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Sample records for early european explorations

  1. Nursing student profiles and occurrence of early academic failure: Findings from an explorative European study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Ferrão, Sónia; Jarosova, Darja; Lancia, Loreto; Nascimento, Carla; Notara, Venetia; Pokorna, Andrea; Rybarova, Lubica; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-03-01

    In the European context regulated by the Bologna Process principles, there is little evidence to date on the different profiles, if any, of nursing students enrolled in the 1st academic year and their academic outcomes. To describe and compare the nursing student profiles and their academic outcomes at the end of the 1st year across European Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNS) courses. An exploratory multicentre cohort study involving five countries: Nursing students who were enrolled in nursing programmes for the academic year 2011/2012 in the participating BNS courses, willing to participate and regularly admitted to the 2nd academic year, were included in this study undertaken in 2013. Individual and faculty level variables were collected after having ensured the validity of the tools developed in English and then appropriately translated into the language of each participating country. A total of 378/710 (53.2%) students participated in the study. They attended from 390 to 810h of lessons, while clinical experience ranged from 162 to 536h. The students reported a mean average age of 21.4 (Confidence of Interval [CI] 95%, 21.0-22.3) and foreign students were limited in number (on average 3.7%). The students reported adopting mainly individual learning strategies (92.9%), duplicating notes or lecture notes prepared by professors (74.4%), and concentrating their study before exams (74.6%). The majority reported experiencing learning difficulties (49.7%) and a lack of academic support (84.9%). Around 33.2% reported economic difficulties and the need to work while studying nursing on average for 24h/week. Personal expectations regarding the nursing role were different (45.6%) than the role encountered during the 1st year, as learning workloads were higher (57.2%) with regard to expectations. Around one-third of students reported the intention to leave nursing education while the proportion of those reporting early academic failure was on average 5.6%. More strategies

  2. Exploring the performance of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in a European emergency department.

    PubMed

    Alam, N; Vegting, I L; Houben, E; van Berkel, B; Vaughan, L; Kramer, M H H; Nanayakkara, P W B

    2015-05-01

    Several triage systems have been developed for use in the emergency department (ED), however they are not designed to detect deterioration in patients. Deteriorating patients may be at risk of going undetected during their ED stay and are therefore vulnerable to develop serious adverse events (SAEs). The national early warning score (NEWS) has a good ability to discriminate ward patients at risk of SAEs. The utility of NEWS had not yet been studied in an ED. To explore the performance of the NEWS in an ED with regard to predicting adverse outcomes. A prospective observational study. Patients Eligible patients were those presenting to the ED during the 6 week study period with an Emergency Severity Index (ESI) of 2 and 3 not triaged to the resuscitation room. NEWS was documented at three time points: on arrival (T0), hour after arrival (T1) and at transfer to the general ward/ICU (T2). The outcomes of interest were: hospital admission, ICU admission, length of stay and 30 day mortality. A total of 300 patients were assessed for eligibility. Complete data was able to be collected for 274 patients on arrival at the ED. NEWS was significantly correlated with patient outcomes, including 30 day mortality, hospital admission, and length of stay at all-time points. The NEWS measured at different time points was a good predictor of patient outcomes and can be of additional value in the ED to longitudinally monitor patients throughout their stay in the ED and in the hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ESA's Mars Program: European Plans for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the European Space Agency Mars Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) History:Mars Exploration in Europe; 2) A few preliminary results from Mars Express; 3) A new instrument:Radar MARSIS; and 4) European Mars Exploration in the future?

  4. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Sean S.; Haas, W. Randall; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization—regime shift—may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8–4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. PMID:27573833

  5. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse.

    PubMed

    Downey, Sean S; Haas, W Randall; Shennan, Stephen J

    2016-08-30

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization-regime shift-may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8-4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science.

  6. Exploration of Titan and Enceladus: European plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena

    TandEM, the Titan and Enceladus mission, was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and selected for further studies, with the goal of exploring both satellites. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi`re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through e the atmosphere. ESA will study this mission concept in collaboration with NASA and other partners, focusing mainly on the Titan in situ elements.

  7. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  8. The Early Identity Exploration Scale—a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance. PMID:25983707

  9. Exploring the Early Universe on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocevski, Dale; McGrath, E. J.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The widespread adoption of smart phones and tablet computers has the potential to revolutionize the way in which educational material is shared with the general public. As part of the outreach effort for the CANDELS survey, we have developed a free interactive astronomy education application named Hubble Universe for iPad and iPhone devices. The application focuses on extragalactic science topics related to the CANDELS legacy survey, which is documenting galaxy evolution in the early universe. I will provide an overview of the application, which contains a wide range of interactive content, including 3D models of astrophysical phenomenon, informative diagrams and computer simulations. I will discuss how the application can be used to enhance classroom learning both by providing a database of interactive media and by encouraging students to explore astronomical topics away from traditional settings like the classroom or the desktop computer.

  10. Professional Training in Early Intervention: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Professional training in early childhood intervention (ECI), particularly additional certificates, degrees, or continuing education, is currently a major topic within European working groups. The complexity of ECI, including medical, pedagogical, psychological, and social involvement, the need for both family- and child-centered work, and the…

  11. Virtual exploration of early stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Andy L; González Ballester, Miguel A; Noailly, Jérôme

    2016-12-15

    Biological mechanisms contributing to atherogenesis are multiple and complex. The early stage of atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized by the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) droplets, leading to the creation of foam cells (FC). To address the difficulty to explore the dynamics of interactions that controls this process, this study aimed to develop a model of agents and infer on the most influential cell- and molecule-related parameters. FC started to accumulate after six to eight months of simulated hypercholesterolemia. A sensitivity analysis revealed the strong influence of LDL oxidation rate on the risk of FC creation, which was exploited to model the antioxidant effect of statins. Combined with an empirical simulation of the drug ability to decrease the level of LDL, the virtual statins treatment led to reductions of oxidized LDL levels similar to reductions measured in vivo. An Open source software was used to develop the agent-based model of early AS. Two different concentrations of LDL agents were imposed in the intima layer to simulate healthy and hypercholesterolemia groups of 'virtual patients'. The interactions programmed between molecules and cells were based on experiments and models reported in the literature. A factorial sensitivity analysis explored the respective effects of the less documented model parameters as (i) agent migration speed, (ii) LDL oxidation rate and (iii) concentration of autoantibody agents. Finally, the response of the model to known perturbations was assessed by introducing statins agents, able to reduce the oxidation rate of LDL agents and the LDL boundary concentrations. jerome.noailly@upf.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Housing First: exploring participants' early support needs.

    PubMed

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; O'Campo, Patricia; Holtby, Alixandra R; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Tsemberis, Sam

    2014-04-13

    Housing First has become a popular treatment model for homeless adults with mental illness, yet little is known about program participants' early experiences or trajectories. This study used a mixed methods design to examine participant changes in selected domains 6 months after enrollment in a Canadian field trial of Housing First. The study sample included 301 participants receiving the Housing First intervention at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi project. This study used a pre-post design to compare quantitative 6-month outcome data to baseline values in key domains and multivariate regression to identify baseline demographic, clinical or service use variables associated with observed changes in these domains. In addition, qualitative data exploring participant and service provider perspectives and experiences was collected via stakeholder interviews and focus groups, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The majority (60 to 72%) of participants followed the expected trajectory of improvement, with the remaining experiencing difficulties in community integration, mental health symptom severity, substance use, community functioning and quality of life 6 months after program enrollment. Diagnosis of psychotic disorder was associated with a reduction in quality of life from baseline to 6-months, while substance use disorders were associated with reduced mental illness symptoms and substance use related problems and an improvement in quality of life. Participants housed in independent housing at 6-months had greater improvements in community integration and quality of life, and greater reduction in mental illness symptoms, compared to those not independently housed. The quality of the working alliance was positively associated with improvements in physical and psychological community integration and quality of life. Qualitative data provided a unique window into the loneliness and isolation experienced by Housing First participants, as well as problems

  13. Housing First: exploring participants’ early support needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing First has become a popular treatment model for homeless adults with mental illness, yet little is known about program participants’ early experiences or trajectories. This study used a mixed methods design to examine participant changes in selected domains 6 months after enrolment in a Canadian field trial of Housing First. Methods The study sample included 301 participants receiving the Housing First intervention at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi project. This study used a pre-post design to compare quantitative 6-month outcome data to baseline values in key domains and multivariate regression to identify baseline demographic, clinical or service use variables associated with observed changes in these domains. In addition, qualitative data exploring participant and service provider perspectives and experiences was collected via stakeholder interviews and focus groups, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The majority (60 to 72%) of participants followed the expected trajectory of improvement, with the remaining experiencing difficulties in community integration, mental health symptom severity, substance use, community functioning and quality of life 6 months after program enrolment. Diagnosis of psychotic disorder was associated with a reduction in quality of life from baseline to 6-months, while substance use disorders were associated with reduced mental illness symptoms and substance use related problems and an improvement in quality of life. Participants housed in independent housing at 6-months had greater improvements in community integration and quality of life, and greater reduction in mental illness symptoms, compared to those not independently housed. The quality of the working alliance was positively associated with improvements in physical and psychological community integration and quality of life. Qualitative data provided a unique window into the loneliness and isolation experienced by Housing First

  14. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. ISRU in the Context of Future European Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. M.; Tomatis, C.

    2002-01-01

    ISRU or In-Situ Resource Utilisation is the use of Martian resources to manufacture, typically, life support consumables (e.g. water, oxygen, breathing buffer gases), and propellant for a return journey to Earth. European studies have shown that some 4kg of reaction mass must be launched to LEO to send 1kg payload to Mars orbit, with landing on the Mars surface reducing payload mass still further. This results in very high transportation costs to Mars, and still higher costs for returning payloads to Earth. There is therefore a major incentive to reduce payload mass for any form of Mars return mission (human or otherwise) by generating consumables on the surface. ESA through its GSTP programme has been investigating the system level design of a number of mission elements as potential European contributions to an international human Mars exploration mission intended for the 2020-2030 timeframe. One of these is an ISRU plant, a small chemical factory to convert feedstock brought from Earth (hydrogen), and Martian atmospheric gases (CO2 and trace quantities of nitrogen and argon) into methane and oxygen propellant for Earth return and life support consumables, in advance of the arrival of astronauts. ISRU technology has been the subject of much investigation around the world, but little detailed research or system level studies have been reported in Europe. Furthermore, the potential applicability of European expertise, technology and sub- system studies to Martian ISRU is not well quantified. Study work covered in this paper has compared existing designs (e.g. NASA's Design Reference Mission, DLR and Mars Society studies) with the latest ESA derived requirements for human Mars exploration, and has generated a system level ISRU design. This paper will review and quantify the baseline chemical reactions essential for ISRU, including CO2 collection and purification, Sabatier reduction of CO2 with hydrogen to methane and water, and electrolysis of water in the context of

  16. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  17. Ancient European dog genomes reveal continuity since the Early Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Botigué, Laura R.; Song, Shiya; Scheu, Amelie; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Pendleton, Amanda L.; Oetjens, Matthew; Taravella, Angela M.; Seregély, Timo; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bobo, Dean; Daly, Kevin; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Veeramah, Krishna R.

    2017-01-01

    Europe has played a major role in dog evolution, harbouring the oldest uncontested Palaeolithic remains and having been the centre of modern dog breed creation. Here we sequence the genomes of an Early and End Neolithic dog from Germany, including a sample associated with an early European farming community. Both dogs demonstrate continuity with each other and predominantly share ancestry with modern European dogs, contradicting a previously suggested Late Neolithic population replacement. We find no genetic evidence to support the recent hypothesis proposing dual origins of dog domestication. By calibrating the mutation rate using our oldest dog, we narrow the timing of dog domestication to 20,000–40,000 years ago. Interestingly, we do not observe the extreme copy number expansion of the AMY2B gene characteristic of modern dogs that has previously been proposed as an adaptation to a starch-rich diet driven by the widespread adoption of agriculture in the Neolithic. PMID:28719574

  18. Early Detection and Intervention of ASD: A European Overview

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes. PMID:29194420

  19. Early dialogue with health technology assessment bodies: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Cuche, Matthieu; Beckerman, Rachel; Chowdhury, Cyrus A; van Weelden, Marije A

    2014-12-01

    Evidence requirements may differ across HTA bodies, and so pharmaceutical companies must plan to synergize their evidence generation strategy, across global regulatory and HTA bodies. Until recently, companies had no official platform to discuss the clinical development of a drug with HTA bodies; however, this is changing. To achieve broad usage in the EU, products must achieve both regulatory and reimbursement approval, the latter of which is based on HTA appraisal in many markets. The objective of this study is to present and evaluate the different options available for early HTA consultation (during drug development/Phase III) in the major European markets from the industry perspective. An exploratory (nonsystematic) literature review was performed to identify the European markets offering early HTA consultations, and each process was analyzed using a set of predefined metrics that are relevant to industry (the ability to consult with the regulatory body in parallel, consultation fees, length of consultation meeting, language of consultation meeting, maximum number of pharmaceutical company employees attending, procedural timelines, nature of data for which consultative advice can be sought, the output of the process, and the ability to involve external experts). Four different types of early HTA consultation processes were identified across the major European HTA markets. The nature of these processes varied in terms of the types and number of questions that can be addressed, the length of the meeting, the reporting output, and the ability to involve external experts. The availability of various options for early HTA consultation may help to avoid a mismatch between the evidence generated by means of a product's clinical development program, and the evidence expected by HTA bodies and payers, which can facilitate the pricing and reimbursement process upon a product's market authorization.

  20. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  1. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen; Berthe, Philippe; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length - main engine excluded - of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  2. The Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle European Service Module: a European Contribution to Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.

  3. Exploring Equity in Early Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Heather L.; Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni M.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines how postsecondary practitioners are encouraged to work collaboratively with child welfare agencies and other community-based organizations to identify and implement culturally responsive supports for former foster youth to promote early academic achievement.

  4. Exploring "Transnational" University Cooperation in Knowledge Transfer: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heide, Sjors; van der Sijde, Peter; Terlouw, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The dissemination and transfer of knowledge are an important source of value-added in research activities, and the transfer of new knowledge to society is now seen as a key responsibility of universities. Transnational research cooperation is pivotal to European research funding and, with this in mind, the authors examine the state of cooperation…

  5. Proposal for National Targets in the Framework of the European Reduction Goal for Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra-Bravo, Xavier B.; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo; Salinas-Andújar, José A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the European Commission's "Europe 2020" strategy, the early school leaving (ESL) rate in European Union (EU) Member States must be reduced to a maximum of 10 per cent by 2020. This paper proposes a nonlinear distribution method based on dynamic targets for reducing the percentage of early school leavers. The aim of this…

  6. European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A consideration of the morphological aspects of the earliest modern humans in Europe (more than ≈33,000 B.P.) and the subsequent Gravettian human remains indicates that they possess an anatomical pattern congruent with the autapomorphic (derived) morphology of the earliest (Middle Paleolithic) African modern humans. However, they exhibit a variable suite of features that are either distinctive Neandertal traits and/or plesiomorphic (ancestral) aspects that had been lost among the African Middle Paleolithic modern humans. These features include aspects of neurocranial shape, basicranial external morphology, mandibular ramal and symphyseal form, dental morphology and size, and anteroposterior dental proportions, as well as aspects of the clavicles, scapulae, metacarpals, and appendicular proportions. The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe. This interpretation is in agreement with current analyses of recent and past human molecular data. PMID:17452632

  7. Creative Little Scientists: Exploring Pedagogical Synergies between Inquiry-Based and Creative Approaches in Early Years Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Glauert, Esme; Craft, Anna; Compton, Ashley; Stylianidou, Fani

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the European Union's interest in creativity and innovation, this paper, drawing on data from the EU project Creative Little Scientists (2011-2014), explores the teaching and learning of science and creativity in Early Years education. The project's conceptual framework, developed from detailed analysis of relevant literatures,…

  8. Exploring Bullying: An Early Childhood Perspective from Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Janet S.; Luo, Nili

    2008-01-01

    This article explores bullying in mainland China. The authors conducted a study to determine the existence of a problem with bullying in younger Chinese children. Samples included 40 randomly selected, early childhood educators serving children ages 2 through 6, located in 10 different urban school settings along the Yangzi River. The authors…

  9. The European Robotic Exploration of the Planet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, Agustin

    2010-05-01

    The ESA Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and has been orbiting Mars for over six years providing data with an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution on the surface, subsurface, atmosphere and ionosphere of the red planet. The main theme of the mission is the search for water in its various states everywhere on the planet by all instruments using different techniques. The mission is still a huge success, helping rewrite new pages in our understanding of Mars. Mars Express will be followed by ESA's new Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with an Orbiter focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane. The ExoMars rover will follow in 2018 to perform geochemical and exobiological measurements on the surface and the subsurface. Then in 2020, a Network of 3-6 surface stations will be launched (possibly together with an orbiter), in order to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. All these Mars Exploration missions will be carried out jointly with NASA. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars, which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis

  10. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty: Challenges for European Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leseman, Paul P. M.; Slot, Pauline L.

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates in European countries have increased during recent decades and are particularly high in East European countries. Young children are especially vulnerable to poverty. Poverty in early childhood can have irreversible negative consequences for cognitive, social and emotional development, academic achievement and behavioural adjustment.…

  11. Integrating partner professionals. The Early Explorers project: Peers Early Education Partnership and the health visiting service.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J; Coe, C

    2013-01-01

      A range of voluntary sector organizations are involved in the delivery of services to children, particularly within the Early Year's sector and children's centres. Peers Early Education Partnership (PEEP) Early Explorers project is one example of the way in which explicit partnerships are being forged across statutory and voluntary sectors with the aim of improving outcomes for children and families. This paper reports an exploration of stakeholder views and experiences of two Early Explorer clinics located in areas of high deprivation.   Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of stakeholders (n= 25) from children's centres, PEEP, the health visiting service and service users. Data were fully transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach.   The data suggest that the two key groups of stakeholders providing Early Explorer clinics (i.e. health visitors and PEEP practitioners) had quite different objectives in terms of their early goals for the clinic, but that despite these differences good progress was achieved in terms of working together effectively. All stakeholders including service users referred to the presence of PEEP as having improved the quality of the clinic environment, and participating mothers identified a wide range of benefits from the enhanced service. However, somewhat restricted views about the role of practitioners within the clinics were identified by users, and the findings suggest that although the early goals for the clinic had been exceeded, these may have been limited in terms of true 'partnership' working.   Early Explorer clinics appeared to have enhanced the service provided within traditional child health clinics and to have provided practitioners with access to hard-to-reach families and parents with access to services that are consistent with the broader policy aims of improving parent-infant interaction. However, questions remain as to whether the benefit of 'partnership' working was fully

  12. Working in partnership with the voluntary sector: early explorer clinics.

    PubMed

    Coe, Chris; Barlow, Jane

    2010-11-01

    The first three years of life have been identified as key to promoting children's later wellbeing, and partnership working across the statutory and voluntary sectors has been proposed as one of the best ways to meet the needs of families. Child health clinics are attended by parents seeking reassurance or help and advice from a health professional regarding child health and development. They have been used in Oxford to develop Early Explorer clinics, in which the statutory health visiting service and voluntary sector Peers Early Education Programme work together with the aim of improving outcomes for children and families. These Early Explorer clinics provide the opportunity to engage parents in supporting their child's development through interaction and non-directed exploratory play. They also offer opportunities to identify vulnerable families, who are provided with additional support. This paper examines a model of partnership working between statutory and voluntary sectors aimed at maximising opportunities to promote the health and wellbeing of infants and their families.

  13. The Education and Care Divide: The Role of the Early Childhood Workforce in 15 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laere, Katrien; Peeters, Jan; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2012-01-01

    International reports on early childhood education and care tend to attach increasing importance to workforce profiles. Yet a study of 15 European countries reveals that large numbers of (assistant) staff remain invisible in most international reports. As part of the CoRe project (Competence Requirements in Early Childhood Education and Care) we…

  14. Beyond Anti-Bias Education: Changing Conceptions of Diversity and Equity in European Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The articles draws on history-of-the-present research on Belgian childcare, on experiences within the European DECET network (Diversity in Early Childhood Education and Training) and on post-structuralist theory. A historical hindsight is helpful to understand how different discourses on diversity and equity in early childhood education have been…

  15. Design space exploration for early identification of yield limiting patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Helen; Zou, Elain; Lee, Robben; Hong, Sid; Liu, Square; Wang, JinYan; Du, Chunshan; Zhang, Recco; Madkour, Kareem; Ali, Hussein; Hsu, Danny; Kabeel, Aliaa; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe

    2016-03-01

    In order to resolve the causality dilemma of which comes first, accurate design rules or real designs, this paper presents a flow for exploration of the layout design space to early identify problematic patterns that will negatively affect the yield. A new random layout generating method called Layout Schema Generator (LSG) is reported in this paper, this method generates realistic design-like layouts without any design rule violation. Lithography simulation is then used on the generated layout to discover the potentially problematic patterns (hotspots). These hotspot patterns are further explored by randomly inducing feature and context variations to these identified hotspots through a flow called Hotspot variation Flow (HSV). Simulation is then performed on these expanded set of layout clips to further identify more problematic patterns. These patterns are then classified into design forbidden patterns that should be included in the design rule checker and legal patterns that need better handling in the RET recipes and processes.

  16. Changing the game: exploring infants' participation in early play routines

    PubMed Central

    Fantasia, Valentina; Fasulo, Alessandra; Costall, Alan; López, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Play has proved to have a central role in children's development, most notably in rule learning (Piaget, 1965; Sutton-Smith, 1979) and negotiation of roles and goals (Garvey, 1974; Bruner et al., 1976). Yet very little research has been done on early play. The present study focuses on early social games, i.e., vocal-kinetic play routines that mothers use to interact with infants from very early on. We explored 3-month-old infants and their mothers performing a routine game first in the usual way, then in two violated conditions: without gestures and without sound. The aim of the study is to investigate infants' participation and expectations in the game and whether this participation is affected by changes in the multimodal format of the game. Infants' facial expressions, gaze, and body movements were coded to measure levels of engagement and affective state across the three conditions. Results showed a significant decrease in Limbs Movements and expressions of Positive Affect, an increase in Gaze Away and in Stunned Expression when the game structure was violated. These results indicate that the violated game conditions were experienced as less engaging, either because of an unexpected break in the established joint routine, or simply because they were weaker versions of the same game. Overall, our results suggest that structured, multimodal play routines may constitute interactional contexts that only work as integrated units of auditory and motor resources, representing early communicative contexts which prepare the ground for later, more complex multimodal interactions, such as verbal exchanges. PMID:24936192

  17. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  18. Becoming Professional? Exploring Early Years Professional Status and Its Implications for Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Across the "European learning space" (Lawn, 2006) professionalisation of early years workforces has become a key priority and there has been a flow of this policy between borders (Oberhuemer, 2005). Early Years Professional Status (EYPS) is central to these developments in England. Within what is regarded as a traditionally…

  19. Exploring ``Science As Culture'' Through The European Science Museums Astronomy And Museum Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelingou, Dimitra; Varga, Benedek; Czár, Katalin; Sircar, Seema; Paterson, Allan; Lindsay, Lilian; Watson, Andy; Croly, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Hellenic Physical Society is a scientific association with an intensive action in the field of education, which is governed by the philosophy that the relationship between science and society must be interactive. For this reason the Hellenic Physical Society is a partner of the European Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Project/Learning Partnerships, tilted: Exploring ``Science as Culture'' through the European Science Museums. The program numbered 07-GRCO1-GR04-00025-1 constitutes an educational collaboration between the Semmelweis Museum Library and archives of the History of Medicine of Hungary, which is the co-ordinator of the project, the Hellenic Physical Society (Greece) and the Aberdeen City Council Strategic Leadership of United Kingdom. During the first year that the european project was conducted, the Physics Museum of the greek aegean island of Chios, in collaboration with the Second Chance School of Chios, also took part. During the academic year 2008-2009, the Second Chance School of the Koridallos Prison of Athens is also taking part. The basic ideas, the design axes and the first results of the Grundtvig project will be developed in this presentation. This european partnership creates an educational programme consisting of science-related activities (such as seminars, lectures, presentations and in situ experimental activities), and prepares appropriate educational material for lifelong science learning, using innovative teaching methodologies and the European science museums' exhibits participating in this project, by making them centres of significant cultural contribution to science and society. Using the integrated approach of astronomy teaching as the central design axe in this programme, we highlight the cultural aspects of science education. From our educational intervention we develop educational tools for astronomy suitable for distance learning and making use of new technologies. The partnership is addressed to different age groups: museum

  20. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  1. Multi-sectoral action for child safety-a European study exploring implicated sectors.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  3. Exploring the relationship between perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours in European adults.

    PubMed

    Pinho, M G M; Mackenbach, J D; Charreire, H; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; Glonti, K; Rutter, H; Compernolle, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Beulens, J W J; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J

    2017-04-26

    Dietary behaviours may be influenced by perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Using data from a large cross-European study (N = 5900), we explored associations between various perceived barriers to healthy eating and dietary behaviours among adults from urban regions in five European countries and examined whether associations differed across regions and socio-demographic backgrounds. Frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, fish, fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweets, breakfast and home-cooked meals were split by the median into higher and lower consumption. We tested associations between barriers (irregular working hours; giving up preferred foods; busy lifestyle; lack of willpower; price of healthy food; taste preferences of family and friends; lack of healthy options and unappealing foods) and dietary variables using multilevel logistic regression models. We explored whether associations differed by age, sex, education, urban region, weight status, household composition or employment. Respondents who perceived any barrier were less likely to report higher consumption of healthier foods and more likely to report higher consumption of fast food. 'Lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were most consistently associated with consumption. For example, those perceiving lack of willpower ate less fruit [odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.64], and those with a busy lifestyle ate less vegetables (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.62). Many associations differed in size, but not in direction, by region, sex, age and household composition. Perceived 'lack of willpower', 'time constraints' and 'taste preferences' were barriers most strongly related to dietary behaviours, but the association between various barriers and lower intake of fruit and vegetables was somewhat more pronounced among younger participants and women.

  4. Exploring College Readiness: Self-Perceptions of Early College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-White, Kim Renee

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that too many students are graduating from high school ill-prepared to be successful in the postsecondary environment. This study examined the high school experiences of dual-enrollment students who participated in an Early College High School, and how the students perceived their high school experiences in preparing them for…

  5. New Explorations with Waste Materials in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Ozgun; Inal, Gozde; Calisandemir, Fatma; Can-Yasar, Munevver; Kandir, Adalet

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is innately brought with secret power which can emerge at any time throughout life and be enhanced if fostered. Properly designed art activities serve as a potential for emergence and the enhancement of children's creativities in their early childhood educations. Those children who cannot express their emotions through oral language or…

  6. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  7. Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison

    PubMed Central

    Soubrier, Julien; Gower, Graham; Chen, Kefei; Richards, Stephen M.; Llamas, Bastien; Mitchell, Kieren J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Kosintsev, Pavel; Lee, Michael S. Y.; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Bollongino, Ruth; Bover, Pere; Burger, Joachim; Chivall, David; Crégut-Bonnoure, Evelyne; Decker, Jared E.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.; Douka, Katerina; Fordham, Damien A.; Fontana, Federica; Fritz, Carole; Glimmerveen, Jan; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Groves, Colin; Guerreschi, Antonio; Haak, Wolfgang; Higham, Tom; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Immel, Alexander; Julien, Marie-Anne; Krause, Johannes; Krotova, Oleksandra; Langbein, Frauke; Larson, Greger; Rohrlach, Adam; Scheu, Amelie; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Tokarska, Małgorzata; Tosello, Gilles; van der Plicht, Johannes; van Loenen, Ayla; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Wooley, Oliver; Orlando, Ludovic; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The two living species of bison (European and American) are among the few terrestrial megafauna to have survived the late Pleistocene extinctions. Despite the extensive bovid fossil record in Eurasia, the evolutionary history of the European bison (or wisent, Bison bonasus) before the Holocene (<11.7 thousand years ago (kya)) remains a mystery. We use complete ancient mitochondrial genomes and genome-wide nuclear DNA surveys to reveal that the wisent is the product of hybridization between the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus) and ancestors of modern cattle (aurochs, Bos primigenius) before 120 kya, and contains up to 10% aurochs genomic ancestry. Although undetected within the fossil record, ancestors of the wisent have alternated ecological dominance with steppe bison in association with major environmental shifts since at least 55 kya. Early cave artists recorded distinct morphological forms consistent with these replacement events, around the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼21–18 kya). PMID:27754477

  8. Exploring Intercultural Sensitivity in Early Adolescence: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellizo, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore levels of intercultural sensitivity in a sample of fourth to eighth grade students in the United States (n = 162). "Intercultural sensitivity" was conceptualised through Bennett's Developmental Model of Sensitivity, and assessed through the Adapted Intercultural Sensitivity Index.…

  9. Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

  10. Uncertainty in Early Occupational Aspirations: Role Exploration or Aimlessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2010-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socio-economic attainment if it signifies "role exploration," characterized by career development, continued education and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads…

  11. Exploring Adventure Therapy as an Early Intervention for Struggling Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobud, Will

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an account of a research project that explored the experiences of adolescents struggling with behavioral and emotional issues, who participated in a 14-day adventure therapy program in Australia referred to by the pseudonym, "Onward Adventures". All participants of this program over the age of 16 who completed within…

  12. European ACP1*C Allele Has Recessive Deleterious Effects on Early Life Viability

    PubMed Central

    WILDER, JASON A.; HAMMER, MICHAEL F.

    2005-01-01

    The acid phosphatase locus (ACP1) is a classical polymorphism that has been surveyed in hundreds of human populations worldwide. Among individuals of European ancestry, the ACP1*C allele occurs with an average frequency of approximately 0.05, whereas it is nearly absent in all other human populations. It has been hypothesized that this allele is maintained by over dominant selection among European populations. Here, we analyze ACP1 protein polymorphism data from more than 50,000 individuals previously surveyed in 67 populations across Europe as well as inheritance data from more than 6,000 European parent–offspring pairs to assess the signature of natural selection currently acting on this allele. Although we see a significant excess of ACP1*C heterozygotes relative to Hardy–Weinberg expectations, we find no evidence that natural selection favors ACP1*C heterozygotes. Instead, ACP1*C appears to have a strongly deleterious and recessive fitness effect. We observed only 48.9% of expected homozygous offspring from heterozygous parents and significantly fewer homozygotes than expected within populations. Because parent–offspring pairs indicate a significant deficiency of ACP1*C homozygotes, we infer that viability selection is acting on ACP1*C homozygotes very early in life, perhaps before birth. We estimate that approximately 1.2% of all couples of European ancestry are composed of individuals who both carry the APC1*C allele. As such, selection against ACP1*C homozygotes may represent a nonnegligible contribution to the overall number of spontaneous abortions among women of European ancestry and may cause substantial fertility reductions among some combinations of parental genotypes. PMID:15974295

  13. Drought as a Catalyst for Early Medieval European Subsistence Crises and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Francis; Cook, Edward; Kostick, Conor; McCormick, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring records provide one of most reliable means of reconstructing past climatic conditions, from longer-term multi-decadal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation to inter-annual variability, including years that experienced extreme weather. When combined with written records of past societal behaviour and the incidence of major societal stresses (e.g., famine, disease, and conflict), such records hold the potential to shed new light on historical interactions between climate and society. Recent years have seen the continued development of long dendroclimatic reconstructions, including, most recently the development of the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA; Cook et al., 2015) which for the first time makes available a robust reconstruction of spring-summer hydroclimatic conditions and extremes for the greater European region, including the entirety of the Dark Ages. In this paper, we examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and well-dated reports of severe drought in early medieval European annals and chronicles, and find a clear statistical correspondence, further confirming the accuracy of the OWDA and its importance as an independent record of hydroclimatic extremes, a resource that can now be drawn upon in both paleoclimatology and studies of climatic impacts on human society. We proceed to examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and the incidence of a range of major societal stresses (scarcity and famine, epidemic disease, and mass human mortality) drawn from an exhaustive survey of early medieval European annals and chronicles. The outcome of this comparison firmly implicates drought as a significant driver of major societal stresses during early medieval times. Using a record of the violent killings of societal elites recorded on a continuous annual basis in medieval Irish monastic annals, we further examine the role of hydroclimatic extremes as triggers in medieval violence

  14. Exploring experts' views and perspectives on the enhancement of Strategic Environmental Assessment in European small islands

    SciT

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt; João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk; Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt

    integrating stakeholders, such as territorial experts, to learn and promote the use and improvement of environmental and sustainability tools such as SEA. - Highlights: • Explored the views and perspectives of European small island experts • Showed the need for cooperation networks while developing SEA in these territories • Encouraged the development of specific guidelines as opposed to more legal frameworks • Highlighted SEA capability for the enhancement of small island sustainability.« less

  15. Caring and Learning Together: Exploring the Relationship between Parental Leave and Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental leave and early childhood education and care (ECEC) are two policies widely proposed and implemented to support working parents with young children. This article examines entitlement to leave and ECEC in 25 European countries, including 22 EU Member and Accession States, and the relationship between them, in particular to what degree…

  16. European Venus Explorer: An in-situ mission to Venus using a balloon platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefière, E.; Korablev, O.; Imamura, T.; Baines, K. H.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D. V.; Aplin, K. L.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J. E.; Cochrane, C. G.; Ferencz, Cs.; Ferri, F.; Gerasimov, M.; Leitner, J. J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Marty, B.; Martynov, M.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Rodin, A.; Whiteway, J. A.; Zasova, L. V.; the EVE Team

    2009-07-01

    Planetary balloons have a long history already. A small super-pressure balloon was flown in the atmosphere of Venus in the eighties by the Russian-French VEGA mission. For this mission, CNES developed and fully tested a 9 m diameter super-pressure balloon, but finally replaced it by a smaller one due to mass constraints (when it was decided to send Vega to Halley's Comet). Furthermore, several kinds of balloons have been proposed for planetary exploration [Blamont, J., in: Maran, S.P. (Ed.), The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia. Cambridge University Press, p. 494, 1991]. A Mars balloon has been studied for the Mars-94 Russian-French mission, which was finally cancelled. Mars and Venus balloons have also been studied and ground tested at JPL, and a low atmosphere Venus balloon is presently under development at JAXA (the Japanese Space Agency). Balloons have been identified as a key element in an ongoing Flagship class mission study at NASA, with an assumed launch date between 2020 and 2025. Recently, it was proposed by a group of scientists, under European leadership, to use a balloon to characterize - by in-situ measurements - the evolution, composition and dynamics of the Venus atmosphere. This balloon is part of a mission called EVE (European Venus Explorer), which has been proposed in response to the ESA AO for the first slice of the Cosmic Vision program by a wide international consortium including Europe, Russia, Japan and USA. The EVE architecture consists of one balloon platform floating at an altitude of 50-60 km, one short lived probe provided by Russia, and an orbiter with a polar orbit to relay data from the balloon and probe, and to perform remote sensing science observations. The balloon type preferred for scientific goals is one, which would oscillate in altitude through the cloud deck. To achieve this flight profile, the balloon envelope would contain a phase change fluid. While this proposal was not selected for the first slice of Cosmic

  17. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as “Americanization”. This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica (n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families. PMID:25709142

  18. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-03-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica ( n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.

  19. Exploring the early steps of amyloid peptide aggregation by computers.

    PubMed

    Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2005-11-01

    The assembly of normally soluble proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. Because protein aggregation is very complex, involving a variety of oligomeric metastable intermediates, the detailed aggregation paths and structural characterization of the intermediates remain to be determined. Yet, there is strong evidence that these oligomers, which form early in the process of fibrillogenesis, are cytotoxic. In this paper, we review our current understanding of the underlying factors that promote the aggregation of peptides into amyloid fibrils. We focus here on the structural and dynamic aspects of the aggregation as observed in state-of-the-art computer simulations of amyloid-forming peptides with an emphasis on the activation-relaxation technique.

  20. Space Travel is Utter Bilge: Early Ideas on Interplanetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    2003-12-01

    Until a few decades ago, interplanetary travel was the stuff of dreams but the dreamers often turned out to be farsighted while the predictions of some eminent scientists were far too conservative. The prescient dreamers include the Russian schoolteacher, Konstanin Tsiolkovsky who, in 1883, was the first to note that only rockets could serve the needs of space travel. In 1923, Herman Oberth published a treatise discussing various aspects of interplanetary travel including the impulse necessary to escape the Earth's gravitational pull. In his spare time, a German civil engineer, Walter Hohmann, established in 1925 that the optimal energy transfer orbit between planets is an ellipse that is tangent to the orbits of both bodies. Four year later, an Austrian army officer, Hermann Potocnik outlined the benefits of space stations including those in geosynchronous orbits. Whereas Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Hohmann, and Potocnik provided ideas and theories, the American, Robert H. Goddard, was testing liquid fueled rockets by as early as 1925. By the time he was finished in 1941, Goddard flew liquid fueled rockets that reached speeds of 700 mph and altitudes above 8,000 feet. In direct contrast to the advances by these mostly amateur engineers, many respected authorities scoffed at space travel because of the insurmountable technological difficulties. One year prior to the launch of Sputnik, the British Astronomer Royal, Sir Richard Wooley, declared, "space travel is utter bilge." While the theories of space travel were well developed by the late 1920's, space travel technology was still a poorly funded, mostly amateur, endeavor until the German army hired Oberth's student, Werner von Braun, and others to develop long range rockets for military purposes. In the early 1940's, Von Braun's team developed the rocket propulsion and guidance systems that would one day form the basis of the American space program.

  1. Influencing factors of sedentary behavior in European preschool settings: an exploration through focus groups with teachers.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wijndaele, Katrien; Duvinage, Kristin; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Lateva, Mina; Alvira, Juan Miguel Fernández; Zych, Kamila; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2013-09-01

    Sedentary behavior refers to activities involving sitting down and reclining (eg, watching TV, using the computer) and has been associated with different health outcomes. In preschool, children are sedentary for 50% to 80% of the time, in the classroom as well as during recess. Because of the absence of qualitative studies examining influencing factors of preschoolers' sedentary behavior in preschool settings, this study explored teachers' opinions on potentially influencing factors of this behavior. Eighty-seven teachers of 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from 6 European countries participated in a total of 18 focus groups between October 2010 and January 2011. Key findings were reported separately by country, and were independently analyzed by 2 researchers using qualitative content analysis. Teachers perceive the lack of play space and small classroom size as being influential factors on preschoolers' sedentary behavior; increasing play equipment and using teachers' prompts are mentioned as ways to stimulate children to be less sedentary on the playground. Computer use is reported to be more common in preschool than watching TV. Interventions should focus on increasing teachers' awareness of how sedentary preschoolers are during the preschool day. Teachers also should be informed about strategies to decrease sedentariness in the classroom and on the playground. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  2. Health professional mobility in the European Union: Exploring the equity and efficiency of free movement.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene A

    2015-12-01

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is a landmark in the health workforce migration debate. Yet its principles apply only partly within the European Union (EU) where freedom of movement prevails. The purpose of this article is to explore whether free mobility of health professionals contributes to "equitably strengthen health systems" in the EU. The article proposes an analytical tool (matrix), which looks at the effects of health professional mobility in terms of efficiency and equity implications at three levels: for the EU, for destination countries and for source countries. The findings show that destinations as well as sources experience positive and negative effects, and that the effects of mobility are complex because they change, overlap and are hard to pin down. The analysis suggests that there is a risk that free health workforce mobility disproportionally benefits wealthier Member States at the expense of less advantaged EU Member States, and that mobility may feed disparities as flows redistribute resources from poorer to wealthier EU countries. The article argues that the principles put forward by the WHO Code appear to be as relevant within the EU as they are globally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Early European attitudes towards "good death": Eugenios Voulgaris, Treatise on euthanasia, St Petersburg, 1804.

    PubMed

    Galanakis, E; Dimoliatis, I D K

    2007-06-01

    Eugenios Voulgaris (Corfu, Greece, 1716; St Petersburg, Russia, 1806) was an eminent theologian and scholar, and bishop of Kherson, Ukraine. He copiously wrote treatises in theology, philosophy and sciences, greatly influenced the development of modern Greek thought, and contributed to the perception of Western thought throughout the Eastern Christian world. In his Treatise on euthanasia (1804), Voulgaris tried to moderate the fear of death by exalting the power of faith and trust in the divine providence, and by presenting death as a universal necessity, a curative physician and a safe harbour. Voulgaris presented his views in the form of a consoling sermon, abundantly enriched with references to classical texts, the Bible and the Church Fathers, as well as to secular sources, including vital statistics from his contemporary England and France. Besides euthanasia, he introduced terms such as dysthanasia, etoimothanasia and prothanasia. The Treatise on euthanasia is one of the first books, if not the very first, devoted to euthanasia in modern European thought and a remarkable text for the study of the very early European attitudes towards "good death". In the Treatise, euthanasia is clearly meant as a spiritual preparation and reconciliation with dying rather than a physician-related mercy killing, as the term progressed to mean during the 19th and the 20th centuries. This early text is worthy of study not only for the historian of medical ethics or of religious ethics, but for everybody who is trying to courageously confront death, either in private or in professional settings.

  4. Macro-level age norms for the timing of sexual initiation and adolescents' early sexual initiation in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-07-01

    To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Nationally representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/2007 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n = 33,092) and the 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n = 27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16 years) self-reported age at sexual initiation, which we defined as early (<15 years) or not early (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR .60, 95% CI .45-.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65 years) norms (AOR .37, 95% CI .23-.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20 years) norms (AOR .60, 95% CI .49-.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR .68, 95% CI .46-.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR .66, 95% CI .45-.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys' ESI. Macrolevel cultural norms may impact adolescents' sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2017-12-04

    Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (< 20 weeks) of the DALI (Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. A total of 735 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5.55], self-efficacy, OR = .95, 95% CI [.92, .98], social support, OR = .94, 95% CI [.90, .99], and pregnancy-related worries (socioeconomic: OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.15]; health: OR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; relationship: OR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.05, 1.31]). Mental health problems are common in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. ISRCTN70595832 , 02.12.2011.

  6. UNCERTAINTY IN EARLY OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS: ROLE EXPLORATION OR AIMLESSNESS?

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Harris, Angel; Sabates, Ricardo; Briddell, Laine

    2014-01-01

    Many youth in the United States lack clear occupational aspirations. This uncertainty in achievement ambitions may benefit socioeconomic attainment if it signifies “role exploration,” characterized by career development, continued education, and enduring partnerships. By contrast, uncertainty may diminish attainment if it instead leads to “aimlessness,” involving prolonged education without the acquisition of a degree, residential dependence, and frequent job changes. We use nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to examine how uncertainty in occupational aspirations in adolescence (age 16) affects wage attainments in young adulthood (age 26). Results suggest that youth with uncertain career ambitions earn significantly lower hourly wages in young adulthood than youth with professional and non-professional aspirations, supporting the view that uncertainty heightens the risk of labor-market problems. PMID:25540465

  7. Oculomotor Exploration of Impossible Figures in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Shuwairi, Sarah M.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies with young infants revealed that young infants can distinguish between displays of possible or impossible figures, which may require detection of inconsistent depth relations among local line junctions that disrupt global object configurations. Here, we used an eye-tracking paradigm to record eye movements in young infants during an object discrimination task with matched pairs of possible and impossible figures. Our goal was to identify differential patterns of oculomotor activity as infants viewed pictures of possible and impossible objects. We predicted that infants would actively attend to specific pictorial depth cues that denote shape (e.g., T-junctions), and in the context of an impossible figure that they would fixate to a greater extent in anomalous regions of the display relative to other parts. By the age of 4 months, infants fixated reliably longer overall on displays of impossible vs. possible cubes, specifically within the critical region where the incompatible lines and irreconcilable depth relations were located, implying an early capacity for selective attention to critical line junction information and integration of local depth cues necessary to perceive object coherence. PMID:23646001

  8. Talking about quality: exploring how 'quality' is conceptualized in European hospitals and healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Siri; Aase, Karina; von Plessen, Christian; Burnett, Susan; Nunes, Francisco; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Anderson-Gare, Boel; Calltorp, Johan; Fulop, Naomi

    2014-10-11

    Conceptualization of quality of care - in terms of what individuals, groups and organizations include in their meaning of quality, is an unexplored research area. It is important to understand how quality is conceptualised as a means to successfully implement improvement efforts and bridge potential disconnect in language about quality between system levels, professions, and clinical services. The aim is therefore to explore and compare conceptualization of quality among national bodies (macro level), senior hospital managers (meso level), and professional groups within clinical micro systems (micro level) in a cross-national study. This cross-national multi-level case study combines analysis of national policy documents and regulations at the macro level with semi-structured interviews (383) and non-participant observation (803 hours) of key meetings and shadowing of staff at the meso and micro levels in ten purposively sampled European hospitals (England, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, and Norway). Fieldwork at the meso and micro levels was undertaken over a 12-month period (2011-2012) and different types of micro systems were included (maternity, oncology, orthopaedics, elderly care, intensive care, and geriatrics). The three quality dimensions clinical effectiveness, patient safety, and patient experience were incorporated in macro level policies in all countries. Senior hospital managers adopted a similar conceptualization, but also included efficiency and costs in their conceptualization of quality. 'Quality' in the forms of measuring indicators and performance management were dominant among senior hospital managers (with clinical and non-clinical background). The differential emphasis on the three quality dimensions was strongly linked to professional roles, personal ideas, and beliefs at the micro level. Clinical effectiveness was dominant among physicians (evidence-based approach), while patient experience was dominant among nurses (patient

  9. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  10. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  11. A prospective evaluation of early detection biomarkers for ovarian cancer in the European EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Kathryn L.; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Hüsing, Anika; Fichorova, Raina N.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Johnson, Theron; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Severi, Gianluca; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Boeing, Heiner; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H.; Gram, Inger Torhild; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Jirström, Karin; Manjer, Jonas; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Byrne, Karl Smith; Travis, Ruth C.; Gunter, Marc J.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Riboli, Elio; Cramer, Daniel W.; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose About 60% of ovarian cancers are diagnosed at late stage, when 5-year survival is less than 30% in contrast to 90% for local disease. This has prompted search for early detection biomarkers. For initial testing, specimens taken months or years before ovarian cancer diagnosis are the best source of information to evaluate early detection biomarkers. Here we evaluate the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarkers in prospectively collected samples from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Experimental Design We measured CA125, HE4, CA72.4 and CA15.3 in 810 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,939 controls. We calculated the sensitivity at 95% and 98% specificity as well as Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (C-statistic) for each marker individually and in combination. Additionally, we evaluated marker performance by stage at diagnosis and time between blood draw and diagnosis. Results We observed the best discrimination between cases and controls within six months of diagnosis for CA125 (C-statistic=0.92), then HE4 (0.84), CA72.4 (0.77), and CA15.3 (0.73). Marker performance declined with longer time between blood draw and diagnosis and for earlier staged disease. However, assessment of discriminatory ability at early stage was limited by small numbers. Combinations of markers performed modestly, but significantly better than any single marker. Conclusions CA125 remains the single best marker for the early detection of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, but can be slightly improved by combining with other markers. Identifying novel markers for ovarian cancer will require studies including larger numbers of early stage cases. PMID:27060155

  12. A Prospective Evaluation of Early Detection Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer in the European EPIC Cohort.

