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Sample records for early evening hours

  1. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    PubMed

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  2. Risk of injury after evening and night work - findings from the Danish Working Hour Database.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Helena B; Larsen, Ann D; Dyreborg, Johnny; Hansen, Åse M; Pompeii, Lisa A; Conway, Sadie H; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne H

    2018-05-08

    Objectives Evening and night work have been associated with higher risk of injury than day work. However, previous findings may be affected by recall bias and unmeasured confounding from differences between day, evening and night workers. This study investigates whether evening and night work during the past week increases risk of injury when reducing recall bias and unmeasured confounding. Methods We linked daily working hours at the individual level of 69 200 employees (167 726 person years from 2008-2015), primarily working at hospitals to registry information on 11 834 injuries leading to emergency room visits or death. Analyses were conducted with Poisson regression models in the full population including permanent day, evening and night workers, and in two sub-populations of evening and night workers, with both day and evening or night work, respectively. Thus, the exchangeability between exposure and reference group was improved in the two sub-populations. Results Risk of injury was higher after a week with evening work [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.37] and night work (IRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.41) compared with only day work. Similar, although attenuated, estimates were found for evening work among evening workers (IRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25), and for night work among night workers (IRR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20). Conclusion There is an overall increased risk of injury after a week that has included evening or night work compared with only day work. Though attenuated, the higher risk remains after reducing unmeasured confounding.

  3. Diversity and Similarity of Anesthesia Procedures in the United States During and Among Regular Work Hours, Evenings, and Weekends.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Dutton, Richard P; Kordylewski, Hubert; Ledolter, Johannes; Rosenberg, Henry; Hindman, Bradley J

    2016-12-01

    Anesthesiologists providing care during off hours (ie, weekends or holidays, or cases started during the evening or late afternoon) are more likely to care for patients at greater risk of sustaining major adverse events than when they work during regular hours (eg, Monday through Friday, from 7:00 AM to 2:59 PM). We consider the logical inconsistency of using subspecialty teams during regular hours but not during weekends or evenings. We analyzed data from the Anesthesia Quality Institute's National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR). Among the hospitals in the United States, we estimated the average number of common types of anesthesia procedures (ie, diversity measured as inverse of Herfindahl index), and the average difference in the number of common procedures between 2 off-hours periods (regular hours versus weekends, and regular hours versus evenings). We also used NACOR data to estimate the average similarity in the distributions of procedures between regular hours and weekends and between regular hours and evenings in US facilities. Results are reported as mean ± standard error of the mean among 399 facilities nationwide with weekend cases. The distributions of common procedures were moderately similar (ie, not large, <.8) between regular hours and evenings (similarity index .59 ± .01) and between regular hours and weekends (similarity index, .55 ± .02). For most facilities, the number of common procedures differed by <5 procedures between regular hours and evenings (74.4% of facilities, P < .0001) and between regular hours and weekends (64.7% of facilities, P < .0001). The average number of common procedures was 13.59 ± .12 for regular hours, 13.12 ± .13 for evenings, and 9.43 ± .13 for weekends. The pairwise differences by facility were .13 ± .07 procedures (P = .090) between regular hours and evenings and 3.37 ± .12 procedures (P < .0001) between regular hours and weekends. In contrast, the differences were -5.18 ± .12 and 7.59 ± .13

  4. Mobile Phones in a Traffic Flow: A Geographical Perspective to Evening Rush Hour Traffic Analysis Using Call Detail Records

    PubMed Central

    Järv, Olle; Ahas, Rein; Saluveer, Erki; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Excessive land use and suburbanisation around densely populated urban areas has gone hand in hand with a growth in overall transportation and discussions about causality of traffic congestions. The objective of this paper is to gain new insight regarding the composition of traffic flows, and to reveal how and to what extent suburbanites’ travelling affects rush hour traffic. We put forward an alternative methodological approach using call detail records of mobile phones to assess the composition of traffic flows during the evening rush hour in Tallinn, Estonia. We found that daily commuting and suburbanites influence transportation demand by amplifying the evening rush hour traffic, although daily commuting trips comprises only 31% of all movement at that time. The geography of the Friday evening rush hour is distinctive from other working days, presumably in connection with domestic tourism and leisure time activities. This suggests that the rise of the overall mobility of individuals due to societal changes may play a greater role in evening rush hour traffic conditions than does the impact of suburbanisation. PMID:23155461

  5. Mobile phones in a traffic flow: a geographical perspective to evening rush hour traffic analysis using call detail records.

    PubMed

    Järv, Olle; Ahas, Rein; Saluveer, Erki; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Excessive land use and suburbanisation around densely populated urban areas has gone hand in hand with a growth in overall transportation and discussions about causality of traffic congestions. The objective of this paper is to gain new insight regarding the composition of traffic flows, and to reveal how and to what extent suburbanites' travelling affects rush hour traffic. We put forward an alternative methodological approach using call detail records of mobile phones to assess the composition of traffic flows during the evening rush hour in Tallinn, Estonia. We found that daily commuting and suburbanites influence transportation demand by amplifying the evening rush hour traffic, although daily commuting trips comprises only 31% of all movement at that time. The geography of the Friday evening rush hour is distinctive from other working days, presumably in connection with domestic tourism and leisure time activities. This suggests that the rise of the overall mobility of individuals due to societal changes may play a greater role in evening rush hour traffic conditions than does the impact of suburbanisation.

  6. The treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia with 2 evenings of bright light.

    PubMed

    Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kemp, Kristyn; Gibbon, Samantha

    2005-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of brief bright-light therapy for the treatment of early-morning awakening insomnia. Twenty-four healthy adults with early-morning awakening insomnia were assigned to either the bright-light condition (2,500-lux white light) or the control (dim red light) condition. The circadian phase of rectal temperature and urinary melatonin rhythms were assessed with 26-hour constant routines before and after 2 evenings of light therapy. Sleep and daytime functioning were monitored using sleep diaries, activity monitors, and mood scales before light therapy and for 4 weeks during the follow-up period. While there were no significant circadian phase changes in the dim-light control group, the bright-light group had significant 2-hour phase delays of circadian temperature and melatonin rhythm. Compared to pretreatment measures, over the 4-week follow-up period, the bright-light group had a greater reduction of time awake after sleep onset, showed a trend toward waking later, and had a greater increase of total sleep time. Participants in the bright-light condition also tended to report greater reductions of negative daytime symptoms, including significantly fewer days of feeling depressed at the 4-week follow-up, as compared with the control group. Two evenings of bright-light exposure phase delayed the circadian rhythms of early-morning awakening insomniacs. It also improved diary and actigraphy sleep measures and improved some indexes of daytime functioning for up to 1 month after light exposure. The study suggests that a brief course of evening bright-light therapy can be an effective treatment for early-morning awakening insomniacs who have relatively phase advanced circadian rhythms.

  7. Two hours of evening reading on a self-luminous tablet vs. reading a physical book does not alter sleep after daytime bright light exposure.

    PubMed

    Rångtell, Frida H; Ekstrand, Emelie; Rapp, Linnea; Lagermalm, Anna; Liethof, Lisanne; Búcaro, Marcela Olaya; Lingfors, David; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The use of electronic devices emitting blue light during evening hours has been associated with sleep disturbances in humans, possibly due to the blue light-mediated suppression of the sleep-promoting hormone melatonin. However, experimental results have been mixed. The present study therefore sought to investigate if reading on a self-luminous tablet during evening hours would alter sleepiness, melatonin secretion, nocturnal sleep, as well as electroencephalographic power spectral density during early slow-wave sleep. Following a constant bright light exposure over 6.5 hours (~569 lux), 14 participants (six females) read a novel either on a tablet or as physical book for two hours (21:00-23:00). Evening concentrations of saliva melatonin were repeatedly measured. Sleep (23:15-07:15) was recorded by polysomnography. Sleepiness was assessed before and after nocturnal sleep. About one week later, experiments were repeated; participants who had read the novel on a tablet in the first experimental session continued reading the same novel in the physical book, and vice versa. There were no differences in sleep parameters and pre-sleep saliva melatonin levels between the tablet reading and physical book reading conditions. Bright light exposure during daytime has previously been shown to abolish the inhibitory effects of evening light stimulus on melatonin secretion. Our results could therefore suggest that exposure to bright light during the day - as in the present study - may help combat sleep disturbances associated with the evening use of electronic devices emitting blue light. However, this needs to be validated by future studies with larger sample populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Observations of the Early Evening Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy; Chilson, Phillip; Zielke, Brett; Fedorovich, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the lower portion of the planetary boundary layer is investigated using the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at the University of Oklahoma. The study focuses on the lowest 200 m of the atmosphere, where the most noticeable thermodynamic changes occur during the day. Between October 2010 and February 2011, a series of flights was conducted during the evening hours on several days to examine the vertical structure of the lower boundary layer. Data from a nearby Oklahoma Mesonet tower was used to supplement the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure, which were collected approximately every 30 min, starting 2 h before sunset and continuing until dusk. From the profiles, sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. These fluxes were used to diagnose the portion of the boundary layer that was most affected by the early evening transition. During the transition period, a shallow cool and moist layer near the ground was formed, and as the evening progressed the cooling affected an increasingly shallower layer just above the surface.

  9. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia is related to parathyroid dysfunction even in patients with normal parathyroid hormone concentrations early after surgery.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marco; De Crea, Carmela; D'Amato, Gerardo; Moscato, Umberto; Bellantone, Chiara; Carrozza, Cinzia; Lombardi, Celestino Pio

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia may develop even in the presence of normal postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. We aimed to identify risk factors of hypocalcemia in patients with normal PTH concentration early after total thyroidectomy (TT). We included 1,504 consecutive patients who underwent TT between January 2012 and December 2013. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium concentrations of <8.0 mg/dL. Overall, 333 patients had subnormal PTH 4 hours after surgery (4-hour PTH; <10 pg/mL) and received oral calcium (OC) and calcitriol supplementation. Among the 1,171 patients with normal 4-hour PTH (≥ 10 pg/mL; euparathyroid), 211 experienced hypocalcemia and required OC administration. Among the euparathyroid patients, no difference was found between normocalcemic and hypocalcemic patients in terms of age, hormonal status, preoperative PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OH-VD), magnesium, and phosphate concentrations. On univariate analysis, euparathyroid hypocalcemic patients were more frequently females, had significantly lower preoperative serum calcium and 4-hour PTH concentrations, and greater decreases in PTH. Independent risk factors for hypocalcemia with normal 4-hour PTH were preoperative serum calcium concentration and PTH decline of ≥ 50%. Female sex, toxic goiter, and 25OH-VD deficiency are not risk factors for post-TT hypocalcemia. Relative parathyroid insufficiency seems to be the principal mechanism of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia, even in patients with normal postoperative PTH concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural reactivity to visual food stimuli is reduced in some areas of the brain during evening hours compared to morning hours: an fMRI study in women.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-03-01

    The extent that neural responsiveness to visual food stimuli is influenced by time of day is not well examined. Using a crossover design, 15 healthy women were scanned using fMRI while presented with low- and high-energy pictures of food, once in the morning (6:30-8:30 am) and once in the evening (5:00-7:00 pm). Diets were identical on both days of the fMRI scans and were verified using weighed food records. Visual analog scales were used to record subjective perception of hunger and preoccupation with food prior to each fMRI scan. Six areas of the brain showed lower activation in the evening to both high- and low-energy foods, including structures in reward pathways (P < 0.05). Nine brain regions showed significantly higher activation for high-energy foods compared to low-energy foods (P < 0.05). High-energy food stimuli tended to produce greater fMRI responses than low-energy food stimuli in specific areas of the brain, regardless of time of day. However, evening scans showed a lower response to both low- and high-energy food pictures in some areas of the brain. Subjectively, participants reported no difference in hunger by time of day (F = 1.84, P = 0.19), but reported they could eat more (F = 4.83, P = 0.04) and were more preoccupied with thoughts of food (F = 5.51, P = 0.03) in the evening compared to the morning. These data underscore the role that time of day may have on neural responses to food stimuli. These results may also have clinical implications for fMRI measurement in order to prevent a time of day bias.

  11. Early crop-tree release in even-aged stands of Appalachian hardwoods

    George R., Jr. Trimble; George R. Trimble

    1971-01-01

    Now that even-aged silviculture is well established as a successful method of growing Appalachian hardwoods, a pressing need exists for guidelines for precommercial operations. We started research several years ago on the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia, to learn more about the cost and methodology of early crop-tree release in mountain hardwood...

  12. Long working hours directly and indirectly (via short sleep duration) induce headache even in healthy white-collar men: cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up analyses.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Teruo; Hibino, Minoru; Kondo, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Headache in employees may be linked with both overwork and sleep restriction induced by long working hours. Inter-relationships among working hours, sleep duration and headache were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses for prevalent headache (n = 35,908) and 1-year follow-up analyses for incident headache (n = 19,788) were conducted in apparently healthy white-collar men aged 25-59 years. Headache (yes/no), working hours and sleep duration were based on self-administered questionnaire. After determination of relationships between working hours and sleep duration, logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval for prevalent and incident headache according to working hours (35-44, 45-49, 50-59 and ≥60 h/week) and sleep duration (≥7, 6-6.9, 5-5.9 and <5 h/day), and tested linear trends in OR. Additionally, interactive effects of working hours and sleep duration on OR were checked. Covariates in the analyses were age, body mass index, drinking, smoking and exercise. Prevalent and incident headache was found in 1979 (5.5%) men and 707 (3.6%) men, respectively. Working hours were inversely associated with sleep duration. OR for prevalent and incident headache rose with increasing working hours and with reducing sleep duration, regardless of influences of the covariates. Working hours and sleep duration had no interactive effects on OR for prevalent or incident headache. The results indicate that long working hours directly and indirectly (via short sleep duration) induce headache even in apparently healthy white-collar men. Headache in employees may be useful for early detection of adverse health effects by long working hours.

  13. Social optimum for evening commute in a single-entry traffic corridor with no early departures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Yao; Xu, Guang-Ming; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the evening commute behaviors on the social optimum (SO) state in a single-entry traffic corridor with no early departures. Differing from the previous studies on evening commute, the dynamic properties of traffic flow are analyzed with the LWR (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards) model. The properties of optimum cumulative inflow curve with general desired departure time distribution curve are deduced, and then the analytic solutions for common desired departure time in SO are obtained. Three numerical examples are carried out to capture the characteristics of evening commuting behaviors under different values of time. The analytic and numerical results both indicate that the rarefaction wave originating from the first entry point influences the whole or part of the outflow curve. No shock wave exists through the commuting process. In addition, the cost curves show that the trip cost increases and the departure delay cost decreases with departure time, whereas the travel time cost first increases then decreases with departure time under the SO principle.

  14. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  15. Cortical hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in Parkinson's disease is extensive: probably even at early disease stages.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, Mallar; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Sato, Noriko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Kengo; Arahata, Yutaka; Kato, Takashi; Gjedde, Albert

    2010-05-01

    Recent cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMRglc) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed conflicting results. Using simulated data, we previously demonstrated that the often-reported subcortical hypermetabolism in PD could be explained as an artifact of biased global mean (GM) normalization, and that low-magnitude, extensive cortical hypometabolism is best detected by alternative data-driven normalization methods. Thus, we hypothesized that PD is characterized by extensive cortical hypometabolism but no concurrent widespread subcortical hypermetabolism and tested it on three independent samples of PD patients. We compared SPECT CBF images of 32 early-stage and 33 late-stage PD patients with that of 60 matched controls. We also compared PET FDG images from 23 late-stage PD patients with that of 13 controls. Three different normalization methods were compared: (1) GM normalization, (2) cerebellum normalization, (3) reference cluster normalization (Yakushev et al.). We employed standard voxel-based statistics (fMRIstat) and principal component analysis (SSM). Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis of all quantitative CBF and CMRglc studies in the literature to investigate whether the global mean (GM) values in PD are decreased. Voxel-based analysis with GM normalization and the SSM method performed similarly, i.e., both detected decreases in small cortical clusters and concomitant increases in extensive subcortical regions. Cerebellum normalization revealed more widespread cortical decreases but no subcortical increase. In all comparisons, the Yakushev method detected nearly identical patterns of very extensive cortical hypometabolism. Lastly, the meta-analyses demonstrated that global CBF and CMRglc values are decreased in PD. Based on the results, we conclude that PD most likely has widespread cortical hypometabolism, even at early disease stages. In contrast, extensive subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD.

