most undifferentiated cell lines, and this was related with a higher functional activity. ABCG2 expression was sensitive to antineoplastic drugs since exposure to 5 μM doxorubicin for 24 hours resulted in significant up-regulations of ABCG2 in all cell lines, particularly in those lines with low basal ABCG2 expression (p<0.01). The gene expression was also investigated in 51 adult liver tissues with HCC and related cirrhosis; normal liver tissue was used as control. ABCG2 gene expression was higher in HCC than both cirrhotic paired tissue and normal tissue. This up-regulation was greater (p<0.05) in pathological poorly differentiated grade G3/G4 than in well-differentiated G1/G2 HCC. Conclusions Our results suggest a correlation of ABCG2 gene expression and differentiation stage both in human and HCC derived cell lines. The rapid up-regulation of ABCG2 to exposure to doxorubicin emphasizes the importance of this transporter in accounting for drug resistance in liver tumors. PMID:23153066

  16. Monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles up-regulate inflammatory mediator synthesis by human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Chiara; Chimenti, Daniele; Conti, Ilaria; Neri, Tommaso; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2006-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MP) are membrane fragments shed by virtually all eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis that play a significant role in physiologically relevant processes, including coagulation and inflammation. We investigated whether MP derived from monocytes/macrophages have the potential to modulate human airway epithelial cell activation. Monocytes/macrophages were isolated from the buffy coats of blood donors by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, followed by overnight culture of the mononuclear cell fraction. Adherent cells were washed and incubated with the calcium ionophore, A23187, or with histamine. The MP-containing supernatant was incubated with cells of the human bronchial epithelial line BEAS-2B and of the human alveolar line A549. IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 production was assessed by ELISA and by RT-PCR. In some experiments, monocytes/macrophages were stained with the fluorescent lipid intercalating dye PKH67, and the supernatant was analyzed by FACS. Stimulation of monocytes/macrophages with A23187 caused the release of particles that retain their fluorescent lipid intercalating label, indicating that they are derived from cell membranes. Incubation with A549 and BEAS-2B cells up-regulate IL-8 synthesis. Ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation of the material abolished the effect, indicating that particulate matter, rather than soluble molecules, is responsible for it. Up-regulation of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 was also demonstrated in A549 cells. Similar results were obtained with histamine. Our data show that human monocytes/macrophages release MP that have the potential to sustain the innate immunity of the airway epithelium, as well as to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the lungs through up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators.

  17. Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

  18. The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Up-regulation and Proapoptotic Function in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117–4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP+-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD. PMID:23754278

  19. The Natural Antimicrobial Enzyme Lysozyme is Up-Regulated in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract (GI, that is, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum) are constantly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as different pH, enzymes, and bacterial flora. With exception of the oral cavity, these microenvironments also contain remnant cocktails of secreted enzymes and bacteria from upper organs along the tract. The density of the GI bacteria varies, from 103/mL near the gastric outlet, to 1010/mL at the ileocecal valve, to 1011 to 1012/mL in the colon. The total microbial population (ca. 1014) exceeds the total number of cells in the tract. It is, therefore, remarkable that despite the prima facie inauspicious mixture of harmful secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To counteract the hostile microenvironment, the GI epithelia react by speeding cell exfoliation (the GI mucosa has a turnover time of two to three days), by increasing peristalsis, by eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial compounds, such as defensin-5 and lysozyme. Only recently, lysozyme was found up-regulated in Barrett’s oesophagitis, chronic gastritis, gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (coeliac disease), collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis, and Crohn’s colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed to the special types of bacteria recently detected in these diseases. The aim of lysozyme up-regulation is to protect individual mucosal segments to chronic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms connected to the crosstalk between the intraluminal bacterial flora and the production of lysozyme released by the GI mucosae, are discussed. Bacterial resistance continues to exhaust our supply of commercial antibiotics. The potential use of lysozyme to treat infectious diseases is receiving much attention. PMID:25437608

  20. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures.

  1. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  2. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tetsuroh; Mine, Tetsuya; Katoh, Masaru

    2002-05-01

    WNT signal is transduced to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway, or the Ca2+-releasing pathway through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled genes (FZD1-FZD10). We have previously cloned and characterized human WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, and WNT14B/WNT15 by using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, we investigated expression of human WNT5A mRNA in various normal tissues, 66 primary tumors derived from various tissues, and 15 human cancer cell lines. WNT5A mRNA was relatively highly expressed in salivary gland, bladder, uterus, placenta, and fetal kidney. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was detected in 5 out of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer, 5 out of 18 cases of primary colorectal tumors, and in 2 out of 7 cases of primary uterus tumors by using matched tumor/normal expression array analysis. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was also detected in 7 out of 10 other cases of primary gastric cancer by using cDNA-PCR. Although low-level expression of WNT5A mRNA was detected in gastric cancer cell line MKN45, WNT5A mRNA was almost undetectable in gastric cancer cell lines OKAJIMA, TMK1, MKN7, MKN28, MKN74, and KATO-III. Compared with frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer, expression levels of WNT5A mRNA in 7 gastric cancer cell lines were significantly lower than that in normal stomach. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in human primary gastric cancer might be due to cancer-stromal interaction.

  3. Laminin-511, inducer of hair growth, is down-regulated and its suppressor in hair growth, laminin-332 up-regulated in chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Tateishi, Chiharu; Sugawara, Koji; Paus, Ralf; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Ishii, Masamitsu; Ikeda, Kazuo; Kunimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Koichi; Jones, Jonathan C.R.; Kobayashi, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) has a devastating cosmetic effect, especially in the young. Recent data indicate that two major basement membrane components (laminin-332 and -511) of the skin have opposing effects on hair growth. Objective In this study, we examined the role and localization of laminin-332 and -511 in CIA. Methods We examined the expression of laminin-332 and -511 during the dystrophic catagen form of CIA induced in C57BL/6 mice by cyclophosphamide (CYP) treatment. Results Our data indicate that both laminin-332 and its receptor α6β4 integrin are up-regulated (both quantitatively and spatially) after mid to late dystrophic catagen around the outer root sheath (ORS) in the lower third of hair follicles in CIA. This up-regulation also occurs at the transcriptional level. In contrast, laminin-511 is down-regulated after mid dystrophic catagen at the protein level, with transcriptional inactivation of laminin-511 occurring transiently at the early dystrophic catagen stage in both epidermal and ORS keratinocytes. Laminin-511 expression correlates with expression of α3 integrin in CIA and we also demonstrate that laminin-511 can up-regulate the activity of the α3 integrin promoter in cultured keratinocytes. Injection of a laminin-511 rich protein extract, but not recombinant laminin-332, in the back skin of mice delays hair loss in CYP-induced CIA. Conclusions We propose that abrupt hair loss in CIA is, at least in part, caused by down-regulation of laminin-511 and up-regulation of laminin-332 at the transcriptional and translational levels. PMID:20211547

  4. Ethylene by Naphta Cracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the manufacture of ethylene by thermal cracking of hydrocarbon feedstocks that is useful for introducing the subject of industrial chemistry into a chemistry curriculum. (MLH)

  5. Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1993-01-01

    Porous optical fibers include sensing regions filled with reagents. Optical-fiber chemical sensors (optrodes) developed to measure concentrations of ethylene in air in enclosed artificial plant-growth environments. Such measurements needed because ethylene acts as plant-growth hormone affecting growth at concentrations less than or equal to 20 parts per billion. Optrodes small, but exhibit sensitivities comparable to those of larger instruments. Operated safely in potentially explosive atmospheres and neither cause, nor susceptible to, electrical interference at suboptical frequencies.

  6. Satellite observations of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, W.; Payne, V.; Kulawik, S. S.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) is a trace gas commonly associated with boreal fire plumes and the petrochemical industry. It has a short lifetime (~1-2 days) in the troposphere due to its reaction with OH. Chemical destruction of ethylene in the atmosphere leads to the production of ozone precursors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer aboard the Aura satellite that measures thermal infrared radiances with high spectral resolution. Trace gas products retrieved routinely from TES spectra include O3, CO, H2O, HDO, CH4, NH3, HCOOH, CH3OH, with OCS and PAN to be included in the next data release. The TES spectra also includes a wealth of untapped information about other trace gasses including ethylene. Ethylene was first observed in TES spectra by Alvarado et al. (2011), though it has yet to be developed into an operational product. Our study focuses on the detection and initial quantitative estimates of ethylene in TES special observations taken in support of the 2008 ARCTAS mission. Initial observations of HCN in the spectra may provide a way to distinguish between fire plume and petrochemical derived ethylene. Results indicate a correlation between ethylene and CO in fresh fire plumes but not in older plumes, consistent with the gas's short lifetime. The approach adopted here to detect ethylene in the TES 2008 ARCTAS special observations can easily be expanded to larger datasets, including those from other thermal infrared sounders as well as to other trace gases.

  7. Inspecting an ethylene pipe line

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsvig, D.M. ); Duncan, J.; Zillinger, L. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. (AGEC), completion of intensive internal cleaning and inspection program on their 112-mi ethylene pipe line. AGEC operates two ethylene manufacturing facilities in central Alberta, Canada. The ethylene plants are located 12.4 mi east of Red Deer, Alta., at Joffre, and supply two customers in Joffre. The remaining ethylene is shipped by the 112-mi, 12-in. line to a storage cavern near Edmonton.

  8. Salvianolic acid B inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction by up-regulating mortalin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunxia; Hu, Yingying; E, Qiukai; Zuo, Ji; Yang, Ling; Liu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidative ingredient derived from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae that has been widely used to treat liver diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying Salvianolic acid B has remained largely unknown. Our studies verified that Salvianolic acid B efficiently blocked mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by H2O2 in the human hepatocyte cell line HL7702. Mortalin, a mitochondrial molecular chaperone, maintains mitochondrial morphology stabilization and function integrity. Previous results showed that mortalin overexpression has been observed in hematoma carcinoma cells and that mortalin maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and antagonizes oxidative stress damage. We found that Salvianolic acid B significantly up-regulated mortalin protein expression levels. In addition, Salvianolic acid B lost the function of preventing mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress under mortalin knockdown conditions. We further found that mortalin overexpression increases the mRNA expression of mitofusin-related factor Mfn1 and mitofission-related factor hFis1. In conclusion, Salvianolic acid B maintains the mitochondrial structure stabilization and functional integrity by up-regulating mortalin, which may be associated with increased mitofusin factor Mfn1 and reduced mitofission factor hFis1. PMID:28251987

  9. Utrophin up-regulation by an artificial transcription factor in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-08-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter "A". Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics.

  10. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Gloria E.; Koban, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness. PMID:27997552

  11. Utrophin Up-Regulation by an Artificial Transcription Factor in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E.; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter “A”. Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics. PMID:17712422

  12. Laughter up-regulates the genes related to NK cell activity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takashi; Tsujii, Satoru; Iburi, Tadao; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Yamagami, Keiko; Ishibashi, Rieko; Hori, Miyo; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Ishii, Hitoshi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2007-12-01

    To elucidate the sustainable effects of laughter on gene expression, we recruited type 2 diabetic patients who were in-patient for receiving self-management education and examined time-dependent regulation for gene expression by laughter. Two-day experiment was performed. On one day, the patients watched comic video and laughed together with hospital staffs. On the other day, they participated in an inpatient diabetes educational program. Blood samples were collected before and 1.5, 4 h after watching comic video or spending lecture time, and changes in gene expression were comprehensively analyzed by microarray technique. Of the 41,000 genes analyzed, the laughter relatively up-regulated 39 genes, among which, 27 genes were relatively increased in the expression for all the observation period after watching comic video. By functional classification of these genes, 14 genes were found to be related to natural killer cell activity. No genes were included that are directly involved in blood glucose regulation, though successive suppression of postprandial blood glucose levels was observed. These results suggest that the laughter influences the expression of many genes classified into immune responses, and may contribute to amelioration of postprandial blood glucose elevation through a modulation of NK cell activity caused by up-regulation of relating genes.

  13. Apis mellifera ultraspiracle: cDNA sequence and rapid up-regulation by juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Barchuk, A R; Maleszka, R; Simões, Z L P

    2004-10-01

    Two hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development including the differentiation of the alternative caste phenotypes of social insects. In addition, JH plays a different role in adult honey bees, acting as a 'behavioural pacemaker'. The functional receptor for 20E is a heterodimer consisting of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle (USP) whereas the identity of the JH receptor remains unknown. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding Apis mellifera ultraspiracle (AMUSP) and examined its responses to JH. A rapid, but transient up-regulation of the AMUSP messenger is observed in the fat bodies of both queens and workers. AMusp appears to be a single copy gene that produces two transcripts ( approximately 4 and approximately 5 kb) that are differentially expressed in the animal's body. The predicted AMUSP protein shows greater sequence similarity to its orthologues from the vertebrate-crab-tick-locust group than to the dipteran-lepidopteran group. These characteristics and the rapid up-regulation by JH suggest that some of the USP functions in the honey bee may depend on ligand binding.

  14. LTP but not seizure is associated with up-regulation of AKAP-150.

    PubMed

    Génin, A; French, P; Doyère, V; Davis, S; Errington, M L; Maroun, M; Stean, T; Truchet, B; Webber, M; Wills, T; Richter-Levin, G; Sanger, G; Hunt, S P; Mallet, J; Laroche, S; Bliss, T V P; O'Connor, V

    2003-01-01

    We have used differential display to profile and compare the mRNAs expressed in the hippocampus of freely moving animals after the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse with control rats receiving low-frequency stimulation. We have combined this with in situ hybridization and have identified A-kinase anchoring protein of 150 kDa (AKAP-150) as a gene selectively up-regulated during the maintenance phase of LTP. AKAP-150 mRNA has a biphasic modulation in the dentate gyrus following the induction of LTP. The expression of AKAP-150 was 29% lower than stimulated controls 1 h after the induction of LTP. Its expression was enhanced 3 (50%), 6 (239%) and 12 h (210%) after induction, returning to control levels by 24 h postinduction. The NMDA receptor antagonist CPP blocked the tetanus-induced modulation of AKAP-150 expression. Interestingly, strong generalized stimulation produced by electroconvulsive shock did not increase the expression of AKAP-150. This implies that the AKAP-150 harbours a novel property of selective responsiveness to the stimulation patterns that trigger NMDA-dependent LTP in vivo. Its selective up-regulation during LTP and its identified functions as a scaffold for protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calmodulin, calcineurin and ionotropic glutamate receptors suggest that AKAP-150 encodes is an important effector protein in the expression of late LTP.

  15. Salvianolic acid B inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction by up-regulating mortalin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Hu, Yingying; E, Qiukai; Zuo, Ji; Yang, Ling; Liu, Wen

    2017-03-02

    Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidative ingredient derived from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae that has been widely used to treat liver diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying Salvianolic acid B has remained largely unknown. Our studies verified that Salvianolic acid B efficiently blocked mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by H2O2 in the human hepatocyte cell line HL7702. Mortalin, a mitochondrial molecular chaperone, maintains mitochondrial morphology stabilization and function integrity. Previous results showed that mortalin overexpression has been observed in hematoma carcinoma cells and that mortalin maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and antagonizes oxidative stress damage. We found that Salvianolic acid B significantly up-regulated mortalin protein expression levels. In addition, Salvianolic acid B lost the function of preventing mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress under mortalin knockdown conditions. We further found that mortalin overexpression increases the mRNA expression of mitofusin-related factor Mfn1 and mitofission-related factor hFis1. In conclusion, Salvianolic acid B maintains the mitochondrial structure stabilization and functional integrity by up-regulating mortalin, which may be associated with increased mitofusin factor Mfn1 and reduced mitofission factor hFis1.

  16. Endothelial interleukin-21 receptor up-regulation in peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cunningham, Alexis; Houston, Kevin; Sharma, Aditya M; Chen, Lingdan; Dokun, Ayotunde O; Lye, R John; Spolski, Rosanne; Leonard, Warren J; Annex, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    In most patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), severe stenosis in or occlusion of the major blood vessels that supply the legs make the amount of distal blood flow dependent on the capacity to induce angiogenesis and collateral vessel formation. Currently, there are no medications that improve perfusion to the ischemic limb, and thus directly treat the primary problem of PAD. A recent report from our group in a pre-clinical mouse PAD model showed that interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) is up-regulated in the endothelial cells from ischemic hindlimb muscle. We further showed that loss of IL-21R resulted in impaired perfusion recovery in this model. In our study, we sought to determine whether IL-21R is present in the endothelium from ischemic muscle of patients with PAD. Using human gastrocnemius muscle biopsies, we found increased levels of IL-21R in the skeletal muscle endothelial cells of patients with PAD compared to control individuals. Interestingly, PAD patients had approximately 1.7-fold higher levels of circulating IL-21. These data provide direct evidence that the IL-21R pathway is indeed up-regulated in patients with PAD. This pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for modulation. PMID:26705256

  17. Identification of three proteins up-regulated by raw starch in Cytophaga sp.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Rong-Jen; Wen, Yu-Der; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2008-12-01

    Raw starch-digesting amylases (RSDAs) in many microorganisms convert starch granules into maltodextrins and simple sugars. We cloned and sequenced from Cytophaga sp. an RSDA with an excellent raw starch digestion activity. This RSDA was highly inducible by raw starch, but not by other sugars, suggesting that an unknown signal transduction mechanism is involved in the degradation of raw starch. We used a proteomic approach to investigate the effect of raw starch on protein expression in Cytophaga sp. Using MALDI-TOF MS protein analysis, we have identified three proteins up-regulated by raw starch, i.e., a 60-kDa chaperonin (cpn60), glutaminase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Subsequent time-course studies detected an increased expression of RSDA as well as the highest expression of PPDK occurring 6 h post-incubation with raw corn starch, implying that the latter enzyme may work along with RSDA on the digestion of raw starch. Finding these proteins up-regulated by raw starch may provide an insight into how Cytophaga sp. cells respond to raw starch stimulation.

  18. Antimetastatic effects of norcantharidin on hepatocellular carcinoma cells by up-regulating FAM46C expression

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xu-Ying; Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Xin, Hai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin, possesses antimetastatic effects on HCC cells. The aim of this study was to identify target proteins of NCTD. In this study, we confirmed the antimetastatic effects of NCTD on SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H cells. Through RNA sequencing, we found a non-canonical poly (A) polymerase, Family-with-sequence-similarity-46C (FAM46C) was up-regulated in response to NCTD exposure. Gene set enrichment analysis on The Cancer Genome Atlas liver HCC (LIHC) dataset revealed that metastasis down pathway was strongly associated with FAM46C expression. Overexpression of FAM46C in HCC cells suppressed cell migration and invasion via suppressing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Additionally, the antimetastatic effects of NCTD on HCC cells were partially rescued by FAM46C knockdown. Collectively, our results suggested that FAM46C, up-regulated by NCTD treatment, played a critical role in promoting the migration and invasion of HCC cells via TGF-β/Smad signaling. We identified a new therapeutic target of NCTD. PMID:28123642

  19. Up-regulation of glycolytic metabolism is required for HIF1α-driven bone formation.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jenna N; Lim, Joohyun; Shi, Yu; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Shohet, Ralph V; Long, Fanxin

    2014-06-10

    The bone marrow environment is among the most hypoxic in the body, but how hypoxia affects bone formation is not known. Because low oxygen tension stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIFα) proteins, we have investigated the effect of expressing a stabilized form of HIF1α in osteoblast precursors. Brief stabilization of HIF1α in SP7-positive cells in postnatal mice dramatically stimulated cancellous bone formation via marked expansion of the osteoblast population. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the mouse did not diminish bone accrual caused by HIF1α stabilization. Thus, HIF1α-driven bone formation is independent of VEGFA up-regulation and increased angiogenesis. On the other hand, HIF1α stabilization stimulated glycolysis in bone through up-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 completely reversed HIF1α-driven bone formation in vivo. Thus, HIF1α stimulates osteoblast formation through direct activation of glycolysis, and alterations in cellular metabolism may be a broadly applicable mechanism for regulating cell differentiation.

  20. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  1. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Gloria E; Koban, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness.

  2. Transforming growth factor-β1 up-regulates connexin43 expression in human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Tsai, Horng-Der; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) up-regulate connexin43 (Cx43) to promote cell–cell communication in human granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER TGF-β1 up-regulates Cx43 and increases gap junction intercellular communication activities (GJIC) in human granulosa cells, and this effect occurs via the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)5-mediated Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2/3-SMAD4-dependent pathway. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells, and follicular fluid contains TGF-β1 protein. In human granulosa cells, Cx43 gap junctions play an important role in the development of follicles and oocytes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is an experimental study which was performed over a 1-year period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from women undergoing IVF in an academic research center were used as the study models. Cx43 mRNA and protein expression levels were examined after exposure of SVOG cells to recombinant human TGF-β1. An activin/TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor, SB431542, and small interfering RNAs targeting ALK4, ALK5, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 were used to verify the specificity of the effects and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Real-time-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the specific mRNA and protein levels, respectively. GJIC between SVOG cells were evaluated using a scrape loading and dye transfer assay. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE TGF-β1 treatment increased phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 (P < 0.0001) and up-regulated Cx43 mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001) in SVOG cells and these stimulatory effects were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. In addition, the up-regulatory effect of TGF-β1 on Cx43 expression (mRNA and protein) was confirmed in primary

  3. Up-regulating BDNF with an ampakine rescues synaptic plasticity and memory in Huntington's disease knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Danielle A; Rex, Christopher S; Palmer, Linda; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Fedulov, Vadim; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary

    2009-03-24

    Cognitive problems occur in asymptomatic gene carriers of Huntington's disease (HD), and mouse models of the disease exhibit impaired learning and substantial deficits in the cytoskeletal changes that stabilize long-term potentiation (LTP). The latter effects may be related to the decreased production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) associated with the HD mutation. This study asked whether up-regulating endogenous BDNF levels with an ampakine, a positive modulator of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, rescues plasticity and reduces learning problems in HD (CAG140) mice. Twice-daily injections of a short half-life ampakine normalized BDNF levels, activity-driven actin polymerization in dendritic spines, and LTP stabilization in 8-week-old mutants. Comparable results were obtained in 16-week-old HD mice with more severe LTP deficits. Ampakine treatments had no measurable effect on the decreased locomotor activity observed in the mutants but offset their impairments in long-term memory. Given that ampakines are well tolerated in clinical trials and were effective in this study after brief exposures, these results suggest a novel strategy for chronic treatment of the cognitive difficulties that occur in the early stages of HD.

  4. Up-regulating the human intestinal microbiome using whole plant foods, polyphenols, and/or fiber.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Kieran M; Conterno, Lorenza; Gasperotti, Mattia; Viola, Roberto

    2012-09-12

    Whole plant foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals, protect against chronic human diseases such as heart disease and cancer, with fiber and polyphenols thought to contribute significantly. These bioactive food components interact with the gut microbiota, with gut bacteria modifying polyphenol bioavailability and activity, and with fiber, constituting the main energy source for colonic fermentation. This paper discusses the consequences of increasing the consumption of whole plant foods on the gut microbiota and subsequent implications for human health. In humans, whole grain cereals can modify fecal bacterial profiles, increasing relative numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Polyphenol-rich chocolate and certain fruits have also been shown to increase fecal bifidobacteria. The recent FLAVURS study provides novel information on the impact of high fruit and vegetable diets on the gut microbiota. Increasing whole plant food consumption appears to up-regulate beneficial commensal bacteria and may contribute toward the health effects of these foods.

  5. Water deprivation up-regulates urine osmolality and renal aquaporin 2 in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Meng; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To better understand how desert rodents adapt to water scarcity, we examined urine osmolality, renal distribution and expression of aquaporins (AQPs) in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during 7 days of water deprivation (WD). Urine osmolality of the gerbils during WD averaged 7503 mOsm kg(-1). Renal distributions of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP3 were similar to that described in other rodents. After the 7 day WD, renal AQP2 was up-regulated, while resting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss decreased by 43% and 36%, respectively. Our data demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils showed high urine concentration, renal AQPs expression and body water conservation to cope with limited water availability, which may be critical for their survival during dry seasons in cold deserts.

  6. Exercise-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and IL-8 genes in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Katia; Felicetti, Michela; Capomaccio, Stefano; Pieramati, Camillo; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Background The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design. Conclusion These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon. PMID:19552796

  7. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  8. A-to-I RNA Editing Up-regulates Human Dihydrofolate Reductase in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki

    2017-03-24

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR. Knockdown of ADAR1 decreased the RNA editing levels of DHFR and resulted in a decrease in the DHFR mRNA and protein levels, indicating that ADAR1 up-regulates DHFR expression. Using a computational analysis, miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p were predicted to bind to the non-edited 3'-UTR of DHFR but not to the edited sequence. The decrease in DHFR expression by the knockdown of ADAR1 was restored by transfection of antisense oligonucleotides for these miRNAs, suggesting that RNA editing mediated up-regulation of DHFR requires the function of these miRNAs. Interestingly, we observed that the knockdown of ADAR1 decreased cell viability and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to methotrexate. ADAR1 expression levels and the RNA editing levels in the 3'-UTR of DHFR in breast cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that ADAR1 positively regulates the expression of DHFR by editing the miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p binding sites in the 3'-UTR of DHFR, enhancing cellular proliferation and resistance to methotrexate.

  9. HBXIP up-regulates ACSL1 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shuqin; Cui, Ming; Liu, Fabao; Sun, Baodi; Zhang, Weiying; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2017-03-11

    The oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) results in the dysregulation of lipid metabolism to enhance the development of breast cancer. Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1) is required for thioesterification of long-chain fatty acids into their acyl-CoA derivatives. In this study, we present a hypothesis that HBXIP might be involved in the regulation of ACSL1 in breast cancer. Interestingly, we found that the overexpression of HBXIP was able to up-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cells. Conversely, silencing of HBXIP led to the opposite results. Mechanistically, HBXIP as a coactivator interacted with transcriptional factor Sp1 through binding to the promoter of ACSL1 by ChIP assays analysis, leading to the transcription of ACSL1 in breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the positive rate of ACSL1 was 71.4% (35/49) in clinical breast cancer tissues, HBXIP 79.6% (39/49), in which the positive rate of ACSL1 was 76.9% (30/39) in the HBXIP-positive specimens. But, few positive rate of ACSL1 10% (1/10) was observed in normal breast tissues. The mRNA levels of ACSL1 were significantly higher in clinical breast cancer tissues than those in their corresponding peritumor tissues. The mRNA levels of ACSL1 were positively associated with those of HBXIP in clinical breast cancer tissues. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP is able to up-regulate ACSL1 through activating the transcriptional factor Sp1 in breast cancer.

  10. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of dynamin II expression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Miao-Sui; Chen, Ying-Hsun; Liang, Fang-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2)). Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

  11. Up-Regulation and Profibrotic Role of Osteopontin in Human Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. Methods and Findings Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to αvβ3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-αvβ3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7. Conclusions Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease. PMID:16128620

  12. Up-regulation of GLT-1 severely impairs LTD at mossy fibre--CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Azar; Melone, Marcello; Bellesi, Michele; Safiulina, Victoria; Aida, Tomomi; Tanaka, Kohishi; Cherubini, Enrico; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2009-10-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. By this action, they maintain low levels of ambient glutamate, thus preventing excitotoxic damage, and contribute to shaping synaptic currents. We show that up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone severely impaired mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), induced at rat mossy fibre (MF)-CA3 synapses by repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres. This effect involved GLT-1, since LTD was rescued by the selective GLT-1 antagonist dihydrokainate (DHK). DHK per se produced a modest decrease in fEPSP amplitude that rapidly regained control levels after DHK wash out. Moreover, the degree of fEPSP inhibition induced by the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist gamma-DGG was similar during basal synaptic transmission but not during LTD, indicating that in ceftriaxone-treated rats LTD induction did not alter synaptic glutamate transient concentration. Furthermore, ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 up-regulation significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses but not at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Postembedding immunogold studies in rats showed an increased density of gold particles coding for GLT-1a in astrocytic processes and in mossy fibre terminals; in the latter, gold particles were located near and within the active zones. In both CEF-treated and untreated GLT-1 KO mice used for verifying the specificity of immunostaining, the density of gold particles in MF terminals was comparable to background levels. The enhanced expression of GLT-1 at release sites may prevent activation of presynaptic receptors, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which GLT-1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  13. Up-regulation of GLT-1 severely impairs LTD at mossy fibre–CA3 synapses

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Azar; Melone, Marcello; Bellesi, Michele; Safiulina, Victoria; Aida, Tomomi; Tanaka, Kohishi; Cherubini, Enrico; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. By this action, they maintain low levels of ambient glutamate, thus preventing excitotoxic damage, and contribute to shaping synaptic currents. We show that up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone severely impaired mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), induced at rat mossy fibre (MF)–CA3 synapses by repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres. This effect involved GLT-1, since LTD was rescued by the selective GLT-1 antagonist dihydrokainate (DHK). DHK per se produced a modest decrease in fEPSP amplitude that rapidly regained control levels after DHK wash out. Moreover, the degree of fEPSP inhibition induced by the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-DGG was similar during basal synaptic transmission but not during LTD, indicating that in ceftriaxone-treated rats LTD induction did not alter synaptic glutamate transient concentration. Furthermore, ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 up-regulation significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP at MF–CA3 synapses but not at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses. Postembedding immunogold studies in rats showed an increased density of gold particles coding for GLT-1a in astrocytic processes and in mossy fibre terminals; in the latter, gold particles were located near and within the active zones. In both CEF-treated and untreated GLT-1 KO mice used for verifying the specificity of immunostaining, the density of gold particles in MF terminals was comparable to background levels. The enhanced expression of GLT-1 at release sites may prevent activation of presynaptic receptors, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which GLT-1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:19651762

  14. Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-21 Correlates with Lower Kidney Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohd Saif; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Thamminana, Sobha; Saini, Sharonjot; Majid, Shahana; Chang, Inik; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Yamamura, Soichiro; Singh, Kamaldeep; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA-21 is up-regulated in a variety of cancers like, breast, colorectal, lung, head and neck etc. However, the regulation of miR-21 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not yet been studied systematically. Methods and Results We measured miR-21 levels in 54 pairs of kidney cancers and their normal matched tissues by real-time PCR. The expression level of miR-21 was correlated with 5 year survival and the pathological stage. Functional studies were done after inhibiting miR-21 in RCC cell lines. We studied in vitro and in vivo effects of the chemo preventive agent genistein on miR-21 expression. In 48 cases (90%), miR-21 was increased. All patients with low miR-21 expression survived 5 years, while with high miR-21 expression, only 50% survived. Higher expression of miR-21 is associated with an increase in the stage of renal cancer. Functional studies after inhibiting miRNA-21 in RCC cell lines show cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and reduced invasive and migratory capabilities. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the expression of p21 and p38 MAP kinase genes and a reduction in cyclin E2. Genistein inhibited the expression of miR-21 in A-498 cells and in the tumors formed after injecting genistein treated A-498 cells in nude mice besides inhibiting tumor formation. Conclusions The current study shows a clear correlation between miR-21 expression and clinical characteristics of renal cancer. Thus we believe that miR-21 can be used as a tumor marker and its inhibition may prove to be useful in controlling cancers with up-regulated miR-21. PMID:22347428

  15. Up-regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase expression and serotonin synthesis by sertraline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Who; Park, So Yeon; Hwang, Onyou

    2002-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in a variety of brain functions, and abnormal changes in serotonin neurotransmission are associated with an array of psychiatric disorders, including depression. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and an effective antidepressant. Sertraline increases the serotonin concentration in the synaptic cleft by a short-term action; however, clinical improvement is observed only after several weeks, suggesting that the therapeutic effect may be caused by long-term alterations in serotonin transmission. We determined the effects of sertraline on serotonin synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Long-term treatment of rats with sertraline up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of the serotonin-synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), as determined by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. In vitro studies using RBL-2H3 cells also showed an increase in mRNA and protein levels of TPH by sertraline, as determined by Northern blot and immunoblot analyses, respectively. This was accompanied by increases in the levels of TPH enzymatic activity and total serotonin. These data demonstrate that in addition to the known short-term action as an uptake blocker, sertraline also exerts a long-term effect on the serotonin neurotransmission by enhancing serotonin synthesis. A similar effect was observed with another SSRI, fluoxetine, but not with the non-SSRI chlorpromazine. The up-regulation of TPH gene expression by sertraline was attenuated by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamine)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamine, suggesting that a mechanism involving the PKA signaling pathway might at least in part mediate the long-term therapeutic action.

  16. Up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling increases both osteoblast-specific marker expression and bone marrow adipogenesis in Gja1Jrt/+ stromal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Zappitelli, Tanya; Chen, Frieda; Aubin, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice carry a mutation in one allele of the gap junction protein α1 gene (Gja1), resulting in a G60S connexin 43 (Cx43) mutant protein that is dominant negative for Cx43 protein production of <50% of wild-type (WT) levels and significantly reduced gap junction formation and function in osteoblasts and other Cx43-expressing cells. Previously we reported that Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice exhibited early-onset osteopenia caused by activation of osteoclasts secondary to activation of osteoblast lineage cells, which expressed increased RANKL and produced an abnormal resorption-stimulating bone matrix high in BSP content. Gja1(Jrt)/+ mice also displayed early and progressive bone marrow atrophy, with a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity versus WT littermates but no increase in adipose tissues elsewhere in the body. BMP2/4 production and signaling were increased in Gja1(Jrt)/+ trabecular bone and osteogenic stromal cell cultures, which contributed to the up-regulated expression of osteoblast-specific markers (e.g., Bsp and Ocn) in Gja1(Jrt)/+ osteoblasts and increased Pparg2 expression in bone marrow-derived adipoprogenitors in vitro. The elevated levels of BMP2/4 signaling in G60S Cx43-containing cells resulted at least in part from elevated levels of cAMP. We conclude that up-regulation of BMP2/4 signaling in trabecular bone and/or stromal cells increases osteoblast-specific marker expression in hyperactive Gja1(Jrt)/+ osteoblasts and may also increase bone marrow adipogenesis by up-regulation of Pparg2 in the Cx43-deficient Gja1(Jrt)/+ mouse model.

  17. Preparation of ethylene gas and comparison of ethylene responses induced by ethylene, ACC, and ethephon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2010-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone used in many physiological studies examining its role in plant growth and development. However, ethylene gas may not be conveniently available to many laboratories for occasional use, and therefore several chemicals can be used as replacements. Here we report that the kinetics of the ethylene response induced by ethylene and two widely-used ethylene replacements are different. ACC failed to efficiently replace prolonged ethylene treatments, while the decomposition products of ethephon may cause non-specific responses and the efficiency of ethephon conversion to ethylene was relatively low. A cost-effective method to prepare ethylene gas was developed. Analyzed by gas chromatography, the chemically produced ethylene exhibited an identical chromatogram to that from the commercial source. Our synthetic ethylene gave the same dose-response curve in Arabidopsis as gaseous ethylene. Our study shows that the use of the ethylene gas is essential to experiments that are sensitive to treatment duration and dosage. When ACC and ethephon are used as replacements, caution should be taken in the experimental design. For laboratories that do not have an ethylene tank, ethylene gas can be easily prepared by a chemical approach without further purification.

  18. Ethylene-Mediated Acclimations to Flooding Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is detrimental for plants, primarily because of restricted gas exchange underwater, which leads to an energy and carbohydrate deficit. Impeded gas exchange also causes rapid accumulation of the volatile ethylene in all flooded plant cells. Although several internal changes in the plant can signal the flooded status, it is the pervasive and rapid accumulation of ethylene that makes it an early and reliable flooding signal. Not surprisingly, it is a major regulator of several flood-adaptive plant traits. Here, we discuss these major ethylene-mediated traits, their functional relevance, and the recent progress in identifying the molecular and signaling events underlying these traits downstream of ethylene. We also speculate on the role of ethylene in postsubmergence recovery and identify several questions for future investigations. PMID:25897003

  19. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPARalpha activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Li, L; Prabhakaran, K; Zhang, L; Leavesley, H B; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    2007-08-15

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPARalpha antagonist) or PPARalpha knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPARalpha activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPARalpha did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPARalpha-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPARalpha-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPARalpha-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPARalpha mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

  20. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPAR{alpha} activation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Prabhakaran, K.; Zhang, L.; Leavesley, H.B.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2007-08-15

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPAR{alpha} antagonist) or PPAR{alpha} knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPAR{alpha} activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPAR{alpha} did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPAR{alpha}-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPAR{alpha}-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPAR{alpha}-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPAR{alpha} mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

  1. Insecticide-mediated up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-19

    Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  2. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification. PMID:25607733

  3. Roles of Ethylene Production and Ethylene Receptor Expression in Regulating Apple Fruitlet Abscission1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eccher, Giulia; Begheldo, Maura; Boschetti, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Botton, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) is increasingly being considered an interesting model species for studying early fruit development, during which an extremely relevant phenomenon, fruitlet abscission, may occur as a response to both endogenous and/or exogenous cues. Several studies were carried out shedding light on the main physiological and molecular events leading to the selective release of lateral fruitlets within a corymb, either occurring naturally or as a result of a thinning treatment. Several studies pointed out a clear association between a rise of ethylene biosynthetic levels in the fruitlet and its tendency to abscise. A direct mechanistic link, however, has not yet been established between this gaseous hormone and the generation of the abscission signal within the fruit. In this work, the role of ethylene during the very early stages of abscission induction was investigated in fruitlet populations with different abscission potentials due either to the natural correlative inhibitions determining the so-called physiological fruit drop or to a well-tested thinning treatment performed with the cytokinin benzyladenine. A crucial role was ascribed to the ratio between the ethylene produced by the cortex and the expression of ethylene receptor genes in the seed. This ratio would determine the final probability to abscise. A working model has been proposed consistent with the differential distribution of four receptor transcripts within the seed, which resembles a spatially progressive cell-specific immune-like mechanism evolved by apple to protect the embryo from harmful ethylene. PMID:25888617

  4. Roles of Ethylene Production and Ethylene Receptor Expression in Regulating Apple Fruitlet Abscission.

    PubMed

    Eccher, Giulia; Begheldo, Maura; Boschetti, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Botton, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) is increasingly being considered an interesting model species for studying early fruit development, during which an extremely relevant phenomenon, fruitlet abscission, may occur as a response to both endogenous and/or exogenous cues. Several studies were carried out shedding light on the main physiological and molecular events leading to the selective release of lateral fruitlets within a corymb, either occurring naturally or as a result of a thinning treatment. Several studies pointed out a clear association between a rise of ethylene biosynthetic levels in the fruitlet and its tendency to abscise. A direct mechanistic link, however, has not yet been established between this gaseous hormone and the generation of the abscission signal within the fruit. In this work, the role of ethylene during the very early stages of abscission induction was investigated in fruitlet populations with different abscission potentials due either to the natural correlative inhibitions determining the so-called physiological fruit drop or to a well-tested thinning treatment performed with the cytokinin benzyladenine. A crucial role was ascribed to the ratio between the ethylene produced by the cortex and the expression of ethylene receptor genes in the seed. This ratio would determine the final probability to abscise. A working model has been proposed consistent with the differential distribution of four receptor transcripts within the seed, which resembles a spatially progressive cell-specific immune-like mechanism evolved by apple to protect the embryo from harmful ethylene.

  5. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Sinclair, Iain; Lodgson, Jeffery S.

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  6. Current Toxicology of Ethylene Oxide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    carcinogenicity are presented. The overall toxicological implications and a recommendation on the use of ethylene oxide are briefly discussed. (U...wer exposed to ethylene oxide vapour. A single exposure of the male rats to vapour at 100 ppm for 4 hours resulted in reproduction A abnormalities...oxide causes leukemia. It should be noted also that ethylene oxide in the presence of water produces ethylene glycol. Subchronic and chronic exposures

  7. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits development of atherosclerosis through up-regulating protein S-nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Chen, Yulong; Zhu, Ninghong; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule that serves many important regulatory roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. H2S exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through mediating the biological functions of nitric oxide (NO). However, its mechanism of action is unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect mechanism of H2S on the development of atherosclerosis with regard to protein S-nitrosylation. A total of 45 male apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups. Atherosclerosis was induced by Western diet (21% fat and 0.15% cholesterol) with/without administration of a H2S donor (NaHS) or an endogenous cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor (d, l-propargylglycine) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, plasma lipid and plasma NO levels were measured. Aortic gross lesion area and histopathological features of aortic lesion were determined. Additionally, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was detected using immunofluorescence in aorta. Rat VSMCs were performed in an in vitro experiment. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, NO generation, protein S-nitrosylation, and cell proliferation and migration were measured. We found that H2S significantly reduced the aortic atherosclerotic lesion area (P=0.006) and inhibited lipid and macrophage accumulation (P=0.004, P=0.002) and VSMC proliferation (P=0.019) in apoE(-/-) mice. H2S could up-regulate levels of plasma NO and protein S-nitrosylation in aorta VSMCs. However, d, l- propargylglycine had the opposite effect, increasing the lesion area and the content of lipids and macrophages in the lesions of apoE(-/-) mice and down-regulating plasma NO levels and protein S-nitrosylation in aorta VSMCs. In vitro experiments, H2S could significantly reverse the reduction of iNOS expression and NO generation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in VSMCs. Moreover, H2S could increase the protein S

  8. Genistein Up-Regulates Tumor Suppressor MicroRNA-574-3p in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Yamamura, Soichiro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Hidaka, Hideo; Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Arora, Sumit; Deng, Guoren; Shahryari, Varahram; Chang, Inik; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Enokida, Hideki; Seki, Naohiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2013-01-01

    Genistein has been shown to inhibit cancers both in vitro and in vivo, by altering the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we focused on tumor suppressor miRNAs regulated by genistein and investigated their function in prostate cancer (PCa) and target pathways. Using miRNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR we observed that miR-574-3p was significantly up-regulated in PCa cells treated with genistein compared with vehicle control. The expression of miR-574-3p was significantly lower in PCa cell lines and clinical PCa tissues compared with normal prostate cells (RWPE-1) and adjacent normal tissues. Low expression level of miR-574-3p was correlated with advanced tumor stage and higher Gleason score in PCa specimens. Re-expression of miR-574-3p in PCa cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. miR-574-3p restoration induced apoptosis through reducing Bcl-xL and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Using GeneCodis software analysis, several pathways affected by miR-574-3p were identified, such as ‘Pathways in cancer’, ‘Jak-STAT signaling pathway’, and ‘Wnt signaling pathway’. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-574-3p directly binds to the 3′ UTR of several target genes (such as RAC1, EGFR and EP300) that are components of ‘Pathways in cancer’. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the three target genes in PCa cells were markedly down-regulated with miR-574-3p. Loss-of-function studies demonstrated that the three target genes significantly affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cell lines. Our results show that genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor miR-574-3p expression targeting several cell signaling pathways. These findings enhance understanding of how genistein regulates with miRNA in PCa. PMID:23554959

  9. Triethylene Glycol Up-Regulates Virulence-Associated Genes and Proteins in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghinejad, Lida; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Siqueira, Walter L.; Santerre, J. Paul; Finer, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is a diluent monomer used pervasively in dental composite resins. Through hydrolytic degradation of the composites in the oral cavity it yields a hydrophilic biodegradation product, triethylene glycol (TEG), which has been shown to promote the growth of Streptococcus mutans, a dominant cariogenic bacterium. Previously it was shown that TEG up-regulated gtfB, an important gene contributing to polysaccharide synthesis function in biofilms. However, molecular mechanisms related to TEG’s effect on bacterial function remained poorly understood. In the present study, S. mutans UA159 was incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of TEG at pH 5.5 and 7.0. Quantitative real-time PCR, proteomics analysis, and glucosyltransferase enzyme (GTF) activity measurements were employed to identify the bacterial phenotypic response to TEG. A S. mutans vicK isogenic mutant (SMΔvicK1) and its associated complemented strain (SMΔvicK1C), an important regulatory gene for biofilm-associated genes, were used to determine if this signaling pathway was involved in modulation of the S. mutans virulence-associated genes. Extracted proteins from S. mutans biofilms grown in the presence and absence of TEG were subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification, characterization and quantification. TEG up-regulated gtfB/C, gbpB, comC, comD and comE more significantly in biofilms at cariogenic pH (5.5) and defined concentrations. Differential response of the vicK knock-out (SMΔvicK1) and complemented strains (SMΔvicK1C) implicated this signalling pathway in TEG-modulated cellular responses. TEG resulted in increased GTF enzyme activity, responsible for synthesizing insoluble glucans involved in the formation of cariogenic biofilms. As well, TEG increased protein abundance related to biofilm formation, carbohydrate transport, acid tolerance, and stress-response. Proteomics data was consistent with gene expression findings for the

  10. Ethylene thiourea (ETU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene thiourea ( ETU ) ; CASRN 96 - 45 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  11. How plants sense ethylene gas--the ethylene receptors.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Randy F; Binder, Brad M

    2014-04-01

    Ethylene is a hormone that affects many processes important for plant growth, development, and responses to stresses. The first step in ethylene signal transduction is when ethylene binds to its receptors. Numerous studies have examined how these receptors function. In this review we summarize many of these studies and present our current understanding about how ethylene binds to the receptors. The biochemical output of the receptors is not known but current models predict that when ethylene binds to the receptors, the activity of the associated protein kinase, CTR1 (constitutive triple response1), is reduced. This results in downstream transcriptional changes leading to ethylene responses. We present a model where a copper cofactor is required and the binding of ethylene causes the receptor to pass through a transition state to become non-signaling leading to lower CTR1 activity.