    PubMed

    Terry, Kathryn L; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Fichorova, Raina N; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Vitonis, Allison F; Johnson, Theron; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Severi, Gianluca; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Boeing, Heiner; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Gram, Inger Torhild; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Duell, Eric J; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Jirström, Karin; Manjer, Jonas; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Byrne, Karl Smith; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc J; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Cramer, Daniel W; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    About 60% of ovarian cancers are diagnosed at late stage, when 5-year survival is less than 30% in contrast to 90% for local disease. This has prompted search for early detection biomarkers. For initial testing, specimens taken months or years before ovarian cancer diagnosis are the best source of information to evaluate early detection biomarkers. Here we evaluate the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarkers in prospectively collected samples from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. We measured CA125, HE4, CA72.4, and CA15.3 in 810 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,939 controls. We calculated the sensitivity at 95% and 98% specificity as well as area under the receiver operator curve (C-statistic) for each marker individually and in combination. In addition, we evaluated marker performance by stage at diagnosis and time between blood draw and diagnosis. We observed the best discrimination between cases and controls within 6 months of diagnosis for CA125 (C-statistic = 0.92), then HE4 (0.84), CA72.4 (0.77), and CA15.3 (0.73). Marker performance declined with longer time between blood draw and diagnosis and for earlier staged disease. However, assessment of discriminatory ability at early stage was limited by small numbers. Combinations of markers performed modestly, but significantly better than any single marker. CA125 remains the single best marker for the early detection of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, but can be slightly improved by combining with other markers. Identifying novel markers for ovarian cancer will require studies including larger numbers of early-stage cases. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4664-75. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Skates, p. 4542. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. An assessment of a collaborative mapping approach for exploring land use patterns for several European metropolises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, land surveys and digital interpretation of remotely sensed imagery have been used to generate land use inventories. These techniques however, are often cumbersome and costly, allocating large amounts of technical and temporal costs. The technological advances of web 2.0 have brought a wide array of technological achievements, stimulating the participatory role in collaborative and crowd sourced mapping products. This has been fostered by GPS-enabled devices, and accessible tools that enable visual interpretation of high resolution satellite images/air photos provided in collaborative mapping projects. Such technologies offer an integrative approach to geography by means of promoting public participation and allowing accurate assessment and classification of land use as well as geographical features. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has supported the evolution of such techniques, contributing to the existence of a large inventory of spatial land use information. This paper explores the introduction of this novel participatory phenomenon for land use classification in Europe's metropolitan regions. We adopt a positivistic approach to assess comparatively the accuracy of these contributions of OSM for land use classifications in seven large European metropolitan regions. Thematic accuracy and degree of completeness of OSM data was compared to available Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) datasets for the chosen metropolises. We further extend our findings of land use within a novel framework for geography, justifying that volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources are of great benefit for land use mapping depending on location and degree of VGI dynamism and offer a great alternative to traditional mapping techniques for metropolitan regions throughout Europe. Evaluation of several land use types at the local level suggests that a number of OSM classes (such as anthropogenic land use, agricultural and some natural environment

  14. Early years neurosurgical training in the era of the European Working Time Directive.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Watkins, Laurence D; Kitchen, Neil D; Sethi, Huma

    2013-10-01

    The past decade has seen significant changes to the face of neurosurgical training in the United Kingdom, driven in part by an increasing focus on patient safety and the introduction of Modernising Medical Careers and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Recent reforms to neurosurgical training over the past few years have resulted in creation of an 8-year 'run-through' training programme. In this programme, early years (ST1 and ST2) trainees often lack dedicated time for elective theatre lists and outpatient clinics. Further, any time spent in theatre and clinics is often with different teams. Here we describe a training model for early years trainees at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, who are given the responsibilities traditionally associated with a more senior trainee including dedicated weekly theatre and clinic time under the supervision of a single consultant, in addition to out of hours experience. The advantages and considerations for implementing this model are discussed, including the benefit of guidance under a single consultant in the early stages of training, along with key educational concepts necessary for understanding its utility. We feel that this is an effective model for junior neurosurgical training in the EWTD era, expediting the trainee's development of key technical and non-technical skills, with potentially significant rewards for patient, trainee and trainer. National implementation of this model should be considered.

  15. Comparison of early exploration at Platanares (Honduras) and Wairakei (New Zealand)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Glover, R.B.; Janik, C.J.; Brown, K.L.; Goff, F.

    1989-01-01

    Early exploration at Wairakei, New Zealand, is compared with the present state of exploration of Platanares, Honduras. In retrospect, geothermometer temperatures favor Platanares (e.g., 220 vs. 190??C for Na-K-Ca), but two 600-m drill holes encountered lower temperatures (160??C). Wairakei, explored before the advent of chemical geothermometry, also had disappointing early drilling results (but better than Platanares; one of the first six holes hit T > 180??C). The Wairakei drilling program was nevertheless continued at full speed and by well 20 a successful drilling strategy was discovered.

  16. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  17. First Steps into the Wild – Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Philip; Caspers, Stephanie; Warren, Paige; Witte, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758) was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1) how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2) how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3) did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European bison can live in an

  18. First Steps into the Wild - Exploration Behavior of European Bison after the First Reintroduction in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Philip; Caspers, Stephanie; Warren, Paige; Witte, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining globally. One strategy to help to conserve species is to breed species in captivity and release them into suitable habitats. The way that reintroduced animals explore new habitats and/or disperse from the release site is rarely studied in detail and represents key information for the success of reintroduction projects. The European bison (Bison bonasus L. 1758) was the largest surviving herbivore of the post-glacial megafauna in Europe before it became extinct in the wild, surviving only in captivity since 1919. We investigated the exploration behavior of a herd of European bison reintroduced into the Rothaargebirge, a commercial forest in low range mountain intensively used and densely populated by humans, in the first six months after release. We focused on three questions: (1) how did the European bison move and utilize the habitat on a daily basis, (2) how did the animals explore the new environment, and (3) did their habitat preferences change over time. The European bison dispersed away from their previous enclosure at an average rate of 539 m/month, with their areas of daily use ranging from 70 to 173 ha, their movement ranging from 3.6 km to 5.2 km per day, and their day-to-day use of areas ranged between 389 and 900 m. We could identify three major exploration bouts, when the animals entered and explored areas previously unknown to them. During the birthing phase, the European bison reduced daily walking distances, and the adult bull segregated from the herd for 58 days. Around rut, roaming behavior of the herd increased slightly. The animals preferred spruce forest, wind thrown areas and grassland, all of which are food abundant habitat types, and they avoided beech forest. Habitat preference differed slightly between phases of the study period, probably due to phenological cycles. After six months, the complete summer home range was 42.5 km2. Our study shows that a small free-ranging herd of European bison can live in an

  19. The African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study: a qualitative exploration of similarities and differences between African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin groups in pathways to care for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of the reasons for differences in pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in the African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study from the perspective of respondents to the study and their families. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants Thirty-four participants in total. Twenty-five young people who had experienced a first episode of psychosis and nine family members. Participants were part of the ACE Pathways to Care study. Design We implemented six focus groups. Furthermore, we implemented four in-depth interviews with two African-origin young women, one Caribbean-origin woman, and one European-origin woman with lived experience of psychosis. Results Factors that influenced help-seeking delays across the three groups were: personal awareness of symptoms, family members’ knowledge of psychotic symptoms and knowledge of mental health services. Youth and their family members described how stigma played a key role in pathways to care by stopping them from asking for help. The way in which stigma operated on the three groups’ members, from feeling ashamed to feeling guilty for their mental illnesses, helped to explain differences in DUP between the groups. Guilt feelings emerged as a prominent theme among members from the African and Caribbean groups and it was not discussed in the European focus group. Delay in entering into first-episode psychosis programmes was also influenced by the stigma perceived by young people in healthcare settings. This had an impact on the therapeutic relationships, disclosure of symptoms and overall trust in the healthcare system. Conclusions The findings of this paper suggest that stigma, especially internalised stigma, may operate in different ways in European-origin, African-origin and Caribbean-origin groups. These findings could inform the development of more equitable services for people in early stages of psychosis. PMID:25588783

  20. Explorations in Early Childhood Education: The Mount Druitt Early Childhood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braithwaite, John; And Others

    This book concerns the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project, which was developed to provide quality educational programs for disadvantaged children living in the western suburbs of Sydney, Australia. In order to set the subsequent discussion in broader perspective, chapter 1 addresses several key issues influencing project development. Chapter 2…

  1. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study

    PubMed Central

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Siani, Alfonso; Russo, Paola; Kourides, Yannis; Sion, Isabelle; Molnár, Denés; Moreno, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Howe, Laura; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Regber, Susann; Bammann, Karin; Foraita, Ronja

    2016-01-01

    Background Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences. Methods The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden) participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008) and follow-up examination (2009/2010) supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences. Results Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries) with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG) was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers’ smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found. Conclusion Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed

  2. Towards a European tephrochronological framework for Termination 1 and the Early Holocene.

    PubMed

    Davies, Siwan M; Branch, Nicholas P; Lowe, J John; Turney, Chris S M

    2002-04-15

    The record of deposition of tephras in Europe and the North Atlantic during the period 18.5-8.0 (14)C ka BP (the Last Termination and Early Holocene) is reviewed. Altogether, 34 tephras originating from four main volcanic provinces (Iceland, the Eifel district, the Massif Central and Italy) have been identified so far in geological sequences spanning this time-interval. Most of the records have been based, until very recently, on observations of visible layers of tephras. Here, we report on the potential for extending the areas over which some of the tephras can be traced by the search for layers of micro-tephra, which are not visible to the naked eye, and on the use of geochemical methods to correlate them with known tephra horizons. This approach has greatly extended the area in Northern Europe over which the Vedde Ash can be traced. The same potential exists in southern Europe, which is demonstrated for the first time by the discovery of a distinct layer of micro-tephra of the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff in a site in the Northern Apennines in Italy, far to the north of the occurrences of visible records of this tephra. The paper closes by considering the potential for developing a robust European tephrostratigraphy to underpin the chronology of records of the Last Termination and Early Holocene, thereby promoting a better understanding of the nature, timing and environmental effects of the abrupt climatic changes that characterized this period.

  3. Continuity or discontinuity in the European Early Pleistocene human settlement: the Atapuerca evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carbonell, Eudald

    2013-09-01

    The nature, timing, pattern, favourable circumstances and impediments of the human occupation of the European continent during the Early Pleistocene are hot topics in Quaternary studies. In particular, the problem of the (dis) continuity of the settlement of Europe in this period is an important matter of discussion, which has been approached in the last decade from different points of view. The Gran Dolina (TD) and Sima del Elefante (TE) cave sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca, (Spain) include large and quasi-continuous stratigraphic sequences that stretch back from at least 1.2 million years ago (Ma) to the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary. The archaeological and paleontological record from these sites can help to test different hypotheses about the character of the human settlement in this region and period. Furthermore, the TD6 level has yielded a large collection of human fossil remains attributed to Homo antecessor. According to different geochronological methods, as well as to paleomagnetic and biostratigraphical analyses, these hominins belong to an age range of 0.96-0.80 Ma. Unfortunately, the finding in 2007 of some human fossil remains in the TE9 level, dated to about 1.22 Ma, was not enough to conclude whether H. antecessor had deep roots in the European Early Pleistocene. A set of derived features of H. antecessor shared with both the Neanderthal lineage and modern humans suggests that this species is related, and not far, from the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. If we assume that there was a lineal biological relationship between the TE9 and TD6 hominins, we should reconsider many of the conclusions achieved in previous paleontological and genetic studies. In addition, we would be obliged to build a highly complicated paleogeographical scenario for the origin of the MRCA. Although continuity in the settlement of Europe during the entire late Early Pleistocene is not discarded (e.g. in refuge areas), it seems that

  4. Charlemagne's Summit Canal: An Early Medieval Hydro-Engineering Project for Passing the Central European Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water. PMID:25251589

  5. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2–12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood. PMID:26566292

  6. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    PubMed

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Early Childhood and Elementary Grade-Level Overlap and Early Childhood Teacher Output

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, R. Clarke

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between grade-level overlap between elementary education (ELED) and early childhood education (ECED) licenses and ECED teacher output. Analysis of Title 2 data indicates that ECED/ELED overlap is extensive, as evidenced by the number of states with grade-level overlaps of 5 (n = 2), 4 (n = 24), 3 (n = 10), and…

  8. The Stranger within: Luxembourg's Early School System as a European Prototype of Nationally Legitimized International Blends (ca. 1794-1844)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyssen, Geert

    2013-01-01

    This comparative analysis of Luxembourg's early school (law) system reveals the extent to which European school systems reflect "national-cultural idiosyncrasies" apart from "structural isomorphism". It first examines the legal soil into which the Luxembourg school system was implanted. Legislative pendular swings, reflecting…

  9. The Early Career Paths of UK-Educated Intra-European Mobile Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behle, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Students and graduates alike are encouraged to enhance their skills and knowledge by moving to a different European country as both national governments and European institutions anticipate individual skill gains, closer European networks and a boost to national economies as a result. Using data from a longitudinal survey, this paper follows…

  10. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer: consensus guidance for clinical practice from a European Panel.

    PubMed

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C; Powles, T J; Clézardin, P; Aapro, M; Costa, L; Body, J-J; Markopoulos, C; Santini, D; Diel, I; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Dodwell, D; Smith, I; Gnant, M; Gray, R; Harbeck, N; Thurlimann, B; Untch, M; Cortes, J; Martin, M; Albert, U-S; Conte, P-F; Ejlertsen, B; Bergh, J; Kaufmann, M; Holen, I

    2016-03-01

    Bisphosphonates have been studied in randomised trials in early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) and reduce the risk of disease recurrence and metastasis. Treatment benefits have been reported but bisphosphonates do not currently have regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature was augmented by a workshop held in October 2014 for breast cancer and bone specialists to present and debate the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates. This was followed by a questionnaire to all members of the writing committee to identify areas of consensus. The panel recommended that bisphosphonates should be considered as part of routine clinical practice for the prevention of CTIBL in all patients with a T score of <-2.0 or ≥2 clinical risk factors for fracture. Compelling evidence from a meta-analysis of trial data of >18,000 patients supports clinically significant benefits of bisphosphonates on the development of bone metastases and breast cancer mortality in post-menopausal women or those receiving ovarian suppression therapy. Therefore, the panel recommends that bisphosphonates (either intravenous zoledronic acid or oral clodronate) are considered as part of the adjuvant breast cancer treatment in this population and the potential benefits and risks discussed with relevant patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couse, Leslie J.; Chen, Dora W.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability of tablet computers in early education by investigating preschool children's ease in acclimating to tablet technology and its defectiveness in engaging them to draw. A total of 41 three- to six-year-old children were videotaped while they used the tablets. The study found significant differences in level of tablet…

  12. Exploring Higher Education's Response to the Early Childhood Education Teacher Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matczak, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative single case study attempt is to explore how one institution of higher education can be responsive in meeting the needs of a teacher shortage in early childhood education and the factors impacting (hindering and helping) the collaborative partner process of designing an Applied Bachelor's in Science Degree in Elementary Education…

  13. Qualitative Shadowing as a Research Methodology for Exploring Early Childhood Leadership in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…

  14. Exploring the Learning of Mathematics Word Problems by African Immigrant Early Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahofa, Ernest; Adendorff, Stanley; Kwenda, Chiwimbiso

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the learning of mathematics word problems by African immigrant early learners in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study and also informed the research method. Purposive sampling methods were used to select 10 African immigrant…

  15. Developmentally Appropriate Technology Practice: Exploring Myths and Perceptions of Early Childhood and Instructional Technology Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Sally; Winsor, Denise; Burkett, Candice; Allen, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The integration of technology in early childhood classrooms has become a controversial issue among professionals in this field. One issue which may influence technology in these classrooms may be perceptions of what is developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). This article explores perceptions about technology and age appropriate recommendations…

  16. Parent and Preschooler Newsletter: A Monthly Exploration of Early Childhood Topics, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkoff, Sandra, Ed.; Schwartzberg, Neala S., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document consists of 10 monthly newsletter issues, in English- and Spanish-language versions, exploring topics related to early childhood behavior and parenting. Regularly appearing features include book recommendations, "Library Resources,""Preschoolers in the Kitchen,""Kids Crafts,""Research News," and "The Health Corner." Major topics of…

  17. Exploring Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Preschool Outdoor Play: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintic, Sandra; Petty, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored how early childhood teachers' beliefs and practices influence the function of preschool outdoor play. Teachers believed that supervision was paramount. They perceived that the physical design of the outdoor environment posed limitations for planning, preparation, and implementation. Teachers' recollections of…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  19. Parent and Preschooler Newsletter: A Monthly Exploration of Early Childhood Topics, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolkoff, Sandra, Ed.; Schwartzberg, Neala S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of 10 monthly newsletter issues for 2002, in English- and Spanish-language versions, exploring topics related to early childhood behavior and parenting. Regularly appearing features include book recommendations, "Library Resources,""Preschoolers in the Kitchen,""Kids Crafts,""Research…

  20. Injuries in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Levy, Susan E.; Sabourin, Katherine R.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven; Lee, Li-Ching; Moody, Eric; Schieve, Laura A.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined caregiver-reported medically-attended injuries among 30-68 month old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to general population (POP) and non-ASD developmental disorders (DD) controls in the Study to Explore Early Development. Injuries were common in ASD cases (32.3%) as well as POP (30.2%) and DD (27.8%)…

  1. Mars-NEXT - A future step in the European exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, Agustin

    The Mars-NEXT concept represents a new mission to Mars within the Aurora Exploration Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Mars-NEXT is planned after ExoMars and before the Mars Sample Return (MSR) and includes a number of landers to establish a network on the surface of Mars, to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. The mission would be launched in 2016 onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from Kourou. The Mars-NEXT mission includes a spacecraft carrying three (or four) lander probes to be released from an hyperbolic arrival trajectory to establish a Network of stations on the surface of Mars. The carrier spacecraft would be placed into orbit and carry a few instruments to complement the Network. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis, erosion, oxidation and weathering processes to infer the geological history of the region. Characterization of the landing site area from a geosciences point of view requires a degree of mobility (instrument deployment device or robotic sampling arm). To complement the science gained from

  2. Mars-Next - a Future Step in the European Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2008-09-01

    The Mars-NEXT concept represents a new mission to Mars within the Aurora Exploration Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Mars-NEXT is planned after ExoMars and before the Mars Sample Return (MSR) and includes a number of landers to establish a network on the surface of Mars, to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. The mission would be launched in 2016 onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from Kourou. The Mars-NEXT mission includes a spacecraft carrying three (or four) lander probes to be released from an hyperbolic arrival trajectory to establish a Network of stations on the surface of Mars. The carrier spacecraft would be placed into orbit and carry a few instruments to complement the Network. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis, erosion, oxidation and weathering processes to infer the geological history of the region, as well as the astrobiological potential of each site. Characterization of the landing site area from a geosciences point of view requires a degree of mobility (instrument deployment device or robotic

  3. Mars-NEXT - A future major step in the European exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Mars-NEXT concept represents a new mission to Mars within the Exploration Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Mars-NEXT is planned after ExoMars and before the Mars Sample Return (MSR) and includes a number of landers to establish a network on the surface of Mars, to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. The mission would be launched in 2018 onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from Kourou. The Mars-NEXT mission includes a spacecraft carrying three (or four) lander probes to be released from an hyperbolic arrival trajectory to establish a Network of stations on the surface of Mars. The carrier spacecraft would be placed into orbit and carry a few instruments to complement the Network. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis, erosion, oxidation and weathering processes to infer the geological history of the region, as well as the astrobiological potential of each site. Characterization of the landing site area from a geosciences point of view requires a degree of mobility (instrument deployment device or robotic

  4. Complementing, competing, or co-operating? Exploring newspapers' portrayals of the European Parliament and national parliaments in EU affairs.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Olga

    2017-06-07

    The paper explores newspapers' portrayals of the European Parliament and national parliaments (NPs) in European Union (EU) affairs. To understand underlying perceptions of journalists, it takes public parliamentary activities and looks at their influence on parliaments' news visibility in Finland, Germany and the UK in routine periods in 2011 and 2012. This is done against the background that parliaments, regarded as ultimate legitimisers of state power, depend on the mass media to reach their citizenry. However, journalists follow their own agenda in publishing parliamentary news. In this regard, they may highlight the complementarity, competition or cooperation of parliaments in the EU's unique multi-tier environment. Overall, our results suggest that NPs correspond stronger with newsmakers' anticipation of readership interest. In addition, findings seem to support the assumption that parliaments in the EU are mostly perceived as complementary, separate legislative branches in EU decision-making.

  5. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-12-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Schroeder, Hannes; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Vinner, Lasse; Lobón, Irene; Ramirez, Oscar; Civit, Sergi; García Borja, Pablo; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Talamo, Sahra; María Fullola, Josep; Xavier Oms, Francesc; Pedro, Mireia; Martínez, Pablo; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Zilhão, João; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter–gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible. PMID:26337550

  7. Early Holocene vegetation - climate interactions in the central part of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novenko, Elena; Olchev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The new Early Holocene vegetation and climate reconstruction (approximately 10100 -7800 cal. yr. BP) for the forest zone the central European Russia are based on pollen records from three key regions located in taiga, mixed coniferous-broadleaved and broadleaved forest zones. The climatic parameters (the mean annual temperature and precipitation) and total forest coverage during the early Holocene were reconstructed using the Best Modern Analogue technique. Information about moistening conditions was revealed from reconstructions of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and potential evaporation (PET). For calculation of the annual ET and PET rates of the forest landscapes a regression model was applied. The model is based on nonlinear approximations of annual values of ET and PET provided by the Levenberg-Marquardt method using the results of numerical simulations of ET and PET carried out by a Mixfor-SVAT model for the forests with different species compositions under various thermal and moistening conditions. Mixfor-SVAT is an one-dimensional model of the energy, H2O and CO2 exchange between vertically structured mono- and multi-specific forest stands and the atmosphere (Olchev et al., 2002). Obtained results showed that the considered period was characterized by relatively low air temperatures and high precipitation compared with modern conditions. Analysis of the long-term pattern of the mean annual temperature for all three regions reveal two synchronous significant cooling periods observed in 9100-9300 cal. yr. BP and 8100-8500 cal. yr. BP as well as rapid growth of the air temperature in 8100-7800 cal. yr. BP, when the annual temperatures increased by 3°C during about 300 years. The cooling phase of 8100-8500 cal. yr. BP could be corresponded to the distinct "8.2 ka event" widely recorded across Europe. Periods of climate warming are coincided with periods of precipitation rise whereas the cool phases are characterized by its decrease. The lowest ET and PET rates

  8. Mother-Child Conversations of Emotionally Salient Events: Exploring the Functions of Emotional Reminiscing in European-American and Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Fivush, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the functional variations in mother-child conversations of emotionally salient events in European-American and Chinese families. Thirty Chinese and 31 European-American 3-year-old children and their mothers participated. Mothers were asked to discuss with their children at home two specific one-point-in-time events in which…

  9. Why does early sexual intercourse predict subsequent maladjustment? Exploring potential familial confounds.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Kelly L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have found an association between early age at first sexual intercourse and subsequent psychosocial maladjustment. Using a quasi-experimental approach, we examined the extent to which this observed association may be due to familial confounds not explored in prior research. Using a population-based cohort of Swedish adult twins (ages 19-47; N = 12,126), we examined the nature of the association between early sexual intercourse (i.e., first intercourse occurring before age 16) and various outcomes reflecting psychosocial health, including substance use, depression, criminal convictions, and adolescent childbearing. We used two methods--discordant-twin analyses and bivariate twin modeling--to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds explained observed associations. Individuals who engaged in early intercourse were at greater risk for most of the adverse psychosocial health outcomes measured in this study. However, twin pairs discordant for engaging in early intercourse did not differ significantly in their risk for psychosocial maladjustment. Our results indicated that early age at first sexual intercourse and subsequent psychosocial maladjustment may be associated because of familial factors shared by twins. Early intercourse may be associated with poor psychosocial health largely due to shared familial influences rather than through a direct causal connection. Therefore, effective and efficient interventions should address other risk factors common to early intercourse and poor psychosocial health.

  10. Exploring the relationship between cyberbullying and unnatural child death: an ecological study of twenty-four European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet risk has been recognised as a child safety problem, but evidence is insufficient to conclude that a child’s online risk exposure can lead to physical harm. This study aims to explore the ecological relationship between Internet risk exposure and unnatural child death. Methods Multiple secondary data sources were used: online exposure to content about self-harm, cyberbullying, and Internet addiction data (EU Kids Online survey, 2010); and mortality data (European Detailed Mortality Database, 2010 or the latest year if not available) of 24 European countries. Correlations were found using quasi-Poisson regression. Countries’ prevalence rates of psychiatric problems (European Social Survey Round 3 and 6, 2006 and 2012) were used to test for possible spuriousness. Results This study finds that countries with higher rates of cyberbullying were more likely to have a higher incidence of unnatural child death. A 1 percent rise in the prevalence of cyberbullying translated into a 28% increase in risk of unnatural child death (95% CI: 2%-57%). No evidence was found to substantiate confounding effect of the national prevalence of depressive symptoms or traditional bullying. Conclusions Explanations are given for the findings. We conclude that intervention programs designed to serve as precautionary measures for risk minimisation should be considered. PMID:25079144

  11. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G.; de-la-Rua, Concepcion

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations. PMID:26053041

  12. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage.

    PubMed

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G; de-la-Rua, Concepcion

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.

  13. The African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study: a qualitative exploration of similarities and differences between African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin groups in pathways to care for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-14

    This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of the reasons for differences in pathways to care and duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in the African, Caribbean and European (ACE) Pathways to Care study from the perspective of respondents to the study and their families. Ontario, Canada. Thirty-four participants in total. Twenty-five young people who had experienced a first episode of psychosis and nine family members. Participants were part of the ACE Pathways to Care study. We implemented six focus groups. Furthermore, we implemented four in-depth interviews with two African-origin young women, one Caribbean-origin woman, and one European-origin woman with lived experience of psychosis. Factors that influenced help-seeking delays across the three groups were: personal awareness of symptoms, family members' knowledge of psychotic symptoms and knowledge of mental health services. Youth and their family members described how stigma played a key role in pathways to care by stopping them from asking for help. The way in which stigma operated on the three groups' members, from feeling ashamed to feeling guilty for their mental illnesses, helped to explain differences in DUP between the groups. Guilt feelings emerged as a prominent theme among members from the African and Caribbean groups and it was not discussed in the European focus group. Delay in entering into first-episode psychosis programmes was also influenced by the stigma perceived by young people in healthcare settings. This had an impact on the therapeutic relationships, disclosure of symptoms and overall trust in the healthcare system. The findings of this paper suggest that stigma, especially internalised stigma, may operate in different ways in European-origin, African-origin and Caribbean-origin groups. These findings could inform the development of more equitable services for people in early stages of psychosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  14. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  15. Malthus, the 18th century European explorers and the principle of population in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reniers, Georges

    2012-01-01

    In the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus included twelve chapters that offer a remarkable description of population dynamics from all corners of the world. His discussion of (sub-Saharan) Africa was almost entirely based on the travel accounts of James Bruce and Mungo Park, two late eighteenth century British explorers. In this essay, I introduce these sources and discuss the insights that Malthus did, or perhaps should have, derived from both. PMID:24259758

  16. An exploration of the clinical learning experience of nursing students in nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Warne, Tony; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Tichelaar, Erna; Tomietto, Marco; Van den Bossche, Koen; Moreno, Maria Flores Vizcaya; Saarikoski, Mikko

    2010-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to develop a composite and comparative view of what factors enhance the learning experiences of student nurses whilst they are in clinical practice. The study involved students undertaking general nurse training programmes in nine Western European countries. The study focused on: (1) student nurse experiences of clinical learning environments, (2) the supervision provided by qualified nurses in clinical placements, and (3) the level of interaction between student and nurse teachers. The study utilised a validated theoretical model: the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES+T) evaluation scale. The evaluation scale has a number of sub-dimensions: Pedagogical atmosphere on the ward; Supervisory Relationships; the Leadership Style of Ward Managers; Premises of Nursing; and the Role of the Nurse Teacher. Data (N=1903) was collected from Cyprus, Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden using web-based questionnaire 2007-2008. The findings revealed that respondents were generally satisfied with their clinical placements. There was clear support for the mentorship approach; 57% of respondents had a successful mentorship experience although some 18% of respondents experienced unsuccessful supervision. The most satisfied students studied at a university college, and had at least a seven week clinical placement supported by individualised mentorship relationships. Learning to become a nurse is a multidimensional process that requires both significant time being spent working with patients and a supportive supervisory relationship. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the development of a cultural care framework for European caring science

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Elizabeth; Bach, Shirley; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Lundberg, Pranee; Law, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of a cultural care framework that seeks to inform and embrace the philosophical ideals of caring science. Following a review of the literature that identified a lack of evidence of an explicit relationship between caring science and cultural care, a number of well-established transcultural care frameworks were reviewed. Our purpose was to select one that would resonate with underpinning philosophical values of caring science and that drew on criteria generated by the European Academy of Caring Science members. A modified framework based on the work of Giger and Davidhizar was developed as it embraced many of the values such as humanism that are core to caring science practice. The proposed caring science framework integrates determinants of cultural lifeworld-led care and seeks to provide clear directions for humanizing the care of individuals. The framework is offered to open up debate and act as a platform for further academic enquiry. PMID:22171224

  18. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. JUICE: A European mission to explore the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.

    2017-09-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The mission was selected in May 2012 and adopted in November 2014. The implementation phase started in July 2015, following the selection of the prime industrial contractor, Airbus Defense and Space (Toulouse, France). Due to launch in June 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in October 2029, it will spend at least three ½ years making detailed observations of Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa.

  20. Mergers and acquisitions in Western European health care: exploring the role of financial services organizations.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Federica; Maarse, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Recent policy developments in Western European health care - for example in the Netherlands - aim to enhance efficiency and curb public expenditures by strengthening the role of private sector. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) play an important role in this respect. This article presents an analysis of 1606 acquisition deals targeting health care provider organizations in Western Europe between 1990 and 2009. We particularly investigate the role of financial services organisations as acquirers. Our analysis highlights (a) a rise of M&As in Western Europe since 2000, (b) an increase of M&As with financial service organisations acting as acquirer in absolute terms, and (c) a dominant role of the latter type of M&As in cross-border deals. To explain these developments, we make a distinction between an integration and a diversification rationale for M&As and we argue that the deals with financial services organisations in the role of acquirer are driven by a diversification rationale. We then provide arguments why health care, from the acquirer's perspective, can be considered as an interesting target in a diversification strategy and we advance reasons why health care providers may welcome this development. Although caution in drawing conclusions is needed, our findings suggest a penetration of private capital into health care provision that may be interpreted as a specific form of privatisation. Furthermore, they point to a rising internationalisation of health care. Both findings may entail far-reaching implications for health care, as they may induce both cultural privatisation and cultural internationalisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery: a comparative study of 12 European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust; Barros, Henrique; Cordier, Sylvaine; Correia, Sofia; Danileviciute, Asta; van Eijsden, Manon; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Larrañaga, Isabel; Magnus, Per; Pickett, Kate; Raat, Hein; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rouget, Florence; Rusconi, Franca; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Vrijheid, Martine; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-05-01

    An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort data. The study included data from 12 European cohorts from Denmark, England, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The cohorts included between 2434 and 99 655 pregnancies. The association between maternal education and preterm delivery (22-36 completed weeks of gestation) was reported as risk ratios, risk differences, and slope indexes of inequality with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Singleton preterm live delivery proportion varied between 3.7% and 7.5%. There were large variations between the cohorts in the distribution of education and maternal characteristics. Nevertheless, there were similar educational differences in risk of preterm delivery in 8 of the 12 cohorts with slope index of inequality varying between 2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3] and 4.0 [95% CI 1.4, 6.6] excess preterm deliveries per 100 singleton deliveries among the educationally most disadvantaged, and risk ratio between the lowest and highest education category varying from 1.4 [95% CI 1.1, 1.8] to 1.9 [95% CI 1.2, 3.1]. No associations were found in the last four cohorts. Educational disparities in preterm delivery were found all over Europe. Despite differences in the distributions of education and preterm delivery, the results were remarkably similar across the cohorts. For those few cohorts that did not follow the pattern, study and country characteristics did not explain the differences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The European Common Agricultural Policy on fruits and vegetables: exploring potential health gain from reform.

    PubMed

    Veerman, J Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2006-02-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The European Union Common Agricultural Policy keeps prices high by limiting the availability of fruits and vegetables. This policy is at odds with public health interests. We assess the potential health gain for the Dutch population of discontinuing EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables. The maximum effect of the reform was estimated by assuming that a quantity equivalent to the amount of produce withdrawn in recent years would be brought onto the market. For the calculation of the effect of consumption change on health we constructed a multi-state life table model in which consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, lung and breast. Uncertainty is quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. The reform would maximally increase the average consumption of fruits and vegetables by 1.80% (95% uncertainty interval 1.12-2.73), with an ensuing increase in life expectancy of 3.8 (2.2-5.9) days for men and 2.6 (1.5-4.2) days for women. The reform is also likely to decrease socio-economic inequalities in health. Ending EU withdrawal support for fruits and vegetables could result in a modest health gain for the Dutch population, though uncertainty in the estimates is high. A more comprehensive examination of the health effects of the EU agricultural policy could help to ensure health is duly considered in decision-making.

  3. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  4. Social and Educational Aspects of Early Childhood Education. Report of a WCOTP European Seminar (Pau, France, April 19-24, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a European seminar on early childhood education held by the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP). The 40 participants, representing ten European countries, emphasized the social and educational aspects of preschool education. The report includes three papers presented at…

  5. Learning "from Europe" and "for Europe" with David Raffe--Insights into Early Years of European Cooperation in "Vocational Education and Training Research"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kämäräinen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a picture on the contribution of David Raffe to European cooperation in the field of vocational education and training (VET). It is based on the experiences of the author and his colleagues on European events and projects in which David participated from the early 1990s until 2009. The Section 2 gives impressions of David's…

  6. Association between Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Mortality: An Explorative Study across Three European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Malmusi, Davide; Juel, Knud; Rey, Grégoire; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background To integrate immigrants into their societies, European countries have adopted different types of policies, which may influence health through both material and psychosocial determinants. Recent studies have suggested poorer health outcomes for immigrants living in countries with poorly rated integration policies. Objective To analyse mortality differences of immigrants from the same country of origin living in countries with distinct integration policy contexts. Methods From the mortality dataset collected in the Migrant Ethnic Health Observatory (MEHO) project, we chose the Netherlands (linked data from 1996-2006), France (unlinked; 2005-2007) and Denmark (linked; 1992-2001) as representatives of the inclusive, assimilationist and exclusionist policy models, respectively, based on the Migrant Integration Policy Index. We calculated for each country sex- and age-standardized mortality rates for Turkish-, Moroccan- and local-born populations aged 20-69 years. Poisson regression was used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for cross-country and within-country comparisons. The analyses were further stratified by age group and cause of death. Results Compared with their peers in the Netherlands, Turkish-born immigrants had higher all-cause mortality in Denmark (MRR men 1.92; 95% CI 1.74-2.13 and women 2.11; 1.80-2.47) but lower in France (men 0.64; 0.59-0.69 and women 0.58; 0.51-0.67). A similar pattern emerged for Moroccan-born immigrants. The relative differences between immigrants and the local-born population were also largest in Denmark and lowest in France (e.g., Turkish-born men MRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.38-1.67 and 0.62; 0.58-0.66, respectively). These patterns were consistent across all age groups, and more marked for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Although confounders and data comparability issues (e.g., French cross-sectional data) may affect the findings, this study suggests that different macro-level policy contexts may influence

  7. Exploration

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  8. The Association of Low Parental Monitoring With Early Substance Use in European American and African American Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, Erica C.; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Grant, Julia D.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Research indicates that low parental monitoring increases the risk for early substance use. Because low parental monitoring tends to co-occur with other familial and neighborhood factors, the specificity of the association is challenging to establish. Using logistic regression and propensity score analyses, we examined associations between low parental monitoring and early substance use in European American (EA) and African American (AA) girls, controlling for risk factors associated with low parental monitoring. Method: Participants were 3,133 EA and 523 AA girls from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study with data on parental monitoring assessed via self-report questionnaire, and with ages at first use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis queried in at least one of three diagnostic interviews (median ages = 15, 22, and 24 years). Results: The rate of early alcohol use was greater in EA than AA girls, whereas the proportion of AA girls reporting low parental monitoring was higher than in EA girls. EA girls who experienced low parental monitoring were at elevated risk for early alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, findings supported in both logistic regression and propensity score analyses. Evidence regarding associations between low parental monitoring and risk for early substance use was less definitive forAA girls. Conclusions: Findings highlight the role of parental monitoring in modifying risk for early substance use in EA girls. However, we know little regarding the unique effects, if any, of low parental monitoring on the timing of first substance use in AA girls. PMID:26562593

  9. Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Bollongino, R; Edwards, C J; Alt, K W; Burger, J; Bradley, D G

    2006-03-22

    We present an extensive ancient DNA analysis of mainly Neolithic cattle bones sampled from archaeological sites along the route of Neolithic expansion, from Turkey to North-Central Europe and Britain. We place this first reasonable population sample of Neolithic cattle mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in context to illustrate the continuity of haplotype variation patterns from the first European domestic cattle to the present. Interestingly, the dominant Central European pattern, a starburst phylogeny around the modal sequence, T3, has a Neolithic origin, and the reduced diversity within this cluster in the ancient samples accords with their shorter history of post-domestic accumulation of mutation.

  10. Parents’ Support and Knowledge of Their Daughters’ Lives and Females’ Early Sexual Initiation in Nine European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between early sexual initiation and parenting practices (e.g., support and knowledge) has not been tested in multiple European population-based samples using the same instrument. Methods Data provided by females (age 14-16) participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted in Austria, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Romania, Spain and Ukraine were used (n=7,466). The dependent variable was early sexual initiation (<16). The main independent variables were maternal and paternal support and knowledge of daily activities. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were run with standard error corrections and weights. Results Prevalence of early sexual initiation ranged from a low of 7% (Romania) to a high of 35% (Iceland). In bivariate analyses, maternal and paternal support were significantly negatively related to adolescent females’ early sexual initiation in a majority of countries. In models with demographic controls, parental support was significantly negatively related to early sexual initiation (AOR = 0.80 maternal, 0.74 paternal). After adding parental knowledge, early sexual initiation was no longer associated with parental support, but was significantly negatively related to parental knowledge (AOR = 0.69 maternal and paternal). These patterns held across countries. Conclusions Negative associations between parental support and early initiation were largely explained by parental knowledge, suggesting either that knowledge is more important than support or that knowledge mediates the association between support and early initiation. Providers should counsel parents regarding the importance of knowledge of their daughters’ daily lives, which may be enhanced through developing supportive relationships. PMID:22958661

  11. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  12. Exploring the utility of real-time hydrologic data for landslide early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirus, B. B.; Smith, J. B.; Becker, R.; Baum, R. L.; Koss, E.

    2017-12-01

    Early warning systems can provide critical information for operations managers, emergency planners, and the public to help reduce fatalities, injuries, and economic losses due to landsliding. For shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides early warning systems typically use empirical rainfall thresholds, whereas the actual triggering mechanism involves the non-linear hydrological processes of infiltration, evapotranspiration, and hillslope drainage that are more difficult to quantify. Because hydrologic monitoring has demonstrated that shallow landslides are often preceded by a rise in soil moisture and pore-water pressures, some researchers have developed early warning criteria that attempt to account for these antecedent wetness conditions through relatively simplistic storage metrics or soil-water balance modeling. Here we explore the potential for directly incorporating antecedent wetness into landslide early warning criteria using recent landslide inventories and in-situ hydrologic monitoring near Seattle, WA, and Portland, OR. We use continuous, near-real-time telemetered soil moisture and pore-water pressure data measured within a few landslide-prone hillslopes in combination with measured and forecasted rainfall totals to inform easy-to-interpret landslide initiation thresholds. Objective evaluation using somewhat limited landslide inventories suggests that our new thresholds based on subsurface hydrologic monitoring and rainfall data compare favorably to the capabilities of existing rainfall-only thresholds for the Seattle area, whereas there are no established rainfall thresholds for the Portland area. This preliminary investigation provides a proof-of-concept for the utility of developing landslide early warning criteria in two different geologic settings using real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements from in-situ instrumentation.

  13. Exploration

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  14. Exploration

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  15. Exploration

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  16. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds

    DOE PAGES

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M.; Sanchez, Sophie; ...

    2018-03-05

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages ofmore » development. Finally, comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.« less

  17. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds

    SciT

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M.; Sanchez, Sophie

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages ofmore » development. Finally, comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.« less

  18. A diminutive perinate European Enantiornithes reveals an asynchronous ossification pattern in early birds.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Fabien; Chiappe, Luis M; Sanchez, Sophie; Garwood, Russell J; Edwards, Nicholas P; Wogelius, Roy A; Sellers, William I; Manning, Phillip L; Ortega, Francisco; Serrano, Francisco J; Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Cuesta, Elena; Escaso, Fernando; Sanz, Jose Luis

    2018-03-05

    Fossils of juvenile Mesozoic birds provide insight into the early evolution of avian development, however such fossils are rare. The analysis of the ossification sequence in these early-branching birds has the potential to address important questions about their comparative developmental biology and to help understand their morphological evolution and ecological differentiation. Here we report on an early juvenile enantiornithine specimen from the Early Cretaceous of Europe, which sheds new light on the osteogenesis in this most species-rich clade of Mesozoic birds. Consisting of a nearly complete skeleton, it is amongst the smallest known Mesozoic avian fossils representing post-hatching stages of development. Comparisons between this new specimen and other known early juvenile enantiornithines support a clade-wide asynchronous pattern of osteogenesis in the sternum and the vertebral column, and strongly indicate that the hatchlings of these phylogenetically basal birds varied greatly in size and tempo of skeletal maturation.

  19. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    PubMed

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  20. Kilometric Scale Modeling of the North West European Shelf Seas: Exploring the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihou, K.; Polton, J.; Harle, J.; Wakelin, S.; O'Dea, E.; Holt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The North West European Shelf break acts as a barrier to the transport and exchange between the open ocean and the shelf seas. The strong spatial variability of these exchange processes is hard to fully explore using observations, and simulations generally are too coarse to simulate the fine-scale processes over the whole region. In this context, under the FASTNEt program, a new NEMO configuration of the North West European Shelf and Atlantic Margin at 1/60° (˜1.8 km) has been developed, with the objective to better understand and quantify the seasonal and interannual variability of shelf break processes. The capability of this configuration to reproduce the seasonal cycle in SST, the barotropic tide, and fine-resolution temperature profiles is assessed against a basin-scale (1/12°, ˜9 km) configuration and a standard regional configuration (7 km resolution). The seasonal cycle is well reproduced in all configurations though the fine-resolution allows the simulation of smaller scale processes. Time series of temperature at various locations on the shelf show the presence of internal waves with a strong spatiotemporal variability. Spectral analysis of the internal waves reveals peaks at the diurnal, semidiurnal, inertial, and quarter-diurnal bands, which are only realistically reproduced in the new configuration. Tidally induced pycnocline variability is diagnosed in the model and shown to vary with the spring neap cycle with mean displacement amplitudes in excess of 2 m for 30% of the stratified domain. With sufficiently fine resolution, internal tides are shown to be generated at numerous bathymetric features resulting in a complex pycnocline displacement superposition pattern.

  1. Exploring simulated early star formation in the context of the ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter haloes at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated haloes in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modelling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average, whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form haloes with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however, remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.

  2. Radial nerve palsy in mid/distal humeral fractures: is early exploration effective?

    PubMed

    Keighley, Geffrey; Hermans, Deborah; Lawton, Vidya; Duckworth, David

    2018-03-01

    Radial nerve palsies are a common complication with displaced distal humeral fractures. This case series examines the outcomes of early operative exploration and decompression of the nerve with fracture fixation with the view that this provides a solid construct for optimisation of nerve recovery. A total of 10 consecutive patients with a displaced distal humeral fracture and an acute radial nerve palsy were treated by the senior author by open reduction and internal fixation of the distal humerus and exploration and decompression of the radial nerve. Motor function and sensation of the radial nerve was assessed in the post-operative period every 2 months or until full recovery of the radial nerve function had occurred. All patients (100%) had recovery of motor and sensation function of their upper limb in the radial nerve distribution over a 12-month period. Recovery times ranged between 4 and 32 weeks, with the median time to recovery occurring at 26 weeks and the average time to full recovery being 22.9 weeks. Wrist extension recovered by an average of 3 months (range 2-26 weeks) and then finger extension started to recover 2-6 weeks after this. Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand scores ranged from 0 to 11.8 at greater than 1 year post-operatively. Our study demonstrated that early operative exploration of the radial nerve when performing an open stabilization of displaced distal humeral fractures resulted in a 100% recovery of the radial nerve. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Rare Variants in PLD3 Do Not Affect Risk for Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease in a European Consortium Cohort.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Rita; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Geerts, Nathalie; Laureys, Annelies; Dillen, Lubina; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Gelpi, Ellen; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santana, Isabel; Tsolaki, Magda; Koutroumani, Maria; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Matej, Radoslav; Rohan, Zdenek; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P; Cras, Patrick; van der Zee, Julie; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Rare variants in the phospholipase D3 gene (PLD3) were associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). We identified a missense mutation in PLD3 in whole-genome sequence data of a patient with autopsy confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and onset age of 50 years. Subsequently, we sequenced PLD3 in a Belgian early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) patient (N = 261) and control (N = 319) cohort, as well as in European EOAD patients (N = 946) and control individuals (N = 1,209) ascertained in different European countries. Overall, we identified 22 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1%, 20 missense and two splicing mutations. Burden analysis did not provide significant evidence for an enrichment of rare PLD3 variants in EOAD patients in any of the patient/control cohorts. Also, meta-analysis of the PLD3 data, including a published dataset of a German EOAD cohort, was not significant (P = 0.43; OR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.60-3.31). Consequently, our data do not support a role for PLD3 rare variants in the genetic etiology of EOAD in European EOAD patients. Our data corroborate the negative replication data obtained in LOAD studies and therefore a genetic role of PLD3 in AD remains to be demonstrated. © 2015 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Appropriateness of early management of newly diagnosed Crohn's disease in a European population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Pascal; Pittet, Valérie; Mottet, Christian; Felley, Christian; Gonvers, Jean-Jacques; Vader, John-Paul; Burnand, Bernard; Froehlich, Florian; Wolters, Frank L; Stockbrügger, Reinhold W; Michetti, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's disease Therapy (EPACT) has developed appropriateness criteria. We have applied these criteria retrospectively to the population-based inception cohort of Crohn's disease (CD) patients of the European Collaborative Study Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD). A total of 426 diagnosed CD patients from 13 European centers were enrolled at the time of diagnosis (first flare, naive patients). We used the EPACT definitions to identify 247 patients with active luminal CD. We then assessed the appropriateness of the initial drug prescription according to the EPACT criteria. Among the cohort patients 163 suffered from mild-to-moderate CD and 84 from severe CD. Among the mild-to-moderate disease group, 96 patients (59%) received an appropriate treatment, whereas for 66 patients (40%) the treatment was uncertain and in one case (1%) inappropriate. Among the severe disease group, 86% were treated medically and 14% required surgery. 59 (70%) were appropriately treated, whereas for one patient (1%) the procedure was considered uncertain and for 24 patients (29%) inappropriate. Initial treatment was appropriate in the majority of cases for non-complicated luminal CD. Inappropriate or uncertain treatment was given in a significant minority of patients, with an increased potential risk of adverse events.