  16. Maternal work hours in early to middle childhood link to later adolescent diet quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianghong; O'Sullivan, Therese; Johnson, Sarah; Stanley, Fiona; Oddy, Wendy

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies on maternal work hours and child diet quality have reported conflicting findings possibly due to differences in study design, lack of a comprehensive measure of diet quality and differing ages of the children under investigation. The present study aimed to prospectively examine the impact of parental work hours from age 1 year to age 14 years on adolescent diet quality. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine independent associations between parents' work hours at each follow-up and across 14 years and adolescent diet quality at age 14 years. A diet quality index was based on the international literature and Australian recommendations, consisting of six food groups and nine nutrients. Perth, Western Australia. Children (n 1629) participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Compared with children of mothers in full-time employment, children of mothers who were not employed in early childhood up to age 5 years had a higher average diet quality score at age 14 years, independent of maternal and family socio-economic status. Across 14 years the number of years the mother worked full time and increasing average weekly hours were associated with lower diet quality. Father's work hours had little association with adolescent diet quality. Having a mother stay at home in early to middle childhood is associated with better diet quality in adolescence. Support may be beneficial for families where the mother returns to full-time employment before the child reaches 8 years of age.

  17. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca2+) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. Results We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca2+ < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic. PMID:25078927

  18. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-08-01

    Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca(2+) < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic.

  19. Can zero-hour cortical biopsy predict early graft outcomes after living donor renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ranjeet Singh; Mehta, Nisarg; Mehta, Sony Bhaskar; Babu, Manas; Bansal, Devesh; Pillai, Biju S; Sam, Mohan P; Krishnamoorthy, Hariharan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify relevance of subclinical pathological findings in the kidneys of living donors and correlate these with early graft renal function. This was a prospective study on 84 living donor kidney transplant recipients over a period of two years. In all the donors, cortical wedge biopsy was taken and sent for assessment of glomerular, mesangial, and tubule status. The graft function of patients with normal histology was compared with those of abnormal histological findings at one, three, and six months, and one year post-surgery. Most abnormal histological findings were of mild degree. Glomerulosclerosis (GS, 25%), interstitial fibrosis (IF, 13%), acute tubular necrosis (ATN 5%), and focal tubal atrophy (FTA, 5%) were the commonly observed pathological findings in zero-hour biopsies. Only those donors who had histological changes of IF and ATN showed progressive deterioration of renal function at one month, three months, six months, and one year post-transplantation. In donors with other histological changes, no significant effect on graft function was observed. Zero-hour cortical biopsy gave us an idea of the general status of the donor kidney and presence or absence of subclinical pathological lesions. A mild degree of subclinical and pathological findings on zero-hour biopsy did not affect early graft renal function in living donor kidney transplantation. Zero-hour cortical biopsy could also help in discriminating donor-derived lesions from de novo alterations in the kidney that could happen subsequently.

  20. Even in early childhood offspring alcohol expectancies correspond to parental drinking.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Research has found that children as young as preschoolers have an idea about the valence (positive vs. negative) and activation (arousal vs. sedation) of emotional change when adults drink alcohol. The development of alcohol expectancies at such a young age may be due to observed parental alcohol use. Three measures of alcohol use (frequency, quantity and binge drinking) assessed among 115 fathers and 149 mothers were correlated with four alcohol expectancy factors (crossing valence and activation) of their offspring, aged three to six (70 boys and 82 girls). For both arousal and sedation expectancies and across alcohol use measures of both fathers and mothers, the greater parental alcohol use was, the higher their sons' negative and the lower positive alcohol expectancies were. For negative expectancies (particularly sedation, i.e., drinking when feeling sad or depressed), there was a stronger and more consistent association with paternal than with maternal drinking. For daughters, there was no consistent association between any expectancy factor and any parental drinking behavior. Already among preschoolers, parental drinking was found to be correlated with their sons' alcohol expectancies in the sense that they may observe and associate positive emotional consequences (feeling joyful, happy, calm, relaxed etc.) with moderate parental drinking and negative emotional consequences (feeling angry, nervous, sad, depressed etc.) with excessive drinking. This may be important for prevention, as expectancies have been found to be predominant predictors of early alcohol initiation and development of risky drinking in adolescence and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Impact of the 2011 ACGME Duty Hour Regulations on Surgical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Scally, Christopher P.; Ryan, Andrew M.; Thumma, Jyothi R.; Gauger, Paul G.; Dimick, Justin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented additional restrictions on resident work hours. While the impact of these restrictions on the education of surgical trainees has been examined, the effect on patient safety remains poorly understood. Methods We used national Medicare Claims data for patients undergoing general (n = 1,223,815) and vascular (n = 475,262) surgery procedures in the 3 years preceding the duty hour changes (January, 2009 – June, 2011) and the 18 months following (July, 2011 - December, 2012). Hospitals were stratified into quintiles by teaching intensity using a resident to bed ratio. We utilized a difference-in-differences analytic technique, using non-teaching hospitals as a control group, to compare risk adjusted 30-day mortality, serious morbidity, readmission, and failure to rescue (FTR) rates before and after the duty hour changes. Results Following duty hour reform, no significant changes were seen in the measured outcomes when comparing teaching to non-teaching hospitals. Even when stratifying by teaching intensity there were no differences. For example, at the highest intensity teaching hospitals (resident/bed ratio ≥ .6), mortality rates before and after the duty hour changes were 4.2% and 4.0%, compared to 4.7% and 4.4% for non-teaching hospitals (RR .98, 95% CI .89-1.07). Similarly, serious complication (RR 1.02, 95% CI .98-1.06), FTR (RR .95, 95% CI .87-1.04), and readmission (OR 1.00, 95% CI .96-1.03) rates were unchanged. Conclusions In Medicare beneficiaries undergoing surgery at teaching hospitals, outcomes have not improved since the 2011 ACGME duty hour regulations. PMID:26054323

  2. Long working hours and skipping breakfast concomitant with late evening meals are associated with suboptimal glycemic control among young male Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Azami, Yasushi; Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Ikota, Akemi; Ito, Koichi; Okimoto, Hisashi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Tsujimura, Fumihiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Chozi; Osawa, Sayaka; Osawa, Ryo; Miura, Jiro

    2018-04-17

    To assess the associations of working conditions, eating habits and glycemic control among young Japanese workers with type 2 diabetes. This hospital- and clinic-based prospective study included 352 male and 126 female working patients with diabetes aged 20-40 years. Data were obtained from June to July 2012 and June to July 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for suboptimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin level of ≥7%) obtained from June to July 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that disease duration of ≥10 years (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.02-5.80), glycosylated hemoglobin level of ≥7% in 2012 (OR 8.50, 95% CI 4.90-14.80), skipping breakfast and late evening meals (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.25-5.00) and working ≥60 h/week (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.16-7.40) were predictive of suboptimal glycemic control in male workers, whereas a glycosylated hemoglobin level of ≥7% in 2012 (OR 17.96, 95% CI 5.93-54.4), oral hyperglycemic agent therapy (OR 12.49, 95% CI 2.75-56.86) and insulin therapy (OR 11.60, 95% CI 2.35-57.63) were predictive of suboptimal glycemic control in female workers. Working ≥60 h/week and habitual skipping breakfast concomitant with late evening meals might affect the ability of young male workers with type 2 diabetes to achieve and maintain glycemic control. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in Japan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Etsuji; Takao, Soshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing concern that maternal employment could have adverse or beneficial effects on children's health. Although recent studies demonstrated that maternal employment was associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight, the evidence remains sparse in Asian countries. We sought to examine the relationship between maternal working hours and early childhood overweight in a rural town in Okayama Prefecture. In February 2008, questionnaires were sent to parents of all preschool children aged ≥3 yr in the town to assess maternal working status (working hours and form of employment), children's body mass index, and potential confounders. Childhood overweight was defined following the age and sex-specific criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for childhood overweight were estimated in a logistic regression. We used generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation matrix, considering the correlation between siblings. We analyzed 364 preschool children. Adjusting for each child's characteristics (age, sex), mother's characteristics (age, obesity, educational attainment, smoking status, and social participation), and family's characteristics (number of siblings), children whose mothers work <8 h/day had a substantially lower risk for being overweight (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.93) compared with children of non-working mothers, whereas the relationship was less pronounced among children whose mothers work ≥8 h/day (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.68). We observed similar patterns in a stratified analysis by the form of maternal employment. Short maternal working hours are associated with a lower odds of early childhood overweight.

  4. Review shows that early foetal alcohol exposure may cause adverse effects even when the mother consumes low levels.

    PubMed

    Sarman, Ihsan

    2018-06-01

    Studies are increasingly focusing on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on child health. The aim of this review was to provide paediatricians with new insights to help them communicate key messages about avoiding alcohol during pregnancy. Inspired by the 7th International Conference on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, which focused on integrating research, policy and practice, we studied English language papers published since 2010 on how early PAE triggered epigenetic mechanisms that had an impact on the development of some chronic diseases. We also report the findings of a human study using three-dimensional photography of the face to explore associations between PAE and craniofacial phenotyping. Animal models with different alcohol exposure patterns show that early PAE may lead to long-term chronic effects, due to developmental programming for some adult diseases in cardiovascular, metabolic and renal systems. The study with three-dimensional photographing is very promising in helping paediatricians to understand how even small amounts of PAE can affect craniofacial phenotyping. Even low levels of PAE can cause adverse foetal effects and not just in the brain. It is not currently possible to determine a safe period and level when alcohol consumption would not affect the foetus. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Regulatory effects on particulate pollution in the early hours of Chinese New Year, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yonghang; Brimblecombe, Peter

    2017-08-23

    Human activities are a key driver of air pollution, so it is hardly surprising that celebrations affect air quality. The use of fireworks contributes to high particulate concentrations in many parts of the world, with the Chinese Lunar New Year (spring festival) particularly noticeable, as firecrackers are traditionally used to drive off evil spirits. Fireworks lead to short-term peaks in the concentration of PM10, PM2.5 and SO 2 . Regulatory actions that restrict the use of fireworks have been evident in China since the 1990s. This paper investigates the particulate concentrations in nine Chinese cities (Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Tianjin, Xi'an, Nanjing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, along with Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region) and Taipei and Kaohsiung (Taiwan) with a particular focus on the celebrations of 2015. Extremely high concentrations of particulate matter were observed, with some sites revealing peak PM10 concentrations in excess of 1000 μg m -3 in the early hours of the New Year. In Beijing, Tianjin and Chongqing, the activities caused high particulate matter concentrations at most sites throughout the city. These peaks in particulate load in the early hours of Chinese New Year do not appear to be closely related to meteorological parameters. However, in cities where fireworks appear to be better regulated, there are fewer sharp pollution peaks just after midnight, although lowered air quality can still be found in the outer parts of some cities, remote from regulatory pressures. A few cities seem to have been effective at reducing the impact of the celebrations on air quality, with Nanjing a recent example. An increasing focus on light displays and electric lanterns also seems to offer a sense of celebration with much reduced impacts on air quality.

  6. Critical Dysphagia is Common in Parkinson Disease and Occurs Even in Early Stages: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pflug, Christina; Bihler, Moritz; Emich, Katharina; Niessen, Almut; Nienstedt, Julie Cläre; Flügel, Till; Koseki, Jana-Christiane; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Hidding, Ute; Gerloff, Christian; Buhmann, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of dysphagia and its typical findings in unselected "real-world" Parkinson patients using an objective gold-standard method. This was a prospective, controlled, cross-sectional study conducted in 119 consecutive Parkinson patients of all stages independent of subjective dysphagia. Patients and 32 controls were clinically and endoscopically examined by flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) to evaluate the deglutition with regard to three consistencies (water, biscuit, and bread). Typical findings of dysphagia like penetration and aspiration, residues, and leakage were assessed. Dysphagia was common in Parkinson patients and occurred in all, even early, disease stages. Only 5% (6/119) of patients showed a completely unremarkable deglutition. Aspiration was seen in 25% (30/119) of patients and always related to water. Residues occurred in 93% (111/119), most commonly for bread. Leakage was much less frequent and was found in only 3-18%, depending on consistency. In a significant fraction of patients, objective dysphagia was not subjectively perceived. A total of 16% of asymptomatic patients suffered from critical aspiration. Significant swallowing deficiencies already occurred in early disease. Aspiration was found in 4 of 20 (20%) patients with disease duration of less than 2 years. Seven of 57 patients (12%) with Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 suffered from severe aspiration. Given the high frequency of critical aspiration in Parkinson disease, these patients should be evaluated early for dysphagia to avoid complications and recommend an adequate therapy. FEES is a simple, cost efficient, minimally invasive method that is ideally suited for this purpose.

  7. Associations between the macronutrient composition of the evening meal and average daily sleep duration in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Diethelm, Katharina; Remer, Thomas; Jilani, Hannah; Kunz, Clemens; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-10-01

    Short sleep duration in early childhood may increase the risk for chronic diseases in later life. Strategies to improve sleep duration are thus of interest. We investigated whether the nutritional composition of the evening meal is associated with children's sleep duration in the 2nd year of life. Multivariable regression models included 594 participants of the DONALD Study with 3-days weighed dietary records and average daily sleep duration at age 1.5 and 2 years. Higher energy intakes with the evening meal were associated with a longer sleep duration (1 min/10 kcal, p = 0,01). With respect to absolute intakes, carbohydrates (0.8 min/g, p < 0.0001), especially from high GI foods (1.3 min/g, p < 0.01), and a higher GL (1.5 min/g GL, p < 0.01) were accompanied by longer sleeping time. A qualitative exchange of energy from protein by energy from carbohydrates from high GI foods was only associated with increased sleep duration in toddlers without (1.9 min/%E, p < 0.05), but not with nightly eating occasions (p > 0.4). The observed associations are in line with suggested sleep-improving effects of carbohydrates. Effect sizes suggest that the clinical relevance of nutritional composition for sleep duration is limited in healthy young toddlers. These observations and their possible importance for more vulnerable groups need to be confirmed in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing Early Rule-Out Strategies for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Utility of 1-Hour Copeptin.

    PubMed

    Hillinger, Petra; Twerenbold, Raphael; Jaeger, Cedric; Wildi, Karin; Reichlin, Tobias; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Engels, Ulrike; Miró, Oscar; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Puelacher, Christian; Nestelberger, Thomas; Röthlisberger, Michèle; Ernst, Susanne; Rentsch, Katharina; Mueller, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Combined testing of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and copeptin at presentation provides a very high-although still imperfect-negative predictive value (NPV) for the early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that a second copeptin measurement at 1 h might further increase the NPV. In a prospective diagnostic multicenter study, we measured hs-cTnT and copeptin concentrations at presentation and at 1 h in 1439 unselected patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists blinded to copeptin concentrations. We investigated the incremental value of 1-h copeptin in the rule-out setting (0-h hs-cTnT negative and 0-h copeptin negative) and the intermediate-risk setting (0-h hs-cTnT negative and 0-h copeptin positive). The adjudicated diagnosis was AMI in 267 patients (18.6%). For measurements obtained at presentation, the NPV in the rule-out setting was 98.6% (95% CI, 97.4%-99.3%). Whereas 1-h copeptin did not increase the NPV significantly, 1-h hs-cTnT did, to 99.6% (95% CI, 98.7%-99.9%, P = 0.008). Similarly, in the intermediate-risk setting (NPV 92.8%, 95% CI, 88.7%-95.8%), 1-h copeptin did not significantly increase the NPV (P = 0.751), but 1-h hs-cTnT did, to 98.6 (95% CI, 96%-99.7%, P < 0.001). One-hour copeptin increased neither the safety of the rule-out process nor the NPV in the intermediate-risk setting. In contrast, the incremental value of 1-h hs-cTnT was substantial in both settings. ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00470587. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  9. Investigation of Wind Conditions During Early Morning Hours at Los Angeles International Airport

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-10-01

    Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) uses a unique runway utilization pattern to minimize noise pollution between midnight and 0600. During these hours, all approaches are conducted to the east, and all takeoffs are conducted to the west. The low-...