  12. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals That Ethylene/H2O2-Mediated Hypersensitive Response and Programmed Cell Death Determine the Compatible Interaction of Sand Pear and Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Lin, Jing; Chang, Youhong; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A major restriction on sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) production is black spot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. However, the pear response mechanism to A. alternata is unknown at the molecular level. Here, host responses of a resistant cultivar Cuiguan (CG) and a susceptible cultivar Sucui1 (SC1) to A. alternata infection were investigated. We found that the primary necrotic lesion formed at 1 dpi and the expansion of lesions was aggressive in SC1. Data from transcriptomic profiles using RNA-Seq technology identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CG and SC1 in the early phase of A. alternata infection. K-mean cluster and Mapman analysis revealed that genes involved in ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and ET signaling pathway, such as ACS, ACOs, and ERFs, and in hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death (PCD) were significantly enriched and up-regulated in the susceptible cultivar SC1. Conversely, genes involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were differentially up-regulated in the resistant cultivar CG after inoculation with the fungus. Furthermore, ET levels were highly accumulated in SC1, but not in CG. Higher activities of detoxifying enzymes such as catalases were detected in CG. Our results demonstrate that the ET-/H2O2-mediated PCD and detoxifying processes play a vital role in the interaction of pear and A. alternata. PMID:28261248

  13. Centenarians, but not octogenarians, up-regulate the expression of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Gambini, Juan; Borras, Consuelo; Abdelaziz, Kheira M; Mohammed, Kheira; Belenguer, Angel; Sanchis, Paula; Avellana, Juan A; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain. Principal Component Analysis of the expression of 15,644 mature microRNAs and, 2,334 snoRNAs and scaRNAs in centenarians revealed a significant overlap with profiles in young individuals but not with octogenarians and a significant up-regulation of 7 small non-coding RNAs in centenarians compared to young persons and notably 102 small non-coding RNAs when compared with octogenarians. We suggest that the small non-coding RNAs signature in centenarians may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms endowing centenarians with extreme longevity.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and denervation alter sphingolipids and up-regulate glucosylceramide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Croixmarie, Vincent; Priestman, David A.; Rosenbohm, Angela; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; D'Ambra, Eleonora; Huebecker, Mylene; Hussain, Ghulam; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Ludolph, Albert C.; Platt, Frances M.; Walther, Bernard; Spedding, Michael; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, muscle wasting and paralysis. Growing evidence suggests a link between changes in lipid metabolism and ALS. Here, we used UPLC/TOF-MS to survey the lipidome in SOD1(G86R) mice, a model of ALS. Significant changes in lipid expression were evident in spinal cord and skeletal muscle before overt neuropathology. In silico analysis also revealed appreciable changes in sphingolipids including ceramides and glucosylceramides (GlcCer). HPLC analysis showed increased amounts of GlcCer and downstream glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in SOD1(G86R) muscle compared with wild-type littermates. Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), the enzyme responsible for GlcCer biosynthesis, was up-regulated in muscle of SOD1(G86R) mice and ALS patients, and in muscle of wild-type mice after surgically induced denervation. Conversely, inhibition of GCS in wild-type mice, following transient peripheral nerve injury, reversed the overexpression of genes in muscle involved in oxidative metabolism and delayed motor recovery. GCS inhibition in SOD1(G86R) mice also affected the expression of metabolic genes and induced a loss of muscle strength and morphological deterioration of the motor endplates. These findings suggest that GSLs may play a critical role in ALS muscle pathology and could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26483191

  15. Up-regulation of Vps4A promotes neuronal apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianbing; Yuan, Debin; Xie, Lili; Tao, Xuelei; Duan, Chenwei; Bao, Yifeng; He, Yunfeng; Ge, Jianbin; Lu, Hongjian

    2017-04-01

    Vps4, vacuolar protein sorting 4, belongs to ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA) protein family which is made up of Vps4A and Vps4B. Previous studies demonstrated that Vps4A plays vital roles in diverse aspects such as virus budding, the efficient transport of H-Ras to the PM (plasma membrane) and the involvement in the MVB (multivesiculate bodies) pathway. Interestingly, Vps4A is also expressed in the brain. However, the distribution and function of Vps4A in ICH diseases remain unclear. In this study, we show that Vps4A may be involved in neuronal apoptosis during pathophysiological processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on the results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found a remarkable up-regulation of Vps4A expression surrounding the hematoma after ICH. Double labeled immunofluorescence showed that Vps4A was co-expressed with NeuN but rarely with astrocytes and microglia. Morever, we detected that neuronal apoptosis marker active caspase-3 had co-localizations with Vps4A. Additionaly, Vps4A knockdown in vitro specifically leads to decreasing neuronal apoptosis coupled with increased Akt phosphorylation. All datas suggested that Vps4A was involved in promoting neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation after ICH.

  16. [PPARγ up-regulates TGFβ/smad signal pathway repressor c-Ski].

    PubMed

    Li, Gong-bo; Li, Jun; Zeng, Yi-jun; Zhong, Dan; Wu, Geng-ze; Fu, Xiao-hong; He, Feng-tian; Dai, Shuang-shuang

    2011-02-25

    TGFβ/smad pathway is recognized as an important signal pathway to promote the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation is considered to be important in modulating AS. Herein, we investigated the regulation of PPARγ on c-Ski, the repressor of TGFβ/smad pathway, in rat AS model and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). c-Ski mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively, in vivo and in vitro with treatment of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and antagonist GW9662. The proliferation and collagen secretion of VSMCs after c-Ski transfection were investigated. The underlying mechanism was further investigated by online program NUBIScan and luciferase reporter gene analysis. Results showed that both mRNA and protein expressions of c-Ski in the AS lesions was down-regulated in vivo, while in cultured VSMCs, c-Ski transfection significantly suppressed the proliferation and collagen secretion of rat VSMCs. Rosiglitazone significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of c-Ski in VSMCs, which could be blocked by GW9662. Online NUBIScan analysis suggested possible PPARγ binding sites in the promoter region of c-Ski. In addition, luciferase activity of c-Ski reporter gene was also increased obviously in the presence of rosiglitazone. These results indicate that c-Ski is one of the newly found target genes of PPARγ and thus involved in the anti-AS effect of PPARγ.

  17. Hypoxia Induces Autophagy through Translational Up-Regulation of Lysosomal Proteins in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Chang, Chiao-May; Sun, H. Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia occurs in a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis. Tumor cells have to adapt to hypoxia by altering their gene expression and protein synthesis. Here, we showed that hypoxia inhibits translation through activation of PERK and inactivation of mTOR in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Prolonged hypoxia (1% O2, 16 h) dramatically inhibits general translation in HCT116 cells, yet selected mRNAs remain efficiently translated under such a condition. Using microarray analysis of polysome- associated mRNAs, we identified a large number of hypoxia-regulated genes at the translational level. Efficiently translated mRNAs during hypoxia were validated by polysome profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that many of the up-regulated genes are involved in lysosome, glycan and lipid metabolism, antigen presentation, cell adhesion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. The majority of down-regulated genes are involved in apoptosis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. Further investigation showed that hypoxia induces lysosomal autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction through translational regulation in HCT116 cells. The abundance of several translation factors and the mTOR kinase activity are involved in hypoxia-induced mitochondrial autophagy in HCT116 cells. Our studies highlight the importance of translational regulation for tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:27078027

  18. Top-down and bottom-up regulation of macroalgal community structure on a Kenyan reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörk, Erik; Sjöö, Gustaf Lilliesköld; Kautsky, Nils; McClanahan, Tim R.

    2009-09-01

    Top-down and bottom-up regulation in the form of grazing by herbivores and nutrient availability are important factors governing macroalgal communities in the coral reef ecosystem. Today, anthropogenic activities, such as over-harvesting of herbivorous fish and sea urchins and increased nutrient loading, are altering the interaction of these two structuring forces. The present study was conducted in Kenya and investigates the relative importance of herbivory and nutrient loading on macroalgal community dynamics, by looking at alterations in macroalgal functional groups, species diversity ( H') and biomass within experimental quadrats. The experiment was conducted in situ for 42 days during the dry season. Cages excluding large herbivorous fish and sea urchins were used in the study and nutrient addition was conducted using coated, slow-release fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorous) at a site where herbivory is generally low and nutrient levels are relatively high for the region. Nutrient addition increased tissue nutrient content in the algae, and fertilized quadrats had 24% higher species diversity. Herbivore exclusion resulted in a 77% increase in algal biomass, mainly attributable to a >1000% increase in corticated forms. These results are in accordance with similar studies in other regions, but are unique in that they indicate that, even when prevailing nutrient levels are relatively high and herbivore pressure is relatively low, continued anthropogenic disturbance results in further ecological responses and increased reef degradation.

  19. Schisandra polysaccharide increased glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dun; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Wei-Wei; Mao, Guang-Hua; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wang, Xin-Tong; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, a polysaccharide was extracted from Schisandra Chinensis (Trucz.) Baill and found with anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of the low weight molecular polysaccharide (SCPP11) purified from crude Schisandra polysaccharide and illustrate the underlying mechanism in buffalo rat liver cells. The insulin resistance model of BRL cells was established by incubating with insulin solution for 24h. The effects of SCPP11 on regulating related protein and mRNA expression in an insulin and AMPK signal pathway were investigated by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. SCPP11 showed no cytotoxicity to BRL cells and could improve the glucose consumption in BRL cells. SCPP11 increased the protein expression of Akt, p-AMPK and GLUT-4 in BRL cells. Moreover, SCPP11 could enhance the mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPKα and PPAR-γ in BRL cells at the same time. In conclusion, SCPP11 possessed effects in improving glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4 which might occur via insulin and AMPK signal pathway and could be a potential functional food to prevent and mitigate the insulin resistance condition.

  20. Inflammasome Up-Regulation and Activation in Dysferlin-Deficient Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Rashmi; Cohen, Tatiana V.; Ampong, Beryl; Francia, Dwight; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-01-01

    A deficiency of the dysferlin protein results in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy, with resulting plasma membrane abnormalities in myofibers. Many patients show muscle inflammation, but the molecular mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate this inflammation are not well understood. We previously showed abnormal activation of macrophages and hypothesized that activation of the inflammasome pathway may play a role in disease progression. To test this, we studied the inflammasome molecular platform in dysferlin-deficient human and mouse muscle. Consistent with our model, components of the NACHT, LRR and PYD-containing proteins (NALP)-3 inflammasome pathway were specifically up-regulated and activated in dysferlin-deficient but not in dystrophin-deficient and normal muscle. We demonstrate for the first time that normal primary skeletal muscle cells are capable of secreting IL-1β in response to combined treatment with lipopolysaccharide and the P2X7 receptor agonist, benzylated ATP, suggesting that not only immune cells but also muscle cells can actively participate in inflammasome formation. In addition, we show that dysferlin-deficient primary muscle cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs; TLR-2 and TLR-4) and can efficiently produce IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide and benzylated ATP. These data indicate that skeletal muscle is an active contributor of IL-1β and strategies that interfere with this pathway may be therapeutically useful for patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. PMID:20413686

  1. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J; Reis, Celso A; Rutteman, Gerard R; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness.

  2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts estrogen-signaling through up-regulation of estrogen receptor β (ERβ).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Harada, Mari; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2013-07-15

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) has been reported as possessing antiestrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and showed that Δ(9)-THC exposures markedly suppresses 17β-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from Δ(9)-THC's ability to inhibit E2-liganded ERα activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that (i) Δ(9)-THC up-regulates ERβ, a repressor of ERα, inhibiting the expression of E2/ERα-regulated genes that promote cell growth and that (ii) Δ(9)-THC induction of ERβ modulates E2/ERα signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that Δ(9)-THC's antiestrogenic activities are mediated by the ERβ disruption of E2/ERα signaling.

  3. A2A adenosine receptors are up-regulated in lymphocytes from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Popoli, Patrizia; Varani, Katia

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine, a purine nucleoside interacting with A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs), is a potent endogenous modulator of inflammatory and neuronal processes involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, ARs were investigated in lymphocytes from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and compared with age-matched healthy subjects. In ALS patients A2AARs were analysed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting and saturation binding experiments. The effect of A2AAR stimulation on cyclic AMP levels was evaluated in lymphocytes from ALS patients and healthy subjects. An up-regulation of A2AARs was observed in ALS patients with respect to healthy subjects while A1, A2B and A3AR affinity and density did not change. In ALS patients, the A2AAR density values correlated with the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores. Furthermore, the stimulation of A2AARs mediated a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels in lymphocytes from ALS patients, with a higher potency than in lymphocytes from healthy subjects. In conclusion, the positive correlation between A2AAR density and ALSFRS-R scores could indicate a possible protective effect of this receptor subtype, representing an interesting starting point for the study of alternative therapeutic approaches for ALS based on A2AAR modulation.

  4. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    PubMed

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  5. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  6. PPM1D controls nucleolar formation by up-regulating phosphorylation of nucleophosmin

    PubMed Central

    Kozakai, Yuuki; Kamada, Rui; Furuta, Junya; Kiyota, Yuhei; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-01-01

    An increase of nucleolar number and size has made nucleoli essential markers for cytology and tumour development. However, the underlying basis for their structural integrity and abundance remains unclear. Protein phosphatase PPM1D was found to be up-regulated in different carcinomas including breast cancers. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation via inducing an increased phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein NPM. We show that PPM1D overexpression induces an increase in the nucleolar number regardless of p53 status. We also demonstrated that specific sequential phosphorylation of NPM is important for nucleolar formation and that PPM1D is a novel upstream regulator of this phosphorylation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern nucleoli formation by demonstrating that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation by regulating NPM phosphorylation status through a novel signalling pathway, PPM1D-CDC25C-CDK1-PLK1. PMID:27619510

  7. Cocaine up-regulates norepinephrine transporter binding in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Shearman, L P; Meyer, J S

    1999-12-10

    We investigated the influence of 3 days of continuous cocaine exposure on norepinephrine transporter binding in the rat placenta. On gestational day 17, pregnant rats were implanted subcutaneously with two cocaine-containing Silastic capsules. There were two control groups, one that received capsules with vehicle only and was pair-fed to the cocaine-treated females, and a second group that was untreated and fed ad libitum. Placentas and fetal brains were harvested and frozen on gestational day 20, and subsequently subjected to saturation analyses for norepinephrine transporter binding using the selective ligand [3H]nisoxetine. There was a marked increase in the density (B(max)) of norepinephrine transporter binding sites in the placentas of the cocaine-treated animals compared to both control groups, but no change in the fetal brain. The mechanism underlying this up-regulation of the placental norepinephrine transporter is not yet known, but it could involve a beta-adrenoceptor- and cAMP-mediated induction of transporter gene expression.

  8. Celecoxib suppresses hepatoma stemness and progression by up-regulating PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Liu, Li-Fen; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Kung, Mei-Lang; Lin, Shih-Wei; Wang, E-Ming; Ma, Yi-Ling; Cheng, Kwan-Hung; Lai, Kwok Hung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Hsu, Ping-I; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can prevent several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we show that celecoxib suppressed the self-renewal and drug-pumping functions in HCC cells. Besides, celecoxib depleted CD44 + /CD133 + hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSC). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and CD133 overexpression did not reverse the celecoxib-induced depletion of hCSC. Also, celecoxib inhibited progression of rat Novikoff hepatoma. Moreover, a 60-day celecoxib program increased the survival rate of rats with hepatoma. Histological analysis revealed that celecoxib therapy reduced the abundance of CD44 + /CD133 + hCSCs in hepatoma tissues. Besides, the hCSCs depletion was associated with elevated apoptosis and blunted proliferation and angiogenesis in hepatoma. Celecoxib therapy activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and up-regulated PTEN, thereby inhibiting Akt and disrupting hCSC expansion. PTEN gene delivery by adenovirus reduced CD44/CD133 expression in vitro and hepatoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that celecoxib suppresses cancer stemness and progression of HCC via activation of PPARγ/PTEN signaling. PMID:24721996

  9. Withdrawal from chronic cocaine up-regulates 5-HT1B receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Przegaliński, Edmund; Czepiel, Klaudia; Nowak, Ewa; Dlaboga, Daniel; Filip, Małgorzata

    2003-11-20

    In the present study we examined the effect of prolonged treatment with cocaine (a sensitization and discrimination paradigm) on the expression of serotonin (5-HT)(1B) receptors in rat brain structures using a quantitative autoradiographic analysis. To estimate the distribution of 5-HT(1B) receptors in several brain coronal sections, we used [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743, a 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, in the presence of ketanserin (a drug used to block 5-HT(1D) receptors). The binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743 in the areas containing dopamine cell bodies (the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra) and terminals (the nucleus accumbens shell and core, but not in the caudate-putamen) and in the subiculum of the hippocampus was increased after withdrawal from repeated cocaine in both the discrimination and the sensitization paradigms, either being effective as confirmed by behavioral experiments. Neither acute cocaine injection nor the psychostimulant challenge following its repeated administration affected the binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743 in the above brain areas. Our results indicate that withdrawal from chronic cocaine induces up-regulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors in a number of rat brain structures.

  10. Functional up-regulation of KCNA gene family expression in murine mesenteric resistance artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, S J; Cheong, A; Flemming, R; Mair, L; Sivaprasadarao, A; Beech, D J

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on the hypothesis that KCNA genes (which encode KVα1 voltage-gated K+ channels) have enhanced functional expression in smooth muscle cells of a primary determinant of peripheral resistance – the small mesenteric artery. Real-time PCR methodology was developed to measure cell type-specific in situ gene expression. Profiles were determined for arterial myocyte expression of RNA species encoding KVα1 subunits as well as KVβ1, KVα2.1, KVγ9.3, BKCaα1 and BKCaβ1. The seven major KCNA genes were expressed and more readily detected in endothelium-denuded mesenteric resistance artery compared with thoracic aorta; quantification revealed dramatic differential expression of one to two orders of magnitude. There was also four times more RNA encoding KVα2.1 but less or similar amounts encoding KVβ1, KVγ9.3, BKCaα1 and BKCaβ1. Patch-clamp recordings from freshly isolated smooth muscle cells revealed dominant KVα1 K+ current and current density twice as large in mesenteric cells. Therefore, we suggest the increased RNA production of the resistance artery impacts on physiological function, although there is quantitatively less K+ current than might be expected. The mechanism conferring up-regulated expression of KCNA genes may be common to all the gene family and play a functional role in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:14742730

  11. Syndecan-1 is up-regulated in ras-transformed intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Z. M.; Choo, B.; Li, M.; Carey, D. J.; Cano-Gauci, D. F.; Buick, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The syndecans, a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans, have been proposed to mediate cellular interactions with extracellular effector molecules, such as growth factors and components of the extracellular matrix, during critical phases of development. Transcripts of all four syndecans are expressed at varying levels in the developing rat intestine and in a series of immature rat intestinal epithelial cell lines. In addition, we report the novel finding that, in the intestinal epithelial cell lines, expression of syndecan-1 transcript is up-regulated by transformation with activated H-ras. This is in contrast to other cell lines in which ras transformation is associated with a decrease in syndecan-1 levels. The observed increase in the syndecan-1 occurs as a result of increased transcription and can be correlated with the degree of transformation of the IEC-18 cells. Transformation is also associated with a decrease in apparent molecular weight and increased shedding of the proteoglycan into the culture medium. Increased shedding of syndecan-1 into the culture medium after transformation with H-ras may contribute to the disruption of proteoglycan interactions with the extracellular matrix, leading to alterations in cell adhesion and organization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9528830

  12. Gibberellins Promote Trichome Formation by Up-Regulating GLABROUS1 in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Perazza, Daniel; Vachon, Gilles; Herzog, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Trichome development is dependent on gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the GA-deficient mutant ga1–3, the GA-response mutant spy-5, and uniconazol (a GA-biosynthesis inhibitor), we show that the GA level response correlates positively with both trichome number and trichome branch number. Two genes, GL1 and TTG, are required for trichome initiation. In ga1–3, coexpression of GL1 and R, the maize TTG functional homolog, under control of the constitutive 35S promoter, restored trichome development, whereas overexpression of neither GL1 nor R alone was sufficient to significantly suppress the glabrous phenotype. We next focused on GL1 regulation by GAs. In the double mutant the gl1–1 glabrous phenotype is epistatic to the spy-5 phenotype, suggesting that GL1 acts downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway. The activity of a β-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the GL1 promoter was decreased in the wild type grown on uniconazol and showed a clear GA-dependent activation in ga1–3. Finally, quantification of GL1 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that relative to wild type, ga1–3 plants contained less transcript. These data support the hypothesis that GAs induce trichome development through up-regulation of GL1 and possibly TTG genes. PMID:9625690

  13. FOXO3-mediated up-regulation of Bim contributes to rhein-induced cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shu; Yin, Yancun; Li, Mingjin; Wang, Bo; Yang, Li; Jiang, Yangfu

    2015-03-01

    The anthraquinone compound rhein is a natural agent in the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb. Preclinical studies demonstrate that rhein has anticancer activity. Treatment of a variety of cancer cells with rhein may induce apoptosis. Here, we report that rhein induces atypical unfolded protein response in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells. Rhein induces CHOP expression, eIF2α phosphorylation and caspase cleavage, while it does not induce glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in both MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, rhein inhibits thapsigargin-induced GRP78 expression and X box-binding protein 1 splicing. In addition, rhein inhibits Akt phosphorylation and stimulates FOXO transactivation activity. Rhein induces Bim expression in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, which can be abrogated by FOXO3a knockdown. Knockdown of FOXO3a or Bim abrogates rhein-induced caspase cleavage and apoptosis. The chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate acid antagonizes the induction of FOXO activation, Bim expression and caspase cleavage by rhein, indicating that protein misfolding may be involved in triggering these deleterious effects. We conclude that FOXO3a-mediated up-regulation of Bim is a key mechanism underlying rhein-induced cancer cells apoptosis.

  14. Up-regulation of Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein IAP-2 by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zheng; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Wang, Jinzhao; Patel, Yogendra; Saikumar, Pothana; Semenza, Gregg L.; Force, Thomas; Nishiyama, Junichiro

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is a key determinant of tissue pathology during tumor development and organ ischemia. However, little is known regarding hypoxic regulation of genes that are directly involved in cell death or death resistance. Here we report the striking induction by severe hypoxia of the anti-apoptotic protein IAP-2. Hypoxic cells with IAP-2 up-regulation became resistant to apoptosis. IAP-2 was induced by hypoxia per se rather than by the secondary effects of hypoxia, including ATP depletion and cell injury. The inductive response did not relate to alterations of cellular redox status or arrest of mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, IAP-2 induction was attenuated by actinomycin D, suggesting a role for gene transcription. In vitro nuclear run-on assays demonstrated specific increases in IAP-2 transcriptional activity after hypoxia exposure. HIF-1, the primary transcription factor that is responsible for multiple gene activation under hypoxia, does not have a role in IAP-2 expression. HIF-1 and IAP-2 were induced by different degrees of hypoxia; severe hypoxia or anoxia was required for IAP-2 induction. Moreover, cobalt chloride and desferrioxamine activated HIF-1 but not IAP-2. Finally, IAP-2 was induced by severe hypoxia in mouse embryonic stem cells that were deficient of HIF-1. Thus, this study not only provides the first demonstration of hypoxic regulation of an anti-apoptotic gene but also suggests the participation of novel hypoxia-responsive transcription mechanisms. PMID:11278985

  15. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  16. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect.

  17. Gene Expression Profiles Deciphering Leaf Senescence Variation between Early- and Late-Senescence Cotton Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A. Egrinya; Li, Weijiang; Lu, Hequan

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence varies greatly among genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutium L), possibly due to the different expression of senescence-related genes. To determine genes involved in leaf senescence, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the main-stem leaves of an early- (K1) and a late-senescence (K2) cotton line at 110 day after planting (DAP) using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis indicated that 1132 genes were up-regulated and 455 genes down-regulated in K1 compared with K2 at 110 DAP. The Solexa data were highly consistent with, and thus were validated by those from real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). Most of the genes related to photosynthesis, anabolism of carbohydrates and other biomolecules were down-regulated, but those for catabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and nutrient recycling were mostly up-regulated in K1 compared with K2. Fifty-one differently expressed hormone-related genes were identified, of which 5 ethylene, 3 brassinosteroid (BR), 5 JA, 18 auxin, 8 GA and 1 ABA related genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, indicating that these hormone-related genes might play crucial roles in early senescence of K1 leaves. Many differently expressed transcription factor (TF) genes were identified and 11 NAC and 8 WRKY TF genes were up-regulated in K1 compared with K2, suggesting that TF genes, especially NAC and WRKY genes were involved in early senescence of K1 leaves. Genotypic variation in leaf senescence was attributed to differently expressed genes, particularly hormone-related and TF genes. PMID:23922821

  18. Ethylene and 1-MCP regulate major volatile biosynthetic pathways in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaotang; Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Forney, Charles; Campbell-Palmer, Leslie; Fillmore, Sherry; Wismer, Paul; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on apple fruit volatile biosynthesis and gene expression were investigated. Statistical analysis identified 17 genes that changed significantly in response to ethylene and 1-MCP treatments. Genes encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT) and amino acid decarboxylases (AADC) were up-regulated during ripening and further enhanced by ethylene treatment. Genes related to fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, including acyl-carrier-proteins (ACPs), malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MCAT), acyl-ACP-desaturase (ACPD), lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC2), β-oxidation, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHD), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD), and alcohol acyltransferases (AATs) also increased during ripening and in response to ethylene treatment. Allene oxide synthase (AOS), alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) decreased in ethylene-treated fruit. Treatment with 1-MCP and ethylene generally produced opposite effects on related genes, which provides evidence that regulation of these genes is ethylene dependent.

  19. Chronic up-regulation of sonic hedgehog has little effect on postnatal craniofacial morphology of euploid and trisomic mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nandini; Dutka, Tara; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ts65Dn, a mouse model of Down syndrome (DS), brain and craniofacial abnormalities that parallel those in people with DS are linked to an attenuated cellular response to sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. If a similarly reduced response to SHH occurs in all trisomic cells, then chronic up-regulation of the pathway might have a positive effect on development in trisomic mice, resulting in amelioration of the craniofacial anomalies. Results We crossed Ts65Dn with Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice and quantified the craniofacial morphology of Ts65Dn;Ptch+/− offspring to assess whether a chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway rescued DS-related anomalies. Ts65Dn;Ptch1+/− mice experience a chronic increase in SHH in SHH-receptive cells due to haploinsufficiency of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1. Chronic up-regulation had minimal effect on craniofacial shape and did not correct facial abnormalities in Ts65Dn;Ptch+/− mice. We further compared effects of this chronic up-regulation of SHH to acute pathway stimulation in mice treated on the day of birth with a SHH pathway agonist, SAG. We found that SHH affects facial morphology differently based on chronic vs. acute postnatal pathway up-regulation. Conclusions Our findings have implications for understanding the function of SHH in craniofacial development and for the potential use of SHH-based agonists to treat DS-related abnormalities. PMID:26509735

  20. Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E

    2007-01-22

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2h. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Up-regulation occurred in both "on" and "stand-by" modes in neurons, but only in "on" mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons or astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes.

  1. Ethylene Production is Associated with Germination but not Seed Dormancy in Red Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gianinetti, Alberto; Laarhoven, Lucas J. J.; Persijn, Stefan T.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Petruzzelli, Luciana

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The relationship between ethylene production and both seed dormancy and germination was investigated using red rice (weedy rice) as a model species. Methods Both fully dormant and after-ripened (non-dormant) naked caryopses were incubated with or without inhibitors of ethylene synthesis [aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)] and perception [silver thiosulfate (STS)], or in the presence of the natural ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The kinetics of ethylene emissions were measured with a sensitive laser–photoacoustic system. Key Results Dormant red rice caryopses did not produce ethylene. In non-dormant caryopses, ethylene evolution never preceded the first visible stage of germination (pericarp splitting), and ethylene inhibitors completely blocked ethylene production, but not pericarp splitting. Accordingly, endogenous ACC appeared to be lacking before pericarp splitting. However, early seedling growth (radicle or coleoptile attaining the length of 1 mm) followed ethylene evolution and was delayed by the inhibitors. Wounding the dormant caryopses induced them to germinate and produce ethylene, but their germination was slow and pericarp splitting could be speeded up by ethylene. Conclusions The findings suggest that, in red rice, endogenous ethylene stimulates the growth of the nascent seedling, but does not affect seed dormancy or germination inception. Correspondingly, this phytohormone does not play a role in the dormancy breakage induced by wounding, but accelerates germination after such breakage has occurred. PMID:17347162

  2. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Stutte, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  3. Ethylene production throughout growth and development of plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Raymond M; Peterson, Barbara V; Stutte, Gary W

    2004-12-01

    Ethylene production by 10 or 20 m2 stands of wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, and tomato was monitored throughout growth and development in an atmospherically closed plant chamber. Chamber ethylene levels varied among species and rose during periods of canopy expansion and rapid growth for all species. Following this, ethylene levels either declined during seed fill and maturation for wheat and soybean, or remained relatively constant for potato and tomato (during flowering and early fruit development). Lettuce plants were harvested during rapid growth and peak ethylene production. Chamber ethylene levels increased rapidly during tomato ripening, reaching concentrations about 10 times that measured during vegetative growth. The highest ethylene production rates during vegetative growth ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 nmol m-2 d-1 during rapid growth of lettuce and wheat stands, or about 0.3 to 0.5 nmol g-1 fresh weight per hour. Estimates of stand ethylene production during tomato ripening showed that rates reached 43 nmol m-2 d-1 in one study and 93 nmol m-2 d-1 in a second study with higher lighting, or about 50x that of the rate during vegetative growth of tomato. In a related test with potato, the photoperiod was extended from 12 to 24 hours (continuous light) at 58 days after planting (to increase tuber yield), but this change in the environment caused a sharp increase in ethylene production from the basal rate of 0.4 to 6.2 nmol m-2 d-1. Following this, the photoperiod was changed back to 12 h at 61 days and ethylene levels decreased. The results suggest three separate categories of ethylene production were observed with whole stands of plants: 1) production during rapid vegetative growth, 2) production during climacteric fruit ripening, and 3) production from environmental stress.

  4. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and perception in the susceptibility of citrus fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection and the accumulation of defence-related mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Jose F; González-Candelas, Luis; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2005-08-01

    Citrus fruits infected with the fungus Penicillium digitatum substantially increase the production of the plant hormone ethylene. In this study, the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in Citrus sinensis-infected fruits and its putative involvement in an active defence response against P. digitatum infection is examined. Ethylene production is demonstrated as being the result of the co-ordinated and differential up-regulation of at least three ethylene biosynthetic genes: ACS1, ACS2, and ACO. Blocking ethylene perception by 1-MCP resulted in an increased ethylene production and ACS2 expression during infection and mechanical wounding, suggesting that this gene is negatively regulated by ethylene. ACO expression was induced by ethylene in the absence of wounding or infection, although further results indicate that its induction during the course of infection may not be primarily mediated by ethylene. Treatment with 1-MCP also increased susceptibility to Penicillium decay, showing an involvement of ethylene perception in promoting defence responses in citrus fruits. The changes in the expression of two defence-related genes up-regulated during infection were also studied: the ones coding for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and an acidic class II chitinase (ACR311). The onset of PAL expression after mechanical wounding or inoculation was not changed in 1-MCP-pretreated fruits, while its later increase during the course of infection was abolished. Chitinase gene induction was more related to mechanical damage and was partially repressed by ethylene. These studies indicate distinct possible regulatory mechanisms of plant fruit defence genes in the context of fungal infection and ethylene perception.

  5. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong-lin; Song, Jin-ning; Ma, Xu-dong; Zhang, Bin-fei; Li, Dan-dong; Pang, Hong-gang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404(p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury. PMID:27482223

  6. Up-regulation of sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather D; Ellis, Dave D; Gilbert, Margarita; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the overexpression of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) on plant growth and metabolism were evaluated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). T(1) transgenic plants expressing either gene under the control of a tandem repeat cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (2x35S) or a xylem-localized 4CL promoter (4-coumarate:CoA ligase; 4CL) were generated, and reciprocally crossed to generate plants expressing both genes. Transcript levels, enzyme activity, growth parameters, fibre properties and carbohydrate content of stem tissue were quantified. The expression profiles of both genes confirmed the expression pattern of the promoters: 2x35S expressed more strongly in leaves, while 4CL expression was highest in stem tissue. In-depth plant characterization revealed that the single-transgene lines showed significant increases in the height growth compared with corresponding control lines. The double-transgene plants demonstrated an additive effect, proving to be even taller than the single-transgene parents. Several of these lines had associated increases in soluble sugar content. Although partitioning of storage carbohydrates into starch or cellulose was not observed, the increased height growth and increases in soluble carbohydrates suggest a role for SuSy as a marker in sink strength and lend credit to the function of UGPase in a similar role. The up-regulation of these two genes, although not increasing the percentage cellulose content, was effective in increasing the total biomass, and thus the overall cellulose yield, from a given plant.

  7. Didymin Induces Apoptosis by Inhibiting N-Myc and up regulating RKIP in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Jyotsana; Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Vatsyayan, Rit; Singhal, Ashutosh; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S

    2011-01-01

    Neuroblastomas arise from the neural crest cells and represent the most common solid tumors outside the nervous system in children. The amplification of N-Myc plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastomas whereas acquired mutations of p53 lead to refractory and relapsed cases of neuroblastomas. In this regard, dietary compounds which can target N-Myc and exert anti-cancer effects independent of p53 status acquire significance in the management of neuroblastomas. Hence, we investigated the anti-cancer properties of the flavonoid didymin in neuroblastomas. Didymin effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis irrespective of p53 status in neuroblastomas. Didymin down regulated PI3K, pAkt, Akt, vimentin and up regulated RKIP levels. Didymin induced G2/M arrest along with decreasing the levels of cyclin D1, CDK4 and cyclin B1. Importantly, didymin inhibited NMyc as confirmed at protein, mRNA and transcriptional level by promoter-reporter assays. HPLC analysis of didymin (2 mg/kg b.w.) treated mice serum revealed effective oral absorption with free didymin concentration of 2.1 μM. Further in vivo mice xenograft studies revealed that didymin (2 mg/kg b.w.) treated animals had significant reductions in tumors size compared to controls. Didymin strongly inhibited the proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis (CD31) markers as well as N-Myc expression as revealed by the histopathological examination of paraffin embedded section of resected tumors. Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo studies elucidated the anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of a novel, orally active and palatable flavonoid didymin which makes it a potential new approach for neuroblastoma therapy (NANT) to target pediatric neuroblastomas. PMID:22174364

  8. Molecular characterization of Ran gene up-regulated in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) immunity.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Yao, Cui-luan; Wang, Zhi-yong

    2010-08-01

    RanGTPase, one family of small G protein superfamily, has been widely demonstrated to be involved in transport system between cytoplasm and nucleus. However the knowledge about the function of RanGTPase in immunity remains limited. In this report, Ran gene (named LycRan) cDNA was cloned from the large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, a marine fish. The full-length cDNA of LycRan was of 1033 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 43 bp, 3'-terminal UTR of 338 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp encoding a polypeptide of 216 amino acids. The deduced protein is highly homologous, it shares 90.74%, 88.89%, 89.35% and 85.20% identities with those of salmon, frog, human and fruit fly respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that LycRan gene was constitutively expressed in 9 tissues examined, including kidney, liver, gill, muscle, spleen, skin, heart, intestine and blood. The result of quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis revealed the highest expression in kidney and the weakest expression in skin. Time course analysis showed that LycRan expression was obviously up-regulated in kidney, blood and spleen after immunization with either poly I:C or formalin-inactive Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It indicated that the highest expression was 2.8 times (at 48 h) as much as that in the control in the kidney (p < 0.05) challenged by poly I:C and 3.2 times (at 24 h) in the blood (p < 0.05) challenged by bacteria. These results suggested that LycRan might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against the pathogen infection. Our study, therefore, might provide a clue to elucidate the large yellow croaker innate immunity.

  9. Salsolinol Up-Regulates Oxytocin Expression and Release During Lactation in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Górski, K; Marciniak, E; Zielińska-Górska, M; Misztal, T

    2016-03-01

    Salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) is a dopamine-derived compound present in the central nervous system and pituitary gland. Several previous studies on lactating sheep and rats have reported that salsolinol plays a crucial role in the regulation of prolactin secretion. The present study investigated the effects of salsolinol, which was infused into the third ventricle of the brain, on oxytocin expression and release in lactating sheep, 48 h after weaning of 8-week-old lambs. Serial 30-min infusions of salsolinol and vehicle were performed at 30-min intervals from 10.00 to 15.00 h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min. The supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and posterior pituitary were collected immediately after the experiment. Expression levels of mRNAs for oxytocin and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the terminal enzyme in the oxytocin synthesis pathway, were measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Oxytocin peptide content in the posterior pituitary was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and plasma oxytocin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salsolinol treatment significantly up-regulated oxytocin and PAM gene expression in the SON (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), PVN (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and posterior pituitary (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Oxytocin peptide content in the posterior pituitary and the area under the response curve of plasma oxytocin were significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) higher in salsolinol-treated sheep than in control animals. The present study shows for the first time that salsolinol stimulates oxytocin secretion during lactation in sheep.

  10. Up-Regulated Expression of SPRY4-IT1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenlong; Song, Zi-zheng; Xu, Qunfang; Qu, Xinyan; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yu; Yu, Qun; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (lncRNA SPRY4-IT1) has been reported to be associated with the progression of several cancers, but its expression level in colorectal cancer (CRC) has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical significance of SPRY4-IT1 in CRC. Material/Methods The relative expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in diseased tissues and the adjacent normal tissues of 106 CRC patients. Chi-square method was used to evaluate the association between SPRY4-IT1 expression and the clinical features. Additionally, we assessed the overall survival at different expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 using Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of SPRY4-IT1 was estimated by Cox regression analysis. Results Up-regulated level of SPRY4-IT1 was detected in pathologic tissues of CRC patients compared with adjacent normal tissues (P=0.000). The relative expression of SPRY4-IT1 was associated with the tumor size, the depth of invasion, lymph node invasion, distant invasion, and tumor stage (P<0.05). Patients with high expression of SPRY4-IT1 had poor overall survival compared with those with high level (39.3 vs. 49.3 months, log-rank test, P=0.016). Cox regression analysis showed that SPRY4-IT1 could act as an independent prognostic factor in CRC (HR=2.341, 95% CI=1.136–4.826, P=0.021). Conclusions SPRY4-IT1 might be associated with tumorigenesis and progression of CRC, and it may be a promising biomarker for prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:28099409

  11. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress-Induced Up-Regulation of Occludin Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dokladny, Karol; Ye, Dongmei; Kennedy, John C.; Moseley, Pope L.; Ma, Thomas Y.

    2008-01-01

    The heat stress (HS)-induced increase in occludin protein expression has been postulated to be a protective response against HS-induced disruption of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cellular and molecular processes that mediate the HS-induced up-regulation of occludin expression in Caco-2 cells. Exposure to HS (39°C or 41°C) resulted in increased expression of occludin protein; this was preceded by an increase in occludin mRNA transcription and promoter activity. HS-induced activation of heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) resulted in cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of HSF-1 and binding to its binding motif in the occludin promoter region. HSF-1 activation was associated with an increase in occludin promoter activity, mRNA transcription, and protein expression; which were abolished by the HSF-1 inhibitor quercetin. Targeted HSF-1 knock-down by siRNA transfection inhibited the HSF-1-induced increase in occulin expression and junctional localization of occulin protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of the HSF-1 binding motif in the occludin promoter region inhibited HS-induced binding of HSF-1 to the occludin promoter region and subsequent promoter activity. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that the HS-induced increase in occludin protein expression is mediated by HSF-1 activation and subsequent binding of HSF-1 to the occludin promoter, which initiates a series of molecular and cellular events culminating in increased junctional localization of occludin protein. PMID:18276783

  12. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-02-09

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2(+)/ErbB2(+)) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  13. Gallium arsenide selectively up-regulates inflammatory cytokine expression at exposure site.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen M; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2003-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a technologically and economically important semiconductor, is widely utilized in both military and commercial applications. This chemical is a potential health hazard as a carcinogen and immunotoxicant. We previously reported that macrophages at the exposure site exhibit characteristics of activation. In vitro culture of macrophages with GaAs fails to recapitulate the in vivo phenotype, suggesting that complete GaAs-mediated activation in vivo may require other cells or components found in the body's microenvironment. Our present study examined the role of cytokines upon GaAs-mediated macrophage activation. Intraperitoneal administration of GaAs elicited rapid specific recruitment of blood monocytes to the exposure site. This recruitment occurred concomitant with up-regulation of 17 chemokine and inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, while transcripts of three inhibitory cytokines diminished. Administration of latex beads caused less cytokine induction than GaAs, indicating that changes in mRNA levels could not be attributed to phagocytosis. Four representative chemokines and cytokines were selected for further analysis. Increased cytokine mRNA expression was paralleled by similar increases in cytokine protein levels, and secreted protein products were detected in peritoneal fluid. Cytokine protein expression was constrained to myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent to B cells. Alterations in patterns of cytokine gene expression elucidate mechanisms for increased cellular activation and antigen processing, and modulation of the inflammatory response. Our findings indicate that in vivo GaAs exposure alters cytokine gene expression, which may lead to an inflammatory reaction and contribute to pathological tissue damage.

  14. Modified AS1411 Aptamer Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Up-Regulating Galectin-14

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Jong In; Im, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Oh, Eun Ju; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are small synthetic oligonucleotides that bind to target proteins with high specificity and affinity. AS1411 is an aptamer that binds to nucleolin, which is overexpressed in the cytoplasm and occurs on the surface of cancer cells. We investigated the therapeutic potential of aptamers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by evaluating anti-tumor effects and confirming the affinity and specificity of AS1411- and modified AS1411-aptamers in HCC cells. Cell growth was assessed using the MTS assay, and cell death signaling was explored by immunoblot analysis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed to evaluate the affinity and specificity of AS1411-aptamers in SNU-761 HCC cells. We investigated the in vivo effects of the AS1411-aptamer using BALB/c nude mice in a subcutaneous xenograft model with SNU-761 cells. Treatment with a modified AS1411-aptamer significantly decreased in vitro (under normoxic [P = 0.035] and hypoxic [P = 0.018] conditions) and in vivo (under normoxic conditions, P = 0.041) HCC cell proliferation compared to control aptamers. AS1411- and control aptamers failed to control HCC cell proliferation. However, AS1411- and the modified AS1411-aptamer did not induce caspase activation. Decrease in cell growth by AS1411 or modified AS1411 was not prevented by caspase or necrosis inhibitors. In a microarray, AS1411 significantly enhanced galectin-14 expression. Suppression of HCC cell proliferation by the modified AS1411-aptamer was attenuated by galectin-14 siRNA transfection. Modified AS1411-aptamer suppressed HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo by up-regulating galectin-14 expressions. Modified AS1411-aptamers may have therapeutic potential as a novel targeted therapy for HCC. PMID:27494117

  15. Wheat VIN3-like PHD finger genes are up-regulated by vernalization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Daolin; Dunbar, Mignon; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2007-03-01

    The term 'vernalization' describes the acceleration of the transition between the vegetative and reproductive stages after exposing plants to an extended period of low temperature. In Arabidopsis, vernalization promotes flowering by silencing the flowering repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Mitotically stable repression of FLC is the result of chromatin modifications mediated by the Vernalization-INsensitive 3 (VIN3) and VIN3-Like (VIL) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized three VIL genes in diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), named TmVIL1, TmVIL2, and TmVIL3. Similar to Arabidopsis VIN3, all three wheat VIL proteins carry three conserved domains including a plant homeodomain finger motif (PHD), a fibronectin type III domain (FNIII), and a VIN3 interacting domain (VID). Genetic mapping placed TmVIL1, TmVIL2, and TmVIL3 loci in the centromeric regions of chromosome 5, 6, and 1, respectively. The chromosome location of TmVIL1 is close to that of the vernalization gene VRN-D5, but more precise mapping information is required to validate this relationship. Transcription of the wheat VIL genes was up-regulated by vernalization, with a peak after 4-6 weeks of cold treatment. When transferred back to warm conditions, transcript levels of the wheat VIL genes returned to pre-vernalization levels. In addition, the transcript levels of wheat VIL genes are affected by photoperiod. This study indicates that wheat VIL genes have retained a similar structure and transcriptional regulation as their Arabidopsis VIN3/VIL homologues, suggesting that they might have retained some of their functions.

  16. Lysophosphatidic Acid Up-Regulates Hexokinase II and Glycolysis to Promote Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abir; Ma, Yibao; Yuan, Fang; Gong, Yongling; Fang, Zhenyu; Mohamed, Esraa M; Berrios, Erika; Shao, Huanjie; Fang, Xianjun

    2015-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a blood-borne lipid mediator, is present in elevated concentrations in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and other malignant effusions. LPA is a potent mitogen in cancer cells. The mechanism linking LPA signal to cancer cell proliferation is not well understood. Little is known about whether LPA affects glucose metabolism to accommodate rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Here we describe that in ovarian cancer cells, LPA enhances glycolytic rate and lactate efflux. A real time PCR-based miniarray showed that hexokinase II (HK2) was the most dramatically induced glycolytic gene to promote glycolysis in LPA-treated cells. Analysis of the human HK2 gene promoter identified the sterol regulatory element-binding protein as the primary mediator of LPA-induced HK2 transcription. The effects of LPA on HK2 and glycolysis rely on LPA2, an LPA receptor subtype overexpressed in ovarian cancer and many other malignancies. We further examined the general role of growth factor-induced glycolysis in cell proliferation. Like LPA, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited robust glycolytic and proliferative responses in ovarian cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, however, potently stimulated cell proliferation but only modestly induced glycolysis. Consistent with their differential effects on glycolysis, LPA and EGF-dependent cell proliferation was highly sensitive to glycolytic inhibition while the growth-promoting effect of IGF-1 or insulin was more resistant. These results indicate that LPA- and EGF-induced cell proliferation selectively involves up-regulation of HK2 and glycolytic metabolism. The work is the first to implicate LPA signaling in promotion of glucose metabolism in cancer cells.

  17. Resveratrol inhibits IL-6-induced ovarian cancer cell migration through epigenetic up-regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Alessandra; Phadngam, Suratchanee; Morani, Federica; Galetto, Alessandra; Alabiso, Oscar; Chiorino, Giovanna; Isidoro, Ciro

    2017-03-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by cancer-associated fibroblasts, has been linked to the invasive and metastatic behavior of ovarian cancer cells. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol with the potential to inhibit cancer cell migration. Here we show that Resveratrol and IL-6 affect in an opposite manner the expression of RNA messengers and of microRNAs involved in cell locomotion and extracellular matrix remodeling associated with the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells. Among the several potential candidates responsible for the anti-invasive effect promoted by Resveratrol, here we focused our attention on ARH-I (DIRAS3), that encodes a Ras homolog GTPase of 26-kDa. This protein is known to inhibit cell motility, and it has been shown to regulate autophagy by interacting with BECLIN 1. IL-6 down-regulated the expression of ARH-I and inhibited the formation of LC3-positive autophagic vacuoles, while promoting cell migration. On opposite, Resveratrol could counteract the IL-6 induction of cell migration in ovarian cancer cells through induction of autophagy in the cells at the migration front, which was paralleled by up-regulation of ARH-I and down-regulation of STAT3 expression. Spautin 1-mediated disruption of BECLIN 1-dependent autophagy abrogated the effects of Resveratrol, while promoting cell migration. The present data indicate that Resveratrol elicits its anti-tumor effect through epigenetic mechanisms and support its inclusion in the chemotherapy regimen for highly aggressive ovarian cancers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.