  5. Early development of Science Opportunity Analysis tools for the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Frew, David; Llorente, Rosario; Costa, Marc; Almeida, Miguel; Witasse, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    JUICE is the first large mission in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE will survey the Jovian system with a special focus on three of the Galilean Moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.The mission has recently been adopted and big efforts are being made by the Science Operations Center (SOC) at the European Space and Astronomy Centre (ESAC) in Madrid for the development of tools to provide the necessary support to the Science Working Team (SWT) for science opportunity analysis and early assessment of science operation scenarios. This contribution will outline some of the tools being developed within ESA and in collaboration with the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at JPL.The Mission Analysis and Payload Planning Support (MAPPS) is developed by ESA and has been used by most of ESA's planetary missions to generate and validate science observation timelines for the simulation of payload and spacecraft operations. MAPPS has the capability to compute and display all the necessary geometrical information such as the distances, illumination angles and projected field-of-view of an imaging instrument on the surface of the given body and a preliminary setup is already in place for the early assessment of JUICE science operations.NAIF provides valuable SPICE support to the JUICE mission and several tools are being developed to compute and visualize science opportunities. In particular the WebGeoCalc and Cosmographia systems are provided by NAIF to compute time windows and create animations of the observation geometry available via traditional SPICE data files, such as planet orbits, spacecraft trajectory, spacecraft orientation, instrument field-of-view "cones" and instrument footprints. Other software tools are being developed by ESA and other collaborating partners to support the science opportunity analysis for all missions, like the SOLab (Science Operations Laboratory) or new interfaces for observation definitions and

  6. North Atlantic early 20th century warming and impact on European summer: Mechanisms and Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    During the last century, substantial climate variations in the North Atlantic have occurred, such as the warmings in the 1920s and 1990s. Such variations are considered to be part of the variability known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Variations (AMV) and have a strong impact on local climates such as European summers. Here a synthesis of previous works is presented which describe the occurrence of the warming in the 1920s in the North Atlantic and its impact on the European summer climate (Müller et al. 2014, 2015). For this the 20th century reanalysis (20CR) and 20CR forced ocean experiments are evaluated. It can be shown that the North Atlantic Current and Sub-Polar Gyre are strengthened as a result of an increased pressure gradient over the North Atlantic. Concurrently, Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) increase. The intensified NAC, SPG, and AMOC redistribute sub-tropical water into the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, thereby increasing observed and modelled temperature and salinity during the 1920s. Further a mechanism is proposed by which North Atlantic heat fluxes associated with the AMV modulate European decadal summer climate (Ghosh et al. 2016). By using 20CR, it can be shown that multi-decadal variations in the European summer temperature are associated to a linear baroclinic atmospheric response to the AMV-related surface heat flux. This response induce a sea level pressure structure modulating meridional temperature advection over north-western Europe and Blocking statistics over central Europe. This structure is shown to be the leading mode of variability and is independent of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation. Ghosh, R., W.A. Müller, J. Bader, and J. Baehr, 2016: Impact of observed North Atlantic multidecadal variations to European summer climate: A linear baroclinic response to surface heating. Clim. Dyn. doi:10.10007/s00382-016-3283-4 Müller W. A., D. Matei, M. Bersch, J. H. Jungclaus, H. Haak, K

  7. Exploring the Role of Social Memory of Floods for Designing Flood Early Warning Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Grabs, Thomas; Halldin, Sven; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems are an important tool for natural disaster mitigation practices, especially for flooding events. Warnings rely on near-future forecasts to provide time to take preventive actions before a flood occurs, thus reducing potential losses. However, on top of the technical capacities, successful warnings require an efficient coordination and communication among a range of different actors and stakeholders. The complexity of integrating the technical and social spheres of warning systems has, however, resulted in system designs neglecting a number of important aspects such as social awareness of floods thus leading to suboptimal results. A better understanding of the interactions and feedbacks among the different elements of early warning systems is therefore needed to improve their efficiency and therefore social resilience. When designing an early warning system two important decisions need to be made regarding (i) the hazard magnitude at and from which a warning should be issued and (ii) the degree of confidence required for issuing a warning. The first decision is usually taken based on the social vulnerability and climatic variability while the second one is related to the performance (i.e. accuracy) of the forecasting tools. Consequently, by estimating the vulnerability and the accuracy of the forecasts, these two variables can be optimized to minimize the costs and losses. Important parameters with a strong influence on the efficiency of warning systems such as social awareness are however not considered in their design. In this study we present a theoretical exploration of the impact of social awareness on the design of early warning systems. For this purpose we use a definition of social memory of flood events as a proxy for flood risk awareness and test its effect on the optimization of the warning system design variables. Understanding the impact of social awareness on warning system design is important to make more robust warnings that can

  8. Exploring Academic Motivation, Academic Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Teaching in Pre-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore academic motivation, academic self-efficacy and attitudes toward teaching in pre-service early childhood education teachers and to investigate the relationships among those variables. Data were gathered through questionnaires administered to 251 pre-service early childhood education teachers. Results indicated…

  9. A Qualitative Case Study Exploring an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Program Linking Teacher Efficacy, Engagement, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrant, Lisa Y.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eleven early childhood educators who participated in a professional development program. The study was guided by the central research question, "What are the perceptions of early childhood educators on the professional development program as it relates to teacher efficacy, engagement,…

  10. Early Childhood Teachers' Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Potential Predictors of Depression, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Grant, Ashley A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Early childhood teachers' psychological well-being influences the nurturing and learning classroom climate in early care and education as well as children's development. However, less is known about predictors of teachers' psychological well-being in preschool. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between…

  11. An enigmatic crocodyliform tooth from the bauxites of western Hungary suggests hidden mesoeucrocodylian diversity in the Early Cretaceous European archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Márton; Makádi, László

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Cretaceous of southern Europe was characterized by an archipelago setting with faunas of mixed composition of endemic, Laurasian and Gondwanan elements. However, little is known about the relative timing of these faunal influences. The Lower Cretaceous of East-Central Europe holds a great promise for understanding the biogeographic history of Cretaceous European biotas because of the former proximity of the area to Gondwana (as part of the Apulian microcontinent). However, East-Central European vertebrates are typically poorly known from this time period. Here, we report on a ziphodont crocodyliform tooth discovered in the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Alsópere Bauxite Formation of Olaszfalu, western Hungary. Methods. The morphology of the tooth is described and compared with that of other similar Cretaceous crocodyliforms. Results. Based on the triangular, slightly distally curved, constricted and labiolingually flattened crown, the small, subequal-sized true serrations on the carinae mesially and distally, the longitudinal fluting labially, and the extended shelves along the carinae lingually the tooth is most similar to some peirosaurid, non-baurusuchian sebecosuchian, and uruguaysuchid notosuchians. In addition, the paralligatorid Wannchampsus also possesses similar anterior teeth, thus the Hungarian tooth is referred here to Mesoeucrocodylia indet. Discussion. Supposing a notosuchian affinity, this tooth is the earliest occurrence of the group in Europe and one of the earliest in Laurasia. In case of a paralligatorid relationship the Hungarian tooth would represent their first European record, further expanding their cosmopolitan distribution. In any case, the ziphodont tooth from the Albian bauxite deposit of western Hungary belongs to a group still unknown from the Early Cretaceous European archipelago and therefore implies a hidden diversity of crocodyliforms in the area. PMID:26339542

  12. Exploration

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  13. Moon and Mars gravity environment during parabolic flights: a new European approach to prepare for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Clervoy, Jean-Fran; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe; Rosier, Patrice

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballis-tic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 more than fifty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 600 experiments were conducted spanning several fields in Physical Sciences and Life Sciences, namely Fluid Physics, Combustion Physics, Ma-terial Sciences, fundamental Physics and Technology tests, Human Physiology, cell and animal Biology, and technical tests of Life Sciences instrumentation. Since 1997, ESA uses the Airbus A300 'Zero G', the largest airplane in the world used for this type of experimental research flight and managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the French space agency CNES. From 2010 onwards, ESA and Novespace will offer the possibility of flying Martian and Moon parabolas during which reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars will be achieved repetitively for periods of more than 20 seconds. Scientists are invited to submit experiment proposals to be conducted at these partial gravity levels. This paper presents the technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 Zero-G aircraft used by ESA to support and conduct investigations at Moon-, Mars-and micro-gravity levels to prepare research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions. Some Physiology and Technology experiments performed during past ESA campaigns at 0, 1/6 an 1/3 g are presented to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations.

  14. Rewriting the Central European Early Bronze Age Chronology: Evidence from Large-Scale Radiocarbon Dating

    PubMed Central

    Knipper, Corina; Friedrich, Ronny; Kromer, Bernd; Lindauer, Susanne; Radosavljević, Jelena; Wittenborn, Fabian; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the 1920s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases (Bronze A1 and A2), which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of the early radiocarbon dates from the cemetery of Singen, southern Germany, the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe was originally dated around 2300/2200 BC and the transition to more complex casting techniques (i.e., Bronze A2) around 2000 BC. On the basis of 140 newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg (Bavaria) and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development. We are now able to date the beginning of the Early Bronze Age to around 2150 BC and its end to around 1700 BC. Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze (Bz) A1 and Bronze (Bz) A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from 1900–1700 BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology. PMID:26488413

  15. Marine data management: from early explorers to e-infrastructures (Ian McHarg Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Ocean observations have been made for as long as Man has been exploring the seas. Early Phoenician and Viking explorers developed extensive knowledge of currents, tides and weather patterns that they shared directly with their peers. Eighteenth century log books from whaling ships and the voyages of explorers, such as Captain Cook, documented sea conditions and weather patterns, and it is these records that are used today to extend oceanographic records back to a time before systematic observing of the ocean began. This historical information is now being used to address the grand challenges being faced by Society in the 21st century in ways that the 18th century seafarers could never have imagined. Systematic ocean observation and the science of modern oceanography began in the late 19th century with the voyages of HMS Challenger. Since these early scientific cruises ocean observation has become more and more sophisticated. Increasingly diverse types of equipment mounted on different types of platforms are generating huge amounts of data delivered in a variety of formats and conforming to a range of standards and best practice. It is this heterogeneity of marine data that has presented one of the greatest challenges for the modern researcher. As marine research becomes increasingly international, cross-disciplinary and multiscale, it presents new and more complex challenges for data stewardship. Increasingly large volumes of interoperable data are needed to address fundamental questions such as the assessment of Man's impact on the marine environment or the sustainable exploitation of available marine resources whilst maintaining the good environmental status of the ocean. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the acquisition and sharing of information about the marine environment from the earliest explorers to the modern day. It will look at some of the challenges faced by today's marine researcher seeking to make use of multidisciplinary and

  16. Pre- and post-testing counseling considerations for the provision of expanded carrier screening: exploration of European geneticists' views.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Sandra; Chokoshvili, Davit; Vears, Danya F; De Paepe, Anne; Borry, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Carrier screening is generally performed with the aim of identifying healthy couples at risk of having a child affected with a monogenic disorder to provide them with reproductive options. Expanded carrier screening (ECS), which provides the opportunity for multiple conditions to be screened in one test, offers a more cost-effective and comprehensive option than screening for single disorders. However, implementation of ECS at a population level would have implications for genetic counseling practice. We conducted semi-structured interviews with sixteen European clinical and molecular geneticists with expertise in carrier screening to explore their views on the implementation of ECS in the clinical setting. Using inductive content analysis, we identified content categories relevant to the pre- and post-test settings. Participants believed ECS would ideally be targeted at couples before pregnancy. There was some disagreement regarding the acceptability of performing ECS in individuals, with several participants actively opposing individual-based screening. In addition, participants discussed the importance of ensuring informed and voluntary participation in ECS, recommending measures to minimize external pressure on prospective parents to undergo testing. A need for adequate counseling to foster informed, autonomous reproductive decision-making and provide support for couples found to be at risk was emphasized. Practical challenges in optimizing pre-test education and post-test counseling should not be underestimated and they should be carefully addressed before implementing ECS in the clinical setting.

  17. The European Lead Factory: A Blueprint for Public-Private Partnerships in Early Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M; de Vlieger, Jon S B; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public-private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time.

  18. The European Lead Factory: A Blueprint for Public–Private Partnerships in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Karawajczyk, Anna; Orrling, Kristina M.; de Vlieger, Jon S. B.; Rijnders, Ton; Tzalis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    The European Lead Factory (ELF) is a public–private partnership (PPP) that provides researchers in Europe with a unique platform for translation of innovative biology and chemistry into high-quality starting points for drug discovery. It combines an exceptional collection of small molecules, high-throughput screening (HTS) infrastructure, and hit follow-up capabilities to advance research projects from both private companies and publicly funded researchers. By active interactions with the wider European life science community, ELF connects and unites bright ideas, talent, and experience from several disciplines. As a result, ELF is a unique, collaborative lead generation engine that has so far resulted in >4,500 hit compounds with a defined biological activity from 83 successfully completed HTS and hit evaluation campaigns. The PPP has also produced more than 120,000 novel innovative library compounds that complement the 327,000 compounds contributed by the participating pharmaceutical companies. Intrinsic to its setup, ELF enables breakthroughs in areas with unmet medical and societal needs, where no individual entity would be able to create a comparable impact in such a short time. PMID:28154815

  19. Parallel paleogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Mark; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Mallick, Swapan; Pósa, Annamária; Stégmár, Balázs; Keerl, Victoria; Rohland, Nadin; Stewardson, Kristin; Ferry, Matthew; Michel, Megan; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Harney, Eadaoin; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Llamas, Bastien; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Köhler, Kitti; Oross, Krisztián; Bondár, Mária; Marton, Tibor; Osztás, Anett; Jakucs, János; Paluch, Tibor; Horváth, Ferenc; Csengeri, Piroska; Koós, Judit; Sebők, Katalin; Anders, Alexandra; Raczky, Pál; Regenye, Judit; Barna, Judit P.; Fábián, Szilvia; Serlegi, Gábor; Toldi, Zoltán; Nagy, Emese Gyöngyvér; Dani, János; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, György; Márk, László; Melegh, Béla; Bánfai, Zsolt; Domboróczki, László; Fernández-Eraso, Javier; Mujika-Alustiza, José Antonio; Fernández, Carmen Alonso; Echevarría, Javier Jiménez; Bollongino, Ruth; Orschiedt, Jörg; Schierhold, Kerstin; Meller, Harald; Cooper, Alan; Burger, Joachim; Bánffy, Eszter; Alt, Kurt W.; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Haak, Wolfgang; Reich, David

    2017-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies have established that Neolithic European populations were descended from Anatolian migrants1–8 who received a limited amount of admixture from resident hunter-gatherers3–5,9. Many open questions remain, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of population interactions and admixture during the Neolithic period. Using the highest-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA data set assembled to date—a total of 180 samples, 130 newly reported here, from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic of Hungary (6000–2900 BCE, n = 100), Germany (5500–3000 BCE, n = 42), and Spain (5500–2200 BCE, n = 38)—we investigate the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe. We find that genetic diversity was shaped predominantly by local processes, with varied sources and proportions of hunter-gatherer ancestry among the three regions and through time. Admixture between groups with different ancestry profiles was pervasive and resulted in observable population transformation across almost all cultural transitions. Our results shed new light on the ways that gene flow reshaped European populations throughout the Neolithic period and demonstrate the potential of time-series-based sampling and modeling approaches to elucidate multiple dimensions of historical population interactions. PMID:29144465

  20. Exploring the early steps of aggregation of amyloid-forming peptide KFFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    It has been shown recently that even a tetrapeptide can form amyloid fibrils sharing all the characteristics of amyloid fibrils built from large proteins. Recent experimental studies also suggest that the toxicity observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is not only related to the mature fibrils themselves, but also to the soluble oligomers formed early in the process of fibrillogenesis. This raises the interest in studying the early steps of the aggregation process. Although fibril formation follows the nucleation-condensation process, characterized by the presence of lag phase, the exact pathways remain to be determined. In this study, we used the activation-relaxation technique and a generic energy model to explore the process of self-assembly and the structures of the resulting aggregates of eight KFFE peptides. Our simulations show, starting from different states with a preformed antiparallel dimer, that eight chains can self-assemble to adopt, with various orientations, four possible distant oligomeric well-aligned structures of similar energy. Two of these structures show a double-layer β-sheet organization, in agreement with the structure of amyloid fibrils as observed by x-ray diffraction; another two are mixtures of dimers and trimers. Our results also suggest that octamers are likely to be below the critical size for nucleation of amyloid fibrils for small peptides.

  1. ESSC-ESF position paper--science-driven scenario for space exploration: report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC).

    PubMed

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella; Beebe, Reta; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Blamont, Jacques; Blanc, Michel; Bonnet, Roger; Brucato, John R; Chassefière, Eric; Coradini, Angioletta; Crawford, Ian; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Falcke, Heino; Gerzer, Rupert; Grady, Monica; Grande, Manuel; Haerendel, Gerhard; Horneck, Gerda; Koch, Bernhard; Lobanov, Andreï; Lopez-Moreno, José J; Marco, Roberto; Norsk, Peter; Rothery, Dave; Swings, Jean-Pierre; Tropea, Cam; Ulamec, Stephan; Westall, Frances; Zarnecki, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December 2005 Ministerial Conference of ESA Member States, held in Berlin. A first interim report was presented to ESA at the second stakeholders meeting on 30 and 31 May 2005. A second draft report was made available at the time of the final science stakeholders meeting on 16 September 2005 in order for ESA to use its recommendations to prepare the Executive proposal to the Ministerial Conference. The final ESSC report on that activity came a few months after the Ministerial Conference (June 2006) and attempted to capture some elements of the new situation after Berlin, and in the context of the reduction in NASA's budget that was taking place at that time; e.g., the postponement sine die of the Mars Sample Return mission. At the time of this study, ESSC made it clear to ESA that the timeline imposed prior to the Berlin Conference had not allowed for a proper consultation of the relevant science community and that this should be corrected in the near future. In response to that recommendation, ESSC was asked again in the summer of 2006 to initiate a broad consultation to define a science-driven scenario for the Aurora Programme. This exercise ran between October 2006 and May 2007. ESA provided the funding for staff support, publication costs, and costs related to meetings of a Steering Group, two meetings of a larger ad hoc group (7 and 8 December 2006 and 8 February 2007), and a final scientific workshop on 15 and 16 May 2007 in Athens. As a result of these meetings a draft report was produced and examined by the Ad Hoc Group. Following their endorsement of the report and its approval by the plenary meeting of the ESSC, the draft report was externally refereed, as is now normal practice

  2. ESSC-ESF Position Paper-Science-Driven Scenario for Space Exploration: Report from the European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worms, Jean-Claude; Lammer, Helmut; Barucci, Antonella; Beebe, Reta; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Blamont, Jacques; Blanc, Michel; Bonnet, Roger; Brucato, John R.; Chassefière, Eric; Coradini, Angioletta; Crawford, Ian; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Falcke, Heino; Gerzer, Rupert; Grady, Monica; Grande, Manuel; Haerendel, Gerhard; Horneck, Gerda; Koch, Bernhard; Lobanov, Andreï; Lopez-Moreno, José J.; Marco, Robert; Norsk, Peter; Rothery, Dave; Swings, Jean-Pierre; Tropea, Cam; Ulamec, Stephan; Westall, Frances; Zarnecki, John

    2009-02-01

    In 2005 the then ESA Directorate for Human Spaceflight, Microgravity and Exploration (D-HME) commissioned a study from the European Science Foundation's (ESF) European Space Sciences Committee (ESSC) to examine the science aspects of the Aurora Programme in preparation for the December 2005 Ministerial Conference of ESA Member States, held in Berlin. A first interim report was presented to ESA at the second stakeholders meeting on 30 and 31 May 2005. A second draft report was made available at the time of the final science stakeholders meeting on 16 September 2005 in order for ESA to use its recommendations to prepare the Executive proposal to the Ministerial Conference. The final ESSC report on that activity came a few months after the Ministerial Conference (June 2006) and attempted to capture some elements of the new situation after Berlin, and in the context of the reduction in NASA's budget that was taking place at that time; e.g., the postponement sine die of the Mars Sample Return mission. At the time of this study, ESSC made it clear to ESA that the timeline imposed prior to the Berlin Conference had not allowed for a proper consultation of the relevant science community and that this should be corrected in the near future. In response to that recommendation, ESSC was asked again in the summer of 2006 to initiate a broad consultation to define a science-driven scenario for the Aurora Programme. This exercise ran between October 2006 and May 2007. ESA provided the funding for staff support, publication costs, and costs related to meetings of a Steering Group, two meetings of a larger ad hoc group (7 and 8 December 2006 and 8 February 2007), and a final scientific workshop on 15 and 16 May 2007 in Athens. As a result of these meetings a draft report was produced and examined by the Ad Hoc Group. Following their endorsement of the report and its approval by the plenary meeting of the ESSC, the draft report was externally refereed, as is now normal practice

  3. Preliminary results of the search for possible Martian landing sites to be considered for future European exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.

    2007-08-01

    The recently adopted European Space Policy aims at expanding and coordinating the role and activities of Europe's space actors with the purpose of increasing both scientific knowledge in selected space domains and the European presence in the Solar System, as well as optimising the relevant societal benefits. With our Moon and in particular Mars as primary targets of exploration goals for the Solar System, and following a number of very successful orbital missions performing detailed remote sensing and mapping of these planetary bodies, probe landings on the surface of the Moon and Mars represent the next stepping stone of the exploration of our close planetary environment. Along with developing the hardware capabilities required for Europe to reach such ambitious goals, it therefore becomes increasingly important to pinpoint with precision a number of landing sites well suited for the safety and scientific success of future robotic missions. Focusing on Mars, and although a number of candidate landing sites and associated catalogs with available scientific justification already exist, the results being obtained by orbiters such as Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter are fundamentally transforming our knowledge of the planet's surface, which in turns highlights the need to review, update and revise the candidate sites for future landing missions on Mars. Detailed investigations of possible future Martian landing sites for European missions are ongoing, based on the wealth of scientific data and high-resolution mapping products available. In order to support the identification of suitable sites, various mapping products (geological, hyperspectral and compositional) can be consolidated, and various areas of Mars identified in the recent scientific literature as primary targets for landing can be taken into account for further, refined assessment of their suitability for landing. Seasonal and climatic effects potentially influencing landing shall also be

  4. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to research scientists. The Shaw Institute for Field Training (SIFT) program combines introductory field-skills training with research assistance opportunities, and the subsequent Tyson Environmental Research Fellowships (TERF) program provides immersive internships on university field station–based research teams. In a longitudinal mixed-methods study grounded in social cognitive career theory, changes in youth perspectives were measured during program progression from 10th grade through college, evaluating the efficacy of encouraging career path entry. Results indicate SIFT provided self-knowledge and career perspectives more aligned with reality. During SIFT, differences were found between SIFT-only participants compared with those who progressed to TERF. Transition from educational activities to fieldwork with scientists was a pivotal moment at which data showed decreased or increased interest and confidence. Continuation to TERF provided deeper relationships with role models who gave essential early-career support. Our study indicates the two-stage apprenticeship structure influenced persistence in pursuit of an environmental research career pathway. Recommendations for other precollege environmental career–exploration programs are presented. PMID:27909017

  5. Exploration

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  6. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  7. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    yet been developed. Looking ahead, it is recognized that these planetary protection policies will apply to both governmental and non-governmental entities for the more than 100 countries that are signatories to the Outer SpaceTreaty. Fortunately, planetary protection controls for human missions are supportive of many other important mission needs, such as maximizing closed-loop and recycling capabilities to minimize mass required, minimizing exposure of humans to planetary materials for multiple health reasons, and minimizing contamination of planetary samples and environments during exploration and science activities. Currently, there is progress on a number of fronts in translating the basic COSPAR PP Principles and Implementation Guidelines into information that links with early engineering and process considerations. For example, an IAA Study Group on Planetary Protection and Human Missions is engaging robotic and human mission developers and scientists in exploring detailed technical, engineering and operational approaches by which planetary protection objectives can be accomplished for human missions in synergism with robotic exploration and in view of other constraints. This on-going study aims to highlight important information for the early stages of planning, and identify key research and technology development (R&TD) areas for further consideration and work. Such R&TD challenges provide opportunities for individuals, institutions and agencies of emerging countries to be involved in international exploration efforts. In January 2014, the study group presented an Interim Report to the IAA Heads of Agencies Summit in Washington DC. Subsequently, the group has continued to work on expanding the initial technical recommendations and findings, focusing especially on information useful to mission architects and designers as they integrate PP considerations in their varied plans-- scientific, commercial and otherwise. Already the findings and recommendations

  9. Exploring Parental Involvement in Early Years Education in China: Development and Validation of the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and validated an instrument, the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS), that can be widely used in both local and international contexts to assess Chinese parental involvement in early childhood education. The study was carried out in two stages: (1) focus group interviews were conducted with 41 teachers and 35…

  10. Proton Therapy for Craniopharyngioma - An Early Report from a Single European Centre.

    PubMed

    Ajithkumar, T; Mazhari, A-L; Stickan-Verfürth, M; Kramer, P-H; Fuentes, C-S; Lambert, J; Thomas, H; Müller, H; Fleischhack, G; Timmermann, B

    2018-05-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) is being increasingly used for craniopharyngioma. We describe our early outcome of patients treated with PBT. Between August 2013 and July 2016, 18 patients with craniopharyngiomas were treated with 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in 30 fractions over 6 weeks at our centre. The early outcome of 16 patients included in a registry study was analysed. Radiological response was assessed by RECIST criteria and the disease- and treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the CTCAE 4.0. All patients are alive at a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range 9.2-70.6 months) from initial diagnosis. The median age at PBT was 10.2 years (range 5.4-46.9 years). One patient progressed 8.7 months after PBT and subsequently had complete resection of the tumour. At a median follow-up of 18.4 months after PBT, five patients remained in complete remission, four in partial remission and seven with stable disease. The most common adverse effects during PBT were grade 1 (cutaneous in seven patients and fatigue in six patients). There were no treatment-related grade 3 toxicities. Our early results are encouraging and comparable with the limited literature on PBT for craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Amplitude of travelling front as inferred from 14C predicts levels of genetic admixture among European early farmers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fabio; Vander Linden, Marc

    2017-09-20

    Large radiocarbon datasets have been analysed statistically to identify, on the one hand, the dynamics and tempo of dispersal processes and, on the other, demographic change. This is particularly true for the spread of farming practices in Neolithic Europe. Here we combine the two approaches and apply them to a new, extensive dataset of 14,535 radiocarbon dates for the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods across the Near East and Europe. The results indicate three distinct demographic regimes: one observed in or around the centre of farming innovation and involving a boost in carrying capacity; a second appearing in regions where Mesolithic populations were well established; and a third corresponding to large-scale migrations into previously essentially unoccupied territories, where the travelling front is readily identified. This spatio-temporal patterning linking demographic change with dispersal dynamics, as displayed in the amplitude of the travelling front, correlates and predicts levels of genetic admixture among European early farmers.

  12. Exploring dementia management attitudes in primary care: a key informant survey to primary care physicians in 25 European countries.

    PubMed

    Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Vinker, Shlomo; Koskela, Tuomas H; Frese, Thomas; Buono, Nicola; Soler, Jean Karl; Ahrensberg, Jette; Asenova, Radost; Foguet Boreu, Quintí; Ceyhun Peker, Gülsen; Collins, Claire; Hanževački, Miro; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Iftode, Claudia; Kurpas, Donata; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Lichtwarck, Bjørn; Petek, Davorina; Pinto, Daniel; Schrans, Diego; Streit, Sven; Tang, Eugene Yee Hing; Tatsioni, Athina; Torzsa, Péter; Unalan, Pemra C; van Marwijk, Harm; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-09-01

    Strategies for the involvement of primary care in the management of patients with presumed or diagnosed dementia are heterogeneous across Europe. We wanted to explore attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) when managing dementia: (i) the most popular cognitive tests, (ii) who had the right to initiate or continue cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine treatment, and (iii) the relationship between the permissiveness of these rules/guidelines and PCP's approach in the dementia investigations and assessment. Key informant survey. Primary care practices across 25 European countries. Four hundred forty-five PCPs responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of the informants and the responses to the survey. Two by two contingency tables with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the association between categorical variables. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association of multiple variables (age class, gender, and perceived prescription rules) with the PCPs' attitude of "trying to establish a diagnosis of dementia on their own." Discrepancies between rules/guidelines and attitudes to dementia management was found in many countries. There was a strong association between the authorization to prescribe dementia drugs and pursuing dementia diagnostic work-up (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% CI 2.28-5.23). Differing regulations about who does what in dementia management seemed to affect PCP's engagement in dementia investigations and assessment. PCPs who were allowed to prescribe dementia drugs also claimed higher engagement in dementia work-up than PCPs who were not allowed to prescribe.

  13. Exploring the Relationship Between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence From 10 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic regression and in relative indexes of inequality. Data obtained from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, Wave 1, Release 2) included 22,777 men and women (aged 50–104 years) from 10 European countries. Late-life depression was measured using the EURO-D scale and corresponding clinical cut point. Absolute deprivation was measured using gross domestic product and median household income at the country level and socioeconomic status at the individual level. Relative deprivation was measured by Gini coefficients at the country level and educational attainment at the individual level. Results: Rates of depression ranged from 18.10% in Denmark to 36.84% in Spain reflecting a clear north–south gradient. Measures of absolute and relative deprivation were significant in predicting depression at both country and individual levels. Findings suggest that the adverse impact of societal inequality cannot be overcome by increased individual-level or country-level income. Increases in individual-level income did not mitigate the effect of country-level relative deprivation. Implications: Mental health disparities persist throughout later life whereby persons exposed to higher levels of country-level inequality suffer greater morbidity compared with those in countries with less inequality. Cross-national variation in the relationship between inequality and depression illuminates the need for further research. PMID:19515635

  14. Explicating how parent-child communication increases Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance Use.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Yang, Sijia

    2014-08-01

    This study used primary socialization theory and a focus theory of normative conduct to examine whether anti-substance-use norms mediated targeted parent-child communication against substance (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana) use's effects on Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance use. Further, this study investigated whether familism interacted with targeted parent-child communication to predict anti-substance-use norms, and whether this mediated moderation model functioned differently for Latino and European American early adolescents. Self-reported longitudinal survey data were collected from 6th-8th grade students (N = 627), attending rural IL public schools. Multigroup mediated moderation analyses revealed that as Latino and European American early adolescents engaged in targeted mother-child communication against substance use, they were more likely to develop anti-substance-use parent injunctive norms, and in turn, more likely to report anti-substance-use personal norms. Thus, they were more likely to report that if their friend used substances, they would talk to their friend, seek help from others, and end the friendship. They were, however, less likely to ignore the friend's substance use. Familism was not a significant moderator, and the hypothesized effects did not differ for Latino and European American early adolescents. The results suggest that parents of Latino and European American adolescents may discourage substance use by engaging in targeted parent-child communication, which may indirectly benefit their children's friends, as well.

  15. Work related stress and European policy--a comparative exploration of contextual stressors in the rehabilitation sector in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Wells, John; Denny, Margaret; Cunningham, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Dealing with work related stress is a declared priority of European Union mental health policy. A particularly under-researched sector in this regard is the community vocational support sector for people with mental health and intellectual disability problems. To report on the organisational profile of the vocational support and rehabilitation sector for people with mental health and intellectual disabilities as this relates to occupational stress, in five European countries (Austria, Ireland, Italy, Romania and UK). A sector profile questionnaire was distributed to representative organisations in five countries and a short face-to-face survey was conducted with 25 local managers (five from each country) to draw up a profile and facilitate a comparative description and analysis. It was found that there is no national and European data collected at any level in this sector upon which to base effective policy interventions to combat occupational stress specific to professionals working in this sector. Results indicate that the sector in a number of the countries sampled does not have effective mechanisms in place to deal with occupational stress. Developing effective transnational occupational stress management policy that supports staff working in this sector and measuring its success is greatly impaired by a failure to effectively define the purpose of the sector and collect and collate national data to support it. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  16. Explorers

    Atmosphere Explorers Patrick Megonigal Melissa McCormick Dennis Whigham Curator and Soil Ecologist Soil Scientist Brigham Young University Sophomore Waiakea High School Hilo, Hawaii Graduate Student USDA/NRCS St. Croix Field Office National Leader for World Soil Resources USDA/NRCS Soil Scientist USDA

  17. Early Exposure to Dynamic Environments Alters Patterns of Motor Exploration throughout the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S. Lee; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J.; Rebec, George V.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed early rearing conditions on aging-related changes in mouse behavior. Two isolated-housing groups, Running Wheel (IHRW) and Empty Cage (IHEC), were compared against two enriched environments, Static (EEST) and Dynamic (EEDY), both of which included toys and other mice. For EEDY, the location of toys and sources of food and water changed daily, but remained constant for EEST. All mice, randomly assigned to one of the four groups at ~4 weeks of age, remained in their respective environments for 25 weeks followed by single housing in empty cages. Beginning at ~40 weeks of age, all mice were tested at monthly intervals in a plus-shaped maze in which we measured the number of arm entries and the probability of entering a perpendicular arm. Despite making significantly more arm entries than any other group, IHEC mice also were less likely to turn into the left or right arm, a sign of motor inflexibility. Both EEDY and EEST mice showed enhanced turning relative to IHRW and IHEC groups, but only EEDY mice maintained their turning performance for up to ~100 weeks of age. EEDY and EEST mice also were unique in showing an increase in expression of the major glutamate transporter (GLT1) in striatum, but a decrease in motor cortex, suggesting a need for further assessment of environmental manipulations on long-term changes in forebrain glutamate transmission. Our behavioral results indicate that early exposure to continually changing environments, rather than socialization or exercise alone, results in life-long changes in patterns of motor exploration. PMID:26778790

  18. Fifth-Graders' Ideas about European Exploration of the New World Expressed before and after Studying This Topic within a U.S. History Course. Elementary Subjects Center Series No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere; And Others

    Prior to a curriculum unit on European exploration of the New World, a class of fifth grade U.S. history students stated what they knew (or thought was true) about the discovery of America and what they wanted to learn about it. After the unit, they reported what they had learned about the general topic of European exploration of North America. In…

  19. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  20. Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: the European Scleroderma Observational Study (ESOS)

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Ariane L; Pan, Xiaoyan; Peytrignet, Sébastien; Lunt, Mark; Hesselstrand, Roger; Mouthon, Luc; Silman, Alan; Brown, Edith; Czirják, László; Distler, Jörg H W; Distler, Oliver; Fligelstone, Kim; Gregory, William J; Ochiel, Rachel; Vonk, Madelon; Ancuţa, Codrina; Ong, Voon H; Farge, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Midtvedt, Øyvind; Jordan, Alison C; Jobanputra, Paresh; Stevens, Wendy; Moinzadeh, Pia; Hall, Frances C; Agard, Christian; Anderson, Marina E; Diot, Elisabeth; Madhok, Rajan; Akil, Mohammed; Buch, Maya H; Chung, Lorinda; Damjanov, Nemanja; Gunawardena, Harsha; Lanyon, Peter; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Jacobsen, Søren; MacGregor, Alexander J; McHugh, Neil; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Becker, Michael; Roddy, Janet; Carreira, Patricia E; Fauchais, Anne Laure; Hachulla, Eric; Hamilton, Jennifer; İnanç, Murat; McLaren, John S; van Laar, Jacob M; Pathare, Sanjay; Proudman, Susannah; Rudin, Anna; Sahhar, Joanne; Coppere, Brigitte; Serratrice, Christine; Sheeran, Tom; Veale, Douglas J; Grange, Claire; Trad, Georges-Selim; Denton, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. Methods This was a prospective, observational cohort study of early dcSSc (within three years of onset of skin thickening). Clinicians selected one of four protocols for each patient: methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclophosphamide or ‘no immunosuppressant’. Patients were assessed three-monthly for up to 24 months. The primary outcome was the change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Confounding by indication at baseline was accounted for using inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weights. As a secondary outcome, an IPT-weighted Cox model was used to test for differences in survival. Results Of 326 patients recruited from 50 centres, 65 were prescribed methotrexate, 118 MMF, 87 cyclophosphamide and 56 no immunosuppressant. 276 (84.7%) patients completed 12 and 234 (71.7%) 24 months follow-up (or reached last visit date). There were statistically significant reductions in mRSS at 12 months in all groups: −4.0 (−5.2 to −2.7) units for methotrexate, −4.1 (−5.3 to −2.9) for MMF, −3.3 (−4.9 to −1.7) for cyclophosphamide and −2.2 (−4.0 to −0.3) for no immunosuppressant (p value for between-group differences=0.346). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between protocols before (p=0.389) or after weighting (p=0.440), but survival was poorest in the no immunosuppressant group (84.0%) at 24 months. Conclusions These findings may support using immunosuppressants for early dcSSc but suggest that overall benefit is modest over 12 months and that better treatments are needed. Trial registration number NCT02339441. PMID:28188239

  1. Exploring Perceptions of Early-Career Psychiatrists About Their Relationships With the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Stark, Thomas Johann; Brownell, Alvin Keith; Brager, Nancy Patricia; Berg, Amanda; Balderston, Rhea; Lockyer, Jocelyn Margot

    2016-04-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has engaged physicians through medical education, patient care, and medical research. New conflict of interest policy has highlighted the challenges to these relationships. The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions that early career psychiatrists (e.g. those within 5 years of entering practice) have regarding their relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. Interviews were conducted and analyzed in an iterative way using a constant comparison approach in which data were collected and open coded for themes and subthemes. As new interviews were conducted, the themes were applied to data along with emergent themes and previous interviews recoded until additional interviews failed to provide new themes and thematic saturation was achieved. Through axial coding, a process of relating codes (categories and concepts) to each other, the theory was generated to explain the core variable mediating perceptions participants had about the relationship with industry. The participants described increasing frequency of experiences with industry throughout training into practice. Their perceptions developed through training, physician culture, industry promotion, and their own practices. In managing the relationship with industry, participants would either avoid interactions or engage in behaviors aimed to reduce the risk of influence. Maintaining one's professional integrity was the underlying driver used to manage the relationship with industry. Psychiatrists develop perceptions about industry through experience and observation leading them to develop their own strategies to manage these relationships while maintaining their professional integrity.

  2. Exploring the Impact of Early Decisions in Variable Ordering for Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bayliss, José Carlos; Amaya, Ivan; Conant-Pablos, Santiago Enrique; Terashima-Marín, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    When solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), it is a common practice to rely on heuristics to decide which variable should be instantiated at each stage of the search. But, this ordering influences the search cost. Even so, and to the best of our knowledge, no earlier work has dealt with how first variable orderings affect the overall cost. In this paper, we explore the cost of finding high-quality orderings of variables within constraint satisfaction problems. We also study differences among the orderings produced by some commonly used heuristics and the way bad first decisions affect the search cost. One of the most important findings of this work confirms the paramount importance of first decisions. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. We propose a simple method to improve early decisions of heuristics. By using it, performance of heuristics increases.

  3. Exploring the Impact of Early Decisions in Variable Ordering for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    When solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), it is a common practice to rely on heuristics to decide which variable should be instantiated at each stage of the search. But, this ordering influences the search cost. Even so, and to the best of our knowledge, no earlier work has dealt with how first variable orderings affect the overall cost. In this paper, we explore the cost of finding high-quality orderings of variables within constraint satisfaction problems. We also study differences among the orderings produced by some commonly used heuristics and the way bad first decisions affect the search cost. One of the most important findings of this work confirms the paramount importance of first decisions. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. Another one is the evidence that many of the existing variable ordering heuristics fail to appropriately select the first variable to instantiate. We propose a simple method to improve early decisions of heuristics. By using it, performance of heuristics increases. PMID:29681923

  4. Food provision in early childhood education and care services: Exploring how staff determine nutritional adequacy.

    PubMed

    Cole, Amanda; Vidgen, Helen; Cleland, Phoebe

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the methods, processes and strategies used by early childhood education and care (ECEC) services when determining the nutritional adequacy of food provided to children in their care. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with directors, educators and cooks at long day care services (LDCS) (n = 12) regarding nutritional adequacy, the use of tools, guidelines and checklists, menu planning and identification and management of unhealthy foods. A qualitative thematic approach was used to identify anticipated and emergent themes. Case-by-case comparisons were then made, and tables and models were created to allow for comparative analysis. LDCS relied on personal knowledge, experience and 'common sense' when determining the nutritional adequacy of the food provided to children. LDCS demonstrated a lack of awareness and use of current regulatory requirements, nutrition guidelines and recommendations, although the services were confident in providing nutrition advice to parents/carers. LDCS staff use personal knowledge and experience over evidence-based nutrition guidelines and recommendations when determining if the food provided to children is nutritionally adequate. ECEC services are recognised as important settings for obesity prevention and the development of lifetime healthy eating habits. This study highlights the complexities and inconsistencies in providing food that is nutritious and appropriate to children in care while highlighting the need to improve the use and accessibility of nutrition guidelines. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  5. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  6. Exploring the role of testosterone in the cerebellum link to neuroticism: From adolescence to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Meuwese, Rosa; Bos, Marieke G N; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has found an association between a smaller cerebellar volume and higher levels of neuroticism. The steroid hormone testosterone reduces stress responses and the susceptibility to negative mood. Together with in vitro studies showing a positive effect of testosterone on cerebellar gray matter volumes, we set out to explore the role of testosterone in the relation between cerebellar gray matter and neuroticism. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired, and indices of neurotic personality traits were assessed by administering the depression and anxiety scale of the revised NEO personality inventory and Gray's behavioural avoidance in one hundred and forty-nine healthy volunteers between 12 and 27 years of age. Results demonstrated an inverse relation between total brain corrected cerebellar volumes and neurotic personality traits in adolescents and young adults. In males, higher endogenous testosterone levels were associated with lower scores on neurotic personality traits and larger cerebellar gray matter volumes. No such relations were observed in the female participants. Analyses showed that testosterone significantly mediated the relation between male cerebellar gray matter and measures of neuroticism. Our findings on the interrelations between endogenous testosterone, neuroticism and cerebellar morphology provide a cerebellum-oriented framework for the susceptibility to experience negative emotions and mood in adolescence and early adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p < 0.05). Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women. PMID:26885396

  8. Predictive value of European Scleroderma Group Activity Index in an early scleroderma cohort.

    PubMed

    Nevskaya, Tatiana; Baron, Murray; Pope, Janet E

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effect of disease activity, as measured by the European Scleroderma Research Group Activity Index (EScSG-AI), on the risk of subsequent organ damage in a large systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohort. Of 421 SSc patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group database with disease duration of ⩽ 3 years, 197 who had no evidence of end-stage organ damage initially and available 3 year follow-up were included. Disease activity was assessed by the EScSG-AI with two variability measures: the adjusted mean EScSG-AI (the area under the curve of the EScSG-AI over the observation period) and persistently active disease/flare. Outcomes were based on the Medsger severity scale and included accrual of a new severity score (Δ ⩾ 1) overall and within organ systems or reaching a significant level of deterioration in health status. After adjustment for covariates, the adjusted mean EScSG-AI was the most consistent predictor of risk across the study outcomes over 3 years in dcSSc: disease progression defined as Δ ⩾ 1 in any major internal organ, significant decline in forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, severity of visceral disease and HAQ Disability Index worsening. In multivariate analysis, progression of lung disease was predicted solely by adjusted mean EScSG-AI, while the severity of lung disease was predicted the adjusted mean EScSG-AI, older age, modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) and initial severity. The EScSG-AI was associated with patient- and physician-assessed measures of health status and overpowered the mRSS in predicting disease outcomes. Disease activity burden quantified with the adjusted mean EScSG-AI predicted the risk of deterioration in health status and severe organ involvement in dcSSc. The EScSG-AI is more responsive when done repeatedly and averaged. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  9. Intergroup cannibalism in the European Early Pleistocene: the range expansion and imbalance of power hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Saladié, Palmira; Huguet, Rosa; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Cáceres, Isabel; Esteban-Nadal, Montserrat; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we compare cannibalism in chimpanzees, modern humans, and in archaeological cases with cannibalism inferred from evidence from the Early Pleistocene assemblage of level TD6 of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). The cannibalism documented in level TD6 mainly involves the consumption of infants and other immature individuals. The human induced modifications on Homo antecessor and deer remains suggest that butchering processes were similar for both taxa, and the remains were discarded on the living floor in the same way. This finding implies that a group of hominins that used the Gran Dolina cave periodically hunted and consumed individuals from another group. However, the age distribution of the cannibalized hominins in the TD6 assemblage is not consistent with that from other cases of exo-cannibalism by human/hominin groups. Instead, it is similar to the age profiles seen in cannibalism associated with intergroup aggression in chimpanzees. For this reason, we use an analogy with chimpanzees to propose that the TD6 hominins mounted low-risk attacks on members of other groups to defend access to resources within their own territories and to try and expand their territories at the expense of neighboring groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary demography and the population history of the European early Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Shennan, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    In this paper I propose that evolutionary demography and associated theory from human behavioral ecology provide a strong basis for explaining the available evidence for the patterns observed in the first agricultural settlement of Europe in the 7th-5th millennium cal. BC, linking together a variety of what have previously been disconnected observations and casting doubt on some long-standing existing models. An outline of relevant aspects of life history theory, which provides the foundation for understanding demography, is followed by a review of large-scale demographic patterns in the early Neolithic, which point to rapid population increase and a process of demic diffusion. More localized socioeconomic and demographic patterns suggesting rapid expansion to local carrying capacities and an associated growth of inequality in the earliest farming communities of central Europe (the Linear Pottery Culture, or LBK) are then outlined and shown to correspond to predictions of spatial population ecology and reproductive skew theory. Existing models of why it took so long for farming to spread to northern and northwest Europe, which explain the spread in terms of the gradual disruption of hunter-gatherer ways of life, are then questioned in light of evidence for population collapse at the end of the LBK. Finally, some broader implications of the study are presented, including the suggestion that the pattern of an initial agricultural boom followed by a bust may be relevant in other parts of the world.