  10. Weed presence altered biotic stress and light signaling in maize even when weeds were removed early in the critical weed-free period

    Weeds reduce crop yield even when there is no competition for resources. A phenomena known as the critical weed-free period (CWFP), which occurs early in the crop’s life cycle, is the essential interval when weed presence can reduce crop growth and yield. Even when weeds are removed after the CWFP, ...

  11. Comparison of cardiovascular function during the early hours of bed rest and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the cardiovascular responses of six healthy male subjects to 6 hours in a 5 degrees head-down bed rest model of weightlessness, and compares these responses to those obtained when subjects were positioned in head-up tilts of 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 42 degrees, simulating 1/6, 1/3, and 2/3 G, respectively. Thoracic fluid index, cardiac output, stroke volume, and peak flow were measured using impedance cardiography. Cardiac dimensions and volumes were determined from two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiograms in the left lateral decubitus position at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Cardiovascular response to a stand test were compared before and after bed rest. The impedance values were related to tilt angle for the first 2 hours of tilt; however, after 3 hours, at all four angles, values began to converge, indicating that cardiovascular homeostatic mechanisms seek a common adapted state, regardless of effective gravity level (tilt angle) up to 2/3 G. Echocardiography revealed that left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, heart rate, and cardiac output had returned to control values by hour 6 for all tilt angles. The lack of a significant immediate change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, despite decrements in stroke volume (P < .05) and heart rate (not significant), indicates that multiple factors may play a role in the adaptation to simulated hypogravity. The echocardiography data indicated that no angle of tilt, whether head-down or head-up for 4 to 6 hours, mimicked exactly the changes in cardiovascular function recorded after 4 to 6 hours of space flight. Changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume during space flight and tilt may be similar, but follow a different time course. Nevertheless, head-down tilt at 5 degrees for 6 hours mimics some (stroke volume, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and total resistance), but not all, of the changes occurring

  12. An estimate of the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the impact of burnout on physicians has been growing because of the possible burden this may have on health care systems. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada. Methods Using an economic model, the costs related to early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of physicians were compared for those who were experiencing burnout against a scenario in which they did not experience burnout. The January 2012 Canadian Medical Association Masterfile was used to determine the number of practicing physicians. Transition probabilities were estimated using 2007–2008 Canadian Physician Health Survey and 2007 National Physician Survey data. Adjustments were also applied to outcome estimates based on ratio of actual to planned retirement and reduction in clinical hours. Results The total cost of burnout for all physicians practicing in Canada is estimated to be $213.1 million ($185.2 million due to early retirement and $27.9 million due to reduced clinical hours). Family physicians accounted for 58.8% of the burnout costs, followed by surgeons for 24.6% and other specialists for 16.6%. Conclusion The cost of burnout associated with early retirement and reduction in clinical hours is substantial and a significant proportion of practicing physicians experience symptoms of burnout. As health systems struggle with human resource shortages and expanding waiting times, this estimate sheds light on the extent to which the burden could be potentially decreased through prevention and promotion activities to address burnout among physicians. PMID:24927847

  13. Early effects of resident work-hour restrictions on patient safety: a systematic review and plea for improved studies.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Keith; Namdari, Surena; Donegan, Derek; Kamath, Atul F; Mehta, Samir

    2011-01-19

    since the inception of the eighty-hour work week, work hour restrictions have incited considerable debate. Work hour policies were designed to prevent medical errors and to reduce patient morbidity and mortality. It is unclear whether work hour restrictions have been helpful in medicine in general and in orthopaedic surgery specifically. This systematic review of the literature was designed to determine the success of these restrictions in terms of patient mortality, medical errors, and complications. a systematic review of the literature was performed to determine if work hour rules have improved patient and systems-based outcomes and reduced physician errors as measured by mortality, medical errors, and complications. A random effects model was utilized to determine whether patient mortality rates were improved under the new rules. the odds of patient death before implementation of the work hour rules were 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.17) times those after implementation. These differences were consistent across disciplines. The data concerning medical or surgical complications before and after the institution of the work hour rules were mixed. There was little information in these studies concerning direct medical errors. The odds of death in nonteaching cohorts were not significantly different from that in teaching cohorts. there appears to be a decrease in mortality following the institution of work hour rules. The difference seen in teaching cohorts is not significantly different from that in nonteaching cohorts. It is unclear whether this difference would have been observed even without work hour restrictions. No study has shown a reduction in mortality for orthopaedic patients in teaching cohorts that was greater than that observed in nonteaching cohorts. Because of methodological concerns and the lack of current literature linking physician fatigue and physician underperformance with patient mortality, it is unclear whether the goals of the

  14. Comparison of patrons of hotels with early opening and standard hours.

    PubMed

    Smith, D I

    1986-02-01

    A comparison was made of 72 men who were patrons in hotels with 6 A.M. or 7 A.M. opening, with a control group of 87 men interviewed in nearby hotels with 10 A.M. opening. The two groups were very similar on biographical characteristics, yet the men in the early-opening group consumed significantly more alcohol, had more drinking sessions, spent longer in drinking, and had significantly higher SMAST scores. The early opening was apparently facilitating problem drinking.

  15. Role of Early Family Configuration and Hours Worked on Student Success in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Robert A.; Passmore, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence student success in two-year colleges, community colleges, or junior colleges. In determining the purpose of the study, a research framework is established to review the relationships between student success and biological children, marriage/co-habitation, early family configuration,…

  16. Stability and Change in Early Childhood Classroom Interactions during the First Two Hours of a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curby, Timothy W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood classrooms support children's learning in a variety of ways. Of critical importance are the interactions teachers have with children. The type and quality of classroom interactions vary and can be grouped into three domains: instructional, organizational, and emotional. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which…

  17. Compliance with the Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years: associations with weight status.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rute; Zhang, Zhiguang; Pereira, João R; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-11-20

    For effective public health and surveillance it is important to document the proportion of young children who meet the new Australian Integrated 24 h Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and how these associate with health outcomes. We aimed to (i) assess compliance with the new Integrated 24 h Movement Guidelines for the Early Years in a sample of Australian toddlers; and (ii) ascertain whether compliance with the guidelines associates with weight status. The sample comprised 202 toddlers (104 girls) aged 19.74 ± 4.07 months from the GET UP! Participants wore accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) for 24 h over 7 consecutive days to assess physical activity, sedentary time and sleep. Parents reported participants' screen time. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) z-scores by age and sex were calculated. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to test differences in BMI z-scores between participants complying with (i) none or any individual guideline, (ii) any combination of meeting two guidelines, and (iii) those who met all three guidelines, adjusting for child age, gender and socioeconomic status. Only 8.9% of the sample met the overall 24 h movement guidelines. Most of the sample met the physical activity (96.5%) and sleep (79.7%) guidelines but only 11.4% met the sedentary behavior guideline. Average BMI Z-scores did not significantly differ between children who complied with none or any individual guideline, any combination of meeting two guidelines, and those who met all three guidelines (p > 0.05). Although the lack of significant differences, participants who accomplished any combination of two guidelines or all three guidelines appear to have had a lower BMI Z-score than those complying with one of the guidelines or none. Just under 9% of our sample met the overall Australian 24 h Movement Guidelines for the Early Years. BMI was not associated with the accomplishment of any of the 24-h Movement Guidelines. Strategies to

  18. When stress predicts a shrinking gene pool, trading early reproduction for longevity can increase fitness, even with lower fecundity.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Travisano, Michael; Denison, R Ford

    2009-06-25

    Stresses like dietary restriction or various toxins increase lifespan in taxa as diverse as yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and rats, by triggering physiological responses that also tend to delay reproduction. Food odors can reverse the effects of dietary restriction, showing that key mechanisms respond to information, not just resources. Such environmental cues can predict population trends, not just individual prospects for survival and reproduction. When population size is increasing, each offspring produced earlier makes a larger proportional contribution to the gene pool, but the reverse is true when population size is declining. We show mathematically that natural selection can favor facultative delay in reproduction when environmental cues predict a decrease in total population size, even if lifetime fecundity decreases with delay. We also show that increased reproduction from waiting for better conditions does not increase fitness (proportional representation) when the whole population benefits similarly. We conclude that the beneficial effects of stress on longevity (hormesis) in diverse taxa are a side-effect of delaying reproduction in response to environmental cues that population size is likely to decrease. The reversal by food odors of the effects of dietary restriction can be explained as a response to information that population size is less likely to decrease, reducing the chance that delaying reproduction will increase fitness.

  19. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Frihauf, Jennifer B.; Fekete, Éva M.; Nagy, Tim R.; Levin, Barry E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. PMID:27654396

  20. Maternal Western diet increases adiposity even in male offspring of obesity-resistant rat dams: early endocrine risk markers.

    PubMed

    Frihauf, Jennifer B; Fekete, Éva M; Nagy, Tim R; Levin, Barry E; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition or associated complications putatively mediate the obesogenic effects of perinatal high-fat diet on developing offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a Western diet developmental environment increases adiposity not only in male offspring from obesity-prone (DIO) mothers, but also in those from obesity-resistant (DR) dams, implicating a deleterious role for the Western diet per se. Selectively bred DIO and DR female rats were fed chow (17% kcal fat) or Western diet (32%) for 54 days before mating and, thereafter, through weaning. As intended, despite chow-like caloric intake, Western diet increased prepregnancy weight gain and circulating leptin levels in DIO, but not DR, dams. Yet, in both genotypes, maternal Western diet increased the weight and adiposity of preweanlings, as early as in DR offspring, and increased plasma leptin, insulin, and adiponectin of weanlings. Although body weight normalized with chow feeding during adolescence, young adult Western diet offspring subsequently showed decreased energy expenditure and, in DR offspring, decreased lipid utilization as a fuel substrate. By mid-adulthood, maternal Western diet DR offspring ate more chow, weighed more, and were fatter than controls. Thus, maternal Western diet covertly programmed increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood, disrupted relations of energy regulatory hormones with body fat, and decreased energy expenditure in offspring of lean, genetically obesity-resistant mothers. Maternal Western diet exposure alone, without maternal obesity or overnutrition, can promote offspring weight gain. Copyright © 2016 Frihauf et al.

  1. Intensive Evening Outpatient Treatment for Patients With Personality Dysfunction: Early Group Process, Change in Interpersonal Distress, and Longer-Term Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Anthony S; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Kealy, David

    2017-01-01

    Entrenched interpersonal difficulties are a defining feature of those with personality dysfunction. Evening treatment-a comprehensive and intensive group-oriented outpatient therapy program-offers a unique approach to delivering mental health services to patients with chronic personality dysfunction. This study assessed change in interpersonal problems as a key outcome, the relevance of such change to future social functioning, and the influence of early group processes on this change. Consecutively admitted patients (N = 75) to a group-oriented evening treatment program were recruited; the majority were diagnosed with personality disorder. Therapy outcome was represented by scores on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Follow-up outcome was represented by the global score of the Social Adjustment Scale. Group climate, group cohesion, and the therapeutic alliance were examined as process variables. Patients experienced substantial reduction in distress associated with interpersonal problems; early process factors that reflected a cohesive and engaged group climate and stronger therapeutic alliance were predictive of this outcome. Improvement in interpersonal distress was predictive of global social functioning six months later. The therapeutic alliance most strongly accounted for change in interpersonal problems at posttreatment and social functioning at follow-up. A comprehensive and integrated outpatient group therapy program, offered in the evening to accommodate patients' real-life demands, can facilitate considerable improvement in interpersonal problems, which in turn influences later social functioning. The intensity and intimacy of peer interactions in the therapy groups, and a strong alliance with the program therapists, are likely interacting factors that are particularly important to facilitate such change.

  2. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  3. The First Hours of the GW170817 Kilonova and the Importance of Early Optical and Ultraviolet Observations for Constraining Emission Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, Iair

    2018-03-01

    The kilonova associated with GW170817 displayed early blue emission, which has been interpreted as a signature of either radioactive decay in low-opacity ejecta, relativistic boosting of radioactive decay in high-velocity ejecta, the cooling of material heated by a wind or by a “cocoon” surrounding a jet, or a combination thereof. Distinguishing between these mechanisms is important for constraining the ejecta components and their parameters, which tie directly into the physics we can learn from these events. I compile published ultraviolet, optical, and infrared light curves of the GW170817 kilonova and examine whether the combined data set can be used to distinguish between early-emission models. The combined optical data show an early rise consistent with radioactive decay of low-opacity ejecta as the main emission source, but the subsequent decline is fit well by all models. A lack of constraints on the ultraviolet flux during the first few hours after discovery allows for both radioactive decay and other cooling mechanisms to explain the early bolometric light curve. This analysis demonstrates that early (few hours after merger) high-cadence optical and ultraviolet observations will be critical for determining the source of blue emission in future kilonovae.

  4. [EARLY IN-HOSPITAL MORTALITY IN INTERNAL MEDICINE WARDS (WITHIN 24 HOURS): A POTENTIAL QUALITY INDICATOR OR A VARIABLE AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE FACTORS?

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron; Berkov, Evgeny; Kanter, Pazit; Abrahmson, Evgeny; Gabbay, Uri

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate in-hospital mortality rate within 24 hours in internal medicine wards and to evaluate if it may be used as quality indicator. In-hospital mortality rate is an outcome measure which apparently reflects quality of care. There are debates on whether it may be considered a quality indicator since it is difficult to compare different case-mixes between hospitals. Research on mortality within 24 hours had not been published. An historical prospective study was conducted including the entire internal wards admissions to the Rabin Medical Center between 1/7/14 and 30/6/15. We evaluated inhospital deaths and 7 days post discharge deaths. We focused on deaths within 24 hours, patients' characteristics, the primary diagnosis (which we assumed is the cause of death) and co-morbidity. The analysis includes descriptive statistics and mortality rates performed with SPSS version 22. Overall, 25,414 patients were admitted to internal wards during the study period. There were 1,620 in-hospitals deaths (6.37%) among which 164 deaths occurred within 24 hours (0.65%), which is 10.1% of in-hospital deaths. These patients were very old (median 82), many were residents of nursing homes and nearly all were brought to the hospital by ambulance. The most frequent primary diagnoses were sepsis (24%), pneumonia (22%), metastatic cancer (10%) and acute neurologic event (5%). The results exclude excessive inhospital mortality within 24 hours. The patients' characteristics enable researchers to assume that these deaths were expected and not preventable. There is no excessive mortality within 24 hours, the deaths were expected and a seasonal modifying effect was evident. All this and the different case mix in between hospitals suggest that early in-hospital mortality seems inadequate as a quality measure.

  5. Sensitive Troponin I and Stress Testing in the Emergency Department for the Early Management of Chest Pain Using 2-Hour Protocol.

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Shahriar; Almuwaqqat, Zakaria; Sulaiman, Samian; Husein, Husein; Nguyen, Quang; Ali, Saad; Taskesen, Tuncay

    2017-09-01

    coronary angiography. One patient had severe tortuous coronaries but no significant obstructive lesion and one had a severe CAD who needed Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Three of the six patients had a normal stress test and one patient decided to leave without further testing. None of the patients with a normal stress test had a major cardiac event or adverse cardiac outcome at six-month follow up. This study demonstrates that the 2 hours accelerated protocol using high sensitivity Troponin assay at 0 and 2 hours with comprehensive clinical evaluation and ECG followed by stress testing might be successful in identifying low-risk patient population who may benefit from early discharge from ED reducing associated costs and length of stay.