  19. Up-regulation of niacinamide in intervertebral disc aggrecan in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoqian; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Zirui; Duan, Deyu

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory effects of niacinamide (Nia) on intervertebral disc (IVD) aggrecan in vitro was investigated. Chiba's 10 ng/mL interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced rabbit IVD degeneration model in vitro was established. 0.5, 0.25 and 0.05 mg/mL Nia was added to normal and degenerated IVDs for intervention. On the first and second week after intervention, safranin O-fast green staining intensity and glycosaminoglycan (GS) content were measured. The expression of aggrecan core protein was detected by RT-PCR. The results showed: (1) After treatment with 0.5 mg/mL Nia for one week, the GS content in nucleus pulposus (NP) was increased by 44.8% as compared with control group (P < 0 01); The GS content in IL-1 induction groups was increased with the increase of Nia concentrations: After treatment with 0.5 mg/mL for one week, the GS content in NP was increased by 68.3% as compared with control group (P < 0.01). After two weeks, GS content in NP and fibrous rings was still higher than in control group at the same period (P < 0.01) and untreated group (P < 0.01). (2) Safranin O-fast green staining revealed that with the increase of Nia concentrations, staining density in NP and fibrous rings was increased and histological structure damage to IVDs by IL-1beta was alleviated. (3) RT-PCR showed that the expression of core protein gene in IL-1beta-induced degenerated IVDS was increased with the increase of Nia concentrations. It was concluded that under conditions in vitro, Nia could up-regulate the expression of aggrecan in IVDs and protect IVDs from IL-1beta-induced degeneration at least partially, which offers a potential choice for IVD degeneration clinical therapy.

  20. Up-regulation of inducible heat shock protein-70 expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, María José; Comabella, Manuel; Río, Jordi; Castilló, Joaquín; Castillo, Mireia; Martin, Roland; Montalban, Xavier; Espejo, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Inducible heat shock protein (HSP)70 (HSP70-1A and HSP70-1B proteins) is a chaperone responsible for assisting proper protein folding. Following stress conditions, HSP70 is highly up-regulated to mediate cytoprotective functions. In addition, HSP70 is able to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses that promote the immune recognition of antigens and to act as a cytokine when it is released. The data in the literature are controversial with regard to expression studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the present study, we aimed to examine if alterations of HSP70-1A/B expression are involved in the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We determined both mRNA and protein expression in PBMCs of MS patients and healthy donors (HDs). We found a baseline increased expression of the HSPA1A gene in PBMCs from MS patients compared with HDs. Gene expression findings were associated with an increased protein expression of HSP70-1A/B in T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) and monocytes from MS patients under basal conditions that may reflect the immunological activation occurring in MS patients. We also provided evidence that heat shock (HS) stimulus induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in HDs and MS patients, and that HS-induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in monocytes correlated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline in MS patients. However, after lipopolysaccharide inflammatory stimulus, monocytes from MS patients failed to induce HSP70-1A/B protein expression. Our data hint at altered immune responses in MS and may indicate either a state of chronic stress or increased vulnerability to physiological immune responses in MS patients.

  1. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  2. Argonaute 2 is up-regulated in tissues of urothelial carcinoma of bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng-Qiang; Huang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Min; Yang, Feng-Ping; Li, Wei; Wang, Guang-Chun; Che, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute 2 proteins (Ago2) have been demonstrated to be widely expressed and involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and play key roles in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and prognostic value in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) have not been investigated. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to explore Ago2 expression in UCBs and normal bladder tissues. Moreover immunohistochemistry (ICH) was used to detect the expression of Ago2 in UCBs. Spearman’s rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze the data. Results: Up-regulated expression of Ago2 mRNA and protein was observed in the majority of UCBs by qRT-PCR and Western blot when compared with their paired normal bladder tissues. Clinic pathological analysis was showed a significant correlation existed between the higher expression of Ago2 protein with the Histological grade, lymph node metastasis and Distant metastasis (P<0.05); Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test demonstrated that elevated Ago2 expression in cancer tissue predicted poorer overall survival (OS) compared with group in lower expression (62.2% VS 86.3%, P<0.05). Notably, multivariate analyses by Cox’s proportional hazard model revealed that expression of Ago2 was an independent prognostic factor in UCB. Conclusions: These results suggest that the aberrant expression of Ago2 in human UCB is possibly involved with tumorigenesis and development, and the Ago2 protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of bladder cancer. Further studies on the cellular functions of Ago2 need to address these issues. PMID:24427355

  3. Winter down-regulation of intrinsic photosynthetic capacity coupled with up-regulation of Elip-like proteins and persistent energy dissipation in a subalpine forest.

    PubMed

    Zarter, C Ryan; Adams, William W; Ebbert, Volker; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Adamska, Iwona; Demmig-Adams, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overwintering, sun-exposed and photosynthetically inactive evergreens require powerful photoprotection. The goal of this study was to seasonally characterize photosynthesis and key proteins/components involved in electron transport and photoprotection. Maximal photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and photosynthetic capacity, amounts of zeaxanthin (Z), antheraxanthin (A), pheophytin and proteins (oxygen-evolving 33 kDa protein (OEC), PSII core protein D1 and subunit S (PsbS) protein, and members of the early light-inducible protein (Elip) family) were assessed in five conifer species at high altitude and in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) at moderate altitude during summer and winter. Relative to summer, winter down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity and loss of PSII efficiency at the high-altitude sites were paralleled by decreases in OEC, D1, and pheophytin; massive nocturnal retention of (Z + A) and up-regulation of two to four proteins cross-reactive with anti-Elip antibodies; and no change in PsbS amount. By contrast, ponderosa pine at moderate altitude exhibited no down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity, smaller depressions in PSII efficiency, and less up-regulation of Elip family members. These results support a function for members of the Elip family in the acclimation of sun-exposed needles that down-regulate photosynthesis during winter. A possible role in sustained photoprotection is considered.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent up-regulation of intracellular calcium concentration by environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human endothelial HMEC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Mayati, Abdullah; Le Ferrec, Eric; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Fardel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) constitute a major family of widely-distributed environmental toxic contaminants, known as potent ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). B(a)P has been recently shown to trigger an early and transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), involved in AhR-related up-regulation of target genes by B(a)P. This study was designed to determine whether AhR may play a role in [Ca(2+)](i) induction provoked by B(a)P. We demonstrated that, in addition to B(a)P, various PAHs, including pyrene and benzo(e)pyrene, known to not or only very poorly interact with AhR, similarly up-regulated [Ca(2+)](i) in human endothelial HMEC-1 cells. Moreover, α-naphthoflavone, a flavonoïd antagonist of AhR, was also able to induce [Ca(2+)](i). Knocking-down AhR expression in HMEC-1 cells through transfection of siRNAs, was finally demonstrated to not prevent B(a)P-mediated induction of [Ca(2+)](i), whereas it efficiently counteracted B(a)P-mediated induction of the referent AhR target gene cytochrome P-450 1B1. Taken together, these data demonstrate that environmental PAHs trigger [Ca(2+)](i) induction in an AhR-independent manner.

  5. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins involved in ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Taotao; Yun, Ze; Zhang, Dandan; Yang, Chengwei; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the mechanism involved in ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit, a gel-based proteomic study followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS was carried out. Banana fruit were treated with 500 ppm ethylene for 12 h and then stored at 6°C. During cold storage, the chilling tolerance was assessed and the proteins from the peel were extracted for proteomic analysis. It was observed that ethylene pretreatment significantly induced the chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit, manifesting as increases in maximal chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and decreased electrolyte leakage. Sixty-four proteins spots with significant differences in abundance were identified, most of which were induced by ethylene pretreatment during cold storage. The up-regulated proteins induced by ethylene pretreatment were mainly related to energy metabolism, stress response and defense, methionine salvage cycle and protein metabolism. These proteins were involved in ATP synthesis, ROS scavenging, protective compounds synthesis, protein refolding and degradation, and polyamine biosynthesis. It is suggested that these up-regulated proteins might play a role in the ethylene-induced chilling tolerance in harvested banana fruit. PMID:26528309

  6. Ossotide promotes cell differentiation of human osteoblasts from osteogenesis imperfecta patients by up-regulating miR-145.

    PubMed

    Sun, Keming; Wang, Junjian; Liu, Fangna; Ji, Zejuan; Guo, Zhanhao; Zhang, Chunxu; Yao, Manye

    2016-10-01

    Ossotide as an effective bone formation compound preparation has been proved to promote osteoblasts differentiation. MiR-145 is significantly decreased in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) patients, but it is still unknown whether ossotide performed its effect by regulating miR-145. In this study, we investigated the effect of ossotide on regulating miR-145 expression and osteoblasts differentiation. The primary osteoblasts cells were isolated from OI patients and then cultured with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200μg/l) of ossotide. The cell proliferation was detected with CCK-8 Elisa kit after ossotide treatment. The level of miR-145 expression was determined using qRT-PCR. In order to study whether ossotide up regulated miR-145, miR-145 mimic and miR-145 inhibitor were used to up regulate and down regulate the miR-145 levels in osteoblasts. The expressions of Runx2, Osx, β-catenin, TCF-1 were detected using Western blot and qRT-PCR. We observed that miR-145 was up regulated by ossotide treatment in miR-145 mimic or miR-145 inhibitor treated osteoblasts. What's more, up regulated miR-145 increased the expression of osteoblasts differentiation regulated protein Runx2 and Osx. In addition, Wnt signaling related β-catenin, TCF-1 were activated by up-regulated miR-145 which was induced by ossotide treatment. In summary, ossotide induced cell differentiation and Wnt signaling activation in osteoblasts by up regulating miR-145.

  7. Expression of a chitin deacetylase gene, up-regulated in Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1, under nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Writachit; Sarkar, Soumyadev; Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-05-01

    This study reports the identification of a chitin deacetylase gene in Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1 over-expressing under nitrogen limitation by differential display. The up-regulation took place in robustly growing cells rather than in starving quiescent autophagic cells. Quantitative Real Time-PCR, enzyme activity in cell lysate and cell wall analysis corroborated the up-regulation of chitin deacetylase under nitrogen limitation. These results suggest chitin deacetylase might play a significant role in nitrogen limiting growth of Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1.

  8. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joshua B.; Milner, Dallin C.; Lewis, Adam L.; Dunaway, Todd M.; Egbert, Kaleb M.; Albright, Scott C.; Merrell, Brigham J.; Monson, Troy D.; Broberg, Dallin S.; Gassman, Jason R.; Thomas, Daniel B.; Arroyo, Juan A.; Reynolds, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating

  9. Up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor in endothelial cells by the microtubule-destabilizing agent combretastatin A-4.

    PubMed

    Samarin, Jana; Rehm, Margot; Krueger, Bettina; Waschke, Jens; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2009-02-01

    Incubation of microvascular endothelial cells with combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4P), a microtubule-destabilizing compound that preferentially targets tumor vessels, altered cell morphology and induced scattering of Golgi stacks. Concomitantly, CA-4P up-regulated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a pleiotropic factor with antiangiogenic properties. In contrast to the effects of other microtubule-targeting agents such as colchicine or nocodazole, up-regulation of CTGF was only detectable in sparse cells, which were not embedded in a cell monolayer. Furthermore, CA-4P induced CTGF expression in endothelial cells, forming tube-like structures on basement membrane gels. Up-regulation of CTGF by CA-4P was dependent on Rho kinase signaling and was increased when p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase was inhibited. Additionally, FoxO transcription factors were identified as potent regulators of CTGF expression in endothelial cells. Activation of FoxO transcription factors by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling resulted in a synergistic increase in CA-4P-mediated CTGF induction. CA-4P-mediated expression of CTGF was thus potentiated by the inhibition of kinase pathways, which are targets of novel antineoplastic drugs. Up-regulation of CTGF by low concentrations of CA-4P may thus occur in newly formed tumor vessels and contribute to the microvessel destabilization and antiangiogenic effects of CA-4P observed in vivo.

  10. PMA-induced dissociation of Ku86 from the promoter causes transcriptional up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Kohei; Terao, Takuma; Sakamoto, Noriko; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Adachi, Tsubasa; Ono, Shohei; Sasaki, Yohei; Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is up-regulated in patients with allergic rhinitis, and its expression level strongly correlates with the severity of symptoms. However, the mechanism underlying this remains unknown. Here we report the mechanism of H1R gene up-regulation. The luciferase assay revealed the existence of two promoter regions, A and B1. Two AP-1 and one Ets-1 bound to region A, while Ku86, Ku70, and PARP-1 bound to region B1. Ku86 was responsible for DNA binding and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated in response to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulation, inducing its dissociation from region B1 that is crucial for promoter activity. Knockdown of Ku86 gene enhanced up-regulation of H1R gene expression. Experiments using inhibitors for MEK and PARP-1 indicate that regions A and B1 are downstream regulatory elements of the PKCδ/ERK/PARP-1 signaling pathway. Data suggest a novel mechanism for the up-regulation of H1R gene expression. PMID:23209876

  11. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Kiso, Hironori; Ohba, Takayoshi; Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression.

  12. Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Up-Regulates Apoptosis Genes in Primary Cultures of Neurons and Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2007-01-01

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900 MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2 hrs. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Upregulation occurred in both “on” and “stand-by” modes in neurons, but only in “on” mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons and astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes. PMID:17187929

  13. Hfr-2, a wheat cytolytic toxin-like gene, is up-regulated by virulent Hessian fly larval feedingdouble dagger.

    PubMed

    Puthoff, David P; Sardesai, Nagesh; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Nemacheck, Jill A; Williams, Christie E

    2005-07-01

    SUMMARY Both yield and grain-quality are dramatically decreased when susceptible wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants are infested by Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larvae. Examination of the changes in wheat gene expression during infestation by virulent Hessian fly larvae has identified the up-regulation of a gene, Hessian fly responsive-2 (Hfr-2), which contains regions similar to genes encoding seed-specific agglutinin proteins from Amaranthus. Hfr-2, however, did not accumulate in developing seeds, as do other wheat seed storage proteins. Additionally, a separate region of the HFR-2 predicted amino acid sequence is similar to haemolytic proteins, from both mushroom and bacteria, that are able to form pores in cell membranes of mammalian red blood cells. The involvement of Hfr-2 in interactions with insects was supported by experiments demonstrating its up-regulation by both fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) infestations but not by virus infection. Examination of wheat defence response pathways showed Hfr-2 up-regulation following methyl jasmonate treatment and only slight up-regulation in response to salicylic acid, abscisic acid and wounding treatments. Like related proteins, HFR-2 may normally function in defence against certain insects or pathogens. However, we propose that as virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the physiology of the susceptible host, the HFR-2 protein inserts in plant cell membranes at the feeding sites and by forming pores provides water, ions and other small nutritive molecules to the developing larvae.

  14. Synergistic Action of Genistein and Calcitriol in Immature Osteosarcoma MG-63 Cells by SGPL1 Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Nadja; Adamus, Anna; Schauer, Nicolas; Kühn, Juliane; Nebe, Barbara; Seitz, Guido; Kraft, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Background Phytoestrogens such as genistein, the most prominent isoflavone from soy, show concentration-dependent anti-estrogenic or estrogenic effects. High genistein concentrations (>10 μM) also promote proliferation of bone cancer cells in vitro. On the other hand, the most active component of the vitamin D family, calcitriol, has been shown to be tumor protective in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine a putative synergism of genistein and calcitriol in two osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 (early osteoblast), Saos-2 (mature osteoblast) and primary osteoblasts. Methods Thus, an initial screening based on cell cycle phase alterations, estrogen (ER) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, live cell metabolic monitoring, and metabolomics were performed. Results Exposure to the combination of 100 μM genistein and 10 nM calcitriol reduced the number of proliferative cells to control levels, increased ERß and VDR expression, and reduced extracellular acidification (40%) as well as respiratory activity (70%), primarily in MG-63 cells. In order to identify the underlying cellular mechanisms in the MG-63 cell line, metabolic profiling via GC/MS technology was conducted. Combined treatment significantly influenced lipids and amino acids preferably, whereas metabolites of the energy metabolism were not altered. The comparative analysis of the log2-ratios revealed that after combined treatment only the metabolite ethanolamine was highly up-regulated. This is the result: a strong overexpression (350%) of the enzyme sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SGPL1), which irreversibly degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), thereby, generating ethanolamine. S1P production and secretion is associated with an increased capability of migration and invasion of cancer cells. Conclusion From these results can be concluded that the tumor promoting effect of high concentrations of genistein in immature osteosarcoma cells is reduced by the co-administration of calcitriol

  15. Betel-derived alkaloid up-regulates keratinocyte alphavbeta6 integrin expression and promotes oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moutasim, Karwan A; Jenei, Veronika; Sapienza, Karen; Marsh, Daniel; Weinreb, Paul H; Violette, Shelia M; Lewis, Mark P; Marshall, John F; Fortune, Farida; Tilakaratne, Waninayaka M; Hart, Ian R; Thomas, Gareth J

    2011-02-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant, fibrosing disorder of the mouth, pharynx, and oesophagus, with a malignant transformation rate of 7-13%. OSF is strongly associated with areca (betel) nut chewing and worldwide, over 5 million people are affected. As αvβ6 integrin is capable of promoting both tissue fibrosis and carcinoma invasion, we examined its expression in fibroepithelial hyperplasia and OSF. αvβ6 was markedly up-regulated in OSF, with high expression detected in 22 of 41 cases (p < 0.001). We investigated the functional role of αvβ6 using oral keratinocyte-derived cells genetically modified to express high αvβ6 (VB6), and also NTERT-immortalized oral keratinocytes, which express low αvβ6 (OKF6/TERT-1). VB6 cells showed significant αvβ6-dependent activation of TGF-β1, which induced transdifferentiation of oral fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and resulted in up-regulation of genes associated with tissue fibrosis. These experimental in vitro findings were confirmed using human clinical samples, where we showed that the stroma of OSF contained myofibroblasts and that TGF-β1-dependent Smad signalling was detectable both in keratinocytes and in myofibroblasts. We also found that arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nuts, up-regulated keratinocyte αvβ6 expression. This was modulated through the M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and was suppressed by the M(4) antagonist, tropicamide. Arecoline-dependent αvβ6 up-regulation promoted keratinocyte migration and induced invasion, raising the possibility that this mechanism may support malignant transformation. Over 80% of OSF-related oral cancers examined had moderate/high αvβ6 expression. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of OSF may be epithelial-driven and involve arecoline-dependent up-regulation of αvβ6 integrin.

  16. Ethylene Regulates the Arabidopsis Microtubule-Associated Protein WAVE-DAMPENED2-LIKE5 in Etiolated Hypocotyl Elongation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingbo; Ma, Qianqian; Mao, Tonglin

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene plays crucial roles in the negative regulation of plant etiolated hypocotyl elongation. The microtubule cytoskeleton also participates in hypocotyl cell growth. However, it remains unclear if ethylene signaling-mediated etiolated hypocotyl elongation involves the microtubule cytoskeleton. In this study, we functionally identified the previously uncharacterized microtubule-associated protein WAVE-DAMPENED2-LIKE5 (WDL5) as a microtubule-stabilizing protein that plays a positive role in ethylene-regulated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3, a key transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway, directly targets and up-regulates WDL5. Etiolated hypocotyls from a WDL5 loss-of-function mutant (wdl5-1) were more insensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid treatment than the wild type. Decreasing WDL5 expression partially rescued the shorter etiolated hypocotyl phenotype in the ethylene overproduction mutant eto1-1. Reorganization of cortical microtubules in etiolated hypocotyl cells from the wdl5-1 mutant was less sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid treatment. These findings indicate that WDL5 is an important participant in ethylene signaling inhibition of etiolated hypocotyl growth. This study reveals a mechanism involved in the ethylene regulation of microtubules through WDL5 to inhibit etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. PMID:26134166

  17. Ethylene Regulates the Arabidopsis Microtubule-Associated Protein WAVE-DAMPENED2-LIKE5 in Etiolated Hypocotyl Elongation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingbo; Ma, Qianqian; Mao, Tonglin

    2015-09-01

    The phytohormone ethylene plays crucial roles in the negative regulation of plant etiolated hypocotyl elongation. The microtubule cytoskeleton also participates in hypocotyl cell growth. However, it remains unclear if ethylene signaling-mediated etiolated hypocotyl elongation involves the microtubule cytoskeleton. In this study, we functionally identified the previously uncharacterized microtubule-associated protein WAVE-DAMPENED2-LIKE5 (WDL5) as a microtubule-stabilizing protein that plays a positive role in ethylene-regulated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3, a key transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway, directly targets and up-regulates WDL5. Etiolated hypocotyls from a WDL5 loss-of-function mutant (wdl5-1) were more insensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid treatment than the wild type. Decreasing WDL5 expression partially rescued the shorter etiolated hypocotyl phenotype in the ethylene overproduction mutant eto1-1. Reorganization of cortical microtubules in etiolated hypocotyl cells from the wdl5-1 mutant was less sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid treatment. These findings indicate that WDL5 is an important participant in ethylene signaling inhibition of etiolated hypocotyl growth. This study reveals a mechanism involved in the ethylene regulation of microtubules through WDL5 to inhibit etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation.

  18. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinrui; Drummond, Bruce J; Wang, Hongyu; Archibald, Rayeann L; Habben, Jeffrey E

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize.

  19. Maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS Proteins Interact with Ethylene Receptor Signaling Complex, Supporting a Regulatory Role for ARGOS in Ethylene Signal Transduction[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinrui; Wang, Hongyu; Habben, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to environmental cues. ARGOS genes reduce plant sensitivity to ethylene when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). A previous genetic study suggested that the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi-localized maize ARGOS1 targets the ethylene signal transduction components at or upstream of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, but the mechanism of ARGOS modulating ethylene signaling is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in Arabidopsis that ZmARGOS1, as well as the Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1, physically interacts with Arabidopsis REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1), an ethylene receptor interacting protein that regulates the activity of ETHYLENE RESPONSE1. The protein-protein interaction was also detected with the yeast split-ubiquitin two-hybrid system. Using the same yeast assay, we found that maize RTE1 homolog REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 LIKE4 (ZmRTL4) and ZmRTL2 also interact with maize and Arabidopsis ARGOS proteins. Like AtRTE1 in Arabidopsis, ZmRTL4 and ZmRTL2 reduce ethylene responses when overexpressed in maize, indicating a similar mechanism for ARGOS regulating ethylene signaling in maize. A polypeptide fragment derived from ZmARGOS8, consisting of a Pro-rich motif flanked by two transmembrane helices that are conserved among members of the ARGOS family, can interact with AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins in Arabidopsis. The conserved domain is necessary and sufficient to reduce ethylene sensitivity in Arabidopsis and maize. Overall, these results suggest a physical association between ARGOS and the ethylene receptor signaling complex via AtRTE1 and maize RTL proteins, supporting a role for ARGOS in regulating ethylene perception and the early steps of signal transduction in Arabidopsis and maize. PMID:27268962

  20. Ethylene in mutualistic symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Khatabi, Behnam; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is a gaseous phytohormone that participates in various plant physiological processes and essentially contributes to plant immunity. ET conducts its functions by regulating the expression of ET-responsive genes or in crosstalk with other hormones. Several recent studies have shown the significance of ET in the establishment and development of plant-microbe interactions. Therefore, it is not surprising that pathogens and mutualistic symbionts target ET synthesis or signaling to colonize plants. This review introduces the significance of ET metabolism in plant-microbe interactions, with an emphasis on its role in mutualistic symbioses. PMID:23072986

  1. A novel prognostic biomarker SPC24 up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yan; Li, Jun; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Liao, Weijia; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    identified SPC24 upregualtion (p = 0.001), PVTT (p = 0.007), size of tumor > 5 cm (p < 0.001) as independent risk factors of DFS after resection, and SPC24 upregualtion (p < 0.001), PVTT (p = 0.029), size of tumor > 5 cm (p = 0.002), recurrence (p < 0.001) as independent prognostic factors for the OS of HCC patients. Additionally, siRNA-mediated silencing of SPC24 dramatically suppressed cell growth, adhesion, invasion and increased apoptosis in HCC cells. In conclusion, these results showed for the first time that SPC24 expression was significantly up-regulated in HCC, which may act as a novel prognostic biomarker for patients suffering from this deadly disease. Additionally, silence of SPC24 inhibiting HCC cell growth indicated that SPC24 may be a promising molecular target for HCC therapy. PMID:26515591

  2. Mechanisms of action of acetaldehyde in the up-regulation of the human α2(I) collagen gene in hepatic stellate cells: key roles of Ski, SMAD3, SMAD4, and SMAD7.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gordillo, Karina; Shah, Ruchi; Arellanes-Robledo, Jaime; Hernández-Nazara, Zamira; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Inagaki, Yutaka; Rojkind, Marcos; Lakshman, M Raj

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol-induced liver fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis is a leading cause of death. Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, up-regulates expression of the human α2(I) collagen gene (COL1A2). Early acetaldehyde-mediated effects involve phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD3/4-containing complexes that bind to COL1A2 promoter to induce fibrogenesis. We used human and mouse hepatic stellate cells to elucidate the mechanisms whereby acetaldehyde up-regulates COL1A2 by modulating the role of Ski and the expression of SMADs 3, 4, and 7. Acetaldehyde induced up-regulation of COL1A2 by 3.5-fold, with concomitant increases in the mRNA (threefold) and protein (4.2- and 3.5-fold) levels of SMAD3 and SMAD4, respectively. It also caused a 60% decrease in SMAD7 expression. Ski, a member of the Ski/Sno oncogene family, is colocalized in the nucleus with SMAD4. Acetaldehyde induces translocation of Ski and SMAD4 to the cytoplasm, where Ski undergoes proteasomal degradation, as confirmed by the ability of the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin to blunt up-regulation of acetaldehyde-dependent COL1A2, but not of the nonspecific fibronectin gene (FN1). We conclude that acetaldehyde up-regulates COL1A2 by enhancing expression of the transactivators SMAD3 and SMAD4 while inhibiting the repressor SMAD7, along with promoting Ski translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm. We speculate that drugs that prevent proteasomal degradation of repressors targeting COL1A2 may have antifibrogenic properties.

  3. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E; Archibald, Rayeann L; Drummond, Bruce J; Chamberlin, Mark A; Williams, Robert W; Lafitte, H Renee; Weers, Ben P

    2015-09-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions.

  4. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2,OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/ reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  5. Localization of a filarial phosphate permease that is up-regulated in response to depletion of essential Wolbachia endobacteria.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2014-03-01

    Wolbachia of filarial nematodes are essential, obligate endobacteria. When depleted by doxycycline worm embryogenesis, larval development and worm survival are inhibited. The molecular basis governing the endosymbiosis between Wolbachia and their filarial host is still being deciphered. In rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, a nematode encoded phosphate permease gene (Ls-ppe-1) was up-regulated at the mRNA level in response to Wolbachia depletion and this gene promises to have an important role in Wolbachia-nematode endosymbiosis. To further characterize this gene, the regulation of phosphate permease during Wolbachia depletion was studied at the protein level in L. sigmodontis and in the human filaria Onchocerca volvulus. And the localization of phosphate permease (PPE) and Wolbachia in L. sigmodontis and O. volvulus was investigated in untreated and antibiotic treated worms. Depletion of Wolbachia by tetracycline (Tet) resulted in up-regulation of Ls-ppe-1 in L. sigmodontis. On day 36 of Tet treatment, compared to controls (Con), >98% of Wolbachia were depleted with a 3-fold increase in mRNA levels of Ls-ppe-1. Anti-Ls-PPE serum used in Western blots showed up-regulation of Ls-PPE at the protein level in Tet worms on day 15 and 36 of treatment. Immunohistology revealed the localization of Wolbachia and Ls-PPE in the embryos, microfilariae and hypodermis of L. sigmodontis female worms and up-regulation of Ls-PPE in response to Wolbachia depletion. Expression of O. volvulus phosphate permease (Ov-PPE) studied using anti-Ov-PPE serum, showed up-regulation of Ov-PPE at the protein level in doxycycline treated Wolbachia depleted O. volvulus worms and immunohistology revealed localization of Ov-PPE and Wolbachia and up-regulation of Ov-PPE in the hypodermis and embryos of doxycycline treated worms. Ls-PPE and Ov-PPE are upregulated upon Wolbachia depletion in same tissues and regions where Wolbachia are located in untreated worms, reinforcing a link

  6. Nonphysiological binding of ethylene by plants.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B

    1984-03-01

    Ethylene binding to seedling tissue of Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, and Triticum aestivum was demonstrated by determining transit time required for ethylene to move through a glass tube filled with seedling tissue. Transit time for ethylene was greater than that for methane indicating that these tissues had an affinity for ethylene. However, the following observations suggest that the binding was not physiological. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as Ag(+) ions and CO(2) did not decrease binding. Mushrooms which have no known sites of ethylene action also demonstrated ethylene binding. The binding of acetylene, propylene, ethylene, propane, and ethane more closely followed their solubility in water than any known physiological activity.

  7. Ischemic postconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury by up-regulation of acid-sensing ion channel 2a

    PubMed Central

    Duanmu, Wang-sheng; Cao, Liu; Chen, Jing-yu; Ge, Hong-fei; Hu, Rong; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning renders brain tissue tolerant to brain ischemia, thereby alleviating ischemic brain injury. However, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, a rat model of global brain ischemia was subjected to ischemic postconditioning treatment using the vessel occlusion method. After 2 hours of ischemia, the bilateral common carotid arteries were blocked immediately for 10 seconds and then perfused for 10 seconds. This procedure was repeated six times. Ischemic postconditioning was found to mitigate hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage in rats with brain ischemia, and up-regulate acid-sensing ion channel 2a expression at the mRNA and protein level. These findings suggest that ischemic postconditioning up-regulates acid-sensing ion channel 2a expression in the rat hippocampus after global brain ischemia, which promotes neuronal tolerance to ischemic brain injury. PMID:27212927

  8. Up-regulation of gastric cancer cell invasion by Twist is accompanied by N-cadherin and fibronectin expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gang, Haiju; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Zumao; Wang, Tao; Han, Juan; Luo, Ting; Wen, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaoting

    2007-07-06

    Twist, a newly found EMT-inducer, has been reported to be up-regulated in those of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas with high N-cadherin level. We show here MKN45, a cell line derived from undifferentiated carcinomas cells, expresses high levels of Twist. Down-regulation of Twist, using an antisense Twist vector in MKN45 cells, inhibits cell migration and invasion, companied with a morphologic changes associated with MET. Suppression of Twist also decreases the expressions of N-cadherin and fibronectin, but not of E-cadherin in MKN45. In contrast, overexpression of Twist in MKN28, a cell line derived from moderate differentiated carcinomas, results in up-regulation of N-cadherin and fibronectin, companied with down-regulation of E-cadherin. Taken together, our results suggest that Twist regulates cell motility and invasion in gastric cancer cell lines, probably through the N-cadherin and fibronectin production.

  9. Antitumor effects of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, against gastric cancer cells via death receptor 5 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Sachiko; Endo, Shinji; Saito, Rie; Hirose, Mitsuaki; Ueno, Takunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Yamato, Kenji; Abei, Masato; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53). Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null), DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors.

  10. Mucin depleted foci, colonic preneoplastic lesions lacking Muc2, show up-regulation of Tlr2 but not bacterial infiltration.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Swidsinski, Alexander; Dolara, Piero; Salvadori, Maddalena; Amedei, Amedeo; Caderni, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Mucin depleted foci (MDF) are precancerous lesions of the colon in carcinogen-treated rodents and humans at high risk. Since MDF show signs of inflammation we hypothesized that the defective mucous production would expose them to the risk of being penetrated by intestinal bacteria, which can be sensed by Toll-like receptors (Tlrs) and activate inflammatory pathways. To verify this hypothesis we tested the expression of 84 genes coding for Tlrs and associated pathways using RT-qPCR in MDF (n = 7) from 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated rats. Among the 84 tested genes, 26 were differentially expressed in MDF with 5 genes significantly up-regulated and 21 down-regulated when compared to the normal mucosa. Tlr2, as well as other downstream genes (Map4k4, Hspd1, Irak1, Ube2n), was significantly up-regulated. Among the genes regulating the NFkB pathway, only Map4k4 was significantly up-regulated, while 19 genes were not varied and 6 were down-regulated. Tlr2 protein was weakly expressed both in normal mucosa and MDF. To determine whether inflammation observed in MDF could be caused by bacteria contacting or infiltrating crypts, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with a rRNA universal bacterial probe. None of the 21 MDF tested, showed bacteria inside the crypts, while among the colonic tumors (n = 15), only one had very few bacteria on the surface and on the surrounding normal mucosa. In conclusion, the up-regulation of Tlr2 in MDF, suggests a link between this receptor and carcinogenesis, possibly related to a defective barrier function of these lesions. The data of FISH experiments do not support the hypothesis that inflammation in MDF and tumors is stimulated by bacterial infiltration.

  11. Up-regulation of M1 muscarinic receptors expressed in CHOm1 cells by panaxynol via cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wang; Xing-Jun, Wu; Yong-Yao, Cui; Liang, Zhu; Yang, Lu; Hong-Zhuan, Chen

    Loss of cholinergic neurons along with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent drug development for AD treatment focuses heavily on identifying M(1) receptor agonists. However, mAChRs undergo down-regulation in response to agonist-induced sustained activation. Therefore, therapeutic effectiveness wanes during continuous use. Thus, another potentially effective approach, which overcomes this drawback is to develop compounds, which instead up-regulate M(1) receptor expression. In the present study, we took this alternative approach and contrasted in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human m(1) subtype gene (CHOm(1) cells) changes of M(1) receptor expression levels caused by muscarinic agonists and upregulators of its expression. The muscarinic agonists carbachol and pilocarpine reduced M(1) receptor number in CHOm(1) cells by 29 and 46%, respectively, at 100muM, whereas panaxynol, a polyacetylene compound isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Panax notoginseng, concentration-dependently up-regulated the M(1) receptor number after pre-incubation with CHOm(1) cells for 48 h, reaching a plateau at 1 microM, and was accompanied by enhanced M(1) mRNA levels. Moreover, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor RP-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic mono-phosphoro-thioate triethylamine salt (RP-cAMPs) 5 microM completely prevented panaxynol-induced up-regulation of M(1) receptors. Panaxynol (1muM) caused a significant and consistent stimulation of cAMP accumulation (27% increase above basal at 40 min). These results suggest that in CHOm(1) cells panaxynol up-regulates M(1) receptor number through cAMP pathway-mediated stimulation of gene transcription.

  12. Integrin-linked kinase mediates the hydrogen peroxide-dependent transforming growth factor-β1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ramos, M; de Frutos, S; Griera, M; Luengo, A; Olmos, G; Rodriguez-Puyol, D; Calleros, L; Rodriguez-Puyol, M

    2013-08-01

    Transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) has been recognized as a central mediator in many pathological events related to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation, where their locally increased expression has been implicated in the fibrosis process of numerous organs, including glomerular fibrosis in the kidney. We and others have reported the TGF-β1 synthesis regulation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moreover we also described the implication of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the AP-1-dependent TGF-β1 up-regulation. Thus, we propose here that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent TGF-β1 regulation may be mediated by ILK activation. First we confirmed the increase in TGF-β1 expression in human mesangial cells (HMC) after treatment with H2O2 or with an alternative H2O2-generating system such as the glucose-oxidase enzyme (GOX). By using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and ELISA techniques, we demonstrate that extracellular H2O2 up-regulates TGF-β1 transcription, as well as increases TGF-β1 promoter activity. Furthermore, catalase-decreased intracellular H2O2 abolished TGF-β1 up-regulation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors as well as knockdown of ILK with small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated the implication of a PI3K/ILK/AKT/ERK MAPK signaling pathway axis in the H2O2-induced TGF-β1 overexpression. Finally, we explored the physiological relevance of these findings by treating HMC with angiotensin II, a known stimuli of H2O2 synthesis. Our results confirm the relevance of previous findings after a more physiological stimulus. In summary, our results provide evidence that ILK activity changes may act as a mechanism in response to different stimuli such as H2O2 in the induced TGF-β1 up-regulation in pathological or even physiological conditions.

  13. Respiratory virus infection up-regulates TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 receptors on airway cells.

    PubMed

    Omar, Shadia; Clarke, Rebecca; Abdullah, Haniah; Brady, Clare; Corry, John; Winter, Hanagh; Touzelet, Olivier; Power, Ultan F; Lundy, Fionnuala; McGarvey, Lorcan P A; Cosby, S Louise

    2017-01-01

    Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression. Receptor mRNA and protein levels were examined by qPCR and flow cytometry, respectively, following infection or treatment with UV inactivated virus, virus-induced soluble factors or pelleted virus. Concentrations of a range of cytokines in resultant BEAS-2B and PBEC supernatants were determined by ELISA. Up-regulation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 expression occurred by 12 hours post-infection in each cell type. This was independent of replicating virus, within the same cell, as virus-induced soluble factors alone were sufficient to increase channel expression. IL-8 and IL-6 increased in infected cell supernatants. Antibodies against these factors inhibited TRP receptor up-regulation. Capsazepine treatment inhibited virus induced up-regulation of TRPV1 indicating that these receptors are targets for treating virus-induced cough.

  14. Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis. PMID:24688219

  15. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  16. Respiratory virus infection up-regulates TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 receptors on airway cells

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Shadia; Clarke, Rebecca; Abdullah, Haniah; Brady, Clare; Corry, John; Winter, Hanagh; Touzelet, Olivier; Power, Ultan F.; Lundy, Fionnuala; McGarvey, Lorcan P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression. Receptor mRNA and protein levels were examined by qPCR and flow cytometry, respectively, following infection or treatment with UV inactivated virus, virus-induced soluble factors or pelleted virus. Concentrations of a range of cytokines in resultant BEAS-2B and PBEC supernatants were determined by ELISA. Up-regulation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 expression occurred by 12 hours post-infection in each cell type. This was independent of replicating virus, within the same cell, as virus-induced soluble factors alone were sufficient to increase channel expression. IL-8 and IL-6 increased in infected cell supernatants. Antibodies against these factors inhibited TRP receptor up-regulation. Capsazepine treatment inhibited virus induced up-regulation of TRPV1 indicating that these receptors are targets for treating virus-induced cough. PMID:28187208

  17. Up-regulation of the embryonic self-renewal network through reversible polyploidy in irradiated p53-mutant tumour cells

    SciTech Connect

    Salmina, Kristine; Jankevics, Eriks; Huna, Anda; Perminov, Dmitry; Radovica, Ilze; Klymenko, Tetyana; Ivanov, Andrey; Jascenko, Elina; Scherthan, Harry; Cragg, Mark; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina

    2010-08-01

    We have previously documented that transient polyploidy is a potential cell survival strategy underlying the clonogenic re-growth of tumour cells after genotoxic treatment. In an attempt to better define this mechanism, we recently documented the key role of meiotic genes in regulating the DNA repair and return of the endopolyploid tumour cells (ETC) to diploidy through reduction divisions after irradiation. Here, we studied the role of the pluripotency and self-renewal stem cell genes NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in this polyploidy-dependent survival mechanism. In irradiation-resistant p53-mutated lymphoma cell-lines (Namalwa and WI-L2-NS) but not sensitive p53 wild-type counterparts (TK6), low background expression of OCT4 and NANOG was up-regulated by ionising radiation with protein accumulation evident in ETC as detected by OCT4/DNA flow cytometry and immunofluorescence (IF). IF analysis also showed that the ETC generate PML bodies that appear to concentrate OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 proteins, which extend into complex nuclear networks. These polyploid tumour cells resist apoptosis, overcome cellular senescence and undergo bi- and multi-polar divisions transmitting the up-regulated OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 self-renewal cassette to their descendents. Altogether, our observations indicate that irradiation-induced ETC up-regulate key components of germ-line cells, which potentially facilitate survival and propagation of the tumour cell population.

  18. Continuous up-regulation of heat shock proteins in larvae, but not adults, of a polar insect.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Joseph P; Hayward, Scott A L; Elnitsky, Michael A; Sandro, Luke H; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2006-09-19

    Antarctica's terrestrial environment is a challenge to which very few animals have adapted. The largest, free-living animal to inhabit the continent year-round is a flightless midge, Belgica antarctica. Larval midges survive the lengthy austral winter encased in ice, and when the ice melts in summer, the larvae complete their 2-yr life cycle, and the wingless adults form mating aggregations while subjected to surprisingly high substrate temperatures. Here we report a dichotomy in survival strategies exploited by this insect at different stages of its life cycle. Larvae constitutively up-regulate their heat shock proteins (small hsp, hsp70, and hsp90) and maintain a high inherent tolerance to temperature stress. High or low temperature exposure does not further up-regulate these genes nor does it further enhance thermotolerance. Such "preemptive" synthesis of hsps is sufficient to prevent irreversible protein aggregation in response to a variety of common environmental stresses. Conversely, adults exhibit no constitutive up-regulation of their hsps and have a lower intrinsic tolerance to high temperatures, but their hsps can be thermally activated, resulting in enhanced thermotolerance. Thus, the midge larvae, but not the adults, have adopted the unusual strategy of expressing hsps continuously, possibly to facilitate proper protein folding in a cold habitat that is more thermally stable than that of the adults but a habitat subjected frequently to freeze-thaw episodes and bouts of pH, anoxic, and osmotic stress.

  19. Resveratrol attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Jincai; Li, Jing; Yang, Liang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Fei; Yang, Yinan; Kang, Licheng; Shen, Yanna; Qi, Zhi

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to examine the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling pathway. Rat hearts were isolated for Langendorff perfusion test and H9c2 cells were used for in vitro assessments. RSV treatment significantly improved left ventricular function, inhibited CK-MB release, and reduced infarct size in comparison with IR group ex vivo. RSV treatment markedly decreased cell death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells during IR. We found that RSV was responsible for the up-regulation of VEGF-B mRNA and protein level, which caused the activation of Akt and the inhibition of GSK3β. Additionally, RSV prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up-regulating the expression of MnSOD either in vitro or ex vivo. We also found that the inhibition of VEGF-B abolished the cardioprotective effect of RSV, increased apoptosis, and led to the down-regulation of phosphorylated Akt, GSK3β, and MnSOD in H9c2 cells. These results demonstrated that RSV was able to attenuate myocardial IR injury via promotion of VEGF-B/antioxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, the up-regulation of VEGF-B can be a promising modality for clinical myocardial IR injury therapy.

  20. Protracted treatment with MDMA induces heteromeric nicotinic receptor up-regulation in the rat brain: an autoradiography study.

    PubMed

    Ciudad-Roberts, Andrés; Camarasa, Jorge; Pubill, David; Escubedo, Elena

    2014-08-04

    Previous studies indicate that 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) can induce a heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, mainly of α4β2 subtype) up-regulation. In this study we treated male Sprague-Dawley rats twice-daily for 10 days with either saline or MDMA (7 mg/kg) and sacrificed them the day after to perform [(125)I]Epibatidine binding autoradiograms on serial coronal slices. MDMA induced significant increases in nAChR density in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, anterior caudate-putamen, somatosensory, motor, auditory and retrosplenial cortex, laterodorsal thalamus nuclei, amygdala, postsubiculum and pontine nuclei. These increases ranged from 3% (retrosplenial cortex) to 30 and 34% (amygdala and substantia nigra). No increased α4 subunit immunoreactivity was found in up-regulated areas compared with saline-treated rats, suggesting a post-translational mechanism as occurs with nicotine. The heteromeric nAChR up-regulation in certain areas could account, at least in part, for the reinforcing, sensitizing and psychiatric disorders observed after long-term consumption of MDMA.

  1. Berberine exerts anti-adipogenic activity through up-regulation of C/EBP inhibitors, CHOP and DEC2.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truc P T; Kwon, Jeongho; Shin, Jaekyoon

    2011-09-23

    Berberine exerts an anti-adipogenic activity that is associated with the down-regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Stimulation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) caused by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration has been suggested to underlie such molecular regulation. In the present study, we show that berberine up-regulated the expression of two different sets of C/EBP inhibitors, CHOP and DEC2, while down-modulating C/EBPα, PPARγ and other adipogenic markers and effectors in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Data also suggested that the berberine-induced up-regulation of CHOP and DEC2 was attributable to selective activation of an unfolded protein response (UPR) and modified extracellular environment, respectively. As a result, the anti-adipogenic activity of berberine was diminished remarkably by adjusting the differentiation culture media and limitedly but consistently by knockdown of CHOP expression. Together, up-regulation of C/EBP inhibitors appears to underlie the berberine-induced repression of C/EBPα and PPARγ and, so, the inhibition of adipogenesis.

  2. Acute transcriptional up-regulation specific to osteoblasts/osteoclasts in medaka fish immediately after exposure to microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Chatani, Masahiro; Morimoto, Hiroya; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Mantoku, Akiko; Tanigawa, Naoki; Kubota, Koji; Suzuki, Hiromi; Uchida, Satoko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Takano, Yoshiro; Itoh, Takehiko; Kudo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss is a serious problem in spaceflight; however, the initial action of microgravity has not been identified. To examine this action, we performed live-imaging of animals during a space mission followed by transcriptome analysis using medaka transgenic lines expressing osteoblast and osteoclast-specific promoter-driven GFP and DsRed. In live-imaging for osteoblasts, the intensity of osterix- or osteocalcin-DsRed fluorescence in pharyngeal bones was significantly enhanced 1 day after launch; and this enhancement continued for 8 or 5 days. In osteoclasts, the signals of TRAP-GFP and MMP9-DsRed were highly increased at days 4 and 6 after launch in flight. HiSeq from pharyngeal bones of juvenile fish at day 2 after launch showed up-regulation of 2 osteoblast- and 3 osteoclast- related genes. Gene ontology analysis for the whole-body showed that transcription of genes in the category “nucleus” was significantly enhanced; particularly, transcription-regulators were more up-regulated at day 2 than at day 6. Lastly, we identified 5 genes, c-fos, jun-B-like, pai-1, ddit4 and tsc22d3, which were up-regulated commonly in the whole-body at days 2 and 6, and in the pharyngeal bone at day 2. Our results suggested that exposure to microgravity immediately induced dynamic alteration of gene expression levels in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:28004797

  3. RNA interference of three up-regulated transcripts associated with insecticide resistance in an imidacloprid resistant population of Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Clements, Justin; Schoville, Sean; Peterson, Nathan; Huseth, Anders S; Lan, Que; Groves, Russell L

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of potatoes in the Central Sands production region of Wisconsin. Previous studies have shown that populations of L. decemlineata have become resistant to many classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, L. decemlineata has multiple mechanisms of resistance to deal with a pesticide insult, including enhanced metabolic detoxification by cytochrome p450s and glutathione S-transferases. With recent advances in the transcriptomic analysis of imidacloprid susceptible and resistant L. decemlineata populations, it is possible to investigate the role of candidate genes involved in imidacloprid resistance. A recently annotated transcriptome analysis of L. decemlineata was obtained from select populations of L. decemlineata collected in the Central Sands potato production region, which revealed a subset of mRNA transcripts constitutively up-regulated in resistant populations. We hypothesize that a portion of the up-regulated transcripts encoding for genes within the resistant populations also encode for pesticide resistance and can be suppressed to re-establish a susceptible phenotype. In this study, a discrete set of three up-regulated targets were selected for RNA interference experiments using a resistant L. decemlineata population. Following the successful suppression of transcripts encoding for a cytochrome p450, a cuticular protein, and a glutathione synthetase protein in a select L. decemlineata population, we observed reductions in measured resistance to imidacloprid that strongly suggest these genes control essential steps in imidacloprid metabolism in these field populations.