  11. The Roles of Parental Inductions, Moral Emotions, and Moral Cognitions in Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Career Commitment among Early Career Agriculture Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in career commitment and perceived efficacy among early career agriculture teachers as well as the relationships between early career agriculture teachers' perceived efficacy and career commitment. Five areas of self-efficacy were investigated among early career agriculture teachers in…

  13. Exploring the Early Literacy Practices of Teachers of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jeanne Lovo; Hatton, Deborah; Erickson, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Practices endorsed by 192 teachers of young children with visual impairments who completed an online early literacy survey included facilitating early attachment (70%), providing early literacy support to families (74%), and providing adaptations to increase accessibility (55%). Few teachers reported using assistive technology, providing…

  14. Exploring Trauma, Loss and Healing: Spirituality, "Te Whariki" and Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Attention to spirituality is proposed to be a means of restoring and supporting well-being in early childhood educational contexts. In Aotearoa, New Zealand, the spiritual dimension is included in the early childhood curriculum "Te Whariki". This holistic approach to education supported research in three different early childhood…

  15. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  16. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Exploring the early stages of the pH-induced conformational change of influenza hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Chao; Zhao, Lifeng; Huang, Niu

    2014-10-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates the membrane fusion process of influenza virus through its pH-induced conformational change. However, it remains challenging to study its structure reorganization pathways in atomic details. Here, we first applied continuous constant pH molecular dynamics approach to predict the pK(a) values of titratable residues in H2 subtype HA. The calculated net-charges in HA1 globular heads increase from 0e (pH 7.5) to +14e (pH 4.5), indicating that the charge repulsion drives the detrimerization of HA globular domains. In HA2 stem regions, critical pH sensors, such as Glu103(2), His18(1), and Glu89(1), are identified to facilitate the essential structural reorganizations in the fusing pathways, including fusion peptide release and interhelical loop transition. To probe the contribution of identified pH sensors and unveil the early steps of pH-induced conformational change, we carried out conventional molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water with determined protonation state for each titratable residue in different environmental pH conditions. Particularly, energy barriers involving previously uncharacterized hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are identified in the fusion peptide release pathway. Nevertheless, comprehensive comparisons across HA family members indicate that different HA subtypes might employ diverse pH sensor groups along with different fusion pathways. Finally, we explored the fusion inhibition mechanism of antibody CR6261 and small molecular inhibitor TBHQ, and discovered a novel druggable pocket in H2 and H5 subtypes. Our results provide the underlying mechanism for the pH-driven conformational changes and also novel insight for anti-flu drug development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fear and Exploration in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): A Comparison of Hand-Reared and Wild-Caught Birds

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Klaus, Kristel; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6–8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage) and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration). In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research. PMID:21526000

  19. Decision Support Systems and Early Warning Solutions: a review in European context.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, V. J.; Frigerio, S.; Schenato, L.; Sterlacchini, S.; Pasuto, A.

    2012-04-01

    According to the aim of the CHANGES network, an EU funded project, research is carried out towards the improvement of the emergency management strategies for hydro-meteorological hazards under the effects of climate and the pressure of socio-economic changes. Aim supported on the need to enhance local resilience to these hazards under different scenarios, if possible by means of a multi-disciplinary and multi-hazard approach. Both requirements recognized on the scientific and practical community. In this context, the current management of hydro-meteorological hazards have posed some difficulties due to the complexity of the phenomena and the processes associated. These impacts, usually developed as a domino effect are still not properly understood and require a management strategy that combines active and passive mitigation measures. On the other hand, the every time most destructive effect of these hazards and the available information and communication techniques has also stressed the responsible authorities to prepare, develop and implement more effective safeguard plans. Finally, a combined approach to this situation depicts a research way by integrating the development and implementation of early warning systems (EWS) and contingency plans (CP), which is generally constricted by the state-of-art and particular conditions for the assessment of hazards in place. Consequently, here is presented a review of Decision Support Systems (DSS) and EWS on hydrometeorological hazards such as flash floods, debris flows and landslides as a starting point for such a research initiative. Identification of common and basic features, advantages and disadvantages are expected to derive some elements for possible developments. The review is carried from the key conclusions and recommendations identified with past experiences of testing and developing a common platform; which generally comprises workflow management modules encrypted in a DSS with GIS interface and communication

  20. Early genotoxic response and accumulation induced by waterborne copper, lead, and arsenic in European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Canalejo, Antonio; Diaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Granado-Castro, M Dolores; Cordoba, Francisco; Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Galindo-Riaño, M Dolores; Torronteras, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Cu, Pb, and As, which are among the most abundant metals in the aquatic environment, are also among the most health-threatened by causing diverse cellular injuries. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the potential early induction of genotoxic effects after waterborne Cu, Pb, and As exposure in European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, a commercial widely cultured fish, using the micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Fish were exposed under laboratory conditions to nominal solutions ranging 0-10 mg/L for 24 and 96 h. Furthermore, actual metal ion concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) in water and four fish tissues differentially related to environmental exposition and metal accumulation, i.e. the gills, liver, muscle, and brain. Dose-dependent increases of micronuclei (MNi) frequency were observed after these very short exposures; based on measured metal concentrations in water, the genotoxic effect ordered as Cu > As > Pb. Significant genotoxic effect at 0.009 mg/L Cu, 0.57 mg/L Pb, and 0.01 mg/L As was seen. For Cu and Pb these are only slightly higher, but for As it is notably lower than the USEPA criteria of maximum concentration to prevent acute toxicity in aquatic organisms. Furthermore, genotoxicity was differentially related to metal accumulation. MNi frequency correlated positively with the content of Pb in all the organs, with the content of As in liver and gills and only with the content of Cu in the brain. In conclusion, our findings raised environmental concerns because these depicted a genotoxic potential of Cu, Pb, and As after a very short exposure to low but environmentally relevant concentrations, too close to regulatory thresholds. In addition, the MN test in D. labrax could be considered an early biomarker of genotoxicity induced by these metals in fish.

  1. Simplified spacecraft vulnerability assessments at component level in early design phase at the European Space Agency's Concurrent Design Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Scott; Schäfer, Frank K.; Cardone, Tiziana; Ferreira, Ivo; Gerené, Sam; Destefanis, Roberto; Grassi, Lilith

    2016-12-01

    During recent years, the state-of-the-art risk assessment of the threat posed to spacecraft by micrometeoroids and space debris has been expanded to the analysis of failure modes of internal spacecraft components. This method can now be used to perform risk analyses for satellites to assess various failure levels - from failure of specific sub-systems to catastrophic break-up. This new assessment methodology is based on triple-wall ballistic limit equations (BLEs), specifically the Schäfer-Ryan-Lambert (SRL) BLE, which is applicable for describing failure threshold levels for satellite components following a hypervelocity impact. The methodology is implemented in the form of the software tool Particle Impact Risk and vulnerability Analysis Tool (PIRAT). During a recent European Space Agency (ESA) funded study, the PIRAT functionality was expanded in order to provide an interface to ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). The additions include a geometry importer and an OCDT (Open Concurrent Design Tool) interface. The new interface provides both the expanded geometrical flexibility, which is provided by external computer aided design (CAD) modelling, and an ease of import of existing data without the need for extensive preparation of the model. The reduced effort required to perform vulnerability analyses makes it feasible for application during early design phase, at which point modifications to satellite design can be undertaken with relatively little extra effort. The integration of PIRAT in the CDF represents the first time that vulnerability analyses can be performed in-session in ESA's CDF and the first time that comprehensive vulnerability studies can be applied cost-effectively in early design phase in general.

  2. An International Evaluation of Cognitive Reserve and Memory Changes in Early Old Age in 10 European Countries.

    PubMed

    Cadar, Dorina; Robitaille, Annie; Clouston, Sean; Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive reserve was postulated to explain individual differences in susceptibility to ageing, offering apparent protection to those with higher education. We investigated the association between education and change in memory in early old age. Immediate and delayed memory scores from over 10,000 individuals aged 65 years and older, from 10 countries of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, were modeled as a function of time in the study over an 8-year period, fitting independent latent growth models. Education was used as a marker of cognitive reserve and evaluated in association with memory performance and rate of change, while accounting for income, general health, smoking, body mass index, gender, and baseline age. In most countries, more educated individuals performed better on both memory tests at baseline, compared to those less educated. However, education was not protective against faster decline, except for in Spain for both immediate and delayed recall (0.007 [SE = 0.003] and 0.006 [SE = 0.002]), and Switzerland for immediate recall (0.006 [SE = 0.003]). Interestingly, highly educated Italian respondents had slightly faster declines in immediate recall (-0.006 [SE = 0.003]). We found weak evidence of a protective effect of education on memory change in most European samples, although there was a positive association with memory performance at individuals' baseline assessment. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of suitability of natural Polish resources for production of ceramic proppants applied in gas exploration from European shale formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanska, Joanna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-04-01

    Poland is one of few European countries undertaking innovative research towards effective exploration of hydrocarbons form shale deposits. With regard for strict geological conditions, which occur during hydraulic fracturing, it is required to apply ceramic proppants enhancing extraction of shale gas. Ceramic proppants are granules (16/30 - 70/120 Mesh) classified as propping agents. These granules located in the newly created fissures (due to injected high pressure fluid) in the shale rock, act as a prop, what enables gas flow up the well. It occurs if the proppants can resist high stress of the closing fractures. Commonly applied proppants are quartz sands used only for shallow reservoirs and fissile shales (in the USA). Whereas, the ceramic granules are proper for extraction of gas on the high depths at hard geomechanical conditions (in Europe) to increase output even by 30 - 50%. In comparison to other propping materials, this kind of proppants predominate with mechanical strength, smoother surface, lower solubility in acids and also high stability in water. Such parameters can be available through proper raw materials selection to further proppants production. The Polish ceramic proppants are produced from natural resources as kaolin, bauxite and white clay mixed with water and binders. Afterwards, the slurries are subjected to granulation in a mechanical granulator and sintered at high temperatures (1200 - 1550°C). Taking into consideration presence of geomechanical barriers, that prevent fracture propagation beyond shale formations, it is crucial to determine quality of applied natural deposits. Next step is to optimize the proppants production and select the best kind of granules, what was the aim of this research. Utility of the raw materials was estimated on basis of their particle size distribution, bulk density, specific surface area (BET) and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry). Morphology and shape were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

  5. Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload. Methods Pre-defined presentation syndromes (PS; severe acidosis or severe shock, respiratory, neurological) and predominant terminal clinical events (cardiovascular collapse, respiratory, neurological) were described by randomized arm (bolus versus control) in 3,141 severely ill febrile children with shock enrolled in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial. Landmark analyses were used to compare early mortality in treatment groups, conditional on changes in shock and hypoxia parameters. Competing risks methods were used to estimate cumulative incidence curves and sub-hazard ratios to compare treatment groups in terms of terminal clinical events. Results Of 2,396 out of 3,141 (76%) classifiable participants, 1,647 (69%) had a severe metabolic acidosis or severe shock PS, 625 (26%) had a respiratory PS and 976 (41%) had a neurological PS, either alone or in combination. Mortality was greatest among children fulfilling criteria for all three PS (28% bolus, 21% control) and lowest for lone respiratory (2% bolus, 5% control) or neurological (3% bolus, 0% control) presentations. Excess mortality in bolus arms versus control was apparent for all three PS, including all their component features. By one hour, shock had resolved (responders) more frequently in bolus versus control groups (43% versus 32%, P <0.001), but excess mortality with boluses was evident in responders (relative risk 1.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 4.17, P = 0.06) and 'non

  6. Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Kathryn; George, Elizabeth C; Evans, Jennifer A; Kiguli, Sarah; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Opoka, Robert O; Engoru, Charles; Nyeko, Richard; Mtove, George; Reyburn, Hugh; Brent, Bernadette; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Mpoya, Ayub; Prevatt, Natalie; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Semakula, Daniel; Ddungu, Ahmed; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Timbwa, Molline; Otii, Benedict; Levin, Michael; Crawley, Jane; Babiker, Abdel G; Gibb, Diana M

    2013-03-14

    Early rapid fluid resuscitation (boluses) in African children with severe febrile illnesses increases the 48-hour mortality by 3.3% compared with controls (no bolus). We explored the effect of boluses on 48-hour all-cause mortality by clinical presentation at enrolment, hemodynamic changes over the first hour, and on different modes of death, according to terminal clinical events. We hypothesize that boluses may cause excess deaths from neurological or respiratory events relating to fluid overload. Pre-defined presentation syndromes (PS; severe acidosis or severe shock, respiratory, neurological) and predominant terminal clinical events (cardiovascular collapse, respiratory, neurological) were described by randomized arm (bolus versus control) in 3,141 severely ill febrile children with shock enrolled in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) trial. Landmark analyses were used to compare early mortality in treatment groups, conditional on changes in shock and hypoxia parameters. Competing risks methods were used to estimate cumulative incidence curves and sub-hazard ratios to compare treatment groups in terms of terminal clinical events. Of 2,396 out of 3,141 (76%) classifiable participants, 1,647 (69%) had a severe metabolic acidosis or severe shock PS, 625 (26%) had a respiratory PS and 976 (41%) had a neurological PS, either alone or in combination. Mortality was greatest among children fulfilling criteria for all three PS (28% bolus, 21% control) and lowest for lone respiratory (2% bolus, 5% control) or neurological (3% bolus, 0% control) presentations. Excess mortality in bolus arms versus control was apparent for all three PS, including all their component features. By one hour, shock had resolved (responders) more frequently in bolus versus control groups (43% versus 32%, P <0.001), but excess mortality with boluses was evident in responders (relative risk 1.98, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 4.17, P = 0.06) and 'non-responders' (relative risk 1

  7. Off-label thrombolysis versus full adherence to the current European Alteplase license: impact on early clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Manuel; Moretto, Giuseppe; Micheletti, Nicola; Donato, Francesco; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Gulli, Giosuè; Carletti, Monica; Squintani, Giovanna Maddalena; Zanoni, Tiziano; Ottaviani, Sarah; Romito, Silvia; Tommasi, Giorgio; Musso, Anna Maria; Deotto, Luciano; Gambina, Giuseppe; Zimatore, Domenico Sergio; Bovi, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    According to current European Alteplase license, therapeutic-window for intravenous (IV) thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke has recently been extended to 4.5 h after symptoms onset. However, due to numerous contraindications, the portion of patients eligible for treatment still remains limited. Early neurological status after thrombolysis could identify more faithfully the impact of off-label Alteplase use that long-term functional outcome. We aimed to identify the impact of off-label thrombolysis and each off-label criterion on early clinical outcomes compared with the current European Alteplase license. We conducted an analysis on prospectively collected data of 500 consecutive thrombolysed patients. The primary outcome measures included major neurological improvement (NIHSS score decrease of ≤8 points from baseline or NIHSS score of 0) and neurological deterioration (NIHSS score increase of ≥4 points from baseline or death) at 24 h. We estimated the independent effect of off-label thrombolysis and each off-label criterion by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for each outcome measure. As the reference, we used patients fully adhering to the current European Alteplase license. 237 (47.4%) patients were treated with IV thrombolysis beyond the current European Alteplase license. We did not find significant differences between off- and on-label thrombolysis on early clinical outcomes. No off-label criteria were associated with decreased rate of major neurological improvement compared with on-label thrombolysis. History of stroke and concomitant diabetes was the only off-label criterion associated with increased rate of neurological deterioration (OR 5.84, 95% CI 1.61-21.19; p = 0.024). Off-label thrombolysis may be less effective at 24 h than on-label Alteplase use in patients with previous stroke and concomitant diabetes. Instead, the impact of other off-label criteria on early clinical outcomes was not different

  8. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  9. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  10. Shifting Views: Exploring the Potential for Technology Integration in Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietze, Beverlie; Kashin, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Using technology with children in play-based early learning programs creates questions for some within the Early Childhood Education (ECE) community. This paper presents how two faculty who teach in ECE-related degree programs integrated educational technology into their teaching pedagogy as a way to model to their students how it can be used to…

  11. Exploring Options in Early Childhood Care in Singapore: Programs and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili C.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood care options and practices differ around the world, as influenced by societal perspectives and needs. As early educators and policymakers around the world work to improve education and care services to better serve young children and their families, we must consider context-specific values and standards of quality to ensure early…

  12. Expectations and beliefs in science communication: Learning from three European gene therapy discussions of the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-04-01

    There is widespread agreement that the potential of gene therapy was oversold in the early 1990s. This study, however, comparing written material from the British, Danish and German gene therapy discourses of the period finds significant differences: Over-optimism was not equally strong everywhere; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical-ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention to internalised beliefs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Diverse Pathways in Early Childhood Professional Development: An Exploration of Early Educators in Public Preschools, Private Preschools, and Family Child Care Homes

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Karoly, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a naturalistic investigation of the patterns of formal education, early childhood education training, and mentoring of a diverse group of urban early childhood educators participating in the Los Angeles: Exploring Children's Early Learning Settings (LA ExCELS) study. A total of 103 preschool teachers and family child care providers serving primarily low-income 3- and 4-year-old children in Los Angeles County provided data on their education, training, and beliefs about teaching. This sample worked in public center based preschool programs including Head Start classrooms and State preschool classrooms (N=42), private non-profit preschools including community based organizations and faith-based preschools (N=42), and licensed family child care homes (N=19). This study uses a person-centered approach to explore patterns of teacher preparation, sources of support, supervision, and mentoring across these 3 types of education settings, and how these patterns are associated with early childhood educators' beliefs and practices. Findings suggest a set of linkages between type of early education setting, professional development, and supervision of teaching. Public preschools have the strongest mandates for formal professional development and typically less variation in levels of monitoring, whereas family child care providers on average have less formal education and more variability in their access to and use of other forms of training and mentorship. Four distinct patterns of formal education, child development training, and ongoing mentoring or support were identified among the educators in this study. Associations between professional development experiences and teachers' beliefs and practices suggested the importance of higher levels of formal training for enhancing the quality of teacher-child interactions. Implications of the findings for changing teacher behaviors are discussed with respect to considering the setting context. PMID:20072719

  14. An Exploration of Alternative Scoring Methods Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Early Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Abigail A.; Poch, Apryl L.; Lembke, Erica S.

    2018-01-01

    This manuscript describes two empirical studies of alternative scoring procedures used with curriculum-based measurement in writing (CBM-W). Study 1 explored the technical adequacy of a trait-based rubric in first grade. Study 2 explored the technical adequacy of a trait-based rubric, production-dependent, and production-independent scores in…

  15. Participation of Parents in the Early Exploration of Tactile Graphics by Children Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryles, Ruby; Bell, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Seventy-three children with visual impairments aged 2-10 and their parents participated in a project that examined the children's interest in and exploration of tactile graphics. The parents reported that the children's interest in and conceptual understanding of the project's tactile workbook were high and that the children explored the…

  16. Chapter 4. Summary of Spanish, Mexican, and early American exploration in the Borderlands

    John H. Madsen

    2006-01-01

    The Hispanic period of Arizona and New Mexico spans roughly 320 years beginning in the mid-16th century with the arrival of Spanish explorers and culminating with the ratification of the Gadsden Purchase in June 1854. This paper provides an overview of exploration, settlement and land use within and adjacent to the Borderlands during this time. From a review of...

  17. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection (ESA2C) and Curation Facility for Exploration Missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Rumsey, M. S.; Manick, K.; Gill, S.-J.; Mavris, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.; Duvet, L.

    2017-09-01

    The ESA2C will support current and future technology development activities that are required for human and robotic exploration of Mars, Phobos, Deimos, C-Type Asteroids and the Moon.The long-term goal of this work is to produce a useful, useable and sustainable resource for engineers and scientists developing technologies for ESA space exploration missions.

  18. Patterns and predictors of skin score change in early diffuse systemic sclerosis from the European Scleroderma Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Ariane L; Peytrignet, Sebastien; Lunt, Mark; Pan, Xiaoyan; Hesselstrand, Roger; Mouthon, Luc; Silman, Alan J; Dinsdale, Graham; Brown, Edith; Czirják, László; Distler, Jörg H W; Distler, Oliver; Fligelstone, Kim; Gregory, William J; Ochiel, Rachel; Vonk, Madelon C; Ancuţa, Codrina; Ong, Voon H; Farge, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Midtvedt, Øyvind; Jobanputra, Paresh; Jordan, Alison C; Stevens, Wendy; Moinzadeh, Pia; Hall, Frances C; Agard, Christian; Anderson, Marina E; Diot, Elisabeth; Madhok, Rajan; Akil, Mohammed; Buch, Maya H; Chung, Lorinda; Damjanov, Nemanja S; Gunawardena, Harsha; Lanyon, Peter; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Jacobsen, Søren; MacGregor, Alexander J; McHugh, Neil; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Becker, Michael; Roddy, Janet; Carreira, Patricia E; Fauchais, Anne Laure; Hachulla, Eric; Hamilton, Jennifer; İnanç, Murat; McLaren, John S; van Laar, Jacob M; Pathare, Sanjay; Proudman, Susanna M; Rudin, Anna; Sahhar, Joanne; Coppere, Brigitte; Serratrice, Christine; Sheeran, Tom; Veale, Douglas J; Grange, Claire; Trad, Georges-Selim; Denton, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    Our aim was to use the opportunity provided by the European Scleroderma Observational Study to (1) identify and describe those patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) with progressive skin thickness, and (2) derive prediction models for progression over 12 months, to inform future randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) was recorded every 3 months in 326 patients. 'Progressors' were defined as those experiencing a 5-unit and 25% increase in mRSS score over 12 months (±3 months). Logistic models were fitted to predict progression and, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, were compared on the basis of the area under curve (AUC), accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV). 66 patients (22.5%) progressed, 227 (77.5%) did not (33 could not have their status assessed due to insufficient data). Progressors had shorter disease duration (median 8.1 vs 12.6 months, P=0.001) and lower mRSS (median 19 vs 21 units, P=0.030) than non-progressors. Skin score was highest, and peaked earliest, in the anti-RNA polymerase III (Pol3+) subgroup (n=50). A first predictive model (including mRSS, duration of skin thickening and their interaction) had an accuracy of 60.9%, AUC of 0.666 and PPV of 33.8%. By adding a variable for Pol3 positivity, the model reached an accuracy of 71%, AUC of 0.711 and PPV of 41%. Two prediction models for progressive skin thickening were derived, for use both in clinical practice and for cohort enrichment in RCTs. These models will inform recruitment into the many clinical trials of dcSSc projected for the coming years. NCT02339441. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Patterns and predictors of skin score change in early diffuse systemic sclerosis from the European Scleroderma Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Ariane L; Peytrignet, Sebastien; Lunt, Mark; Pan, Xiaoyan; Hesselstrand, Roger; Mouthon, Luc; Silman, Alan J; Dinsdale, Graham; Brown, Edith; Czirják, László; Distler, Jörg H W; Distler, Oliver; Fligelstone, Kim; Gregory, William J; Ochiel, Rachel; Vonk, Madelon C; Ancuţa, Codrina; Ong, Voon H; Farge, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Midtvedt, Øyvind; Jobanputra, Paresh; Jordan, Alison C; Stevens, Wendy; Moinzadeh, Pia; Hall, Frances C; Agard, Christian; Anderson, Marina E; Diot, Elisabeth; Madhok, Rajan; Akil, Mohammed; Buch, Maya H; Chung, Lorinda; Damjanov, Nemanja S; Gunawardena, Harsha; Lanyon, Peter; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Chakravarty, Kuntal; Jacobsen, Søren; MacGregor, Alexander J; McHugh, Neil; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Becker, Michael; Roddy, Janet; Carreira, Patricia E; Fauchais, Anne Laure; Hachulla, Eric; Hamilton, Jennifer; İnanç, Murat; McLaren, John S; van Laar, Jacob M; Pathare, Sanjay; Proudman, Susanna M; Rudin, Anna; Sahhar, Joanne; Coppere, Brigitte; Serratrice, Christine; Sheeran, Tom; Veale, Douglas J; Grange, Claire; Trad, Georges-Selim; Denton, Christopher P

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to use the opportunity provided by the European Scleroderma Observational Study to (1) identify and describe those patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) with progressive skin thickness, and (2) derive prediction models for progression over 12 months, to inform future randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) was recorded every 3 months in 326 patients. ‘Progressors’ were defined as those experiencing a 5-unit and 25% increase in mRSS score over 12 months (±3 months). Logistic models were fitted to predict progression and, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, were compared on the basis of the area under curve (AUC), accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV). Results 66 patients (22.5%) progressed, 227 (77.5%) did not (33 could not have their status assessed due to insufficient data). Progressors had shorter disease duration (median 8.1 vs 12.6 months, P=0.001) and lower mRSS (median 19 vs 21 units, P=0.030) than non-progressors. Skin score was highest, and peaked earliest, in the anti-RNA polymerase III (Pol3+) subgroup (n=50). A first predictive model (including mRSS, duration of skin thickening and their interaction) had an accuracy of 60.9%, AUC of 0.666 and PPV of 33.8%. By adding a variable for Pol3 positivity, the model reached an accuracy of 71%, AUC of 0.711 and PPV of 41%. Conclusions Two prediction models for progressive skin thickening were derived, for use both in clinical practice and for cohort enrichment in RCTs. These models will inform recruitment into the many clinical trials of dcSSc projected for the coming years. Trial registration number NCT02339441. PMID:29306872

  20. Communication of professional literature amongst European Acupuncturists affiliated to the ETCMA (European Traditional Chinese Medicine Association): explorative survey amongst Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners in Europe.

    PubMed

    Biemans, Johanna M A E; Birch, Stephen; Bruentrup, Ines M

    2015-04-01

    The primary aim of the survey was to explore the information needs and information seeking behavior amongst the ETCMA members concerning professional literature (scientific as well as practical background knowledge). A web-based survey comprising of 18 questions with a total of 25 items was carried out in 15 affiliated associations in 14 countries in June 2012. The survey consisted out of 4 parts: (1) Demographics, (2) Level of interest in and availability of professional literature, (3) Insight, needs and opinions on EBM (Evidence Based Medicine), and (4) Awareness of the science workshop at the TCM Rothenburg Congress. 2590 (25%) from 10,428 members completed the questionnaire, of which 58.8% was female. More than 50% of the respondents from eleven out of fourteen countries indicate an interest in more education on reading scientific literature. Case studies (range 3.19/4-3.86/4) are preferred compared to scientific (range 2.78/4-3.59/4) or philosophical knowledge (range 3.0/4-3.56/4). Exchange with colleagues (range 2.95/4-3.64/4) is preferred compared to deepening knowledge (range 2.57/4-3.05/4) in the theoretical spectrum. 61% has no knowledge of the EBM model and base clinical decisions on personal experience (range 3.47-3.82) and practical skills (range 3.47-3.74) compared to clinical practice guidelines (range 2.6-3.27). Due to heterogeneity in structure and size of the affiliated associations no strict conclusions can be made. We can conclude though that TCM practitioners rely mostly on practical knowledge and have less tendency toward more scientifically oriented models like the EBM model. We find this reflected in information needs as well as information seeking behavior patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The turning point from an archaic Arab medical system to an early modern European system in Jerusalem according to the Swiss physician Titus Tobler (1806-77).

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim; Amar, Zohar

    2004-01-01

    Until the end of the Ottoman period the Hippocratic-Galenic doctrine, which had been improved by medieval Muslim medicine, was the pre-dominant medicine in the Holy Land. The penetration of modern medicine into the region was a slow process, advancing step by step over the years until it was established around the end of the 19th century.Dr. Titus Tobler, a Swiss physician of many talents, first visited Jerusalem in 1835, then again in 1845, 1857, and 1865. He reported his experiences and impressions in several books and articles. His publications portray the condition of medicine in the city before the advent of European physicians, their arrival, and the establishment of the first hospitals in the city. Thanks to his endeavours, a professional description of the medical conditions prevailing in Jerusalem in the mid-19th century is available to the public. Tobler's writings include descriptions of the healers, blood-letters, quacks, medicinal substances and their market, and the diseases and illnesses from which the inhabitants suffered. In addition, Tobler produced a detailed report of the different hospitals, pharmacies, European physicians, and their experiences. A digest of Tobler's information, its fresh systematic arrangement, and its comparison with other historical sources, early as well as recent, produces a better picture than ever previously available of the medical conditions of the city in the final years of the ascendancy of Arab medical systems and in the early stages of early modern European medicine in Jerusalem and the Holy Land.

  2. High-end climate change impact on European runoff and low flows – exploring the effects of forcing biases

    SciT

    Papadimitriou, Lamprini V.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Grillakis, Manolis G.

    Climate models project a much more substantial warming than the 2 °C target under the more probable emission scenarios, making higher-end scenarios increasingly plausible. Freshwater availability under such conditions is a key issue of concern. In this study, an ensemble of Euro-CORDEX projections under RCP8.5 is used to assess the mean and low hydrological states under +4 °C of global warming for the European region. Five major European catchments were analysed in terms of future drought climatology and the impact of +2 °C versus +4 °C global warming was investigated. The effect of bias correction of the climate model outputsmore » and the observations used for this adjustment was also quantified. Projections indicate an intensification of the water cycle at higher levels of warming. Even for areas where the average state may not considerably be affected, low flows are expected to reduce, leading to changes in the number of dry days and thus drought climatology. The identified increasing or decreasing runoff trends are substantially intensified when moving from the +2 to the +4° of global warming. Bias correction resulted in an improved representation of the historical hydrology. Moreover, it is also found that the selection of the observational data set for the application of the bias correction has an impact on the projected signal that could be of the same order of magnitude to the selection of the Global Climate Model (GCM).« less

  3. High-end climate change impact on European runoff and low flows – exploring the effects of forcing biases

    DOE PAGES

    Papadimitriou, Lamprini V.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; ...

    2016-05-10

    Climate models project a much more substantial warming than the 2 °C target under the more probable emission scenarios, making higher-end scenarios increasingly plausible. Freshwater availability under such conditions is a key issue of concern. In this study, an ensemble of Euro-CORDEX projections under RCP8.5 is used to assess the mean and low hydrological states under +4 °C of global warming for the European region. Five major European catchments were analysed in terms of future drought climatology and the impact of +2 °C versus +4 °C global warming was investigated. The effect of bias correction of the climate model outputsmore » and the observations used for this adjustment was also quantified. Projections indicate an intensification of the water cycle at higher levels of warming. Even for areas where the average state may not considerably be affected, low flows are expected to reduce, leading to changes in the number of dry days and thus drought climatology. The identified increasing or decreasing runoff trends are substantially intensified when moving from the +2 to the +4° of global warming. Bias correction resulted in an improved representation of the historical hydrology. Moreover, it is also found that the selection of the observational data set for the application of the bias correction has an impact on the projected signal that could be of the same order of magnitude to the selection of the Global Climate Model (GCM).« less

  4. Nest box exploration may stimulate breeding physiology and alter mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area of female European starlings.

    PubMed

    Spool, Jeremy A; Jay, Melannie D; Riters, Lauren V

    2018-04-25

    Environmental resources are proposed to fine-tune the timing of breeding, yet how they may do so remains unclear. In female European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ), nest cavities are limited resources that are necessary for breeding. Females that explore nest cavities, compared to those that do not, readily perform sexually-motivated behaviors. We assigned female starlings to aviaries with 1) no nest boxes, 2) nest boxes, or 3) nest boxes, plants, flowing water, insects and berries to test the hypothesis that environmental resources alter neural systems to stimulate mating behavior. Compared to other females, females that were housed with and explored nest boxes had higher estradiol, higher preproenkephalin (PENK) mRNA, and lower levels of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region in which opioids and dopamine modify female sexual behaviors and sexual motivation. Additionally, in the mPOA, PENK and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA positively predicted, whereas estrogen receptor beta mRNA negatively predicted nest box exploration. In the ventromedial hypothalamus, a region in which estradiol acts to stimulate sexual behavior, estrogen receptor alpha mRNA was highest in females that had access to but did not explore nest cavities. It is likely that seasonal increases in estradiol modify mRNA in the mPOA to facilitate nest cavity exploration. It is also possible that nest cavity exploration further alters gene expression in the mPOA, functioning to coordinate mating with resource availability. Thus nest cavity exploration may be a form of self-stimulation that alters neural systems to fine-tune sexual behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Early Learning in Preschool: Meaningful and Inclusive for All? Exploring Perspectives of Migrant Parents and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laere, Katrien; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, increasing attention has been paid in research and policies to the importance of children's early learning in preschool as a foundation for later life. This is considered especially beneficial for children living in disadvantaged societal conditions and those at risk of school failure. However, the perspectives of those most…

  6. Early Biliteracy Development: Exploring Young Learners' Use of Their Linguistic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice B., Ed.; Gort, Mileidis, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    A large and growing number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in the US and around the world have the potential to develop bilingualism and biliteracy if supported in their immediate environment. At the forefront in focusing exclusively on biliteracy development in early childhood across a variety of languages, this…

  7. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  8. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  9. Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Exploring the Gap between Service Providers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Curtiss, Sarah J.; Uchima, Kelly; Laxman, Daniel J.; Santos, Rosa M.; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine early intervention (EI) service providers'perceptions of the roles played by fathers in services, as well as their perceptions of the barriers that limit fathers from being engaged in the services provided for families of children with disabilities. A total of 511 EI service providers…

  10. Father Involvement in Early Intervention: Exploring the Gap between Service Providers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Curtiss, Sarah J.; Uchima, Kelly; Laxman, Daniel J.; Santos, Rosa M.; Weglarz-Ward, Jenna; Dyer, Wm. Justin; Jeans, Laurie M.; Kern, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine early intervention (EI) service providers' perceptions of the roles played by fathers in services, as well as their perceptions of the barriers that limit fathers from being engaged in the services provided for families of children with disabilities. A total of 511 EI service providers…

  11. Exploring Diversity: Reflections Ten Years On. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurch, Pam; Hopson, Elizabeth

    This booklet reflects the past 10 year's thoughts and experiences and presents the current debate concerning multicultural early childhood education, as experienced by the Lady Gowrie Child Centre, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The booklet describes how the center experienced the satisfying process of change and growth with such a program…

  12. Reconceptualizing Dominant Discourses in Early Childhood Education: Exploring "Readiness" as an Active-Ethical-Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the landscape of early childhood education in England to be dominated by discourses of "readiness-for-school" and "readiness-for-learning" that act to heavily stratify the educational spaces inhabited by young children. The "ready-child" is constructed as a normative identity towards which the…

  13. Exploring Staff Perceptions: Early Childhood Teacher Educators Examine Online Teaching and Learning Challenges and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Julie; Lennox, Sandra; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2007-01-01

    Early Childhood teacher educators at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) have been engaging with online teaching and learning since the mid 1990s. On campus students have lectures and tutorials supported by information and communication technologies via QUT's home grown learning management system, Online Learning and Teaching (OLT). We…

  14. Exploring Assessment Demands and Task Supports in Early Childhood Phonological Awareness Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Christina M.; Steiner, Lilly

    2016-01-01

    Phonological awareness is assessed in various ways in both research studies and early childhood classrooms. The measures used to assess phonological awareness are related closely, although they differ in the linguistic unit used (e.g., word, syllable, onset-rime, or phoneme), the position of the linguistic unit (e.g., initial, medial, final), the…

  15. Choice of College Major: An Exploration of Appalachian Female Choice of an Early Childhood Education Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannoe, Lisa N.

    2013-01-01

    First generation Appalachian female students are exposed to gender differences in roles and career choices that are modeled in the family. A case study approach was used to obtain qualitative data from five students at Eastern Kentucky University and their mothers regarding why these students chose to major in child development and early childhood…

  16. Exploring Embodied Methodologies for Transformative Practice in Early Childhood and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia; Smith, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    The development of gendered identities during early childhood and youth occurs in a context of "body culture" and the hyper-visibility of "perfect" bodies, which align with traditional gender ideals. Embodied methods can assist to make complexity more visible, and to allow participants to see fluidity, shifts, and becoming.…

  17. Identifying Key Early Literacy and School Readiness Issues: Exploring a Strategy for Assessing Community Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Much effort has been expended in developing intervention programs to help improve the early literacy and school readiness skills of young children. This article presents the results of a needs assessment project aimed at identifying priorities for community intervention programs aimed at ensuring that young children enter school ready to learn. A…

  18. "Helping Us Find Our Own Selves": Exploring Father-Role Construction and Early Childhood Programme Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, S.; Aller, T. B.; Piercy, K. W.; Roggman, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood programmes (ECPs) serving children from low-income families are becoming increasingly interested in engaging fathers. The purpose of this study was to examine perspectives of diverse fathers with low incomes to more fully understand how their experiences within an ECP influenced father-role construction and facilitated their…

  19. Exploring Work and Development Options to Reduce Early Labour Force Exit of Mature Aged Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Early labour force exit is a significant challenge associated with the ageing workforce in Australia and many other developed countries. A reduction and increased flexibility of work hours has been suggested to improve labour force participation of the mature aged cohort. However, little is known about mature aged workers' aspirations for…

  20. Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorin, Reesa

    2013-01-01

    Belonging to "a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community" (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7) is integral to children's early development and learning. Acknowledging families as "children's first and most influential educators" (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7), DEEWR notes…

  1. Exploring the Continuing Professional Development Needs of Pedagogical Practitioners in Early Years in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hedges, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative data that have been generated since 2009 on the study skills needs of early years practitioners working in England. The research has identified that developing information technology skills appears to be a particular professional development need for these practitioners. The practitioners are…

  2. Sustained Shared Thinking in an Early Childhood Setting: An Exploration of Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdon, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Sustained shared thinking (SST) has been identified in the Teachers Standards (Early Years) (2013) as contributing to good progress and outcomes by children. In this paper, I define SST and discuss the outcomes of a study of practitioners' understandings of SST, its challenges and benefits. Writing frames, questionnaires and focus group interviews…

  3. European Bison as a Refugee Species? Evidence from Isotopic Data on Early Holocene Bison and Other Large Herbivores in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bocherens, Hervé; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)—the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe—into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores—aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)—from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species. PMID:25671634

  4. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  5. Exploring the Dynamics of Teacher Perceptions of Homeless Children and Families during the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers-Costello, Elizabeth; Swick, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The perceptions teachers have of homeless children and their families are a significant influence on children and parents. These perceptions of teachers are explored from a social justice view and in relation to barriers that may impede teacher development of nurturing and supportive perspectives. Effective strategies for helping teachers…

  6. Sustained transcription of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus after spatial exploration.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Amaya, Victor; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Chawla, Monica K; Barnes, Carol A; Rosi, Susanna

    2013-01-23

    After spatial exploration in rats, Arc mRNA is expressed in ∼2% of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells, and this proportion of Arc-positive neurons remains stable for ∼8 h. This long-term presence of Arc mRNA following behavior is not observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. We report here that in rats ∼50% of granule cells with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA, induced some hours previously during exploration, also show Arc expression in the nucleus. This suggests that recent transcription can occur long after the exploration behavior that elicited it. To confirm that the delayed nuclear Arc expression was indeed recent transcription, Actinomycin D was administered immediately after exploration. This treatment resulted in inhibition of recent Arc expression both when evaluated shortly after exploratory behavior as well as after longer time intervals. Together, these data demonstrate a unique kinetic profile for Arc transcription in hippocampal granule neurons following behavior that is not observed in other cell types. Among a number of possibilities, this sustained transcription may provide a mechanism that ensures that the synaptic connection weights in the sparse population of granule cells recruited during a given behavioral event are able to be modified.

  7. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to…

  8. An Exploration of Parenting Behaviours and Attitudes during Early Infancy: Association with Maternal and Infant Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, B.; Brown, A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of warm and democratic parenting styles for optimal social, emotional and cognitive outcomes in children over the age of five is well established. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring variations in parenting styles during infancy, despite many popular parenting books aimed at this period. The primary aim of this study…

  9. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  10. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  11. Exploring the Facilitation of Young Children with Disabilities in Research about Their Early Intervention Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Clare; Sixsmith, Jane

    2016-01-01

    While participatory research approaches are being developed and applied within speech and language therapy practice it is not clear that all children are afforded the opportunity to participate in such activities. This study aimed to explore the involvement of young children, aged between two and four years, with developmental disabilities in the…

  12. Zooming in and Out: Exploring Teacher Competencies in Inclusive Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoon-Joo; Recchia, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored issues of social inclusion for young children with disabilities through a systematic reanalysis of six preschool case studies focusing on strategies that teachers used in daily practice. Our analysis process entailed a reexamination of classroom observations and teacher inquiry data, focusing back and forth between the…

  13. Identity Exploration and Commitment in Early Adolescence: Genetic and Environmental Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovitch, Noam; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo; Abramson, Lior; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Identity formation is a key developmental task in adolescence. Although many adolescents in modern societies face issues of identity, there are substantial individual differences in identity exploration and commitment. Little is known about the origins of these individual differences. The current study investigated the genetic and environmental…

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  15. The Physical Tourist. A European Study Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Westfall, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We organized and led a European study course for American undergraduate university students to explore the early history of relativity and quantum theory. We were inspired by The Physical Tourist articles published in this journal on Munich, Bern, Berlin, Copenhagen, and Göttingen. We describe this adventure both for others wishing to teach such a course and for anyone wishing to walk in the footsteps of the physicists who revolutionized physics in the early decades of the twentieth century.

  16. Exploring the victimization‒early substance misuse relationship: In search of moderating and mediating effects.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2018-07-01

    This study was designed to address two research questions. The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands of peers, and the abuse x bullying interaction encouraged early involvement in substance misuse. The second research question inquired as to whether the victimization‒substance misuse relationship was mediated by variables proposed by various theories and research studies-specifically, cognitive impulsivity, negative affect, and low self-esteem. A moderated mediation hypothesis was tested in a group of 865 (417 boys, 448 girls) schoolchildren from the Illinois Study of Bullying and Sexual Violence who were 10 to 15 years of age at the time of initial contact. A path analysis performed with three waves of data revealed that physical abuse and bullying victimization predicted substance misuse with mediation by cognitive impulsivity, but there was no evidence of moderation. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that victimization, whether through parental physical abuse or peer bullying, increases cognitive impulsivity, and that cognitive impulsivity, in turn, encourages early involvement in substance misuse. The practical implications of these results are that interventions designed to counter cognitive impulsivity and encourage cognitive control may be effective in preventing children traumatized by physical abuse and bullying from entering the early stages of a drug or substance using lifestyle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool.

    PubMed

    Lie, B A; Dupuy, B M; Spurkland, A; Fernández-Viña, M A; Hagelberg, E; Thorsby, E

    2007-01-01

    Most archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island (Rapanui), and this view has been supported by the identification of Polynesian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in prehistoric skeletal remains. However, some evidence of an early South American contact also exists (the sweet potato, bottle gourd etc.), but genetic studies have so far failed to show an early Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island. To address this issue, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome markers and performed high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping of DNA harvested from previously collected sera of 48 reputedly nonadmixed native Easter Islanders. All individuals carried mtDNA types and HLA alleles previously found in Polynesia, and most men carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin, providing further evidence of a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island. A few individuals carried HLA alleles and/or Y chromosome markers of European origin. More interestingly, some individuals carried the HLA alleles A*0212 and B*3905, which are of typical Amerindian origin. The genealogy of some of the individuals carrying these non-Polynesian HLA alleles and their haplotypic backgrounds suggest an introduction into Easter Island in the early 1800s, or earlier. Thus, there may have been an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool of Easter Island.

  18. Exploring reasons for late identification of children with early-onset hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Dos Santos, Johnny Cesconetto; Grandpierre, Viviane; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada. The study also sought to determine the reasons for delayed confirmation of hearing loss in children. Population level data related to age of first assessment, age of identification and clinical characteristics were collected prospectively for all children identified through the UNHS program. We documented the number of children who experienced delay (defined as more than 3 months) from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of hearing loss. A detailed chart review was subsequently performed to examine the reasons for delay to confirmation. Of 418 children identified from 2003 to 2013, 182 (43.5%) presented with congenital or early onset hearing loss, of whom 30 (16.5%) experienced more than 3 months delay from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of their hearing disorder. The median age of first assessment and confirmation of hearing loss for these 30 children was 3.7 months (IQR: 2.0, 7.6) and 13.8 months (IQR: 9.7, 26.1) respectively. Close examination of the factors related to delay to confirmation revealed that for the overwhelming majority of children, a constellation of factors contributed to late diagnosis. Several children (n = 22; 73.3%) presented with developmental/medical issues, 15 of whom also had middle ear dysfunction at assessment, and 9 of whom had documented family follow-up concerns. For the remaining eight children, additional reasons included ongoing middle ear dysfunction for five children, complicated by family follow-up concerns (n = 3) and mild

  19. The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer: Early views into Black-hole Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Swift has exceeded every pre-launch predicted advance in GRB science. It has discovered the farthest GRB ever seen and identified new GRBs at a rate of 100/year. It has also explored a brand new time interval in GRB light curves by revealing unpredicted phenomena of GRB flares and rapid x-ray afterglow declines. Swift has conducted 20,00o successful slews to sources and is predicted to stay in orbit until 2022.