  6. 13C-methacetin and 13C-galactose breath tests can assess restricted liver function even in early stages of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Holtmeier, Julia; Leuschner, Maria; Schneider, Arne; Leuschner, Ulrich; Caspary, Wolfgang F; Braden, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    The 13C-methacetin breath test quantitatively evaluates cytochrome P450-dependent liver function. The 13C-galactose breath test non-invasively measures the galactose oxidation capacity of the liver. The aim of this study was to find out whether these breath tests are sensitive parameters also in non-cirrhotic patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Nineteen patients with early-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (no cirrhotic alterations in the liver biopsy, Ludwig stage I-III) and 20 healthy controls underwent the 13C-methacetin and 13C-galactose breath tests. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis metabolized less 13C-methacetin than controls (cumulative recovery within 30 min 7.5+/-2.4% versus 14.0+/-2.6%; p < 0.001). When a cut-off > 9.8% was used for the cumulative recovery after 30 min, the methacetin breath test reached 84.2% sensitivity and 95.0 specificity. In the 13C-galactose breath test, the percentage recovery at 60 min in patients was 3.1+/-1.3%/h, and 6.3+/-1.1%/h in controls (p < 0.001). Using a cut-off > 4.7%/h, the galactose breath test reached 89.5% sensitivity and 95.0 specificity. In non-cirrhotic, early-stage, primary biliary cirrhosis the 13C-methacetin breath test and the 13C-galactose breath test reliably indicate decreased liver function. The 13C-galactose breath test can also predict the histological score.

  7. Meeting new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with adiposity among toddlers living in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Young; Hesketh, Kylie D; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Rhodes, Ryan E; Rinaldi, Christina M; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    Canada has recently released guidelines that include toddler-specific recommendations for physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and sleep. This study examined the proportions of toddlers meeting the new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) and associations with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample from Edmonton, Canada. Participants included 151 toddlers (aged 19.0 ± 1.9 months) for whom there was complete objectively measured physical activity data from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behaviour habits (PREPS) project. Toddlers' physical activity was measured using ActiGraph wGT3X-BT monitors. Toddlers' screen time and sleep were measured using the PREPS questionnaire. Toddlers' height and weight were objectively measured by public health nurses and BMI z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization growth standards. Meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was defined as: ≥180 min/day of total physical activity, including ≥1 min/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity; no screen time per day (for those aged 12-23 months) or ≤1 h/day of screen time per day (ages 24-35 months); and 11-14 h of sleep per 24-h period. Frequency analyses and linear regression models were conducted. Only 11.9% of toddlers met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, but this finding was largely driven by screen time. The majority of toddlers met the individual physical activity (99.3%) and sleep (82.1%) recommendations, while only 15.2% of toddlers met the screen time recommendation. No associations were observed between meeting specific and general combinations of recommendations within the guidelines and BMI z-scores. Most toddlers in this sample were meeting physical activity and sleep recommendations but were engaging in more screen time than recommended. Consequently, only a small proportion of toddlers met the overall guidelines. Based on

  8. The NASA POWER SSE: Deriving the Direct Normal Counterpart from the CERES SYN1deg Hourly Global Horizontal Irradiance during Early 2000 to Near Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Westberg, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) provides solar direct normal irradiance (DNI) data as well as a variety of other solar parameters. The currently available DNIs are monthly means on a quasi-equal-area grid system with grid boxes roughly equivalent to 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude around the equator from July 1983 to June 2005, and the data were derived from the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) monthly mean global horizontal irradiance (GHI, Release 3) and regression analysis of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) data. To improve the quality of the DNI data and push the temporal coverage of the data to near present, we have applied a modified version of the DIRINDEX global-to-beam model to the GEWEX SRB (Release 3) all-sky and clear-sky 3-hourly GHI data and derived their DNI counterparts for the period from July 1983 to December 2007. The results have been validated against the BSRN data. To further expand the data in time to near present, we are now applying the DIRINDEX model to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The CERES SYN1deg (Edition 4A) offers hourly all-sky and clear-sky GHIs on a 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude grid system from March 2000 to October 2016 as of this writing. Comparisons of the GHIs with their BSRN counterparts show remarkable agreements. Besides the GHIs, the inputs will also include the atmospheric water vapor and surface pressure from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the aerosol optical depth from the Max-Planck Institute Climatology (MAC-v1). Based on the performance of the DIRINDEX model with the GEWEX SRB GHI data, we expect at least equally good or even better results. In this paper, we will show the derived hourly, daily, and monthly mean DNIs from the CERES SYN1deg hourly GHIs from March 2000 to October 2016 and how they compare with the BSRN data.

  9. 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    The 100 Hours of Astronomy cornerstone project (100HA) is a round-the-clock, worldwide event with 100 continuous hours of a wide range of public outreach activities taking place from 2--5 April. A high-profile opening event will include presentation of Galileo's original telescope. Webcasts of international science center discussions and 24 hours of webcasts from professional research observatories will follow. A 24-hour global star party will occur on the last day. The Moon's phase will range from first quarter to gibbous, good phases for early evening observing, and Saturn will also be well placed for early evening observing events. Amateur astronomers will be encouraged to present educational events in schools as well as non-traditional venues. Online resources will include advertising, educational and how-to materials.

  10. Even Superheroes Need Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Mel

    2018-01-01

    It is not clear exactly when school leaders first started wearing an "S" on their chests and began defiantly uttering the phrase, "I can do it all myself!" But after days, weeks, months, or even years of racing wildly from task to task, many a superhero principal has come to the stark realization that nothing could be further…

  11. Making rice even healthier!

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  12. Evening Primrose Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... About NCCIH NCCIH At a Glance Mission and Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page ...

  13. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  14. Effect of Lavender Oil Aroma in the Early Hours of Postpartum Period on Maternal Pains, Fatigue, and Mood: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Farideh; Shiravani, Mahsa; Najib, Fatemeh Sadat; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Salehi, Alireza; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Busy care providers focus on the serious complications of postpartum period. This issue causes the seemingly trivial complications, such as mother's pains, fatigue, and psychological status, to be less taken into account. The study aimed to determine the effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood in primiparous mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants; 29 in intervention group and 27 in control group. The intervention group received lavender oil in three doses during the first 24 h after delivery. Sesame oil was used in the control group. Intensity of pain, fatigue, and distress level was measured by visual analog scale before and after the interventions. Besides, mood status was assessed through the positive and negative affect schedule. Results: The mean age of all the participants was 23.88 ± 3.88 years. After the first intervention and also in the tomorrow morning assessment, significant differences were found between the two groups regarding perineal pain (P = 0.004, P < 0.001), physical pain (P < 0.001), fatigue (P = 0.02, P < 0.001), and distress scores (P < 0.001). In addition, significant differences were found concerning the mean scores of positive (P < 0.001) and negative (P = 0.007, P < 0.001) moods between the two groups after the interventions. Repeated measures analyses showed that the two groups were significantly different over time in all the evaluated variables. Conclusions: Lavender oil aromatherapy starting in the first hours of postpartum period resulted in better physical and mood status compared to nonaromatic group. PMID:28567231

  15. An hour of bright white light in the early morning improves performance and advances sleep and circadian phase during the Antarctic winter.

    PubMed

    Corbett, R W; Middleton, B; Arendt, J

    2012-09-13

    Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to an hour of bright light in the morning and the evening during the Polar winter has beneficial effects on circadian phase. This study investigated the effect of a single hour of bright white morning light on circadian phase, sleep, alertness and cognitive performance. Nine individuals (eight male, one female, median age 30 years), wintering at Halley Research Station (75°S), Antarctica from 7th May until 6th August 2007, were exposed to bright white light for a fortnight from 08:30 to 09:30 h, with two fortnight control periods on either side. This sequence was performed twice, before and following Midwinter. Light exposure, sleep and alertness were assessed daily by actigraphy, sleep diaries and subjective visual analogue scales. Circadian phase (assessed by urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) and cognitive performance were evaluated at the end of each fortnight. During light exposure circadian phase was advanced from 4.97 ± 0.96 decimal hours (dh) (mean ± SD) to 4.08 ± 0.68 dh (p = 0.003). Wake-up time was shifted by a similar margin from 8.45 ± 1.83 dh to 7.59 ± 0.78 dh (p < 0.001). Sleep start time was also advanced (p = 0.047) but by a lesser amount, consequently, actual sleep time was slightly reduced. There was no change in objective or subjective measures of sleep quality or subjective measures of alertness. An improvement in cognitive performance was found with both the Single Letter Cancellation Test (p < 0.001) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.026) with preserved circadian variation. These beneficial effects of a single short duration light treatment may have implications not only for the Antarctic but other remote environments where access to natural light and delayed circadian phase, is problematic. These results require validation in larger studies at varying locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proportion of infants meeting the Australian 24-hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years: data from the Melbourne InFANT Program.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Kylie D; Downing, Katherine L; Campbell, Karen; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo; Hnatiuk, Jill A

    2017-11-20

    Little information is available on the movement behaviours of infants, despite evidence that these are important for development. The release of new Australian 24-hour Movement Guidelines provides an opportunity to document the current state of movement behaviours in infants relative to these guidelines. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of 4 month old Australian infants meeting the 24-hour Movement Guidelines, individually, and in combination, and to describe associations with individual characteristics. Maternal report baseline data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were used to determine prevalence of infants meeting physical activity (30 min of tummy time per day), sedentary behaviour (no more than 1 h at a time kept restrained; zero screen time), and sleep guidelines (14-17 h for 0-3 month olds or 12-16 h for 4-11 month olds). Prevalence of infants meeting combined guidelines was also described. The odds of meeting guidelines based on infant and family characteristics was determined. Data are reported for 455 infants with a mean age of 3.6 months (SD = 1.0). The proportion of infants meeting each of the guidelines was 29.7% for tummy time, 56.9% for kept restrained, 27.9% for screen time, 58.7% for sleep and 3.5% for the combined guidelines (i.e. meeting all four guidelines). A significantly higher proportion of girls than boys met the screen time guideline (32.5% versus 24.0%, p = 0.04) and the combined guidelines (5.7% versus 1.6%, p = 0.01). Few associations were observed between infant and family characteristics and proportion of infants meeting individual guidelines. Very few infants met all of the guidelines contained in the new Australian 24-hour Movement Guidelines suggesting there is much room for improvement in movement behaviours from early life. Fewer infants met the tummy time and screen time guidelines hence these appear to be the behaviours requiring most attention. Parents and

  17. Adherence to 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; McNeill, Jade; Vella, Stewart A; Howard, Steven J; Santos, Rute; Batterham, Marijka; Melhuish, Edward; Okely, Anthony D; de Rosnay, Marc

    2017-11-20

    The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of preschool children meeting these guidelines and investigates associations with social-cognitive development. Data from 248 preschool children (mean age = 4.2 ± 0.6 years, 57% boys) participating in the PATH-ABC study were analyzed. Children completed direct assessments of physical activity (accelerometry) and social cognition (the Test of Emotional Comprehension (TEC) and Theory of Mind (ToM)). Parents reported on children's screen time and sleep. Children were categorised as meeting/not meeting: i) individual guidelines, ii) combinations of two guidelines, or iii) all three guidelines. Associations were examined using linear regression adjusting for child age, sex, vocabulary, area level socio-economic status and childcare level clustering. High proportions of children met the physical activity (93.1%) and sleep (88.7%) guidelines, whereas fewer met the screen time guideline (17.3%). Overall, 14.9% of children met all three guidelines. Children meeting the sleep guideline performed better on TEC than those who did not (mean difference [MD] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36, 2.47). Children meeting the sleep and physical activity or sleep and screen time guidelines also performed better on TEC (MD = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.41) and ToM (MD = 0.25; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.50; p = 0.05), respectively, than those who did not. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with better ToM performance (MD = 0.28; 95% CI = -0.002, 0.48, p = 0.05), while meeting a larger number of guidelines was associated with better TEC (3 or 2 vs. 1/none, p < 0.02) and ToM performance (3 vs. 2, p = 0.03). Strategies

  18. An Hour in History

    2011-03-22

    John C. Stennis Space Center historian Marco Giardino speaks to center employees during the first An Hour in History session March 22. The Stennis History Office launched the series as part of the rocket engine test facility's yearlong 50th anniversary celebration. The inaugural session focused on Stennis history during the early 1960s. Subsequent sessions will focus on other aspects of Stennis history as part of the '50 Years of Powering Dreams' anniversary theme.

  19. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hill, N; Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I

    2007-11-17

    To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening. A double blind, placebo controlled cluster-randomised clinical study. Rural villages and peri-urban districts in the Bolivian Amazon. 4008 individuals in 860 households. All individuals slept under treated nets; one group also used a plant based insect repellent each evening, a second group used placebo. Episodes of Plasmodium falciparum or P vivax malaria confirmed by rapid diagnostic test or blood slide, respectively. We analysed 15,174 person months at risk and found a highly significant 80% reduction in episodes of P vivax in the group that used treated nets and repellent (incidence rate ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.38, P<0.001). Numbers of P falciparum cases during the study were small and, after adjustment for age, an 82% protective effect was observed, although this was not significant (0.18, 0.02 to 1.40, P=0.10). Reported episodes of fever with any cause were reduced by 58% in the group that used repellent (0.42, 0.31 to 0.56, P<0.001). Insect repellents can provide protection against malaria. In areas where vectors feed in the early evening, effectiveness of treated nets can be significantly increased by using repellent between dusk and bedtime. This has important implications in malaria vector control programmes outside Africa and shows that the combined use of treated nets and insect repellents, as advocated for most tourists travelling to high risk areas, is fully justified. NCT 00144716.

  20. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Adamo, Kristi B; Aubert, Salomé; Barnes, Joel D; Choquette, Louise; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Goldfield, Gary S; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Janssen, Xanne; Jaramillo Garcia, Alejandra; Kuzik, Nicholas; LeBlanc, Claire; MacLean, Joanna; Okely, Anthony D; Poitras, Veronica J; Rayner, Mary-Ellen; Reilly, John J; Sampson, Margaret; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Carson, Valerie

    2017-11-20

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, combined behaviours) examining the relationships within and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by a Guideline Development Panel. The systematic reviews that were conducted to inform the development of the guidelines, and the framework that was applied to develop the recommendations, followed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and indicators of adiposity. A review of the evidence on the cost effectiveness and resource use associated with the implementation of the proposed guidelines was also undertaken. A stakeholder survey (n = 546), 10 key informant interviews, and 14 focus groups (n = 92 participants) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines and their dissemination. The guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations as to the combinations of light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep that infants (<1 year), toddlers (1-2 years) and preschoolers (3-4 years) should achieve for a healthy day (24

  1. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera).

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided.

  2. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera)

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided. PMID:24592268

  3. High gain signal averaged electrocardiogram combined with 24 hour monitoring in patients early after myocardial infarction for bedside prediction of arrhythmic events.