  4. Isolation of genes up-regulated by copper in a copper-tolerant birch (Betula pendula) clone.

    PubMed

    Keinänen, Sirpa I; Hassinen, Viivi H; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Tervahauta, Arja I

    2007-09-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to isolate genes differentially expressed following exposure to copper (Cu) in a naturally selected Cu-tolerant birch (Betula pendula Roth.) clone originating from a disused lead/zinc smelter. Of the 352 cDNA fragments initially isolated, 108 were up-regulated by Cu, of which 55 showed over twofold induction by macroarray analysis. Searches against protein databases (Blastx) and sequence analysis provided the tentative identity of 21 genes. Three fragments lacked homology to any sequences in the databases. Most of the identified genes are involved in cellular transport, regulation or cell rescue and defense. Several genes have not previously been reported to be up-regulated by Cu, e.g., plasma intrinsic protein 2, glutamine synthetase and multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP4). The expression of MRP4, a vacuolar sorting receptor-like protein and an unidentified gene was studied in more detail by quantitative real-time PCR. These genes showed stronger up-regulation by Cu in the roots and shoots of the Cu-tolerant birch clone compared with a less tolerant clone. Clear clonal differences in gene expression were observed, e.g., for the regulator of chromosome condensation family protein, DnaJ protein homolog, vacuolar sorting receptor-like protein and MRP4. These findings contribute to our understanding of Cu tolerance in birch, a pioneer plant in metal-contaminated soils.

  5. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  6. Cyclic stretching of mesangial cells up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte adherence: a possible new mechanism for glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riser, B L; Varani, J; Cortes, P; Yee, J; Dame, M; Sharba, A K

    2001-01-01

    Intraglomerular hypertension is a primary causal factor in the progressive glomerulosclerosis that characterizes diabetic nephropathy or severe renal ablation. However, inflammation of the glomerular mesangium also participates in at least the early phase of these diseases. In glomerulonephritis, where inflammation is thought to be the predominant causal factor, intraglomerular hypertension is also often present. Mesangial cells (MCs) are critical in orchestrating key functions of the glomerulus including extracellular matrix metabolism, cytokine production, and interaction with leukocytes. Because MCs are subject to increased stretching when intraglomerular hypertension is present, and in glomerulonephritis MC/leukocyte interactions seem to be mediated primarily via the up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we examine the possibility that cyclic stretching is a stimulus for increased MC ICAM-1 activity. We demonstrate that the normal low levels of MC ICAM-1 mRNA and protein are dramatically up-regulated by even short intervals of cyclic stretch. This effect is dose- and time-dependent, and requires little amplitude and a brief period of elongation for significant induction. Stretch-induced MC ICAM-1 also leads to a marked elevation in phagocytic leukocyte adherence. This stimulated adherence is equal or greater than that induced by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas an additive effect occurs when both are applied in combination. Our results indicate that stretch-induced ICAM-1 may provide a direct link between hypertension and inflammation in the progression of injury and glomerulosclerosis in diabetes, renal ablation, and other forms of glomerulonephritis.

  7. Phenylbutyrate up-regulates the DJ-1 protein and protects neurons in cell culture and in animal models of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbo; Bercury, Kathryn; Cummiskey, Jessica; Luong, Nancy; Lebin, Jacob; Freed, Curt R

    2011-04-29

    Parkinson disease is caused by the death of midbrain dopamine neurons from oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, and genetic predisposition. In 2003, Bonifati et al. (23) found that a single amino acid mutation in the DJ-1 protein was associated with early-onset, autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PARK7). The mutation L166P prevents dimerization that is essential for the antioxidant and gene regulatory activity of the DJ-1 protein. Because low levels of DJ-1 cause Parkinson, we reasoned that overexpression might stop the disease. We found that overexpression of DJ-1 improved tolerance to oxidative stress by selectively up-regulating the rate-limiting step in glutathione synthesis. When we imposed a different metabolic insult, A53T mutant α-synuclein, we found that DJ-1 turned on production of the chaperone protein Hsp-70 without affecting glutathione synthesis. After screening a number of small molecules, we have found that the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate increases DJ-1 expression by 300% in the N27 dopamine cell line and rescues cells from oxidative stress and mutant α-synuclein toxicity. In mice, phenylbutyrate treatment leads to a 260% increase in brain DJ-1 levels and protects dopamine neurons against 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. In a transgenic mouse model of diffuse Lewy body disease, long-term administration of phenylbutyrate reduces α-synuclein aggregation in brain and prevents age-related deterioration in motor and cognitive function. We conclude that drugs that up-regulate DJ-1 gene expression may slow the progression of Parkinson disease by moderating oxidative stress and protein aggregation.

  8. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-06-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed.

  9. Phosphorylation of CBP20 Links MicroRNA to Root Growth in the Ethylene Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Taewook; Pyo, Youngjae; Sung, Sibum; Shin, Chanseok; Qiao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is one of the most important hormones for plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the phosphorylation regulation in the ethylene signaling pathway is largely unknown. Here we report the phosphorylation of cap binding protein 20 (CBP20) at Ser245 is regulated by ethylene, and the phosphorylation is involved in root growth. The constitutive phosphorylation mimic form of CBP20 (CBP20S245E or CBP20S245D), while not the constitutive de-phosphorylation form of CBP20 (CBP20S245A) is able to rescue the root ethylene responsive phenotype of cbp20. By genome wide study with ethylene regulated gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) expression in the roots and shoots of both Col-0 and cbp20, we found miR319b is up regulated in roots while not in shoots, and its target MYB33 is specifically down regulated in roots with ethylene treatment. We described both the phenotypic and molecular consequences of transgenic over-expression of miR319b. Increased levels of miR319b (miR319bOE) leads to enhanced ethylene responsive root phenotype and reduction of MYB33 transcription level in roots; over expression of MYB33, which carrying mutated miR319b target site (mMYB33) in miR319bOE is able to recover both the root phenotype and the expression level of MYB33. Taken together, we proposed that ethylene regulated phosphorylation of CBP20 is involved in the root growth and one pathway is through the regulation of miR319b and its target MYB33 in roots. PMID:27870849

  10. Abscisic acid, H2O2 and nitric oxide interactions mediated cold-induced S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in Medicago sativa subsp. falcata that confers cold tolerance through up-regulating polyamine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenfei; Tan, Jiali; Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Congying; Xiang, Bin; Wang, Zengyu

    2014-06-01

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) is the key enzyme catalysing the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor of polyamines and ethylene. To investigate the potential role of SAMS in cold tolerance, we isolated MfSAMS1 from the cold-tolerant germplasm Medicago sativa subsp. falcata and analysed the association of SAM-derived polyamines with cold tolerance. The expression of MfSAMS1 in leaves was greatly induced by cold, abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Our data revealed that ABA, H2O2 and NO interactions mediated the cold-induced MfSAMS1 expression and cold acclimation in falcata. SAM, putrescine, spermidine and spermine levels, ethylene production and polyamine oxidation were sequentially altered in response to cold, indicating that SAMS-derived SAM is preferentially used in polyamine synthesis and homeostasis during cold acclimation. Antioxidant enzyme activities were also induced in response to cold and showed correlation with polyamine oxidation. Overexpression of MfSAMS1 in tobacco resulted in elevated SAM levels, but polyamine levels and ethylene production in the transgenic plants were not significantly changed. Compared to the wild type, transgenic plants had increased levels of apoplastic H2O2, higher transcript levels of genes involved in polyamine synthesis and oxidation, and higher activities of polyamine oxidation and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that overexpression of MfSAMS1 promoted polyamine synthesis and oxidation, which in turn improved H2 O2 -induced antioxidant protection, as a result enhanced tolerance to freezing and chilling stress in transgenic plants. This is the first report demonstrating that SAMS plays an important role in plant tolerance to cold via up-regulating polyamine oxidation.

  11. Monofunctional hyperbranched ethylene oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Thomas; Voit, Gregor; Tchernook, Alexandra; Roesle, Philipp; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-02-05

    The neutral κ(2)N,O-salicylaldiminato Ni(II) complexes [κ(2)N,O-{(2,6-(3',5'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N═C(H)-(3,5-I2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)] (1a-pyr, R = Me; 1b-pyr, R = Et; 1c-pyr, R = iPr) convert ethylene to hyperbranched low-molecular-weight oligomers (Mn ca. 1000 g mol(-1)) with high productivities. While all three catalysts are capable of generating hyperbranched structures, branching densities decrease significantly with the nature of the remote substituent along Me > Et > iPr and oligomer molecular weights increase. Consequently, only 1a-pyr forms hyperbranched structures over a wide range of reaction conditions (ethylene pressure 5-30 atm and 20-70 °C). An in situ catalyst system achieves similar activities and identical highly branched oligomer microstructures, eliminating the bottleneck given by the preparation and isolation of Ni-Me catalyst precursor species. Selective introduction of one primary carboxylic acid ester functional group per highly branched oligoethylene molecule was achieved by isomerizing ethoxycarbonylation and alternatively cross metathesis with ethyl acrylate followed by hydrogenation. The latter approach results in complete functionalization and no essential loss of branched oligomer material and molecular weight, as the reacting double bonds are close to a chain end. Reduction yielded a monoalcohol-functionalized oligomer. Introduction of one reactive epoxide group per branched oligomer occurs completely and selectively under mild conditions. All reaction steps involved in oligomerization and monofunctionalization are efficient and readily scalable.

  12. Transitions in the functioning of the shoot apical meristem in birch (Betula pendula) involve ethylene.

    PubMed

    Ruonala, Raili; Rinne, Päivi L H; Baghour, Mourad; Moritz, Thomas; Tuominen, Hannele; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2006-05-01

    In many trees, a short photoperiod (SD) triggers substantial physiological adjustments necessary for over-wintering. We have used transgenic ethylene-insensitive birches (Betula pendula), which express the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene ETR1 carrying the dominant mutation etr1-1, to investigate the role of ethylene in SD-induced responses in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Under SD, the ethylene-insensitive trees ceased elongation growth comparably to the wild-type. In contrast, the formation of terminal buds, which in trees is typically induced by SD, was abolished. However, although delayed, endo-dormancy did eventually develop in the ethylene-insensitive trees. This, together with the rapid resumption of growth in the ethylene-insensitive trees after transfer from non-permissive to permissive conditions suggests that ethylene facilitates the SD-induced terminal bud formation, as well as growth arrest. In addition, apical buds of the ethylene-insensitive birch did not accumulate abscisic acid (ABA) under SD, suggesting interaction between ethylene and ABA signalling in the bud. Alterations in SAM functioning were further exemplified by reduced apical dominance and early flowering in ethylene-insensitive birches. Gene expression analysis of shoot apices revealed that the ethylene-insensitive birch lacked the marked increase in expression of a beta-xylosidase gene typical to the SD-exposed wild-type. The ethylene-dependent beta-xylosidase gene expression is hypothesized to relate to modification of cell walls in terminal buds during SD-induced growth cessation. Our results suggest that ethylene is involved in terminal bud formation and in the timely suppression of SAM activity, not only in the shoot apex, but also in axillary and reproductive meristems.

  13. Albumin-based microbubbles bind up-regulated scavenger receptors following vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel R; Duryee, Michael J; Anchan, Rajeev K; Garvin, Robert P; Johnston, Michael D; Porter, Thomas R; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Klassen, Lynell W

    2010-12-24

    We have shown previously that perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) microbubbles bind to injured vascular tissue and can be detected with ultrasound imaging techniques. Prior studies have shown that scavenger receptors (SRs) are regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses and are involved in the progression of vascular disease such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular mechanism of PESDA binding to balloon-injured vasculature. RT-PCR analysis of angioplastied aortas demonstrated a significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased expression of SRs. Binding to SRs was confirmed using SR-expressing CHO cells, and this binding was blocked by competitive inhibition with the SR-binding ligands oxidized LDL and malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-modified LDL. Confocal imaging confirmed the co-localization of PESDA microbubbles to CD36, SRB-1, and Toll-like receptor 4, but not to monocytes/macrophages. This study demonstrates that PESDA binds to SRs and that this binding is in major part dependent upon the oxidized nature of PESDA microbubble shell proteins. The extent of SR mRNA expression was increased with injury and associated with microbubble retention as defined by scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. These findings clarify the mechanisms of how albumin-based microbubbles bind to injured and inflamed vasculature and further support the potential of this imaging technique to detect early vascular innate inflammatory pathophysiologic processes.

  14. E1A dependent up-regulation of c-jun/AP-1 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Kitabayashi, I; Chiu, R; Gachelin, G; Yokoyama, K

    1991-01-01

    E1A, the early region 1A transcription unit of human adenovirus, exhibits multiple functions that regulate the expression of some cellular genes and promote cell growth and division. We found that E1A stimulated c-jun gene expression at least fifty-fold in rat 3Y1 cells in a serum-independent manner, concomitantly with E1A down-regulation of jun B expression. The E1A-dependent induction of c-jun transcription resulted in increase amount of cJun/AP1. This induction was mediated by the enhancement of the binding activity of the transcription factor cJun/AP1 to an AP1 binding site in the c-jun promoter. Additionally, this induction can be repressed by introducing junB into the cells. Taken collectively, these results suggest that the differential expression of two closely related proteins greatly expands their cellular regulation. Induction of c-jun expression by E1A as well as c-jun autoregulation may amplify the action of E1A during adenovirus infection. Therefore, some of the biological effects of E1A may include mediating the constitutive activation of c-jun, which is important in transcriptional regulation and oncogenic transformation. Images PMID:1826351

  15. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... space of an ethylene oxide cargo tank for a period of 30 days under the condition of paragraph (e)...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... space of an ethylene oxide cargo tank for a period of 30 days under the condition of paragraph (e)...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1725 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 154.1725 Section 154.1725 Shipping COAST....1725 Ethylene oxide. (a) A vessel carrying ethylene oxide must: (1) Have cargo piping, vent piping, and... space of an ethylene oxide cargo tank for a period of 30 days under the condition of paragraph (e)...

  18. IFN-gamma expression is up-regulated by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-exposed dogs upon Leishmania chagasi promastigote stimulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Cleusa Alves Theodore; Batista, Luís Fábio da Silva; Filho, Roberto Santos Teixeira; Santos, Claire da Silva; Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini; Almeida, Taís Fontoura de; Freitas, Luiz Antônio Rodrigues de; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2009-02-15

    While the response to Leishmania spp. is well characterized in mice and humans, much less is known concerning the canine immune response, particularly soon after exposure to the parasite. Early events are considered to be a determinant of infection outcome. To investigate the dog's early immune response to L. chagasi, an in vitro priming system (PIV) using dog naïve PBMC was established. Until now, dog PIV immune response to L. chagasi has not been assessed. We co-cultivated PBMC primarily stimulated with L. chagasi in vitro with autologous infected macrophages and found that IFN-gamma mRNA is up-regulated in these cells compared to control unstimulated cells. IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression by L. chagasi-stimulated PBMC was similar to control unstimulated PBMC when incubated with infected macrophages. Surprisingly, correlation studies showed that a lower IFN-gamma/IL-4 expression ratio correlated with a lower percentage of infection. We propose that the direct correlation between IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio and parasite load is dependent on the higher correlation of both IFN-gamma and IL-4 expression with lower parasite infection. This PIV system was shown to be useful in evaluating the dog immune response to L. chagasi, and results indicate that a balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is associated with control of parasite infection in vitro.

  19. Drought-stress-induced up-regulation of CAM in seedlings of a tropical cactus, Opuntia elatior, operating predominantly in the C3 mode.

    PubMed

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2011-07-01

    Immediately after unfolding, cotyledons of the tropical platyopuntoid cactus, Opuntia elatior Mill., exhibited a C(3)-type diel CO(2) exchange pattern characterized by net CO(2) uptake in the light. Significant nocturnal increases in titratable acidity typical of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) were not detected at this early developmental stage. As cotyledons matured and the first cladode (flattened stem) developed, features of CAM were observed and the magnitude of CAM increased. Nonetheless, in well-watered seedlings up to 10 cm tall, C(3) photosynthetic CO(2) fixation in the light remained the major pathway of carbon fixation. Reduced soil water availability led to an up-regulation of net dark CO(2) fixation and greater nocturnal increases in tissue acidity, consistent with facultative CAM. These observations demonstrate that C(3) photosynthesis, drought-stress-related facultative CAM, and developmentally controlled constitutive CAM can all contribute to the early growth of O. elatior. The strong C(3) component and facultative CAM features expressed in young O. elatior contrast with mature plants in which obligate CAM is the major pathway of carbon acquisition.

  20. Drought-stress-induced up-regulation of CAM in seedlings of a tropical cactus, Opuntia elatior, operating predominantly in the C3 mode

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after unfolding, cotyledons of the tropical platyopuntoid cactus, Opuntia elatior Mill., exhibited a C3-type diel CO2 exchange pattern characterized by net CO2 uptake in the light. Significant nocturnal increases in titratable acidity typical of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) were not detected at this early developmental stage. As cotyledons matured and the first cladode (flattened stem) developed, features of CAM were observed and the magnitude of CAM increased. Nonetheless, in well-watered seedlings up to 10 cm tall, C3 photosynthetic CO2 fixation in the light remained the major pathway of carbon fixation. Reduced soil water availability led to an up-regulation of net dark CO2 fixation and greater nocturnal increases in tissue acidity, consistent with facultative CAM. These observations demonstrate that C3 photosynthesis, drought-stress-related facultative CAM, and developmentally controlled constitutive CAM can all contribute to the early growth of O. elatior. The strong C3 component and facultative CAM features expressed in young O. elatior contrast with mature plants in which obligate CAM is the major pathway of carbon acquisition. PMID:21504876

  1. The Arabidopsis mutant alh1 illustrates a cross talk between ethylene and auxin.

    PubMed

    Vandenbussche, Filip; Smalle, Jan; Le, Jie; Saibo, Nelson José Madeira; De Paepe, Annelies; Chaerle, Laury; Tietz, Olaf; Smets, Raphael; Laarhoven, Lucas J J; Harren, Frans J M; Van Onckelen, Harry; Palme, Klaus; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2003-03-01

    Ethylene or its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) can stimulate hypocotyl elongation in light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. A mutant, designated ACC-related long hypocotyl 1 (alh1), that displayed a long hypocotyl in the light in the absence of the hormone was characterized. Etiolated alh1 seedlings overproduced ethylene and had an exaggerated apical hook and a thicker hypocotyl, although no difference in hypocotyl length was observed when compared with wild type. Alh1 plants were less sensitive to ethylene, as reflected by reduction of ACC-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl growth in the dark and delay in flowering and leaf senescence. Alh1 also had an altered response to auxin, whereas auxin levels in whole alh1 seedlings remained unaffected. In contrast to wild type, alh1 seedlings showed a limited hypocotyl elongation when treated with indole-3-acetic acid. Alh1 roots had a faster response to gravity. Furthermore, the hypocotyl elongation of alh1 and of ACC-treated wild type was reverted by auxin transport inhibitors. In addition, auxin up-regulated genes were ectopically expressed in hypocotyls upon ACC treatment, suggesting that the ethylene response is mediated by auxins. Together, these data indicate that alh1 is altered in the cross talk between ethylene and auxins, probably at the level of auxin transport.

  2. Profiling gene expression in citrus fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) treated with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chunzhen; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Xuelian; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-10-01

    On-tree storage and harvesting of mature fruit account for a large proportion of cost in the production of citrus, and a reduction of the cost would not be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechani sm of the mature fruit abscission. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ethylene-treated fruit calyx abscission zone (AZ-C) of Citrus sinensis cv. Olinda were therefore investigated using a citrus genome array representing up to 33,879 citrus transcripts. In total, 1313 and 1044 differentially regulated genes were identified in AZ-C treated with ethylene for 4 and 24 h, respectively. The results showed that mature citrus fruit abscission commenced with the activation of ethylene signal transduction pathway that led to the activation of ethylene responsive transcription factors and the subsequent transcriptional regulation of a large set of ethylene responsive genes. Significantly down-regulated genes included those of starch/sugar biosynthesis, transportation of water and growth promoting hormone synthesis and signaling, whereas significantly up-regulated genes were those involved in defense, cell wall degradation, and secondary metabolism. Our data unraveled the underlying mechanisms of some known important biochemical events occurring at AZ-C and should provide informative suggestions for future manipulation of the events to achieve a controllable abscission for mature citrus fruit.

  3. Calcyon Up-regulation in Adolescence Impairs Response Inhibition and Working Memory in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vazdarjanova, Almira; Bunting, Kristopher; Muthusamy, Nagendran; Bergson, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Calcyon regulates activity dependent internalization of AMPA glutamate receptors and long term depression of excitatory synapses. Elevated levels of calcyon are consistently observed in brains from schizophrenic patients, and the calcyon gene is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Executive function deficits are common to both disorders, and at least for schizophrenia, the etiology appears to involve both heritable and neurodevelopmental factors. Here, we show with calcyon overexpressing CalOE transgenic mice that lifelong calcyon upregulation impairs executive functions including response inhibition and working memory, without producing learning and memory deficits in general. As response inhibition and working memory, as well as the underlying neural circuitry continue to mature into early adulthood, we functionally silenced the transgene during postnatal days 28–49, a period corresponding to adolescence. Remarkably, the response inhibition and working memory deficits including perseverative behavior were absent in adult CalOE mice with the transgene silenced in adolescence. Suppressing the calcyon transgene in adulthood only partially rescued the deficits, suggesting calcyon upregulation in adolescence irreversibly alters development of neural circuits supporting mature response inhibition and working memory. Brain regional immunoblots revealed a prominent down-regulation of AMPA GluR1 subunits in hippocampus, and GluR2/3 subunits in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the CalOE mice. Silencing the transgene in adolescence prevented the decrease in hippocampal GluR1, further implicating altered frontohippocampal connectivity in the executive function deficits observed in the CalOE mice. Treatments that mitigate the effects of high levels of calcyon during adolescence could preempt adult deficits in executive functions in individuals at-risk for serious mental illness. PMID:21403673

  4. Mild caloric restriction up-regulates the expression of prohibitin: A proteome study

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Shoko; Masuda, Junko; Shimagami, Hiroshi; Ohta, Yutaka; Kanda, Tomomasa; Saito, Kenji; Kato, Hisanori

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomic analysis was performed to elucidate physiological alterations induced by mild CR. {yields} The results suggest good reproducibility and possibility to grasp the important response of CR. {yields} The increase in prohibitin abundance was observed in CR groups by proteomic analysis. {yields} We hypothesize that prohibitin might be involved in the longevity induced by CR. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is well known to expand lifespan in a variety of species and to retard many age-related diseases. The effects of relatively mild CR on the proteome profile in relation to lifespan have not yet been reported, despite the more extensive studies of the stricter CR conditions. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the protein profiles in rat livers after mild CR for a relatively short time. Young growing rats were fed CR diets (10% and 30% CR) for 1 month. We performed the differential proteomic analysis of the rat livers using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The most remarkable protein among the differentially expressed proteins was found to be prohibitin, the abundance of which was increased by 30% CR. Prohibitin is a ubiquitously expressed protein shown to suppress cell proliferation and to be related to longevity. The increase in prohibitin was observed both in 10% and 30% CR by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, induction of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) protein, related to the actions of prohibitin in promoting longevity, was observed. The increased prohibitin level in response to subtle CR suggests that this increase may be one of the early events leading to the expansion of lifespan in response to CR.

  5. Up-regulation of Amazon forest photosynthesis precedes elevated mortality under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleska, S. R.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Longo, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Alves, L. F.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Stark, S. C.; Hayek, M.; Wu, J.; Munger, J. W.; Meir, P.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; da Silva, R.; Camargo, P. B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate-carbon cycle models indicate that Amazon forests may be vulnerable to drought, with some predicting drought-induced collapse of the Amazon forest and conversion to savanna, under future climate change. While much progress has been made in understanding tropical forest drought response, a holistic picture encompassing both short-term physiological (e.g., photosynthesis) and longer term demographic responses (e.g., mortality) remains elusive, mainly due to the rarity of coinciding relevant measurements and drought events. Here we address this knowledge gap by analyzing the response of an eastern Amazonian forest at both timescales to the El Nino-induced drought of late 2009 / early 2010 (distinct from the Atlantic SST-induced drought to hit Western Amazonia in mid/late 2010) using eddy flux measurements of carbon exchange and periodic tree demographic surveys. We partitioned the drought response of GPP into environmental (light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), diffuse light) and biological responses. Based on environmental conditions alone (high VPD), we expected GPP to be 1-2 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 less than average during drought. In contrast, GPP was elevated by 2-4 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 above this expected negative response over a period of ~45 days, consistent with previously observed green-up from satelliltes during the 2005 Amazon drought. At the same time, drought significantly elevated 2009-2011 tree mortality, by ~50% above that during non-drought periods, consistent with a quantitative drought-mortality relationship reported for other Amazon forests. This work suggests that observations of "green-up" of forest canopies during drought may be consistent with subsequent drought-induced tree mortality, in contrast to expectation. More importantly, it highlights endogenous biological regulation of photosynthesis as an important mechanism, neglected by models, in mediating drought responses in tropical forests.

  6. Hypoxia Suppresses Spontaneous Mineralization and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via IGFBP3 Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Yoon, Sei Mee; Song, Sun U.; Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Won-Serk; Park, In Guk; Lee, Jinu; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has diverse stimulatory effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). In the present study, we investigated whether hypoxic culture conditions (2% O2) suppress spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. We also investigated signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We found that hypoxia suppressed spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in ASCs. Although treatment with recombinant IGFBPs did not affect osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, siRNA-mediated inhibition of IGFBP3 attenuated hypoxia-suppressed osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. In contrast, overexpression of IGFBP3 via lentiviral vectors inhibited ASC osteogenic differentiation. These results indicate that hypoxia suppresses spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs via intracellular IGFBP3 up-regulation. We determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways play pivotal roles in IGFBP3 expression under hypoxia. For example, ROS scavengers and inhibitors for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways attenuated the hypoxia-induced IGFBP3 expression. Inhibition of Elk1 and NF-κB through siRNA transfection also led to down-regulation of IGFBP3 mRNA expression. We next addressed the proliferative potential of ASCs with overexpressed IGFBP3, but IGFBP3 overexpression reduced the proliferation of ASCs. In addition, hypoxia reduced the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, our results indicate that hypoxia suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via IGFBP3 up-regulation. PMID:27563882

  7. Selective up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor I in tumor-bearing rats with cancer-related cachexia.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Maria G; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Arena, Katia; Costelli, Paola; Aragno, Manuela; Danni, Oliviero; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2003-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are important mediators in cancer cachexia; however, the expression of these cytokines and their receptors in tumor-bearing animals is poorly characterized. We analyzed expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-RI, TNF-RII) and interleukin 6 (IL-6R) receptors in the brain, kidney, spleen, liver, muscle, ascite tumors and serum, from Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma-bearing rats. TNF-alpha increased in the brain, spleen, liver, and muscle of cachectic animals; IL-6 increased in the liver and muscle. AH-130 cells expressed a good level of TNF-alpha; on the contrary, no TNF-alpha or IL-6 protein was detected in the serum of either tumor-bearing or control animals. TNF-RI mRNA was up-regulated in the spleen, liver and muscle of tumor-bearing rats. TNF-RI protein levels confirmed up-regulation in the spleen and liver, but failed to detect any increase in the muscle. Western blotting against TNF-RI revealed two bands of lower molecular weight in cachectic muscle, suggesting proteolysis involving TNF-RI. No significant increase of either TNF-RII or IL-6R was observed. This is the first demonstration of a selective up-regulation of TNF-RI in cancer cachexia and suggests that local production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 is a corner-stone in the induction/maintenance of this syndrome.

  8. Up-regulation of CXCR4 expression contributes to persistent abdominal pain in rats with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xuelian; Miao, Xiuhua; Li, Di; Wang, Shusheng; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background Pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis is critical hallmark that accompanied inflammation, fibrosis, and destruction of glandular pancreas. Many researchers have demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor 1 (also named as CXCL12) and its cognate receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) involved in mediating neuropathic and bone cancer pain. However, their roles in chronic pancreatic pain remain largely unclear. Methods Chronic pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to the pancreas. Von Frey filament tests were conducted to evaluate pancreas hypersensitivity of rat. Expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, NaV1.8, and pERK in rat dorsal root ganglion was detected by Western blot analyses. Dorsal root ganglion neuronal excitability was assessed by electrophysiological recordings. Results We showed that both CXCL12 and CXCR4 were dramatically up-regulated in the dorsal root ganglion in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced chronic pancreatitis pain model. Intrathecal application with AMD3100, a potent and selective CXCR4 inhibitor, reversed the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the pancreas of rats following trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid injection. Furthermore, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and Nav1.8 up-regulation in dorsal root ganglias were reversed by intrathecal application with AMD3100 as well as by blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by intrathecal U0126. More importantly, the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced persistent pain was significantly suppressed by CXCR4 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors. Conclusions The present results suggest that the activation of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling might contribute to pancreatic pain and that extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent Nav1.8 up-regulation might lead to hyperexcitability of the primary nociceptor neurons in rats with

  9. Linc-ROR and its spliced variants 2 and 4 are significantly up-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Reza; Malakootian, Mahshid; Balalaee, Baharak; Shahryari, Alireza; Khoshnia, Masoud; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Javad Mowla, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Similar characteristics of molecular pathways between cellular reprogramming events and tumorigenesis have been accentuated in recent years. Reprogramming-related transcription factors, also known as Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC), are also well-known oncogenes promoting cancer initiation, progression, and cellular transformation into cancer stem cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a major class of RNA molecules with emerging roles in stem cell pluripotency, cellular reprogramming, cellular transformation, and tumorigenesis. The long intergenic non-coding RNA ROR (lincRNA-ROR, linc-ROR) acts as a regulator of cellular reprograming through sponging miR-145 that normally negatively regulates the expression of the stemness factors NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2. Materials and Methods: Here, we employed a real-time PCR approach to determine the expression patterns of linc-ROR and its two novel spliced variants (variants 2 and 4) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results: The quantitative real-time RT-PCR results revealed a significant up-regulation of linc-ROR (P=0.0098) and its variants 2 (P=0.0250) and 4 (P=0.0002) in tumor samples of ESCC, compared to their matched non-tumor tissues obtained from the margin of same tumors. Our data also demonstrated a significant up-regulation of variant 4 in high-grade tumor samples, in comparison to the low-grade ones (P=0.04). Moreover, the ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the variant 4 of ROR has a potential to discriminate between tumor and non-tumor samples (AUC=0.66, P<0.05). Conclusion: Our data suggest a significant up-regulation of linc-ROR and its variants 2 and 4 in ESCC tissue samples. PMID:27872710

  10. High therapeutic concentration of prazosin up-regulates angiogenic IL6 and CCL2 genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zu-Yau; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2012-12-01

    Alteration of the oxidative stress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells can influence the expressions of genes favored angiogenesis. Quinone reductase 2 which can activate quinones leading to reactive oxygen species production is a melatonin receptor known as MT3. Prazosin prescribed for benign prostate hyperplasia and hypertension is a potent antagonist for MT3. This study was to investigate the influence of therapeutic concentrations of prazosin (0.01 and 0.1μM) on cell proliferation and differential expressions of CCL2, CCL20, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL8 and IL6 genes related to inflammation and/or oxidative stress in human HCC cell lines. Two HCC cell lines including one without susceptible to amphotericin B-induced oxidative stress (cell line A; HCC24/KMUH) and one with this effect (cell line B; HCC38/KMUH) were investigated by 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin. The premixed WST-1 cell proliferation reagent was applied for proliferation assay. Differential expressions of genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that both 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin did not influence cell proliferation in both cell lines. Both 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin in cell line A and 0.01μM prazosin in cell line B did not cause differential expressions of tested genes. However, 0.1μM prazosin caused remarkable up-regulation of IL6 gene and slightly up-regulation of CCL2 gene in cell line B. In conclusion, high therapeutic concentration of prazosin can up-regulate angiogenic IL6 and CCL2 genes in human HCC cells susceptible to amphotericin B-induced oxidative stress. Clinical application of prazosin in patients with HCC should consider this possibility.

  11. HYOU1, Regulated by LPLUNC1, Is Up-Regulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujuan; Liao, Qianjin; Li, Xiayu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Xiaofang; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Wenling; Tang, Ke; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the roles and mechanisms of long palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (LPLUNC1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins after over-expressing LPLUNC1 in NPC cells. The qRT-PCR and Western Blot were used to further validate differentially expression of Hypoxia up-regulated 1 (HYOU1). We also applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to validate the expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC tissues. Results: Totally 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified, among which 19 proteins were up-regulated and 25 proteins were down-regulated. Function annotation indicated that these proteins were involved in molecular chaperone, cytoskeleton, metabolism and signal transduction. It was shown that the expression of HYOU1 both at mRNA level and protein level was up-regulated significantly in NPC tissues, and HYOU1 protein expression was positively correlated with clinical staging and metastasis of NPC. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC patients had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). COX multivariate regression analysis further indicated that over-expressed HYOU1 was one of the predictors for poor prognosis in NPC patients. Conclusion: Through regulating proteins in different pathways, LPLUNC1 may inhibit the growth of NPC through participating in cell metabolism, proliferation, transcription and signaling transduction. HYOU1 can be regarded as potential molecular biomarker for progression and prognosis of NPC. PMID:26918051

  12. Estrogen-dependent up-regulation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptor proteins in the rat endometrium.

    PubMed

    Pohóczky, Krisztina; Kun, József; Szalontai, Bálint; Szőke, Éva; Sághy, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Kajtár, Béla; Kovács, Krisztina; Környei, József László; Garai, János; Garami, András; Perkecz, Anikó; Czeglédi, Levente; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors expressed predominantly in sensory nerves are activated by inflammatory stimuli and mediate inflammation and pain. Although they have been shown in the human endometrium, their regulation and function are unknown. Therefore, we investigated their estrogen- and progesterone-dependent alterations in the rat endometrium in comparison with the estrogen-regulated inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Four-week-old (sexually immature) and four-month-old (sexually mature) female rats were treated with the non-selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonist diethylstilboestrol (DES), progesterone and their combination, or ovariectomized. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels respectively. Channel function was investigated with ratiometric [Ca(2+)]i measurement in cultured primary rat endometrial cells. Both TRP receptors and MIF were detected in the endometrium at mRNA and protein levels, and their localizations were similar. Immunostaining was observed in the immature epithelium, while stromal, glandular and epithelial positivity were observed in adults. Functionally active TRP receptor proteins were shown in endometrial cells by activation-induced calcium influx. In adults, Trpa1 and Trpv1 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated after DES treatment. TRPA1 increased after every treatment, but TRPV1 remained unchanged following the combined treatment and ovariectomy. In immature rats, DES treatment resulted in increased mRNA expression of both channels and elevated TRPV1 immunopositivity. MIF expression changed in parallel with TRPA1/TRPV1 in most cases. DES up-regulated Trpa1, Trpv1 and Mif mRNA levels in endometrial cell cultures, but 17β-oestradiol having ERα-selective potency increased only the expression of Trpv1. We provide the first evidence for TRPA1/TRPV1 expression and their estrogen-induced up-regulation

  13. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to the amelioration of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiti; Zhang, Jing; Xuan, Wei; Xie, Yanjie

    2013-10-15

    In this report, pharmacological, histochemical and molecular approaches were used to investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation on the alleviation of aluminum (Al)-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa. Exposure of alfalfa to AlCl3 (0-100 μM) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of root elongation as well as the enhancement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content. 1 and 10 μM (in particular) Al(3+) increased alfalfa HO-1 transcript or its protein level, and HO activity in comparison with the decreased changes in 100 μM Al-treated samples. After recuperation, however, TBARS levels in 1 and 10 μM Al-treated alfalfa roots returned to control values, which were accompanied with the higher levels of HO activity. Subsequently, exogenous CO, a byproduct of HO-1, could substitute for the cytoprotective effects of the up-regulation of HO-1 in alfalfa plants upon Al stress, which was confirmed by the alleviation of TBARS and Al accumulation, as well as the histochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and loss of plasma membrane integrity. Theses results indicated that endogenous CO generated via heme degradation by HO-1 could contribute in a critical manner to its protective effects. Additionally, the pretreatments of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and hemin, an inducer of HO-1, exhibited the similar cytoprotective roles in the alleviation of oxidative stress, both of which were impaired by the potent inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). However, the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was not influenced by CO, BHT and hemin, respectively. Together, the present results showed up-regulation of HO-1 expression could act as a mechanism of cell protection against oxidative stress induced by Al treatment.

  14. Pregnancy-induced up-regulation of aquaporin-4 protein in brain and its role in eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Quick, Allison M; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2005-02-01

    Neurologic complications of eclampsia are thought to be similar to hypertensive encephalopathy in which an acute, excessive elevation in blood pressure causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and edema formation. Because women who develop eclampsia are in general normotensive and asymptomatic prior to pregnancy, we hypothesized that pregnancy alone predisposes the brain to edema formation by up-regulation of aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel in the brain that has been shown to positively correlate with edema formation. To test this hypothesis, we compared localization (immunohistochemistry), mRNA (RT-PCR), and protein levels (Western analysis) of AQP4 in brains from Sprague Dawley rats that were nonpregnant (NP, proestrous), mid-pregnant (MP, days 9-10), late-pregnant (LP, days 19-20), and postpartum (PP, days 3-4). AQP4 mRNA was detected in the brains of all the animals and was localized primarily around the brain parenchymal blood vessels, strongly implicating its role in BBB function. Western analysis revealed that the major AQP4 band at approximately 32 kDa was significantly elevated in MP, LP, and PP animals compared with NP by 9-, 22-, and 17-fold, respectively. These results suggest that pregnancy and the postpartum state up-regulate AQP4 protein located around the intraparenchymal blood vessels, a consequence that could promote edema formation when blood pressure is acutely and excessively elevated, as during eclampsia.-Quick, A. M., Cipolla, M. J. Pregnancy-induced up-regulation of aquaporin-4 protein in brain and its role in eclampsia.

  15. Up-regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the rat nucleus accumbens after repeated electroconvulsive shock.

    PubMed

    Roh, Myoung-Sun; Cui, Feng Ji; Ahn, Yong Min; Kang, Ung Gu

    2009-10-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide regulates appetite, reward, and mood. CART expression is regulated via the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and electroconvulsive shock (ECS), an efficient antipsychotic and antidepressant measure, activates PKA-related signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that ECS may regulate the expression of CART. ECS given daily for five consecutive days increased CART mRNA and protein in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc), accompanied by an increase in CREB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that ECS-induced CART up-regulation might be associated with PKA-CREB signaling, but the causal direction remains to be elucidated in future studies.

  16. Discovering up-regulated VEGF-C expression in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical swine fever virus Shimen.

    PubMed

    Ning, Pengbo; Zhang, Yanming; Guo, Kangkang; Chen, Ru; Liang, Wulong; Lin, Zhi; Li, Helin

    2014-04-23

    Infection of domestic swine with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus causes hemorrhagic lymphadenitis and diffuse hemorrhaging in infected swine. We analyzed patterns of gene expression for CSFV Shimen in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVECs). Transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C gene (VEGF-C) and translation of the corresponding protein were significantly up-regulated in SUVECs. Our findings suggest that VEGF-C is involved in mechanisms of acute infection caused by virulent strains of CSFV.

  17. Nicotine-induced up-regulation and desensitization of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors depend on subunit ratio.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Sánchez-Padilla, Javier; Ortiz-Acevedo, Alejandro; Lizardi-Ortiz, José; Salas-Vincenty, Janice; Rojas, Legier V; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2004-09-03

    Desensitization induced by chronic nicotine exposure has been hypothesized to trigger the up-regulation of the alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the central nervous system. We studied the effect of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on the desensitization and up-regulation of different alpha4beta2 subunit ratios (1alpha:4beta, 2alpha:3beta, and 4alpha:1beta) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The presence of alpha4 subunit in the oocyte plasmatic membrane increased linearly with the amount of alpha4 mRNA injected. nAChR function and expression were assessed during acute and after chronic nicotine exposure using a two-electrode voltage clamp and whole-mount immunofluorescence assay along with confocal imaging for the detection of the alpha4 subunit. The 2alpha4:3beta2 subunit ratio displayed the highest ACh sensitivity. Nicotine dose-response curves for the 1alpha4:4beta2 and 2alpha4:3beta2 subunit ratios displayed a biphasic behavior at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 microm. A biphasic curve for 4alpha4:1beta2 was obtained at nicotine concentrations higher than 300 microm. The 1alpha4:4beta2 subunit ratio exhibited the lowest ACh- and nicotine-induced macroscopic current, whereas 4alpha4:1beta2 presented the largest currents at all agonist concentrations tested. Desensitization by acute nicotine exposure was more evident as the ratio of beta2:alpha4 subunits increased. All three alpha4beta2 subunit ratios displayed a reduced state of activation after chronic nicotine exposure. Chronic nicotine-induced up-regulation was obvious only for the 2alpha4: 3beta2 subunit ratio. Our data suggest that the subunit ratio of alpha4beta2 determines the functional state of activation, desensitization, and up-regulation of this neuronal nAChR. We propose that independent structural sites regulate alpha4beta2 receptor activation and desensitization.

  18. Methamphetamine acutely inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels but chronically up-regulates L-type channels.

    PubMed

    Andres, Marilou A; Cooke, Ian M; Bellinger, Frederick P; Berry, Marla J; Zaporteza, Maribel M; Rueli, Rachel H; Barayuga, Stephanie M; Chang, Linda

    2015-07-01

    In neurons, calcium (Ca(2+) ) channels regulate a wide variety of functions ranging from synaptic transmission to gene expression. They also induce neuroplastic changes that alter gene expression following psychostimulant administration. Ca(2+) channel blockers have been considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH) dependence because of their ability to reduce drug craving among METH users. Here, we studied the effects of METH exposure on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels using SH-SY5Y cells as a model of dopaminergic neurons. We found that METH has different short- and long-term effects. A short-term effect involves immediate (< 5 min) direct inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movements through Ca(2+) channels. Longer exposure to METH (20 min or 48 h) selectively up-regulates the expression of only the CACNA1C gene, thus increasing the number of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This up-regulation of CACNA1C is associated with the expression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), a known regulator of CACNA1C gene expression, and the MYC gene, which encodes a transcription factor that putatively binds to a site proximal to the CACNA1C gene transcription initiation site. The short-term inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movement and later, the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channel gene expression together suggest the operation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein- and C-MYC-mediated mechanisms to compensate for Ca(2+) channel inhibition by METH. Increased Ca(2+) current density and subsequent increased intracellular Ca(2+) may contribute to the neurodegeneration accompanying chronic METH abuse. Methamphetamine (METH) exposure has both short- and long-term effects. Acutely, methamphetamine directly inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels. Chronically, neurons compensate by up-regulating the L-type Ca(2+) channel gene, CACNA1C. This compensatory mechanism is mediated by transcription factors C-MYC and CREB, in which CREB is linked to the

  19. Participation of ethylene in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M.; Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    In shoots of many plants, of which tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is an example, ethylene production is substantially increased during gravitropism. As a first step toward elucidating the role of ethylene in gravitropism, detailed time courses of ethylene production in isolated hypocotyl segments and whole plants were measured for gravistimulated and upright tomato seedlings. In the first experiment, seedlings were set upright or laid horizontal and then, at 15 min intervals, sets of hypocotyls were excised and sealed into gas tight vials. A steady long term rise in ethylene production begins after 15 min gravistimulation. It is possible that this increase is a consequence of the accumulation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the lower tissue of the hypocotyle. In a second kind of experiment, whole seedlings were enclosed in sealed chambers and air samples were withdrawn at 5 min intervals. Stimulated seedlings produced more ethylene than controls during the first 5 min interval, but not appreciably more during the second. This suggests the possibility that the ethylene production induced during the first 5 min occurs immediately rather than after a lag, and thus much too soon to be controlled by redistribution of IAA.

  20. Exposure to double-stranded RNA mediated by tobacco rattle virus leads to transcription up-regulation of effector gene Mi-vap-2 from Meloidogyne incognita and promotion of pathogenicity in progeny.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yuankai; Wang, Xuan; Le, Xiuhu; Ju, Yuliang; Guan, Tinglong; Li, Hongmei

    2016-02-01

    Meloidogyne spp. are economically important plant parasites and cause enormous damage to agriculture world-wide. These nematodes use secreted effectors which modify host cells, allowing them to obtain the nutrients required for growth and development. A better understanding of the roles of effectors in nematode parasitism is critical for understanding the mechanisms of nematode-host interactions. In this study, Mi-vap-2 of Meloidogyne incognita, a gene encoding a venom allergen-like protein, was targeted by RNA interference mediated by the tobacco rattle virus. Unexpectedly, compared with a wild type line, a substantial up-regulation of Mi-vap-2 transcript was observed in juveniles collected at 7 days p.i. from Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltrated with TRV::vap-2. This up-regulation of the targeted transcript did not impact development of females or the production of galls, nor the number of females on the TRV::vap-2 line. In a positive control line, the transcript of Mi16D10 was knocked down in juveniles from the TRV::16D10 line at 7 days p.i., resulting in a significant inhibition of nematode development. The up-regulation of Mi-vap-2 triggered by TRV-RNAi was inherited by the progeny of the nematodes exposed to double-stranded RNA. Meanwhile, a substantial increase in Mi-VAP-2 expression in those juvenile progeny was revealed by ELISA. This caused an increase in the number of galls (71.2%) and females (84.6%) produced on seedlings of N. benthamiana compared with the numbers produced by control nematodes. Up-regulation of Mi-vap-2 and its encoded protein therefore enhanced pathogenicity of the nematodes, suggesting that Mi-vap-2 may be required for successful parasitism during the early parasitic stage of M. incognita.