  20. "Build Me a Male Role Model!" A Critical Exploration of the Perceived Qualities/Characteristics of Men in the Early Years (0-8) in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Young boys' "underachievement" and their disaffection with learning continue to dominate education agendas [Francis, B. 2006. "Stop That Sex Drive." "Times Educational Supplement" 30; Peeters, J. 2007. "Including Men in Early Childhood Education: Insights from the European Experience." "NZ Research in…

  1. Do gender differences in help avoidance vary by ethnicity? An examination of African American and European American students during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, S Serena; Lampkins-Uthando, Shawn A; Thompson, Geneene N; Kiefer, Sarah M

    2009-07-01

    The present research examined whether the nature of gender differences varies by race for two types of academic engagement in the classroom (help avoidance and voice with the teacher) in a sample of early adolescents (N = 456; 55% female, 60% African American and 40% European American) making the transition to middle school. Growth curve analyses indicated that help avoidance increased over time, voice remained stable, and achievement declined. In line with hypotheses based on cultural variations in the female role, there were no gender differences in help avoidance for African American students, whereas for European American students, girls were lower in help avoidance than were boys. For African American students, there were no gender differences in voice with the teacher, whereas for European American students, girls were higher than were boys. These group differences were present at all 3 waves. For all students, increases in help avoidance negatively predicted changes in achievement, whereas increases in voice positively predicted achievement. Results underscore the importance of examining gender and ethnicity together to understand academic adjustment during early adolescence.

  2. Latino and European American early adolescents' exposure to music with substance-use references: examining parent-child communication as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Wang, Ningxin; Harvey, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This study hypothesized that frequent exposure to and attention to music with substance-use references would be indirectly related to alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use through pro-substance-use beliefs (e.g., norms, outcome expectancies, and refusal efficacy). Parent-child communication, however, would attenuate such associations, which would differ by ethnicity. Multigroup mediation and moderation analyses were conducted, using cross-sectional survey data from 253 Latino and 308 European American 6th-8th grades students. For Latino and European American early adolescents, best-friend-injunctive norms and weak refusal efficacy were significant mediators, but not positive outcome expectancies. Descriptive norms were a significant mediator, but only for European American early adolescents. Although targeted parent-child communication and parental mediation did not moderate the associations between the music-exposure variables and the pro-substance-use beliefs variables, targeted parent-child communication attenuated the association between listening to favorite songs and alcohol consumption. Parental mediation attenuated the association between attention to music and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Exploring the feasibility of a nationwide earthquake early warning system in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, M.; Zollo, A.; Brondi, P.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.

    2015-04-01

    When accompanied by appropriate training and preparedness of a population, Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are effective and viable tools for the real-time reduction of societal exposure to seismic events in metropolitan areas. The Italian Accelerometric Network, RAN, which consists of about 500 stations installed over all the active seismic zones, as well as many cities and strategic infrastructures in Italy, has the potential to serve as a nationwide early warning system. In this work, we present a feasibility study for a nationwide EEWS in Italy obtained by the integration of the RAN and the software platform PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem (PRESTo). The performance of the RAN-PRESTo EEWS is first assessed by testing it on real strong motion recordings of 40 of the largest earthquakes that have occurred during the last 10 years in Italy. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to regions that did not experience earthquakes by considering a nationwide grid of synthetic sources capable of generating Gutenberg-Richter sequences corresponding to the one adopted by the seismic hazard map of the Italian territory. Our results indicate that the RAN-PRESTo EEWS could theoretically provide for higher seismic hazard areas reliable alert messages within about 5 to 10 s and maximum lead times of about 25 s. In case of large events (M > 6.5), this amount of lead time would be sufficient for taking basic protective measures (e.g., duck and cover, move away from windows or equipment) in tens to hundreds of municipalities affected by large ground shaking.

  5. Evidence of active dune sand on the Great Plains in the 19th century from accounts of early explorers

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Dune fields are found in several areas of the Great Plains, and though mostly stabilised today, the accounts of early explorers show that they were more mobile in the last century. Using an index of dune mobility and tree ring data, it is found that these periods of mobility were related to temperature-induced drought, the high temperatures increasing evapotranspiration. Explorers also record that rivers upwind of these dune fields had shallow braided channels in the 19th century, and these would have supplied further aeolian sand. It is concluded that these dunes are extremely susceptible to climate change and that it may not need global warming to increase their mobility again. -K.Clayton

  6. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  7. An exploration of addiction in adults experiencing early-life stress: a metasynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Carla Araujo Bastos; Lasiuk, Gerri; Barton, Sylvia; Fernandes, Maria Neyrian de Fatima; Gherardi-Donato, Edilaine Cristina da Silva

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to review and synthesize qualitative research on the links between early-life stress and addiction behaviours in adulthood. Method: metasynthesis to review qualitative research findings based on procedures that outline how to identify themes or constructs across studies in a specific area. Comprehensive searches of multiple electronic databases were performed. The initial search yielded 1050 articles and the titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion based on predetermined criteria. Thirty-eight full text, peer-reviewed articles were retrieved and assessed by three independent reviewers. Twelve articles were eligible for full review and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. Results: the findings revealed that clear associations exist between early-life stress and addictive behaviours in adulthood, such as between trauma in childhood, violence, and addictive behaviours. A common theme in the findings indicates that participants turn to addictive substances as a way of strategically coping with stressful childhood experiences, regardless of the harmful side effects or detrimental social outcomes. Conclusion: it can be inferred that addiction may be viewed as a way to deal with adversity in childhood and that there is an interrelationship between addiction, domestic violence and crime. PMID:29020127

  8. Solid Waste Processing: An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Terraforming of Mars is the long-term goal of colonization of Mars. However, this process is likely to be a very slow process and conservative estimates involving a synergic, technocentric approach estimate that it may take around 10,000 years before the planet can be parallel to that of Earth and where humans can live in open systems. Hence, any early missions will require the presence of a closed life support system where all wastes, both solids and liquids, will need to be recycled or where all consumables will need to be supplied. The economics of both are often a matter of speculation and conjecture, but some attempt is made here to evaluate the choice. If a choice is made to completely resupply and eject the waste mass, a number of unknown issues are at hand. On the other hand, processing of the wastes, will enable predictability and reliability of the ecosystem. Solid wastes though smaller in volume and mass than the liquid wastes contains more than 90% of the essential elements required by humans and plants. Further, if left unprocessed they present a serious risk to human health. This paper presents the use of well established technology in processing solid wastes, ensuring that the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems are maintained, reliability of the closed life support system maintained and the establishment of the early processes necessary for the permanent presence of humans on Mars.

  9. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Cloud Icy Early Mars Hypothesis Through Geochemistry and Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    While ancient fluvial channels have long been considered strong evidence for early surface water on Mars, many aspects of the fluvial morphology and occurrence suggest that they formed in relatively water limited conditions (com-pared to Earth) and that climatic excursions allowing for surface water might have been short-lived. Updated results mapping valley networks at higher resolution have changed this paradigm, showing that channels are much more abundant and wide-spread, and of higher order than was previously recognized, suggesting that Mars had a dense enough atmosphere and warm enough climate to allow channel formation up to 3.6-3.8 Ga. This revised view of the ancient martian climate might be broadly consistent with a climate history of Mars devised from infrared remote sensing of surface minerals, suggesting that widespread clay minerals formed in the Noachian, giving way to a sulfur-dominated surface weathering system by approx. 3.7 Ga.

  11. Exploring X-ray Emission from Winds in Two Early B-type Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, John P.; Hole, Tabetha; Ignace, Richard; Oskinova, Lida

    2017-01-01

    The winds of the most massive (O-type) stars have been well studied, but less is known about the winds of early-type B stars, especially in binaries. Extending O-star wind theory to these smaller stars, we would expect them to emit X-rays, and when in a B-star binary system, the wind collision should emit additional X-rays. This combined X-ray flux from nearby B-star binary systems should be detectable with current telescopes. Yet X-ray observations of two such systems with the Chandra Observatory not only show far less emission than predicted, but also vary significantly from each other despite having very similar observed characteristics. We will present these observations, and our work applying the classic Castor, Abbott, and Klein (CAK) wind theory, combined with more recent analytical wind-shock models, attempting to reproduce this unexpected range of observations.

  12. The Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer: Early Views into Black-hole Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the discovery of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) in the 1960's and early 1970's, and the characteristics of GRBs. Theoretical predictions and explanations are reviewed. The first observation of a GRB by the Beppo-SAX is discussed, and then the need develop a Gamma Ray Burst detector with a larger field of view, that has rapid follow-up capabilities and has the ability to rapidly get localized positions to the ground. The Swift instruments (i.e., the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT)) are shown and described. The scenario for observing of GRBs is reviewed. Many charts of the some of the GRBs data and GRB spectra are shown.

  13. Exploring the dusty star-formation in the early Universe using intensity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has become clear that the dust-enshrouded star formation contributes significantly to early galaxy evolution. Detection of dust is therefore essential in determining the properties of galaxies in the high-redshift universe. This requires observations at the (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. Unfortunately, sensitivity and background confusion of single dish observations on the one hand, and mapping efficiency of interferometers on the other hand, pose unique challenges to observers. One promising route to overcome these difficulties is intensity mapping of fluctuations which exploits the confusion-limited regime and measures the collective light emission from all sources, including unresolved faint galaxies. We discuss in this contribution how 2D and 3D intensity mapping can measure the dusty star formation at high redshift, through the Cosmic Infrared Background (2D) and [CII] fine structure transition (3D) anisotropies.

  14. Exploring the association between maternal prenatal multivitamin use and early infant growth: The Healthy Start Study.

    PubMed

    Sauder, K A; Starling, A P; Shapiro, A L; Kaar, J L; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Dabelea, D

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal multivitamin supplementation is recommended to improve offspring outcomes, but effects on early infant growth are unknown. We examined whether multivitamin supplementation in the year before delivery predicts offspring mass, body composition and early infant growth. Multivitamin use was assessed longitudinally in 626 women from the Healthy Start Study. Offspring body size and composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography at birth (<3 days) and postnatally (median 5.2 months). Separate multiple linear regressions assessed the relationship of weeks of daily multivitamin use with offspring mass, body composition and postnatal growth, after adjustment for potential confounders (maternal age, race, pre-pregnant body mass index; offspring gestational age at birth, sex; breastfeeding exclusivity). Maternal multivitamin use was not related to offspring mass or body composition at birth, or rate of change in total or fat-free mass in the first 5 months. Multivitamin use was inversely associated with average monthly growth in offspring percent fat mass (β = -0.009, p = 0.049) between birth and postnatal exam. Offspring of non-users had a monthly increase in percent fat mass of 3.45%, while offspring at the top quartile of multivitamin users had a monthly increase in percent fat mass of 3.06%. This association was not modified by exclusive breastfeeding. Increased multivitamin use in the pre-conception and prenatal periods was associated with a slower rate of growth in offspring percent fat mass in the first 5 months of life. This study provides further evidence that in utero nutrient exposures may affect offspring adiposity beyond birth. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Exploring the utility of Posidonia oceanica chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of water quality within the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Gera, Alessandro; Alcoverro, Teresa; Mascaró, Oriol; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The European Water Framework Directive commits partner countries to evolve uniform protocols for monitoring the environmental condition of natural water bodies, crucially integrating biological and ecological criteria from the associated ecosystems. This has encouraged considerable research on the development of bioindicator-based systems of water quality monitoring. A critical step towards this end is providing evidence that the proposed bioindicator system adequately reflects the human pressures to which a specific water body is submitted. Here we investigate the utility of pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry, a fast, non-destructive and increasingly popular bioindicator-based method, in assessing water quality based on the widespread Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, an important constituent of submersed benthic vegetation. Specifically, we evaluated the ability of PAM to discriminate between sites along a pre-established gradient of anthropogenic pressures and the consistency and reliability of PAM parameters across spatial scales. Our results show that the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), representing the structural photosynthetic efficiency of the plant, responds significantly to the degree of site-level anthropogenic pressure. However, Fv/Fm values in our study increased with increasing pressure, in striking contrast with other studies that report declines in Fv/Fm values with increasing stress. A potential explanation for this discrepancy is that our study sites were influenced by multiple diffuse stressors (characteristic of most coastal waters) that could potentially interact with each other to influence Fv/Fm values in often unpredictable ways. The photosynthetic variables calculated from rapid light curves (ETR(max), maximum electron transport rate; α, initial slope of the curve; I (k), saturating irradiance), which represent an instant picture of the photosynthetic activity of the plant, were unable to clearly discriminate between sites

  16. Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR): A New Frontiers Mission to Explore the Origin and Evolution of the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Olkin, C.; Castillo, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The orbital properties, compositions, and physical properties of the diverse populations of small outer solar system bodies provide a forensic map of how our solar system formed and evolved. Perhaps the most potentially diagnostic, but least explored, of those populations are the Jupiter Trojan asteroids, which orbit at ~5 AU in the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter. More than 6200 Jupiter Trojans are presently known, but these are predicted to be only a small fraction of the 500,000 to 1 million Trojans >1 km in size. The Trojans are hypothesized to be either former Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that were scattered into the inner solar system by early giant planet migration and then trapped in the 1:1 Jupiter mean motion resonance, or bodies formed near 5 AU in a much more quiescent early solar system, and then trapped at L4 and L5. The 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey identified important questions about the origin and evolution of the solar system that can be addressed by studying of the Trojan asteroids, including: (a) How did the giant planets and their satellite systems accrete, and is there evidence that they migrated to new orbital positions? (b) What is the relationship between large and small KBOs? Is the small population derived by impact disruption of the large one? (c) What kinds of surface evolution, radiation chemistry, and surface-atmosphere interactions occur on distant icy primitive bodies? And (d) What are the sources of asteroid groups (Trojans and Centaurs) that remain to be explored by spacecraft? The Trojan Tour and Rendezvous (TTR) is a New Frontiers-class mission designed to answer these questions, and to test hypotheses for early giant planet migration and solar system evolution. Via close flybys of a large number of these objects,, and orbital characterization of at least one large Trojan, TTR will enable the first-time exploration of this population. Our primary mission goals are to characterize the overall surface geology

  17. Sufficiently well Informed and Seriously Concerned? European Union Policy Responses to Marginalisation, Structural Racism, and Institutionalised Exclusion in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union, children from marginalised communities experience an appalling reality of poverty, exclusion, discrimination, and racism. Growing up in poverty and social exclusion shapes the reality of the lived experience for an increasing number of children in one of the wealthiest regions of the world. In the UK, a member of the…

  18. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  19. Exploring the geochemical distribution of organic carbon in early land plants: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Geoffrey D; Fletcher, Ian W; Tardio, Sabrina; Hack, Ethan

    2018-02-05

    Terrestrialization depended on the evolution of biosynthetic pathways for biopolymers including lignin, cutin and suberin, which were concentrated in specific tissues, layers or organs such as the xylem, cuticle and roots on the submillimetre scale. However, it is often difficult, or even impossible especially for individual cells, to resolve the biomolecular composition of the different components of fossil plants on such a scale using the well-established coupled techniques of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Here, we report the application of techniques for surface analysis to investigate the composition of Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of two different spots (both 300 µm × 600 µm) confirmed the presence of carbon. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed 'chemical maps' (imaging mode with 300 nm resolution) of aliphatic and aromatic carbon in the intact fossil that correlate with the vascular structures observed in high-resolution optical images. This study shows that imaging ToF-SIMS has value for determining the location of the molecular components of fossil embryophytes while retaining structural information that will help elucidate how terrestrialization shaped the early evolution of land plant cell wall biochemistry.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. An exploration of links between early parenting experiences and personality disorder type and disordered personality functioning.

    PubMed

    Parker, G; Roy, K; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    1999-01-01

    Reports of early parenting were assessed using two measures, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Measure of Parenting Style (MOPS), in a sample of 265 patients with DSM-defined major depressive disorder. Psychiatrists then rated the extent to which sample members evidenced the personality "styles" underpinning 15 separate personality disorders, returning personality vignette scores. The extent of disordered functioning was also assessed across "parameters" and "domains" by psychiatrists, referrers, and family members, using a range of measures. Those with higher scores on vignettes measuring borderline, anxious, depressive, and self-defeating personality style rated parents as uncaring, overcontrolling, and abusive. When vignettes were consolidated into scores akin to the DSM clusters, the most consistent links between perceived dysfunctional parenting were with the Cluster C (anxious), and Cluster B (dramatic) styles and were nonsignificant for Cluster A (eccentric) style. Meeting criteria for an increasing number of personality disorder clusters was associated with increasing levels of adverse parenting. Multiple regression analyses indicated that disordered functioning (as assessed by the three independent rater groups) was most distinctly associated with paternal indifference and maternal overcontrol.

  1. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  2. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  3. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  4. An exploration of reminiscence and post-war European immigrants living in a multicultural aged-care setting in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Cherie; Schmidt, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions of the telling of life stories of four post-war immigrants living in a multicultural residential aged-care setting in Australia. This study aims to shed light on what participants feel about life stories, and the prospect of involvement in the documentation of their life story in order to provide insight and understanding for optimum programme facilitation and better resident care.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four participants. Data were audiotaped and transcribed. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate data.Three main themes emerged: diminution of guilt, social sharing - common bonds and, the urge to 'feel' the past to 'fill' the present. It is apparent that aged survivors of war, and displacement to a new country, feel residual guilt regarding the leaving of their homeland. The prospect of documenting their life stories offers an opportunity to provide an explanation for their decision.Immersion in life stories allows the re-experiencing and sharing of past emotions and sensations. Engagement in occupational reminiscence enhances understanding a person's lived life experience, which adds meaning to one's life. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Community-university partnerships in occupational therapy education: a preliminary exploration of practice in a European context.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Margaret; Moldes, Ines Viana; Fransen, Hetty; Hofstede-Wessels, Saskia; Lilienberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    To explore community-university partnerships in occupational therapy education in Europe. Educators from Europe were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed for the study. Eleven completed questionnaires were included. Descriptive statistics were generated from quantitative data while qualitative data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The majority of participants reported that community-university partnerships were part of the third year of undergraduate occupational therapy studies. Partners were from a broad range of sectors. The activities undertaken were typically focused on specific target groups within the community. Three main themes emerged from the qualitative analysis (i) instigating community-university partnerships, (ii) processes of creating and sustaining partnerships and (iii) perceived outcomes of community-university partnerships. This is the first study of community-university partnerships in Europe generating some useful findings. Clarification is needed regarding the use of the term community-university partnership. Educators are called upon to consider how partnerships are embedded into curricula and to address issues of sustainability. Healthcare education should prepare rehabilitation professionals to collaborate with diverse communities. Community--university collaborations appear to offer opportunities to support students to develop competences for future community orientated practice. Key issues to be considered include choice of pedagogical approach, issues of reciprocity and sustainability.

  6. Toward early safety alert endpoints: exploring biomarkers suggestive of microbicide failure.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Lai, Jaim Jou; Weiner, Debra H; Chandra, Neelima; Fichorova, Raina N; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Hillier, Sharon L; Archer, David F; Creinin, Mitchell D; Schwartz, Jill L; Callahan, Marianne M; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-11-01

    Several microbicides, including nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and cellulose sulfate (CS), looked promising during early trials but failed in efficacy trials. We aimed to identify Phase I mucosal safety endpoints that might explain that failure. In a blinded, randomized, parallel trial, 60 healthy premenopausal sexually abstinent women applied Universal HEC placebo, 6% CS or 4% N-9 gel twice daily for 13½ days. Endpoints included immune biomarkers in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and endocervical cytobrushes, inflammatory infiltrates in vaginal biopsies, epithelial integrity by naked eye, colposcopy, and histology, CVL anti-HIV activity, vaginal microflora, pH, and adverse events. Twenty women enrolled per group. Soluble/cellular markers were similar with CS and placebo, except secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) levels decreased in CVL, and CD3(+) and CD45(+) cells increased in biopsies after CS use. Increases in interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1, IL-1RA, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreases in SLPI were significant with N-9. CVL anti-HIV activity was significantly higher during CS use compared to N-9 or placebo. CS users tended to have a higher prevalence of intermediate Nugent score, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus and fewer gram-negative rods. Most Nugent scores diagnostic for bacterial vaginosis were in N-9 users. All cases of histological inflammation or deep epithelial disruption occurred in N-9 users. While the surfactant N-9 showed obvious biochemical and histological signs of inflammation, more subtle changes, including depression of SLPI, tissue influx of CD45(+) and CD3(+) cells, and subclinical microflora shifts were associated with CS use and may help to explain the clinical failure of nonsurfactant microbicides.

  7. Joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: Obesity and early vascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Nilsson, Peter M; Kotsis, Vasilios; Olsen, Michael H; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Hauner, Hans; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Toplak, Hermann; Engeli, Stefan; Finer, Nick

    2015-03-01

    Current cardiovascular risk scores do not include obesity or fat distribution as independent factors, and may underestimate risk in obese individuals. Assessment of early vascular ageing (EVA) biomarkers including arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation may help to refine risk assessment in obese individuals in whom traditional cardiovascular risk scores and factors suggest no need for specific medical attention. A number of issues need to be addressed before this approach is ready for translation into routine clinical practice. Methodologies for measurements of vascular markers need to be further standardized and less operator-dependent. The utility of these nontraditional risk factors will also need to be proven in sufficiently large and properly designed interventional studies. Indeed, published studies on vascular markers in obesity and weight loss vary in quality and study design, are sometimes conducted in small populations, use a variety of differing methodologies and study differing vascular beds. Finally, current vascular measurements are still crude and may not be sufficient to cover the different aspects of EVA in obesity.

  8. Integrated palliative care networks from the perspectives of patients: A cross-sectional explorative study in five European countries.

    PubMed

    den Herder-van der Eerden, Marlieke; Ebenau, Anne; Payne, Sheila; Preston, Nancy; Radbruch, Lukas; Linge-Dahl, Lisa; Csikos, Agnes; Busa, Csilla; Van Beek, Karen; Groot, Marieke; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2018-06-01

    Although examining perspectives of patients on integrated palliative care organisation is essential, available literature is largely based on administrative data or healthcare professionals' perspectives. (1) Providing insight into the composition and quality of care networks of patients receiving palliative care and (2) describing perceived integration between healthcare professionals within these networks and its association with overall satisfaction. Cross-sectional explorative design. We recruited 157 patients (62% cancer, 25% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13% chronic heart failure, mean age 68 years, 55% female) from 23 integrated palliative care initiatives in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, Hungary and the Netherlands. About 33% reported contact with a palliative care specialist and 48% with a palliative care nurse. Relationships with palliative care specialists were rated significantly higher than other physicians ( p < 0.001). Compared to patients with cancer, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio = 0.16, confidence interval (0.04; 0.57)) and chronic heart failure (odds ratio = 0.11, confidence interval (0.01; 0.93)) had significantly lower odds of reporting contact with palliative care specialists and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio = 0.23, confidence interval (0.08; 0.71)) had significantly lower odds of reporting contact with palliative care nurses. Perceptions of main responsible healthcare professionals or caregivers in patient's care networks varied across countries. Perceived integration was significantly associated with overall satisfaction. Palliative care professionals are not always present or recognised as such in patients' care networks. Expert palliative care involvement needs to be explicated especially for non-cancer patients. One healthcare professional should support patients in understanding and navigating their palliative care network. Patients

  9. ‘Talkin’ ‘Bout My Generation’: Using a Mixed-Methods Approach to Explore Changes in Adolescent Well-Being across Several European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, Alina; Belić, Jelisaveta; Blecha, Ondřej; Fenski, Friederike; Lo, Man Y.; Murár, Filip; Petrovic, Darija; Stella, Maria T.

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of positive mental health is a becoming priority worldwide. Despite all the efforts invested in preventive and curative work, it is estimated that one in four persons will experience a mental health condition at some point in their lives. Even more worrying is the fact that up to a half of all mental health problems have their onset before the age of 14. Recent statistics (national and international surveys, meta-analyses, international reports) point out to the fact that child and adolescent mental health problems are on the rise. The present study will try to corroborate these results and further explore their meaning, by employing a sequential mixed methods research design (quantitative–qualitative). The quantitative part will analyze time trends using Health Behaviors in School-aged Children data (four survey cycles: 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014) on mental well-being from four European countries (the Czechia, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom). The qualitative part will rely on focus groups to explore the perspectives of 13- and 15-year-old boys and girls on gender differences and on the changes in adolescent mental well-being over time, as well as measures through which these issues could be addressed. Thematic analysis will be employed to analyze qualitative data. The results of this study could make a major contribution to our understanding of the current trends in adolescent mental well-being, as well as the ways in which existing data could be linked to international and national health policies. PMID:28572776

  10. Exploring drought vulnerability in Africa: an indicator based analysis to be used in early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Garrote, L.; Iglesias, A.; Vogt, J.

    2014-05-01

    compared with drought disaster information from the EM-DAT disaster database. Even if a cause-effect relationship cannot be established between the DVI and the drought disaster database, a good agreement is observed between the drought vulnerability maps and the number of persons affected by droughts. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on how to assess drought vulnerability and hopefully contribute to the development of drought early warning systems in Africa.

  11. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socialization, Indifference, and Convenience: Exploring the Uptake of Influenza Vaccine Among Medical Students and Early Career Doctors

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Rhiannon; Goodwin, Dawn; Isba, Rachel; Keegan, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Chief Medical Officer recommends that all health care workers receive an influenza vaccination annually. High vaccination coverage is believed to be the best protection against the spread of influenza within a hospital, although uptake by health care workers remains low. We conducted semistructured interviews with seven medical students and nine early career doctors, to explore the factors informing their influenza vaccination decision making. Data collection and analysis took place iteratively, until theoretical saturation was achieved, and a thematic analysis was performed. Socialization was important although its effects were attenuated by participants’ previous experiences and a lack of clarity around the risks and benefits of vaccination. Many participants did not have strong intentions regarding vaccination. There was considerable disparity between an individual’s opinion of the vaccine, their intentions, and their vaccination status. The indifference demonstrated here suggests few are strongly opposed to the vaccination—there is potential to increase vaccination coverage. PMID:28737075

  13. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alison B; Windham, Gayle C; Croen, Lisa A; Daniels, Julie L; Lee, Brian K; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E; Fallin, M Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one job during pregnancy. Asthmagen exposure was estimated from a published job-exposure matrix. The adjusted odds ratio for ASD comparing asthmagen-exposed to unexposed was 1.39 (95 % CI 0.96-2.02). Maternal workplace asthmagen exposure was not associated with ASD risk in this study, but this result does not exclude some involvement of maternal exposure to asthma-causing agents in ASD.

  14. Socialization, Indifference, and Convenience: Exploring the Uptake of Influenza Vaccine Among Medical Students and Early Career Doctors.

    PubMed

    Edge, Rhiannon; Goodwin, Dawn; Isba, Rachel; Keegan, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The Chief Medical Officer recommends that all health care workers receive an influenza vaccination annually. High vaccination coverage is believed to be the best protection against the spread of influenza within a hospital, although uptake by health care workers remains low. We conducted semistructured interviews with seven medical students and nine early career doctors, to explore the factors informing their influenza vaccination decision making. Data collection and analysis took place iteratively, until theoretical saturation was achieved, and a thematic analysis was performed. Socialization was important although its effects were attenuated by participants' previous experiences and a lack of clarity around the risks and benefits of vaccination. Many participants did not have strong intentions regarding vaccination. There was considerable disparity between an individual's opinion of the vaccine, their intentions, and their vaccination status. The indifference demonstrated here suggests few are strongly opposed to the vaccination-there is potential to increase vaccination coverage.

  15. Review of the therapeutic management of Parkinson's disease. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Movement Disorder Society-European Section. Part I: early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Horstink, M; Tolosa, E; Bonuccelli, U; Deuschl, G; Friedman, A; Kanovsky, P; Larsen, J P; Lees, A; Oertel, W; Poewe, W; Rascol, O; Sampaio, C

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of early (uncomplicated) Parkinson's disease (PD), based on a review of the literature. Uncomplicated PD refers to patients suffering from the classical motor syndrome of PD only, without treatment-induced motor complications and without neuropsychiatric or autonomic problems. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) database literature searches were conducted. National guidelines were requested from all European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) societies. Non-European guidelines were searched for using MEDLINE. Part I of the guidelines deals with prevention of disease progression, symptomatic treatment of motor features (parkinsonism), and prevention of motor and neuropsychiatric complications of therapy. For each topic, a list of therapeutic interventions is provided, including classification of evidence. Following this, recommendations for management are given, alongside ratings of efficacy. Classifications of evidence and ratings of efficacy are made according to EFNS guidance. In cases where there is insufficient scientific evidence, a consensus statement (good practice point) is made.

  16. A Qualitative Application of the Belsky Model to Explore Early Care and Education Teachers' Mealtime History, Beliefs, and Interactions.

    PubMed

    Swindle, Taren M; Patterson, Zachary; Boden, Carrie J

    Studies on factors associated with nutrition practices in early care and education settings often focus on sociodemographic and programmatic characteristics. This qualitative study adapted and applied Belsky's determinants of parenting model to inform a broader exploration of Early Care and Education Teachers (ECETs) practices. Qualitative cross-sectional study with ECETs. The researchers interviewed ECETs in their communities across a Southern state. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit ECETs (n = 28) from Head Start or state-funded centers serving low-income families. Developmental histories of ECETs regarding food and nutrition, beliefs about child nutrition, and teaching interactions related to food. Qualitative interviews were coded using a deductive content analysis approach. Three distinct interrelationships were observed across the themes. First, rules and routines regarding food and mealtime in the educators' childhood often aligned with educator beliefs and behaviors at meals in their classroom. Second, some ECETs described motivations to leave a healthy food legacy for children in their class. Finally, an experience of food insecurity appeared in narratives that also emphasized making sure children got enough through various strategies. The influence of ECET developmental histories and their related beliefs can be addressed through professional development and ongoing support. Future study should quantify model constructs in a larger sample and study their relationships over time. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of the NL-ENIGMA study: Exploring the effect of Souvenaid on cerebral glucose metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scheltens, Nienke M E; Kuyper, Ingrid S; Boellaard, Ronald; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Broersen, Laus M; Lansbergen, Marieke M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Berckel, Bart N M; Scheltens, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with early synaptic loss. Specific nutrients are known to be rate limiting for synapse formation. Studies have shown that administering specific nutrients may improve memory function, possibly by increasing synapse formation. This Dutch study explores the Effect of a specific Nutritional Intervention on cerebral Glucose Metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease (NL-ENIGMA, Dutch Trial Register NTR4718, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4718). The NL-ENIGMA study is designed to test whether the specific multinutrient combination Fortasyn Connect present in the medical food Souvenaid influences cerebral glucose metabolism as a marker for improved synapse function. This study is a double-blind, randomized controlled parallel-group single-center trial. Forty drug-naive patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia with evidence of amyloid deposition are 1:1 randomized to receive either the multinutrient combination or placebo once daily. Main exploratory outcome parameters include absolute quantitative positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (including arterial sampling) and standard uptake value ratios normalized for the cerebellum or pons after 24 weeks. We expect the NL-ENIGMA study to provide further insight in the potential of this multinutrient combination to improve synapse function.

  18. Intervention among new parents followed up by an interview study exploring their experiences of telemedicine after early postnatal discharge.

    PubMed

    Danbjørg, D B; Wagner, L; Kristensen, B R; Clemensen, J

    2015-06-01

    a move towards earlier postnatal discharge raises the challenge of finding new ways to support families when they are discharged early after childbirth. to explore how postnatal parents experienced the use of telemedicine following early discharge from hospital (i.e. 24 hours after childbirth) by investigating if they consider that their postnatal needs are met, and whether or not they experience a sense of security and parental self-efficacy. intervention followed by a qualitative interview study. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1000 births a year. An app including chat, a knowledgebase and automated messages was trialled between postnatal parents at home and the hospital. Parents had access to the app for seven days after discharge. 42 new mothers were recruited from the postnatal ward in accordance with the inclusion criteria (i.e. discharged within 24 hours of childbirth). Both parents were invited for interview. 42 sets of parents participated in the trial, and 28 sets agreed to be interviewed. Interviews (n=28) were conducted with 27 mothers and 11 fathers. Parents were interviewed together in 10 cases, 17 mothers were interviewed alone, and one father was interviewed alone. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation based on Giorgi׳s descriptive phenomenological method. parents were confident in use of the app, and did not experience any barriers in contacting the nurses via asynchronous communication. Parents received timely information and guidance by communicating online, and felt that their follow-up support needs were met. parents viewed the app as a lifeline, and saw it as a means of informing and guiding them following early discharge from hospital after childbirth. As such, this app shows potential for enhancing self-efficacy and postnatal sense of security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of the Cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe

    The cestode fauna in shrews of the genus Sorex from the European region consists of seventeen species. Twelve cestode species have broad Palearctic distributions, three belong to the Western-Asian–European faunistic complex, and only two are endemic to the European zone. Postglacial expansion into ...

  20. The effect of early feeding practices on growth indices and obesity at preschool children from four European countries and UK schoolchildren and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moschonis, George; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Damianidi, Louiza; Lioret, Sandrine; Moreira, Pedro; Lopes, Carla; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline; Manios, Yannis

    2017-09-01

    Not only healthy growth but also childhood obesity partly originate from early life. The current work aimed to examine the association of feeding practices during infancy with growth and adiposity indices in preschool children from four European countries and in UK schoolchildren and adolescents. Existing data from four European birth cohorts (ALSPAC-UK, EDEN-France, EuroPrevall-Greece and Generation XXI-Portugal) were used. Anthropometrics and body composition indices were collected. Parallel multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the research hypothesis. Overall, the analyses showed that breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding were not consistently associated with height z-score, overweight/obesity, and body fat mass in children or adolescents. However, breastfeeding duration for less than 6 months was associated with lower height z-scores in 5-year-old French children (P < 0.001) but with higher height z-scores in 4-year-old UK children (P = 0.006). Furthermore, introduction of complementary foods earlier than 4 months of age was positively associated with fat mass levels in 5-year-old French children (P = 0.026). Early feeding practices, i.e., any breastfeeding duration and age of introduction of complementary foods, do not appear to be consistently associated with height z-score, overweight/obesity, and body fat mass in preschool children from four European countries and in UK schoolchildren and adolescents. What is known? • Healthy growth and childhood obesity partly originate from early life. What is new? • Breastfeeding duration less than 6 months was associated with lower height z-scores in 5-year-old French children, while the opposite was observed in 4-year-old British children. • Introduction of complementary foods earlier than 4 months was positively associated with fat mass levels in 5-year-old French children, but not in the other three countries. • Early feeding practices did not appear to be

  1. Accountable to whom, for what? An exploration of the early development of Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English NHS.

    PubMed

    Checkland, Kath; Allen, Pauline; Coleman, Anna; Segar, Julia; McDermott, Imelda; Harrison, Stephen; Petsoulas, Christina; Peckham, Stephen

    2013-12-10

    One of the key goals of the current reforms in the English National Health Service (NHS) under the Health and Social Care Act, 2012, is to increase the accountability of those responsible for commissioning care for patients (clinical commissioning groups (CCGs)), while at the same time allowing them a greater autonomy. This study was set out to explore CCG's developing accountability relationships. We carried out detailed case studies in eight CCGs, using interviews, observation and documentary analysis to explore their multiple accountabilities. We interviewed 91 people, including general practitioners, managers and governing body members in developing CCGs, and undertook 439 h of observation in a wide variety of meetings. CCGs are subject to a managerial, sanction-backed accountability to NHS England (the highest tier in the new organisational hierarchy), alongside a number of other external accountabilities to the public and to some of the other new organisations created by the reforms. In addition, unlike their predecessor commissioning organisations, they are subject to complex internal accountabilities to their members. The accountability regime to which CCGs are subject to is considerably more complex than that which applied their predecessor organisations. It remains to be seen whether the twin aspirations of increased autonomy and increased accountability can be realised in practice. However, this early study raises some important issues and concerns, including the risk that the different bodies to whom CCGs are accountable will have differing (or conflicting) agendas, and the lack of clarity over the operation of sanction regimes.

  2. Evidence of Active Dune Sand on the Great Plains in the 19th Century from Accounts of Early Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Holliday, Vance T.

    1995-03-01

    Eolian sand is extensive over the Great Plains of North America, but is at present mostly stabilized by vegetation. Accounts published by early explorers, however, indicate that at least parts of dune fields in Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas were active in the 19th century. Based on an index of dune mobility and a regional tree-ring record, the probable causes for these periods of greater eolian activity are droughts, accompanied by higher temperatures, which greatly lowered the precipitation-to-evapotranspiration ratio and diminished the cover of stabilizing vegetation. In addition, observations by several explorers, and previous historical studies, indicate that rivers upwind of Great Plains dune fields had shallow, braided, sandy channels, as well as intermittent flow in the 19th century. Wide, braided, sandy rivers that were frequently dry would have increased sand supplies to active dune fields. We conclude that dune fields in the Great Plains are extremely sensitive to climate change and that the potential for reactivation of stabilized dunes in the future is high, with or without greenhouse warming.

  3. Early Risk Behaviors and Adolescent Injury in 25 European and North American Countries: A Cross-National Consistent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Looze, Margaretha; Pickett, William; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Hublet, Anne; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Molcho, Michal; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among adolescents in developed countries. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory suggests an association between risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, drunkenness, cannabis use, and sexual intercourse) and adolescent injury. The present study examined whether early engagement in risk behaviors…

  4. Exploring the mediating role of energy balance-related behaviours in the association between sleep duration and obesity in European adults. The SPOTLIGHT project.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Myrthe; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Helene; Bárdos, Helga; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; McKee, Martin; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    Sleep restriction is a risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Few studies have formally investigated the mediating role of energy balance-related behaviours in the sleep - obesity association. The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in the association of sleep duration with obesity in adults in five European urban regions. Data on self-reported sleep duration, energy balance-related behaviours, height and weight and other covariates were collected between February and September 2014 from participants to the SPOTLIGHT survey (N=5900, mean age 52years). Participants were recruited from 60 urban neighbourhoods in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of sleep duration, energy balance-related behaviours and obesity and mediating effects were calculated using MacKinnon's product-of-coefficients method. Results indicated that a 1h increase in sleeping time was associated with a 14% lower likelihood of being obese (OR=0.86, 95%CI=0.80; 0.93). Only work-related sedentary behaviour was identified as a statistically significant mediator in the association between sleep duration and obesity for the total sample, and youngest and oldest age group. We did not find evidence for a mediating role of dietary habits and physical activities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-10-01

    Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

  6. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-01-01

    Background Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high‐risk behaviours, with high‐profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. Objective This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. Design We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post‐fame mortality in pop stars. Participants Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All‐Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. Results From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five‐year post‐fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Conclusion Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health‐damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would‐be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations. PMID:17873227

  7. Accountable to whom, for what? An exploration of the early development of Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English NHS

    PubMed Central

    Checkland, Kath; Allen, Pauline; Coleman, Anna; Segar, Julia; McDermott, Imelda; Harrison, Stephen; Petsoulas, Christina; Peckham, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective One of the key goals of the current reforms in the English National Health Service (NHS) under the Health and Social Care Act, 2012, is to increase the accountability of those responsible for commissioning care for patients (clinical commissioning groups (CCGs)), while at the same time allowing them a greater autonomy. This study was set out to explore CCG's developing accountability relationships. Design We carried out detailed case studies in eight CCGs, using interviews, observation and documentary analysis to explore their multiple accountabilities. Setting/participants We interviewed 91 people, including general practitioners, managers and governing body members in developing CCGs, and undertook 439 h of observation in a wide variety of meetings. Results CCGs are subject to a managerial, sanction-backed accountability to NHS England (the highest tier in the new organisational hierarchy), alongside a number of other external accountabilities to the public and to some of the other new organisations created by the reforms. In addition, unlike their predecessor commissioning organisations, they are subject to complex internal accountabilities to their members. Conclusions The accountability regime to which CCGs are subject to is considerably more complex than that which applied their predecessor organisations. It remains to be seen whether the twin aspirations of increased autonomy and increased accountability can be realised in practice. However, this early study raises some important issues and concerns, including the risk that the different bodies to whom CCGs are accountable will have differing (or conflicting) agendas, and the lack of clarity over the operation of sanction regimes. PMID:24327362

  8. Addressing the impact of mercury estuarine contamination in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) - An early diagnosis in glass eel stage based on erythrocytic nuclear morphology.

    PubMed

    Castro, D; Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Guilherme, S; Marques, A; Santos, M A; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E; Pacheco, M

    2018-02-01

    The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) population throughout Europe has been partially attributed to pollution. As glass eel estuarine migration may represent a considerable threat, the impact of mercury (Hg) contamination at this stage was evaluated through an in situ experiment (7days). Total Hg (tHg) bioaccumulation was evaluated concomitantly with erythrocytic nuclear morphology alterations: erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay (ENA), frequency of immature erythrocytes (IE) and the erythrocytic maturity index (EMI). The ENA results suggested a genotoxic pressure at the most contaminated sites, in line with the tHg increase. The EMI data, together with IE frequency, showed that fish exposed to high levels of Hg exhibited alterations of haematological dynamics, translated into an erythropoiesis increment. Despite the presence of these compensatory mechanisms, the present findings suggest a harmful impact of Hg on genome integrity at this early development stage, potentially affecting eels' condition and ultimately the population sustainability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Early recognition of malnutrition and cachexia in the cancer patient: a position paper of a European School of Oncology Task Force.

    PubMed

    Aapro, M; Arends, J; Bozzetti, F; Fearon, K; Grunberg, S M; Herrstedt, J; Hopkinson, J; Jacquelin-Ravel, N; Jatoi, A; Kaasa, S; Strasser, F

    2014-08-01

    Weight loss and cachexia are common, reduce tolerance of cancer treatment and the likelihood of response, and independently predict poor outcome. A group of experts met under the auspices of the European School of Oncology to review the literature and-on the basis of the limited evidence at present-make recommendations for malnutrition and cachexia management and future research. Our focus should move from end-stage wasting to supporting patients' nutritional and functional state throughout the increasingly complex and prolonged course of anti-cancer treatment. When inadequate nutrient intake predominates (malnutrition), this can be managed by conventional nutritional support. In the presence of systemic inflammation/altered metabolism (cachexia), a multi-modal approach including novel therapeutic agents is required. For all patients, oncologists should consider three supportive care issues: ensuring sufficient energy and protein intake, maintaining physical activity to maintain muscle mass and (if present) reducing systemic inflammation. The results of phase II/III trials based on novel drug targets (e.g. cytokines, ghrelin receptor, androgen receptor, myostatin) are expected in the next 2 years. If effective therapies emerge, early detection of malnutrition and cachexia will be increasingly important in the hope that timely intervention can improve both patient-centered and oncology outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Adiponectin and lipid profiles compared with insulins in relation to early growth of British South Asian and European children: the Manchester children's growth and vascular health study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Narinder; Anderson, Simon G; Vyas, Avni; Gemmell, Isla; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Oldroyd, John; Pemberton, Philip; Durrington, Paul N; Clayton, Peter E; Cruickshank, J Kennedy

    2011-08-01

    Adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin concentrations may be important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that serum adiponectin rather than insulin differs from early life, between South Asians and Europeans, with a potentially key role in excess cardiovascular risk characteristic of adult South Asians. We conducted a longitudinal study of 215 British-born children of European (n = 138) and South Asian (n = 77) origin, from birth to 3 yr. Serum adiponectin, insulin, proinsulin and HDL-C concentrations were assessed in relation to ethnic group and growth in anthropometric variables from 0-3 yr of age. Serum adiponectin was lower in South Asian children, despite their smaller size, notable at age 3-6 months (9.5 vs. 11.8 mg/liter; P = 0.04), with no ethnic differences in serum lipids or insulin or proinsulin. In mixed-effects longitudinal models for HDL-C, determinants were adiponectin (P = 0.034), age (P < 0.001), and body mass index (P < 0.001) but not ethnicity. None of these or growth variables affected either insulin or proinsulin. In a fully adjusted mixed-effects longitudinal model including age, sex, insulin, and proinsulin, the independent determinants of serum adiponectin were height [21.3 (95% confidence interval = 31.7-10.8 cm lower, for every 1 mmol/liter increase in adiponectin, P < 0.001], HDL-C [2.8 (1.3-4.2) mmol/liter higher, P < 0.0001], body mass index (lower, P = 0.03), and South Asian ethnicity (lower, P = 0.01). These British South Asian-origin infants have lower serum adiponectin but no differences in HDL-C or insulin molecules. In South Asians, factors affecting adiponectin metabolism in early life, rather than insulin resistance, likely determine later excess cardiovascular risk.

  11. The Duke, the Soldier of Fortune, and a Rosicrucian Legacy: Exploring the Roles of Manuscripts in Early-Modern Alchemy.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mike A

    2018-05-01

    By the time it was published in 1705, the Speculum Sapientiae claimed to have had a long history going back to 1672. However, the fact that exaggerated stories were commonplace in alchemical literature leads us to question its credibility. This paper explores the secret lives of this alchemical text prior to its print publication to clarify the roles of manuscripts in early-modern alchemy. Specifically, I argue that there were three aspects that could distinguish manuscript from print: provenance, materiality, and exclusivity. These can be seen at work in the fate of Johann Heinrich Vierordt, an itinerant alchemist and cavalry captain whose career is inextricably linked to the scribal dissemination of the Speculum Sapientiae. In addition to manuscript copies of that text at libraries across Europe, a significant cache of correspondence preserved in Gotha documents Vierordt's dealings with Duke Friedrich I of Saxe-Gotha. The verisimilitudinous provenance of Vierordt's alchemical secrets and tincture played a crucial role in allowing him to gain Friedrich's trust. Yet it was only after Vierordt presented him with a precious parchment manuscript of the Speculum Sapientiae that he truly succeeded in gaining the duke's patronage. Subsequently, reports of multiple conflicting copies surfacing in Amsterdam sealed Vierordt's fall from favour.

  12. Early history of extended irreversible thermodynamics (1953-1983): An exploration beyond local equilibrium and classical transport theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, G.; Jou, D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper gives a historical account of the early years (1953-1983) of extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). The salient features of this formalism are to upgrade the thermodynamic fluxes of mass, momentum, energy, and others, to the status of independent variables, and to explore the consistency between generalized transport equations and a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This requires going beyond classical irreversible thermodynamics by redefining entropy and entropy flux. EIT provides deeper foundations, closer relations with microscopic formalisms, a wider spectrum of applications, and a more exciting conceptual appeal to non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We first recall the historical contributions by Maxwell, Cattaneo, and Grad on generalized transport equations. A thermodynamic theory wide enough to cope with such transport equations was independently proposed between 1953 and 1983 by several authors, each emphasizing different kinds of problems. In 1983, the first international meeting on this theory took place in Bellaterra (Barcelona). It provided the opportunity for the various authors to meet together for the first time and to discuss the common points and the specific differences of their previous formulations. From then on, a large amount of applications and theoretical confirmations have emerged. From the historical point of view, the emergence of EIT has been an opportunity to revisit the foundations and to open new avenues in thermodynamics, one of the most classical and well consolidated physical theories.