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, T; Bennett, E D; Camm, A J; Ward, D E

    1988-01-01

    The value of the high gain, signal averaged electrocardiogram combined with 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring in the prediction of arrhythmic events was assessed in 159 patients in the first week after myocardial infarction. Eleven patients (7%) suffered arrhythmic events during a mean (SD) of 12 (6) months of follow up (range 2-22, median 13 months). The combination of high gain, signal averaged electrocardiography and 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring was more accurate than either technique alone or than clinical information collected during admission in predicting these events. The combination identified a high risk group of 13 (8%) patients, with an arrhythmic event rate of 62% and a low risk group with an event rate of 2%. The combination of high gain, signal averaged electrocardiography and 24 hour electrocardiographic monitoring in the first week after myocardial infarction provides a rapid, cheap, and non-invasive bedside method for the prediction of arrhythmias. PMID:3179133

  4. A low-glycemic index meal and bedtime snack prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and associated rises in inflammatory markers, providing protection from early but not late nocturnal hypoglycemia following evening exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Trenell, Michael I; Stevenson, Emma J; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M; Shaw, James A; West, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    To examine the influence of the glycemic index (GI) of foods consumed after evening exercise on postprandial glycemia, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and nocturnal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. On two evenings (∼1700 h), 10 male patients (27 ± 5 years of age, HbA1c 6.7 ± 0.7% [49.9 ± 8.1 mmol/mol]) were administered a 25% rapid-acting insulin dose with a carbohydrate bolus 60 min before 45 min of treadmill running. At 60 min postexercise, patients were administered a 50% rapid-acting insulin dose with one of two isoenergetic meals (1.0 g carbohdyrate/kg body mass [BM]) matched for macronutrient content but of either low GI (LGI) or high GI (HGI). At 180 min postmeal, the LGI group ingested an LGI snack and the HGI group an HGI snack (0.4 g carbohdyrate/kg BM) before returning home (∼2300 h). Interval samples were analyzed for blood glucose and lactate; plasma glucagon, epinephrine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and serum insulin, cortisol, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Interstitial glucose was recorded for 20 h postlaboratory attendance through continuous glucose monitoring. Following the postexercise meal, an HGI snack induced hyperglycemia in all patients (mean ± SD glucose 13.5 ± 3.3 mmol/L) and marked increases in TNF-α and IL-6, whereas relative euglycemia was maintained with an LGI snack (7.7 ± 2.5 mmol/L, P < 0.001) without inflammatory cytokine elevation. Both meal types protected all patients from early hypoglycemia. Overnight glycemia was comparable, with a similar incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia (n = 5 for both HGI and LGI). Consuming LGI food with a reduced rapid-acting insulin dose following evening exercise prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and inflammation and provides hypoglycemia protection for ∼8 h postexercise; however, the risk of late nocturnal hypoglycemia remains. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Has the 80-hour work week increased faculty hours?

    PubMed

    Winslow, Emily R; Berger, Lisa; Klingensmith, Mary E

    2004-01-01

    The 80-hour work week has affected not only surgical residents but also faculty. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resident hour restrictions on faculty hours and attitudes. Anonymous survey. A single, large academic medical center. All faculty in the Departments of Surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedics, and Otolaryngology. Faculty were surveyed 6 months before and 6 months after the institution of the resident 80-hour work week. Surgeons detailed hours worked over 1 week and answered yes/no questions about changes in patient care and resident education. P values were determined by Chi-square tests or Student t-tests as appropriate. Of the 118 surveys distributed, 88 were returned (75%). Respondents were evenly divided between general surgeons (GS) and subspecialists (SS). Initially, 70% of faculty predicted that resident work-hour restrictions would increase faculty hours; however, only 47% of faculty felt that this had occurred. When current faculty work hours were compared with previously collected data, no differences were found. Faculty reported working an average of 69.9 +/- 12.2 hours per week this year, compared with 70.4 +/- 12.5 hours last year. When asked about the global impact of the 80-hour work week on faculty, 46% viewed the changes as harmful to the faculty. More concerning, 50% of all faculty felt the care their patients received was worse than previously, with only 2% feeling patient care had improved. This perception was significantly more common among GS faculty (70% GS vs 37% SS; p < 0.01), 94% of whom felt that the current lack of continuity compromises patient care. When the data were stratified by faculty work hours, interesting differences are seen. Of those faculty with work weeks less than 60 hours, only 6% thought the changes were harmful to patients and 64% thought resident training had suffered. In contrast, of those faculty who worked greater than 80 hours per week, 56% thought patients were harmed (p = 0.03) and 100

  6. Potentially dangerous 24-hour rainfall in the Provadiyska vally system at the end of the 20th and early 21st Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Dimitar

    2018-03-01

    Extreme rainfalls are of paramount importance for the formation of river springs and, consequently, the occurrence of spills and floods. The article presents the results of a case study of the potentially dangerous 24-hour eruptions in the Provadiyska valley system from the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Particular attention is paid to the morphometric parameters and the configuration of the river-valley supply network of the Provadiyska river. On this basis, there are defined areas in which there are favorable conditions for forming high river waves.

  7. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimated Participation and Hours in Early Care and Education by Type of Arrangement and Income at Ages 2 to 4 in 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Steve; Nores, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    This working paper estimates participation in early childhood education (ECE) programs by child's age, program setting, family income level, and child's household language. To produce the best possible estimates of participation, the authors combined information from multiple data sets. In 2010, approximately 6.6 million between the ages of 2 and…

  9. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program: Report on Migrant Even Start Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Gamse, Beth; Swartz, Janet; Tao, Fumiyo; Tarr, Hope

    In fall 1994, 14 state Migrant Education Programs were receiving direct federal grants to administer Migrant Even Start projects. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. As part of the national evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program,…

  10. Special Analysis of Migrant Education Even Start Data. Even Start Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; Arriola, Christine

    This report analyzes data submitted by 11 of 14 state Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects operating in 1994-95. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. The data were drawn from the Even Start Information System (ESIS), which collected…

  11. Realtime Hourly Data Table

    Tables View the latest hourly text summary CLICK ON UNDERLINED HOUR / SHADED BOX FOR THE LATEST CYCLE 00z Dump Tables View the latest rap text summary CLICK ON UNDERLINED HOUR / SHADED BOX FOR THE LATEST CYCLE Data Dump Tables View the latest model data text summary NAM GFS GDS CLICK ON UNDERLINED HOUR / SHADED

  12. Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility Index (RPAD Index). A field study of an echocardiographic method to detect early development of pulmonary hypertension and its severity even in the absence of regurgitant jets for Doppler evaluation in heartworm-infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Venco, Luigi; Mihaylova, Liliya; Boon, June A

    2014-11-15

    invasively and noninvasively if possible. Results of these evaluations indicated that RPAD Index is a valuable method for early detection of the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in heartworm-infected dogs even in the absence of regurgitant jets for Doppler evaluation and that there is a strong correlation between the RPAD Index and the level of pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  14. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  15. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  16. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  17. 29 CFR 785.21 - Less than 24-hour duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be on duty for less than 24 hours is working even though he is permitted to sleep or engage in other... specified hours is working even though she is permitted to sleep when not busy answering calls. It makes no...

  18. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (0-4 years): exploring the perceptions of stakeholders and end users regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Negin; Ramanathan, Subha; O'Neill, Meghan; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2017-11-20

    It is important to engage stakeholders and end users in the development of guidelines for knowledge translation purposes. The aim of this study was to examine stakeholders' (experts in pediatric and family medicine, physical activity knowledge translation, and research) and end users' (parents and early childhood educators) perceptions of the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years). Stakeholders (n = 10) engaged in telephone interviews and end users (n = 92) participated in focus groups (n = 14) to discuss perceived clarity and need for the guidelines, potential barriers to implementation, identification of credible messengers, and methods for dissemination of the guidelines. A thematic analysis was conducted. The proposed guidelines were very well received by both stakeholders and end users. A clear need for such guidelines was identified, and most believed the guidelines were achievable. Stakeholders and end users identified several potential barriers to uptake, including low awareness of current guidelines; 'daily challenges' such as allure of screen time, lack of time, and competing priorities; and challenges in the context of shifting social norms. A range of methods and messengers of dissemination were identified. Medical and child care settings were the most frequently cited places for dissemination, and physicians and early childhood educators were the most common suggestions for messengers. There was consistent support for the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years) from both stakeholders and end users. Moving forward, it is important to dedicate appropriate support and funding toward dissemination efforts in order to reach end users, particularly parents and early childhood educators.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of blunt abdominal trauma and comparison of early and late ultrasonography 24 hours after trauma.

    PubMed

    Feyzi, Ali; Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Ahanchi, Navid; Firoozabadi, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advantages of ultrasound scan, its use as a screening tool in blunt abdominal trauma is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of early and late ultrasound in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). In this study which was performed in a level I trauma center, firstly, 2418 patients with BAT had ultrasound (US) examination by two trauma expert radiologists. Results were compared with the best available gold standards such as laparotomy, CT, repeated ultrasound or clinical course follow-up. Then, 400 patients with BAT were examined by a trained residency student. In the first phase, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy of ultrasound were 97%, 98.1%, 99.7%, 83% and 98% respectively. In the second phase, they were 97.3%, 97.2%, 97.7%, 96.8% and 97.3% for the early and 98.5%, 97.6%, 98.5%, 97.5% and 98% for the late ultrasound respectively. Results obtained from this study indicate that negative ultrasound findings associated with negative clinical observation virtually exclude abdominal injury, and confirmation by performing other tests is unnecessary. High sensitivity and negative predictive value is achieved if ultrasound is performed by expert trauma radiologist.

  20. A report on an acute, in-hours, outpatient review clinic with ultrasonography facilities for the early evaluation of general surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, T E; Shariff, U; Devine, F; Menon, V

    2016-09-01

    Introduction In 2013 our hospital introduced an in-hours, consultant-led, outpatient acute surgical clinic (ASC) for emergency general surgical patients. In 2014 this clinic was equipped with a dedicated ultrasonography service. This prospective cohort study evaluated this service before and after the introduction of ultrasonography facilities. Methods Data were recorded prospectively for all patients attending the clinic during 2013 and 2014. The primary outcome was patient destination (whether there was follow-up/admission) after clinic attendance. Results The ASC reviewed patients with a wide age range and array of general surgical complaints. In 2013, 186 patients attended the ASC. After the introduction of the ultrasonography service in 2014, 304 patients attended. In 2014, there was a reduction in the proportion of patients admitted to hospital from the clinic (18.3% vs 8.9%, p=0.002). However, the proportion of patients discharged after ASC review remained comparable with 2013 (30.1% in 2013 vs 38.8% in 2014, p=0.051). The proportion of patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) scans also fell (14.0% vs 4.9%, p<0.001). Conclusions The ASC assessed a wide array of general surgical complaints. Only a small proportion required hospital admission. The introduction of an ultrasonography service was associated with a further reduction in admission rates and computed tomography.

  1. The Evening/Morning Star.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Explains how Venus changes visibility regularly from morning to evening because of its quick orbit time during part of the year. Includes a brief history of observations of this phenomenon and provides a detailed account from the Australian Aborigines. (DDR)

  2. Semiclassical unified description of wobbling motion in even-even and even-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, A. A.; Poenaru, R.; Ixaru, L. Gr.

    2017-11-01

    A unitary description for wobbling motion in even-even and even-odd nuclei is presented. In both cases compact formulas for wobbling frequencies are derived. The accuracy of the harmonic approximation is studied for the yrast as well as for the excited bands in the even-even case. Important results for the structure of the wave function and its behavior inside the two wells of the potential energy function corresponding to the Bargmann representation are pointed out. Applications to 158Er and 163Lu reveal a very good agreement with available data. Indeed, the yrast energy levels in the even-even case and the first four triaxial superdeformed bands, TSD1, TSD2, TSD3, and TSD4, are realistically described. Also, the results agree with the data for the E 2 and M 1 intra- as well as interband transitions. Perspectives for the formalism development and an extensive application to several nuclei from various regions of the nuclides chart are presented.

  3. Evaluation of airfield pavement evenness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszewski, Paweł; Poświata, Adam; Wesołowski, Mariusz

    2018-05-01

    The evenness of airfield pavements is one of the basic operating parameters, which characterize them. The evenness determines not only comfort of traffic along an airfield pavement, but also influences the size of dynamic effect on the pavement, hence, the safety of air operations. In addition, the evenness condition changing as a result of dynamic loads, adverse weather conditions or inappropriate airfield pavement construction technology, lead to deviations from the desired condition in the form of longitudinal and transverse unevenness. As a result, systematic and correct performance of tests is a very significant and required factor impacting the improvement of traffic safety on airfield pavements. If the data obtained through the measurements are not sufficiently reliable, they may consequently lead to making incorrect decisions, which can ultimately impact the safety of air operations.

  4. Utility Of Heart Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-Fabp) Point Of Care Test In The Early Hours Of Stemi Compared With Troponin-I In Pakistani Population.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Walid Ahmad; Saleem, Muhammad; Rasheed, Shahid; Kiyani, Azhar Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome remains a dominant cause of high morbidity and mortality despite advancements in treatment This study was conducted to examine the utility of point-of-care test of heart-type fatty-acid binding protein (h-FABP) and compare it with the point-of-care test of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in the first 06 hours of STEMI. This cross-sectional, comparative study which was conducted in Rawalpindi institute of cardiology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015. Serum samples of 125 patients with the diagnosis of STEMI, presenting with chest pain of less than 6 hours' duration, were analysed for quantitative and qualitative determination of h-FABP and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) using rapid immunochromatographic technique in the emergency department. Samples were taken at presentation and after 12 hours. Out of 125 patients, 112 were males and 13 were females with a mean age of 54.26±9.53 years. The average symptom-to-sample time was 3.19±1.44 hours (median 3 hours). Mean h-FABP levels were significantly higher than the mean cTnI levels (29.10±30.66 vs 0.94±2.02; p=0.000). Overall, HFABP was more sensitive than cTnI (72% vs 26.4%). The sensitivity of cTnI within 0-2, 2-4, and 4-6 hours of symptom onset was calculated to be 0%, 17.7%, and 75.9%, whereas sensitivity of HFABP was 35.3%, 79.03% and 100% respectively. There was not a single patient who was cTnI positive and H-FABP negative as compared to 57 patients who were FABP positive and cTnI negative. h-FABP is a promising cardiac biomarker for the early identification of myocardial ischemia and infarction. It could be a superior biomarker for earlier detection of ACS and screening of patients with non-cardiac chest pain.

  5. Evidence of chiral bands in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrache, C. M.; Lv, B. F.; Astier, A.; Dupont, E.; Wang, Y. K.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Ren, Z. X.; Meng, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Konki, J.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Cederwall, B.; Aktas, Ö.; Ertoprak, A.; Liu, H.; Matta, S.; Subramaniam, P.; Guo, S.; Liu, M. L.; Zhou, X. H.; Wang, K. L.; Kuti, I.; Timár, J.; Tucholski, A.; Srebrny, J.; Andreoiu, C.

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for chiral doublet bands has been observed for the first time in the even-even nucleus 136Nd. One chiral band was firmly established. Four other candidates for chiral bands were also identified, which can contribute to the realization of the multiple pairs of chiral doublet bands (M χ D ) phenomenon. The observed bands are investigated by the constrained and tilted axis cranking covariant density functional theory (TAC-CDFT). Possible configurations have been explored. The experimental energy spectra, angular momenta, and B (M 1 )/B (E 2 ) values for the assigned configurations are globally reproduced by TAC-CDFT. Calculated results support the chiral interpretation of the observed bands, which correspond to shapes with maximum triaxiality induced by different multiquasiparticle configurations in 136Nd.