  1. Up-regulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represses the replication of SVCV.

    PubMed

    Shao, Junhui; Huang, Jiang; Guo, Yana; Li, Lijuan; Liu, Xueqin; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Yuan, Junfa

    2016-11-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and failure to maintain an appropriate redox balance contribute to viral pathogenesis. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis and coping with invasive pathogens by coordinately activating a series of cytoprotective genes. Previous studies indicated that the transcription and expression levels of Nrf2 were up-regulated in SVCV-infected EPC cells with the unknown mechanism(s). In this study, the interactions between the Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway and SVCV replication were investigated, which demonstrated that SVCV infection induced accumulation of ROS as well as protein carbonyl groups and 8-OHdG, accompanied by the up-regulation of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. At the same time, the activation of Nrf2 with D, l-sulforaphane (SFN) and CDDO-Me could repress the replication of SVCV, and knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA could promote the replication of SVCV. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Nrf2-ARE signal pathway activates a passive defensive response upon SVCV infection. The conclusions presented here suggest that targeting the Nrf2 pathway has potential for combating SVCV infection.

  2. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zequn; Li, Shasha; Liu, Yunyi; Deng, Pengyi; Huang, Jianguo; He, Guangyuan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we confirmed that sesamin, an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil, is a novel skin-tanning compound. The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells. The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB), but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Moreover, sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway. Consistent with these results, sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89, a PKA inhibitor, but not by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89. These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which was, in turn, due to the activation of cAMP signaling.

  3. High-antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells up-regulate intracellular protein transport and glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Camila A; Marcellin, Esteban; Schulz, Benjamin L; Nouwens, Amanda S; Gray, Peter P; Nielsen, Lars K

    2015-02-06

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) due to their ability to perform post-translational modifications and their successful approval history. The completion of the genome sequence for CHO cells has reignited interest in using quantitative proteomics to identify markers of good production lines. Here we applied two different proteomic techniques, iTRAQ and SWATH, for the identification of expression differences between a high- and low-antibody-producing CHO cell lines derived from the same transfection. More than 2000 proteins were quantified with 70 of them classified as differentially expressed in both techniques. Two biological processes were identified as differentially regulated by both methods: up-regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and down-regulation of DNA replication. Metabolomic analysis confirmed that the high producing cell line displayed higher intracellular levels of glutathione. SWATH further identified up-regulation of actin filament processes and intracellular transport and down regulation of several growth-related processes. These processes may be important for conferring high mAb production and as such are promising candidates for targeted engineering of high-expression cell lines.

  4. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Samuelian, Suren; Kleine, Michael; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P; Klein-Lankhorst, René M; Jung, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from hairy root clones and sugar beet plants infected or not with the beet cyst nematode and 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were analysed. One TDF was found to be differentially expressed in both materials and was further investigated. Real-time PCR confirmed that this TDF is specifically up-regulated in resistant sugar beet upon nematode infection and its full-length cDNA was isolated. Sequence analysis suggests that the gene encodes a 317 amino acid polypeptide of unknown function. No homology to any sequence present in the public databases could be detected. To further elucidate its function in resistance to the beet cyst nematode, the cDNA was transformed into hairy roots of susceptible sugar beet under the control of the 35S promoter and hairy root clones were inoculated with nematodes. The number of developing females was significantly reduced in 12 out of 15 clones resulting from independent transgenic events suggesting that the gene can be used for inducing cyst nematode resistance in plants.

  5. TGEV infection up-regulates FcRn expression via activation of NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinyue; Li, Fei; Qian, Shaoju; Bi, Dingren; He, Qigai; Jin, Hui; Luo, Rui; Li, Shaowen; Meng, Xianrong; Li, Zili

    2016-01-01

    It has been well characterized that the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) transports maternal IgG to a fetus or newborn and protects IgG from degradation. We previously reported that FcRn is expressed in a model of normal porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Transmissible gastroenteritis is an acute enteric disease of swine that is caused by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). How porcine FcRn (pFcRn) expression is regulated by pathogenic infection remains unknown. Our research shows that IPEC-J2 cells infected with TGEV had up-regulated pFcRn expression. In addition, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in IPEC-J2 cells by TGEV infection. Furthermore, treatment of TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082 resulted in down-regulation of pFcRn expression. Transient transfection of pFcRn promoter luciferase report plasmids with overexpression of NF-κB p65 transcription factor enhanced the activation of the luciferase report plasmids. We identified four NF-κB transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of this gene using luciferase reporter system, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electromobility shift assay, and supershift analysis. Together, the data provide the first evidence that TGEV infection up-regulates pFcRn expression via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:27555521

  6. Nitrogen mustard up-regulates Bcl-2 and GSH and increases NTP and PCr in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boddie, A. W.; Constantinou, A.; Williams, C.; Reed, A.

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene and DNA damage prevention and repair processes. To test this hypothesis, we treated HT-29 cells with 10(-4) M nitrogen mustard (HN2) and performed sequential perchloric acid extractions in replicate over 0-18 h. By reference to an internal standard (methylene diphosphonic acid), absolute changes in 31P-detectable high-energy phosphates in these extracts were determined and correlated with changes in bcl-2 protein levels, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and total cellular glutathione (GSH) (an important defence against DNA damage from alkylating agents). After HN2 administration, bcl-2 protein levels in the HT-29 cell line rose at 2 h. Cell viability declined to 25% within 18 h, but apoptosis measured using fluorescence techniques remained in the 1-4% range. Increased cell division was noted at 4 h. Two high-energy interconvertible phosphates, NTP (P < or = 0.006) and phosphocreatine (PCr) (P < or = 0.0002), increased at 2 h concurrently with increased levels of bcl-2 protein and glutathione. This study demonstrates that bcl-2 and glutathione are up-regulated by HN2 and links this to a previously unexplained 31P MRS phenomenon: increased NTP after chemotherapy. Images Figure 6 PMID:9652754

  7. Uncoupling Protein-2 is an Antioxidant that is Up-Regulated in the Enamel Organ of Fluoride-Treated Rats*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maiko; Sierant, Megan L.; Antone, Jerry V.; Everett, Eric T.; Whitford, Gary M.; Bartlett, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Dental fluorosis is characterized by subsurface hypomineralization and retention of enamel matrix proteins. Fluoride (F−) exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause ER-stress. We therefore screened oxidative stress arrays to identify genes regulated by F− exposure. Vitamin E is an antioxidant so we asked if a diet high in vitamin E would attenuate dental fluorosis. Maturation stage incisor enamel organs (EO) were harvested from F− treated rats and mice were assessed to determine if vitamin E ameliorates dental fluorosis. Uncoupling protein-2 (Ucp2) was significantly up-regulated by F− (~1.5 & 2.0 fold for the 50 or 100 ppm F− treatment groups respectively). Immunohistochemical results on maturation stage rat incisors demonstrated that UCP2 protein levels increased with F− treatment. UCP2 down-regulates mitochondrial production of ROS, which decreases ATP production. Thus, in addition to reduced protein translation caused by ER-stress, a reduction in ATP production by UCP2 may contribute to the inability of ameloblasts to remove protein from the hardening enamel. Fluoride treated mouse enamel had significantly higher quantitative fluorescence (QF) than the untreated controls. No significant QF difference was observed between control and vitamin E enriched diets within a given F− treatment group. Therefore, a diet rich in vitamin E did not attenuate dental fluorosis. We have identified a novel oxidative stress response gene that is up-regulated in vivo by F− and activation of this gene may adversely affect ameloblast function. PMID:25158175

  8. Up-regulated A20 promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and induces chemotherapy resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Li, Shouyun; Yu, Jing; Li, Huan; Liu, Shuang; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2015-09-01

    A20, also known as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), has been identified as a key regulator of cell survival in many solid tumors. However, little is known about the protein expression level and function of A20 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we found that A20 is up-regulated in ALL patients and several cell lines. Knockdown of A20 in Jurkat, Nalm-6, and Reh cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation, which was associated with cell cycle arrest. Phospho-ERK (p-ERK) was also down-regulated, while p53 and p21 were up-regulated in A20 knockdown cells. In addition, A20 knockdown induced apoptosis in Jurkat and Reh cells and enhanced the sensitivity of these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results indicate that A20 may stimulate cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle progression. A20 inhibited apoptosis in some types of ALL cells, thereby enhancing their resistance to chemotherapy. This effect was abolished through A20 silencing. These findings suggest that A20 may contribute to the pathogenesis of ALL and that it may be used as a new therapeutic target for ALL treatment.

  9. Post-transcriptional up-regulation of PDGF-C by HuR in advanced and stressed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Nian-An; Qu, Ya-Qi; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wang, Tao; Li, Ren-Li; Jia, Lin-Tao; Dong, Rui

    2014-11-06

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple genetic alterations leading to the activation of growth factor signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation. Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is overexpressed in various malignancies; however, the involvement of PDGF-C in breast cancers and the mechanisms underlying PDGF-C deregulation remain unclear. Here, we show that PDGF-C is overexpressed in clinical breast cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. PDGF-C up-regulation was mediated by the human embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR, which stabilizes the PDGF-C transcript by binding to two predicted AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). HuR is up-regulated in hydrogen peroxide-treated or ultraviolet-irradiated breast cancer cells. Clinically, HuR levels are correlated with PDGF-C expression and histological grade or pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying HuR-mediated breast cancer progression, and suggest that HuR and PDGF-C are potential molecular candidates for targeted therapy of breast cancers.

  10. Global up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity reversal during regeneration of an axon from a dendrite.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michelle C; Nguyen, Michelle M; Tao, Juan; Allender, Dana L; Rolls, Melissa M

    2010-03-01

    Axon regeneration is crucial for recovery after trauma to the nervous system. For neurons to recover from complete axon removal they must respecify a dendrite as an axon: a complete reversal of polarity. We show that Drosophila neurons in vivo can convert a dendrite to a regenerating axon and that this process involves rebuilding the entire neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. Two major microtubule rearrangements are specifically induced by axon and not dendrite removal: 1) 10-fold up-regulation of the number of growing microtubules and 2) microtubule polarity reversal. After one dendrite reverses its microtubules, it initiates tip growth and takes on morphological and molecular characteristics of an axon. Only neurons with a single dendrite that reverses polarity are able to initiate tip growth, and normal microtubule plus-end dynamics are required to initiate this growth. In addition, we find that JNK signaling is required for both the up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and microtubule polarity reversal initiated by axon injury. We conclude that regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity in response to JNK signaling is key to initiating regeneration of an axon from a dendrite.

  11. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) Improves the Diabetic Cytopathy (DCP) via Up-Regulation of CGRP and cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n = 15), DM group (n = 15) and control group (n = 15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG. PMID:23468996

  12. Cyclo(His-Pro) promotes cytoprotection by activating Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant defence

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Alba; Conte, Carmela; Grottelli, Silvia; Bellezza, Maria; Cacciatore, Ivana; Bolaños, Juan P

    2009-01-01

    Hystidyl-proline [cyclo(His-Pro)] is an endogenous cyclic dipeptide produced by the cleavage of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Previous studies have shown that cyclo(His-Pro) protects against oxidative stress, although the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we addressed this issue and found that cyclo(His-Pro) triggered nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that up-regulates antioxidant-/electrophile-responsive element (ARE-EpRE)-related genes, in PC12 cells. Cyclo(His-Pro) attenuated reactive oxygen species production, and prevented glutathione depletion caused by glutamate, rotenone, paraquat and β-amyloid treatment. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses revealed that cyclo(His-Pro) induced the expression of a number of ARE-related genes and protected cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptotic death. Furthermore, these effects were abolished by RNA interference-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of p-38 MAPK partially prevented both cyclo(His-Pro)-mediated Nrf2 activation and cellular protection. These results suggest that the signalling mechanism responsible for the cytoprotective actions of cyclo(His-Pro) would involve p-38 MAPK activation leading to Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant cellular defence. PMID:18373731

  13. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by isoflurane preconditioning during tolerance against neuronal injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifang; Zhu, Yesen; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Heping

    2008-09-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to produce bile pigments and carbon monoxide. The HO-1 isozyme is induced by a variety of factors such as heat, heme, ischemia, and hydrogen peroxide. In recent years, mounting findings have suggested that HO-1 has a neuroprotective activity against ischemic injury. The neuroprotective role of isoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, has been well documented, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Recently, isoflurane has been shown to up-regulate HO-1 in the liver. In this study, we show that isoflurane preconditioning promotes the survival of cultured ischemic hippocampal neurons by increasing the number of surviving neurons and their viability. Further study by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that isoflurane preconditioning significantly increases HO-1 expression in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury. Furthermore, inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin partially abolishes isoflurane preconditioning's protective effect as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release in OGD neurons. These findings indicated that the neuroprotective role of isoflurane preconditioning against OGD-induced injury might be associated with its role in up-regulating HO-1 in ischemic neurons.

  14. Nicotine Induced Murine Spermatozoa Apoptosis via Up-Regulation of Deubiquitinated RIP1 by Trim27 Promoter Hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Nie, Dongsheng; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Jingbo; Zhang, Meixing; Zhao, Xianglong; Xu, Wangjie; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Lianyun; Wang, Zhaoxia; Qiao, Zhongdong

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine significantly promoted apoptosis in stages I, VII, VIII, and XI spermatogonia, stages I, VII, VIII, X, and XI spermatocytes, and stages I-V, VII, and VIII elongating spermatids. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, sperm mRNA next-generation sequencing of nicotine-treated mice was conducted. Out of the 86 genes related to apoptosis, Tnf (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was screened to be the most significant varied transcript, and the Onto-pathway analysis indicated that the TNF apoptotic pathway was especially activated by nicotine exposure. The TNF pathway was further studied at the gene and protein levels. The results showed that RIP1, the key component in the TNF apoptotic pathway, was up-expressed in its deubiquitinated form in nicotine-treated mice testis. TRIM27, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activated TNF apoptotic pathway through up-regulating deubiquitinated RIP1, was also overexpressed in nicotine-treated spermatocytes; moreover, four consecutive CpG sites near the Trim27 transcription start site were less frequently methylated. Finally, in vitro experiments of Trim27 overexpression and RNA interference in GC-1 spermatogonial cells confirmed that the RIP1 deubiquitination and TRIM27 hyopmethylation were both positively correlated with spermatocyte apoptosis. In summary, our study suggests that nicotine may induce murine spermatozoal apoptosis via the TNF apoptotic pathway through up-regulation of deubiquitinated RIP1 by Trim27 promoter hypomethylation.

  15. Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Proteins in the Plasma Proteome during Saturation Diving: Unique Coincidence under Hypobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Domoto, Hideharu; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tadano, Yutaka; Fujii, Shigenori; Tachi, Kazuyoshi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Michiya; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw). The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD. PMID:27741252

  16. TWIST1 induces MMP3 expression through up-regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and promotes catabolic responses in human chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hasei, Joe; Teramura, Takeshi; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Yuta; Horii, Takuro; Olmer, Merissa; Hatada, Izuho; Fukuda, Kanji; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Lotz, Martin K.; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter. The effect of TWIST1 on expression of TET family (TET1, 2 and 3) was measured in stable TWIST1 transfected TC28 cells, and TET1 expression was up-regulated. TWIST1 dependent upregulation of Mmp3 expression was suppressed in Tet triple KO fibroblast derived from mouse ES cells. Increased TWIST1 expression is a feature of OA-affected cartilage. We identified a novel mechanism of catabolic reaction where TWIST1 up-regulates MMP3 expression by enriching 5hmC levels at the MMP3 promoter via TET1 induction. These findings implicate TWIST1 as an important factor regulating OA related gene expression. Clarifying epigenetic mechanisms of 5hmC induced by TWIST1 is a critical molecule to understanding OA pathogenesis. PMID:28220902

  17. Up-regulation of muscle uncoupling protein 3 gene expression by calcium channel blocker, benidipine hydrochloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Hioki, Chizuko; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kawada, Teruo

    2007-12-01

    To examine whether benidipine hydrochloride, one of the calcium channel blockers, up-regulate uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression in two skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) in rats. Wistar rats were treated orally with benidipine hydrochloride at 4 mg/kg for 7 days. Blood pressure was measured after 4 days. At the end of experiments, the rats were weighed, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) were removed. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP3 were measured using the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. Benidipine reduced body weight and also had a hypotensive effect. In rats treated with benidipine, UCP1 mRNA levels were significantly increased 1.4-fold in BAT, and UCP3 mRNA levels in BAT and gastrocnemius muscle were significantly increased 1.7 and 3.0-fold, respectively, compared with the control rats. There was no difference in UCP3 mRNA levels in soleus muscle between the two groups. We concluded that benidipine up-regulates not only UCP1 gene expression in BAT but also UCP3 gene expression in BAT and gastrocnemius muscle, which may contribute to thermogenesis in rats.

  18. Chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway normalizes some developmental effects of trisomy in Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Dutka, Tara; Hallberg, Dorothy; Reeves, Roger H.

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly complex developmental genetic disorder caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS exhibit some degree of brain structural changes and cognitive impairment; mouse models such as Ts65Dn have been instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Several phenotypes of DS might arise from a reduced response of trisomic cells to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) growth factor. If all trisomic cells show a similar reduced response to SHH, then up-regulation of the pathway in trisomic cells might ameliorate multiple DS phenotypes. We crossed Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice, in which the canonical SHH pathway is expected to be up-regulated in every SHH-responsive cell due to the loss of function of one allele of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1, to the Ts65Dn DS model and assessed the progeny for possible rescue of multiple DS-related phenotypes. Down-regulation of Ptch produced several previously unreported effects on development by itself, complicating interpretation of some phenotypes, and a number structural or behavioral effects of trisomy were not compensated by SHH signaling. However, a deficit in a nest-building task was partially restored in Ts;Ptch+/− mice, as were structural anomalies of the cerebellum in Ts65Dn mice. These results extend the body of evidence indicating that reduced response to SHH in trisomic cells and tissues contributes to various aspects of the trisomic phenotype. PMID:25511459

  19. A specialist herbivore pest adaptation to xenobiotics through up-regulation of multiple Cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Moural, Timothy W.; Nelson, David R.; Palli, Subba R.

    2016-01-01

    The adaptation of herbivorous insects to their host plants is hypothesized to be intimately associated with their ubiquitous development of resistance to synthetic pesticides. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between detoxification of plant toxins and synthetic pesticides. To address this knowledge gap, we used specialist pest Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and its host plant, potato, as a model system. Next-generation sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) was performed to reveal the CPB transcriptome. Differential expression patterns of cytochrome P450 complement (CYPome) were analyzed between the susceptible (S) and imidacloprid resistant (R) beetles. We also evaluated the global transcriptome repertoire of CPB CYPome in response to the challenge by potato leaf allelochemicals and imidacloprid. The results showed that more than half (51.2%) of the CBP cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) that are up-regulated in the R strain are also induced by both host plant toxins and pesticide in a tissue-specific manner. These data suggest that xenobiotic adaptation in this specialist herbivore is through up-regulation of multiple P450s that are potentially involved in detoxifying both pesticide and plant allelochemicals. PMID:26861263

  20. Demethoxycurcumin inhibited human epithelia ovarian cancer cells' growth via up-regulating miR-551a.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhenhua; Sha, Xianqun

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural agent that has ability to dampen tumor cells' growth. However, the natural form of curcumin is prone to degrade and unstable in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that demethoxycurcumin (a curcumin-related demethoxy compound) could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, IRS2/PI3K/Akt axis was inactivated in cells treated with demethoxycurcumin. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that miR-551a was down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines. Over-expression of miR-551a inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, whereas down-regulation of miR-551a exerted the opposite function. Luciferase assays confirmed that there was a binding site of miR-551a in IRS2, and we found that miR-551a exerted tumor-suppressive function by targeting IRS2 in ovarian cancer cells. Remarkably, miR-551a was up-regulated in the cells treated with demethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin suppressed IRS2 by restoration of miR-551a. In conclusion, demethoxycurcumin hindered ovarian cancer cells' malignant progress via up-regulating miR-551a.

  1. MicroRNAs up-regulated by CagA of Helicobacter pylori induce intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongliang; Jiang, Qiaoli; Lou, Xiaojun; Ji, Xiaowei; Wen, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jia; Tao, Haiying; Jiang, Tingting; He, Wei; Wang, Caihua; Du, Qin; Zheng, Shu; Mao, Jianshan; Huang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    CagA of Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium-derived oncogenic protein closely associated with the development of gastric cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of widespread non-coding RNAs, many of which are involved in cell growth, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. The relationship between CagA protein and miRNAs is unclear. Using mammalian miRNA profile microarrays, we found that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 expression was up-regulated in CagA-transformed cells, miRNA-1290 was up-regulated in an Erk1/2-dependent manner, and miRNA-584 was activated by NF-κB. miRNA-584 sustained Erk1/2 activities through inhibition of PPP2a activities, and miRNA-1290 activated NF-κB by knockdown of NKRF. Foxa1 was revealed to be an important target of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290. Knockdown of Foxa1 promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition significantly. Overexpression of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 induced intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells in knock-in mice. These results indicate that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 interfere with cell differentiation and remodel the tissues. Thus, the miRNA pathway is a new pathogenic mechanism of CagA.

  2. Up-regulation of photoprotection and PSII-repair gene expression by irradiance in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Park, Seunghye; Polle, Juergen E W; Melis, Anastasios; Lee, Taek Kyun; Jin, Eonseon

    2006-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina is an attractive model organism for studying photoacclimation responses and the photosystem II (PSII) damage and repair process in the photosynthetic apparatus. Irradiance during cell growth defines both the photoacclimation and the PSII repair status of the cells. To identify genes specific to these processes, a cDNA library was created from irradiance-stressed D. salina. From the cDNA library, 1112 randomly selected expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed. Because ESTs constitute the expressed part of the genome, the strategy of randomly sequencing cDNA clones at their 5'-ends allowed us to obtain information about the transcript level of numerous genes in light-stressed D. salina. The results of a BLASTX search performed on the obtained total set of ESTs showed that approximately 1% of the ESTs could be assigned to genes coding for proteins that are known to be up-regulated in response to high-light stress. Specifically, after 48 h of high-light exposure of the cells, an increase in the expression level of antioxidant genes, such as Fe-SOD and APX, was observed, as well as elevated levels of the Cbr transcript, a light-harvesting Chl-protein homolog. Further, the ATP-dependent Clp protease gene was also up-regulated in D. salina cells after 48 h of exposure to high light. The results provide initial insight into the global gene regulation process in response to irradiance.

  3. UCP2 up-regulation within the course of autoimmune encephalomyelitis correlates with T-lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Smorodchenko, Alina; Schneider, Stephanie; Rupprecht, Anne; Hilse, Karoline; Sasgary, Soleman; Zeitz, Ute; Erben, Reinhold G; Pohl, Elena E

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with severe neurological disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Several members of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein subfamily (UCP2-UCP5) were suggested to regulate ROS by diminishing the mitochondrial membrane potential and constitute therefore a promising pharmacological target for MS. To evaluate the role of different uncoupling proteins in neuroinflammation, we have investigated their expression patterns in murine brain and spinal cord (SC) during different stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. At mRNA and protein levels we found that only UCP2 is up-regulated in the SC, but not in brain. The increase in UCP2 expression was antigen-independent, reached its maximum between 14 and 21days in both OVA and MOG immunized animals and correlated with an augmented number of CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in SC parenchyma. The decrease in abundance of UCP4 was due to neuronal injury and was only detected in CNS of MOG-induced EAE animals. The results provide evidence that the involvement of mitochondrial UCP2 in CNS inflammation during EAE may be mainly explained by the invasion of activated T-lymphocytes. This conclusion coincides with our previous observation that UCP2 is up-regulated in activated and rapidly proliferating T-cells and participates in fast metabolic re-programming of cells during proliferation.

  4. Monophosphoryl lipid A stimulated up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide release by human monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saha, D C; Astiz, M E; Lin, R Y; Rackow, E C; Eales, L J

    1997-10-01

    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is a derivative of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with reduced toxicity which has been shown to modulate various immune functions in monocytes. We examined whether human monocytes can be stimulated to produce nitric oxide (NO) and its catalytic enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Monocytes were stimulated with LPS or MPL and both NOS and NO (as nitrite) production were measured. MPL at high doses (> 100 micrograms/ml) stimulated monocytes to release NO that was significantly greater than both the control and LPS-treated monocytes (p < 0.05). NO release by control cells and the LPS treated cells was not significantly different. Both arginase and N-monomethyl arginine (NMLA) inhibited the MPL stimulated release of NO (p < 0.01). MPL significantly increased inducible NOS (iNOS) expression as measured by both fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry (p < 0.05). Similarly, both soluble NOS (sNOS) and particulate NOS (pNOS) activity were significantly up-regulated by MPL (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between pNOS expression and sNOS release (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001) and between 12 h NO release and sNOS production (r = 0.44, p < 0.005). These experiments confirm that human monocytes can be stimulated with MPL to produce NO in vitro and suggest that up-regulation of pNOS does not preclude NO release.

  5. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  6. Global Up-Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics and Polarity Reversal during Regeneration of an Axon from a Dendrite

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michelle C.; Nguyen, Michelle M.; Tao, Juan; Allender, Dana L.

    2010-01-01

    Axon regeneration is crucial for recovery after trauma to the nervous system. For neurons to recover from complete axon removal they must respecify a dendrite as an axon: a complete reversal of polarity. We show that Drosophila neurons in vivo can convert a dendrite to a regenerating axon and that this process involves rebuilding the entire neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. Two major microtubule rearrangements are specifically induced by axon and not dendrite removal: 1) 10-fold up-regulation of the number of growing microtubules and 2) microtubule polarity reversal. After one dendrite reverses its microtubules, it initiates tip growth and takes on morphological and molecular characteristics of an axon. Only neurons with a single dendrite that reverses polarity are able to initiate tip growth, and normal microtubule plus-end dynamics are required to initiate this growth. In addition, we find that JNK signaling is required for both the up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and microtubule polarity reversal initiated by axon injury. We conclude that regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity in response to JNK signaling is key to initiating regeneration of an axon from a dendrite. PMID:20053676

  7. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Ying; Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC) since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3) significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  8. Cross talk between the KNOX and ethylene pathways is mediated by intron-binding transcription factors in barley.

    PubMed

    Osnato, Michela; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Wang, Yamei; Meynard, Donaldo; Curiale, Serena; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Liu, Yongxiu; Horner, David S; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Pozzi, Carlo; Müller, Kai J; Salamini, Francesco; Rossini, Laura

    2010-12-01

    In the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded (Kap) mutant, the duplication of a 305-bp intron sequence leads to the overexpression of the Barley knox3 (Bkn3) gene, resulting in the development of an extra flower in the spikelet. We used a one-hybrid screen to identify four proteins that bind the intron-located regulatory element (Kap intron-binding proteins). Three of these, Barley Ethylene Response Factor1 (BERF1), Barley Ethylene Insensitive Like1 (BEIL1), and Barley Growth Regulating Factor1 (BGRF1), were characterized and their in vitro DNA-binding capacities verified. Given the homology of BERF1 and BEIL1 to ethylene signaling proteins, we investigated if these factors might play a dual role in intron-mediated regulation and ethylene response. In transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), constitutive expression of the corresponding genes produced phenotypic alterations consistent with perturbations in ethylene levels and variations in the expression of a key gene of ethylene biosynthesis. In barley, ethylene treatment results in partial suppression of the Kap phenotype, accompanied by up-regulation of BERF1 and BEIL1 expression, followed by down-regulation of Bkn3 mRNA levels. In rice protoplasts, BEIL1 activates the expression of a reporter gene driven by the 305-bp intron element, while BERF1 can counteract this activation. Thus, BEIL1 and BERF1, likely in association with other Kap intron-binding proteins, should mediate the fine-tuning of Bkn3 expression by ethylene. We propose a hypothesis for the cross talk between the KNOX and ethylene pathways.

  9. Multi-Layer Identification of Highly-Potent ABCA1 Up-Regulators Targeting LXRβ Using Multiple QSAR Modeling, Structural Similarity Analysis, and Molecular Docking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Kang, Jie; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-11-29

    In this study, in silico approaches, including multiple QSAR modeling, structural similarity analysis, and molecular docking, were applied to develop QSAR classification models as a fast screening tool for identifying highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ based on a series of new flavonoids. Initially, four modeling approaches, including linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, radial basis function neural network, and classification and regression trees, were applied to construct different QSAR classification models. The statistics results indicated that these four kinds of QSAR models were powerful tools for screening highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators. Then, a consensus QSAR model was developed by combining the predictions from these four models. To discover new ABCA1 up-regulators at maximum accuracy, the compounds in the ZINC database that fulfilled the requirement of structural similarity of 0.7 compared to known potent ABCA1 up-regulator were subjected to the consensus QSAR model, which led to the discovery of 50 compounds. Finally, they were docked into the LXRβ binding site to understand their role in up-regulating ABCA1 expression. The excellent binding modes and docking scores of 10 hit compounds suggested they were highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ. Overall, this study provided an effective strategy to discover highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators.

  10. Restraint stress up-regulates lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in aorta of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Irene J; Sankaralingam, Sowndramalingam; Davidge, Sandra T

    2010-09-01

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. The vascular lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is involved in vascular pathology and early atherogenesis. We hypothesized that LOX-1 is up-regulated by psychological stress via the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals, and that treatment with EUK-8 (a superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic) prevents production of oxygen-derived free radicals and leads to reduced expression of LOX-1 in the vascular wall. As a model for psychological stress, we exposed male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to repeated restraint stress by placement in a conical tube for 2 h per day for 14 consecutive days. Stressed and control mice were treated with EUK-8 (n = 4-5) or vehicle (n = 4-5). Reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite levels, as detected by oxidative fluorescence microscopy, were increased in the aortic root of mice exposed to stress compared to those of controls by 212 +/- 22% (mean +/- SEM; p < 0.001) and 110 +/- 6% (p < 0.001), respectively. LOX-1, as detected by immunohistochemistry, was increased by 443 +/- 63% in stressed mice compared to control mice (p < 0.001). EUK-8 reduced reactive oxygen species, peroxynitrite, and LOX-1 levels in stressed mice compared to vehicle-treated stressed mice. To conclude, LOX-1 induced by reactive oxygen species and/or peroxynitrite could be one mechanism by which stress promotes cardiovascular disease.

  11. Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

    2010-07-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery.

  12. The Synthetic Tryptanthrin Analogue Suppresses STAT3 Signaling and Induces Caspase Dependent Apoptosis via ERK Up Regulation in Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Anup S.; Kumar, Suresh; Guru, Santosh K.; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Parduman R.; Aithagani, Sravan K.; Singh, Parvinder P.; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz

    2014-01-01

    Tryptanthrin is a natural product which has been reported to have several medicinal properties. In this study, we tried to investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of its bromo analogue (TBr), a potent cytotoxic agent in the induction of cancer cell death. It was found that TBr primarily targets STAT3 and ERK signaling during the induction of apoptosis in several human leukemia cell lines. In HL-60 cells, TBr treatment caused early down regulation of p-STAT3 with concomitant up regulation of p-ERK which led to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The mechanism of TBr mediated inhibition of p-STAT3 was found to be due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of tyrosine 705 and serine 727 p-STAT3. As IL-6 is the main driver of the STAT3 pathway, the effect of TBr on cell death was subdued when treated in the combination with IL-6 in HL60 cells. Interestingly, PD98059 significantly reduced the apoptotic effects of TBr, thus showing the direct involvement of p-ERK in TBr mediated cell death. It was further shown that apoptotic protein Bax silencing in HL-60 cells resists TBr mediated ERK dependent apoptosis. In summary, for the first time we report the mechanism of TBr mediated cell death in human leukemia cell lines by targeting STAT3 and ERK pathways. PMID:25383546

  13. HIV-1-Tat Protein Inhibits SC35-mediated Tau Exon 10 Inclusion through Up-regulation of DYRK1A Kinase.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Ferdous; Pacifici, Marco; Wilk, Anna; Parker-Struckhoff, Amanda; Del Valle, Luis; Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E; Parsons, Christopher; Jeansonne, Duane; Lassak, Adam; Peruzzi, Francesca

    2015-12-25

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is implicated in the neuronal damage that contributes to neurocognitive impairment affecting people living with HIV/AIDS. Aberrant splicing of TAU exon 10 results in tauopathies characterized by alterations in the proportion of TAU isoforms containing three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule-binding repeats. The splicing factor SC35/SRSF2 binds to nuclear RNA and facilitates the incorporation of exon 10 in the TAU molecule. Here, we utilized clinical samples, an animal model, and neuronal cell cultures and found that Tat promotes TAU 3R up-regulation through increased levels of phosphorylated SC35, which is retained in nuclear speckles. This mechanism involved Tat-mediated increased expression of DYRK1A and was prevented by DYRK1A silencing. In addition, we found that Tat associates with TAU RNA, further demonstrating that Tat interferes with host RNA metabolism in the absence of viral infection. Altogether, our data unravel a novel mechanism of Tat-mediated neuronal toxicity through dysregulation of the SC35-dependent alternative splicing of TAU exon 10. Furthermore, the increased immunostaining of DYRK1A in HIV+ brains without pathology points at dysregulation of DYRK1A as an early event in the neuronal complications of HIV infection.

  14. HIV-1-Tat Protein Inhibits SC35-mediated Tau Exon 10 Inclusion through Up-regulation of DYRK1A Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Ferdous; Pacifici, Marco; Wilk, Anna; Parker-Struckhoff, Amanda; Del Valle, Luis; Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Parsons, Christopher; Jeansonne, Duane; Lassak, Adam; Peruzzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is implicated in the neuronal damage that contributes to neurocognitive impairment affecting people living with HIV/AIDS. Aberrant splicing of TAU exon 10 results in tauopathies characterized by alterations in the proportion of TAU isoforms containing three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule-binding repeats. The splicing factor SC35/SRSF2 binds to nuclear RNA and facilitates the incorporation of exon 10 in the TAU molecule. Here, we utilized clinical samples, an animal model, and neuronal cell cultures and found that Tat promotes TAU 3R up-regulation through increased levels of phosphorylated SC35, which is retained in nuclear speckles. This mechanism involved Tat-mediated increased expression of DYRK1A and was prevented by DYRK1A silencing. In addition, we found that Tat associates with TAU RNA, further demonstrating that Tat interferes with host RNA metabolism in the absence of viral infection. Altogether, our data unravel a novel mechanism of Tat-mediated neuronal toxicity through dysregulation of the SC35-dependent alternative splicing of TAU exon 10. Furthermore, the increased immunostaining of DYRK1A in HIV+ brains without pathology points at dysregulation of DYRK1A as an early event in the neuronal complications of HIV infection. PMID:26534959

  15. Profiling Ethylene-Responsive Genes Expressed in the Latex of the Mature Virgin Rubber Trees Using cDNA Microarray.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiyi; Kang, Guijuan; Duan, Cuifang; Li, Yu; Dai, Longjun; Zeng, Rizhong

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is commonly used as a latex stimulant of Hevea brasiliensis by application of ethephon (chloro-2-ethylphosphonic acid); however, the molecular mechanism by which ethylene increases latex production is not clear. To better understand the effects of ethylene stimulation on the laticiferous cells of rubber trees, a latex expressed sequence tag (EST)-based complementary DNA microarray containing 2,973 unique genes (probes) was first developed and used to analyze the gene expression changes in the latex of the mature virgin rubber trees after ethephon treatment at three different time-points: 8, 24 and 48 h. Transcript levels of 163 genes were significantly altered with fold-change values ≥ 2 or ≤ -2 (q-value < 0.05) in ethephon-treated rubber trees compared with control trees. Of the 163 genes, 92 were up-regulated and 71 down-regulated. The microarray results were further confirmed using real-time quantitative reverse transcript-PCR for 20 selected genes. The 163 ethylene-responsive genes were involved in several biological processes including organic substance metabolism, cellular metabolism, primary metabolism, biosynthetic process, cellular response to stimulus and stress. The presented data suggest that the laticifer water circulation, production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species, sugar metabolism, and assembly and depolymerization of the latex actin cytoskeleton might play important roles in ethylene-induced increase of latex production. The results may provide useful insights into understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of ethylene on latex metabolism of H. brasiliensis.

  16. Ethylene monitoring and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N. (Inventor); Richard, II, Roy V. (Inventor); Kane, James A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system that can accurately monitor and control low concentrations of ethylene gas includes a test chamber configured to receive sample gas potentially containing an ethylene concentration and ozone, a detector configured to receive light produced during a reaction between the ethylene and ozone and to produce signals related thereto, and a computer connected to the detector to process the signals to determine therefrom a value of the concentration of ethylene in the sample gas. The supply for the system can include a four way valve configured to receive pressurized gas at one input and a test chamber. A piston is journaled in the test chamber with a drive end disposed in a drive chamber and a reaction end defining with walls of the test chamber a variable volume reaction chamber. The drive end of the piston is pneumatically connected to two ports of the four way valve to provide motive force to the piston. A manifold is connected to the variable volume reaction chamber, and is configured to receive sample gasses from at least one of a plurality of ports connectable to degreening rooms and to supply the sample gas to the reactive chamber for reaction with ozone. The apparatus can be used to monitor and control the ethylene concentration in multiple degreening rooms.

  17. Ethylene monitoring and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Bruce N. (Inventor); Richard, II, Roy V. (Inventor); Kanc, James A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system that can accurately monitor and control low concentrations of ethylene gas includes a test chamber configured to receive sample gas potentially containing an ethylene concentration and ozone, a detector configured to receive light produced during a reaction between the ethylene and ozone and to produce signals related thereto, and a computer connected to the detector to process the signals to determine therefrom a value of the concentration of ethylene in the sample gas. The supply for the system can include a four way valve configured to receive pressurized gas at one input and a test chamber. A piston is journaled in the test chamber with a drive end disposed in a drive chamber and a reaction end defining with walls of the test chamber a variable volume reaction chamber. The drive end of the piston is pneumatically connected to two ports of the four way valve to provide motive force to the piston. A manifold is connected to the variable volume reaction chamber, and is configured to receive sample gasses from at least one of a plurality of ports connectable to degreening rooms and to supply the sample gas to the reactive chamber for reaction with ozone. The apparatus can be used to monitor and control the ethylene concentration in multiple degreening rooms.

  18. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  19. Growth Arrest Specific 2 Is Up-Regulated in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Required for Their Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjuan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiuyan; Hu, Xiaohui; Eaves, Connie J.; Wu, Depei; Zhao, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Although the generation of BCR-ABL is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the comprehensive molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear yet. Growth arrest specific 2 (GAS2) regulates multiple cellular functions including cell cycle, apoptosis and calpain activities. In the present study, we found GAS2 was up-regulated in CML cells including CD34+ progenitor cells compared to their normal counterparts. We utilized RNAi and the expression of dominant negative form of GAS2 (GAS2DN) to target GAS2, which resulted in calpain activity enhancement and growth inhibition of both K562 and MEG-01 cells. Targeting GAS2 also sensitized K562 cells to Imatinib mesylate (IM). GAS2DN suppressed the tumorigenic ability of MEG-01 cells and impaired the tumour growth as well. Moreover, the CD34+ cells from CML patients and healthy donors were transduced with control and GAS2DN lentiviral vectors, and the CD34+ transduced (YFP+) progeny cells (CD34+YFP+) were plated for colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. The results showed that GAS2DN inhibited the CFC production of CML cells by 57±3% (n = 3), while affected those of normal hematopoietic cells by 31±1% (n = 2). Next, we found the inhibition of CML cells by GAS2DN was dependent on calpain activity but not the degradation of beta-catenin. Lastly, we generated microarray data to identify the differentially expressed genes upon GAS2DN and validated that the expression of HNRPDL, PTK7 and UCHL5 was suppressed by GAS2DN. These 3 genes were up-regulated in CML cells compared to normal control cells and the growth of K562 cells was inhibited upon HNRPDL silence. Taken together, we have demonstrated that GAS2 is up-regulated in CML cells and the inhibition of GAS2 impairs the growth of CML cells, which indicates GAS2 is a novel regulator of CML cells and a potential therapeutic target of this disease. PMID:24465953

  20. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine interact with central nicotinic receptors and induce their up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Rates, Sara; Camarasa, Jordi; Escubedo, Elena; Pubill, David

    2007-09-15

    Previous work from our group indicated that {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7 nAChR) potentially play a role in methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity. The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the interaction of METH and MDMA with homomeric {alpha}7 nAChR ([{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine binding) and other heteromeric subtypes ([{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding); and (2) to show the effects of amphetamine derivative pretreatment on the density of binding sites. METH and MDMA displaced [{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine and [{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding in membranes from NGF-differentiated PC 12 cells and mouse brain, with K{sub i} values in the micromolar range, MDMA revealing a greater affinity than METH. In addition, METH and MDMA induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in [{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine and [{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding; which had already been apparent after 6 h of pretreatment, and which peaked in differentiated PC 12 cells after 48 h. The highest increases were found in [{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding, with MDMA inducing higher increases than METH. Treatment with METH and MDMA increased B{sub max} of high-affinity sites for both radioligands without affecting K{sub d}. The heightened binding was inhibited by pretreatment with cycloheximide, suggesting the participation of newly synthesised proteins while inhibition of protein trafficking to plasma membrane did not block up-regulation. The effects of protein kinase and cyclophilin inhibitors on such up-regulation were explored, revealing a rapid, differential and complex regulation, similar to that described for nicotinic ligands. All of these results demonstrate that METH and MDMA have affinity for, and can interact with, nAChR, inducing their up-regulation, specially when higher doses are used. Such effects may have a role in METH- and MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, cholinergic neurotransmission, and in processes

  1. Caveolin-1 mediates tissue plasminogen activator-induced MMP-9 up-regulation in cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinchun; Sun, Yanyun; Xu, Ji; Liu, Wenlan

    2015-03-01

    Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic brain, which exacerbates blood-brain barrier injury and increases the risk of symptomatic cerebral hemorrhage. The mechanism through which tPA enhances MMP-9 activity is not well understood. Here we report an important role of caveolin-1 in mediating tPA-induced MMP-9 synthesis. Brain microvascular endothelial cell line bEnd3 cells were incubated with 5 or 20 μg/ml tPA for 24 hrs before analyzing MMP-9 levels in the conditioned media and cellular extracts by gelatin zymography. tPA at a dose of 20 μg/mL tPA, but not 5 μg/mL, significantly increased MMP-9 level in cultured media while decreasing it in cellular extracts. Concurrently, tPA treatment induced a 2.3-fold increase of caveolin-1 protein levels in endothelial cells. Interestingly, knockdown of Cav-1 with siRNA inhibited tPA-induced MMP-9 mRNA up-regulation and MMP-9 increase in the conditioned media, but did not affect MMP-9 decrease in cellular extracts. These results suggest that caveolin-1 critically contributes to tPA-mediated MMP-9 up-regulation, but may not facilitate MMP-9 secretion in endothelial cells. Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic brain, which exacerbates ischemic blood brain barrier (BBB) injury and increases the risk of symptomatic cerebral hemorrhage. Our results suggest a novel mechanism underlying this tPA-MMP 9 axis. In response to tPA treatment, caveolin-1 protein levels increased in endothelial cells, which mediate MMP-9 mRNA up-regulation and its secretion into extracellular space. Caveolin-1 may, however, not facilitate MMP-9 secretion in endothelial cells. Our data suggest caveolin-1 as a novel therapeutic target for protecting the BBB against ischemic damage. The schematic outlines tPA-induced MMP-9 upreguation.

  2. Up-Regulated Expression of LAMP2 and Autophagy Activity during Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Prostate Cancer LNCaP Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vara-Ciruelos, Diana; Ramos-Torres, Ágata; Altamirano-Dimas, Manuel; Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly aggressive subtype of prostate cancer associated with resistance to androgen ablation therapy. In this study, we used LNCaP prostate cancer cells cultured in a serum-free medium for 6 days as a NE model of prostate cancer. Serum deprivation increased the expression of NE markers such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and βIII tubulin (βIII tub) and decreased the expression of the androgen receptor protein in LNCaP cells. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared gene expression profiles of NE cells and non-differentiated LNCaP cells. We identified up-regulation of 155 genes, among them LAMP2, a lysosomal membrane protein involved in lysosomal stability and autophagy. We then confirmed up-regulation of LAMP2 in NE cells by qRT-PCR, Western blot and confocal microscopy assays, showing that mRNA up-regulation correlated with increased levels of LAMP2 protein. Subsequently, we determined autophagy activity in NE cells by assessing the protein levels of SQSTM/p62 and LC3 by Western blot and LC3 and Atg5 mRNAs content by qRT-PCR. The decreased levels of SQSTM/p62 was accompanied by an enhanced expression of LC3 and ATG5, suggesting activation of autophagy in NE cells. Blockage of autophagy with 1μM AKT inhibitor IV, or by silencing Beclin 1 and Atg5, prevented NE cell differentiation, as revealed by decreased levels of the NE markers. In addition, AKT inhibitor IV as well as Beclin1 and Atg5 kwockdown attenuated LAMP2 expression in NE cells. On the other hand, LAMP2 knockdown by siRNA led to a marked blockage of autophagy, prevention of NE differentiation and decrease of cell survival. Taken together, these results suggest that LAMP2 overexpression assists NE differentiation of LNCaP cells induced by serum deprivation and facilitates autophagy activity in order to attain the NE phenotype and cell survival. LAMP2 could thus be a potential biomarker and potential target for NE prostate cancer. PMID:27627761

  3. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Ni; Kido, Takashi; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; Breemen, Cornelis van; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-09-01

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by {approx} 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-{kappa}B activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-{kappa}B activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R{sup 2} = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: > Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. > Examine iNOS expression and activity in the

  4. Overexpression of ARGOS Genes Modifies Plant Sensitivity to Ethylene, Leading to Improved Drought Tolerance in Both Arabidopsis and Maize[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinrui; Habben, Jeffrey E.; Archibald, Rayeann L.; Drummond, Bruce J.; Chamberlin, Mark A.; Williams, Robert W.; Lafitte, H. Renee; Weers, Ben P.