  13. Experience Gained From Launch and Early Orbit Support of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, D. R.; Chapman, K. B.; Davis, W. S.; Hashmall, J. A.; Shulman, S. E.; Underwood, S. C.; Zsoldos, J. M.; Harman, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    this paper reports the results to date of early mission support provided by the personnel of the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) for the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft. For this mission, the FDD supports onboard attitude determination and ephemeris propagation by supplying ground-based orbit and attitude solutions and calibration results. The first phase of that support was to provide launch window analyses. As the launch window was determined, acquisition attitudes were calculated and calibration slews were planned. postlaunch, these slews provided the basis for ground determined calibration. Ground determined calibration results are used to improve the accuracy of onboard solutions. The FDD is applying new calibration tools designed to facilitate use of the simultaneous, high-accuracy star observations from the two RXTE star trackers for ground attitude determination and calibration. An evaluation of the performance of these tools is presented. The FDD provides updates to the onboard star catalog based on preflight analysis and analysis of flight data. The in-flight results of the mission support in each area are summarized and compared with pre-mission expectations.

  14. Perceptions of early body image socialization in families: Exploring knowledge, beliefs, and strategies among mothers of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M; Clarke, Samantha; Birky, Julie P; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to explore parental perceptions of body image in preschoolers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 primary caregivers of preschoolers to examine knowledge, beliefs, and strategies regarding early body image socialization in families. Thematic Analysis yielded three themes highlighting knowledge gaps, belief discrepancies, and limited awareness of strategies. Findings regarding knowledge: Most participants defined body image as objective attractiveness rather than subjective self-assessment (53%) and focused on negative body image. Beliefs: Although 97% of participants believed weight and shape impact children's self-esteem, 63% believed preschoolers too young to have a body image. Strategies: Most participants (53%) said family was a primary influence on body image, but identified few effective strategies and 63% said they did not do anything to influence children's body image. Findings suggested family body image socialization in preschoolers is occurring outside the awareness of parents and the concept of positive body image is underdeveloped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the nucleocapsid protein for early detection of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Venteo, A; Rebollo, B; Sarraseca, J; Rodriguez, M J; Sanz, A

    2012-04-01

    Precise and rapid detection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine farms is critical. Improvement of control procedures, such as testing incoming gilt and surveillance of seronegative herds requires more rapid and sensitive methods. However, standard serological techniques detect mainly IgG antibodies. A double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DR-ELISA) was developed for detection of antibodies specific to European PRRSV. This new assay can recognize both IgM and IgG antibodies to PRSSV which might be useful for detecting in routine surveillance assays pigs that are in the very early stages of infection and missed by conventional assays detecting only IgG antibodies. DR-ELISA is based on the double recognition of antigen by antibody. In this study, the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N) of PRRSV was used both as the coating and the enzyme-conjugated antigen. To evaluate the sensitivity of the assay at early stages of the infection, sera from 69 pigs infected with PRRSV were collected during successive days post infection (pi) and tested. While standard methods showed low sensitivity rates before day 14 pi, DR-ELISA detected 88.4% seropositive samples at day 7 showing greater sensitivity at early stages of the infection. Further studies were carried out to assess the efficiency of the new assay, and the results showed DR-ELISA to be a sensitive and accurate method for early diagnosis of EU-PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Shakespearean Intertexts and European Identities in Contemporary Black British Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Valdivieso, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the presence of William Shakespeare as intertext in three recent novels by black British writers which deploy the work of the Bard as they explore British and European identities. Caryl Phillips's "The Nature of Blood" recreates an Othello-like figure who in early Modern Venice struggles to come to terms with his…

  17. Use of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) in incompletely resected (R1) early stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): a European survey conducted by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) young oncologists committee.

    PubMed

    Califano, R; Karamouzis, M V; Banerjee, S; de Azambuja, E; Guarneri, V; Hutka, M; Jordan, K; Kamposioras, K; Martinelli, E; Corral, J; Postel-Vinay, S; Preusser, M; Porcu, L; Torri, V

    2014-07-01

    Early stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is potentially curable with surgery. ESMO guidelines recommend cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) for completely resected stage II-III NSCLC. There is limited evidence for the use of adjuvant CT and/or radiotherapy (RT) in incompletely resected (R1) early stage NSCLC. A European survey of thoracic oncologists was conducted to evaluate use of adjuvant CT and RT for R1-resected NSCLC and to identify factors influencing treatment decisions. Demographics and information on clinical stage, regimens, cycles planned, radiotherapy sites, multidisciplinary management and discussion about inconclusive evidence with the patient were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. 768 surveys were collected from 41 European countries. 82.9% of participants were medical oncologists; 49.3% ESMO members; 37.1% based in University Hospitals; 32.6% practicing oncology for over 15 years and 81.4% active in research. 91.4% of participants prescribed adjuvant CT and mostly cisplatin/vinorelbine (81.2%) or cisplatin/gemcitabine (42.9%). 85% discussed limited clinical evidence with the patient. In the univariate analysis, a statistically significant association with CT prescription was found for medical oncology specialty (p<0.001), ESMO membership (p<0.001), activity in clinical research (p=0.002) and increased frequency of ESMO guidelines consultation (p for trend <0.001). 48.3% of participants prescribed adjuvant RT and its prescription were associated with radiation oncology specialty (p<0.001), not being an ESMO member (p<0.001), years practicing specialty (p for trend=0.001), workload of lung cancer patients (p for trend=0.027) and decreased frequency in consulting ESMO guidelines (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, medical oncology and radiation oncology were the best discriminator for prescription of adjuvant CT and RT, respectively. This survey demonstrates that adjuvant CT and RT are commonly used in

  18. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Munk, Peter; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns and egg buoyancy. Egg diameter after activation, using natural seawater adjusted to different salinities, varied among female eels, but no consistent pattern emerged. Activation salinities between 30-40 practical salinity unit (psu) produced higher quality eggs and generally larger egg diameters. Chorion diameters reached maximal values of 1642 ± 8 μm at 35 psu. A positive relationship was found between egg neutral buoyancy and activation salinity. Nine salt types were investigated as activation and incubation media. Five of these types induced a substantial perivitelline space (PVS), leading to large egg sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic composition of the media when rearing fish eggs and further studies are encouraged.

  19. Unexpected early extinction of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Sweden and climatic impact on its Holocene range.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Robert S; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Persson, Arne; Bringsøe, Henrik; Rhodin, Anders G J; Schneeweiss, Norbert; Siroký, Pavel; Bachmann, Lutz; Fritz, Uwe

    2009-03-01

    Using ancient DNA sequences of subfossil European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) from Britain, Central and North Europe and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating for turtle remains from most Swedish sites, we provide evidence for a Holocene range expansion of the pond turtle from the southeastern Balkans into Britain, Central Europe and Scandinavia, according to the 'grasshopper pattern' of Hewitt. Northeastern Europe and adjacent Asia were colonized from another refuge located further east. With increasing annual mean temperatures, pond turtles reached southern Sweden approximately 9800 years ago. Until approximately 5500 years ago, rising temperatures facilitated a further range expansion up to Ostergötland, Sweden (approximately 58 degrees 30'N). However, around 5500 years ago pond turtle records suddenly terminate in Sweden, some 1500 years before the Holocene thermal maximum ended in Scandinavia and distinctly earlier than previously thought. This extinction coincides with a temporary cooling oscillation during the Holocene thermal maximum and is likely related to lower summer temperatures deteriorating reproductive success. Although climatic conditions improved later again, recolonization of Sweden from southern source populations was prevented by the Holocene submergence of the previous land connection via the Danish Straits that occurred approximately 8500 years ago.

  20. Early diagenesis driven by widespread meteoric infiltration of a Central European carbonate ramp: A reinterpretation of the Upper Muschelkalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric diagenesis of carbonate ramps is often difficult to interpret and can commonly be confused with other coinciding diagenetic processes. The Middle Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of Switzerland provides an insightful case in which the effects of several overprinting diagenetic environments, including matrix dolomitization, can be clearly unravelled. Previous studies suggested that diagenesis took place in connate marine waters, with later meteoric waters being invoked to explain recrystallization of dolomite. In this study, diagenetic analyses (C-O stable isotope ratios, thin-section point counting, cathodoluminescence and UV-fluorescence microscopy) of calcitic bioclastic samples have revealed that early diagenesis (pre-stylolitization) and the accompanying porosity evolution did not occur exclusively in the presence of marine fluids. Five sequential stages of diagenesis have been identified: marine, shallow burial, mixing-zone, meteoric and dolomitization. Marine diagenesis induced precipitation of bladed and inclusion-rich syntaxial cements that fluoresce strongly under UV-light. Both cements account for a mean 7.5 vol% reduction in the porosity of bioclastic beds. Shallow burial diagenesis likely induced mouldic porosity and associated fluorescent dog-tooth cementation. Based on light oxygen isotope and elevated strontium isotope ratios, matrix aragonite-calcite neomorphism is interpreted to have occurred in a mixture of marine and meteoric fluids. The combination of shallow burial and mixing-zone processes reduced porosity on average by 4.8 vol%. Evidence for subsequent meteoric diagenesis is found in abundant dog-tooth and blocky calcite cements that have mean δ18OVPDB of - 9.36‰ and no signs of recrystallization. These meteoric cements reduced porosity by a further 13.4 vol%. Percolation of meteoric water through the ramp was driven by hydraulic gradients on an adjacent basement high, which was exposed by a cycle of early Ladinian regressions

  1. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students' Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baig, Amina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group…

  2. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Croen, Lisa A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Reed, Philip L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Daniels, Julie; Grether, Judith; Levy, Susan E.; Miller, Lisa; Newschaffer, Craig; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Robinson, Cordelia; Windham, Gayle C.; Alexander, Aimee; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bernal, Pilar; Bonner, Joseph D.; Blaskey, Lisa; Bradley, Chyrise; Collins, Jack; Ferretti, Casara J.; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Giarelli, Ellen; Harvey, Marques; Hepburn, Susan; Herr, Matthew; Kaparich, Kristina; Landa, Rebecca; Lee, Li-Ching; Levenseller, Brooke; Meyerer, Stacey; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Ratchford, Andria; Reynolds, Ann; Rosenberg, Steven; Rusyniak, Julie; Shapira, Stuart K.; Smith, Karen; Souders, Margaret; Thompson, Patrick Aaron; Young, Lisa; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2012-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal,…

  3. Exploring the Definitions of Quality Early Childhood Programmes in a Market-Driven Context: Case Studies of Two Hong Kong Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Choi Wa Dora

    2008-01-01

    Set within the market-driven context in educare for young children in Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, this paper points to the importance of exploring the definitions of quality in early childhood programmes from the multiple perspectives of school stakeholders. This study describes two preschools that…

  4. Confirmatory versus explorative endpoint analysis: Decision-making on the basis of evidence available from market authorization and early benefit assessment for oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ines; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2018-06-01

    The early benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany and their preceding market authorization pursue different objectives. This is reflected by the inclusion of varying confirmatory endpoints within the evaluation of oncology drugs in early benefit assessment versus market authorization, with both relying on the same evidence. Data from assessments up to July 2015 are used to estimate the impact of explorative in comparison to confirmatory endpoints on market authorization and early benefit assessment by contrasting the benefit-risk ratio of EMA and the benefit-harm balance of the HTA jurisdiction. Agreement between market authorization and early benefit assessment is examined by Cohen's kappa (k). 21 of 41 assessments were considered in the analysis. Market authorization is more confirmatory than early benefit assessment because it includes a higher proportion of primary endpoints. The latter implies a primary endpoint to be relevant for the benefit-harm balance in only 67% of cases (0.078). Explorative mortality endpoints reached the highest agreement regarding the mutual consideration for the risk-benefit ratio and the benefit-harm balance (0.000). For explorative morbidity endpoints (-0.600), quality of life (-0.600) and side effects (-0.949) no agreement is ascertainable. To warrant a broader confirmatory basis for decisions supported by HTA, closer inter-institutional cooperation of approval authorities and HTA jurisdictions by means of reliable joint advice for manufacturers regarding endpoint definition would be favorable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A qualitative analysis exploring preferred methods of peer support to encourage adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Christina M; McEvoy, Claire T; Moore, Sarah E; Prior, Lindsay; Lawton, Julia; Kee, Frank; Cupples, Margaret E; Young, Ian S; Appleton, Katherine; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2018-02-05

    Epidemiological and randomised controlled trial evidence demonstrates that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, methods used to support dietary change have been intensive and expensive. Peer support has been suggested as a possible cost-effective method to encourage adherence to a MD in at risk populations, although development of such a programme has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use mixed-methods to determine the preferred peer support approach to encourage adherence to a MD. Qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative methods (questionnaire and preference scoring sheet) were used to determine preferred methods of peer support. Sixty-seven high CVD risk participants took part in 12 focus groups (60% female, mean age 64 years) and completed a questionnaire and preference scoring sheet. Focus group data were transcribed and thematically analysed. The mean preference score (1 being most preferred and 5 being least preferred) for group support was 1.5, compared to 3.4 for peer mentorship, 4.0 for telephone peer support and 4.0 for internet peer support. Three key themes were identified from the transcripts: 1. Components of an effective peer support group: discussions around group peer support were predominantly positive. It was suggested that an effective group develops from people who consider themselves similar to each other meeting face-to-face, leading to the development of a group identity that embraces trust and honesty. 2. Catalysing Motivation: participants discussed that a group peer support model could facilitate interpersonal motivations including encouragement, competitiveness and accountability. 3. Stepping Stones of Change: participants conceptualised change as a process, and discussed that, throughout the process, different models of peer support might be more or less useful. A group-based approach was the preferred method of peer support to encourage a population at high

  6. Adiponectin and Lipid Profiles Compared with Insulins in Relation to Early Growth of British South Asian and European Children: The Manchester Children's Growth and Vascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Narinder; Anderson, Simon G.; Vyas, Avni; Gemmell, Isla; Charlton-Menys, Valentine; Oldroyd, John; Pemberton, Philip; Durrington, Paul N.; Clayton, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and insulin concentrations may be important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that serum adiponectin rather than insulin differs from early life, between South Asians and Europeans, with a potentially key role in excess cardiovascular risk characteristic of adult South Asians. Design and Participants: We conducted a longitudinal study of 215 British-born children of European (n = 138) and South Asian (n = 77) origin, from birth to 3 yr. Main Outcome Measure: Serum adiponectin, insulin, proinsulin and HDL-C concentrations were assessed in relation to ethnic group and growth in anthropometric variables from 0–3 yr of age. Results: Serum adiponectin was lower in South Asian children, despite their smaller size, notable at age 3–6 months (9.5 vs. 11.8 mg/liter; P = 0.04), with no ethnic differences in serum lipids or insulin or proinsulin. In mixed-effects longitudinal models for HDL-C, determinants were adiponectin (P = 0.034), age (P < 0.001), and body mass index (P < 0.001) but not ethnicity. None of these or growth variables affected either insulin or proinsulin. In a fully adjusted mixed-effects longitudinal model including age, sex, insulin, and proinsulin, the independent determinants of serum adiponectin were height [21.3 (95% confidence interval = 31.7–10.8 cm lower, for every 1 mmol/liter increase in adiponectin, P < 0.001], HDL-C [2.8 (1.3–4.2) mmol/liter higher, P < 0.0001], body mass index (lower, P = 0.03), and South Asian ethnicity (lower, P = 0.01). Conclusions: These British South Asian-origin infants have lower serum adiponectin but no differences in HDL-C or insulin molecules. In South Asians, factors affecting adiponectin metabolism in early life, rather than insulin resistance, likely determine later excess cardiovascular risk. PMID:21632814

  7. "Let's Count": Improving Community Approaches to Early Years Mathematics Learning, Teaching and Dispositions through Noticing, Exploring and Talking about Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bob; Hampshire, Ann; Gervaxoni, Ann; O'Neill, Will

    2016-01-01

    "Let's Count" is a preschool mathematics intervention implemented by The Smith Family from 2012 to the present in "disdvantaged" communities across Australia. It is based on current mathematics and early childhood education research and aligns with the Early Years Learning Framework. Let's Count has been shown to be effective…

  8. Science Learning and Graphic Symbols: An Exploration of Early Years Teachers' Views and Use of Graphic Symbols When Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria; Pampoulou, Eliada Salowm; Pieridou, Myria; Allen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated early years teachers' understanding and use of graphic symbols, defined as the visual representation(s) used to communicate one or more "linguistic" concepts, which can be used to facilitate science learning. The study was conducted in Cyprus where six early years teachers were observed and interviewed. The results…

  9. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  10. An Assessment of Coherence Between Early Warning and Response Systems and Serious Cross-Border Health Threats in the European Union and Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Elif Ekmekci, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Disease outbreaks have attracted the attention of the public health community to early warning and response systems (EWRS) for communicable diseases and other cross-border threats to health. The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published regulations in this area. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought a new approach the management of public health threats in EU member states. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought several innovations, which included establishing a Health Security Committee; preparedness and response planning; joint procurement of medical countermeasures; ad hoc monitoring for biological, chemical, and environmental threats; EWRS; and recognition of an emergency situation and interoperability between various sectors. Turkey, as an acceding country to the EU and a member of the WHO, has been improving its national public health system to meet EU legislations and WHO standards. This article first explains EWRS as defined in Decision 1082/2013/EU and Turkey’s obligations to align its public health laws to the EU acquis. EWRS in Turkey are addressed, particularly their coherence with EU policies regarding preparedness and response, alert notification, and interoperability between health and other sectors. Finally, the challenges and limitations of the current Turkish system are discussed and further improvements are suggested. PMID:27511433

  11. An Assessment of Coherence Between Early Warning and Response Systems and Serious Cross-Border Health Threats in the European Union and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreaks have attracted the attention of the public health community to early warning and response systems (EWRS) for communicable diseases and other cross-border threats to health. The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published regulations in this area. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought a new approach the management of public health threats in EU member states. Decision 1082/2013/EU brought several innovations, which included establishing a Health Security Committee; preparedness and response planning; joint procurement of medical countermeasures; ad hoc monitoring for biological, chemical, and environmental threats; EWRS; and recognition of an emergency situation and interoperability between various sectors. Turkey, as an acceding country to the EU and a member of the WHO, has been improving its national public health system to meet EU legislations and WHO standards. This article first explains EWRS as defined in Decision 1082/2013/EU and Turkey's obligations to align its public health laws to the EU acquis. EWRS in Turkey are addressed, particularly their coherence with EU policies regarding preparedness and response, alert notification, and interoperability between health and other sectors. Finally, the challenges and limitations of the current Turkish system are discussed and further improvements are suggested. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:883-892).

  12. Exploring Embodied Methodologies for Transformative Practice in Early Childhood and Youth. Weighed down by Development: Reflections on Early Childhood Care and Education in East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dachyshyn, Darcey M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken in West Nile Uganda and Coastal Kenya as part of a broader "development" project. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, parents, and early childhood practitioners were involved in sharing their perspectives of what life is like for young children (birth to age…

  13. Early intervention for substance abuse among youth and young adults with mental health conditions: an exploration of community mental health practices.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Elizabeth K; Taylor, Sarah A; Raffo, Zulma

    2011-05-01

    This mixed method study examined current practices and barriers for screening and assessing substance use among youth/young adults in community mental health systems. Substance use rates remain high among youth/young adults in the general population and substance use disorders are prevalent among young people involved in public service systems such as mental health. In an effort to understand the dynamics for early intervention, 64 case managers and/or clinical directors from children's mental health systems in two states participated in an online survey or focus group in fall 2008. Quantitative survey questions and qualitative focus group questions explored attitudes and perspectives about screening and early intervention for substance use among youth/young adults involved in the mental health system and current agency practices. Mixed method results suggest a number of barriers to substance use screening and early intervention and point to innovations that could be more effectively supported.

  14. The influence of early feeding practices on healthy diet variety score among pre-school children in four European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jones, Louise; Moschonis, George; Oliveira, Andreia; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Manios, Yannis; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Charles, Marie Aline; Emmett, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether maternal diet and early infant feeding experiences relating to being breast-fed and complementary feeding influence the range of healthy foods consumed in later childhood. Data from four European birth cohorts were studied. Healthy Plate Variety Score (HPVS) was calculated using FFQ. HPVS assesses the variety of healthy foods consumed within and across the five main food groups. The weighted numbers of servings consumed of each food group were summed; the maximum score was 5. Associations between infant feeding experiences, maternal diet and the HPVS were tested using generalized linear models and adjusted for appropriate confounders. The British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de L'Enfant study (EDEN), the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort and the Greek EuroPrevall cohort. Pre-school children and their mothers. The mean HPVS for each of the cohorts ranged from 2.3 to 3.8, indicating that the majority of children were not eating a full variety of healthy foods. Never being breast-fed or being breast-fed for a short duration was associated with lower HPVS at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in all cohorts. There was no consistent association between the timing of complementary feeding and HPVS. Mother's HPVS was strongly positively associated with child's HPVS but did not greatly attenuate the relationship with breast-feeding duration. Results suggest that being breast-fed for a short duration is associated with pre-school children eating a lower variety of healthy foods.

  15. The association between life course socioeconomic position and life satisfaction in different welfare states: European comparative study of individuals in early old age

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: whether socioeconomic position over the life course influences the wellbeing of older people similarly in different societies is not known. Objective: to investigate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction among individuals in early old age and the influence of the welfare state regime on the associations. Design: comparative study using data from Wave 2 and SHARELIFE, the retrospective Wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected during 2006–07 and 2008–09, respectively. Setting: thirteen European countries representing four welfare regimes (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist and Bismarckian). Subjects: a total of 17,697 individuals aged 50–75 years. Methods: slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between life course socioeconomic position (measured by the number of books in childhood, education level and current wealth) and life satisfaction. Single level linear regression models stratified by welfare regime and multilevel regression models, containing interaction terms between socioeconomic position and welfare regime type, were calculated. Results: socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction were present in all welfare regimes. Educational inequalities in life satisfaction were narrowest in Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes among both genders. Post-communist and Southern countries experienced both lower life satisfaction and larger socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction, using most measures of socioeconomic position. Current wealth was associated with large inequalities in life satisfaction across all regimes. Conclusions: Scandinavian and Bismarckian countries exhibited narrower socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. This suggests that more generous welfare states help to produce a more equitable distribution of wellbeing among older people. PMID:24476800

  16. Interpersonal Trauma and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescents: Exploring the Moderating Roles of Parent and School Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwerdtfeger Gallus, Kami L.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Merten, Michael J.; Cox, Ronald B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal traumas experienced early in life adversely impact psychological well-being in children and adolescents, yet the specific role that social support can have in reducing negative outcomes following trauma exposure is unclear. Using a general population sample of seventh-grade students in an urban public school district in the South…

  17. Professional Learning across Contexts for LESLLA Teachers: The Unlikely Meeting of Adult Educators in Kindergarten to Explore Early Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinogradov, Patricia Egan

    2013-01-01

    In this case study of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) educators, the researcher facilitated a six-week professional development activity around the topic of early literacy instruction. The four participants in the study circle were all LESLLA (low-educated second language and literacy acquisition) teachers whose students are adult…

  18. Early Instruction in Geography: An Exploration in the Ecology of Kindergarten and First-Grade Geography Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an introductory study of early-grade level geography education in terms of human ecology using accepted cognitive process and knowledge dimensions related to learning. The central question addressed is "at what cognitive process and knowledge levels do kindergarten and first-grade teachers teach geography?" A tentative answer…

  19. Exploring School-Employer Partnerships to Expand Career Development and Early Work Experiences for Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Cole, Odessa; Swedeen, Beth; Ditchman, Nicole; Owens, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Although career development and early work experiences are associated with improved postschool employment outcomes for youth with disabilities, transition personnel report having few natural community partners to support and enhance these experiences. We surveyed 135 chambers of commerce and other employer networks to examine (a) whether and how…

  20. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  1. Can Service Learning Reinforce Social and Cultural Bias? Exploring a Popular Model of Family Involvement for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn-Kenney, Maylan

    2010-01-01

    Service learning is often used in teacher education as a way to challenge social bias and provide teacher candidates with skills needed to work in partnership with diverse families. Although some literature suggests that service learning could reinforce cultural bias, there is little documentation. In a study of 21 early childhood teacher…

  2. Songs from the Car Seat: Exploring the Early Childhood Music-Making Place of the Family Vehicle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate the musical "place" of the family vehicle by describing the music making of nine young children, ages 10 months to 4.5 years, that occurred in vehicles over the course of 9 weeks during which the children were enrolled in a researcher-led early childhood music course. Research…

  3. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Oral Communicative Competence and Peer Rejection: An Explorative Study in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…

  4. Move, Act, Play, Sing (MAPS): Exploring Early Childhood Arts Teaching and Learning Strategies and Concepts through Community Arts Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, David; Naughton, Chris; Roder, John; Matapo, Jacoba; Whyte, Marjolein; Liao, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This project/report worked with three early childhood education centres who have adopted the Reggio Emilia philosophy of educational practice. Each centre works with children and parents in close collaboration and all the staff and centre management are committed to the project. The aim of this project was to work with each centre in developing…

  5. A Head Start to Learning: Exploration of a Parent-Directed Intervention to Promote Early Literacy Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…

  6. Thinking Differently about Infants and Toddlers: Exploring the Reflections of Future Australian Early Childhood Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Pendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early childhood teacher education programs there is typically a greater focus on the age group of kindergarten children compared to that of infants and toddlers (Garvis, Lemon, Pendergast and Yim, 2013). As a consequence, pre-service teachers may have little opportunity to interact and learn about this important age range. This paper…

  7. Exploring the Beliefs of Commencing Early Childhood Education Graduate Students: Providing Insights to Improve Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Fluckiger, Beverley; Twigg, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    In response to the increased demand for qualified early childhood educators in Queensland, many universities are being challenged to tailor make programs and identify innovative practices that support individuals interested in pursuing such a teaching qualification. Although research indicates that beliefs and perceptions are an important…

  8. Exploring the Hydrothermal System in the Chicxulub Crater and Implications for the Early Evolution of Life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, D. A.; Schmieder, M.; Tikoo, S.; Riller, U. P.; Simpson, S. L.; Osinski, G.; Cockell, C. S.; Coolen, M.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Impact cratering, particularly large basin-size craters with diameters >100 km, have the potential to generate vast subsurface hydrothermal systems. There were dozens of such impacts during the Hadean and early Archean, some of which vaporized seas for brief periods of time, during which the safest niches for early life may have been in those subsurface hydrothermal systems. The Chicxulub crater can serve as a proxy for those events. New IODP-ICDP core recovered by Expedition 364 reveals a high-temperature (>300 degree C) system that may have persisted for more than 100,000 years. Of order 105 to 106 km3 of crust was structurally deformed, melted, and vaporized within about 10 minutes of the impact. The crust had to endure immense strain rates of 104/s to 106/s, up to 12 orders of magnitude greater than those associated with igneous and metamorphic processes. The outcome is a porous, permeable region that is a perfect host for hydrothermal circulation across the entire diameter of the crater to depths up to 5 or 6 km. The target rocks at Chicxulub are composed of an 3 km-thick carbonate platform sequence over a crystalline basement composed of igneous granite, granodiorite, and a few other intrusive components, such as dolerite, and metamorphic assemblages composed, in part, of gneiss and mica schist. Post-impact hydrothermal alteration includes Ca-Na- and K-metasomatism, pervasive hydration to produce layered silicates, and lower-temperature vug-filling zeolites as the system cycled from high temperatures to low temperatures. While the extent of granitic crust on early Earth is still debated and, thus, the direct application of those mineral reactions to the Hadean and early Archean can be debated, the thermal evolution of the system should be applicable to diverse crustal compositions. It is important to point out that pre-impact thermal conditions of Hadean and early Archean crust can affect the size of an impact basin and, in turn, the proportion of that basin

  9. Exploring barriers to the delivery of cervical cancer screening and early treatment services in Malawi: some views from service providers

    PubMed Central

    Munthali, Alister C; Ngwira, Bagrey M; Taulo, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common reproductive health cancer in Malawi. In most cases, women report to health facilities when the disease is in its advanced stage. In this study, we investigate service providers’ perceptions about barriers for women to access cervical cancer screening and early treatment services in Malawi. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 district coordinators and 40 service providers of cervical cancer screening and early treatment services in 13 districts in Malawi. The study was conducted in 2012. The district coordinators helped the research team identify the health facilities which were providing cervical cancer screening and early treatment services. Results Almost all informants reported that cervical cancer was a major public health problem in their districts and that prevention efforts for this disease were being implemented. They were aware of the test and treat approach using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). They, however, said that the delivery of cervical cancer screening and early treatment services was compromised because of factors such as gross shortage of staff, lack of equipment and supplies, the lack of supportive supervision, and the use of male service providers. Informants added that the lack of awareness about the disease among community members, long distances to health facilities, the lack of involvement of husbands, and prevailing misperceptions about the disease (eg, that it is caused by the exposure to the VIA process) affect the uptake of these services. Conclusion While progress has been made in the provision of cervical cancer screening and early treatment services in Malawi, a number of factors affect service delivery and uptake. There is a need to continue creating awareness among community members including husbands and also addressing identified barriers such as shortage of staff and supplies in order to improve uptake of services. PMID:25848229

  10. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  11. Exploring a Community of Practice Model for Professional Development to Address Challenges to Classroom Practices in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether or not, and how, an on-site and research-teacher community of practice model for professional development addressed the challenges to classroom practices in a Head Start program. Data sources included interviews with teachers, videos of planning and teaching sessions, and the researchers' fieldwork log and reflective…

  12. Exploring Processes and Outcomes of Wireless Internet in Higher Education: A Case Study of a University's Early Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Many universities in the UK have recently started offering their staff and students free wireless Internet access through Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technologies, such as Wi-Fi. Based on a small empirical study of WLAN deployment in a university setting, the article explores adoption processes of the new technology by both the organisation…

  13. Multiple populations within globular clusters in Early-type galaxies Exploring their effect on stellar initial mass function estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantereau, W.; Usher, C.; Bastian, N.

    2018-05-01

    It is now well-established that most (if not all) ancient globular clusters host multiple populations, that are characterised by distinct chemical features such as helium abundance variations along with N-C and Na-O anti-correlations, at fixed [Fe/H]. These very distinct chemical features are similar to what is found in the centres of the massive early-type galaxies and may influence measurements of the global properties of the galaxies. Additionally, recent results have suggested that M/L variations found in the centres of massive early-type galaxies might be due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We present an analysis of the effects of globular cluster-like multiple populations on the integrated properties of early-type galaxies. In particular, we focus on spectral features in the integrated optical spectrum and the global mass-to-light ratio that have been used to infer variations in the stellar initial mass function. To achieve this we develop appropriate stellar population synthesis models and take into account, for the first time, an initial-final mass relation which takes into consideration a varying He abundance. We conclude that while the multiple populations may be present in massive early-type galaxies, they are likely not responsible for the observed variations in the mass-to-light ratio and IMF sensitive line strengths. Finally, we estimate the fraction of stars with multiple populations chemistry that come from disrupted globular clusters within massive ellipticals and find that they may explain some of the observed chemical patterns in the centres of these galaxies.

  14. Xenohormesis in early life: New avenues of research to explore anti-aging strategies through the maternal diet.

    PubMed

    de Medina, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease. Following this logic, studying the modification of maternal diet during early life may provide innovative new anti-aging approaches. Nutritional and psychological stresses during gestation are associated with poorer offspring health conditions in late life, and must be avoided during pregnancy. Besides these recommendations, very little has been published about the possible use of maternal diet to program offspring for healthy aging and an extended lifespan. Such health benefits may be provided by different foreign molecules, and particularly the phytochemicals produced by stressed plants, or xenohormetins. The xenohormesis hypothesis proposes that xenohormetins are signals of environmental change and trigger a beneficial adaptive response in individuals who consume them. No studies to date have investigated whether the consumption of stressed plants during pregnancy and lactation could provide chemical cues that impact early life programming and thus influence the future health and lifespan of offspring. Investigating the effect of xenohormesis in early life will involve adding edible plants exposed to different stressors (i.e. UV light, heat, ozone, etc.) to maternal diet and the exposure of offspring to this xenohormetin-enriched maternal diet at different periods of their prenatal life. The hypothesis proposed in this article is a potential tool to decipher the possible impact of xenohormesis during early

  15. Ethics and the European countries in transition--the past and the future.

    PubMed

    Borovecki, Ana; ten Have, Henk; Oreskovic, Stiepan

    2006-01-01

    This paper surveys the situation regarding bioethical issues in the European transitional societies. It aims at exploring past, present and future characteristics of bioethics in the European countries in transitions, analysing similarities, differences and common themes together with the historical development of bioethics. By carefully studying articles published since the early 1990s, one can perceive a number of bioethical issues, varying from specificities for certain countries to similar problems for all transitional European societies. It seems that more than 15 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Central and Eastern European societies were able to achieve significant improvements in the development of bioethics. However, looking at the bioethical issues important for European transitional societies, it seems that the invisible wall between eastern and western European societies is still there and that it will take years to remove it.

  16. The first whole transcriptomic exploration of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos using single and bulked embryonic RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young Sun; Seo, Minseok; Choi, Hee Jung; Kim, Sang Kyung; Kim, Heebal; Han, Jae Yong

    2018-04-01

    The chicken is a valuable model organism, especially in evolutionary and embryology research because its embryonic development occurs in the egg. However, despite its scientific importance, no transcriptome data have been generated for deciphering the early developmental stages of the chicken because of practical and technical constraints in accessing pre-oviposited embryos. Here, we determine the entire transcriptome of pre-oviposited avian embryos, including oocyte, zygote, and intrauterine embryos from Eyal-giladi and Kochav stage I (EGK.I) to EGK.X collected using a noninvasive approach for the first time. We also compare RNA-sequencing data obtained using a bulked embryo sequencing and single embryo/cell sequencing technique. The raw sequencing data were preprocessed with two genome builds, Galgal4 and Galgal5, and the expression of 17,108 and 26,102 genes was quantified in the respective builds. There were some differences between the two techniques, as well as between the two genome builds, and these were affected by the emergence of long intergenic noncoding RNA annotations. The first transcriptome datasets of pre-oviposited early chicken embryos based on bulked and single embryo sequencing techniques will serve as a valuable resource for investigating early avian embryogenesis, for comparative studies among vertebrates, and for novel gene annotation in the chicken genome.

  17. Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Levy, Phillip; Ponikowski, Piotr; Peacock, W Frank; Laribi, Said; Ristic, Arsen D; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Masip, Josep; Riley, Jillian P; McDonagh, Theresa; Mueller, Christian; deFilippi, Christopher; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Thiele, Holger; Piepoli, Massimo F; Metra, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo; McMurray, John; Dickstein, Kenneth; Damman, Kevin; Seferovic, Petar M; Ruschitzka, Frank; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Disclosure, stigma of HIV positive child and access to early infant diagnosis in the rural communities of OR Tambo District, South Africa: a qualitative exploration of maternal perspective.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Vincent Oladele; Thomson, Elza; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Idowu Anthony

    2015-08-26

    Despite the overwhelming evidence confirming the morbidity and mortality benefits of early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected infants, some children are still disadvantaged from gaining access to care. The understanding of the maternal perspective on early infant HIV diagnosis and prompt initiation of HAART has not been adequately explored, especially in the rural communities of South Africa. This study explores the perspectives of mothers of HIV-exposed infants with regard to early infant diagnosis (EID) through a lens of social and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews at two primary healthcare centres in the King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality of the OR Tambo district, South Africa. Twenty-four purposive sample of mothers of HIV-exposed infants took part in the study. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and field notes were obtained. The findings were triangulated with two focus group discussions in order to enrich and validate the qualitative data. Thematic content analysis was employed to analyse the data. The participants have fairly good knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the risks during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The majority of participants were confident of the protection offered by anti-retroviral drugs provided during pregnancy, however, lack knowledge of optimal time for early infant diagnosis of HIV. Reasons for not accessing EID included fear of finding out that their child is HIV positive, feelings of guilt and/or shame and embarrassment with respect to raising an HIV infected infant. Personal experiences of HIV diagnosis and HAART were associated with participants' attitudes and beliefs toward care-seeking behaviours. Stigma resulting from their own disclosure to others reduced their likelihood of recommending EID to other members of

  19. Violent Attacks and Damaged Victims: An Exploration of the Rape Scripts of European American and African American U.S. College Women.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather L; Dodd, Julia C

    2016-02-25

    Scripts are influential in shaping sexual behaviors. Prior studies have examined the influence of individuals' rape scripts. However, these scripts have not been evaluated among diverse groups. The current study examined the rape scripts of African American (n = 72) and European American (n = 99) college women. Results supported three rape scripts: the "real rape," the "party rape," and the mismatched intentions rape, that were equally common. However, there were some differences, with African Americans' narratives more often including active victim resistance and less often containing victim vulnerability themes. Societal and cultural influences on rape scripts are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Treat early, treat appropriately.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Andreas; Rutten, Guy; Abraira, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is shifting from secondary specialist centres to the primary care setting. However, for this shift to be sustainable and successful, primary care physicians (PCPs) must effectively provide aspects of diabetes care traditionally supplied by specialists. In particular, the early and appropriate use of insulin in type 2 diabetes will increasingly become the responsibility of PCPs. This review examines how patients with type 2 diabetes are currently managed across several European countries, and explores the evidence around insulin use in type 2 diabetes and the implications for primary care. 2010 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Diana; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Croen, Lisa; Fallin, M Danielle; Reed, Philip L.; Schieve, Laura; Wiggins, Lisa; Daniels, Julie; Grether, Judith; Levy, Susan; Miller, Lisa; Newschaffer, Craig; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Robinson, Cordelia; Windham, Gayle; Alexander, Aimee; Aylsworth, Arthur; Bernal, Pilar; Bonner, Joseph D.; Blaskey, Lisa; Bradley, Chyrise; Collins, Jack; Ferretti, Casara; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Giarelli, Ellen; Harvey, Marques; Hepburn, Susan; Herr, Matthew; Kaparich, Kristina; Landa, Rebecca; Lee, Li-Ching; Levenseller, Brooke; Meyerer, Stacey; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Ratchford, Andria; Reynolds, Ann; Rosenberg, Steve; Rusyniak, Julie; Shapira, Stuart K.; Smith, Karen; Souders, Margaret; AaronThompson, Patrick; Young, Lisa; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal, gastrointestinal, and sociodemographic characteristics. SEED uses a case–control design with population-based ascertainment of children aged 2–5 years with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children in two control groups—one from the general population and one with non-ASD developmental problems. Data from parent-completed questionnaires, interviews, clinical evaluations, biospecimen sampling, and medical record abstraction focus on the prenatal and early postnatal periods. SEED is a valuable resource for testing hypotheses regarding ASD characteristics and causes. PMID:22350336

  2. A qualitative descriptive exploration of the educational and career plans of early career neonatal nurses and midwives: An Irish perspective.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Linda Martina; Patton, Declan

    2018-01-01

    The scarcity of appropriately qualified nurses and midwives is a major obstacle in achieving an effective health system. Neonatal nurses and midwives require a high level of skill and education to fulfil their role. It is also an area that sees high staff turnover rates. For this study a descriptive qualitative approach was used to ascertain early career neonatal nurses' and midwives' experiences of further education, their future career plans, and their perceived facilitators and barriers to further education and career progression. After receiving ethical approval, twelve nurses and midwives were recruited across three tertiary level neonatal units in Ireland. Semi structured interviews were carried out and interview transcripts were subsequently analysed using Attride-Stirling's (2001) Thematic Networks to deduce themes from the data. Support and involvement, mentoring, and career progression and retention were the three main themes identified upon analysis of the data. The majority of participants identified definitive career plans but some felt their goals were unachievable in their current workplace. Consequently a large number of participants have plans to leave their employment in neonates and pursue a career in other areas of nursing. Staff appraisals and succession planning programmes may assist early career nurses and midwives in focusing on their individual career goals, leading to a greater uptake of further specialised education and improved retention of neonatal nurses and midwives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early motherhood: a qualitative study exploring the experiences of African Australian teenage mothers in greater Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie Claudine; Liamputtong, Pranee; Mcmichael, Celia

    2015-09-10

    Motherhood is a significant and important aspect of life for many women around the globe. For women in communities where motherhood is highly desired, motherhood is considered crucial to the woman's identity. Teenage motherhood, occurring at a critical developmental stage of teenagers' lives, has been identified as having adverse social and health consequences. This research aimed to solicit the lived experiences of African Australian young refugee women who have experienced early motherhood in Australia. This qualitative research used in-depth interviews. The research methods and analysis were informed by intersectionality theory, phenomenology and a cultural competency framework. Sixteen African born refugee young women who had experienced teenage pregnancy and early motherhood in Greater Melbourne, Australia took part in this research. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data analysed using thematic content analysis. Ethics approval for this research was granted by Victoria University Human Research Ethics committee. Motherhood brings increased responsibilities, social recognition, and a sense of purpose for young mothers. Despite the positive aspects of motherhood, participants faced challenges that affected their lives. Most often, the challenges included coping with increased responsibilities following the birth of the baby, managing the competing demands of schooling, work and taking care of a baby in a site of settlement. The young mothers indicated they received good support from their mothers, siblings and close friends, but rarely from the father of their baby and the wider community. Participants felt that teenage mothers are frowned upon by their wider ethnic communities, which left them with feelings of shame and embarrassment, despite the personal perceived benefits of achieving motherhood. We propose that service providers and policy makers support the role of the young mothers' own mother, sisters, their grandmothers and aunts following

  4. Do We Reap What We Sow? Exploring the Association between the Strength of European Primary Healthcare Systems and Inequity in Unmet Need

    PubMed Central

    Hanssens, Lise; Vyncke, Veerle; De Maeseneer, Jan; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Access to healthcare is inequitably distributed across different socioeconomic groups. Several vulnerable groups experience barriers in accessing healthcare, compared to their more wealthier counterparts. In response to this, many countries use resources to strengthen their primary care (PC) system, because in many European countries PC is the first entry-point to the healthcare system and plays a central role in the coordination of patients through the healthcare system. However it is unclear whether this strengthening of PC leads to less inequity in access to the whole healthcare system. This study investigates the association between strength indicators of PC and inequity in unmet need by merging data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions database (2013) and the Primary Healthcare Activity Monitor for Europe (2010). The analyses reveal a significant association between the Gini coefficient for income inequality and inequity in unmet need. When the Gini coefficient of a country is one SD higher, the social inequity in unmet need in that particular country will be 4.960 higher. Furthermore, the accessibility and the workforce development of a country’s PC system is inverse associated with the social inequity of unmet need. More specifically, when the access- and workforce development indicator of a country PC system are one standard deviation higher, the inequity in unmet healthcare needs are respectively 2.200 and 4.951 lower. Therefore, policymakers should focus on reducing income inequality to tackle inequity in access, and strengthen PC (by increasing accessibility and better-developing its workforce) as this can influence inequity in unmet need. PMID:28046051

  5. Minding experience: An exploration of the concept of "experience" in the early French anthropology of Durkheim, Lévy-Bruhl, and Lévi-Strauss.

    PubMed

    Throop, C Jason

    2003-01-01

    In line with the growing concern with the unexamined reliance upon the concept of "experience" in anthropology, this article explores in some detail the various usages and definitions of the concept in the work of three of early French anthropology's most influential theorists: Emile Durkheim (1858-1918), Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939), and Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-). With its important influence on both British and American anthropology, the early French anthropological tradition, as epitomized in the writings of these three thinkers, has indeed played a pivotal role in shaping many current taken-for-granted understandings of the concept of experience in the discipline of anthropology as a whole. In the process of exploring how experience is viewed by these three scholars, this paper will thus take some initial steps toward the historical contextualization of many of the unquestioned assumptions underpinning current understandings of experience in the discipline of anthropology and the social sciences more generally. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exploring revictimization process among Turkish women: The role of early maladaptive schemas on the link between child abuse and partner violence.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the nature and synchronicity of early cluster formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud - III. Horizontal branch morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Kaiser, R.; Mackey, Dougal; Sarajedini, Ata; Cohen, Roger E.; Geisler, Doug; Yang, Soung-Chul; Grocholski, Aaron J.; Cummings, Jeffrey D.

    2018-03-01

    We leverage new high-quality data from Hubble Space Telescope program GO-14164 to explore the variation in horizontal branch morphology among globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Our new observations lead to photometry with a precision commensurate with that available for the Galactic globular cluster population. Our analysis indicates that, once metallicity is accounted for, clusters in the LMC largely share similar horizontal branch morphologies regardless of their location within the system. Furthermore, the LMC clusters possess, on average, slightly redder morphologies than most of the inner halo Galactic population; we find, instead, that their characteristics tend to be more similar to those exhibited by clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Our results are consistent with previous studies, showing a correlation between horizontal branch morphology and age.

  8. Exploring the affective dimension of the life review process: Facilitators' interactional strategies for fostering personhood and social value among older adults with early dementia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Beverly R; Blizard, Tracie I; Goode, Patricia S; Harada, Caroline N; Woodby, Lesa L; Burgio, Kathryn L; Sims, Richard V

    2014-07-01

    We employed an auto-ethnography approach to explore the affective dimension of life review sessions with community-dwelling older military veterans with minor cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia. Using researchers' analytic memos, we identified facilitators' interactional strategies that fostered the participant's sense of personal identity, dignity and social self-worth. Interaction among participant, caregiver, and facilitators evoked a range of emotional responses, offering a window into the affective world of MCI and early dementia. Positive emotional responses outnumbered negative emotional responses by a ratio of two-to-one in the life review sessions; however, negative emotions were more revelatory of current struggles with declines in health and function. Facilitators utilized two interactional strategies, in particular, to foster personhood and social value of participants: focusing on the participant and creating an empathic connection with the participant. Further work is needed to understand the role of emotions in research interactions and to examine the psychosocial mechanisms through which positive affect functions in promoting identity, personhood and social value among persons with MCI and early dementia. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. SDSS-IV MaNGA: a distinct mass distribution explored in slow-rotating early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yu; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Li, Ran; Ge, Junqiang; Jing, Yingjie; Pan, Jun; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ortíz, Erik Aquino

    2018-06-01

    We study the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SDSS MaNGA MPL5 data set. The complete ETG sample show a slightly offset RAR from the relation reported by McGaugh et al. (2016) at the low-acceleration end; we find that the deviation is due to the fact that the slow rotators show a systematically higher acceleration relation than the McGaugh's RAR, while the fast rotators show a consistent acceleration relation to McGaugh's RAR. There is a 1σ significant difference between the acceleration relations of the fast and slow rotators, suggesting that the acceleration relation correlates with the galactic spins, and that the slow rotators may have a different mass distribution compared with fast rotators and late-type galaxies. We suspect that the acceleration relation deviation of slow rotators may be attributed to more galaxy merger events, which would disrupt the original spins and correlated distributions of baryons and dark matter orbits in galaxies.