  6. New Approach To Hour-By-Hour Weather Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Q. Q.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Fine hourly forecast in single station weather forecast is required in many human production and life application situations. Most previous MOS (Model Output Statistics) which used a linear regression model are hard to solve nonlinear natures of the weather prediction and forecast accuracy has not been sufficient at high temporal resolution. This study is to predict the future meteorological elements including temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed in a local region over a relatively short period of time at hourly level. By means of hour-to-hour NWP (Numeral Weather Prediction)meteorological field from Forcastio (https://darksky.net/dev/docs/forecast) and real-time instrumental observation including 29 stations in Yunnan and 3 stations in Tianjin of China from June to October 2016, predictions are made of the 24-hour hour-by-hour ahead. This study presents an ensemble approach to combine the information of instrumental observation itself and NWP. Use autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model to predict future values of the observation time series. Put newest NWP products into the equations derived from the multiple linear regression MOS technique. Handle residual series of MOS outputs with autoregressive (AR) model for the linear property presented in time series. Due to the complexity of non-linear property of atmospheric flow, support vector machine (SVM) is also introduced . Therefore basic data quality control and cross validation makes it able to optimize the model function parameters , and do 24 hours ahead residual reduction with AR/SVM model. Results show that AR model technique is better than corresponding multi-variant MOS regression method especially at the early 4 hours when the predictor is temperature. MOS-AR combined model which is comparable to MOS-SVM model outperform than MOS. Both of their root mean square error and correlation coefficients for 2 m temperature are reduced to 1.6 degree Celsius and 0.91 respectively. The

  7. New Plans for Evening and Correspondence School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, I.I.

    A general discussion is given concerning revisions in hours and schedules for evening and correspondence school students engaged in higher technical education. The teaching plan for the evening system consists of two parts: one for instruction in the first three years, and the other for the next three. The plan for correspondence study provides…

  8. "Even if I Don't Remember, I Feel Better". A Qualitative Study of Patients with Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy or Surgery.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sara E; Thomas, Charles R; Deffebach, Mark E; Sukumar, Mithran S; Schipper, Paul H; Tieu, Brandon H; Kee, Andrew Y; Tsen, Andrew C; Slatore, Christopher G

    2016-08-01

    While surgical resection is recommended for most patients with early stage lung cancer according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, stereotactic body radiotherapy is increasingly being used. Provider-patient communication regarding the risks and benefits of each approach may be a modifiable factor leading to improved patient-centered outcomes. To qualitatively describe the experiences of patients undergoing either surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. We qualitatively evaluated and used content analysis to describe the experiences of 13 patients with early clinical stage non-small cell lung cancer before undergoing treatment in three health care systems in the Pacific Northwest, with a focus on knowledge obtained, communication, and feelings of distress. Although most participants reported rarely having been told about other options for treatment and could not readily recall many details about specific risks of recommended treatment, they were satisfied with their care. The patients paradoxically described clinicians as displaying caring and empathy despite not explicitly addressing their concerns and worries. We found that the communication domains that underlie shared decision making occurred infrequently, but that participants were still pleased with their role in the decision-making process. We did not find substantially different themes based on where the participant received care or the treatment selected. Patients were satisfied with all aspects of their care, despite reporting little knowledge about risks or other treatment options, no direct elicitation of worries from providers, and a lack of shared decision making. While the development of effective communication strategies to address these gaps is warranted, their effect on patient-centered outcomes, such as distress and decisional conflict, is unclear.

  9. Index Blood Tests and National Early Warning Scores within 24 Hours of Emergency Admission Can Predict the Risk of In-Hospital Mortality: A Model Development and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Watson, Duncan; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary B.; Prytherch, David R.; Girling, Alan; Stevens, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background We explored the use of routine blood tests and national early warning scores (NEWS) reported within ±24 hours of admission to predict in-hospital mortality in emergency admissions, using empirical decision Tree models because they are intuitive and may ultimately be used to support clinical decision making. Methodology A retrospective analysis of adult emergency admissions to a large acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010 in the West Midlands, England, with a full set of index blood tests results (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, white cell count and an index NEWS undertaken within ±24 hours of admission). We developed a Tree model by randomly splitting the admissions into a training (50%) and validation dataset (50%) and assessed its accuracy using the concordance (c-) statistic. Emergency admissions (about 30%) did not have a full set of index blood tests and/or NEWS and so were not included in our analysis. Results There were 23248 emergency admissions with a full set of blood tests and NEWS with an in-hospital mortality of 5.69%. The Tree model identified age, NEWS, albumin, sodium, white cell count and urea as significant (p<0.001) predictors of death, which described 17 homogeneous subgroups of admissions with mortality ranging from 0.2% to 60%. The c-statistic for the training model was 0.864 (95%CI 0.852 to 0.87) and when applied to the testing data set this was 0.853 (95%CI 0.840 to 0.866). Conclusions An easy to interpret validated risk adjustment Tree model using blood test and NEWS taken within ±24 hours of admission provides good discrimination and offers a novel approach to risk adjustment which may potentially support clinical decision making. Given the nature of the clinical data, the results are likely to be generalisable but further research is required to investigate this promising approach. PMID:23734195

  10. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  11. Even Start Projects Serving Migrant Families: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Miriam; Goldstein, David; Stief, Elizabeth; Fiester, Leila; Weiner, Lisa; Waiters, Katrina

    Even Start was created by federal legislation to address poverty and illiteracy among low-income families by integrating early childhood education, adult literacy or adult basic education, and parenting education into a unified family literacy program. Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects resemble other Even Start projects but are affected…

  12. Morning versus evening induction of labour for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jannet J H; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Pel, Maria; Mol, Ben Willem J; van der Post, Joris A M

    2013-02-28

    Induction of labour is a common intervention in obstetric practice. Traditionally, in most hospitals induction of labour with medication starts early in the morning, with the start of the working day for the day shift. In human and animal studies spontaneous onset of labour is proven to have a circadian rhythm with a preference for start of labour in the evening. Moreover, when spontaneous labour starts in the evening, the total duration of labour and delivery shortens and fewer obstetric interventions are needed. Based on these observations one might assume that starting induction of labour in the evening, in harmony with the circadian rhythm of natural birth, is more beneficial for both mother and child. To assess whether induction of labour starting in the evening, coinciding with the endogenous circadian rhythm, improves the outcome of labour compared with induction of labour starting in the early morning, organised to coincide with office hours. We contacted the Trials Search Co-ordinator to search the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). In addition, we searched MEDLINE (1966 to 16 February 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 16 February 2012). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We excluded trials that employed quasi-random methods of treatment allocation. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. The search resulted in 2693 articles that we screened on title and abstract for eligibility.Thirteen studies were selected for full text assessment. We included three randomised trials involving 1150 women. Two trials compared the administration of prostaglandins in the morning versus the evening in women with an unfavourable cervix, and one trial compared induction of labour in the morning versus the evening

  13. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program. Report on Even Start Projects for Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Moss, Marc; Swartz, Janet; Khan, Sherry; Tarr, Hope

    The tribal Even Start program is one of the set-aside components of the U.S. Department of Education's Even Start Family Literacy Program. Even Start combines adult literacy, early childhood education, and parenting education services for parents eligible for adult education and their children from birth to age 7. In 1994-95, nine Indian tribes…

  14. 29 CFR 778.421 - Offset hour for hour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hours standard, or in excess of the employees' normal working hours or regular working hours (as under... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset hour for hour. 778.421 Section 778.421 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...

  15. A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines - The Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years): an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Okely, Anthony D; Ghersi, Davina; Hesketh, Kylie D; Santos, Rute; Loughran, Sarah P; Cliff, Dylan P; Shilton, Trevor; Grant, David; Jones, Rachel A; Stanley, Rebecca M; Sherring, Julie; Hinkley, Trina; Trost, Stewart G; McHugh, Clare; Eckermann, Simon; Thorpe, Karen; Waters, Karen; Olds, Timothy S; Mackey, Tracy; Livingstone, Rhonda; Christian, Hayley; Carr, Harriette; Verrender, Adam; Pereira, João R; Zhang, Zhiguang; Downing, Katherine L; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-11-20

    In 2017, the Australian Government funded the update of the National Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0-5 years, with the intention that they be an integration of movement behaviours across the 24-h period. The benefit for Australia was that it could leverage research in Canada in the development of their 24-h guidelines for the early years. Concurrently, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group published a model to produce guidelines based on adoption, adaption and/or de novo development using the GRADE evidence-to-decision framework. Referred to as the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach, it allows guideline developers to follow a structured and transparent process in a more efficient manner, potentially avoiding the need to unnecessarily repeat costly tasks such as conducting systematic reviews. The purpose of this paper is to outline the process and outcomes for adapting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years to develop the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT framework. The development process was guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach. A Leadership Group and Consensus Panel were formed and existing credible guidelines identified. The draft Canadian 24-h integrated movement guidelines for the early years best met the criteria established by the Panel. These were evaluated based on the evidence in the GRADE tables, summaries of findings tables and draft recommendations from the Canadian Draft Guidelines. Updates to each of the Canadian systematic reviews were conducted and the Consensus Panel reviewed the evidence for each behaviour separately and made a decision to adopt or adapt the Canadian recommendations for each behaviour or create de novo recommendations. An online survey was then conducted (n = 302) along with five focus groups (n = 30) and five key informant interviews (n = 5) to obtain feedback from stakeholders on

  16. After-hours coverage

    PubMed Central

    Bordman, Risa; Wheler, David; Drummond, Neil; White, David; Crighton, Eric

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and content of existing or developing policies and guidelines of medical associations and colleges regarding after-hours care by family physicians and general practitioners, especially legal requirements. DESIGN Telephone survey in fall 2002, updated in fall 2004. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS All national and provincial medical associations, Colleges of Family Physicians, Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, local government offices for the north, and the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Response to the question: “Does your agency have a policy in place regarding after-hours health care coverage by FPs/GPs, or are there active discussions regarding such a policy?” RESULTS The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia was the first to institute a policy, in 1995, requiring physicians to make “specific arrangements” for after-hours care of their patients. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta adopted a similar policy in 1996 along with a guideline to aid implementation. In 2002, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia approved a guideline on the Availability of Physicians After Hours. The Saskatchewan Medical Association and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan formulated a joint policy on medical practice coverage that was released in 2003. Many agencies actively discussed the topic. Provincial and national Colleges of Family Physicians did not have any policies in place. The CMPA does not generate guidelines but released in an information letter in May 2000 a section entitled “Reducing your risk when you’re not available.” CONCLUSION There is increasing interest Canada-wide in setting policy for after-hours care. While provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons have traditionally led the way, a trend toward more collaboration between associations was identified. The effect of policy implementation on physicians

  17. Colorado Even Start. 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This report describes the Even Start program in Colorado, and includes evaluation questions and methods. The report presents evaluation findings…

  18. Colorado Even Start. 1997-1998 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time together to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This report describes the Even Start program in Colorado, including evaluation questions and methods. The report also presents evaluation…

  19. Colorado Even Start Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time together to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This progress report describes the Even Start program in Colorado and presents evaluation findings from the 2001-2002 implementation year,…

  20. What children eat during afternoons and evenings: is it important?

    PubMed

    Rockell, Jennifer E; Skidmore, Paula M L; Parnell, Winsome R; Wilson, Noela

    2011-03-01

    To complete a description of the dietary intakes of New Zealand schoolchildren by describing afternoon and evening foods and nutrients. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from the 2002 Children's Nutrition Survey were analysed to describe food and nutrient intakes during the afternoon (14.00 to 16.59 hours) and evening (17.00 to 23.59 hours). New Zealand homes and schools. Children (n 2875) aged 5-14 years. Most children consumed something during the afternoon (79 %) and evening (98 %). Children were less likely to consume something during non-school day afternoons; if 11-14 years of age; and when of Pacific ethnicity. Afternoon food consumers had higher daily intakes for most nutrients. Afternoon intake accounted for much of this difference. In the afternoon, children consumed fruit (26 %) and biscuits/crackers (21 %). Evening eating contributed to daily intakes of energy (40 %), fat (43 %), carbohydrate (35 %), sucrose (20 %), glucose (24 %), vitamin A (47 %), Ca (26 %) and Fe (40 %). Children aged 5-6 years consumed a lower proportion of their daily energy intake during the evening than older children. In the evening, just one-third of children consumed vegetables (45 % if including potato/kumara/taro), 19 % fruit and 17 % ate hot chips. Children were more likely to consume vegetables if they also consumed potato/kumara/taro. Twenty-three per cent of children had powdered drinks/cordials, 21 % had soft drinks and 19 % had milk. Consuming foods/drinks in the afternoon positively influenced macronutrient distribution, increasing the carbohydrate proportion. During the evening 40 % of energy intake was consumed but less than one-half of children consumed vegetables; thus inclusion of vegetables in the evening is important, particularly in meals without potato/kumara/taro.

  1. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  2. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003604.htm 24-hour urine copper test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in ...

  3. [The Psychotherapeutic Evening Clinic: Concept and First Results].

    PubMed

    Dinger, Ulrike; Komo-Lang, Miriam; Schauenburg, Henning; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2018-05-30

    This article reports about a new treatment setting, the Psychotherapeutic Evening Clinic at the University Hospital Heidelberg. The treatment intensity is ranked between intensive, full-day inpatient and day-clinic programs in hospitals and less frequent outpatient psychotherapy according to the Germany Psychotherapy Guideline. Patients attend the Evening Clinic on 3 evenings per week for 3 hours each. During this time, they receive group therapy, individual therapy, mindfulness exercises and psychotherapeutic ward rounds. The first experiences with the new setting are positive, a specific advantage is the possibility to include daily hassles and everyday stressors as well as patients' strengths and resources into the treatment. Therapeutic challenges are the potential of overburdening patients with an already high impairment. On the structural and political level it will be important to ensure funding for the new treatment setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The new break-even analysis.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, James; Regan, Katie

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the economic and legislative environment have complicated the capital acquisition landscape. Hospitals and health systems should: Question the assumptions that underlie their break-even analysis. Revamp the break-even calculator. Engage in discussions about the clinical aspects of equipment and technology acquisition decisions.

  6. Reduced Contact Hour Accelerated Courses and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Demps, Julius; Jadav, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate instruction in the Davis College of Business at Jacksonville University utilizes two course delivery methods. Traditional daytime classes are 15 weeks long and have approximately 40 contact hours, while evening courses are offered in the Accelerated Degree program in a compressed 8-week format with 24 contact hours. The curriculum is…

  7. The Swedish duty hour enigma.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Kristina; Frydén, Hanna; Kihlström, Lars; Nordquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this "the Swedish duty hour enigma." This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm--an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. According to Swedish residents' conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice.

  8. The Swedish duty hour enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this “the Swedish duty hour enigma.” This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? Methods A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm – an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. Results The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. Conclusions According to Swedish residents’ conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice. PMID:25559074

  9. Magnetic storm inflation in the evening sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the different behavior of a double magnetic disturbance in November 1971, as observed by Explorer 45, and in December 1971, as shown by ground level magnetic observations. The time sequence of magnetic storm inflation in the evening quadrant of the magnetosphere, as determined by both series of observations, is used as the criterion of the analysis. Particular attention is given to the various phases of proton penetration into the evening quadrant of the magnetosphere during the magnetic disturbance.

  10. Is the Office Hour Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A colleague can't make a coffee date at a time the author proposes because it would conflict with his office hour. No student has actually made an appointment with him during the hour, but he is committed to being in his office as promised in case someone drops by. The author's reaction to her colleague's faithfulness to his posted office hour…

  11. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  12. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  13. Extended hours hemodialysis and survival: extended hours, extended evidence?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ron; Perl, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Extended-hours hemodialysis presents another approach to the intensification of therapy for maintenance hemodialysis recipients. Smaller studies have demonstrated several potential benefits with this modality, but the impact on patient-centered outcomes has been unclear. We review the largest published study to compare survival among patients who received extended-hours hemodialysis with those who received conventional hemodialysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Off-Hour Admission and Outcomes in Patients with Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the INTERACT2 Trial.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shoichiro; Arima, Hisatomi; Heeley, Emma; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Delcourt, Candice; Lindley, Richard I; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Morgenstern, Lewis; Stapf, Christian; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting data exist of an association between off-hour (weekend, holiday, or night-time) hospital admission and adverse outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We determined the association between off-hour admissions and poor clinical outcome, and of any differential effect of early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering treatment between off- and on-hour admissions, among participants of the Intensive BP Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). Subsidiary analysis of INTERACT2, a multinational, multicenter, clinical trial of patients with spontaneous ICH with elevated systolic BP, randomly assigned to intensive (target systolic BP <140 mm Hg) or guideline-based (<180 mm Hg) BP management. Primary outcome was death or major disability (modified Rankin scale of 3-6) at 90 days. Off-hour admission was defined as night-time (4:30 p.m. to 8:30 a.m.) on weekdays, weekends (Saturday and Sunday), and public holidays in each participating country. Of 2,794 patients with information on the primary outcome, 1,770 (63%) were admitted to study centers during off-hours. Off-hour admission was not associated with risk of poor outcome at 90 days (53% off-hour vs. 55% on-hour; p = 0.49), even after adjustment for comorbid risk factors (odds ratio 0.92; 95% CI 0.76-1.12). Consistency exists in the effects of intensive BP lowering between off- and on-hour admission (p = 0.85 for homogeneity). Off-hour admission was not associated with increased risks of death or major disability among trial protocol participants with acute ICH. Intensive BP lowering can provide similar treatment effect irrespective of admission hours. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  16. Making Extensive Reading Even More Student Centered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Renandya, Willy A.