    2015-01-01

    Lack of sufficient water is a major limiting factor to crop production worldwide, and the development of drought-tolerant germplasm is needed to improve crop productivity. The phytohormone ethylene modulates plant growth and development as well as plant response to abiotic stress. Recent research has shown that modifying ethylene biosynthesis and signaling can enhance plant drought tolerance. Here, we report novel negative regulators of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). These regulators are encoded by the ARGOS gene family. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of maize ARGOS1 (ZmARGOS1), ZmARGOS8, Arabidopsis ARGOS homolog ORGAN SIZE RELATED1 (AtOSR1), and AtOSR2 reduced plant sensitivity to ethylene, leading to enhanced drought tolerance. RNA profiling and genetic analysis suggested that the ZmARGOS1 transgene acts between an ethylene receptor and CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 in the ethylene signaling pathway, affecting ethylene perception or the early stages of ethylene signaling. Overexpressed ZmARGOS1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membrane, where the ethylene receptors and the ethylene signaling protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 and REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 reside. In transgenic maize plants, overexpression of ARGOS genes also reduces ethylene sensitivity. Moreover, field testing showed that UBIQUITIN1:ZmARGOS8 maize events had a greater grain yield than nontransgenic controls under both drought stress and well-watered conditions. PMID:26220950

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis. Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants. PMID:27489312

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of the Green Alga Spirogyra pratensis (Charophyta) Suggests an Ancestral Role for Ethylene in Cell Wall Metabolism, Photosynthesis, and Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Cooper, Endymion D; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Chang, Caren; Delwiche, Charles F

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that ethylene regulates a diverse set of developmental and stress-related processes in angiosperms, yet its roles in early-diverging embryophytes and algae are poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that ethylene functions as a hormone in the charophyte green alga Spirogyra pratensis Since land plants evolved from charophytes, this implies conservation of ethylene as a hormone in green plants for at least 450 million years. However, the physiological role of ethylene in charophyte algae has remained unknown. To gain insight into ethylene responses in Spirogyra, we used mRNA sequencing to measure changes in gene expression over time in Spirogyra filaments in response to an ethylene treatment. Our analyses show that at the transcriptional level, ethylene predominantly regulates three processes in Spirogyra: (1) modification of the cell wall matrix by expansins and xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases, (2) down-regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis, and (3) activation of abiotic stress responses. We confirmed that the photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll content were reduced by an ethylene treatment and that several abiotic stress conditions could stimulate cell elongation in an ethylene-dependent manner. We also found that the Spirogyra transcriptome harbors only 10 ethylene-responsive transcription factor (ERF) homologs, several of which are regulated by ethylene. These results provide an initial understanding of the hormonal responses induced by ethylene in Spirogyra and help to reconstruct the role of ethylene in ancestral charophytes prior to the origin of land plants.

  7. Up-Regulation of MiR-300 Promotes Proliferation and Invasion of Osteosarcoma by Targeting BRD7.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhen; Zhao, Jindong; Niu, Liyuan; An, Gang; Guo, Yashan; Ni, Linying

    2015-01-01

    Increasing reports suggest that deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) might provide novel therapeutic targets for cancers. However, the expression and function of miR-300 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In our study, we found that the expression of miR-300 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells compared with paired adjacent non-tumor bone tissues and osteoblastic cells using RT-qPCR. The enforced expression of miR-300 could promote cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we identified that bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), a new tumor suppressor gene, was a direct target of miR-300. Ectopic expression of BRD7 could significantly inhibit miR-300-promoted proliferation, invasion and EMT. Therefore, our results identify an important role for miR-300 in osteosarcoma through regulating BRD7 expression.

  8. Functional analysis of the buckwheat metallothionein promoter: tissue specificity pattern and up-regulation under complex stress stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bratić, Ana M; Majić, Dragana B; Samardzić, Jelena T; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2009-06-01

    To shed light on expression regulation of the metallothionein gene from buckwheat (FeMT3), functional promoter analysis was performed with a complete 5' regulatory region and two deletion variants, employing stably transformed tobacco plants. Histochemical GUS assay of transgenic tobacco lines showed the strongest signals in vascular elements of leaves and in pollen grains, while somewhat weaker staining was observed in the roots of mature plants. This tissue specificity pattern implies a possible function of buckwheat MT3 in those tissues. Quantitative GUS assay showed strong up-regulation of all three promoter constructs (proportional to the length of the regulatory region) in leaves submerged in liquid MS medium containing sucrose, after a prolonged time period. This represented a complex stress situation composed of several synergistically related stress stimuli. These findings suggest complex transcriptional regulation of FeMT3, requiring interactions among a number of different factors.

  9. Transcriptomic meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of gene expression functional in osteoclast differentiation in human septic shock.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Samanwoy; Thatoi, Pravat K; Pandey, Abhay D; Das, Bidyut K; Ravindran, Balachandran; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Mohapatra, Saroj K

    2017-01-01

    Septic shock is a major medical problem with high morbidity and mortality and incompletely understood biology. Integration of multiple data sets into a single analysis framework empowers discovery of new knowledge about the condition that may have been missed by individual analysis of each of these datasets. Electronic search was performed on medical literature and gene expression databases for selection of transcriptomic studies done in circulating leukocytes from human subjects suffering from septic shock. Gene-level meta-analysis was conducted on the six selected studies to identify the genes consistently differentially expressed in septic shock. This was followed by pathway-level analysis using three different algorithms (ORA, GSEA, SPIA). The identified up-regulated pathway, Osteoclast differentiation pathway (hsa04380) was validated in two independent cohorts. Of the pathway, 25 key genes were selected that serve as an expression signature of Septic Shock.

  10. Differential expression of Prx I and II in mouse testis and their up-regulation by radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keesook; Park, Ji-Sun; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Soo Lee, Yong Soo; Sook Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Dae-Joong; Park, Eun-Mi; Park, Young-Mee

    2002-08-16

    Testis is one of the most sensitive organs to ionizing radiation. The present study was designed to unravel the possible role of antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I and II (Prx I and II) in the testis. Our results show that Prx I and II are constitutively expressed in the testis and their expression levels are decreased to some extent as the testis develops. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a preferential expression of Prx I and II in Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively. Neither Prx I nor Prx II expression was obvious in the testicular germ cells including spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Ionizing radiation exerted oxidative stress on the testis and induced apoptosis primarily in the germ cells. When the irradiated testis was examined, the Prx system was found to be transiently up-regulated. Taken together, we suggest that the relative radiation-resistance of Leydig and Sertoli cells could be attributed in part to the antioxidant function of the Prx system in these cells.

  11. Growth differentiation factor 8 suppresses cell proliferation by up-regulating CTGF expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Pan, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Yi-Min; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-02-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that plays a critical role in the development of ovarian follicles. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is mainly, but not exclusively, expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GDF8 and CTGF on the regulation of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. Using dual inhibition approaches (inhibitors and small interfering RNAs), we have demonstrated that GDF8 induces the up-regulation of CTGF expression through the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)4/5-mediated SMAD2/3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the increase in CTGF expression contributes to the GDF8-induced suppressive effect on granulosa cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that GDF8 and CTGF may play critical roles in the regulation of proliferative events in human granulosa cells.

  12. Transcriptomic meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of gene expression functional in osteoclast differentiation in human septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Samanwoy; Thatoi, Pravat K.; Pandey, Abhay D.; Das, Bidyut K.; Ravindran, Balachandran; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Mohapatra, Saroj K.

    2017-01-01

    Septic shock is a major medical problem with high morbidity and mortality and incompletely understood biology. Integration of multiple data sets into a single analysis framework empowers discovery of new knowledge about the condition that may have been missed by individual analysis of each of these datasets. Electronic search was performed on medical literature and gene expression databases for selection of transcriptomic studies done in circulating leukocytes from human subjects suffering from septic shock. Gene-level meta-analysis was conducted on the six selected studies to identify the genes consistently differentially expressed in septic shock. This was followed by pathway-level analysis using three different algorithms (ORA, GSEA, SPIA). The identified up-regulated pathway, Osteoclast differentiation pathway (hsa04380) was validated in two independent cohorts. Of the pathway, 25 key genes were selected that serve as an expression signature of Septic Shock. PMID:28199355

  13. Berberine up-regulates the BDNF expression in hippocampus and attenuates corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-Duo; Ma, Li-Gang; Hu, Chun-Yue; Pei, Yang-Yi; Jin, Shuang-Li; Fang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-12

    Depression is increasingly become a global public healthy problem. This study was to investigate whether berberine could attenuate the depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injection and explore the possible mechanisms. The present results showed that exogenous corticosterone injection caused depressive-like behaviors in mice, such as decreased sucrose intake in sucrose preference test (SPT) and increased immobility time in forced swimming test (FST). These behavioral alterations were accompanying with the decreased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in hippocampus and the elevated serum corticosterone levels. Treatment with berberine prevented these changes above. Our findings confirmed the antidepressant-like effect of berberine and suggested its mechanisms might be partially mediated by up-regulation of BDNF in hippocampus.

  14. Mannose receptor induces T-cell tolerance via inhibition of CD45 and up-regulation of CTLA-4

    PubMed Central

    Schuette, Verena; Embgenbroich, Maria; Ulas, Thomas; Welz, Meike; Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Draffehn, Astrid M.; Quast, Thomas; Koch, Katharina; Nehring, Melanie; König, Jessica; Zweynert, Annegret; Harms, Frederike L.; Steiner, Nancy; Limmer, Andreas; Förster, Irmgard; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Knolle, Percy A.; Wohlleber, Dirk; Kolanus, Waldemar; Beyer, Marc; Schultze, Joachim L.; Burgdorf, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor involved in serum homeostasis and antigen presentation. Here, we identify the MR as a direct regulator of CD8+ T-cell activity. We demonstrate that MR expression on dendritic cells (DCs) impaired T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. This regulatory effect of the MR was mediated by a direct interaction with CD45 on the T cell, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, which resulted in up-regulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) and the induction of T-cell tolerance. Inhibition of CD45 prevented expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), a transcriptional inhibitor that directly bound the CTLA-4 promoter and regulated its activity. These data demonstrate that endocytic receptors expressed on DCs contribute to the regulation of T-cell functionality. PMID:27601670

  15. Glucose metabolism activation by SHIP2 inhibitors via up-regulation of GLUT1 gene in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Akira; Kurama, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Sawada, Akihiko; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Aramori, Ichiro

    2010-09-10

    Lipid phosphatase SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) plays an important role in the regulation of insulin signaling. In this report, we identified AS1938909, a novel small-molecule SHIP2 inhibitor. AS1938909 showed potent inhibition of SHIP2 (Ki=0.44 microuM) and significant selectivity over other related phosphatases. Further, AS1938909 increased Akt phosphorylation, glucose consumption, and glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Treatment of L6 myotubes with SHIP2 inhibitors for 48 h significantly induced expression of GLUT1 mRNA, but not that of GLUT4. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of SHIP2 activates glucose metabolism due, at least in part, to up-regulation of GLUT1 gene expression.

  16. Proto-oncogene ACTR/AIB1 promotes cancer cell invasion by up-regulating specific matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Li B; Louie, Maggie C; Chen, H-W; Zou, June X

    2008-03-08

    Overexpression of ACTR/AIB1 is frequently found in different cancers with distant metastasis. To address its possible involvement in tumor metastasis, we performed invasion assays to examine the effect of ACTR alteration on the invasiveness of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 or T-47D) and found that high levels of ACTR are required for their strong invasiveness. Molecular analysis indicates that ACTR functions as a coactivator of AP-1 to up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases such as MMP-7 and MMP-10 and reduce cell adhesion to specific extracellular matrix proteins. These novel findings provide a mechanistic link between ACTR and MMPs, and suggest that ACTR may also play an important role in cancer progression by facilitating tumor invasion.

  17. Up-regulation of hepatic receptor for growth hormone in the flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) after oral administration with exogenous GH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-Zhu; Wang, Jin-Bao; Xu, Yong-Li; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-06-01

    The iodination efficiency of salmon GH(sGH) was 38.82%, using a modification of the chloramine-T method. The specific activity of the125I-sGH was about 40 μCi/μg protein. The results of binding assay showed a single class of high affinity and low-capacity binding site in flounder liver. Long-term administration with exogenous GH can induce the up-regulation of hepatic GH receptor in total binding capacity though there was no significant difference in capacity of free binding sites of livers from control and experimental fish, this result also indicated that the liver from experimental fish, compared to that from control fish, had more occupied binding sites.

  18. Beta- Lactam Antibiotics Stimulate Biofilm Formation in Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae by Up-Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M.; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

  19. NFATc3 Mediates Chronic Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling with α-Actin Up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    de Frutos, S.; Spangler, R.; Alò, D.; González Bosc, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Physiological responses to chronic hypoxia include polycythemia, pulmonary arterial remodeling and vasoconstriction. Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary arterial hypertension leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. During pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arteries exhibit increased expression of smooth muscle-α-actin and -myosin heavy chain. NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3), which is a Ca2+-dependent transcription factor, has been recently linked to smooth muscle phenotypic maintenance through the regulation of the expression of α-actin. The aim of this study was to determine if: a) NFATc3 is expressed in murine pulmonary arteries, b) hypoxia induces NFAT activation, c) NFATc3 mediates the up-regulation of α-actin during chronic hypoxia, and d) NFATc3 is involved in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. NFATc3 transcript and protein were found in pulmonary arteries. NFAT-luciferase reporter mice were exposed to normoxia (630 torr) or hypoxia (380 torr) for 2, 7 or 21 days. Exposure to hypoxia elicited a significant increase in luciferase activity and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle nuclear NFATc3 localization, demonstrating NFAT activation. Hypoxia induced up-regulation of α-actin and was prevented by the calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor, cyclosporin A (25 mg/Kg/day s.c.). In addition, NFATc3 knockout mice did not showed increased α-actin levels and arterial wall thickness after hypoxia. These results strongly suggest that NFATc3 plays a role in the chronic hypoxia-induced vascular changes that underlie pulmonary hypertension. PMID:17403661

  20. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants.

  1. Oestrogen up-regulates interleukin-21 production by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Shin, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Seon-Yeong; Her, Yang-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which abnormal immune responses are mediated by tissue-binding autoantibodies and immune complex deposition. Because most SLE patients are women of child-bearing age, oestrogen has been suggested to play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. One proposed role is to induce B-cell activation, culminating in increased autoantibody production. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been shown to be crucial in the differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells. We therefore hypothesized that oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 production and induces subsequent B-cell activation in SLE patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from 22 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls. Expression levels of IL-21 and its receptor in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CD4(+) T cells were higher in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Exposure of CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients to 17β-oestradiol led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in IL-21 expression, which was abolished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (MAPK kinase, p38, Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitors. B cells from healthy controls showed increased antibody production when they were co-cultured with oestrogen-treated CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients. Treatment with IL-21 antibody abrogated the increased antibody production of the co-culture systems. This study revealed the association between oestrogen and IL-21 in SLE patients. Oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 expression of CD4(+) T cells via MAPK-dependent pathways in SLE patients, which in turn induces increased antibody production by B cells.

  2. Up-regulation of liver Pcsk9 gene expression as a possible cause of hypercholesterolemia in experimental chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sucajtys-Szulc, Elzbieta; Szolkiewicz, Marek; Swierczynski, Julian; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia commonly present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recently linked to increased proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serum concentration. We tested a hypothesis that increased liver PCSK9 biosynthesis could be partially responsible for the elevated circulating PCSK9 level, and subsequently contribute to hypercholesterolemia observed in subjects with CKD. Rat model of chronic renal failure (CRF) was used in the study. Animals underwent a 5/6 nephrectomy or a sham operation. Liver expression of Pcsk9, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (Srebf-2), and β-actin were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Liver protein levels of PCSK9, LDL-receptor (LDL-R), and SREBF-2 were analyzed using Western blotting. Serum PCSK9 concentration was estimated by immunoassay. Rats with an experimental CRF as compared to pair-fed and control ones were characterized by: (a) an up-regulation of liver Pcsk9 and Srebf-2 genes expression with parallel increase of serum PCSK9 concentration; (b) a decrease in liver LDL-R protein level, and (c) an increase of serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. We also found significant correlations between serum creatinine and liver PCSK9 mRNA levels (r = 0.88, p < 0.001) and between serum creatinine and circulating PCSK9 levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The results suggest that a rat model of CRF is associated with an increased liver Pcsk9 gene expression. The coordinated up-regulation of Pcsk9 and Srebf-2 genes expression suggests that SREBF-2 may play a key role in regulation of Pcsk9 gene expression, circulating PCSK9 level, and hypercholesterolemia in experimental CRF.

  3. Immunomodulatory drugs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and induce PU.1 up-regulation in myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Shinya; Amano, Masayuki; Nishimura, Nao; Ueno, Niina; Ueno, Shikiko; Yuki, Hiromichi; Fujiwara, Shiho; Wada, Naoko; Hirata, Shinya; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yutaka

    2016-01-08

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide are efficacious in the treatment of multiple myeloma and significantly prolong their survival. However, the mechanisms of such effects of IMiDs have not been fully elucidated. Recently, cereblon has been identified as a target binding protein of thalidomide. Lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cell lines often lose the expression of cereblon, suggesting that IMiDs act as an anti-myeloma agent through interacting with cereblon. Cereblon binds to damaged DNA-binding protein and functions as a ubiquitin ligase, inducing degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 that are essential transcription factors for B and T cell development. Degradation of both IKZF1 and IKZF3 reportedly suppresses myeloma cell growth. Here, we found that IMiDs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DMNTs). We previously reported that PU.1, which is an ETS family transcription factor and essential for myeloid and lymphoid development, functions as a tumor suppressor in myeloma cells. PU.1 induces growth arrest and apoptosis of myeloma cell lines. In this study, we found that low-dose lenalidomide and pomalidomide up-regulate PU.1 expression through inducing demethylation of the PU.1 promoter. In addition, IMiDs inhibited DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b activities in vitro. Furthermore, lenalidomide and pomalidomide decreased the methylation status of the whole genome in myeloma cells. Collectively, IMiDs exert demethylation activity through inhibiting DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, and up-regulating PU.1 expression, which may be one of the mechanisms of the anti-myeloma activity of IMiDs.

  4. Anabolic Effect of Insulin Therapy on the Bone: Osteoprotegerin and Osteocalcin Up-Regulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Raul Hernandes; Freire Neto, Francisco Paulo; Arcaro, Carlos Alberto; Bezerra, João Felipe; da Silva, Flávio Santos; Ururahy, Marcela Abbott Galvão; Souza, Karla Simone da Costa; Lima, Valeria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte Moreira; Luchessi, André Ducati; Lima, Francisco Pignataro; Lia Fook, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva, Bartolomeu Jorge; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Abreu, Bento João; de Rezende, Luciana Augusto; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto

    2017-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with several skeletal alterations, particularly in conditions of poor glycaemic control. Insulin therapy is the major conservative treatment for T1DM; however, the effects of this hormone on bone markers of T1DM rats are limited, and the regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, the evaluation of molecular and non-molecular parameters in a chronic animal model of T1DM-induced bone loss, treated with and without insulin, may help in elucidating the insulin mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were assigned into three groups: control, T1DM (T1DM rats induced with streptozotocin [STZ] at 40 mg/kg intravenously) and T1DM plus insulin therapy (T1DMI). After 8 weeks, we evaluated the serum biochemical, tibia histomorphometric and biomechanical parameters, as well as the gene expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin (OC) of femur mRNA. Compared with T1DM, the T1DMI group showed less bone loss, which was revealed by the increased trabecular width (TbWi, p < 0.001) and trabecular bone area (BAr, p < 0.01), reduced trabecular separation (TbSp, p < 0.01) and increased Young's modulus (p < 0.05). Moreover, molecular analyses indicated that the expression of OPG and OC was up-regulated (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the up-regulation of OPG and OC in the T1DMI group supports an anabolic effect of insulin, which was demonstrated by the maintenance of bone architecture and flexibility. These results suggest that insulin therapy may prevent T1DM-induced bone loss via the effects on the bone formation.

  5. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Results: Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (CcO), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression. PMID:27830025

  6. 16-Dehydropregnenolone lowers serum cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Kumar, Durgesh; Bhateria, Manisha; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP) has been developed and patented as a promising antihyperlipidemic agent by CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), India. Although DHP is implicated in controlling cholesterol homeostasis, the mechanism underlying its pharmacological effect in hyperlipidemic disease models is poorly understood. In the present study, we postulated that DHP lowers serum lipids through regulating the key hepatic genes accountable for cholesterol metabolism. The hypothesis was tested on golden Syrian hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD) following oral administration of DHP at a dose of 72mg/kg body weight for a period of one week. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total bile acids (TBA) in feces were measured. Real time comparative gene expression studies were performed for CYP7A1, LXRα and PPARα level in liver tissue of hamsters. The results revealed that the DHP profoundly decreased the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), whilst elevated the HDL-C/TC ratio. Besides, DHP exhibited an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the HFD induced hyperlipidemic hamsters by means of: (1) up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 encoded cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, that promotes the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid; (2) inducing the gene expression of transcription factors LXRα and PPARα; (3) increasing the TBA excretion through feces. Collectively, the findings presented confer the hypolipidemic activity of DHP via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 pathway that promotes cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and bile acid excretion.

  7. MicroRNA miR-1 is up-regulated in remote myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bostjancic, E; Zidar, N; Stajner, D; Glavac, D

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNA molecules that mediate regulation of gene expression, thus affecting a variety of physiological, developmental and pathological conditions. They are believed to be new promising therapeutic targets. In recent studies two muscle-specific microRNAs were discovered to contribute to heart diseases and development: miR-1 and miR-133, but there is little data on their expression patterns in human myocardial infarction. We performed simultaneous expression analysis of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b in samples of infarcted tissue and remote myocardium from twenty- four patients with acute myocardial infarction. MicroRNA expression was analysed using quantitative real-time PCR and compared to the expression patterns in myocardium of eight healthy adults who died in accidents. We found ~3.8-fold miR-1 up-regulation in remote myocardium when compared to infarcted tissue or healthy adult hearts. As miR-1 has been shown in animal models and clinical studies to contribute to arrhythmogenesis by regulating pacemaker channel genes, our finding of miR-1 up-regulation in patients with myocardial infarction indicates that it might be responsible for the higher risk for arrhythmias in these patients. In addition, miR-133a/b down-regulation in infarcted tissue and remote myocardium was observed, indicating miR-133a/b involvement in the heart response to myocardial infarction. We conclude that miR-1 and miR-133 seem to be important regulators of heart adaptation after ischaemic stress.

  8. Ampelopsin Improves Insulin Resistance by Activating PPARγ and Subsequently Up-Regulating FGF21-AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Liu, Lei; Wan, Jing; Zou, Lingyun; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsin (APL), a major bioactive constituent of Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts a number of biological effects. Here, we explored the anti-diabetic activity of APL and elucidate the underlying mechanism of this action. In palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes, APL treatment markedly up- regulated phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 and protein kinase B, along with a corresponding increase of glucose uptake capacity. APL treatment also increased expressions of fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) and phosphorylated adenosine 5’-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), however inhibiting AMPK by Compound C or AMPK siRNA, or blockage of FGF21 by FGF21 siRNA, obviously weakened APL -induced increases of FGF21 and p-AMPK as well as glucose uptake capacity in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes. Furthermore, APL could activate PPAR γ resulting in increases of glucose uptake capacity and expressions of FGF21 and p-AMPK in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes, whereas all those effects were obviously abolished by addition of GW9662, a specific inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor –γ (PPARγ), and PPARγsiRNA. Using molecular modeling and the luciferase reporter assays, we observed that APL could dock with the catalytic domain of PPARγ and dose-dependently up-regulate PPARγ activity. In summary, APL maybe a potential agonist of PPARγ and promotes insulin sensitization by activating PPARγ and subsequently regulating FGF21- AMPK signaling pathway. These results provide new insights into the protective health effects of APL, especially for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27391974

  9. Increased curvature of hollow fiber membranes could up-regulate differential functions of renal tubular cell layers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2013-08-01

    Tissue engineering devices as in vitro cell culture systems in scaffolds has encountered the bottleneck due to their much lower cell functions than real tissues/organs in vivo. Such situation has been improved in some extent by mimicking the cell microenvironments in vivo from either chemical or physical ways. However, microenvironmental curvature, commonly seen in real tissues/organs, has never been manipulated to regulate the cell performance in vitro. In this regard, this paper fabricated polysulfone membranes with or without polyethylene glycol modification to investigate the impact of curvature on two renal tubular cells. Regardless the varying membrane curvatures among hollow fiber membranes of different diameters and flat membrane of zero curvature, both renal cells could well attach at 4 h of seeding and form similar confluent layers at 6 days on each membrane. Nevertheless, the renal cells on hollow fibers, though showing confluent morphology as those on flat membranes, expressed higher renal functions and, moreover, the renal functions significantly increased with the membrane curvature among hollow fibers. Such upregulation on functions was unassociated with mass transport barrier of hollow fibers, because the cultures on lengthwise cut hollow fibers without mass transfer barrier showed same curvature effect on renal functions as whole hollow fibers. It could be proposed that the curvature of hollow fiber membrane approaching to the large curvature in kidney tubules increased the mechanical stress in the renal cells and thus might up-regulate the renal cell functions. In conclusion, the increase of substrate curvature could up-regulate the cell functions without altering the confluent cell morphology and this finding will facilitate the design of functional tissue engineering devices.

  10. Celastrol protects ischaemic myocardium through a heat shock response with up-regulation of haeme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, S; Cailhier, J-F; Borie, M; Stevens, L-M; Gaboury, L; Mansour, S; Hamet, P; Noiseux, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Celastrol, a triterpene from plants, has been used in traditional oriental medicine to treat various diseases. Here, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of celastrol against ischaemia. Experimental Approach Protective pathways induced by celastrol were investigated in hypoxic cultures of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts and in a rat model of myocardial infarction, assessed with echocardiographic and histological analysis. Key Results In H9c2 cells, celastrol triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation within minutes, induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) resulting in a heat shock response (HSR) leading to increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced expression of HSP70 and HSP32 (haeme oxygenase-1, HO-1). Celastrol improved H9c2 survival under hypoxic stress, and functional analysis revealed HSF1 and HO-1 as key effectors of the HSR, induced by celastrol, in promoting cytoprotection. In the rat ischaemic myocardium, celastrol treatment improved cardiac function and reduced adverse left ventricular remodelling at 14 days. Celastrol triggered expression of cardioprotective HO-1 and inhibited fibrosis and infarct size. In the peri-infarct area, celastrol reduced myofibroblast and macrophage infiltration, while attenuating up-regulation of TGF-β and collagen genes. Conclusions and Implications Celastrol treatment induced an HSR through activation of HSF1 with up-regulation of HO-1 as the key effector, promoting cardiomyocyte survival, reduction of injury and adverse remodelling with preservation of cardiac function. Celastrol may represent a novel potent pharmacological cardioprotective agent mimicking ischaemic conditioning that could have a valuable impact in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:25041185

  11. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  12. Prevention by sulforaphane of diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Cui, Wenpeng; Xin, Ying; Miao, Xiao; Barati, Michelle T; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Qiang; Tan, Yi; Cui, Taixing; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2013-04-01

    This study was to investigate whether sulforaphane (SFN) can prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy. Type 1 diabetes was induced in FVB mice by multiple intraperitoneal injections with low-dose streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with or without SFN at 0.5mg/kg daily in five days of each week for 3 months and then kept until 6 months. At 3 and 6 months of diabetes, blood pressure and cardiac function were assessed. Cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative damage were assessed by Western blot, real-time qPCR, and histopathological examination. SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced high blood pressure and cardiac dysfunction at both 3 and 6 months, and also prevented diabetes-induced cardiac hypertrophy (increased the ratio of heart weight to tibia length and the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and protein) and fibrosis (increased the accumulation of collagen and expression of connective tissue growth factor and tissue growth factor-β). SFN also almost completely prevented diabetes-induced cardiac oxidative damage (increased accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal) and inflammation (increased tumor necrotic factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 expression). SFN up-regulated NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription activity that was reflected by increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and phosphorylation as well as the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants. Furthermore, in cultured H9c2 cardiac cells silencing Nrf2 gene with its siRNA abolished the SFN's prevention of high glucose-induced fibrotic response. These results suggest that diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy can be prevented by SFN, which was associated with the up-regulated Nrf2 expression and transcription function.

  13. FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER Negatively Regulates Ethylene Response DNA-Binding Factors by Activating an Ethylene-Responsive Factor to Control Arabidopsis Floral Organ Senescence and Abscission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Han; Li, Pei-Fang; Chen, Ming-Kun; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    In this study of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we investigated the relationship between FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) and Ethylene Response DNA-binding Factors (EDFs) and functionally analyzed a key FYF target, an Ethylene-Responsive Factor (ERF), that controls flower senescence/abscission. Ectopic expression of EDF1/2/3/4 caused promotion of flower senescence/abscission and the activation of the senescence-associated genes. The presence of a repressor domain in EDFs and the enhancement of the promotion of senescence/abscission in EDF1/2/3/4+SRDX (converting EDFs to strong repressors by fusion with the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression motif repression domain SRDX) transgenic plants suggested that EDFs act as repressors. The significant reduction of β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression by 35S:FYF in EDF1/2/3/4:GUS plants indicates that EDF1/2/3/4 functions downstream of FYF in regulating flower senescence/abscission. In this study, we also characterized an ERF gene, FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER UP-REGULATING FACTOR1 (FUF1), which is up-regulated by FYF during flower development. Ectopic expression of FUF1 caused similar delayed flower senescence/abscission as seen in 35S:FYF plants. This phenotype was correlated with deficient abscission zone formation, ethylene insensitivity, and down-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 and abscission-associated genes in 35S:FUF1 flowers. In contrast, significant promotion of flower senescence/abscission and up-regulation of EDF1/2/3/4 were observed in 35S:FUF1+SRDX transgenic dominant-negative plants, in which FUF1 is converted to a potent repressor by fusion to an SRDX-suppressing motif. Thus, FUF1 acts as an activator in suppressing EDF1/2/3/4 function and senescence/abscission of the flowers. Our results reveal that FYF regulates flower senescence/abscission by negatively regulating EDF1/2/3/4, which is the downstream gene in the ethylene response, by activating FUF1 in Arabidopsis.

  14. Inhibiting ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene triggers molecular responses aimed to cope with cell toxicity and increased respiration in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Establés-Ortiz, Beatriz; Romero, Paco; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Lafuente, María T

    2016-06-01

    The ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been critical in understanding the hormone's mode of action. However, 1-MCP may trigger other processes that could vary the interpretation of results related until now to ethylene, which we aim to understand by using transcriptomic analysis. Transcriptomic changes in ethylene and 1-MCP-treated 'Navelate' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) oranges were studied in parallel with changes in ethylene production, respiration and peel damage. The effects of compounds modifying the levels of the ethylene co-product cyanide and nitric oxide (NO) on fruit physiology were also studied. Results suggested that: 1) The ethylene treatment caused sub-lethal stress since it induced stress-related responses and reduced peel damage; 2) 1-MCP induced ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent responsive networks; 3) 1-MCP triggered ethylene overproduction, stress-related responses and metabolic shifts aimed to cope with cell toxicity, which mostly affected to the inner part of the peel (albedo); 4) 1-MCP increased respiration and drove metabolism reconfiguration for favoring energy conservation but up-regulated genes related to lipid and protein degradation and triggered the over-expression of genes associated with the plasma membrane cellular component; 5) Xenobiotics and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) might act as signals for defense responses in the ethylene-treated fruit, while their uncontrolled generation would induce processes mimicking cell death and damage in 1-MCP-treated fruit; 6) ROS, the ethylene co-product cyanide and NO may converge in the toxic effects of 1-MCP.

  15. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  16. Glial molecular alterations with mouse brain development and aging: up-regulation of the Kir4.1 and aquaporin-4.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajaneesh Kumar; Kanungo, Madhusudan

    2013-02-01

    Glial cells, besides participating as passive supporting matrix, are also proposed to be involved in the optimization of the interstitial space for synaptic transmission by tight control of ionic and water homeostasis. In adult mouse brain, inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir4.1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channels localize to astroglial endfeets in contact with brain microvessels and glutamate synapses, optimizing clearance of extracellular K(+) and water from the synaptic layers. However, it is still unclear whether there is an age-dependent difference in the expressions of Kir4.1 and AQP4 channels specifically during postnatal development and aging when various marked changes occur in brain and if these changes region specific. RT-PCR and immunoblotting was conducted to compare the relative expression of Kir4.1 and AQP4 mRNA and protein in the early and mature postnatal (0-, 15-, 45-day), adult (20-week), and old age (70-week) mice cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Expressions of Kir4.1 and AQP4 mRNA and protein are very low at 0-day. A pronounced and continuous increase was observed by mature postnatal ages (15-, 45-days). However, in the 70-week-old mice, expressions are significantly up-regulated as compared to 20-week-old mice. Both genes follow the same age-related pattern in both cerebral and cerebellar cortices. The time course and expression pattern suggests that Kir4.1 and AQP4 channels may play an important role in brain K(+) and water homeostasis in early postnatal weeks after birth and during aging.

  17. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  18. Colorometric detection of ethylene glycol vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helm, C.; Mosier, B.; Verostko, C. E.

    1970-01-01

    Very low concentrations of ethylene glycol in air or other gases are detected by passing a sample through a glass tube with three partitioned compartments containing reagents which successively convert the ethylene glycol vapor into a colored compound.

  19. Volatilization of ethylene dibromide from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Overall mass-transfer coefficients for the volatilization of ethylene dibromide from water were measured simultaneously with the oxygen absorption coefficient in a laboratory stirred tank. Coefficients were measured as a function of mixing conditions in the water for two windspeeds. The ethylene dibromide mass-transfer coefficient depended on windspeed; the ethylene dibromide liquid-film coefficient did not, in agreement with theory. A constant relation existed between the liquid-film coefficients for ethylene dibromide and oxygen.

  20. Mineral nutrient remobilization during corolla senescence in ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The flower has a finite lifespan that is controlled largely by its role in sexual reproduction. Once the flower has been pollinated or is no longer receptive to pollination, the petals are programmed to senesce. A majority of the genes that are up-regulated during petal senescence, in both ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive flowers, encode proteins involved in the degradation of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, fatty acids, and cell wall and membrane components. A smaller subset of these genes has a putative role in remobilizing nutrients, and only a few of these have been studied in detail. During senescence, carbohydrates (primarily sucrose) are transported from petals, and the degradation of macromolecules and organelles also allows the plant to salvage mineral nutrients from the petals before cell death. The remobilization of mineral nutrients from a few species has been investigated and will be reviewed in this article. Ethylene's role in nutrient remobilization is discussed by comparing nutrient changes during the senescence of ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive flowers, and by studies in transgenic petunias (Petunia × hybrida) that are insensitive to ethylene. Gene expression studies indicate that remobilization is a key feature of senescence, but some senescence-associated genes have different expression in leaves and petals. These gene expression patterns, along with differences in the nutrient content of leaves and petals, suggest that there are differences in the mechanisms of cellular degradation and nutrient transport in vegetative and floral organs. Autophagy may be the mechanism for large-scale degradation that allows for recycling during senescence, but it is unclear if this causes cell death. Future research should focus on autophagy and the regulation of ATG genes by ethylene during both leaf and petal senescence. We must identify the mechanisms by which individual mineral nutrients are transported out of senescing corollas in both ethylene

  1. 49 CFR 173.323 - Ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.323 Ethylene oxide. (a) For packaging ethylene oxide in non-bulk packagings, silver mercury or any of its alloys or copper may not be used in any... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethylene oxide. 173.323 Section...

  2. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used...

  3. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present...

  4. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present...

  5. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present...

  6. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used...

  7. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used...

  8. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used...

  9. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present therein as a residue from the extraction of...

  10. 21 CFR 173.230 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 173.230 Section 173.230 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.230 Ethylene dichloride. A tolerance of 30 parts per million is established for ethylene dichloride in spice oleoresins when present...

  11. 21 CFR 573.440 - Ethylene dichloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene dichloride. 573.440 Section 573.440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.440 Ethylene dichloride. The food additive ethylene dichloride may be safely used...

  12. Liquid ethylene-propylene copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhein, R. A.; Ingham, J. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1975-01-01

    Oligomers are prepared by heating solid ethylene-propylene rubber in container that retains solid and permits liquid product to flow out as it is formed. Molecular weight and viscosity of liquids can be predetermined by process temperature. Copolymers have low viscosity for given molecular weight.

  13. The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengjun; Avila, Carlos A.; Goggin, Fiona L.

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2–) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways. PMID:25504643

  14. The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengjun; Avila, Carlos A; Goggin, Fiona L

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) comprise a large family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including growth, development, and response to environmental stresses. Here, we report that Pti5, an ERF in tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Linnaeus)] was transcriptionally upregulated in response to the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and contributed to plant defences that limited the population growth of this phloem-feeding insect. Virus-induced gene silencing of Pti5 enhanced aphid population growth on tomato, both on an aphid-susceptible cultivar and on a near-isogenic genotype that carried the Mi-1.2 resistance (R) gene. These results indicate that Pti5 contributes to basal resistance in susceptible plants and also can synergize with other R gene-mediated defences to limit aphid survival and reproduction. Although Pti5 contains the ERF motif, induction of this gene by aphids was independent of ethylene, since the ACC deaminase (ACD) transgene, which inhibits ethylene synthesis, did not diminish the responsiveness of Pti5 to aphid infestation. Furthermore, experiments with inhibitors of ethylene synthesis revealed that Pti5 and ethylene have distinctly different roles in plant responses to aphids. Whereas Pti5 contributed to antibiotic plant defences that limited aphid survival and reproduction on both resistant (Mi-1.2+) and susceptible (Mi-1.2-) genotypes, ethylene signalling promoted aphid infestation on susceptible plants but contributed to antixenotic defences that deterred the early stages of aphid host selection on resistant plants. These findings suggest that the antixenotic defences that inhibit aphid settling and the antibiotic defences that depress fecundity and promote mortality are regulated through different signalling pathways.

  15. Gene Expression Changes and Early Events in Cotton Fibre Development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinsuk J.; Woodward, Andrew W.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Background Cotton is the dominant source of natural textile fibre and a significant oil crop. Cotton fibres, produced by certain species in the genus Gossypium, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fibre development is delineated into four distinct and overlapping developmental stages: fibre initiation, elongation, secondary wall biosynthesis and maturation. Scope Recent advances in gene expression studies are beginning to provide new insights into a better understanding of early events in cotton fibre development. Fibre cell development is a complex process involving many pathways, including various signal transduction and transcriptional regulation components. Several analyses using expressed sequence tags and microarray have identified transcripts that preferentially accumulate during fibre development. These studies, as well as complementation and overexpression experiments using cotton genes in arabidopsis and tobacco, indicate some similar molecular events between trichome development from the leaf epidermis and fibre development from the ovule epidermis. Specifically, MYB transcription factors regulate leaf trichome development in arabidopsis and may regulate seed trichome development in cotton. In addition, transcript profiling and ovule culture experiments both indicate that several phytohormones and other signalling pathways mediate cotton fibre development. Auxin and gibberellins promote early stages of fibre initiation; ethylene- and brassinosteroid-related genes are up-regulated during the fibre elongation phase; and genes associated with calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins are up-regulated in fibre initials. Additional genomic data, mutant and functional analyses, and genome mapping studies promise to reveal the critical factors mediating cotton fibre cell development. PMID:17905721

  16. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yue; Du, Chengli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Guoping

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The expression of eEF1A2 is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. • Suppression of eEF1A2 inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis. • Inhibition of eEF1A2 enhances the expression of apoptotic relevant proteins. • The expressions of eEF1A2 and cleavage-caspase3 are inversely correlated. - Abstract: Background: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. Methods: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Results: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

  17. t-Darpp promotes cancer cell survival by up-regulation of Bcl2 through Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Abbes; Dar, Altaf A; Zaika, Alexander; Kelley, Mark; El-Rifai, Wael

    2008-01-15

    t-Darpp is a cancer-related truncated isoform of Darpp-32 (dopamine and cyclic-AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32,000). We detected overexpression of t-Darpp mRNA in two thirds of gastric cancers compared with normal samples (P = 0.004). Using 20 micromol/L ceramide treatment as a model for induction of apoptosis in AGS cancer cells, we found that expression of t-Darpp led to an increase in Bcl2 protein levels and blocked the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. The MitoCapture mitochondrial apoptosis and cytochrome c release assays indicated that t-Darpp expression enforces the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and protects against ceramide-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of t-Darpp in AGS cells led to >or=2-fold increase in Akt kinase activity with an increase in protein levels of p-Ser(473) Akt and p-Ser(9) GSK3 beta. These findings were further confirmed using tetracycline-inducible AGS cells stably expressing t-Darpp. We also showed transcriptional up-regulation of Bcl2 using the luciferase assay with Bcl2 reporter containing P1 full promoter, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and t-Darpp small interfering RNA. The Bcl2 promoter contains binding sites for cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein CREB/ATF1 transcription factors and using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay with a CREB response element, we detected a stronger binding in t-Darpp-expressing cells. The t-Darpp expression led to an increase in expression and phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-1 transcription factors that were required for up-regulating Bcl2 levels. Indeed, knockdown of Akt, CREB, or ATF1 in t-Darpp-expressing cells reduced Bcl2 protein levels. In conclusion, the t-Darpp/Akt axis underscores a novel oncogenic potential of t-Darpp in gastric carcinogenesis and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis.

  18. Arginase-2 is cooperatively up-regulated by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibition in human umbilical artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Bernardo J; Hernandez, Cherie; Caniuguir, Andres; Vasquez-Devaud, Paola; Carrasco-Wong, Ivo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Arginase-2 counteracts endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human endothelium, and its expression is negatively controlled by histone deacetylase (HDAC2). Conversely NO inhibits HDAC and previous studies suggest that arginase-2 is up-regulated by NO. We studied whether NO regulates arginase-2 expression in umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC) increasing ARG2 promoter accessibility. HUAEC exposed to NOC-18 (NO donor, 1-100 μM, 0-24 h) showed an increase in arginase-2 but a decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, with a maximal effect at 100 μM (24 h). Conversely NOS inhibition with L-NAME (100 μM) reduced arginase-2 mRNA and protein levels, an effect reverted by co-incubation with NOC-18. Treatment with TSA paralleled the effects of NO on arginase-2 and eNOS at mRNA and protein levels, with maximal effect at 10 μM. Co-incubation of NOC-18 (100 μM) with a sub-maximal concentration of TSA (1 μM) potentiated the increase in arginase-2 mRNA levels, whilst L-NAME prevented TSA-dependent arginase-2 induction. The effects on arginase-2 mRNA were paralleled by changes in chromatin accessibility, as well as increased levels of H3K9 and H4K12 acetylation, at ARG2 proximal (-579 to -367 and -280 to -73 bp from TSS) and core (-121 to +126 bp from TSS) promoter. Finally NO-dependent arginase-2 induction was prevented by pre-incubation for 10 min with the cysteine blocker MMTS (10 mM). These data showed for the first time that NO up-regulates arginase-2 expression in primary cultured human endothelial cells by an epigenetic-mediated mechanism increasing ARG2 promoter accessibility suggesting a negative regulatory loop for eNOS activity.

  19. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  20. EIN2-dependent regulation of acetylation of histone H3K14 and non-canonical histone H3K23 in ethylene signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Qi, Bin; Wang, Likai; Zhao, Bo; Rode, Siddharth; Riggan, Nathaniel D.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Qiao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene gas is essential for many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. EIN2 plays a key role in ethylene signalling but its function remains enigmatic. Here, we show that ethylene specifically elevates acetylation of histone H3K14 and the non-canonical acetylation of H3K23 in etiolated seedlings. The up-regulation of these two histone marks positively correlates with ethylene-regulated transcription activation, and the elevation requires EIN2. Both EIN2 and EIN3 interact with a SANT domain protein named EIN2 nuclear associated protein 1 (ENAP1), overexpression of which results in elevation of histone acetylation and enhanced ethylene-inducible gene expression in an EIN2-dependent manner. On the basis of these findings we propose a model where, in the presence of ethylene, the EIN2 C terminus contributes to downstream signalling via the elevation of acetylation at H3K14 and H3K23. ENAP1 may potentially mediate ethylene-induced histone acetylation via its interactions with EIN2 C terminus. PMID:27694846

  1. Expression of Von Willebrand factor, an endothelial cell marker, is up-regulated by angiogenesis factors: a potential method for objective assessment of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zanetta, L; Marcus, S G; Vasile, J; Dobryansky, M; Cohen, H; Eng, K; Shamamian, P; Mignatti, P

    2000-01-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF), a glycoprotein produced uniquely by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, is routinely used to identify vessels in tissue sections. Vessel density in tumor specimens, as determined by immuno-histochemical staining for vWF or other endothelial cell markers, is a negative prognostic factor for many solid tumors. vWF is heterogeneously distributed throughout the vasculature, transcriptional control in response to the tissue microenvironment being responsible for local variations in endothelial cell levels of vWF. Here, we report that fibroblast growth factor-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, potent angiogenesis inducers expressed in a variety of tumors, up-regulate expression of vWF mRNA and protein in cultured endothelial cells with a synergistic effect. Our data support the measurement of vWF mRNA in tumors to detect activated endothelium or angiogenesis. For this purpose, we developed a semi-quantitative RT-PCR for vWF mRNA. Preliminary results obtained with specimens from colon carcinoma and the corresponding normal colonic mucosa showed higher vWF mRNA levels in most tumors than in their normal counterparts. The differences in vWF mRNA levels were much larger than the differences in vessel counts between a tumor and the corresponding normal mucosa, indicating that high vWF mRNA levels in tumors may indeed be an early sign of activation of the endothelium. The rapidity, objectivity, sensitivity and specificity of this technique make it suitable for routine clinical application to identify aggressive, highly angiogenic tumors.

  2. Agaricus bisporus powder improved cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and up-regulated intestinal cytokines gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus bisporus, white bottom mushroom powder (WBMP) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed on different levels of WBMP (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 8 weeks and at the end of feeding trial, skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines gene expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) in intestine as well as serum non-specific immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50) were measured. The results showed significant dose dependent increase of skin mucus immune parameters in carps fed WBMP (P < 0.05). While, no significant difference was observed between 0.5% WBMP and control group (P > 0.05). In case of serum non-specific immune parameters, except lysozyme activity, other parameters (Ig total and ACH50) were significantly affected by dietary inclusion of WBMP (P < 0.05). Also, evaluation of cytokines gene expression in the intestine of carps revealed remarkable up-regulation of TNF-alpha in fish fed 2% WBMP supplemented diet compared other treatment (P < 0.05). Likewise, IL1b gene expression was significantly increased in 1 and 2% WBMP treatments compared to the 0.5% WBMP and control groups (P < 0.05). IL8 gene expression was not affected by inclusion of WBMP in carp diet (P > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding on WBMP supplemented diet significantly improved growth performance (P < 0.05). These results indicated that WBMP can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture.