  10. Establishment of intestinal microbiota during early life: a longitudinal, explorative study of a large cohort of Danish infants.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Licht, Tine Rask

    2014-05-01

    Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention.

  11. Establishment of Intestinal Microbiota during Early Life: a Longitudinal, Explorative Study of a Large Cohort of Danish Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention. PMID:24584251

  12. Why do early adolescents bully? Exploring the influence of prestige norms on social and psychological motives to bully.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christian; Caravita, Simona C S

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines psychological (e.g., Machiavellianism) and social (i.e., perceived popularity) motives for bullying, exploring the effects that classroom prestige norms for physical and relational aggression may have on these associations. A longitudinal multilevel study design was adopted, which included 978 5th to 7th graders from four Chilean schools. Participants were assessed three times over one year on self reports on bullying and Machiavellianism, and peer reports on popularity. Classroom prestige norms were calculated as the within classroom association between peer perceived coolness and aggression. Both Machiavellianism and perceived popularity were associated with bullying. However, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that Machiavellianism, but not perceived popularity, predicted bullying after controlling for baseline scores. Classroom prestige norms for relational aggression increased the association between Machiavellianism and bullying. Separate models were tested for boys and girls, showing no differences. Results are discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    PubMed Central

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  14. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  15. A pilot study to explore the effectiveness of "early" rehabilitation after a hospital admission for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Houchen, Linzy; Watt, Amye; Boyce, Sally; Singh, Sally

    2012-07-01

    People with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience acute exacerbations of their symptoms. These episodes are costly to patients and the health service. The study was a single group, pretest and posttest design. Seventeen patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) started rehabilitation within 4 weeks of hospital discharge. The 6 week rehabilitation programme included exercise and self-management education. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), the incremental and endurance shuttle walking tests (ISWT/ESWT) were assessed at baseline and after rehabilitation. The number and duration of any CHF admissions in the year before and the year after rehabilitation were also recorded. Improvements in the ISWT, ESWT, and depression were, mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) 60.6 (36.0-85.2) metres, 356.0 (173.0-539.0) seconds (both p≤0.001) and (-)1.0 ((-)1.8-(-)0.2) points (p<0.05), respectively. HADS anxiety improvements failed to reach significance. At 1 year, there was a significant decrease in CHF-related hospitalisations, mean change (95% CI) (-)0.8 ((-)1.1-(-)0.4), p≤0.001 and CHF bed days (-)13.0 ((-)24.4-(-)1.6), p<0.05. Early rehabilitation significantly improved exercise capacity and depression and reduced CHF-associated health care utilisation in patients who had recently been hospitalised. The intervention was safe. However, the sample size was small and results were not compared to a control group. Therefore, the effects of natural recovery are unknown.

  16. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  17. Exploring the contributions of vegetation and dune size to early dune development using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Puijenbroek, Marinka E. B.; Nolet, Corjan; de Groot, Alma V.; Suomalainen, Juha M.; Riksen, Michel J. P. M.; Berendse, Frank; Limpens, Juul

    2017-12-01

    Dune development along highly dynamic land-sea boundaries is the result of interaction between vegetation and dune size with sedimentation and erosion processes. Disentangling the contribution of vegetation characteristics from that of dune size would improve predictions of nebkha dune development under a changing climate, but has proven difficult due to the scarcity of spatially continuous monitoring data. This study explored the contributions of vegetation and dune size to dune development for locations differing in shelter from the sea. We monitored a natural nebkha dune field of 8 ha, along the coast of the island Texel, the Netherlands, for 1 year using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with camera. After constructing a digital surface model and orthomosaic we derived for each dune (1) vegetation characteristics (species composition, vegetation density, and maximum vegetation height), (2) dune size (dune volume, area, and maximum height), (3) degree of shelter (proximity to other nebkha dunes and the sheltering by the foredune). Changes in dune volume over summer and winter were related to vegetation, dune size and degree of shelter. We found that a positive change in dune volume (dune growth) was linearly related to initial dune volume over summer but not over winter. Big dunes accumulated more sand than small dunes due to their larger surface area. Exposed dunes increased more in volume (0.81 % per dune per week) than sheltered dunes (0.2 % per dune per week) over summer, while the opposite occurred over winter. Vegetation characteristics did not significantly affect dune growth in summer, but did significantly affect dune growth in winter. Over winter, dunes dominated by Ammophila arenaria, a grass species with high vegetation density throughout the year, increased more in volume than dunes dominated by Elytrigia juncea, a grass species with lower vegetation density (0.43 vs. 0.42 (m3 m-3) week-1). The effect of species was irrespective of dune size or

  18. A craniometric analysis of early modern Romania and Hungary: The roles of migration and conversion in shaping European Ottoman population history.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kathryn Grow; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2017-11-01

    Debate persists regarding the biological makeup of European Ottoman communities settled during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th centuries, and the roles of conversion and migration in shaping demography and population history. The aim of this study was to perform an assessment of the biological affinities of three European Ottoman series based on craniometric data. Craniometric data collected from three Ottoman series from Hungary and Romania were compared to European and Anatolian comparative series, selected to represent biological affinity representative of historically recorded migration and conversion influences. Sex-separated samples were analyzed using D 2 -matrices, along with principal coordinates and PERMANOVA analyses to investigate biological affinities. Discriminant function analysis was employed to assign Ottoman individuals to two potential classes: European or Anatolian. Affinity analyses show larger than expected biological differences between males and females within each of the Ottoman communities. Discriminant function analyses show that the majority of Ottoman individuals could be classified as either European or Anatolian with a high probability. Moreover, location within Europe proved influential, as the Ottomans from a location of more geopolitical importance (Budapest) diverged from more hinterland communities in terms of biological affinity patterns. The results suggest that male and female Ottomans may possess distinct population histories, with males and females divergent from each other in terms of their biological affinities. The Ottoman communities appear diverse in terms of constituting a mix of peoples from different biological backgrounds. The greater distances between sexes from the same community, and the differences between communities, may be evidence that the processes of migration and conversion impacted individual people and groups diversely. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Exploring the role of pain as an early predictor of category 2 pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Isabelle L; Brown, Sarah; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Briggs, Michelle; Coleman, Susanne; Dealey, Carol; Muir, Delia; Nelson, E Andrea; Stevenson, Rebecca; Stubbs, Nikki; Wilson, Lyn; Brown, Julia M; Nixon, Jane

    2017-01-20

    To explore pressure area related pain as a predictor of category ≥2 pressure ulcer (PU) development. Multicentre prospective cohort study. UK hospital and community settings. Consenting acutely ill patients aged ≥18 years, defined as high risk (Braden bedfast/chairfast AND completely immobile/very limited mobility; pressure area related pain or; category 1 PU). Patients too unwell, unable to report pain, 2 or more category ≥2 PUs. Twice weekly for 30 days. Development and time to development of one or more category ≥2 PUs. Of 3819 screened, 1266 were eligible, 634 patients were recruited, 32 lost to follow-up, providing a 602 analysis population. 152 (25.2%) developed one or more category ≥2 PUs. 464 (77.1%) patients reported pressure area related pain on a healthy, altered or category 1 skin site of whom 130 (28.0%) developed a category ≥2 PU compared with 22 (15.9%) of those without pain. Full stepwise variable selection was used throughout the analyses. (1) Multivariable logistic regression model to assess 9 a priori factors: presence of category 1 PU (OR=3.25, 95% CI (2.17 to 4.86), p<0.0001), alterations to intact skin (OR=1.98, 95% CI (1.30 to 3.00), p=0.0014), pressure area related pain (OR=1.56, 95% CI (0.93 to 2.63), p=0.0931). (2) Multivariable logistic regression model to account for overdispersion: presence of category 1 PU (OR=3.20, 95% CI (2.11 to 4.85), p<0.0001), alterations to intact skin (OR=1.90, 95% CI (1.24 to 2.91), p=0.0032), pressure area related pain (OR=1.85, 95% CI (1.07 to 3.20), p=0.0271), pre-existing category 2 PU (OR=2.09, 95% CI (1.35 to 3.23), p=0.0009), presence of chronic wound (OR=1.66, 95% CI (1.06 to 2.62), p=0.0277), Braden activity (p=0.0476). (3) Accelerated failure time model: presence of category 1 PU (AF=2.32, 95% CI (1.73 to 3.12), p<0.0001), pressure area related pain (AF=2.28, 95% CI (1.59 to 3.27), p<0.0001). (4) 2-level random-intercept logistic regression model: skin status which comprised 2 levels

  20. Exploring direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction for early-career registered nurses employed in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida; Greene, William H

    2014-08-01

    We explored direct and indirect influences of physical work environment on job satisfaction in a nationally representative sample of 1,141 early-career registered nurses. In the fully specified model, physical work environment had a non-significant direct effect on job satisfaction. The path analysis used to test multiple indirect effects showed that physical work environment had a positive indirect effect (p < .05) on job satisfaction through ten variables: negative affectivity, variety, workgroup cohesion, nurse-physician relations, quantitative workload, organizational constraints, distributive justice, promotional opportunity, local and non-local job opportunities. The findings make important contributions to the understanding of the relationship between physical work environment and job satisfaction. The results can inform health care leaders' insight about how physical work environment influences nurses' job satisfaction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony in European American and African American Families during Early Adolescence: Relations with Self-Esteem and Prosocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Colwell, Malinda J.; Frabutt, James M.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Mother-child relationships characterized by dyadic synchrony, a mutually responsive and interconnected interaction style, have been consistently linked to children's psychosocial adjustment in early childhood, but it is unclear whether such interaction patterns remain conducive to positive outcomes in early adolescence. The aim of the present…

  2. An exploration of Early Childhood Education students’ knowledge and preparation to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood educators play an important role in influencing preschoolers’ physical activity levels. The current study sought to explore Early Childhood Education (ECE) students’ physical activity-related knowledge and educational experience during their formal training in Ontario. Methods A total of 1,113 ECE students from 20 Ontario Colleges completed the study survey (online or on paper), which examined students’ physical activity course content; awareness of physical activity guidelines; understanding of health-related benefits of physical activity; self-efficacy to facilitate physical activity for preschoolers; self-reported physical activity levels; as well as physical activity-related resource needs. Descriptive statistics and independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the quantitative findings. Results Survey results identified that 72.1% of ECE students had not completed any physical activity/physical education specific courses, while only 28.7% were familiar with, and 2.0% accurately reported, the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years. Only 10.5% of ECE students reported personal physical activity behaviors consistent with national recommendations for adults (150 minutes/week). ECE students’ mean overall task self-efficacy to facilitate physical activity was 7.37 (SD = 1.64). Self-efficacy was significantly higher (p < .05) when students had taken one or more courses devoted to physical activity/physical education, as well as when students engaged in sufficient physical activity to meet the national guidelines for adults (p < .05). Conclusions The results indicate that the current ECE college curriculum represents an excellent opportunity to provide future childcare providers with enriched physical activity-related training and support, such as physical activity guidelines, workshops, and new ideas for activities. Emphasizing the health benefits of physical activity for adults might be important

  3. Calcitonin estimation in patients with nodular goiter and its significance for early detection of MTC: european comments to the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association.

    PubMed

    Elisei, Rossella; Romei, Cristina

    2013-03-14

    One of the most discussed and controversial issue in the management of thyroid nodules is the need to perform a routine measurement of serum Calcitonin (Ct) in all cases. The American Thyroid Association guidelines do not recommend in favor or against this procedure since they retain that there are not enough evidences that it can determine an advantage to the health outcomes of these patients. This is not the view of many European experts who met in Lisbon in 2009 at the European Thyroid Association-Cancer Research Network meeting to discuss all the still open controversial issues on the management of medullary thyroid cancer patients.This paper is focused on the routine measurement of serum Ct in all patients with thyroid nodule(s): the evidences, the rational and the benefits of this procedure are deeply analysed following the discussion that was done in Lisbon. The conclusions reached at that time are reported in detail.

  4. Early Human Migrations (ca. 13,000 Years Ago) or Postcontact Europeans for the Earliest Spread of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis to the Americas

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains. Shortly thereafter, a number of studies proposed that leprosy first came to the Americas with human migrations around 12,000 or 13,000 years ago. These studies are based primarily on subsequent molecular data, especially the discovery of a new leprosy species Mycobacterium lepromatosis and its close association with diffuse lepromatous leprosy, a severe, aggressive form of lepromatous leprosy, which is most common in Mexico and the Caribbean Islands. A review of these and subsequent molecular data finds no evidence for either leprosy species in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans, and strains of both species of leprosy found in eastern Mexico, Caribbean Islands, and Brazil came from Europe while strains found in western Mexico are consistent with their arrival via direct voyages from the Philippines. PMID:29250112

  5. Early Human Migrations (ca. 13,000 Years Ago) or Postcontact Europeans for the Earliest Spread of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis to the Americas.

    PubMed

    Mark, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains. Shortly thereafter, a number of studies proposed that leprosy first came to the Americas with human migrations around 12,000 or 13,000 years ago. These studies are based primarily on subsequent molecular data, especially the discovery of a new leprosy species Mycobacterium lepromatosis and its close association with diffuse lepromatous leprosy, a severe, aggressive form of lepromatous leprosy, which is most common in Mexico and the Caribbean Islands. A review of these and subsequent molecular data finds no evidence for either leprosy species in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans, and strains of both species of leprosy found in eastern Mexico, Caribbean Islands, and Brazil came from Europe while strains found in western Mexico are consistent with their arrival via direct voyages from the Philippines.

  6. Is blended learning and problem-based learning course design suited to develop future public health leaders? An explorative European study.

    PubMed

    Könings, Karen D; de Jong, Nynke; Lohrmann, Christa; Sumskas, Linas; Smith, Tony; O'Connor, Stephen J; Spanjers, Ingrid A E; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Public health leaders are confronted with complex problems, and developing effective leadership competencies is essential. The teaching of leadership is still not common in public health training programs around the world. A reconceptualization of professional training is needed and can benefit from innovative educational approaches. Our aim was to explore learners' perceptions of the effectiveness and appeal of a public health leadership course using problem-based, blended learning methods that used virtual learning environment technologies. In this cross-sectional evaluative study, the Self-Assessment Instrument of Competencies for Public Health Leaders was administered before and after an online, blended-learning, problem-based (PBL) leadership course. An evaluation questionnaire was also used to measure perceptions of blended learning, problem-based learning, and tutor functioning among 19 public health professionals from The Netherlands ( n  = 8), Lithuania ( n  = 5), and Austria ( n  = 6).Participants showed overall satisfaction and knowledge gains related to public health leadership competencies in six of eight measured areas, especially Political Leadership and Systems Thinking. Some perceptions of blended learning and PBL varied between the institutions. This might have been caused by lack of experience of the educational approaches, differing professional backgrounds, inexperience of communicating in the online setting, and different expectations towards the course. Blended, problem-based learning might be an effective way to develop leadership competencies among public health professionals in international and interdisciplinary context.

  7. Exploring the association between television advertising of healthy and unhealthy foods, self-control, and food intake in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Giese, Helge; König, Laura M; Tăut, Diana; Ollila, Hanna; Băban, Adriana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Building upon previous results, the present study explored the relationship between exposure to unhealthy and healthy food TV commercials, trait self-control, and food intake. In total, 825 Finns (53% female), 1,055 Germans (55% female), and 971 Romanians (55% female) aged 8-21 reported advertisement exposure, self-control, and food intake. Altogether, participants indicated higher exposure to unhealthy compared to healthy food advertisements (F(1, 2848) = 354.73, p < .001, partial η(2)  = .111). Unhealthy food advertisement exposure was positively associated with unhealthy food intake (all β ≥ .16, p < .001). Healthy food advertisement exposure was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (β = .10, p < .001). Self-control was associated with higher consumption of healthy (β ≥ .09, p < .001) and lower consumption of unhealthy foods (all β ≥ -.11, p < .001). Yet, findings of advertising and self-control were mainly independent (interactions: β ≤ |.07|, p ≥ .002). Even though the results suggest that healthy advertisement exposure and self-control might be beneficial for children's and adolescents' diet, self-control might be insufficient to alleviate the positive relationship between unhealthy food advertising and unhealthy eating. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  8. Exploring the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene on executive function, working memory, and processing speed during the early recovery period following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Christine R; Summers, Mathew J; Vickers, James C; McCormack, Graeme H; Skilbeck, Clive E

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is detrimental to cognitive function, but results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) populations are mixed. A possible explanation is that APOEe2 carriers have routinely been incorporated into APOEe4 and non-e4 groups, despite APOEe2 being proposed to have an ameliorative effect. Our primary aim was to investigate the influence of APOEe4 on cognitive impairment during early recovery following TBI, excluding the potential confound of APOEe2 possession. A secondary objective was to explore whether APOEe4 displays more pronounced effects in moderate to severe TBI and to consider the potential postinjury protective influence of the APOEe2 allele. Participants who recently sustained a TBI (posttraumatic amnesia > 5 minutes) were assessed on measures of information processing speed, executive function, and working memory upon remission of posttraumatic amnesia. APOE genotype was determined by buccal saliva DNA extraction (APOEe4 n = 37, APOEe3 n = 92, APOEe2 n = 13). Stepwise multiple regressions were performed to compare APOEe4 carriers to APOEe3 homozygotes, with injury severity, age, and estimated premorbid IQ included in the first step. This model was found to significantly predict performance on all tasks, accounting for 17.3-24.3% of the variance. When APOEe4 status was added for the second step, there were no significant changes on any tasks (additional variance <1%). The effect of APOEe4 in moderate to severe TBI and the effect of APOEe2 were explored by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with no significant effects revealed. It is unlikely that APOE genotype influences cognitive function in the initial recovery period following TBI, regardless of injury severity. However, a more nuanced and long-term exploration of the effect of APOE genotype in the TBI population is warranted.

  9. Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G.; Daniels, Julie L.; Fallin, Daniele M.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Schieve, Laura A.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Windham, Gayle C.; Goss, Cynthia W.; Soke, Gnakub N.; Currie, Dustin W.; Singer, Alison B.; Lee, Li-Ching; Bernal, Pilar; Croen, Lisa A.; Miller, Lisa A.; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A.; Young, Lisa M.; Schendel, Diana E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is designed to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and etiologies. Objective This paper describes the demographic profile of enrolled families and examines sociodemographic differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and children with other developmental problems or who are typically developing. Methods This multi-site case-control study used health, education, and birth certificate records to identify and enroll children aged 2–5 years into one of three groups: 1) cases (children with autism spectrum disorder), 2) developmental delay or disorder controls, or 3) general population controls. Study group classification was based on sampling source, prior diagnoses, and study screening tests and developmental evaluations. The child's primary caregiver provided demographic characteristics through a telephone (or occasionally face-to-face) interview. Groups were compared using ANOVA, chi-squared test, or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Results Of 2768 study children, sizeable proportions were born to mothers of non-White race (31.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (11.4%), and foreign birth (17.6%); 33.0% of households had incomes below the US median. The autism spectrum disorder and population control groups differed significantly on nearly all sociodemographic parameters. In contrast, the autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or disorder groups had generally similar sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions SEED enrolled a sociodemographically diverse sample, which will allow further, in-depth exploration of sociodemographic differences between study groups and provide novel opportunities to explore sociodemographic influences on etiologic risk factor associations with autism spectrum disorder and phenotypic subtypes. PMID:26917104

  10. Demographic profile of families and children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): Case-control study of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Daniels, Julie L; Fallin, Daniele M; Rosenberg, Steven A; Schieve, Laura A; Thomas, Kathleen C; Windham, Gayle C; Goss, Cynthia W; Soke, Gnakub N; Currie, Dustin W; Singer, Alison B; Lee, Li-Ching; Bernal, Pilar; Croen, Lisa A; Miller, Lisa A; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Young, Lisa M; Schendel, Diana E

    2016-07-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is designed to enhance knowledge of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and etiologies. This paper describes the demographic profile of enrolled families and examines sociodemographic differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and children with other developmental problems or who are typically developing. This multi-site case-control study used health, education, and birth certificate records to identify and enroll children aged 2-5 years into one of three groups: 1) cases (children with autism spectrum disorder), 2) developmental delay or disorder controls, or 3) general population controls. Study group classification was based on sampling source, prior diagnoses, and study screening tests and developmental evaluations. The child's primary caregiver provided demographic characteristics through a telephone (or occasionally face-to-face) interview. Groups were compared using ANOVA, chi-squared test, or multinomial logistic regression as appropriate. Of 2768 study children, sizeable proportions were born to mothers of non-White race (31.7%), Hispanic ethnicity (11.4%), and foreign birth (17.6%); 33.0% of households had incomes below the US median. The autism spectrum disorder and population control groups differed significantly on nearly all sociodemographic parameters. In contrast, the autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay or disorder groups had generally similar sociodemographic characteristics. SEED enrolled a sociodemographically diverse sample, which will allow further, in-depth exploration of sociodemographic differences between study groups and provide novel opportunities to explore sociodemographic influences on etiologic risk factor associations with autism spectrum disorder and phenotypic subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe).

    PubMed

    Harris, Fiona M; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Connor, Rory; Coyne, James C; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Koburger, Nicole; Gusmão, Ricardo; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Cserhati, Zoltan; McDaid, David; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-03-15

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites). Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10). Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC) also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention) in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign) and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded) activity that shared the goals of suicide prevention

  12. An exploration of differences between Japan and two European countries in the self-reporting and valuation of pain and discomfort on the EQ-5D.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Herdman, Mike; van Nooten, Floortje; Cleeland, Charles; Parkin, David; Ikeda, Shunya; Igarashi, Ataru; Devlin, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the systematic differences in the self-reporting and valuation of overall health and, in particular, pain/discomfort between three countries (England/UK, Japan, and Spain) on the EQ-5D. Existing datasets were used to explore differences in responses on the EQ-5D descriptive system between Japan (3L and 5L), the UK (3L), England (5L), and Spain (5L), particularly on the dimension of pain/discomfort. The role of different EQ dimensions in determining self-reported overall health scores for the EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) was investigated using ordinary least squares regression. Time trade-off (TTO) results from Japanese and UK respondents for the EQ-5D-3L as well as Japanese and English respondents for the EQ-5D-5L were compared using t tests. For the EQ-5D-3L, a higher percentage of respondents in Japan than in the UK reported 'no pain/discomfort' (81.6 vs 67.0%, respectively); for the EQ-5D-5L, the proportions were 79.2% in Spain, 73.2% in Japan, and 63-64% in England, after adjusting for age differences in samples. The 'pain/discomfort' dimension had the largest impact on respondents' self-reported EQ-VAS only for EQ-5D-3L in Japan. Using the EQ-5D-3L, Japanese respondents were considerably less willing to trade off time to avoid pain/discomfort than the UK respondents; for example, moving from health state, 11121 (some problems with pain/discomfort) to 11131 (extreme pain/discomfort) represented a decrement of 0.65 on the observed TTO value in the UK compared with 0.15 in Japan. Using the EQ-5D-5L, Japanese respondents were also less willing to trade off time to avoid pain/discomfort than respondents in England; however, the difference in values was much smaller than that observed using EQ-5D-3L data. This study provides evidence of between-country differences in the self-reporting and valuation of health, including pain/discomfort, when using EQ-5D in general population samples. The results suggest a need for caution when comparing or

  13. European multicentre pilot survey to assess vitamin D status in rheumatoid arthritis patients and early development of a new Patient Reported Outcome questionnaire (D-PRO).

    PubMed

    Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Pasalic, Katarina Simic; Balcune, Inete; Ferraz-Amaro, Ivan; Tlustochowicz, Małgorzata; Butrimiene, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morovic-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Salaffi, Fausto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-01

    To collect data on vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels in a large number of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients from different European countries, to investigate their relation with disease activity, disability, quality of life, and possibly to construct a new Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaire in order to self-estimate if they are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency-related clinical implications (D-PRO). This was a European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) supported cross-sectional study (project No CLI064) which involved 625 RA patients (mean age 55±11years, mean disease duration 11±9years), 276 age and sex matched healthy subjects, and rheumatologists working in academic institutions or hospital centres, as well as PARE organizations (patient representatives) from 13 European countries. Serum samples for 25(OH)D level measurement were collected during winter time and analyzed in a central laboratory using chemiluminescence immunoassay (DiaSorin). Patient past medical history was recorded. RA patients were provided with three questionnaires: the Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact Diseases score (RAID), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the new D-PRO questionnaire at the time of 25(OH)D serum sampling. D-PRO questionnaire consisted of three domains, Symptom Risk Score (SRS), Habitus Risk Score (HRS) and Global Risk Score (SRS+HRS=GRS), constructed with items possibly related to vitamin D deficiency. D-PRO was correlated with both clinical and PRO scores. DAS28-CRP was also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by non parametric tests. Mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D in RA patients (17.62±9.76ng/ml) was found significantly lower if compared to the levels obtained in matched controls (18.95±9.45ng/ml) (p=0.01), with statistically significant differences among several European countries. Negative correlations were found between 25(OH)D serum levels and DAS28-CRP (p<0.001), RAID (p=0.05) and HAQ (p=0.04) scores in the RA

  14. The Early Years: Exploring Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    The importance of biodiversity to human life and the benefits of a diverse ecosystem are not often obvious to young children. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. The objective in this month's issue is to introduce children to the diversity of plant life in a given area through a plant…

  15. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  16. Quantity vs. quality: an exploration of the predictors of posttreatment sexual adjustment for women affected by early stage cervical and endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Juraskova, Ilona; Bonner, Carissa; Bell, Melanie L; Sharpe, Louise; Robertson, Rosalind; Butow, Phyllis

    2012-11-01

    Women with early stage cervical and endometrial cancer may experience complex posttreatment changes to their sexual function, but clinical practice and past research have focused more on the quantity than the perceived quality of sexual life. The aims of this prospective study were to explore the following: (i) the relative importance of quantity vs. quality of sexual life over the first year posttreatment; (ii) the psychological and sexual predictors of overall sexual function; and (iii) the relationship between sexual function and quality of life (QoL). Fifty-three cancer patients completed standardized measures at baseline, with follow-up at 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Analyses were based on prespecified linear mixed models with overall sexual function and QoL as outcomes, and quality and quantity of sexual life, anxiety, and depression as the main predictors of interest. Radiotherapy, age, and relationship satisfaction were controlled for as potential confounders. Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory subscales to assess quantity (Drive) and quality (Satisfaction) of sexual life, and overall sexual function (Global Sexual Satisfaction Index); Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--General to assess QoL; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess psychological distress; and Relationship Satisfaction Interaction Scale to assess relationship satisfaction. The models demonstrated that: (i) overall sexual function was predicted more strongly by the perceived quality than the quantity of sexual interactions, (ii) a small change in perceived quality had a large impact on overall sexual function, and (iii) overall sexual function was a predictor of QoL. This study found that quality rather than quantity of sexual life is the best predictor of overall sexual function among women treated for early stage cervical and endometrial cancer, indicating the importance of including quality indices in posttreatment sexual assessment in clinical practice and research

  17. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  18. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Béatrice, Nikiéma; Lise, Gauvin; Victoria, Zunzunegui Maria; Louise, Séguin

    2012-09-04

    Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood - maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disentangle time-specific from

  19. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  20. Influence of Western European Pedagogical Trends on Development of Young Teachers' Pedagogical Mastery in the Late 19th-the Early 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trynus, Olena

    2018-01-01

    The end of the 19th and early 20th centuries is characterized by justification of reforming pedagogical trends in Western Europe and accumulation of relevant ideas required to create a new type of school, educate independent and initiative individuals and improve teacher training. Based on comparative pedagogical analysis of the mentioned period,…

  1. Exploring the Relationship Between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N=312 pairs) were assessed by their parents on autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors using the Childhood Behavior Checklist. Phenotypic analyses showed that after controlling for general cognitive ability and socioeconomic status, autistic-like traits (total scale as well as social and nonsocial subscales) correlated positively with ADHD behaviors (r=0.23–0.26). Structural equation model-fitting analyses revealed that there were modest shared genetic influences between ADHD- and autistic traits (genetic correlation = 0.27) as well as some common environmental influences explaining their covariation. Implications for identifying shared biological pathways underlying autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors are discussed. PMID:19908138

  2. The early development phases of a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) module to assess patient reported outcomes (PROs) in women undergoing breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Thomson, H J; Winters, Z E; Brandberg, Y; Didier, F; Blazeby, J M; Mills, J

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of breast reconstruction (BRR) surgery includes measurement of patient reported outcomes (PROs). There is, however, a lack of validated BRR-specific PRO measures (PROMs) that adequately assess relevant issues. This study is developing a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire/module specific for PROs in BRR to supplement the cancer-core and breast cancer EORTC questionnaires, respectively: the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23. Phases I and II of questionnaire development followed EORTC guidelines including a systematic literature review to identify all potential 'issues' (concepts relevant to PROs) and semi-structured interviews with 89 patients and 9 European multi-disciplinary health care professionals (HCPs) (Sweden, Italy and the United Kingdom [UK]). Interviewers asked participants the 'relevance' of outcomes identified in the literature and captured additional 'issues' of importance. The literature search and interviews of patients and HCPs yielded 69 issues relating to BRR operationalised into 31 provisional items (single questions) for the module, which was conceptualised to contain five scales: treatment/surgery related symptoms (affecting the shoulder, arm and reconstructed breast), body image, sexuality, cosmetic outcomes (pertaining to three areas: breast, donor site and nipple) and overall satisfaction. The provisional development of the EORTC BRR module has 31 items addressing issues of importance to patients as well as HCPs. Further international testing is underway as a UK National Cancer Research Network trial to ensure that this PROM will be psychometrically and clinically robust and applicable for use in clinical trials, cohort studies, national audit and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring Partial Order of European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annoni, Paola; Bruggemann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Partial Order Theory has been recently more and more employed in applied science to overcome the intrinsic disadvantage hidden in aggregation, if a multiple attribute system is available. Despite its numerous positive features, there are many practical cases where the interpretation of the partial order can be rather troublesome. In these cases…

  4. Genome-wide scan for genes involved in bipolar affective disorder in 70 European families ascertained through a bipolar type I early-onset proband: supportive evidence for linkage at 3p14

    PubMed Central

    Etain, Bruno; Mathieu, Flavie; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Albus, Margot; Mckeon, Patrick; Roche, S.; Kealey, Carmel; Blackwood, Douglas; Muir, Walter; Bellivier, Franc; Henry, C.; Dina, Christian; Gallina, Sophie; Gurling, H.; Malafosse, Alain; Preisig, Martin; Ferrero, François; Cichon, Sven; Schumacher, J.; Ohlraun, Stéphanie; Borrmann-Hassenbach, M.; Propping, Peter; Abou Jamra, Rami; Schulze, Thomas G.; Marusic, Andrej; Dernovsek, Mojca Z.; Giros, Bruno; Bourgeron, Thomas; Lemainque, Arnaud; Bacq, Delphine; Betard, Christine; Charon, Céline; Nöthen, Markus M.; Lathrop, Mark; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Summary Preliminary studies suggested that age at onset (AAO) may help to define homogeneous bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) subtypes. This candidate symptom approach might be useful to identify vulnerability genes. Thus, the probability of detecting major disease-causing genes might be increased by focusing on families with early-onset BPAD type I probands. This study was conducted as part of the European Collaborative Study of Early Onset BPAD (France, Germany, Ireland, Scotland, Switzerland, England, Slovenia). We performed a genome-wide search with 384 microsatellite markers using non parametric linkage analysis in 87 sib-pairs ascertained through an early-onset BPAD type I proband (age at onset of 21 years or below). Non parametric multi-point analysis suggested eight regions of linkage with p-values <0.01 (2p21, 2q14.3, 3p14, 5q33, 7q36, 10q23, 16q23 and 20p12). The 3p14 region showed the most significant linkage (genome-wide p-value estimated over 10.000 simulated replicates of 0.015 [0.01–0.02]). After genome-wide search analysis, we performed additional linkage analyses with increase marker density using markers in four regions suggestive for linkage and having an information contents lower than 75% (3p14, 10q23, 16q23 and 20p12). For these regions, the information content improved by about 10%. In chromosome 3, the non parametric linkage score increased from 3.51 to 3.83. This study is the first to use early onset bipolar type I probands in an attempt to increase sample homogeneity. These preliminary findings require confirmation in independent panels of families. PMID:16534504

  5. Exploring the Potential Routine Use of Electronic Healthcare Record Data to Strengthen Early Signal Assessment in UK Medicines Regulation: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Donegan, Katherine; Owen, Rebecca; Bird, Helena; Burch, Brian; Smith, Alex; Tregunno, Phil

    2018-05-03

    Electronic healthcare record (EHR) databases are used within pharmacoepidemiology studies to confirm or refute safety signals arising from spontaneous adverse event reports. However, there has been limited routine use of such data earlier in the signal management process, to help rapidly contextualise signals and strengthen preliminary assessment or to inform decisions regarding action including the need for further studies. This study explores the value of EHR used in this way within a regulatory environment via an automated analysis platform. Safety signals raised at the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) between July 2014 and June 2015 were individually reviewed by a multi-disciplinary team. They assessed the feasibility of identifying the exposure and event of interest using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) within the Commonwealth Vigilance Workbench (CVW) Longitudinal Module platform, which was designed to facilitate routine descriptive analysis of signals using EHR. Three signals, where exposure and event could be well identified, were retrospectively analysed using the platform. Of 69 unique new signals, 20 were for drugs prescribed predominately in secondary care or available without prescription, which would not be identified in primary care. A further 17 were brand, formulation, or dose-specific issues, were related to mortality, were relevant only to a subgroup of patients, or were drug interactions, and hence could not be reviewed using the platform given its limitations. Analyses of exposure and incidence of the adverse event could be produced using CPRD within the CMV Longitudinal Module for 32 (46%) signals. The case studies demonstrated that the data provided supporting evidence for confirming initial assessment of the signal and deciding upon the need for further action. CPRD can routinely provide useful early insights into clinical context when assessing a large proportion of safety

  6. Exploring the Potential of a Wearable Camera to Examine the Early Obesogenic Home Environment: Comparison of SenseCam Images to the Home Environment Interview.

    PubMed

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia Hm; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-10-12

    The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of self-report measures. A total of 15 primary caregivers of young children (mean age of child 4 years) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI). Around 12 days after the HEI, participants wore the SenseCam at home for 4 days. A semistructured interview assessed participants' experience of wearing the SenseCam. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), percent agreement, and kappa statistics were used as validity estimates for 54 home environment features. Wearing the SenseCam was generally acceptable to those who participated. The SenseCam captured all 54 HEI features but with varying detail; 36 features (67%) had satisfactory validity (ICC or kappa ≥0.40; percent agreement ≥80 where kappa could not be calculated). Validity was good or excellent (ICC or kappa ≥0.60) for fresh fruit and vegetable availability, fresh vegetable variety, display of food and drink (except sweet snacks), family meals, child eating lunch or dinner while watching TV, garden and play equipment, the number of TVs and DVD players, and media equipment in the child's bedroom. Validity was poor (ICC or kappa <0.40) for tinned and frozen vegetable availability and variety, and sweet snack availability. The SenseCam has the potential to objectively examine and validate multiple aspects of the obesogenic home environment. Further research should aim to replicate the findings in a larger, representative sample. ©Stephanie Schrempft, Cornelia HM van Jaarsveld, Abigail Fisher. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.10.2017.

  7. Evolution of Northeastern Mexico during the early Mesozoic: potential areas for research and exploration José Rafael Barboza-Gudiño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza-Gudiño, R.

    2013-05-01

    Huayacocotla formations). The Middle to Upper Jurassic La Joya Formation overlies unconformable all continental and marine-marginal successions and older rocks, and records the transgressive basal deposits of the Gulf series, changing upsection to the evaporites and limestone of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Group. Successive intraoceanic subduction zones to the West sparked magmatic arcs whose accretion in the continental margin produced the consolidation of much of the Mexican territory up to the current Pacific margin. Scattered isolated outcrops from the Early Mesozoic succession in central- and northeastern Mexico allow interpretation of tectonic setting and paleogeography associated to each stratigraphic unit, revealing a strongly different geologic evolution than the previously established models, opening a range of new possibilities and areas of opportunity for mining and fossil fuels exploration. However, most of the Triassic-Jurassic rocks or stratigraphic units in northern Mexico lie under many hundreds of meters of a Cretaceous-Cenozoic cover. Their recognition and preliminary evaluation implies the use of indirect techniques like geophysical methods, before drilling or subsurface mining.

  8. Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (1757-1808): an early nineteenth century source for the concept of nervous energy in European behavioral neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Y; Whitaker, H A

    2000-01-01

    The nineteenth century witnessed many advances in neuroscientific concepts. Among the notable are Charles Bell's (1774-1842) and François Magendie's (1783-1855) identification of sensory and motor pathways, Thomas Henry Huxley's (1825-1895) elaboration of evolutionary theory in the context of comparative neuroanatomy, and Emile Du Bois-Reymond's (1818-1896) and Hermann von Helmholtz's (1821-1894) work in experimental neurophysiology and on the concept of nervous energy. In Germany, the idea that the nervous system consisted of two elements, one that generated nervous energy and another that conducted it throughout the body, had wide currency in mid-nineteenth century. In France, Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis (1757-1808), physician, philosopher, and one of the founders of modern psychophysiology, argued that the brain is the part of the body in which electricity is stored. In his Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme, published between 1796 and 1802 (translated into German under the title Verhältnis der Seele zum Körper (1808)), Cabanis proposed new ideas on brain function, on the brain's own sensibility, on the concept of will, and on the chemical basis of nervous activity. In the Rapports Cabanis proposed a theory of how brain and nerves relate to thought and behavior. Foreshadowing later developments in neuropsychology, he suggested that different parts of the nervous system have separate functions. Despite the fact that Cabanis had many interesting ideas about brain function, he has been largely ignored by historians of neuroscience; e. g., he is mentioned briefly in Clark and Jacyna (1989), in only two footnotes in Neuburger (1897/1981), and not at all in Finger (1994). Cabanis's far-reaching theory of how the brain works helped shape understanding of the general notion of nervous energy in nineteenth-century European neuroscience.

  9. Early European experience with the MammoSite radiation therapy system for partial breast brachytherapy following breast conservation operation in low-risk breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, Peter; Ballardini, B; Polgár, C; Major, T; Hammer, J; Richetti, A; Kovács, G

    2006-06-01

    Preliminary results of ultrasound studies do exist in the literature on the successful use of the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System (RTS), a new device for delivering brachytherapy following breast-conserving surgery. In Europe, some groups started a prospective multicentre trial to investigate the use of the MammoSite RTS. In this early publication, we analysed the surgical procedure and placement of the MammoSite, treatment planning and radiation delivery complications, and early cosmesis, as well as the comfort of the patients. Between June 2002 and March 2005, a total of 54 low-risk breast cancer patients fulfilling the enrolment criteria were implanted intra- or postoperatively using the MammoSite applicator. After inflating the balloon in the excision cavity, the reference isodose was defined 1cm from the balloon's surface. Twenty-eight patients were treated with primary brachytherapy with a total dose of 34 Gy (2x3.4 Gy) and 16 patients had a boost with a mean dose of 13.3 Gy (range: 7.5-15 Gy; 2x2.5 Gy) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Doses ranged between 46 and 50 Gy. We analysed the postimplant anatomic position of the applicator in relation to the skin and chest wall as well as the geometric form of the balloon via ultrasound, computed tomography and X-ray before, during and after the treatment. Forty-four out of 54 patients (81.5%) were eligible for MammoSite RTS brachytherapy. Ten patients were excluded from the trial due to the strict study criteria and received no brachytherapy. Balloon rupture occurred in two cases. We observed seroma in 16 patients (36%); furthermore, an abscess developed in two patients (4.5%) within 3 months of implantation. Postoperative air gaps and haematoma were successfully reduced by draining the operation cavity in one institution. At a mean follow-up of 14 months (range 3-31 months), the skin-related side effects observed were skin discoloration or inflammation in 36 patients (82%) and teleangiectasia in

  10. Lasting effects of early exposure to temperature on the gonadal transcriptome at the time of sex differentiation in the European sea bass, a fish with mixed genetic and environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Noelia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2015-09-04

    Sex in fish is plastic and in several species can be influenced by environmental factors. In sensitive species, elevated temperatures have a masculinizing effect. Previous studies on the effects of temperature on gene expression have been restricted to a few cognate genes, mostly related to testis or ovarian development, and analyzed in gonads once they had completed the process of sex differentiation. However, studies on the effect of temperature at the whole gonadal transcriptomic level are scarce in fish and, in addition, temperature effects at the time of sex differentiation at the transcriptomic level are also unknown. Here, we used the European sea bass, a gonochoristic teleost with a polygenic sex determination system influenced by temperature, and exposed larvae to elevated temperature during the period of early gonad formation. Transcriptomic analysis of the gonads was carried out about three months after the end of temperature exposure, shortly after the beginning of the process of sex differentiation. Elevated temperature doubled the number of males with respect to untreated controls. Transcriptomic analysis of early differentiating female gonads showed how heat caused: 1) an up-regulation of genes related to cholesterol transport (star), the stress response (nr3c1) and testis differentiation (amh, dmrt, etc.), 2) a decrease in the expression of genes related to ovarian differentiation such as cyp19a1a, and 3) an increase in the expression of several genes related to epigenetic regulatory mechanisms (hdac11, dicer1, ehmt2, jarid2a, pcgf2, suz12, mettl22). Taken together, the results of this study contribute to the understanding of how the early environment sets permanent changes that result in long-lasting consequences, in this case in the sexual phenotype. Results also show the usefulness of comparing the effects of heat on the behavior of cognate genes related to sex differentiation as well as that of genes involved in establishing and maintaining cell

  11. Population parameters for resistance to Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides ear rot among large sets of early, mid-late and late maturing European maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Martin; Kessel, Bettina; Ouzunova, Milena; Miedaner, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Infection of maize ears with Fusarium graminearum (FG) and Fusarium verticillioides (FV) reduces yield and quality by mycotoxin contamination. Breeding and growing varieties resistant to both Fusarium spp. is the best alternative to minimize problems. The objectives of our study were to draw conclusions on breeding for ear rot resistance by estimating variance components, heritabilities and correlations between resistances to FV and FG severity and to investigate different inoculation methods. In 2007 and 2008, three maturity groups (early, mid-late, late) each comprising about 150 inbred lines were tested in Germany, France, Italy, and Hungary according to their maturity group. They were silk channel inoculated by FG (early) and FV (all groups). In the late maturity group, additionally kernel inoculation was applied in a separate trial. The percentage of mycelium coverage on the ear was rated at harvest (0-100%). Significant (P < 0.01) genotypic variances of ear rot severity were found in all groups. Inoculation was superior to natural infection because of higher disease severities and heritabilities. In early maturing flints and dents, FG caused significantly (P < 0.01) higher ear rot severity than FV (61.7 and 55.1% FG vs. 18.2 and 11.1% FV ear rot severity, respectively). FV inoculation in Southern Europe (mid-late, late) resulted in similar means between 10.3 and 14.0%. Selection is complicated by significant (P < 0.01) genotype x environment interactions. Correlation between FG and FV severity was moderate in flints and dents (r = 0.59 and 0.49, respectively) but lines resistant to both fungi exist. We conclude that chances for selecting improved European elite maize material within the existing germplasms is promising by multi-environmental inoculation trials.

  12. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a

  13. Exploring the Impact of TeachME™ Lab Virtual Classroom Teaching Simulation on Early Childhood Education Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Boone, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a mixed-reality teaching environment, called TeachME™ Lab (TML), on early childhood education majors' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Sixty-two preservice early childhood teachers participated in the study. Analysis of the quantitative (STEBI-b) and qualitative (journal entries)…

  14. Reframing Infant-Toddler Pedagogy through a Lens of Professional Love: Exploring Narratives of Professional Practice in Early Childhood Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Jools

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased international interest in how close attachment interactions with infants and toddlers are realised and interpreted by early years professionals. It is troubling for those who work in early years settings with infants and toddlers to know how best to demonstrate healthy loving attachment behaviours as an expectation of their…

  15. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  16. Public-private collaboration in clinical research during pregnancy, lactation, and childhood: joint position statement of the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Benninga, Marc A; Godfrey, Keith M; Hornnes, Peter J; Kolaček, Sanja; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lentze, Michael J; Mader, Silke; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Oepkes, Dick; Oddy, Wendy H; Phillips, Alan; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania; Symonds, Michael E; Taminiau, Jan; Thapar, Nikhil; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-04-01

    This position statement summarises a view of academia regarding standards for clinical research in collaboration with commercial enterprises, focussing on trials in pregnant women, breast-feeding women, and children. It is based on a review of the available literature and an expert workshop cosponsored by the Early Nutrition Academy and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Clinical research collaborations between academic investigators and commercial enterprises are encouraged by universities, public funding agencies, and governmental organisations. One reason is a pressing need to obtain evidence on the effects, safety, and benefits of drugs and other commercial products and services. The credibility and value of results obtained through public-private research collaborations have, however, been questioned because many examples of inappropriate research practice have become known. Clinical research in pregnant and breast-feeding women, and in infants and children, raises sensitive scientific, ethical, and societal questions and requires the application of particularly high standards. Here we provide recommendations for the conduct of public-private research collaborations in these populations. In the interest of all stakeholders, these recommendations should contribute to more reliable, credible, and acceptable results of commercially sponsored trials and to reducing the existing credibility gap.