    2015-01-01

    This article begins by explaining the student centered learning paradigm. Next, the article explains various features of a student centered approach to education and how extensive reading (ER), as it is most often practiced, fits with those features. The bulk of the article suggests how ER might be implemented to make it even more learner centered.

  17. Network Evening News Coverage of Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

    Focusing on ABC, NBC, and CBS's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986, a study examined network news coverage of environmental risk--defined as manmade chemical, biological, and physical agents that create risk in the indoor, outdoor, and occupational environments. Using the Vanderbilt University "Television News…

  18. Building a dream: creating an oncology day/evening hospital.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, K; Painter, V

    2002-01-01

    The demand for inpatient beds has reached and often exceeds capacity producing waiting lists for cancer care. There is a need to explore alternative approaches to oncology treatment. The Oncology Day/Evening Hospital (ODEH), originally envisioned in 1995 as a joint project between an ambulatory cancer centre and a large teaching hospital, is an important cancer treatment initiative offering extended hours of ambulatory oncology treatment on days, evenings, weekends and statutory holidays. A review of current inpatient treatment modalities revealed that many patients receiving inpatient therapy could be safely and effectively managed in the ambulatory setting if treatment regimens were modified and if ambulatory hours of operation were extended. Healthcare improvements expected were: appropriate movement of inpatient activity to the ambulatory setting; more opportunities for patient choice in treatment time thereby allowing for maintenance of normal living; better quality of life for patients through prevention of hospitalization; decrease in treatment waiting times; consolidation of patients into an ambulatory oncology treatment setting as opposed to utilization of adult medicine units; and more rational inpatient bed utilization with reduction of admissions and intra-treatment transfers. This article describes our experience in building a dream, the challenges and lessons learned in implementing a better way to deliver oncology care in an environment of rapid change and staff shortages.

  19. Extended working hours and health.

    PubMed

    Raediker, Britta; Janssen, Daniela; Schomann, Carsten; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2006-01-01

    Statistical analyses of the relation between the amount of working hours and impairments to health, based on data from a European survey on working conditions in 2000, clearly reveal that there is a substantial correlation between the number of working hours per week and the frequencies of health complaints. This applies to both musculo-skeletal disorders as well as to psycho-vegetative complaints. The relationship of the duration of the exposure to working conditions to health impairments is moderated by a great number of individual (e.g., age) and situational (e.g., shift-work) variables, showing additive or interactive effects for which selected examples have been presented. In general, however, there is a consistent functional relationship between the number or working hours and their effects on the workers that holds over a great variety of conditions. It is argued that requests for extending working hours should thus be handled with care.

  20. Four Day, Forty Hour Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackin, Jeanne A.; Cutler, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Managers of the Ithaca College Bookstore have been able to improve service, profit and employee morale by experimenting with a four day, forty hour week. Initial problems in employee adjustment were offset by favorable student response. (JMD)

  1. Effective implementation of work-hour limits and systemic improvements.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Christopher P; Czeisler, Charles A; Barger, Laura K; Ayas, Najib T; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Lockley, Steven W

    2007-11-01

    Sleep deprivation, ubiquitous among nurses and physicians, recently has been shown to greatly increase rates of serious medical errors and occupational injuries among health care workers in the United States. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's current work-hour limits for physicians-in-training allow work hours well in excess of those proven safe. No regulations limit the work hours of other groups of health care providers in the United States. Consequently, nursing work shifts exceeding 12 hours remain common. Physician-in-training shifts of 30 consecutive hours continue to be endorsed officially, and data demonstrate that even the 30-hour limit is exceeded routinely. By contrast, European health care workers are limited by law to 13 consecutive hours of work and to 48-56 hours of work per week. Except for a few institutions that have eliminated 24-hour shifts, as a whole, the United States lags far behind other industrialized nations in ensuring safe work hours. Preventing health care provider sleep deprivation could be an extremely powerful means of addressing the epidemic of medical errors in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based work-hour limits, scientifically designed work schedules, and infrastructural changes, such as the development of standardized handoff systems, are urgently needed.

  2. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  3. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L.; Folkard, S.; Tucker, P.; Macdonald, I.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. RESULTS: The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.   PMID:9624275

  4. Even exciton series in Cu2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiner, Frank; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Uihlein, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Recent investigations of excitonic absorption spectra in cuprous oxide (Cu2O ) have shown that it is indispensable to account for the complex valence-band structure in the theory of excitons. In Cu2O , parity is a good quantum number and thus the exciton spectrum falls into two parts: the dipole-active exciton states of negative parity and odd angular momentum, which can be observed in one-photon absorption (Γ4- symmetry), and the exciton states of positive parity and even angular momentum, which can be observed in two-photon absorption (Γ5+ symmetry). The unexpected observation of D excitons in two-photon absorption has given first evidence that the dispersion properties of the Γ5+ orbital valence band are giving rise to a coupling of the yellow and green exciton series. However, a first theoretical treatment by Uihlein et al. [Phys. Rev. B 23, 2731 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevB.23.2731] was based on a simplified spherical model. The observation of F excitons in one-photon absorption is a further proof of a coupling between yellow and green exciton states. Detailed investigations on the fine structure splitting of the F exciton by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 195203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.195203] have proved the importance of a more realistic theoretical treatment including terms with cubic symmetry. In this paper we show that the even and odd parity exciton system can be consistently described within the same theoretical approach. However, the Hamiltonian of the even parity system needs, in comparison to the odd exciton case, modifications to account for the very small radius of the yellow and green 1 S exciton. In the presented treatment, we take special care of the central-cell corrections, which comprise a reduced screening of the Coulomb potential at distances comparable to the polaron radius, the exchange interaction being responsible for the exciton splitting into ortho and para states, and the inclusion of terms in the fourth power of p in the

  5. The evens and odds of CMB anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppuso, A.; Kitazawa, N.; Lattanzi, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    The lack of power of large-angle CMB anisotropies is known to increase its statistical significance at higher Galactic latitudes, where a string-inspired pre-inflationary scale Δ can also be detected. Considering the Planck 2015 data, and relying largely on a Bayesian approach, we show that the effect is mostly driven by the even - ℓ harmonic multipoles with ℓ ≲ 20, which appear sizably suppressed in a way that is robust with respect to Galactic masking, along with the corresponding detections of Δ. On the other hand, the first odd - ℓ multipoles are only suppressed at high Galactic latitudes. We investigate this behavior in different sky masks, constraining Δ through even and odd multipoles, and we elaborate on possible implications. We include low- ℓ polarization data which, despite being noise-limited, help in attaining confidence levels of about 3 σ in the detection of Δ. We also show by direct forecasts that a future all-sky E-mode cosmic-variance-limited polarization survey may push the constraining power for Δ beyond 5 σ.

  6. 75 Hour Nurse Aide Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This 75-hour nurse aide course has been designed to meet the training requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 for aides working in nursing facilities and skilled nursing facilities. Emphasis in the course is on students achieving a basic level of knowledge and demonstrating skills to provide safe, effective resident care. The…

  7. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  8. Coupled nature of evening-time ionospheric electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, L. M.; Tsai, L. C.

    2018-04-01

    The F region evening electrodynamics in the equatorial region is characterized by a pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) in the zonal eastward electric field. Although the theoretical mechanisms for PRE are known, its variability, particularly day-to-day variability is not fully resolved. PRE is a large scale phenomenon driven by the F region dynamo after the sunset hours. This paper investigates whether the variability of the E region conductivity (particularly the one associated with the sporadic E, Es) has any influence on the F region dynamo and hence on the PRE of zonal electric field. Interestingly, ionosonde observations have indicated a higher occurrence of the blanketing type Es (Esb) over the low latitude on days with highly suppressed PRE of zonal electric field in comparison with the days with significantly larger PRE. Observational evidences presented in this paper suggests that the formation of the Esb in the evening hours is a sovereign process, not always controlled by the sheared F region vertical electric field of equatorial origin, mapping along the magnetic field line on to the low latitude E region. Model computations of the PRE suppression based on the measured Es densities have further substantiated the observational findings presented in this paper. These results clearly indicate that the low latitude Es has the potential to suppress the PRE of zonal electric field and possibly can play a vital role in explaining the PRE variability, particularly the day-to-day variability. Results have been discussed in light of earlier reports on PRE mechanisms and E-F region coupling processes.

  9. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Even subtle cultural differences affect face tuning.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2018-01-01

    Culture shapes social cognition in many ways. Yet cultural impact on face tuning remains largely unclear. Here typically developing females and males from the French-speaking part of Switzerland were presented with a set of Arcimboldo-like Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face. The outcome had been compared with previous findings obtained in young adults of the South-West Germany. In that study, males exhibit higher thresholds for face tuning on the Face-n-Food task than females. In Swiss participants, no gender differences exist in face tuning. Strikingly, males from the French-speaking part of Switzerland possess higher sensitivity to faces than their German peers, whereas no difference in face tuning occurs between females. The outcome indicates that even relatively subtle cultural differences as well as culture by gender interaction can modulate social cognition. Clarification of the nature of cultural impact on face tuning as well as social cognition at large is of substantial value for understanding a wide range of neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental conditions.

  11. Protocol of the sepsivit study: a prospective observational study to determine whether continuous heart rate variability measurement during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation provides an early warning for deterioration in patients presenting with infection or sepsis to the emergency department of a Dutch academic teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    van Meurs, Matijs; Renes, Maurits H; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; ter Maaten, Jan C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One in five patients with sepsis deteriorates within 48 hours after hospital admission. Regrettably, a clear tool for the early detection of deterioration is still lacking. The SepsiVit study aims to determine whether continuous heart rate variability (HRV) measurement can provide an early warning for deterioration in patients presenting with suspected infection or sepsis to the emergency department (ED). Methods and analysis The protocol of a prospective observational study in the ED. We will include 171 adult medical patients presenting with suspected infection or sepsis and at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Patients with known pregnancy, cardiac transplantation or not admitted to our hospital are excluded. High sample frequency ECG signals (500 Hz), respiratory rate, blood pressure and peripheral oxygen saturation will be recorded continuously during the first 48 hours of hospitalisation using a bedside patient monitor (Philips IntelliVue MP70). Primary endpoint is patient deterioration, defined as the development of organ dysfunction, unplanned intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality. The ECG data will be used for offline HRV analysis. We will compare the HRV between two groups (deterioration/no deterioration) and analyse whether HRV provides an early warning for deterioration. Furthermore, we will create a multivariate predictive model for deterioration based on heart rate, respiratory rate and HRV. As planned secondary analyses, we (1) perform a subgroup analysis for patients with pneumosepsis and urosepsis and (2) determine whether HRV using lower sample frequencies (1 Hz or less) suffices to predict deterioration. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board of the University Medical Center Groningen granted a waiver for the study (METc 2015/164). Results will be disseminated through international peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. A lay summary of the results will be

  12. Impact of new duty-hour rules on residency training.

    PubMed

    Duran-Nelson, Alisa; Van Camp, Joan; Ling, Louis

    2010-11-01

    On the surface, changing the rules related to the number of hours residents work per day and per week sounds like a good idea. Theoretically, residents who work fewer hours would be less tired and provide better patient care. But even small changes in residency training programs have implications for the quality of the educational experience and the cost of training, as well as patient care. This article highlights the challenges that two Minnesota residency programs are facing as they adapt to the new rules around residents' work hours.

  13. Analysis of geomagnetic hourly ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, D. W.; Lotz, S. I.

    2015-08-01

    In an attempt to develop better forecasts of geomagnetic activity, hourly ranges of geomagnetic data are analyzed with a focus on how the data are distributed. A lognormal distribution is found to be able to characterize the magnetic data for all observatories up to moderate disturbances with each distribution controlled by the mean of the logarithm of the hourly range. In the subauroral zone, the distribution deviates from the lognormal, which is interpreted as motion of the auroral electrojet toward the equator. For most observatories, a substantial deviation from the lognormal distribution was noted at the higher values and is best modeled with a power law extrapolation, which gives estimates of the extreme values that may occur at observatories which contribute to the disturbance storm time (Dst) index and in Canada.

  14. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  15. Quality-control of an hourly rainfall dataset and climatology of extremes for the UK.

    PubMed

    Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lewis, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven C; Fowler, Hayley J

    2017-02-01

    Sub-daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non-operation of gauges. Given the prospect of an intensification of short-duration rainfall in a warming climate, the identification of such errors is essential if sub-daily datasets are to be used to better understand extreme events. We therefore first describe a series of procedures developed to quality control this new dataset. We then analyse ∼380 gauges with near-complete hourly records for 1992-2011 and map the seasonal climatology of intense rainfall based on UK hourly extremes using annual maxima, n-largest events and fixed threshold approaches. We find that the highest frequencies and intensities of hourly extreme rainfall occur during summer when the usual orographically defined pattern of extreme rainfall is replaced by a weaker, north-south pattern. A strong diurnal cycle in hourly extremes, peaking in late afternoon to early evening, is also identified in summer and, for some areas, in spring. This likely reflects the different mechanisms that generate sub-daily rainfall, with convection dominating during summer. The resulting quality-controlled hourly rainfall dataset will provide considerable value in several contexts, including the development of standard, globally applicable quality-control procedures for sub-daily data, the validation of the new generation of very high

  16. Quality‐control of an hourly rainfall dataset and climatology of extremes for the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven C.; Fowler, Hayley J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sub‐daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non‐operation of gauges. Given the prospect of an intensification of short‐duration rainfall in a warming climate, the identification of such errors is essential if sub‐daily datasets are to be used to better understand extreme events. We therefore first describe a series of procedures developed to quality control this new dataset. We then analyse ∼380 gauges with near‐complete hourly records for 1992–2011 and map the seasonal climatology of intense rainfall based on UK hourly extremes using annual maxima, n‐largest events and fixed threshold approaches. We find that the highest frequencies and intensities of hourly extreme rainfall occur during summer when the usual orographically defined pattern of extreme rainfall is replaced by a weaker, north–south pattern. A strong diurnal cycle in hourly extremes, peaking in late afternoon to early evening, is also identified in summer and, for some areas, in spring. This likely reflects the different mechanisms that generate sub‐daily rainfall, with convection dominating during summer. The resulting quality‐controlled hourly rainfall dataset will provide considerable value in several contexts, including the development of standard, globally applicable quality‐control procedures for sub‐daily data, the validation of the new

  17. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  18. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  19. Improving health, safety, and profits in extended hours operations (shiftwork).