  3. Knockdown of Litopenaeus vannamei HtrA2, an up-regulated gene in response to WSSV infection, leading to delayed shrimp mortality.

    PubMed

    Peepim, Termsri; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Khunrae, Pongsak; Senapin, Saengchan; Rattanarojpong, Triwit

    2016-02-10

    HtrA2 is an apoptosis-activating gene that enhances the apoptotic process by preventing the formation of the IAP-caspase complex, thereby freeing caspase to trigger the apoptosis pathway. In this study, we presented the full-length cDNA sequence of HtrA2 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHtrA2). The full-length LvHtrA2 was 1335 bp, encoding 444 amino acids. This deduced amino acid sequence contained five conserved domains: a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS), a transmembrane (TM) domain, an IAP-binding motif (IBM), a trimerization motif, a serine protease domain, and a PDZ domain normally found in the HtrA2 proteins of other organisms. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvHtrA2 clustered with the HtrA2 from other invertebrates and was closely related to Penaeus monodon HtrA2 (PmHtrA2). RT-PCR with RNA extracts from L. vannamei revealed that LvHtrA2 expression was found in several tissues, including the lymphoid organs, the haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, the gill, and the stomach, with different expression levels. When determining the role of LvHtrA2 in WSSV infection, it was found that LvHtrA2 transcription was early up-regulated in the WSSV-infected shrimp at 8h post-infection (p.i.) and expression still remained high at 48 h p.i.. It also demonstrated that dsRNA specific to LvHtrA2 reduced the cumulative mortality in the WSSV-infected shrimp compared with the control group. Additionally, depletion of the LvHtrA2 transcripts reduced expression levels for caspase-3 (Cap-3) gene in shrimp. This result could suggest that LvHtrA2 may involved in apoptosis mediated mortality rather than providing immune protection during WSSV infection.

  4. H19 serves as a diagnostic biomarker and up-regulation of H19 expression contributes to poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Wang, Y F; Zhang, X Q; Lv, J M; Li, Y; Liu, X X; Xu, T P

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidences indicate that dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and progression and might be used as diagnosis and prognosis biomarker, or potential therapeutic targets. LncRNA H19 has been reported to be upregulated in diverse human cancers; however, its clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) remains elusive. Expression levels of H19 in 128 pairs of GC and adjacent normal tissues, GC cell lines and GC juices compared to their corresponding controls were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier analysis were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. H19 expression was remarkably increased in GC tissues and cell lines compared with that in the normal control, and its up-regulation was significantly correlated to invasion depth (P < 0.001), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.002) and regional lymph nodes metastasis (P < 0.001) in GC. H19 levels were robust in differentiating GC tissues from controls [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.697; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.636-0.752, p<0.01]. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased H19 expression contributed to poor overall survival (P = 0.017) and disease-free survival (P = 0.024) of patients. A multivariate survival analysis also indicated that H19 could be an independent prognostic marker. The levels of H19 in gastric juice from gastric patients were significantly higher than those from normal subjects (P = 0.034). Furthermore, knockdown of H19 expression by siRNA could inhibit cell migration and invasion in GC cells partly via regulating E-cadherin protein expression. H19 might serve as a promising biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of GC.

  5. The Vitamin E Analog Gamma-Tocotrienol (GT3) and Statins Synergistically Up-Regulate Endothelial Thrombomodulin (TM)

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rupak; Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Zhou, Daohong; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Statins; a class of routinely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs; inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCR) and strongly induce endothelial thrombomodulin (TM); which is known to have anti-inflammatory; anti-coagulation; anti-oxidant; and radioprotective properties. However; high-dose toxicity limits the clinical use of statins. The vitamin E family member gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) also suppresses HMGCR activity and induces TM expression without causing significant adverse side effects; even at high concentrations. To investigate the synergistic effect of statins and GT3 on TM; a low dose of atorvastatin and GT3 was used to treat human primary endothelial cells. Protein-level TM expression was measured by flow cytometry. TM functional activity was determined by activated protein C (APC) generation assay. Expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), one of the key transcription factors of TM, was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TM expression increased in a dose-dependent manner after both atorvastatin and GT3 treatment. A combined treatment of a low-dose of atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically up-regulated TM expression and functional activity. Finally; atorvastatin and GT3 synergistically increased KLF2 expression. These findings suggest that combined treatment of statins with GT3 may provide significant health benefits in treating a number of pathophysiological conditions; including inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27869747

  6. Chelidonic acid evokes antidepressant-like effect through the up-regulation of BDNF in forced swimming test

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Na-Rae; Jang, Jae-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Depression is usually accompanied by neuro-inflammatory reactions. Chelidonic acid, in particular, has shown anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-depressant effects of chelidonic acid and to discuss the potential mechanisms of a forced swimming test. Chelidonic acid was administered orally once a day for 14 days. On the 14th day, chelidonic acid resulted in a significant decrease in immobility time during the forced swimming test without alteration of locomotor activity, in an open field test. Chelidonic acid also increased the number of nissl bodies in the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation in the hippocampus were up-regulated by the administration of chelidonic acid. Chelidonic acid administration significantly increased the mRNA expression of hippocampal estrogen receptor-β. The levels of hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were effectively attenuated by the administration of chelidonic acid. In addition, chelidonic acid significantly increased the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), dopamine, and norepinephrine compared with those levels for the mice that were administered distilled water in the hippocampus. These results suggest that chelidonic acid might serve as a new therapeutic strategy for the regulation of depression associated with inflammation. PMID:27037280

  7. Up-regulation of prostaglandin E receptor EP2 and EP4 subtypes in rat synovial tissues with adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Y; Endo, H; Akahoshi, T; Kondo, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the prostaglandin E receptor (EP) subtypes in the development of inflammatory synovitis, we examined EP subtype mRNA distribution in the synovial tissue of rats with adjuvant arthritis and the effect of selective EP agonists on cytokine production by cultured rat synovial cells. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization to measure the level of EP subtype (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) mRNA expression in synovial tissues and cultured synovial cells from the arthritic joints of rats. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to analyse the effects of two selective EP agonists on IL-6 production by cultured rat synovial cells. EP2 and EP4 mRNA expression in inflamed synovial tissues was up-regulated. EP2 and EP4 mRNA were co-expressed in synovial macrophages and fibroblasts in inflamed tissues. EP4 and EP2 agonists both inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production. Our results suggest that prostaglandin E2 regulates the functions of synovial macrophages and fibroblasts through EP2 and EP4, which are induced by inflammatory stimuli in rats with adjuvant arthritis. PMID:11207665

  8. Up-regulation of prostaglandin E receptor EP2 and EP4 subtypes in rat synovial tissues with adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Y; Endo, H; Akahoshi, T; Kondo, H

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate the role of the prostaglandin E receptor (EP) subtypes in the development of inflammatory synovitis, we examined EP subtype mRNA distribution in the synovial tissue of rats with adjuvant arthritis and the effect of selective EP agonists on cytokine production by cultured rat synovial cells. We used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization to measure the level of EP subtype (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4) mRNA expression in synovial tissues and cultured synovial cells from the arthritic joints of rats. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to analyse the effects of two selective EP agonists on IL-6 production by cultured rat synovial cells. EP2 and EP4 mRNA expression in inflamed synovial tissues was up-regulated. EP2 and EP4 mRNA were co-expressed in synovial macrophages and fibroblasts in inflamed tissues. EP4 and EP2 agonists both inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 production. Our results suggest that prostaglandin E2 regulates the functions of synovial macrophages and fibroblasts through EP2 and EP4, which are induced by inflammatory stimuli in rats with adjuvant arthritis.

  9. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Borensztajn, Keren S. . E-mail: K.S.Borensztajn@amc.uva.nl; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Brueggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-07-15

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we show that coagulation factor (F)Xa drives tumor cells of epithelial origin, but not endothelial cells or monocytes, into apoptosis, whereas it even enhances fibroblast survival. FXa signals through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to activate extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38. This activation is associated with phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, and in tumor cells with up-regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim, leading to caspase-3 cleavage, the main hallmark of apoptosis. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant negative forms of CREB or siRNA for either PAR-1, Bim, ERK1 and/or p38 inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of FXa. In fibroblasts, FXa-induced PAR-1 activation leads to down-regulation of Bim and pre-treatment with PAR-1 or Bim siRNA abolishes proliferation. We thus provide evidence that beyond its role in blood coagulation, FXa plays a key role in cellular processes in which Bim is the central player in determining cell survival.

  10. The Expression of Porcine Prdx6 Gene Is Up-Regulated by C/EBPβ and CREB.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyu; Ji, Panlong; Zhang, Liang; Bu, Guowei; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin6 (Prdx6) is one of the peroxiredoxin (Prdxs) family members that play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that Prdx6 was significantly associated with pig meat quality, especially meat tenderness. However, the transcriptional regulation of porcine Prdx6 remains unclear. In this study, we determined the transcription start site (TSS) of porcine Prdx6 gene by 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (5' RACE). Several regulatory elements including CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ), Myogenic Differentiation (MyoD), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), stimulating protein1 (Sp1) and heat shock factor (HSF) binding sites were found by computational analyses together with luciferase reporter system. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments showed that C/EBPβ or CREB could up-regulate the expression of porcine Prdx6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBPβ and CREB could interact with Prdx6 promoter. Immuoprecipitation results also showed that C/EBPβ could interact with Prdx6 in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified C/EBPβ and CREB as the important regulators of porcine Prdx6 gene expression, and offered clues for further investigation of Prdx6 gene function.

  11. Laminar shear stress up-regulates peroxiredoxins (PRX) in endothelial cells: PRX 1 as a mechanosensitive antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Amy L; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Rhee, Sue Goo; Kang, Sang Won; Jo, Hanjoong

    2008-01-18

    Shear stress plays a significant role in endothelial cell biology and atherosclerosis development. Previous work by our group has shown that fluid flow stimulates important functional changes in cells through protein expression regulation. Peroxiredoxins (PRX) are a family of antioxidant enzymes but have yet to be investigated in response to shear stress. Studies have shown that oscillatory shear stress (OS) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in endothelial cells, whereas laminar shear stress (LS) blocks this response. We hypothesized that PRX are responsible for the anti-oxidative effect of LS. To test this hypothesis, bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to LS (15 dyn/cm(2)), OS (+/-5 dyn/cm(2), 1 Hz), or static conditions for 24 h. Using Western blot and immunofluorescence staining, all six isoforms of PRX were identified in BAEC. When compared with OS and static, exposure to chronic LS up-regulated PRX 1 levels intracellularly. LS also increased expression of PRX 5 relative to static controls, but not OS. PRX exhibited broad subcellular localization, with distribution in the cytoplasm, Golgi, mitochondria, and intermediate filaments. In addition, PRX 1 knock down, using specific small interference RNA, attenuated LS-dependent reactive oxygen species reduction in BAEC. However, PRX 5 depletion did not. Together, these results suggest that PRX 1 is a novel mechanosensitive antioxidant, playing an important role in shear-dependent regulation of endothelial biology and atherosclerosis.

  12. Chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of the developmental switch gene eud-1 control predatory feeding plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Serobyan, Vahan; Xiao, Hua; Namdeo, Suryesh; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Witte, Hanh; Röseler, Waltraud; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been suggested to act through developmental switches, but little is known about associated molecular mechanisms. In the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, the sulfatase eud-1 was identified as part of a developmental switch controlling mouth-form plasticity governing a predatory versus bacteriovorous mouth-form decision. Here we show that mutations in the conserved histone-acetyltransferase Ppa-lsy-12 and the methyl-binding-protein Ppa-mbd-2 mimic the eud-1 phenotype, resulting in the absence of one mouth-form. Mutations in both genes cause histone modification defects and reduced eud-1 expression. Surprisingly, Ppa-lsy-12 mutants also result in the down-regulation of an antisense-eud-1 RNA. eud-1 and antisense-eud-1 are co-expressed and further experiments suggest that antisense-eud-1 acts through eud-1 itself. Indeed, overexpression of the antisense-eud-1 RNA increases the eud-1-sensitive mouth-form and extends eud-1 expression. In contrast, this effect is absent in eud-1 mutants indicating that antisense-eud-1 positively regulates eud-1. Thus, chromatin remodelling and antisense-mediated up-regulation of eud-1 control feeding plasticity in Pristionchus. PMID:27487725

  13. FRZB up-regulation is correlated with hepatic metastasis and poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanping; Zhang, Fang; Lan, Huanrong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Guoming; Teng, Lisong; Jin, Ketao

    2015-01-01

    Frizzled-related protein (FRZB) was up-regulated in hepatic metastasis samples compared with primary colon cancer samples in our previous work. However, the clinical relevance of FRZB in colon cancer hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of FRZB in patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. FRZB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between FRZB expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of FRZB was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative FRZB expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-FRZB in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.001). Positive expression of FRZB was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis. FRZB could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.

  14. Up-regulation of BRAF activated non-coding RNA is associated with radiation therapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-xiang; Chen, Ming; Zheng, Yuan-da; Wang, Sheng-ye; Shen, Zhu-ping

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy has become more effective in treating primary tumors, such as lung cancer. Recent evidence suggested that BRAF activated non-coding RNAs (BANCR) play a critical role in cellular processes and are found to be dysregulated in a variety of cancers. The clinical significance of BANCR in radiation therapy, and its molecular mechanisms controlling tumor growth are unclear. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were inoculated Lewis lung cancer cells and exposed to radiation therapy, then BANCR expression was analyzed using qPCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and western blot were performed to calculate the enrichment of histone acetylation and HDAC3 protein levels in Lewis lung cancer cells, respectively. MTT assay was used to evaluate the effects of BANCR on Lewis lung cancer cell viability. Finally, we found that BANCR expression was significantly increased in C57BL/6 mice receiving radiation therapy (P<0.05) compared with control group. Additionally, knockdown of BANCR expression was associated with larger tumor size in C57BL/6 mice inoculated Lewis lung cancer cells. Histone deacetylation was observed to involve in the regulation of BANCR in Lewis lung cancer cells. Moreover, over expression HDAC3 reversed the effect of rays on BANCR expression. MTT assay showed that knockdown of BANCR expression promoted cell viability surviving from radiation. In conclusion, these findings indicated that radiation therapy was an effective treatment for lung cancer, and it may exert function through up-regulation BANCR expression.

  15. Up-regulation of Na + expression in the area postrema of total sleep deprived rats by TOF-SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Ling, Yong-Chien; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2008-12-01

    Area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Since sleep deficiency will cause cardiovascular dysfunction, the present study aims to determine whether sodium level would significantly alter in AP following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Sodium level was investigated in vivo by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Clinical manifestation of cardiovascular function was demonstrated by mean arterial pressure (MAP) values. Results indicated that in normal rats, TOF-SIMS spectrum revealed a major peak of sodium ion counting as 5.61 × 10 5 at m/ z 23. The sodium ions were homogeneous distributed in AP without specific localization. However, following TSD, the sodium intensity was relatively increased (6.73 × 10 5) and the signal for sodium image was strongly expressed throughout AP with definite spatial distribution. MAP of TSD rats is 138 ± 5 mmHg, which is significantly higher than that of normal ones (121 ± 3 mmHg). Regarding AP is an important area for sodium sensation and development of hypernatremic related sympatho-excitation; up-regulation of sodium expression following TSD suggests that high sodium level might over-activate AP, through complex neuronal networks involving in sympathetic regulation, which could lead to the formation of TSD relevant cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Cortisol and IGF-1 synergistically up-regulate taurine transport by the rat skeletal muscle cell line, L6.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Haemi; Park, Taesun

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate effects of exercise-induced hormones, cortisol, IGF-1, and beta-endorphin, on the regulation of taurine transport activity in rat skeletal myoblasts, L6 cells. Challenge of L6 cells with cortisol (100 nM) for 24 hrs resulted in a 165% increase in taurine transport activity, 220% increase in Vmax of the taurine transporter, and 55% increase in taurine transporter/ beta-actin mRNA level compared with untreated control cells. Neither IGF-1 (1 approximately 100 nM) nor beta-endorphin (1 approximately 20 nM), added in the incubation medium separately for 24 hrs, affected taurine uptake by L6 cells. However, when cells were co-treated with IGF-1 (10 nM) plus cortisol (100 nM), taurine transport activity (37% increase, p < 0.05), Vmax of the transporter (54%, p < 0.05), and taurine transporter/ beta-actin mRNA level were further increased compared to the value for cells treated with cortisol alone. These results suggest that taurine transport by skeletal muscle cells appear to be synergistically up-regulated during a prolonged exercise via elevated levels of cortisol and IGF-1 in muscle.

  17. Exosomes from hypoxic endothelial cells have increased collagen crosslinking activity through up-regulation of lysyl oxidase-like 2.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Olivier G; van Balkom, Bas W M; Gremmels, Hendrik; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes are important mediators of intercellular communication. Additionally, they contain a variety of components capable of interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM), including integrins, matrix metalloproteinases and members of the immunoglobin superfamily. Despite these observations, research on exosome-ECM interactions is limited. Here, we investigate whether the exosome-associated lysyl oxidase family member lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is involved in ECM remodelling. We found that LOXL2 is present on the exterior of endothelial cell (EC)-derived exosomes, placing it in direct vicinity of the ECM. It is up-regulated twofold in EC-derived exosomes cultured under hypoxic conditions. Intact exosomes from hypoxic EC and LOXL2 overexpressing EC show increased activity in a fluorometric lysyl oxidase enzymatic activity assay as well as in a collagen gel contraction assay. Concordantly, knockdown of LOXL2 in exosome-producing EC in both normal and hypoxic conditions reduces activity of exosomes in both assays. Our findings show for the first time that ECM crosslinking by EC-derived exosomes is mediated by LOXL2 under the regulation of hypoxia, and implicate a role for exosomes in hypoxia-regulated focal ECM remodelling, a key process in both fibrosis and wound healing.

  18. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen; Frewert, Simon; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  19. Aniline exposure associated with up-regulated transcriptional responses of three glutathione S-transferase Delta genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Chiao; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2015-03-01

    Complex transcriptional profile of glutathione S-transferase Delta cluster genes occurred in the developmental process of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this project was to quantify the expression levels of Gst Delta class genes altered by aniline exposure and to understand the relationship between aniline dosages and the variation of Gst Delta genes expressed in D. melanogaster. Using RT-PCR expression assays, the expression patterns of the transcript mRNAs of the glutathione S-transferase Delta genes were revealed and their expression levels were measured at eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. The adult stage was selected for further dose-response assays. After analysis, the results indicated that three Gst Delta genes (Gst D2, Gst D5 and Gst D6) were found to show a peak of up-regulated transcriptional response at 6-8h of exposure of aniline. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship of their induction levels within the dose regiments (from 1.2 to 2.0 μl/tube) had been measured. The expression patterns and annotations of these genes were discussed in the context.

  20. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  1. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT. PMID:27484673

  2. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  3. MiR-128 up-regulation inhibits Reelin and DCX expression and reduces neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Cristina; Florian, Maria Carolina; Massimi, Isabella; Dominici, Carlo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Galardi, Silvia; Buè, Maria Cristina; Massalini, Simone; McDowell, Heather P; Messi, Elio; Gulino, Alberto; Farace, Maria Giulia; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of sophisticated regulators of gene expression, acting as post-transcriptional inhibitors that recognize their target mRNAs through base pairing with short regions along the 3'UTRs. Several microRNAs are tissue specific, suggesting a specialized role in tissue differentiation or maintenance, and quite a few are critically involved in tumorigenesis. We studied miR-128, a brain-enriched microRNA, in retinoic acid-differentiated neuroblastoma cells, and we found that this microRNA is up-regulated in treated cells, where it down-modulates the expression of two proteins involved in the migratory potential of neural cells: Reelin and DCX. Consistently, miR-128 ectopic overexpression suppressed Reelin and DCX, whereas the LNA antisense-mediated miR-128 knockdown caused the two proteins to increase. Ectopic miR-128 overexpression reduced neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness, and impaired cell growth. Finally, the analysis of a small series of primary human neuroblastomas showed an association between high levels of miR-128 expression and favorable features, such as favorable Shimada category or very young age at diagnosis. Thus, we provide evidence for a role for miR-128 in the molecular events modulating neuroblastoma progression and aggressiveness.

  4. Glycerotoxin from Glycera convoluta stimulates neurosecretion by up-regulating N-type Ca2+ channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Frédéric A.; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Molgó, Jordi; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2002-01-01

    We report here the purification of glycerotoxin from the venom of Glycera convoluta, a novel 320 kDa protein capable of reversibly stimulating spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, glycerotoxin is ineffective at the murine neuromuscular junction, which displays a different subtype of voltage- dependent Ca2+ channels. By sequential and selective inhibition of various types of Ca2+ channels, we found that glycerotoxin was acting via Cav2.2 (N-type). In neuroendocrine cells, it elicits a robust, albeit transient, influx of Ca2+ sensitive to the Cav2.2 blockers ω-conotoxin GVIA and MVIIA. Moreover, glycerotoxin triggers a Ca2+ transient in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over-expressing Cav2.2 but not Cav2.1 (P/Q-type). Whole-cell patch–clamp analysis of Cav2.2 expressing HEK cells revealed an up-regulation of Ca2+ currents due to a leftward shift of the activation peak upon glycerotoxin addition. A direct interaction between Cav2.2 and this neurotoxin was revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Therefore, glycerotoxin is a unique addition to the arsenal of tools available to unravel the mechanism controlling Ca2+-regulated exocytosis via the specific activation of Cav2.2. PMID:12485994

  5. Acceleration of lung metastasis by up-regulation of CD44 expression in osteosarcoma-derived cell transplanted mice.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, H; Koshino, T; Uesugi, M; Nitto, H; Saito, T

    2001-09-20

    The effect of CD44-phenotypic expression on metastasis to the lung was studied using a spontaneous murine osteosarcoma-derived cell line, POS-1, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). POS-1 cells were inoculated into the hind paws of 20 C3H/HeJ mice and produced a visible mass in all mice in 5 weeks, and these transplanted tumors resulted in lung metastasis in all mice. The number of metastatic foci in the lungs was 12.0+/-2.1 (mean+/-SD) with LPS-stimulated cells, which was significantly higher than that of unstimulated cells (5.8+/-1.4; N=10 for each; P<0.05). Hyaluronate (HA), a ligand of CD44, inhibited a number of lung metastases in a dose-dependent manner (0.5% HA, 3.0+/-1.1; 0.005% HA, 5.1+/-1.5; without HA, 8.6+/-1.7; N=10 for each; P<0.05, each group with HA versus the group without HA). Adhesion assay by coculturing POS-1 cells and lung microvascular endothelial cells on culture plate showed that the adhesion was significantly lower in HA treated POS-1 than those without HA (1.18+/-0.12 and 2.74+/-0.17, respectively, P<0.05). These results suggest that lung metastasis was accelerated by up-regulation of CD44.

  6. Atypical antipsychotics suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulate interleukin-10 in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Haruhiko; Futamura, Takashi; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Maeda, Kenji; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-03-17

    There is considerable evidence that schizophrenia is associated with immune system dysregulation. For example, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of proinflammatory cytokines are significantly increased in schizophrenic patients, and their normalization correlates with improvement in psychotic symptoms. In fact, typical and atypical antipsychotics are reported to modulate immune function in in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of antipsychotics, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol, on serum cytokine levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone, but not haloperidol, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, and up-regulated IL-10. Moreover, only clozapine, robustly increased the serum levels of IL-10. Clozapine reproduced its anti-inflammatory feature in polyinsinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (Poly[I:C])-induced inflammation. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of clozapine would adapt to inflammation induced by some varieties of antigens. Several receptor ligands, such as 8-OH-DPAT, ketanserin, prazosin and scopolamine, were also examined as to their anti-inflammatory effects on serum cytokine levels in LPS-treated mice. Ketanserin and prazosin, but not 8-OH-DPAT nor scopolamine, behaved similarly to atypical antipsychotics. However, the remarkable increase of serum IL-10 level observed in clozapine was not detected in ketanserin and prazosin. These results suggest the unique efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, and the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10.

  7. Zirconium Ions Up-Regulate the BMP/SMAD Signaling Pathway and Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling. PMID:25602473

  8. Resveratrol suppresses NTHi-induced inflammation via up-regulation of the negative regulator MyD88 short

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Carla S.; Matsuyama, Shingo; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) affect more than one-half billion people globally and are characterized by chronic inflammation that is often exacerbated by respiratory pathogens such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the limited success of currently available pharmaceuticals used to manage the symptoms of these diseases present an urgent need for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents. Resveratrol has long been thought as an interesting therapeutic agent for various diseases including inflammatory diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory properties remain largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that resveratrol decreases expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in airway epithelial cells and in the lung of mice by enhancing NTHi-induced MyD88 short, a negative regulator of inflammation, via inhibition of ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibits NTHi-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation by increasing MKP-1 expression via a cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway. Finally, we show that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory effects post NTHi infection, thereby demonstrating its therapeutic potential. Together these data reveal a novel mechanism by which resveratrol alleviates NTHi-induced inflammation in airway disease by up-regulating the negative regulator of inflammation MyD88s. PMID:27677845

  9. Voltage-gated Na+ channel II immunoreactivity is selectively up-regulated in hippocampal interneurons of seizure sensitive gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kwak, Sung-Eun; Choi, Hui-Chul; Song, Hong-Ki; Kim, Yeong-In; Jo, Seung-Mook; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2008-06-27

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of gerbils (a genetic epilepsy model) in order to confirm the relationship between VGSC and seizure activity in these animals. There was no difference of VGSC I immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between seizure-resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils. VGSC II immunoreactivity was rarely detected in the perikarya of principal neurons and interneurons in the SR gerbil hippocampus. However, in the SS gerbil hippocampus, VGSC II immunoreactivity was densely observed in the somata of interneurons located in the stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Double immunofluorescent study showed immunoreactivity for calretinin (approximately 80% in VGSC II-positive neurons) or calbindin D-28k (approximately 20% in VGSC II-positive neurons) in VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons. VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons did not show parvalbumin immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that seizure activity in SS gerbils may be related to the selective hyperactivation of interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare via the up-regulation of VGSC II expression, which leads to the disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells.

  10. Up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in high mobility group Box1-stimulated macrophages in pulpitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Javad; Sabermarouf, Babak; Baradaran, Behzad; Sadat-Hatamnezhad, Leila; Shotorbani, Siamak Sandoghchian

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone, DNA-binding protein that serves a crucial role in regulating gene transcription and is involved in a variety of proinflammatory, extracellular activities. The aim of this study was to explore whether HMGB1 stimulation can up-regulate the expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages from pulpitis and to clarify the subsequent events involving Th17 cells and Th17 cell-associated cytokine changes. Materials and Methods: Having prepared dental pulp tissues of pulpitis and healthy controls, macrophage were isolated and cultured. Macrophages were thereafter stimulated by HMGB1 time course. RT-QPCR, flowcytometer, immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and ELISA techniques were used in the present research. Results: Our results showed that the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on macrophages stimulated with HMGB1 increased in pulpitis compared with controls (macrophages without HMGB1 stimulation) with a statistical significance (P<0.001). In addition, the levels of IL-17, IL-23, and IL-6 in supernatants from cultured macrophages stimulated with HMGB1 from pulpitis increased, and NF-kB, the downstream target of TLR2 and TLR4, also showed a marked elevation after macrophages’ stimulation by HMGB1. Conclusion: The evidence from the present study suggests that the enhanced TLR2 and TLR4 pathways and Th17 cell polarization may be due to HMGB1 stimulation in pulpitis. PMID:28293399

  11. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light.

  12. Myeloperoxidase deficiency enhances zymosan phagocytosis associated with up-regulation of surface expression of CD11b in mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kenta; Motowaki, Takehiro; Tamura, Naoya; Aratani, Yasuaki

    2016-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major component of neutrophils, catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from hydrogen peroxide and chloride anion. Phagocytosis is a critical event induced by neutrophils for host defense and inflammation. Interestingly, we found that MPO-deficient (MPO(-/-)) neutrophils engulfed larger amounts of zymosan than wild-type neutrophils. Blocking of the CD11b subunit of complement receptor 3 (CR3) as well as inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) dramatically reduced zymosan phagocytosis. In contrast, blocking of dectin-1, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), or spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) had no significant effects on phagocytosis. Western blotting analysis showed that inhibition of FAK decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that ERK1/2 is a downstream regulator of FAK in neutrophils. Importantly, we found that cell surface expression of CD11b and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significantly higher in zymosan-stimulated MPO(-/-) neutrophils than in zymosan-stimulated wild-type neutrophils. Pretreatment with the MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide dramatically enhanced both zymosan phagocytosis and the surface expression of CD11b in wild-type neutrophils, but not in MPO(-/-) neutrophils. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that up-regulation of the CD11b/FAK/ERK signaling pathway due to absence of MPO enhances the zymosan phagocytic activity of mouse neutrophils.

  13. Targeted inhibition of HDAC8 increases the doxorubicin sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells via up regulation of miR-137.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Wang, Guoliang; Bai, Hongmin; Li, Tiandong; Gong, Fanghe; Yang, Huan; Wen, Jinchong; Wang, Weimin

    2017-02-20

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been suggested to be potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Recent studies revealed that HDAC8 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers and poor overall survival rate of neuroblastoma (NB). Our present study revealed that among the four members of class I HDACs, HDAC8 is significantly over expressed in NB cells as compared with the normal fibroblast 3T3 cells or primary normal human astrocytes (NHA) cells. Targeted inhibition of HDAC8 by its specific siRNA (si-HDAC8) can inhibit the in vitro growth of NB cells. Furthermore, si-HDAC8 significantly increases the sensitivity of NB cells to doxorubicin (Dox). Silencing of HDAC8 can increase the expression of miR-137, which has been suggested to mediate the Dox sensitivity of NB cells. Knockdown of miR-137 can attenuate si-HDAC8 enhanced Dox sensitivity. Further, si-HDAC8 can also inhibit the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1). While knockdown of miR-137 can attenuate si-HDAC8 induced down regulation of MDR1. Collectively, our data revealed that targeted inhibition of HDAC8 can suppress the growth of NB cells and increase Dox sensitivity via up regulation of miR-137 and suppression of MDR1. Therefor, combination of HDAC8 inhibitor will be helpful to elevate the treatment outcome of NB patients.

  14. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Liu, Hanli

    2016-08-03

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ enhances adiponectin secretion via up-regulating DsbA-L expression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, An; He, Yiduo; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zaiqing

    2015-08-15

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase like-protein (DsbA-L) was identified as a molecular chaperone facilitating the assembly and secretion of adiponectin, an adipokine with multiple beneficial effects. In obesity the level of DsbA-L is reduced with a concomitant decrease of the circulating adiponectin level, especially of the high molecular weight form (HMW). Both rodent and human studies have shown that the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists increase adiponectin levels in serum by activating PPARγ, which up-regulates critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones thus facilitating protein folding. As shown in the present study, overexpression of PPARγ in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells elicited the cellular release of HMW adiponectin. PPARγ enhanced expression of DsbA-L by binding directly to peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) site within the DsbA-L promoter. Conversely, in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, PPARγ knockdown resulted in decreased expression of Adiponectin, DsbA-L and ERp44. DsbA-L expression increased after PPARγ agonist treatment and decreased upon treatment with PPARγ antagonist in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DsbA-L deficiency in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells impaired the secretion of adiponectin. We therefore propose that DsbA-L plays an important role in facilitating HMW adiponectin formation and release from cells under the regulation of PPARγ.

  16. Azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) inhibits peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by contradicting the up-regulation of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Ueta, E; Osaki, T

    1997-10-01

    Inhibition of peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) was examined using ICR mice, and the effects of both drugs on signal transduction were investigated. Microscopically, Azeptin (a total of 56 mg/kg for 28 days) suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in mice which received an i.p. injection of a total of 60 or 75 mg/kg PLM. In parallel with the microscopic findings, smaller amounts of collagen were synthesized in the lungs of Azeptin-injected mice. PLM enhanced the expression of interleukin-1 beta- and transforming growth factor-beta-mRNA in lungs. In contrast, Azeptin suppressed the expression. Compatible with these in vivo results, Azeptin and PLM contradictively regulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and c-myc mRNA expression in human gingival and mouse pulmonary fibroblasts. In addition, NF-kappa B was activated by fibroblast treatment with 5 micrograms/ml PLM for 1 h, but intranuclear NF-kappa B was decreased by cell treatment with 10(-5) M Azeptin. From these results, it is concluded that Azeptin inhibits PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by antagonizing the up-regulation of signal transduction.

  17. Amplified Rate Acceleration by Simultaneous Up-Regulation of Multiple Active Sites in an Endo-Functionalized Porous Capsule.

    PubMed

    Kopilevich, Sivil; Müller, Achim; Weinstock, Ira A

    2015-10-14

    Using the hydrolysis of epoxides in water as a model reaction, the effect of multiple active sites on Michaelis-Menten compliant rate accelerations in a porous capsule is demonstrated. The capsule is a water-soluble Ih-symmetry Keplerate-type complex of the form, [{Mo(VI)6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo(V)2O4(L)}30](42-), in which 12 pentagonal "ligands," {(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)5O21(H2O)6}(6-), are coordinated to 30 dimolybdenum sites, {Mo(V)2O4L}(1+) (L = an endohedrally coordinated η(2)-bound carboxylate anion), resulting in 20 Mo9O9 pores. When "up-regulated" by removal of ca. one-third of the blocking ligands, L, an equal number of dimolybdenum sites are activated, and the newly freed-up space allows for encapsulation of nearly twice as many substrate guests, leading to a larger effective molarity (amplification), and an increase in the rate acceleration (k(cat)/k(uncat)) from 16,000 to an enzyme-like value of 182,800.

  18. Ferrous Iron Up-regulation in Fibroblasts of Patients with Beta Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519ΔVal 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN. PMID:28261264

  19. A role of the adrenal gland in stress-induced up-regulation of cytokines in plasma.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Atsuo; Ueda, Haruyasu; Kashiwamura, Shin-ichiro; Nishida, Kensei; Yamaguchi, Seiko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Kaori; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Okamura, Haruki

    2006-02-01

    To reveal a pathway by which psychological/physical stresses influence host defense capability, responses to immobilization stress in mice were investigated, focusing on a multifunctional cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18). Immobilization stress induced interleukin-18 accumulation in plasma and in the adrenal gland. Inhibition on ACTH resulted in suppressed levels of IL-18 both in plasma and the adrenal gland. In hemi-adrenalectomized mice, plasma IL-18 levels after stress were lower than in sham-operated mice. This, together with the observation in stressed hemi-adrenalectomized mice that IL-6 levels in plasma were suppressed but up-regulated by recombinant IL-18, showed that the adrenal gland plays a crucial role in stress-related elevation of IL-6 in plasma via IL-18. Adrenal gland is highlighted as an organ connecting the psychological, endocrine, and immune systems. Controlling the secretion of IL-18 from the adrenal gland may serve as a possible preventative means against a stress-related disruption of host defenses.

  20. Prolonged Starvation Causes Up-Regulation of AQP1 in Adipose Tissue Capillaries of AQP7 Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skowronski, Mariusz T.; Skowronska, Agnieszka; Rojek, Aleksandra; Oklinski, Michal K.; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins involved in the regulation of cellular transport and the balance of water and glycerol and cell volume in the white adipose tissue (WAT). In our previous study, we found the co-expression of the AQP1 water channel and AQP7 in the mouse WAT. In our present study, we aimed to find out whether prolonged starvation influences the AQP1 expression of AQP7 knock-out mice (AQP7 KO) in the WAT. To resolve this hypothesis, immunoperoxidase, immunoblot and immunogold microscopy were used. AQP1 expression was found with the use of immunohistochemistry and was confirmed by immunogold microscopy in the vessels of mouse WAT of all studied groups. Semi-quantitative immunoblot and quantitative immunogold microscopy showed a significant increase (by 2.5- to 3-fold) in the abundance of AQP1 protein expression in WAT in the 72 h starved AQP7 KO mice as compared to AQP7+/+ (p < 0.05) and AQP7−/− (p < 0.01) controls, respectively. In conclusion, the AQP1 water channel located in the vessels of WAT is up-regulated in response to prolonged starvation in the WAT of AQP7 KO mice. The present data suggest that an interaction of different AQP isoforms is required for maintaining proper water homeostasis within the mice WAT. PMID:27455244

  1. Up-regulation of CD44 in the development of metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Foster, Rosemary; Yang, Xiaoqian; Feng, Yong; Shen, Jacson K; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-04-20

    The clinical significance of Cluster of Differentiation 44 (CD44) remains controversial in human ovarian cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of CD44 expression by using a unique tissue microarray, and then to determine the biological functions of CD44 in ovarian cancer. In this study, a unique ovarian cancer tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed with paired primary, metastatic, and recurrent tumor tissues from 26 individual patients. CD44 expression in TMA was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Both the metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer tissues expressed higher level of CD44 than the patient-matched primary tumor. A significant association has been shown between CD44 expression and both the disease free survival and overall survival. A strong increase of CD44 was found in the tumor recurrence of mouse model. Finally, when CD44 was knocked down, proliferation, migration/invasion activity, and spheroid formation were significantly suppressed, while drug sensitivity was enhanced. Thus, up-regulation of CD44 represents a crucial event in the development of metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance to current treatments in ovarian cancer. Developing strategies to target CD44 may prevent metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

  2. Apocynin improving cardiac remodeling in chronic renal failure disease is associated with up-regulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Jie; Cai, Qingqing; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2015-09-22

    Cardiac remodeling is one of the most common cardiac abnormalities and associated with a high mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Apocynin, a nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, has been showed cardio-protective effects. However, whether apocynin can improve cardiac remodeling in CRF and what is the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, we enrolled 94 participants. In addition, we used 5/6 nephrectomized rats to mimic cardiac remodeling in CRF. Serum levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and its mainly metabolic enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were measured. The results showed that the serum levels of EETs were significantly decreased in renocardiac syndrome participants (P < 0.05). In 5/6 nephrectomized CRF model, the ratio of left ventricular weight / body weight, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and cardiac interstitial fibrosis were significantly increased while ejection fraction significantly decreased (P < 0.05). All these effects could partly be reversed by apocynin. Meanwhile, we found during the process of cardiac remodeling in CRF, apocynin significantly increased the reduced serum levels of EETs and decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of sEH in the heart (P < 0.05). Our findings indicated that the protective effect of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in CRF was associated with the up-regulation of EETs. EETs may be a new mediator for the injury of kidney-heart interactions.

  3. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-08-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT.

  4. YAP is up-regulated in the bronchial airway smooth muscle of the chronic asthma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by leukocytic infiltration and tissue remodeling with structural changes including subepithelial fibrosis and ASM cells proliferation. The Hippo pathway is a key regulatory point involved in cell proliferation, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cell differentiation. In order to disclose the relation between asthma and the Hippo pathway, expression of the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a key gene in the Hippo pathway, in the bronchial smooth muscle of chronic asthma model (CAM) was studied. 40 mice were randomly divided into control (wide type) and experimental group to construct CAM using chicken ovalbumin (OVA). Pathological changes of the lung tissues were observed in the CAM mice compared with the control using HE staining method. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect if YAP protein is expressed in the lung tissues. The pathological changes of the CAM group showed that a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration including mainly lymphocytes and a small amount of eosinophilic, with the presence of certain airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, was observed in comparison with the control. IHC results showed that the YAP protein was significantly increased compared with the control groups (P < 0.01). This result was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay which detected the up-regulation of the YAP gene (P < 0.01) and Western blot. In conclusion, the YAP protein was significantly expressed in the bronchial airway tissues of the CAM mice, and could be used as an indicator for asthma. PMID:26617833

  5. Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 is up-regulated in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Yu; Hua, Long; Yao, Kun-Hou; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor progression. The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of lncRNA CCAT2 expression in human gastric cancer. Methods: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in 85 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to determine its prognostic value, overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissues. By statistical analyses, high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was observed to be closely correlated with higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis. Moreover, patients with high lncRNA CCAT2 expression had shorter overall survival and progression-free survival compared with the low lncRNA CCAT2 group. Multivariate analyses indicated that high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: Our results suggested that up-regulation of lncRNA CCAT2 was correlated with gastric cancer progression, and lncRNA CCAT2 might be a potential molecular biomarker for predicting the prognosis of patients. PMID:25755774

  6. Ferrous Iron Up-regulation in Fibroblasts of Patients with Beta Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN).

    PubMed

    Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519ΔVal 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN.

  7. MIP-1α enhances Jurkat cell transendothelial migration by up-regulating endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi-Ran; Ma, Ying-Huan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) in Jurkat cells and its effect on transendothelial migration. In the present study, human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells (Jurkat cells) were used as a model of T cells in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), which demonstrated significantly higher MIP-1α expression compared with that in normal T-cell controls. The ability of Jurkat cells to cross a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) monolayer was almost completely abrogated by MIP-1α siRNA. In addition, the overexpression of MIP-1α resulted in the up-regulated expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, which enhanced the migration of Jurkat cells through a monolayer of HBMEC. MIP-1α levels in Jurkat cells appeared to be an important factor for its transendothelial migration, which may provide the theoretical basis to understand the mechanisms of brain metastases of T-ALL at cellular and molecular levels.

  8. Up-Regulation of Pressure-activated Ca2+-permeable Cation Channel in Intact Vascular Endothelium of Hypertensive Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, J.; Kohler, R.; Haase, W.; Distler, A.

    1996-10-01

    In endothelial cells, stretch-activated cation channels have been proposed to act as mechanosensors for changes in hemodynamic forces. We have identified a novel mechanosensitive pressure-activated channel in intact endothelium from rat aorta and mesenteric artery. The 18-pS cation channel responded with a multifold increase in channel activity when positive pressure was applied to the luminal cell surface with the patch pipette and inactivated at negative pipette pressure. Channel permeability ratio for K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions was 1:0.98:0.23. Ca2+ influx through the channel was sufficient to activate a neighboring Ca2+-dependent K+ channel. Hemodynamic forces are chronically disturbed in arterial hypertension. Endothelial cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. In two comparative studies, density of the pressure-activated channel was found to be significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats and renovascular hypertensive rats compared with their respective normotensive controls. Channel activity presumably leads to mechanosensitive Ca2+ influx and induces cell hyperpolarization by K+ channel activity. Both Ca2+ influx and hyperpolarization are known to induce a vasodilatory endothelial response by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Up-regulation of channel density in hypertension could, therefore, represent a counterregulatory mechanism of vascular endothelium.

  9. Interleukin-6 enhances cancer stemness and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via up-regulating osteopontin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Sun, Hao-Ting; Gao, Xiao-Mei; Ren, Ning; Sheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Yan; Wei, Jin-Wang; Zhang, Kai-Li; Yu, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Yin; Luo, Qin; Yang, Lu-Yu; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the most important inflammatory cytokines, plays a pivotal role in metastasis and stemness of solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms of IL-6 in HCC metastasis remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that stemness and metastatic potential of HCC cells were significantly enhanced after IL-6 stimulation. IL-6 could induce expression of osteopontin (OPN), along with other stemness-related genes, including HIF1α, BMI1, and HEY1. Block of OPN induction could significantly abrogate the effect of IL-6 on stemness and metastasis of HCC cells. Furthermore, IL-6 level was positively correlated with OPN in HCC. Patients with high plasma IL-6 or OPN level had poorer prognosis. In multivariate analysis, IL-6 and OPN were demonstrated to be independent prognostic indicators for HCC patients, and their combination had a better prognostic performance than IL-6 or OPN alone. Collectively, our findings indicate that IL-6 could enhance stemness and promote metastasis of HCC via up-regulating OPN expression, which can be a potential therapeutic target for combating HCC metastasis, and the combination of IL-6 and OPN serves as a promising prognostic predictor for HCC. PMID:27725896

  10. CCR7 pathway induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through up-regulation of Snail signaling in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Zhou, Yunzhe; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-02-01

    The chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and Snail signaling have been linked to various types of cancers. The associations between these signalings and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are not clear in gastric cancer. Here, the expression of CCR7 and Snail was detected in gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Meanwhile, gastric cancer cells were subjected to CCL19, si-control, and si-Snail treatment. Cell cycle, migration, and invasion were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CCR7 and Snail were similar in either gastric cancer tissues or cells. The increased expression of CCR7 was closely associated with the increased Snail expression, which both were closely correlated with metastasis, stage and differentiation, and poor prognosis. The increased p-ERK, p-AKT, Snail, and MMP9 expression and the decreased E-cadherin were confirmed in MGC803 cells in a dose-dependent manner in response to CCL19 treatment. However, the blockade of Snail abrogated the up-regulation of MMP9 and down-regulation of E-cadherin. CCR7-induced ERK and PI3K pathway regulated Snail signaling. Besides si-Snail treatment led to MGC803 cell cycle arrest and affected the migration and invasion. In conclusion, our study suggested that CCR7 promotes Snail expression to induce the EMT, resulting in cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer. CCR7-Snail pathway provided more potential regimens for cancer therapy.

  11. Zirconium ions up-regulate the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and promote the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.

  12. Farnesoid X receptor up-regulates expression of Lipid transfer inhibitor protein in liver cells and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liangpeng; Liu, Hong; Peng, Jiahe; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Yan; Dong, Jinyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Guo, Dongmei; Jiang, Yu

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •FXR up-regulates apoF. •It binds to ER1 element. •It activates apoF gene promoter. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein F is a component protein mainly secreted by liver and resides on several lipoprotein classes. It can inhibit lipids transfer between different lipoproteins. FXR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily which is also highly expressed in the liver. It modulates bile acids synthesis and lipids metabolism by transcriptional regulation. We aimed to determine whether apoF can be regulated by FXR. The FXR agonist Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064 both can activate the expression of apoF in liver cell lines and in C57/BL6 mouse liver. This is dependent on the binding of FXR to the FXR element ER1 (−2904 to −2892 bp) in the apoF gene promoter. Taken together, we have identified apoF as likely another target gene of FXR.