  17. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  18. Sea & Space: a New European Educational Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    This spring, teachers across Europe will enjoy support for exciting, novel educational projects on astronomy, navigation and environmental observations. The largely web-based and highly interactive SEA & SPACE programme makes it possible for pupils to perform field experiments and astronomical observations and to obtain and process satellite images. A contest will take the best pupils for one week to Lisbon (Portugal), to Europe's space port in Kourou (French Guyana) where the European launcher lifts off or to ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Cerro Paranal Observatory in Chile, the largest optical telescope in the world. The SEA & SPACE project is a joint initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) , the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). It builds on these organisations' several years' successful participation in the European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture organised by the European Commission that they intend to continue in 1998. The 1998 World Exhibition EXPO98 in Lisbon will focus on the oceans. This is why the umbrella theme of SEA & SPACE is concerned with the many relations between the oceans and the space that surrounds us, from ancient times to present days. Under the new programme, teaching resources are offered for three major areas, Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment, Navigation and Oceans of Water. Remote Sensing of Europe's Coastal Environment : observations of the Earth from Space are made accessible to pupils who will appreciate their usefulness through interactive image processing and field observations; Navigation : the capabilities and functioning of different navigation techniques are explored through experiments using navigation by the stars, with GPS, and via satellite images/maps; Oceans of Water : What is the role of water in Nature? How can one detect water from satellites or with telescopes? How much water is there in rivers and floods, in an ocean

  19. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  20. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  1. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  2. An Empathetic Beginning in Education: Exploring the Prospects of Self-Regulation Skills on Pro-Social Behaviour in the Early Childhood Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    One avenue substantially researched and supported in early childhood research is the importance and the cultivation of self-regulation skills in the classroom. Most educational research on self-regulation skills has illustrated the importance between the enhancement of these skills and long-term academic success. Notwithstanding, there is little…

  3. Scaling the Pyramid Model across Complex Systems Providing Early Care for Preschoolers: Exploring How Models for Decision Making May Enhance Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeAnne D.

    2017-01-01

    Bringing effective practices to scale across large systems requires attending to how information and belief systems come together in decisions to adopt, implement, and sustain those practices. Statewide scaling of the Pyramid Model, a framework for positive behavior intervention and support, across different types of early childhood programs…

  4. Emerging Career Experiences: A Qualitative Exploration of the Career Patterns of Early Career Professionals Living in a Southeast United States Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the career patterns of early career professionals living in Aiken County, South Carolina. Two theoretical frameworks were selected for this study; Patton and McMahon's (1999) Career Development Systems Theory and Higgins and Kram's (2001) Developmental Network Theory. The researcher…

  5. A European Perspective on the Promotion of Women's Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Lahja Johanna

    Although commitment to equal opportunities in employment has been a major component of European Community legislation and although increasing numbers of European women are entering professions, women throughout Europe still face many barriers to advancing in their professions. Since the early 1970s, European governments including Finland have…

  6. Sensory Tours as a Method for Engaging Children as Active Researchers: Exploring the Use of Wearable Cameras in Early Childhood Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carie

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the use of wearable cameras with children as a data collection means to engage young children as active researchers in recording their experiences in natural environments. This method captures children's unique perspectives of being-in-the-world, depicting what they see, hear, say, touch, and their interactions with others.…

  7. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  8. Adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial to explore its feasibility and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zun; Wang, Lei; Fan, Hongjuan; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Sheng; Gu, Zhaohua; Wang, Tong

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors. [Subjects] The subjects were forty-eight early stroke survivors. [Methods] Eligible subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups participated in comprehensive rehabilitation training. Low intensity aerobic training was only performed by the experimental group. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer motor score, Barthel index, exercise test time, peak heart rate, plasma glucose level and serum lipid profiles. [Results] Patients in the experimental group finished 88.6% of the total aerobic training sessions prescribed. In compliant participants (adherence≥80%), aerobic training significantly improved the Barthel index (from 40.1±21.1 to 79.2±14.2), Fugl-Meyer motor score (from 26.4±19.4 to 45.4±12.7), exercise test time (from 12.2±3.62 min to 13.9±3.6 min), 2-hour glucose level (from 9.22±1.16 mmol/L to 7.21±1.36 mmol/L) and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (from 1.72±1.01 to 1.28±0.88). [Conclusion] Preliminary findings suggest that early and severely impaired stroke patients may benefit from low intensity ergometer aerobic training.

  9. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  10. Exploring the Impact of TeachME™ Lab Virtual Classroom Teaching Simulation on Early Childhood Education Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Boone, William J.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a mixed-reality teaching environment, called TeachME™ Lab (TML), on early childhood education majors' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Sixty-two preservice early childhood teachers participated in the study. Analysis of the quantitative (STEBI-b) and qualitative (journal entries) data revealed that personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs increased significantly after one semester of participation in TML. Three key factors impacted preservice teachers' (PST) self-efficacy beliefs in the context of participation in TML: PSTs' perceptions of their science content knowledge, their familiarity with TML technology and avatars, and being observed by peers. Cognitive pedagogical mastery (TML practices), effective/actual modeling, cognitive self-modeling, and emotional arousal were the primary sources that increased the PSTs' perceived self-efficacy beliefs. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the TML is a worthwhile technology for learning to teach in teacher education. It provides a way for PSTs to have a highly personalized learning experience that enables them to improve their understanding and confidence related to teaching science, so that ideally someday they may translate such an experience into their classroom practices.

  11. Evaluation of pediatric cochlear implant care throughout Europe: Is European pediatric cochlear implant care performed according to guidelines?

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Bezdjian, Aren; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Illg, Angelika; Tzifa, Konstance; Monteiro, Luisa; Volpe, Antonio Della; Grolman, Wilko; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-11-01

    International guidelines indicate that children with profound hearing loss should receive a cochlear implant (CI) soon after diagnosis in order to optimize speech and language rehabilitation. Although prompt rehabilitation is encouraged by current guidelines, delays in cochlear implantation are still present. This study investigated whether European countries establish timely pediatric CI care based on epidemiological, commercial, and clinical data. An estimation of the number of pediatric CI candidates in European countries was performed and compared to epidemiological (Euro-CIU), commercial (Cochlear ® ), and clinical (institutional) age-at-implantation data. The ages at implantation of pediatric patients in eight countries (the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Portugal, and Italy) between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. From 2010 onwards, over 30% of the pediatric CI candidates were implanted before 24 months of age. Northern European institutions implanted children on average around 12 months of age, whereas southern European institutions implanted children after 18 months of age. The Netherlands and Germany implanted earliest (between 6 and 11 months). Implemented newborn hearing screening programs and reimbursement rates of CIs vary greatly within Europe due to local, social, financial, and political differences. However, internationally accepted recommendations are applicable to this heterogeneous European CI practice. Although consensus on early pediatric cochlear implantation exists, this study identified marked delays in European care. Regardless of the great heterogeneity in European practice, reasons for latency should be identified on a national level and possibilities to prevent avoidable future implantation delays should be explored to provide national recommendations.

  12. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    PubMed

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  13. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  14. WE-FG-202-02: Exploration of High-Resolution Quantitative Ultrasonic Micro-Vascular Imaging for Early Assessment of Radiotherapy Tumor Response

    SciT

    Kasoji, S; Rivera, J; Dayton, P

    Purpose: Currently, we cannot predict an individual patient’s response to a given radiotherapy which normally is not detected for weeks to months post-treatment. As a result, precious time is wasted for patients with unresponsive tumors who could have switched to an alternative treatment much earlier. Presently, no early treatment response detection method exists that is effective, low-cost, non-invasive, and safe. We hypothesize that changes in tumor microvasculature predict tumor response to radiotherapy earlier than tumor volume changes. Recent radiobiology research suggests tumors undergo vascular remodeling in response to radiation well before manifesting changes in tumor volume. We propose monitoring tumormore » microvasculature post-radiation using Acoustic Angiography (AA), a novel ultrasound imaging modality developed and patented in-house. In this study, we investigate whether changes in tumor microvasculature, measured using AA, can be an early indicator of high-dose radiotherapy success, compared to changes in tumor volume. Methods: Fibrosarcoma xenograft tumor tissue was subcutaneously implanted into rodent flanks (N=10). Animal tumors (N=8) were irradiated with a single treatment of 15Gy using a clinical LINAC at 100SSD and 2×2cm field size. Two untreated rats were left as tumor controls. AA imaging was performed immediately posttreatment and every third day thereafter for 30 days, or until tumors disappeared. Tumor volumes and vascular densities were measured from anatomical b-mode ultrasound and AA images, respectively. Results: Statistical differences in vascular density between treatment responders and non-responders were observed on Day 10 (p=0.005), whereas statistical differences in tumor volume were not observed until Day 19 (p=0.02). Conclusions: Tumor vascularity differences may be observed substantially earlier than differences in tumor size. In addition, significant early increases in vascular density were observed in non

  15. An intervention study exploring the effects of providing older adult hip fracture patients with an information booklet in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Siobhan; Conway, Col; McGrath, Niamh B; O'Leary, Breda; O'Sullivan, Mary P; O'Sullivan, Dawn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the provision of an information booklet on mobilisation improves early mobility postsurgical repair of hip fracture. Hip fracture among older people can have long-lasting consequences with the majority of patients failing to achieve their prefracture functional status. Early postoperative mobility may have a positive effect on long-term recovery. The importance of providing postoperative information on mobility has been highlighted. It is suggested that patients remain passive in their recovery when they do not understand the importance of mobilisation. The study used a pretest-post-test design of two treatments and a usual care control group. Eighty-three adults postsurgical repair of hip fracture, aged 65 years and older, were recruited to the study. Participants were assigned to one of three groups, a usual care group, treatment group 1 (T(1)) usual care plus basic information booklet or treatment group 2 (T(2)) usual care plus detailed information booklet. Data collection three days postsurgery and prior to discharge included the Mini-Mental State Examination, a Demographic Questionnaire, the Elderly Mobility Scale and a Numerical Pain Scale. Greatest improvements in Elderly Mobility Scale scores occurred in T(1), with least changes observed in T(2). Changes did not reach significance level (p=0·105). The results of the study suggest that the provision of basic information is preferable and highlights a deficiency of education in usual care. Hip fracture patients should be provided with an educational booklet containing basic information on mobility to promote optimal recovery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Early Child Social-Emotional Problems and Child Obesity: Exploring the Protective Role of a Primary Care-Based General Parenting Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gross, Rachel S; Briggs, Rahil D; Hershberg, Rebecca S; Silver, Ellen J; Velazco, Nerissa K; Hauser, Nicole R; Racine, Andrew D

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether early social-emotional problems are associated with child feeding practices, maternal-child feeding styles, and child obesity at age 5 years, in the context of a primary care-based brief general parenting intervention led by an integrated behavioral health specialist to offer developmental monitoring, on-site intervention, and/or referrals. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of mothers with 5-year-old children previously screened using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE) during the first 3 years of life. ASQ:SE scores were dichotomized "not at risk" versus "at risk." "At risk" subjects were further classified as participating or not participating in the intervention. Regression analyses were performed to determine relationships between social-emotional problems and feeding practices, feeding styles, and weight status at age 5 years based on participation, controlling for potential confounders and using "not at risk" as a reference group. Compared with children "not at risk," children "at risk-no participation" were more likely to be obese at age 5 years (adjusted odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 9.45). Their mothers were less likely to exhibit restriction and limit setting and more likely to pressure to eat than mothers in the "not at risk" group. Children "at risk-participation" did not demonstrate differences in weight status compared with children "not at risk." Early social-emotional problems, unmitigated by intervention, were related to several feeding styles and to obesity at age 5 years. Further study is needed to understand how a general parenting intervention may be protective against obesity.

  17. Exploring the relationship between white matter and gray matter damage in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis: an in vivo study with TBSS and VBM.

    PubMed

    Bodini, Benedetta; Khaleeli, Zhaleh; Cercignani, Mara; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between the damage occurring in the brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in the gray matter (GM) in patients with early Primary Progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. Thirty-five patients with early PPMS underwent diffusion tensor and conventional imaging and were clinically assessed. TBSS and VBM were employed to localize regions of lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and lower GM volume in patients compared with controls. Areas of anatomical and quantitative correlation between NAWM and GM damage were detected. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate whether NAWM FA or GM volume of regions correlated with clinical scores independently from the other and from age and gender. In patients, we found 11 brain regions that showed an anatomical correspondence between reduced NAWM FA and GM atrophy; of these, four showed a quantitative correlation (i.e., the right sensory motor region with the adjacent corticospinal tract, the left and right thalamus with the corresponding thalamic radiations and the left insula with the adjacent WM). Either the NAWM FA or the GM volume in each of these regions correlated with disability. These results demonstrate a link between the pathological processes occurring in the NAWM and in the GM in PPMS in specific, clinically relevant brain areas. Longitudinal studies will determine whether the GM atrophy precedes or follows the NAWM damage. The methodology that we described may be useful to investigate other neurological disorders affecting both the WM and the GM. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. [The assessment of family resources and need for help: Construct validity and reliability of the Systematic Exploration and Process Inventory for health professionals in early childhood intervention services (SEVG)].

    PubMed

    Scharmanski, Sara; Renner, Ilona

    2016-12-01

    Health professionals in early childhood intervention and prevention make an important contribution by helping burdened families with young children cope with everyday life and child raising issues. A prerequisite for success is the health professionals' ability to tailor their services to the specific needs of families. The "Systematic Exploration and Process Inventory for health professionals in early childhood intervention services (SEVG)" can be used to identify each family's individual resources and needs, enabling a valid, reliable and objective assessment of the conditions and the process of counseling service. The present paper presents the statistical analyses that were used to confirm the reliability of the inventory. Based on the results of the reliability analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), the SEVG seems to be a reliable and objective inventory for assessing families' need for support. It also allows for calculation of average values of each scale. The development of valid and reliable assessments is essential to quality assurance and the professionalization of interventions in early childhood service. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  1. Exploring for early bombardments on Earth from pre-3.85 Fa thermal effects recorded in Hadean zircons - a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.; Abramov, O.; Harrison, T. M.; Kring, D. A.; Levison, H. F.; Trail, D.; Watson, E. B.

    2008-12-01

    We report on our progress with high-resolution ion microprobe U-Th-Pb depth profiles and Ti+REEs spot analysis which show that subsequent to their crystallization in melts under typical crustal conditions on Earth, some Hadean (pre-3.85 Ga) zircons record common age domains with unusual chemical and isotopic characteristics consistent with a high-temperature (possibly impact) origin. We have found evidence for later overprints caused by intense thermal alteration between 3.94-3.97 Ga in six of eight studied grains but no evidence for older events. These findings alert us to two fundamental things we did not know before about the probiotic potential of the Earth in the earliest solar system: (i) that the bombardment epoch did not result in complete 'Doomsday' scale destruction of the Earth's crust since the Moon-forming event at ca. 4.5 Ga; and (ii) age constraints on both sides of the ther-mally altered 3.94-3.97 Ga zircon domains are very good and so far our data show that no detectable thermal events are recorded by the zircons before ~3.97 Ga up to about 4.3 Ga. This observation is consistent with the output of new classes of dynamical models that successfully re-create the decay of impactor populations in the early solar system as recorded on the Moon and in meteorites.

  2. Exploring the Potential of a Global Emerging Contaminant Early Warning Network through the Use of Retrospective Suspect Screening with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alygizakis, Nikiforos A; Samanipour, Saer; Hollender, Juliane; Ibáñez, María; Kaserzon, Sarit; Kokkali, Varvara; van Leerdam, Jan A; Mueller, Jochen F; Pijnappels, Martijn; Reid, Malcolm J; Schymanski, Emma L; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Thomas, Kevin V

    2018-05-01

    A key challenge in the environmental and exposure sciences is to establish experimental evidence of the role of chemical exposure in human and environmental systems. High resolution and accurate tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS) is increasingly being used for the analysis of environmental samples. One lauded benefit of HRMS is the possibility to retrospectively process data for (previously omitted) compounds that has led to the archiving of HRMS data. Archived HRMS data affords the possibility of exploiting historical data to rapidly and effectively establish the temporal and spatial occurrence of newly identified contaminants through retrospective suspect screening. We propose to establish a global emerging contaminant early warning network to rapidly assess the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in environmental samples through performing retrospective analysis on HRMS data. The effectiveness of such a network is demonstrated through a pilot study, where eight reference laboratories with available archived HRMS data retrospectively screened data acquired from aqueous environmental samples collected in 14 countries on 3 different continents. The widespread spatial occurrence of several surfactants (e.g., polyethylene glycols ( PEGs ) and C12AEO-PEGs ), transformation products of selected drugs (e.g., gabapentin-lactam, metoprolol-acid, carbamazepine-10-hydroxy, omeprazole-4-hydroxy-sulfide, and 2-benzothiazole-sulfonic-acid), and industrial chemicals (3-nitrobenzenesulfonate and bisphenol-S) was revealed. Obtaining identifications of increased reliability through retrospective suspect screening is challenging, and recommendations for dealing with issues such as broad chromatographic peaks, data acquisition, and sensitivity are provided.

  3. Record review to explore the adequacy of post-operative vital signs monitoring using a local modified early warning score (mews) chart to evaluate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacos, Una; Jelsma, Jennifer; Jordan, Sue

    2014-01-01

    1) To explore the adequacy of: vital signs' recordings (respiratory and heart rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure (BP), temperature, level of consciousness and urine output) in the first 8 post-operative hours; responses to clinical deterioration. 2) To identify factors associated with death on the ward between transfer from the theatre recovery suite and the seventh day after operation. Retrospective review of records of 11 patients who died plus four controls for each case. We reviewed clinical records of 55 patients who met inclusion criteria (general anaesthetic, age >13, complete records) from six surgical wards in a teaching hospital between 1 May and 31 July 2009. In the absence of guidelines for routine post-operative vital signs' monitoring, nurses' standard practice graphical plots of recordings were recoded into MEWS formats (0 = normal, 1-3 upper or lower limit) and their responses to clinical deterioration were interpreted using MEWS reporting algorithms. No patients' records contained recordings for all seven parameters displayed on the MEWS. There was no evidence of response to: 22/36 (61.1%) abnormal vital signs for patients who died that would have triggered an escalated MEWS reporting algorithm; 81/87 (93.1%) for controls. Death was associated with age, ≥61 years (OR 14.2, 3.0-68.0); ≥2 pre-existing co-morbidities (OR 75.3, 3.7-1527.4); high/low systolic BP on admission (OR 7.2, 1.5-34.2); tachycardia (≥111-129 bpm) (OR 6.6, 1.4-30.0) and low systolic BP (≤81-100 mmHg), as defined by the MEWS (OR 8.0, 1.9-33.1). Guidelines for post-operative vital signs' monitoring and reporting need to be established. The MEWS provides a useful scoring system for interpreting clinical deterioration and guiding intervention. Exploration of the ability of the Cape Town MEWS chart plus reporting algorithm to expedite recognition of signs of clinical and physiological deterioration and securing more skilled assistance is essential.

  4. Florbetaben PET in the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: A Discrete Event Simulation to Explore Its Potential Value and Key Data Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shien; Getsios, Denis; Hernandez, Luis; Cho, Kelly; Lawler, Elizabeth; Altincatal, Arman; Lanes, Stephan; Blankenburg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The growing understanding of the use of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may enable physicians to make more accurate and timely diagnoses. Florbetaben, a beta-amyloid tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET), is one of these diagnostic biomarkers. This analysis was undertaken to explore the potential value of florbetaben PET in the diagnosis of AD among patients with suspected dementia and to identify key data that are needed to further substantiate its value. A discrete event simulation was developed to conduct exploratory analyses from both US payer and societal perspectives. The model simulates the lifetime course of disease progression for individuals, evaluating the impact of their patient management from initial diagnostic work-up to final diagnosis. Model inputs were obtained from specific analyses of a large longitudinal dataset from the New England Veterans Healthcare System and supplemented with data from public data sources and assumptions. The analyses indicate that florbetaben PET has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs under certain scenarios. Key data on the use of florbetaben PET, such as its influence on time to confirmation of final diagnosis, treatment uptake, and treatment persistency, are unavailable and would be required to confirm its value. PMID:23326754

  5. What Doesn't Work for Whom? Exploring Heterogeneity in Responsiveness to the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood Using a Mixture Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Pelham, William E; Dishion, Thomas J; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-11-01

    This study applied latent class analysis to a family-centered prevention trial in early childhood to identify subgroups of families with differential responsiveness to the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention. The sample included 731 families with 2-year-olds randomized to the FCU or control condition and followed through age 5 with yearly follow-up assessments. A two-step mixture model was used to examine whether specific constellations of family characteristics at age 2 (baseline) were related to intervention response across ages 3, 4, and 5. The first step empirically identified latent classes of families based on several family risk and adjustment variables selected on the basis of previous research. The second step modeled the effect of the FCU on longitudinal change in children's problem behavior in each of the empirically derived latent classes. Results suggested a five-class solution, where a significant intervention effect of moderate to large size was observed in one of the five classes-the class characterized by child neglect, legal problems, and parental mental health issues. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the intervention effect was significantly greater in this class of families than in two other classes that were generally less at risk for the development of child disruptive behavior problems, albeit still low-income. Thus, findings suggest that (a) the FCU is most successful in reducing child problem behavior in more highly distressed, low-income families, and (b) the FCU may have little impact for relatively low-risk, low-income families. Future directions include the development of a brief screening process that can triage low-income families into groups that should be targeted for intervention, redirected to other services, monitored prospectively, or left alone.

  6. Exploring correlation between perceived parenting styles, early maladaptive schemas, and depression among women with depressive symptoms in iran and India- role of early maladaptive schemas as mediators and moderatos.

    PubMed

    Khajouei Nia, Maryam; Sovani, Anuradha; Sarami Forooshani, Gholam Reza

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have reported that inadequate parental styles can contribute to depressive symptoms through dysfunctional cognitive styles. This study aimed to investigate the association of dysfunctional schemas and parenting style with depression, as well as the role of maladaptive schemas such as moderators and mediators in Iran and India. The study sample was selected randomly and consisted of 200 (age group 16-60 y) depressed females (mild to moderate); 100 from Tehran (Iran) and another 100 from Pune (India). The type of the research was causal-comparative. The data collection took place in hospitals and clinics in the targeted cities. Descriptive statistic tests and hierarchical multiple regression were executed (for the purpose of analyzing data) by SPSS 17. It was demonstrated that the association between parenting and depression was not moderated by early maladaptive schemas. On the contrary, the results supported meditational models in which parenting styles are associated with the cognitive schemas, and these in turn are related to depressive symptoms. It was also found that abandonment mediates the impacts of maternal style on depression in Iran. On the other hand, abandonment and punitiveness schemas mediated the relation between paternal style and depression in India. These findings suggest that the correlation between childhood experiences and depression in adulthood are mediated by dysfunctional schemas.

  7. Observations on the Use of Manual Signs and Gestures in the Communicative Interactions between Native Americans and Spanish Explorers of North America: The Accounts of Bernal Diaz del Castillo and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillian, John D.; Ingram, Vicky L.; McCleary, Brendan M.

    2009-01-01

    The accounts of two men who participated in several Spanish-led expeditions to the New World in the early 1500s document the frequent use of manual signs and gestures in the initial interactions between European explorers and the indigenous peoples of North America. Bernal Diaz del Castillo described the events that occurred during three…

  8. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  9. Exploration review

    Wilburn, D.R.; Vasil, R.L.; Nolting, A.

    2011-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2010 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry.

  10. Exploring the potential of [11C]choline-PET/CT as a novel imaging biomarker for predicting early treatment response in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Challapalli, Amarnath; Barwick, Tara; Tomasi, Giampaolo; O' Doherty, Michael; Contractor, Kaiyumars; Stewart, Simon; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Behan, Kevin; Coombes, Charles; Aboagye, Eric O; Mangar, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) and radical prostate radiotherapy with concurrent androgen deprivation (RT-CAD) on prostatic [C]choline kinetics and thus develop methodology for the use of [C]choline-PET/computed tomography (CT) as an early imaging biomarker. Ten patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer underwent three sequential dynamic [C]choline-PET/CT pelvic scans: at baseline, after NAD and 4 months after RT-CAD. [C]Choline uptake was quantified using the average and maximum standardized uptake values at 60 min (SUV60,ave and SUV60,max), the tumour-to-muscle ratios (TMR60,max) and net irreversible retention of [C]choline at steady state (Kimod-pat). The combination of NAD and RT-CAD significantly decreased tumour [C]choline uptake (SUV60,ave, SUV60,max, TMR60,max or Kimod-pat) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (analysis of variance, P<0.001 for all variables). Although the magnitude of reduction in the variables was larger after NAD, there was a smaller additional reduction after RT-CAD. A wide range of reduction in tumour SUV60,ave (38-83.7%) and SUV60,max (22.2-85.3%) was seen with combined NAD and RT-CAD despite patients universally achieving PSA suppression (narrow range of 93.5-99.7%). There was good association between baseline SUV60,max and initial PSA levels (Pearson's r=0.7, P=0.04). The reduction in tumour SUV60,ave after NAD was associated with PSA reduction (r=0.7, P=0.04). This association occurred despite the larger reduction in PSA (94%) compared with SUV60,ave (58%). This feasibility study shows that [C]choline-PET/CT detects metabolic changes within tumours following NAD and RT-CAD to the prostate. A differential reduction in [C]choline uptake despite a global reduction in PSA following NAD and RT-CAD could provide prognostic information and warrants further evaluation as an imaging biomarker in this setting.

  11. Postfledging survival of European starlings

    Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

  12. Progress in European CELSS activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The European Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) activities started in the late 1970's with system analysis and feasibility studies of Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). The initiation for CELSS came from the industry side in Europe, but since then planning and hardware feasibility analyses have been initiated also from customer/agency side. Despite this, it is still too early to state that a CELSS program as a concerted effort has been agreed upon in Europe. However, the general CELSS objectives were accepted as planning and possible development goals for the European effort for manned space activities, and as experimental planning topics in the life sciences community for the next decades. It is expected that ecological life support systems can be tested and implemented on a space station towards the end of this century or early in the next. For the European activities a possible scenario can be projected based on ongoing life support system development activities and the present life sciences goals.

  13. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  14. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  15. European Elder (Elderberry)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Name: Sambucus nigra Background European elder is a tree native to Europe and parts of Asia and ... on European elder. Various parts of the elder tree, including the bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and roots, ...

  16. Associations Between the 2nd to 4th Digit Ratio and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Population-Based Samples of Boys and Girls: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development.

    PubMed

    Schieve, Laura A; Tian, Lin; Dowling, Nicole; Croen, Lisa; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Alexander, Aimee; Shapira, Stuart K

    2018-07-01

    The ratio of the index (2nd) finger to ring (4th) finger lengths (2D:4D) is a proxy for fetal testosterone and estradiol. Studies suggesting 2D:4D is inversely associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in males were limited by lack of confounder and subgroup assessments. Studies of females are sparse. We examined associations between ASD and 2D:4D among children in the Study to Explore Early Development; we considered case subgroups and numerous potential demographic and maternal-perinatal health confounders. We observed a modest inverse association between ASD and right-hand 2D:4D in males; subgroup analyses indicated associations were limited to ASD cases with birth defects/genetic syndromes or dysmorphic features. We observed a positive association between ASD and left-hand 2D:4D in females, overall and within most case subgroups.

  17. Biotechnology for the Environment, A Report on the Joint United States - European Union Celebration of a Decade of Environmental Biotechnology Exchange Activities for Early Career Scientists, Project ID: 0011751

    SciT

    Joseph M. Suflita

    2006-09-30

    The joint EU-US Task Force on Environmental Biotechnology held a workshop entitled, 'A Celebration of a Decade of Environmental Biotechnology Exchange Activities' on October 17, 2005 in Brussels, Belgium. This was a fitting venue since Brussels was where the EU-US transatlantic initiative originated. The workshop brought together former trainees who are currently active in the field of environmental biotechnology in order to (1) assess the impact of the past training activities; (2) to promote further collaborations; and (3) to highlight working group and task force activities in this field. Presentations by the early career scientists filled the meeting day (seemore » Appendix I and II for meeting agenda and abstract book, respectively). Task Force members chaired the various sessions. An additional poster session provided an opportunity for more intensive scientific exchange. The day culminated with a formal dinner and gathering of all participants. Agencies supporting the activities included DOE, USDA and NSF. Funds received from the DOE were exhausted and USDA and NSF allowed the Task Force to use unexpended monies (via no cost extensions) to facilitate future fellowship exchange activities. Over the past ten years, there has been a high level of sensitivity for working collaboratively with European colleagues. This philosophy simply pervades each and every activity of the EU-US Task Force. Realistically, this means that there is a careful balance between the US and EU participation in all functions. The Brussels 'Celebration' workshop was no exception. The organizers anticipated funding more former U.S. trainees than actually attended the workshop and raised the necessary funds to accomplish this goal. However, the number of U.S. attendees needed to be tempered since the financial resources for our EU counterparts proved more difficult to obtain. In order to maintain the scholarly and political balance on the program of events, fewer U.S. attendees were

  18. Enhancing international collaboration among early career researchers.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jennifer K; Albada, Akke; Farahani, Mansoureh; Lithner, Maria; Neumann, Melanie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Shepherd, Heather L

    2010-09-01

    The European Association of Communication in Healthcare (EACH) Early Career Researchers Network (ECRN) aims are to (1) promote international collaboration among young investigators and (2) provide a support network for future innovative communication research projects. In October 2009, Miami, USA at a workshop facilitated by the ECRN at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) hosted by the American Academy of Communication in Healthcare we explored common facilitators and challenges faced by early career researchers in health communication research. Attendees introduced themselves, their research area(s) of interest, and listed one facilitator and one barrier for their career development. EACH ECRN members then led a discussion of facilitators and challenges encountered in communication research projects and career development. We discussed potential collaboration opportunities, future goals, and activities. Having supportive collegial relationships, institutional support, job security, and funding are critical facilitators for early career investigators. Key challenges include difficulty with time management and prioritizing, limited resources, and contacts. International collaboration among early career researchers is a feasible and effective means to address important challenges, by increasing opportunities for professional support and networking, problem-solving, discussion of data, and ultimately publishing. Future AACH-EACH Early Career Researcher Networks should continue to build collaborations by developing shared research projects, papers, and other scholarly products. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  20. Exploration Review

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  1. Exploration review

    Wilburn, D.R.; Rapstine, T.D.; Lee, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

  2. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  3. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  4. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management.

  5. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  6. Mobility Attitudes and Behaviours among Young Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Noeleen; Dickmann, Michael; Mills, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore the career attitudes, motivations and behaviours of young people in initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Europe. Design/methodology/approach: This exploratory web-based survey was conducted during the European year for mobility. Drawing on existing research on the motivators of international…

  7. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  8. Exploration review

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 27 percent in 2003 from the 2002 budget, according to the Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes after five years of declining spending for mineral exploration.

  9. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    EuroGeographics - their pan-European umbrella association, contribute to the ELF through an enrichment of data coverage. As a result, over 20 European countries will be covered with the ELF topo Base Map in 2016. Most countries will contribute also with other harmonized thematic data for viewing or down-loading. To overcome the heterogeneity of data resources and diversity of languages in tens of European countries, ELF builds on the existing INSPIRE rules and its own coordination and interoperability measures. ELF realisation empowers the implementation of INSPIRE in Europe and it complements related activities of European NMCAs, e.g. Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (CUZK), which provides a large portfolio of spatial data/services and contributes significantly to the NSDI of Czech Republic. CUZK is also responsible for the Base Register of Territorial Identification, Addresses and Real Estates (RUIAN) - an important pillar of Czech e-Government. CUZK became an early-bird in implementing INSPIRE and it provides to the ELF a number of compliant datasets and web services. CUZK and the Polish NMCA (GUGiK) collaborate in the Central-European ELF Pilot (cluster) and test various cross-border prototypes. The presentation combines the national and crossborder view and experiences of CUZK and the European perspective of EuroGeographics.

  10. Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    In five sections, this paper explores dimensions of early childhood education: schooling generally construed as nonparental instruction in knowledge, values, and skills. Section 1 looks at some of the factors which have contributed to the rapid growth of early childhood education in modern times. Section 2 briefly highlights the contributions of…

  11. HABIT-an early phase study to explore an oral health intervention delivered by health visitors to parents with young children aged 9-12 months: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Eskyte, Ieva; Gray-Burrows, Kara; Owen, Jenny; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Zoltie, Tim; Gill, Susanne; Smith, Victoria; McEachan, Rosemary; Marshman, Zoe; West, Robert; Pavitt, Sue; Day, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Parental supervised brushing (PSB) when initiated in infancy can lead to long-term protective home-based oral health habits thereby reducing the risk of dental caries. However, PSB is a complex behaviour with many barriers reported by parents hindering its effective implementation. Within the UK, oral health advice is delivered universally to parents by health visitors and their wider teams when children are aged between 9 and 12 months. Nevertheless, there is no standardised intervention or training upon which health visitors can base this advice, and they often lack the specialised knowledge needed to help parents overcome barriers to performing PSB and limiting sugary foods and drinks.Working with health visitors and parents of children aged 9-24 months, we have co-designed oral health training and resources (Health Visitors delivering Advice in Britain on Infant Toothbrushing (HABIT) intervention) to be used by health visitors and their wider teams when providing parents of children aged 9-12 months with oral health advice.The aim of the study is to explore the acceptability of the HABIT intervention to parents and health visitors, to examine the mechanism of action and develop suitable objective measures of PSB. Six health visitors working in a deprived city in the UK will be provided with training on how to use the HABIT intervention. Health visitors will then each deliver the intervention to five parents of children aged 9-12 months. The research team will collect measures of PSB and dietary behaviours before and at 2 weeks and 3 months after the HABIT intervention. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention to health visitors will be explored through semi-structured diaries completed after each visit and a focus group discussion after delivery to all parents. Acceptability of the HABIT intervention and mechanism of action will be explored briefly during each home visit with parents and in greater details in 20-25 qualitative interviews after the

  12. Young Children's Explorations: Young Children's Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jane

    2012-01-01

    "Exploration" is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as…

  13. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  14. Exploration first

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2018-04-01

    The proposed NASA budget promotes space exploration over science, and planetary science over astrophysics. This decision has the potential to cause strife between scientists, who have to work together to find a solution.

  15. Exploring the effect of previous inactivated influenza vaccination on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza: Results of the European I-MOVE multicentre test-negative case-control study, 2011/2012-2016/2017.

    PubMed

    Valenciano, Marta; Kissling, Esther; Larrauri, Amparo; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; O'Donnell, Joan; Reuss, Annicka; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rizzo, Caterina; Falchi, Alessandra; Daviaud, Isabelle; Brytting, Mia; Meijer, Adam; Kaic, Bernard; Gherasim, Alin; Machado, Ausenda; Ivanciuc, Alina; Domegan, Lisa; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Ferenczi, Annamária; Korczyńska, Monika; Bella, Antonino; Vilcu, Ana-Maria; Mosnier, Anne; Zakikhany, Katherina; de Lange, Marit; Kurečić Filipovićović, Sanja; Johansen, Kari; Moren, Alain

    2018-04-16

    Results of previous influenza vaccination effects on current season influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) are inconsistent. To explore previous influenza vaccination effects on current season VE among population targeted for vaccination. We used 2011/2012 to 2016/2017 I-MOVE primary care multicentre test-negative data. For each season, we compared current season adjusted VE (aVE) between individuals vaccinated and unvaccinated in previous season. Using unvaccinated in both seasons as a reference, we then compared aVE between vaccinated in both seasons, current only, and previous only. We included 941, 2645 and 959 influenza-like illness patients positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B, respectively, and 5532 controls. In 2011/2012, 2014/2015 and 2016/2017, A(H3N2) aVE point estimates among those vaccinated in previous season were -68%, -21% and -19%, respectively; among unvaccinated in previous season, these were 33%, 48% and 46%, respectively (aVE not computable for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and B). Compared to current season vaccination only, VE for both seasons' vaccination was (i) similar in two of four seasons for A(H3N2) (absolute difference [ad] 6% and 8%); (ii) lower in three of four seasons for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (ad 18%, 26% and 29%), in two seasons for influenza A(H3N2) (ad 27% and 39%) and in two of three seasons for influenza B (ad 26% and 37%); (iii) higher in one season for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (ad 20%) and influenza B (ad 24%). We did not identify any pattern of previous influenza vaccination effect. Prospective cohort studies documenting influenza infections, vaccinations and vaccine types are needed to understand previous influenza vaccinations' effects. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exploring the epididymis: a personal perspective on careers in science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Terry T

    2015-01-01

    Science is a profession of inquiry. We ask ourselves what is it we see and why our observations happen the way they do. Answering those two question puts us in the company of those early explorers, who from Europe found the New World, and from Asia reached west to encounter Europe. Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Spain was such an explorer. He was the first European to see or "discover" the Pacific Ocean. One can imagine his amazement, his excitement when he first saw from a mountain top that vast ocean previously unknown to his culture. A career in science sends each of us seeking our own "Balboa Moments," those observations or results that surprise or even amaze us, those discoveries that open our eyes to new views of nature and medicine. Scientists aim to do what those early explorers did: discover what has previously been unknown, see what has previously been unseen, and reveal what has previously been hidden. Science requires the scientist to discover the facts from among many fictions and to separate the important facts from the trivial so that knowledge can be properly developed. It is only with knowledge that old dogmas can be challenged and corrected. Careers in science produce specific sets of knowledge. When pooled with other knowledge sets they eventually contribute to wisdom and it is wisdom, we hope, that will improve the human condition.

  17. We Are The Explorers!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leucht, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    Every year in history classrooms all across the United States, young students are taught about the great westward expansion by the early American pioneers. These visionary pioneers were drawn to the ideas of exploration and adventure along with the promise of a land of opportunity that was open to them. They faced danger and even death in their efforts to conquer this new frontier. These pioneers and explorers could not pack up their entire household and carry enough food, clothing, and other supplies to last their entire journey. They had to be prepared to live off the land and use the local resources in order to survive and thrive. So too, will future explorers have to live off the land as they venture out into new frontiers of space exploration and colonization. This talk will introduce the audience to several in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technologies that are being investigated for NASA's Journey to Mars. These technologies are needed for missions where astronauts will live, work, and be productive on another planet. After all, pioneers and explorers are not just people we read about in history class. Because we are the explorers of today!

  18. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  19. Early Rockets

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  20. Early Rockets

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  1. Future Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    Venus has been the target of exploration for half a century, before the successful Mariner 2 fly-by in December 1962. The decade after that was marked by growing sophistication in the instruments and spacecraft. During the second decade of Venus exploration (1972 - 1981) the instruments and spacecraft had advanced to make the first detailed survey of the planet and image the surface. During the third decade Venus was explored with more advanced instruments such as synthetic aperture radar and by balloons - the only balloons in another atmosphere ever flown till present. Then came a long pause until 2005 when ESA launched Venus Express, which is still orbiting the planet and returning data. The nearly two-dozen missions flown to Venus have painted a puzzling picture of Venus - we still do not have answers to some key questions. The foremost is why did Venus evolve so differently from Earth? International space agencies and scientists have been considering various approaches to exploring Venus through small and large missions. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (NASA) has developed a Venus Exploration Roadmap and a comprehensive list of goals, objectives and investigations (www.lpi.usra.edu/vexag), but an international coordinated, comprehensive plan to explore Venus is needed. To fill this void, the COSPAR International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) has been active in fostering dialog and discussions among the space faring agencies. One small step in the future exploration of Venus is the formation of a joint Science Definition Team (SDT) (NASA and Roscosmos/IKI) for Russia’s Venera-D mission in early 2014. The team is expected to submit a report to respective agencies in early 2015. Towards identifying key surface regions and atmospheric regions of Venus, a workshop is being held in May 2014 by VEXAG to seek community input. It is likely that calls for proposals for missions will also be announced under the M class by ESA and under the Discovery

  2. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  3. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  4. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  5. College Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahl, David H.

    1985-01-01

    The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)

  6. European road lighting technologies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this scanning tour was to gather information from European transportation ministries and lighting professionals regarding cutting-edge research and technologies in highway and roadway lighting systems, including tunnel illumination, ...

  7. United States European Command

    content on the U.S. European Command website may be translated by selecting a different language on the header. Except where otherwise noted, the language translation is performed by Google Translate, a third

  8. Ethics and European security

    SciT

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Insteadmore » the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.« less

  9. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  10. European space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luton, J.-M.

    1992-02-01

    Successful European Space Agency (ESA) programs include the Ariane launcher development, the Meteosat meteorological satellites and the Intelsat 6, ECS (European Communications Satellite) series of communications satellites. The ESA's policy of placing contracts with industrial companies in its 13 member countries has contributed to the strategic development of European high technology in the world market. The ESA's long-term programs, in addition to the Ariane launcher and Columbus/Hermes space-station/spaceplane programs, include participation in the International Space Station program, the Data Relay Satellite system and a variety of space applications programs. Two high-performance satellites to be placed in polar orbits will contribute to European environmental and climate variation studies and, together with the Polar Platform sector of the Columbus program, will drive the establishment and development of new institutions, industrial structures and infrastructure.

  11. European perspectives on pediatric formulations.

    PubMed

    Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2008-11-01

    The 2007 European Union (EU) regulation on medicinal products for pediatric use may change the present unsatisfying situation in the EU by stimulating research and development of medicines for use in children through rewards and incentives. This commentary reflects on the new EU regulations and guidelines, with special attention paid to the impact on pediatric formulation science. The focus of this article is on the EU perspective for pediatric formulations and highlights the differences compared with the pediatric drug formulation situation in the United States. Materials for this article were gathered during a literature search of MEDLINE and Chemical Abstracts (1970-October 2008) using the following terms: paediatric/pediatric drug formulations, age-appropriate dosage forms, child-appropriate medicines, and paediatric/pediatric regulation. Since the EU legislation on medicines for children came into force in 2007, a great emphasis has been placed on creating new organizations, scientific networks, and programs dealing with pediatric medicines and child-appropriate drug formulations. Although the US legislation was an appropriate model, the EU introduced some novel measures to improve the current situation, such as the Paediatric Investigation Plan and the Paediatric Use Marketing Authorisation. For globally operating pharmaceutical companies, the peculiarities of the European market have a strong impact on their product development strategies. Because the European approach demands early investigations into drug formulations for children, various issues must be resolved, including the following: choosing formulations for each age group, determining which excipients may be used in the formulation and which delivery device is appropriate, and predicting the taste sensation of an oral formulation. Numerous initiatives and networks are evolving in Europe. An important future task will be the coordination of these activities and the linking to other groups working on

  12. France and European Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    block number) In the 1960s, French defense policy emphasized the protection of French territory rather than the collective security of France and her... France and her European allies. This began to change in the late 1970s. The French contribution to European security is now a matter of considerable...independence. He interpreted independence in a specific manner. Although France would maintain ties and commitments to its allies, the French government

  13. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  14. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  15. Exploration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Delores Beasley, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consist of: Scott "Doc" Horowitz, Associate Administrator of Exploration Systems from NASA Headquarters; Jeff Henley, Constellation Program Manager from NASA Johnson Space Flight Center; and Steve Cook, Manager Exploration Launch Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Scott Horowitz presents a short video entitled, "Ares Launching the Future". He further explains how NASA personnel came up with the name of Ares and where the name Ares was derived. Jeff Henley, updates the Constellation program and Steve Cook presents two slide presentations detailing the Ares l crew launch vehicle and Ares 5 cargo launch vehicle. A short question and answer period from the news media follows.

  16. Exploring Career Decision-Making Styles across Three European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny; Mulvey, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Career decisions are amongst the most important we make. Unsurprisingly, much published research exists on this particular aspect of career behaviour. However, the overwhelming majority of studies have been carried out on young people making initial career decisions. This paper extends our understanding by examining how mid-career adults in three…

  17. Early Identification of Skill Needs in Europe. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susanne Liane, Ed.; Schomann, Klaus, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe: European Conference, Berlin, 30/31 May 2002" (Susanne Liane Schmidt, Klaus Schomann, Manfred Tessaring); "Welcome and Opening of the European Conference 'Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe,' 30 May 2002, Social Sciences Research Center…

  18. Plasma rich in growth factors had limited effect on early bone formation in extraction sockets: Response to "Anitua, E., Alkhraisat, M.H. & Orive, G. (2013) Letter to the Editor: Rigorous methodology is the school of coherent conclusions in science. European Journal of Oral Implantology 6: 9-11.".

    PubMed

    Farina, Roberto; Bressan, Eriberto; Taut, Andrei; Cucchi, Alessandro; Trombelli, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    To address the criticisms raised by Anitua et al. (European Journal of Oral Implantology, 6, 2013, 9-11) to the article "Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) in Human Post-Extraction Sockets: an Histological and Histomorphometric Study.", recently published by Farina and colleagues (Clinical Oral Implants Research 2012; doi: 10.1111/clr.12033). All the methodological aspects criticized in the letter by Anitua et al. were thoroughly reconsidered and discussed in a structured short communication. When indicated, pertinent, additional material was included to reinforce our considerations. As most clinical studies in implant dentistry, including previous studies evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness of PRGF, the study by Farina et al. has some limitations. However, it is currently the only published controlled trial using quantitative parameters related to PRGF-induced early bone formation. Despite all limitations, the results of the study by Farina et al., which were based on different quantitative parameters (micro-CT scan, immunohistochemical markers of wound healing and bone deposition), indicated a limited effect of PRGF on early bone formation in extraction sockets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mortality and cardiovascular morbidity within 30 days of discharge following acute coronary syndrome in a contemporary European cohort of patients: How can early risk prediction be improved? The six-month GRACE risk score.

    PubMed

    Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Cambeiro-González, Cristina; Álvarez-Álvarez, Belén; Pereira-López, Eva; Gestal-Romaní, Santiago; Pedreira-López, Milagros; Rigueiro-Veloso, Pedro; Virgós-Lamela, Alejandro; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-06-01

    Given the increasing focus on early mortality and readmission rates among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), this study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the GRACE risk score for identifying patients at high risk of 30-day post-discharge mortality and cardiovascular readmission. This was a retrospective study carried out in a single center with 4229 ACS patients discharged between 2004 and 2010. The study endpoint was the combination of 30-day post-discharge mortality and readmission due to reinfarction, heart failure or stroke. One hundred and fourteen patients had 30-day events: 0.7% mortality, 1% reinfarction, 1.3% heart failure, and 0.2% stroke. After multivariate analysis, the six-month GRACE risk score was associated with an increased risk of 30-day events (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04; p<0.001), demonstrating good discrimination (C-statistic: 0.79 ± 0.02) and optimal fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.83). The sensitivity and specificity were adequate (78.1% and 63.3%, respectively), and negative predictive value was excellent (99.1%). In separate analyses for each event of interest (all-cause mortality, reinfarction, heart failure and stroke), assessment of the six-month GRACE risk score also demonstrated good discrimination and fit, as well as adequate predictive values. The six-month GRACE risk score is a useful tool to predict 30-day post-discharge death and early cardiovascular readmission. Clinicians may find it simple to use with the online and mobile app score calculator and applicable to clinical daily practice. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016.

    PubMed

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).