  13. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  14. Up-regulation of expression of selected genes in human bone cells with specific capacitively coupled electric fields.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles C; Wang, Wei; Brighton, Carl T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the described experiments was to determine the electrical parameters that lead to optimal expression of a number of bone-related genes in cultured human bone cells exposed to a capacitively coupled electric field. Human calvarial osteoblasts were grown in modified plastic Cooper dishes in which the cells could be exposed to various capacitively coupled electric fields. The optimal duration of stimulation and optimal duration of response to the electrical field, and the optimal amplitude, frequency and duty cycle were all determined for each of the genes analyzed. Results indicated that a capacitively coupled electric field of 60 kHz, 20 mV/cm, 50% duty cycle for 2 h duration per day significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of a number of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family genes (bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2 and -4, TGF-β1, - β2 and -β3) as well as fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Protein levels of BMP-2 and -4, and TGF-β1 and - β2 were also elevated. The clinical relevance of these findings in the context of a noninvasive treatment modality for delayed union and nonunion fracture healing is discussed.

  15. HSP70 increases extracellular matrix production by human vascular smooth muscle through TGF-β1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, Marta; Calleros, Laura; López-Ongil, Susana; Raoch, Viviana; Griera, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2013-02-01

    The circulating levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) are increased in cardiovascular diseases; however, the implication of this for the fibrotic process typical of such diseases remains unclear. HSP70 can interact with the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), the major producer of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, through the Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known vascular pro-fibrotic cytokine that is regulated in part by AP-1-dependent transcriptional mechanisms. We hypothesized that extracellular HSP70 could interact with SMCs, inducing TGF-β1 synthesis and subsequent changes in the vascular ECM. We demonstrate that extracellular HSP70 binds to human aorta SMC TLR4, which up-regulates the AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity of the TGF-β1 promoter. This is achieved through the mitogen activated protein kinases JNK and ERK, as demonstrated by the use of specific blockers and the knockdown of TLR4 with specific small interfering RNAs. The TGF-β1 upregulation increase the expression of the ECM proteins type I collagen and fibronectin. This novel observation may elucidate the mechanisms by which HSP70 contributes in the inflammation and fibrosis present in atherosclerosis and other fibrosis-related diseases.

  16. Early histological, hormonal, and molecular changes during pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) artificial flowering induction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Maita Eulalia Ávila; Moreira, Rafael Oliveira; Lima, André Almeida; Ságio, Solange Aparecida; Barreto, Horllys Gomes; Luiz, Sara Lazara Pérez; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Aragón; Yanes-Paz, Ermis; Ruíz, Yanelis Capdesuñer; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Histological analyses of the shoot apical meristem, leaf gibberellic acid (GA3), and ethylene quantification were carried out during the first 72h after Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Expression profiles from ethylene biosynthesis (AcACS2 and AcACO1), gibberellin metabolism (AcGA2-ox1 and AcDELLA1), and flower development (FT-like gene (AcFT), LFY-like gene (AcLFY), and a PISTILLATA-like gene (AcPI)) genes were analysed during the first 24h after Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Differentiation processes of the shoot apical meristem into flower buds were already present in the first 72h after Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Ethrel(®)48 lead to a reduction in GA3 levels, probably triggered by elevated ethylene levels and the positive regulation AcGA2-ox1. AcLFY activation upon Ethrel(®)48 may also have contributed to the reduction of GA3 levels and, along with the up-regulation of AcPI, are probably associated with the flower induction activation. AcFT and AcDELLA1 do not seem to be regulated by GA3 and ethylene. Decreased GA3 and increased ethylene levels suggest an accumulation of AcDELLA1, which may display an important role in pineapple flowering induction. Thus, this study shows that molecular, hormonal, and histological changes are present right after Ethrel(®)48 treatment, providing new insights into how pineapple flowering occurs under natural conditions.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis mutants suggests a crosstalk between ABA, ethylene and GSH against combined cold and osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Hazra, Saptarshi; Datta, Riddhi; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene and abscisic acid in providing stress tolerance and defence response to plants is widely recognized. However, little is known about the cross-talk between glutathione with ethylene and abscisic acid to combat stress in planta. Here, transcriptome analysis of combined cold and osmotic stress treated Arabidopsis mutants were carried out to elucidate the crosstalk between the abscisic acid, ethylene and glutathione. Microarray experiment revealed the differential regulation of about 2313 and 4131 transcripts in ein2 (ethylene insensitive mutant) and aba1.6 (abscisic acid mutant) respectively. Functional analysis exposed common down-regulated stress and defence, secondary metabolite biosynthesis viz. phenylpropanoid, lignin and flavonols, redox and transcription factors related genes in ein2, aba1.6 and pad2.1 (glutathione mutant) in response to combined stress treatment. The reduced glutathione content was less in stress treated mutants in comparison to Col-0. Again, selective down-regulated transcripts in stress treated mutants were noted up-regulated after glutathione feeding. Some of the important differentially expressed genes were also validated by comparative proteomics analysis of stress treated mutants. In summary, our results suggested the role of ethylene and abscisic acid in inducing stress-responsive genes and proteins by activating glutathione biosynthesis to combat abiotic stress conditions in plant system. PMID:27845361

  18. Irradiation up-regulates CD80 expression through induction of tumour necrosis factor-α and CD40 ligand expression on B lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Fumio; Nakano, Hideki; Seo, Akira; Okada, Yayoi; Torihata, Hideko; Tanaka, Yuriko; Uchida, Tetsuya; Miyake, Hidekazu; Kakiuchi, Terutaka

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 100 Gy X-ray irradiation followed by 24 hr incubation up-regulates CD80 expression in murine B lymphoma cells, A20-2J. In the present study, we analysed the underlying mechanisms of such up-regulation using A20-HL cells derived from A20-2J cells. Irradiation of A20-HL cells with 100 Gy enhanced CD80 expression. Incubation of untreated A20-HL cells with those 100 Gy irradiated induced up-regulation of CD80 expression. Irradiation of A20-HL cells also up-regulated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and CD40 ligand (CD40L), and the amount of immunoprecipitable TNF-α and CD40L in cell lysates. The addition of anti-TNF-α or anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the incubation of irradiated A20-HL cells partially inhibited up-regulation of CD80 expression, and the addition of both antibodies together almost completely inhibited the up-regulation, suggesting that irradiation up-regulated the CD80 expression through the induction of TNF-α and CD40L expression. Irradiation also increased the accumulation of CD80, TNF-α and CD40L mRNA. n-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), a nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor, markedly decreased irradiation-induced accumulation of CD80 mRNA and CD80 expression. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, and nifedipine, a calcium channel inhibitor, inhibited not only the expression of TNF-α and CD40L, but also the up-regulation of CD80 on irradiated A20-HL cells. These results strongly suggested that irradiation induced TNF-α and CD40L expression, which then up-regulated CD80 mRNA and CD80 expression through activation of NF-κB transcription factor in A20-HL cells. PMID:12100723

  19. A novel class of antihyperlipidemic agents with low density lipoprotein receptor up-regulation via the adaptor protein autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shigehiro; Ban, Hitoshi; Tsuboya, Norie; Uno, Shinsaku; Kino, Kouichi; Ioriya, Katsuhisa; Kitano, Masafumi; Ueno, Yoshihide

    2010-04-22

    We have previously reported compound 2 as a inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) and up-regulator of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression. In this study we focused on compound 2, a unique LDL-R up-regulator, and describe the discovery of a novel class of up-regulators of LDL-R. Replacement the methylene urea linker in compound 2 with an acylsulfonamide linker kept a potent LDL-R up-regulatory activity, and subsequent optimization work gave compound 39 as a highly potent LDL-R up-regulator (39; EC(25) = 0.047 microM). Compound 39 showed no ACAT inhibitory activity even at 1 microM. The sodium salts of compound 39 reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner in an experimental animal model of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, we revealed in this study using RNA interference that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), an adaptor protein of LDL-R, is essential for compound 39 up-regulation of LDL-R expression.

  20. Coupling of LETM1 up-regulation with oxidative phosphorylation and platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling via YAP1 transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jandee; Lee, Woo Kyung; Seol, Mi-Youn; Lee, Seul Gi; Kim, Daham; Kim, Hyunji; Park, Jongsun; Jung, Sang Geun; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Eun Jig; Jo, Young Suk

    2016-01-01

    Persistent cellular proliferation and metabolic reprogramming are essential processes in carcinogenesis. Here, we performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and found that that LETM1, a mitochondrial calcium transporter, is associated with cellular growth signals such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling and insulin signaling pathways. These results were then verified by qRT-PCR and immnunoblotting. Mechanistically, up-regulation of LETM1 induced YAP1 nuclear accumulation, increasing the expression of PDGFB, PDGFRB and THBS4. Consistent with this, LETM1 silencing caused loss of YAP1 nuclear signal, decreasing the expression of PDGFB, PDGFRB and THBS4. Immunohistochemical staining consistently indicated a positive association between LETM1 up-regulation, YAP1 nuclear localization and high PDGFB expression. In clinical data analysis, LETM1 up-regulation in thyroid cancer was found to be related to aggressive tumor features such as lymphovascular invasion (LVI, P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (LNM, P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that LETM1 up-regulation increases the risk of LVI and LNM (OR = 3.455, 95% CI = 1.537–7.766 and OR = 3.043, 95% CI = 1.282–7.225, respectively). Collectively, these data suggest that up-regulation of LETM1 induces sustained activation of proliferative signaling pathways, such as PDGF signal pathway by AKT induced YAP1 transactivation, resulting in aggressive thyroid cancer phenotypes. PMID:27556512

  1. Pollination increases ethylene production in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi flowers but does not affect the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Silvia; Prisa, Domenico; Burchi, Gianluca; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-01-15

    In many species, pollination induces a rapid increase in ethylene production, which induces early petal senescence, petal abscission, or flower closure. Cross-pollination in Lilium hybrida cv. Brindisi resulted in a small increase in flower ethylene production. In intact plants and in isolated flowers, pollination had no effect on the time to tepal senescence or tepal abscission. When applied to closed buds of unpollinated flowers, exogenous ethylene slightly hastened the time to tepal senescence and abscission. However, exogenous ethylene had no effect when the flowers had just opened, i.e. at the time of pollination. Experiments with silver thiosulphate, which blocks the ethylene receptor, indicated that endogenous ethylene had a slight effect on the regulation of tepal senescence and tepal abscission, although only at the time the tepals were still inside buds and not in open flowers. Low ethylene-sensitivity after anthesis therefore explains why pollination had no effect on the processes studied.

  2. Angiotensin II up-regulates CX3CR1 expression in THP-1 monocytes: impact on vascular inflammation and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Stavros; Vlata, Zacharenia; Vogiatzi, Konstantina; Krambovitis, Elias; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2010-05-01

    The potential regulatory effect of angiotensins on circulating mononuclear cell activation and migration has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. Using flow cytometry we assessed the possible effect of angiotensin I and II on the expression of CX3CR1 and a single representative of each major chemokine family (CCR5 and CXCR4) in THP-1 monocytes, Jurcat T lymphocytes and primary monocytes-isolated from healthy donors. Fluorescence intensity and the rate of chemokine-positive cells was measured in naïve cells and cells treated with angiotensin I and II. Neither angiotensin I nor angiotensin II exhibited any effect on fluorescence intensity and the rate of CX3CR1-, CCR5- and CXCR4-positive cells in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat T cells. However, angiotensin II significantly increased the rate of CX3CR1-positive THP-1 cells. This effect was not attenuated by the pre-incubation of THP-1 cells with the AT-1 receptor blocker losartan, suggesting that this was not an AT-1-mediated effect. Angiotensin I and II had no effect on fluorescence intensity and the rate of CCR5- and CXCR4-positive THP-1 cells. In conclusion, angiotensin II increases the rate of CX3CR1-positive THP-1 cells. By extrapolating this in vitro observation to disease mechanisms, we speculate that angiotensin II induces up-regulation of CX3CR1 and promotes firm adhesion of circulation CX3CR1-positive monocytes on CX3CL1 expressing endothelial cells inducing vascular inflammation and atherogenesis.

  3. Activation of PPAR-γ reduces HPA axis activity in diabetic rats by up-regulating PI3K expression.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rafael Carvalho; Magalhães, Nathalia Santos; E Silva, Patrícia M R; Martins, Marco A; Carvalho, Vinicius F

    2016-10-01

    Increased hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in diabetes is strongly associated with several morbidities noted in patients with the disease. We previously demonstrated that hyperactivity of HPA axis under diabetic conditions is associated with up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal and down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) in pituitary. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of alloxan into fasted rats. The PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone and/or PI3K inhibitor wortmannin were administered daily for 18 consecutive days, starting 3days after diabetes induction. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were evaluated by radioimmunoassay, while intensities of MC2R, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), GR, MR, PI3K p110α and PPAR-γ were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Rosiglitazone treatment inhibited adrenal hypertrophy and hypercorticoidism observed in diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone also significantly reversed the diabetes-induced increase in the MC2R expression in adrenal cortex. We noted that rosiglitazone reduced the number of corticotroph cells and inhibited both anterior pituitary POMC expression and plasma ACTH levels. Furthermore, rosiglitazone treatment was unable to restore the reduced expression of GR and MR in the anterior pituitary of diabetic rats. Rosiglitazone increased the number of PPAR-γ(+) cells and expression of PI3K p110α in both anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex of diabetic rats. In addition, wortmannin blocked the ability of rosiglitazone to restore corticotroph cell numbers, adrenal hypertrophy and plasma corticosterone levels in diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings revealed that rosiglitazone down-regulates HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats via a mechanism dependent on PI3K activation in pituitary and adrenal glands.

  4. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 up-regulation by PPAR-β/δ prevents lipid-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Mahmoud, Ayman Moawad; Barroso, Emma; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Manuel; Cogolludo, Ángel; García-Redondo, Ana B; Briones, Ana M; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids cause endothelial dysfunction involving increased ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO (nitric oxide) bioavailability. We show that in MAECs (mouse aortic endothelial cells), the PPARβ/δ (peroxisome- proliferator-activated receptor β/δ) agonist GW0742 prevented the decreased A23187-stimulated NO production, phosphorylation of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) at Ser1177 and increased intracellular ROS levels caused by exposure to palmitate in vitro. The impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in mouse aorta induced by palmitate was restored by GW0742. In vivo, GW0742 treatment prevented the reduced aortic relaxation, phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, and increased ROS production and NADPH oxidase in mice fed on a high-fat diet. The PPARβ/δ antagonist GSK0660 abolished all of these protective effects induced by GW0742. This agonist enhanced the expression of CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase)-1. The effects of GW0742 on acetylcholine- induced relaxation in aorta and on NO and ROS production in MAECs exposed to palmitate were abolished by the CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir or by siRNA targeting CPT-1. GW0742 also inhibited the increase in DAG (diacylglycerol), PKCα/βII (protein kinase Cα/βII) activation, and phosphorylation of eNOS at Thr495 induced by palmitate in MAECs, which were abolished by etomoxir. In conclusion, PPARβ/δ activation restored the lipid-induced endothelial dysfunction by up-regulation of CPT-1, thus reducing DAG accumulation and the subsequent PKC-mediated ROS production and eNOS inhibition.

  5. Unsaturated compounds induce up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells in the in vitro sensitization assay LCSA.

    PubMed

    Frohwein, Thomas Armin; Sonnenburg, Anna; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf; Schreiner, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Unsaturated compounds are known to cause false-positive reactions in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not in the guinea pig maximization test. We have tested a panel of substances (succinic acid, undecylenic acid, 1-octyn-3-ol, fumaric acid, maleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, squalene, and arachidonic acid) in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA) to evaluate whether unspecific activation of dendritic cells is a confounder for sensitization testing in vitro. Eight out of 10 tested substances caused significant up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells cocultured with keratinocytes and would have been classified as sensitizers; only succinic acid was tested negative, and squalene had to be excluded from data analysis due to poor solubility in cell culture medium. Based on human data, only undecylenic acid can be considered a true sensitizer. The true sensitizing potential of 1-octyn-3-ol is uncertain. Fumaric acid and its isomer maleic acid are not known as sensitizers, but their esters are contact allergens. A group of 18- to 20-carbon chain unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid) elicited the strongest reaction in vitro. This is possibly due to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators in the cell culture causing nonspecific activation of dendritic cells. In conclusion, both the LLNA and the LCSA seem to provide false-positive results for unsaturated fatty acids. The inclusion of T cells in dendritic cell-based in vitro sensitization assays may help to eliminate false-positive results due to nonspecific dendritic cell activation. This would lead to more accurate prediction of sensitizers, which is paramount for consumer health protection and occupational safety.

  6. Up-regulation of miR-187 modulates the advances of oral carcinoma by targeting BARX2 tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Kao, Shou-Yen; Chang, Jennifer Chen-Yu; Liu, Ying-Chieh; Yu, En-Hao; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Aberrations in miRNA regulation are known to play important roles in OSCC pathogenesis. miR-187 was shown to be up-regulated in head and neck malignancies in our previous screening. This study further investigated the oncogenic potential, clinical implications, and targets of miR-187 in OSCC. We observed that miR-187 increased oncogenicity, particularly migration, of OSCC cells. miR-187 expression increased the xenografic tumorigenicity and metastasis in mice. In addition, metastatic human OSCC had higher miR-187 expression than did non-metastatic tumors. Through vigorous screening, we confirmed BarH-like Homeobox 2 (BARX2) gene as an miR-187 target. BARX2 expression suppressed the migration, invasion, anchorage-independent colony formation, and orthotopic tumorigenesis of OSCC cells. The migratory phenotype and neck metastasis induced by miR-187 was rescued by BARX2 expression. BARX2 expression was down-regulated in the vast majority of OSCC, and this down-regulation was particularly conspicuous in tumors with advanced nodal metastasis. In addition, plasma miR-187 was significantly higher in OSCC patients than in normal individuals. This study highlights the roles of miR-187-BARX2 in driving the carcinogenesis of OSCC. The results suggest that miR-187 is a potential serological marker for OSCC and that targeting of miR-187 might prove effective in attenuating nodal metastasis. PMID:27542258

  7. Tickling stimulation causes the up-regulation of the kallikrein family in the submandibular gland of the rat.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Takuya; Hori, Miyo; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Takashi; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Ohnishi, Junji; Takeuchi, Shino; Mihara, Yuko; Shiga, Takashi; Murakami, Kazuo; Urayama, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that tactile stimulation (tickling) accompanied by positive emotion altered the expression of many genes in the rat hypothalamus (Hori et al., 2009 [15]). In this study, the effect of repeated tickling on gene expressions of the rat salivary gland was examined. After 4-week stimulation, several genes of the kallikrein (Klk) family were remarkably up-regulated and the alpha-amylase (amylase) gene was down-regulated in DNA microarray analysis. In quantitative analysis using real-time PCR of the submandibular gland of the rats tickled for 2 weeks, mRNAs of Klk1, Klk2 (Klk1c2, Tonin), Klk7 (Klk1l), Klk1b3 (Nerve growth factor, gamma), Klk1c10, Klks3 (Klk1c9) and GK11 were significantly 2-5-fold increased among 18 members of the Klk gene family examined and the submandibular amylase was decreased compared with the lightly touched and untouched control rats. In immunoblot analysis the increase in Klk7 protein was observed in the whole cell lysate fraction of the submandibular gland. In immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Klk7 polyclonal antibody, the immunostain was increased in duct cells of the submandibular gland of the tickled rat when compared with the lightly touched and untouched control rats. These results suggest that tactile sensory processing in the central nervous system affects the gene expression in the peripheral tissue probably via hormonal and/or autonomic neural activities. Submandibular Klks may be biochemical markers indicating positive emotional states.

  8. Up- regulation of miR-328-3p sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Chao-nan; Zhou, Nan-nan; Li, Xian-dong; Zhang, Yi-jie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be resistant against radiotherapy in certain types of cancers. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical application of miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty NSCLC tissue samples and adjacent histologically normal tissues were obtained for miRNAs microarray analysis and validated by RT-qPCR. Correlation between miRNA expression level and clinicopathological features was evaluated. Our study examined the influence of changed miRNA expression on the damaged DNA and its associated radio sensitivity. Luciferase assay was performed to determine potential effects on the targeted gene. Our study identified fifteen altered miRNAs in which miR-328-3p was down regulated in NSCLC tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. Down-expression of miR-328-3p was positively associated with an enhanced lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage and a shortened survival rate. miR-328-3p expression was decreased in A549 cells compared to other NSCLC cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-328-3p demonstrated a survival inhibition effect in A549 and restored NSCLC cells’ sensitivity to radio therapy. An increased miR-328-3p expression promoted irradiation-induced DNA damage in cells. γ-H2AX was identified as the direct target of miR-328-3p. Over-expressed miR-328-3p can improve the radiosensitvity of cells by altering the DNA damage/repair signalling pathways in NSCLC. PMID:27530148

  9. Sunflower-seed oil, rapidly-degradable starch, and adiposity up-regulate leptin gene expression in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Delavaud, C; Bernard, L; Rouel, J; Chilliard, Y

    2009-08-01

    We conducted experiments to evaluate the effects of lipid supplementation and the nature of starchy concentrate on the regulation of leptin synthesis in lactating goats. Multiparous goats in mid- to late lactation received diets based on different forages and containing plant oil or seeds rich in either 18:1c9, 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 corresponding to 3%-7% dry matter (DM) as lipid supplements, or diets based on concentrate as either rapidly or slowly degradable starch. The isoenergetic replacement of a part of the concentrate by either oleic sunflower-seed oil, formaldehyde-treated linseeds, or linseed oil did not modify leptinemia and the leptin mRNA concentration in adipose tissues, suggesting a lack of effect of 18:1c9, 18:3n-3, or their biohydrogenation products. Conversely, leptinemia and the leptin mRNA abundance were increased (by 20% and 140%, respectively, P<0.05) in goats fed sunflower-seed oil under a grassland hay-based diet but not a maize silage-based diet, at similar energy intakes and adiposity. Thus, 18:2n-6 per se may up-regulate leptin gene expression, but the effect could be blunted by other fatty acids formed during the ruminal digestion of sunflower-seed oil when combined with maize silage. Consumption of rapidly but not slowly degradable starch increased (by 17%, P<0.05) leptinemia. Moreover, during lactation, plasma leptin was positively correlated (P<0.05) to adiposity parameters and negatively correlated to fiber intake. The results suggest that leptinemia responds poorly to nutritional factors in lactating goats, thus highlighting the physiological need to sustain hypoleptinemia during lactation.

  10. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  11. S100A6 Overexpression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Is Epigenetically Up-Regulated in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhong, Xi-Yao; Xing, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Yi-Qiang; Niu, Zhao-Jian; Peng, Yong; Du, Hong; Zhang, Gui-Guo; Hu, Ying; Liu, Ni; Zhu, Yu-Bing; Ge, Shao-Hua; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Ai-Ping; Li, Ji-You; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2010-01-01

    S100A6 has been implicated in a variety of biological functions as well as tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression status of S100A6 in relation to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer and further explored a possible association of its expression with epigenetic regulation. S100A6 expression was remarkably increased in 67.5% of gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched noncancerous tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated a clear correlation between high S100A6 expression and various clinicopathological features, such as depth of wall invasion, positive lymph node involvement, liver metastasis, vascular invasion, and tumor-node metastasis stage (P < 0.05 in all cases), as well as revealed that S100A6 is an independent prognostic predictor (P = 0.026) significantly related to poor prognosis (P = 0.0004). Further exploration found an inverse relationship between S100A6 expression and the methylation status of the seventh and eighth CpG sites in the promoter/first exon and the second to fifth sites in the second exon/second intron. In addition, the level of histone H3 acetylation was found to be significantly higher in S100A6-expressing cancer cells. After 5-azacytidine or trichostatin A treatment, S100A6 expression was clearly increased in S100A6 low-expressing cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that S100A6 plays an important role in the progression of gastric cancer, affecting patient prognosis, and is up-regulated by epigenetic regulation. PMID:20581057

  12. Celecoxib enhances the radiosensitivity of HCT116 cells in a COX-2 independent manner by up-regulating BCCIP

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Ting; Hu, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Ju-Ying; Tu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), regulates the radiosensitivity of several cancer cells. BCCIP (BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein) plays a critical role in maintaining the critical functions of p53 in tumor suppression and response to therapy. However, whether the effect of celecoxib on the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells is dependent on BCCIP is largely unclear. In this study, we found that celecoxib enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa (a human cervical carcinoma cell line), A549 (a human lung carcinoma cell line), and HCT116 cells (a human CRC cells line). Among these cells, COX-2 expression was undetected in HCT116 cells. Treatment with celecoxib significantly increased BCCIP expression in COX-2 negative HCT116 cells. Knockdown of BCCIP obviously abrogated the enhanced radiosensitivity of HCT116 cells induced by celecoxib. A combination of celecoxib and irradiation treatment induced much more γ-H2AX foci formation, higher levels of radiation injury-related proteins phosphorylation, G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and p53 and p21 expression, and lower levels of Cyclin B1 in HCT116 cells than those in cells treated with irradiation alone. However, these changes were undetected in BCCIP-silenced HCT116 cells. Therefore, these data suggest that BCCIP gene may be a radiosensitivity-related gene in CRC. Celecoxib affects the functions of p53 and inhibits the recovery from the irradiation-induced injury by up-regulating the expression of BCCIP, and subsequently regulates the expressions of genes such as p21 and Cyclin B1 to enhance the radiosensitivity of HCT116 cells in a COX-2 independent manner. PMID:28386336

  13. Poncirin Induces Apoptosis in AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells through Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by up-Regulation of Fas Ligand.

    PubMed

    Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Heo, Jeong Doo; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Gon Sup

    2015-09-18

    Poncirin, a natural bitter flavanone glycoside abundantly present in many species of citrus fruits, has various biological benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The anti-cancer mechanism of Poncirin remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of Poncirin in AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma). The results revealed that Poncirin could inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed Poncirin induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic cell population, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in AGS cells. The expression of Fas Ligand (FasL) protein was up-regulated dose dependently in Poncirin-treated AGS cells Moreover, Poncirin in AGS cells induced activation of Caspase-8 and -3, and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Inhibitor studies' results confirm that the induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Poncirin-treated AGS cells was led by the Fas death receptor. Interestingly, Poncirin did not show any effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL) in AGS-treated cells followed by no activation in the mitochondrial apoptotic protein caspase-9. This result suggests that the mitochondrial-mediated pathway is not involved in Poncirin-induced cell death in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that Poncirin has a potential anti-cancer effect via extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis, possibly making it a strong therapeutic agent for human gastric cancer.

  14. Lipid rafts promote liver cancer cell proliferation and migration by up-regulation of TLR7 expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Guo, Xiaodong; Wu, Liyuan; Yang, Mei; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Yinjie; Liu, Shuhong; Zhou, Guangde; Zhao, Jingmin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs predominantly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immune responses and TLR signaling has been associated with various chronic liver diseases. Lipid rafts provide the necessary microenvironment for certain specialized signaling events to take place, such as the innate immune recognition. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of TLR7 expression in HCC, how to recruit TLR7 into lipid rafts responded to ligands and whether targeting TLR7 might have beneficial effects. The study group was comprised of 130 human liver tissues: 23 chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 18 liver cirrhosis (LC), 68 HCC and 21 normal livers. The expression of TLR7 was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and flow cytometry. Proliferation and migration of human HepG2 cells were studied following stimulation of TLR7 using the agonist gardiquimod and inhibition with a specific antagonist 20S-protopanaxadiol (aPPD). The activation of lipid raft-associated TLR7 signaling was measured using western blotting, double immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation in liver tissues and HepG2 cells. TLR7 expression was up-regulated in human HCC tissues and hepatoma cell line. Proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells in vitro increased significantly in response to stimulation of TLR7. TLR7 inhibition using aPPD significantly reduced HepG2 cell migration in vitro. The lipid raft protein caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 were involved with enhanced TLR7 signaling in HCC. Conclusions The data suggest that inhibiting TLR7 with antagonists, like aPPD, could potentially be used as a novel therapeutic approach for HCC. PMID:27588480

  15. Sun leaves up-regulate the photorespiratory pathway to maintain a high rate of CO2 assimilation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The greater rate of CO2 assimilation (A n) in sun-grown tobacco leaves leads to lower intercellular and chloroplast CO2 concentrations and, thus, a higher rate of oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) than in shade-grown leaves. Impairment of the photorespiratory pathway suppresses photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Here, we hypothesized that sun leaves can up-regulate photorespiratory pathway to enhance the A n in tobacco. To test this hypothesis, we examined the responses of photosynthetic electron flow (J T) and CO2 assimilation to incident light intensity and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i) in leaves of 'k326' tobacco plants grown at 95% sunlight (sun plants) or 28% sunlight (shade plants). The sun leaves had higher photosynthetic capacity and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation (J C) than the shade leaves. When exposed to high light, the higher Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) content and lower C i in the sun leaves led to greater electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation (J O). The J O/J C ratio was significantly higher in the sun leaves than in the shade leaves under strong illumination. As estimated from CO2-response curves, the maximum J O was linearly correlated with the estimated Rubisco content. Based on light-response curves, the light-saturated J O was linearly correlated with light-saturated J T and light-saturated photosynthesis. These findings indicate that enhancement of the photorespiratory pathway is an important strategy by which sun plants maintain a high A n.

  16. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  17. Lansoprazole induces mucosal protection through gastrin receptor-dependent up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shingo; Sun, Wei-Hao; Tsujii, Masahiko; Kawai, Naoki; Kimura, Arata; Kakiuchi, Yoshimi; Yasumaru, Shoichi; Komori, Masato; Murata, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kawano, Sunao; Hori, Masatsugu

    2002-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are antiulcer agents that have both gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective actions. The mechanisms of PPI-induced gastric mucosal protection are not known. The present study was designed to examine the mechanism for lansoprazole-induced gastric mucosal protection in rats. Rats were given 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg/day lansoprazole alone or both lansoprazole (50 mg/kg/day) and a specific gastrin receptor antagonist 3R-1-(2,2-diethoxyethyl)-((4-methylphenyl)amino-carbonyl methyl)-3-((4-methylphenyl)ureidoindoline-2- one) (AG-041R) (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Serum gastrin concentrations were measured. The expression of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) in the gastric mucosa was analyzed using Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Another series of rats was used to examine the 1) levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in gastric mucosa, 2) influences of the drugs on gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol, and 3) effects of a COX-2-specific inhibitor on PGE2 in the gastric mucosa and the mucosal protection afforded by lansoprazole. Lansoprazole dose dependently increased the serum gastrin concentration and enhanced the mucosal expression of COX-2 but not that of COX-1. Lansoprazole increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and reduced gastric damage caused by ethanol. Concomitant administration of AG-041R abolished the lansoprazole-induced COX-2 expression, and increased mucosal PGE2 and mucosal protection. A specific COX-2 inhibitor blocked the lansoprazole-induced increase in mucosal PGE2 and mucosal protection. Activation of gastrin receptors by endogenous gastrin has a pivotal role in the effects of lansoprazole on COX-2 up-regulation and mucosal protection in the rat stomach.

  18. Nitric oxide enhances plant ultraviolet-B protection up-regulating gene expression of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Tossi, Vanesa; Amenta, Melina; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Cassia, Raúl

    2011-06-01

    The link between ultraviolet (UV)-B, nitric oxide (NO) and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway (PPBP) was studied in maize and Arabidopsis. The transcription factor (TF) ZmP regulates PPBP in maize. A genetic approach using P-rr (ZmP+) and P-ww (ZmP⁻) maize lines demonstrate that: (1) NO protects P-rr leaves but not P-ww from UV-B-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell damage; (2) NO increases flavonoid and anthocyanin content and prevents chlorophyll loss in P-rr but not in P-ww and (3) the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) blocks the UV-B-induced expression of ZmP and their targets CHS and CHI suggesting that NO plays a key role in the UV-B-regulated PPBP. Involvement of endogenous NO was studied in Arabidopsis nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) plants that express a NO dioxygenase gene under the control of a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter. Expression of HY5 and MYB12, TFs involved in PPBP regulation, was induced by UV-B, reduced by DEX in NOD plants and recovered by subsequent NO treatment. C4H regulates synapate esters synthesis and is UV-B-induced in a NO-independent pathway. Data indicate that UV-B perception increases NO concentration, which protects plant against UV-B by two ways: (1) scavenging ROS; and (2) up-regulating the expression of HY5, MYB12 and ZmP, resulting in the PPBP activation.

  19. Exercise combined with low-level GABAA receptor inhibition up-regulates the expression of neurotrophins in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuma; Maejima, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Gaku; Mani, Hiroki; Asaka, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrophins play a crucial role in neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection in the central nervous system. Aerobic exercise is known to increase the expression of BDNF in the cerebral cortex. Several animal studies have evaluated the tonic inhibition of GABAergic synapses to enhance hippocampal plasticity as well as learning and memory, whereas the effects of GABAergic inhibition on plasticity in the cerebral cortex related to motor learning are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactive effect of low-level GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise on the expression of neurotrophins including BDNF in the murine motor cortex. ICR mice were randomly distributed among 4 groups based on two factors of GABAA receptor inhibition and exercise, i.e. control group, an exercise group, a bicuculline group, and an exercise plus bicuculline group. We administered GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline intraperitoneally to the mice (bicuculline and exercise plus bicuculline group) at a non-epileptic dose of 0.25mg/kg, whereas the mice (exercise and exercise plus bicuculline group) were exercised on a treadmill for 1h every day. After two week intervention, the expression of mRNA and protein abundance of neurotrophins in the motor cortex was assayed using Real time PCR and ELISA. BDNF gene expression was significantly increased by approximately 3-fold in the bicuculline group relative to the control, exercise, and bicuculline plus exercise groups. Protein abundance of BDNF expression was significantly increased by approximately 3-fold in the bicuculline plus exercise group relative to other groups. Therefore, the present study revealed that combined GABAA receptor inhibition and moderate aerobic exercise up-regulated BDNF protein expression in the motor cortex without producing side effects on motor or cognitive functions. Alterations in BDNF expression could positively contribute to plasticity by regulating the balance

  20. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haohan; Li, Xinxin; Liu, Hehe; Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Rongping; Li, Liang; Wangding, Mincheng; Wang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27007909

  1. Therapeutic potential of pro-angiogenic BPC157 is associated with VEGFR2 activation and up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Liu, Hsien-Ta; Wang, Chao-Nin; Huang, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Yu-Shien; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Chang, Vincent Hung-Shu; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-03-01

    BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide with extensive healing effects, has recently been suggested to contribute to angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. The present study aimed to explore the potential therapeutic effect and pro-angiogenic mechanism of BPC 157. As demonstrated by the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and endothelial tube formation assay, BPC 157 could increase the vessel density both in vivo and in vitro, respectively. BPC 157 could also accelerate the recovery of blood flow in the ischemic muscle of the rat hind limb as detected by laser Doppler scanning, indicating the promotion of angiogenesis. Histological analysis of the hind limb muscle confirmed the increased number of vessels and the enhanced vascular expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in rat with BPC 157 treatment. In vitro study using human vascular endothelial cells further confirmed the increased mRNA and protein expressions of VEGFR2 but not VEGF-A by BPC 157. In addition, BPC 157 could promote VEGFR2 internalization in vascular endothelial cells which was blocked in the presence of dynasore, an inhibitor of endocytosis. BPC 157 time dependently activated the VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway which could also be suppressed by dynasore. The increase of endothelial tube formation induced by BPC 157 was also inhibited by dynasore. This study demonstrates the pro-angiogenic effects of BPC 157 that is associated with the increased expression, internalization of VEGFR2, and the activation of VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway. BPC 157 promotes angiogenesis in CAM assay and tube formation assay. BPC 157 accelerates the blood flow recovery and vessel number in rats with hind limb ischemia. BPC 157 up-regulates VEGFR2 expression in rats with hind limb ischemia and endothelial cell culture. BPC 157 promotes VEGFR2 internalization in association with VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS activation.

  2. CXCR3 Requirement for the Interleukin-13-Mediated Up-Regulation of Interleukin-13Rα2 in Pulmonary Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jennifer C; Lumsden, Robert V; Worrell, Julie; Counihan, Ian P; O'Beirne, Sarah L; Belperio, John A; Fabre, Aurelie; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease characterized by fibrosis and abnormal vascularity. IL-13, a profibrotic cytokine that plays a role in IPF, functions through the Jak/STAT pathway after binding to the IL-13 receptor α1 (IL-13Rα1)/IL-4Rα complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, which has been thought to function as a nonsignaling decoy receptor, although possible signaling roles of this receptor have been proposed. CXCR3 and its IFN-inducible ligands-CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11-have been implicated in vascular remodeling and fibroblast motility during the development of IPF. In this study, CXCR3 expression was demonstrated in cultured pulmonary fibroblasts from wild-type BALB/c mice and was found to be necessary for the IL-13-mediated gene and protein up-regulation of IL-13Rα2. In fibroblasts from CXCR3-deficient mice, STAT6 activation was prolonged. This study is the first to demonstrate the expression of CXCR3 in fibroblasts and its association with the expression of IL-13Rα2. Taken together, the results from this study point strongly to a requirement for CXCR3 for IL-13-mediated IL-13Rα2 gene expression. Understanding the function of CXCR3 in IL-13-mediated lung injury may lead to novel approaches to combat the development of pulmonary fibrosis, whether by limiting the effects of IL-13 or by manipulation of angiostatic pathways. The elucidation of the complex relationship between these antifibrotic receptors and manipulation of the CXCR3-mediated regulation of IL-13Rα2 may represent a novel therapeutic modality in cases of acute lung injury or chronic inflammation that may progress to fibrosis.

  3. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  4. Up-regulation of GBP2 is Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Rat Brain Cortex Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qi; Ge, Meihong; Huang, Lili

    2017-02-27

    Guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2) is one member of GBP family. Recently, GBP2 has been proposed to be a novel target of anti-cancer drugs. However, the role of GBP2 in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) is very limited. In this study, we sought to define GBP2's role in brain injury. GBP2 protein levels were significantly increased in the brain 3 days after injury, suggesting a functional role for GBP2 in TBI. Neuronal cells overexpressing GBP2 exhibited up-regulation of co-location of GBP2 and NeuN following TBI, suggesting that GBP2 potentiates the neuron apoptosis. To confirm the role of GBP2 in neuron apoptosis process, we employed a highly potent inhibitor of GBP2 (GBP2 RNAi). In H2O2-stimulated PC12 cells, in vitro blockade of GBP2 activity using GBP2 RNAi markedly attenuated the neuron apoptosis number. GBP2 RNAi also inhibited the expression levels of active caspase3 and p-Stat1. Furthermore, we found the expression of p-Stat1 in line with GBP2 and GBP2 interacted with p-Stat1 following TBI. The Jak2 inhibitor, AG490 inhibited this interaction and decreased the active caspase3 expression as well as promoted the functional recovery. Taken together, these data suggest that GBP2 RNAi has a protective effect in a rat TBI. This study demonstrates that GBP2 is an important positive regulator of TBI and is a promising therapeutic target for brain injury.

  5. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 protects against cold injury-induced brain damage: a laboratory-based study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ruey-Horng; Cheng, Shin-Ei; Tung, Wei-Hsuan; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2010-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a kind of stress protein, is critical for the protection against ischemic stroke and cerebrovascular endothelium damage. However, the effects of HO-1 on trauma-induced brain injury are still unknown. Hence, we attempted to use a cold injury-induced brain trauma (CIBT) model in mice, which provides for a well-established approach for assessing brain edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown. Additionally, we explored cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) to investigate the protective effects of HO-1. HO-1 was induced by infection with a recombinant adenovirus carrying the human HO-1 gene or an inducer of HO-1 activity, cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP). The recombinant adenovirus (3.5 x 10(7) PFU/mouse, i.v.) or CoPP (10 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression and HO-1 enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex of the mice. We found that overexpression of HO-1 protected against cold injury-induced secondary damage and behavioral impairment. Up-regulation of HO-1 decreased brain edema and neutrophil infiltration induced by cold injury. These HO-1-dependent protecting effects were abrogated by pretreatment with the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP; 3 mg/kg, i.v.). HO-1 expression in the cerebral endothelium was observed by immunofluorescent staining. CoPP-induced (1 muM, 24 h) HO-1 protein expression was determined by western blotting in bEnd.3 cells. Enhanced HO-1 also protected against cold injury-induced cell loss and damage, which were respectively determined by GAPDH leakage into the cell medium and XTT assay in bEnd.3 cells. In summary, HO-1 overexpression appears to offer an effective neuroprotection against cold-induced secondary brain injury.

  6. Isoflurane Preconditioning Induces Neuroprotection by Up-Regulation of TREK1 in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Kong, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neuroprotection and mechanism of isoflurane on rats with spinal cord ischemic injury. Total 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the four groups (n=10). Group A was sham-operation group; group B was ischemia group; group C was isoflurane preconditioning group; group D was isoflurane preconditioning followed by ischemia treatment group. Then the expressions of TWIK-related K+ channel 1 (TREK1) in the four groups were detected by immunofluorescent assay, real time-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and western blot. The primary neurons of rats were isolated and cultured under normal and hypoxic conditions. Besides, the neurons under two conditions were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-TREK1 and lentivirual to overexpress and silence TREK1. Additionally, the neurons were treated with isoflurane or not. Then caspase-3 activity and cell cycle of neurons under normal and hypoxic conditions were detected. Furthermore, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) was detected using NAD+/NADH quantification colorimetric kit. Results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of TREK1 increased significantly in group C and D. In neurons, when TREK1 silenced, isoflurane treatment improved the caspase-3 activity. In hypoxic condition, the caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 cell percentage significantly increased, however, when TREK1 overexpressed the caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 cell percentage decreased significantly. Furthermore, both isoflurane treatment and overexpression of TREK1 significantly decreased NADH. In conclusion, isoflurane-induced neuroprotection in spinal cord ischemic injury may be associated with the up-regulation of TREK1. PMID:27469140

  7. Up-regulation of Nrf2 is involved in FGF21-mediated fenofibrate protection against type 1 diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yanli; Zhang, Jingjing; Guo, Weiying; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Weixia; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian; Tan, Yi; Feng, Wenke; Fu, Yaowen; Liu, Gilbert C; Xu, Zhonggao; Cai, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The lipid lowering medication, fenofibrate (FF), is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) agonist, possessing beneficial effects for type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). We investigated whether FF can prevent the development of type 1 DN, and the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were treated with oral gavage of FF at 100mg/kg every other day for 3 and 6 months. Diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, lipid and collagen accumulation, and renal dysfunction were accompanied by significant decrease in PI3K, Akt, and GSK-3β phosphorylation as well as an increase in the nuclear accumulation of Fyn [a negative regulator of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. All these adverse effects were significantly attenuated by FF treatment. FF also significantly increased fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression and enhanced Nrf2 function in diabetic and non-diabetic kidneys. Moreover, FF-induced amelioration of diabetic renal damage, including the stimulation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn pathway and the enhancement of Nrf2 function were abolished in FGF21-null mice, confirming the critical role of FGF21 in FF-induced renal protection. These results suggest for the first time that FF prevents the development of DN via up-regulating FGF21 and stimulating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn-mediated activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  8. Cyclic up-regulation fluorescence of pyrene excimer for studying polynucleotide kinase activity based on dual amplification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Gao, Yanfang; Li, Baoxin; Jin, Yan

    2016-06-15

    Due to its important biological and clinical roles of polynucleotide kinase (PNK), accurate monitoring of PNK activity and inhibition is highly desirable. Herein, a homogeneous and sensitive fluorescence assay has been proposed for the detection of PNK activity by integrating target recycling signal amplification of DNA toehold strand displacement reaction (TSDR) with gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) enhancement of pyrene excimer. A label-free hairpin DNA1 (H1) and two singly pyrene-labelled DNA, H2 and H3, are designed. Accompanying the occurrence of the efficient enzyme reactions, namely phosphorylation-actuated λ exonuclease reaction, a single-stranded DNA as a trigger DNA (tDNA) of TSDR can be released from H1. Then, tDNA drives circulatory interactions between H2 and H3 to continuously form H2/H3 duplex, resulting in formation of pyrene excimer and a "turn on" fluorescence signal of pyrene excimer. Furthermore, the fluorescence of pyrene excimer is further amplified by introducing gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), which can regulate the space proximity of two pyrene molecules. Thus, TSDR-induced cyclic formation of pyrene excimer and γ-CD enhancement can specifically up-regulate the fluorescence of pyrene excimer for detection of PNK activity, the detection limit is 9.3 × 10(-5)UmL(-1), which is superior to those of most existing approaches. Moreover, the proposed strategy can also be successfully utilized to study inhibition efficiency of different PNK inhibitors as well. Therefore, a dual amplification approach is provided for nucleic acid phosphorylation related researches.

  9. Electrical stimulation induces calcium-dependent up-regulation of neuregulin-1β in dystrophic skeletal muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Juretić, Nevenka; Jorquera, Gonzalo; Caviedes, Pablo; Jaimovich, Enrique; Riveros, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease originated by reduced or no expression of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that provides structural integrity to muscle fibres. A promising pharmacological treatment for DMD aims to increase the level of a structural dystrophin homolog called utrophin. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), a growth factor that potentiates myogenesis, induces utrophin expression in skeletal muscle cells. Microarray analysis of total gene expression allowed us to determine that neuregulin-1β (NRG-1β) is one of 150 differentially expressed genes in electrically stimulated (400 pulses, 1 ms, 45 Hz) dystrophic human skeletal muscle cells (RCDMD). We investigated the effect of depolarization, and the involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) and PKC isoforms on NRG-1β expression in dystrophic myotubes. Electrical stimulation of RCDMD increased NRG-1β mRNA and protein levels, and mRNA enhancement was abolished by actinomycin D. NRG-1β transcription was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and by inhibitors of IP(3)-dependent slow Ca(2+) transients, like 2-APB, Ly 294002 and Xestospongin B. Ryanodine, a fast Ca(2+) signal inhibitor, had no effect on electrical stimulation-induced expression. BIM VI (general inhibitor of PKC isoforms) and Gö 6976 (specific inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoforms) abolished NRG-1β mRNA induction. Our results suggest that depolarization induced slow Ca(2+) signals stimulate NRG-1β transcription in RCDMD cells, and that Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoforms are involved in this process. Based on utrophin's ability to partially compensate dystrophin disfunction, knowledge on the mechanism involved on NRG-1 up-regulation could be important for new therapeutic strategies design.

  10. BlyS is up-regulated by hypoxia and promotes migration of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) in the survival of malignant B cells and the maintenance of normal B cell development and homeostasis has been intensively studied in the literature. However, the influence of BLyS on breast cancer progression remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on BLyS regulation, cell migratory response to BLyS and the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods In this study, we examined the role of BLyS in the migration of human breast cancer cells by