    PubMed

    Kerin, Alex; Aguirre, Acacia

    2005-01-01

    Circadian Technologies, Inc. (CIRCADIAN) is an international consulting firm that for over 20 yr has helped employees better cope with shiftwork, while ensuring their employers reduce costs and maximize profits. This paper describes two of the methods employed to reduce accidents, absenteeism, and turnover, while improving morale and productivity in extended hour operations (shiftwork). Shiftworkers rarely receive on-the-job training to help them cope better with the rigors of working nights, evenings, and early mornings. A pre- and post-training study by CIRCADIAN demonstrated improvements in health and fatigue indices, and an increase in daytime sleep length. Companies who provide shiftwork lifestyle training also have lower rates of absenteeism and turnover compared to companies that do not provide training. The second intervention described in this paper is a novel method of shift scheduling. There are thousands of potential schedules, so how does a company choose the best schedule for their facility? The answer lies in allowing employees to be involved in the process of selection. This results in a workforce that experiences less fatigue, turnover and absenteeism, and higher morale.

  20. Spin-dependent γ softness or triaxiality in even-even 132-138Nd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Hua-Lei; Yang, Qiong; Liu, Min-Liang

    2015-02-01

    The properties of γ instability in rapidly rotating even-even 132-138Nd isotopes have been investigated using the pairing-deformation self-consistent total-Routhian-surface calculations in a deformation space of (β2, γ, β4). It is found that even-even 134-138Nd nuclei exhibit triaxiality in both ground and excited states, even up to high-spin states. The lightest isotope possesses a well-deformed prolate shape without a γ deformation component. The current numerical results are compared with previous calculations and available observables such as quadrupole deformation β2 and the feature of γ-band levels, showing basically a general agreement with the observed trend of γ correlations (e.g. the pattern of the odd-even energy staggering of the γ band). The existing differences between theory and experiment are analyzed and discussed briefly. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10805040,11175217), Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province(132300410125) and S & T Research Key Program of Henan Province Education Department (13A140667)

  1. Flexibility of working hours in the 24-hour society.

    PubMed

    Costa, G

    2006-01-01

    The 24-hour Society undergoes an ineluctable process towards a social organisation where time constraints are no more restricting human life. The borders between working and social times are no more fixed and rigidly determined, and the value of working time changes according to the different economic and social effects you may consider. Shift and night work, irregular and flexible working hours, together with new technologies, are the milestone of this epochal passage. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the individual, the companies, and the society? What is the cost/benefit ratio in terms of health and social well-being? Coping properly with this process means avoiding a passive acceptance of it with consequent maladjustments at both individual and social level, but adopting effective preventive and compensative strategies aimed at building up a more sustainable society. Flexible working times now appear to be one of the best ways to cope with the demands of the modern life, but there are different points of view about labour and temporal 'flexibility" between employers and employees. For the former it means a prompt adaptation to market demands and technological innovations; for the latter it is a way to improve working and social life, by decreasing work constraints and increasing control and autonomy. Although it can be easily speculated that individual-based 'flexibility" should improve health and well-being, and especially satisfaction, whereas company-based flexibility" might interfere negatively, the effective consequences on health and well-being have still to be analysed properly.

  2. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P < 0.0001) and derived a break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  4. Generalization of the NpNn scheme to nonyrast levels of even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this Brief Report we present the systematics of excitation energies for even-even nuclei in two regions: the 50even if one extends it to nonyrast levels, and thus can serve as a general tool to disclose new types of structural evolution for higher excitations, besides the yrast states which have been investigated extensively. It is highlighted that deformations in nonyrast quasibands of nuclei with Z˜80 and N˜104 are often very different from those in the ground bands.

  5. Time for Children, One's Spouse and Oneself among Parents Who Work Nonstandard Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Vanessa R.; Raley, Sara B.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys, this article examines nonstandard work hours and their relationship to parents' family, leisure and personal care time--informing the discussion of the costs and benefits of working nonstandard hours. The results suggest that parents who work nonstandard evening hours spend less time in…

  6. Nevada Even Start Family Literacy Program = Programa de alfabetizacion familiar Even Start de Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Two pamphlets (one in English and one in Spanish) describe the Nevada Even Start (NEST) program, a home-based system designed to help parents become full partners in the education of their children and to help children and parents reach their full potential as learners. The pamphlets note that the program intends to break the cycle of…

  7. "Rosetta" Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and "Philae's" Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 the "Rosetta" mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its "Philae" lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more…

  8. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  9. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ivy N.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G.; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  10. 75 FR 2467 - Hours of Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... many hours per day and per week would be safe and healthy for a truck driver to work? 4. Would an hours... given scheduling flexibility--the ability to borrow an hour from another driving day once a week, for... No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  11. 75 FR 9376 - Hours of Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... or adversely impact driver health? 3. How many hours per day and per week would be safe and healthy for a truck driver to work? 4. Would an hours-of-service rule that allows drivers to drive an hour... No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  12. Long Hours and Premium Pay, May 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamas, George D.

    1980-01-01

    From 1978-79 incidence of long hours among full-time wage and salary workers dropped for the first time since the 1974-75 recession. Of those who worked long hours, about 43% received premium pay (time and one-half the regular wage for hours worked in excess of forty per week). Employers used overtime hours to cope with disequilibrium phenomena…

  13. Registrar working hours in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Vadia, S; Kahn, D

    2005-08-01

    The number of hours worked by general surgical registrars in Europe and the USA has been reduced so as to reduce fatigue and the possibility of errors. The impact of these restrictions on surgical training remains unresolved. To date there are no officially reported data on the number of hours worked by registrars in South Africa. The aim of this study was to document the hours worked by registrars in general surgery in Cape Town. Thirty-three general surgical registrars at the University of Cape Town were asked to complete a time sheet over a 2-week period, indicating hours spent in hospital as part of a normal working day, hours spent in hospital outside of a normal day, hours at home on 'cold call' and hours off duty. Of the 33 registrars, 25 completed the time sheet. Registrars at Groote Schuur Hospital worked an average of 105 hours per week (68 hours in hospital and 37 hours on call at home). Registrars at New Somerset Hospital worked 79 hours per week (70 hours on site), while registrars at Red Cross Children's Hospital, G. F. Jooste Hospital and the Trauma Unit worked 60 - 69 hours per week. In the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) registrars worked 75 hours per week. In conclusion, general surgical registrars at the University of Cape Town work hours in excess of European and American work-hour restrictions.

  14. The Even-Rho and Even-Epsilon Algorithms for Accelerating Convergence of a Numerical Sequence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    equal, leading to zero or very small divisors. Computer programs implementing these algorithms are given along with sample output. An appreciable amount...calculation of the array of Shank’s transforms or, -A equivalently, of the related Padd Table. The :other, the even-rho algorithm, is closely related...leading to zero or very small divisors. Computer pro- grams implementing these algorithms are given along with sample output. An appreciable amount or

  15. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  16. Impact of extended duty hours on medical trainees

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Pnina; Kryger, Meir; Knauert, Melissa

    2018-01-01

    Many studies on resident physicians have demonstrated that extended work hours are associated with a negative impact on well-being, education, and patient care. However, the relationship between the work schedule and the degree of impairment remains unclear. In recent years, because of concerns for patient safety, national minimum standards for duty hours have been instituted (2003) and revised (2011). These changes were based on studies of the effects of sleep deprivation on human performance and specifically on the effect of extended shifts on resident performance. These requirements necessitated significant restructuring of resident schedules. Concerns were raised that these changes have impaired continuity of care, resident education and supervision, and patient safety. We review the studies on the effect of extended work hours on resident well-being, education, and patient care as well as those assessing the effect of work hour restrictions. Although many studies support the adverse effects of extended shifts, there are some conflicting results due to factors such as heterogeneity of protocols, schedules, subjects, and environments. Assessment of the effect of work hour restrictions has been even more difficult. Recent data demonstrating that work hour limitations have not been associated with improvement in patient outcomes or resident education and well-being have been interpreted as support for lifting restrictions in some specialties. However, these studies have significant limitations and should be interpreted with caution. Until future research clarifies duty hours that optimize patient outcomes, resident education, and well-being, it is recommended that current regulations be followed. PMID:29073389

  17. The effects of 72 hours of sleep loss on psychological variables.

    PubMed

    Mikulincer, M; Babkoff, H; Caspy, T; Sing, H

    1989-05-01

    A study was conducted on the effects of 72 hours of sleep loss and modified continuous operations on performance and psychological variables. This paper presents the results of self-report data of 12 subjects for the following psychological variables: sleepiness, affect, motivation, cognitive difficulties, and waking dreams. The relationship between the self-report measures and performance in a visual search and memory task is also examined. Most of the psychological variables are significantly affected by the number of days of sleep deprivation, all are significantly affected by hour of day; but only sleepiness, affect and motivation are also significantly affected by the interaction between these variables. The peak hours for self-reported psychological complaints are generally between 0400 and 0800, while the lowest number of complaints are usually reported in the afternoon/early evening, between 1600 and 2000. In addition, the results showed that (a) the amplitude of the circadian component of the psychological data increased over the period of sleep loss, and (b) psychological data were more highly correlated with a measure of general performance than with accuracy. The mechanisms of sleep deprivation underlying its effects on psychological and performance measures are discussed.

  18. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  19. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    PubMed

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-30

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  20. Lifetime measurement of neutron-rich even-even molybdenum isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralet, D.; Pietri, S.; Rodríguez, T.; Alaqeel, M.; Alexander, T.; Alkhomashi, N.; Ameil, F.; Arici, T.; Ataç, A.; Avigo, R.; Bäck, T.; Bazzacco, D.; Birkenbach, B.; Boutachkov, P.; Bruyneel, B.; Bruce, A. M.; Camera, F.; Cederwall, B.; Ceruti, S.; Clément, E.; Cortés, M. L.; Curien, D.; De Angelis, G.; Désesquelles, P.; Dewald, M.; Didierjean, F.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Doncel, M.; Duchêne, G.; Eberth, J.; Gadea, A.; Gerl, J.; Ghazi Moradi, F.; Geissel, H.; Goigoux, T.; Goel, N.; Golubev, P.; González, V.; Górska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Gregor, E.; Guastalla, G.; Givechev, A.; Habermann, T.; Hackstein, M.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Henning, G.; Hess, H.; Hüyük, T.; Jolie, J.; Judson, D. S.; Jungclaus, A.; Knoebel, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Korichi, A.; Korten, W.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Lalović, N.; Louchart-Henning, C.; Mengoni, D.; Merchán, E.; Million, B.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D.; Naqvi, F.; Nyberg, J.; Pietralla, N.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pullia, A.; Prochazka, A.; Quintana, B.; Rainovski, G.; Reese, M.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Rudolph, D.; Salsac, M. D.; Sanchis, E.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schaffner, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sengele, L.; Singh, B. S. Nara; Singh, P. P.; Stahl, C.; Stezowski, O.; Thoele, P.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.; Weick, H.; Wendt, A.; Wieland, O.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Zielinska, M.; PreSPEC Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the neutron-rich A ≈100 mass region, rapid shape changes as a function of nucleon number as well as coexistence of prolate, oblate, and triaxial shapes are predicted by various theoretical models. Lifetime measurements of excited levels in the molybdenum isotopes allow the determination of transitional quadrupole moments, which in turn provides structural information regarding the predicted shape change. Purpose: The present paper reports on the experimental setup, the method that allowed one to measure the lifetimes of excited states in even-even molybdenum isotopes from mass A =100 up to mass A =108 , and the results that were obtained. Method: The isotopes of interest were populated by secondary knock-out reaction of neutron-rich nuclei separated and identified by the GSI fragment separator at relativistic beam energies and detected by the sensitive PreSPEC-AGATA experimental setup. The latter included the Lund-York-Cologne calorimeter for identification, tracking, and velocity measurement of ejectiles, and AGATA, an array of position sensitive segmented HPGe detectors, used to determine the interaction positions of the γ ray enabling a precise Doppler correction. The lifetimes were determined with a relativistic version of the Doppler-shift-attenuation method using the systematic shift of the energy after Doppler correction of a γ -ray transition with a known energy. This relativistic Doppler-shift-attenuation method allowed the determination of mean lifetimes from 2 to 250 ps. Results: Even-even molybdenum isotopes from mass A =100 to A =108 were studied. The decays of the low-lying states in the ground-state band were observed. In particular, two mean lifetimes were measured for the first time: τ =29 .7-9.1+11.3 ps for the 4+ state of 108Mo and τ =3 .2-0.7+0.7 ps for the 6+ state of 102Mo. Conclusions: The reduced transition strengths B (E 2 ) , calculated from lifetimes measured in this experiment, compared to beyond

  1. Predicting the optical observables for nucleon scattering on even-even actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyanov, D. S.; Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.

    2017-09-01

    The previously derived Lane consistent dispersive coupled-channel optical model for nucleon scattering on 232Th and 238U nuclei is extended to describe scattering on even-even actinides with Z = 90-98. A soft-rotator-model (SRM) description of the low-lying nuclear structure is used, where the SRM Hamiltonian parameters are adjusted to the observed collective levels of the target nucleus. SRM nuclear wave functions (mixed in K quantum number) have been used to calculate the coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model. The “effective” deformations that define inter-band couplings are derived from the SRM Hamiltonian parameters. Conservation of nuclear volume is enforced by introducing a dynamic monopolar term to the deformed potential, leading to additional couplings between rotational bands. The fitted static deformation parameters are in very good agreement with those derived by Wang and collaborators using the Weizsäcker-Skyrme global mass model (WS4), allowing use of the latter to predict cross sections for nuclei without experimental data. A good description of the scarce “optical” experimental database is achieved. SRM couplings and volume conservation allow a precise calculation of the compound-nucleus formation cross sections, which is significantly different from that calculated with rigid-rotor potentials coupling the ground-state rotational band. The derived parameters can be used to describe both neutron- and proton-induced reactions. Supported by International Atomic Energy Agency, through the IAEA Research Contract 19263, by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity under Contracts FPA2014-53290-C2-2-P and FPA2016-77689-C2-1-R.

  2. Evaluation of the Monongalia County Schools, Even Start Family Literacy Program. Monongalia County Even Start Program. Parents Are Their Children's First and Most Important Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    The Monongalia County (West Virgina) Even Start Program begun in 1993 to address family literacy and to prepare children for entrance into school, consists of three interrelated approaches: adult education, parenting education, and early childhood education. In June 1996, the program was serving 62 families (mostly low-income) with an average of…

  3. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Daniela; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2004-12-01

    To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. Two studies -- a company based survey (N=660) and an internet survey (N=528) -- have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil) on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres). The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include -- besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible) working hours -- that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate), even if this variability is self-controlled.

  4. 12 hour shifts the Nambour Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    Union members have a lengthy history of campaigning for fair working hours and conditions. The success of such campaigns has led to the implementation of the eight hour working day and the 40 hour and then 38 hour week as industrial standards. More recently though, calls for greater flexibility in their shift arrangements by nurses at Nambour Hospital have led to a voluntary 12 hour shift being implemented in their Intensive Care Unit. While union members are protective of their hard won gains in achieving reduced working hours through the 8 hour day--ICU nurses at Nambour Hospital say the voluntary 12 hour shift initiative goes a way in addressing their work/life balance issues.

  5. 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion test

    MedlinePlus

    Aldosterone - urine; Addison disease - urine aldosterone; Cirrhosis - serum aldosterone ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. You will need to collect your urine over 24 hours . Your health care provider will tell ...

  6. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and subpart...

  7. City-level variations in NOx emissions derived from hourly monitoring data in Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Control on emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the United States of America have led to reductions in concentrations in urban areas by up to a factor of two in the last decade. The Air Quality System monitoring network provides surface measurements of concentrations at hourly resolution over multiple years, revealing variations at the annual, seasonal, day of week and diurnal time scales. A multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the temporal profiles in the NOx concentrations as well as the impact of meteorology, ozone concentrations, and boundary layer heights. The model is applied to data from 2005 to 2016 available at 6 sites in Chicago, Illinois. Results confirm the 50% decrease in NOx over the length of the time series. The weekend effect is found to be stronger in more commercial areas, with 32% reductions on Saturdays and 45% on Sundays and holidays; and weaker in more residential areas with 20% reductions on Saturdays and 30% reductions on Sundays. Weekday diurnal profiles follow a double hump with emission peaks during the morning and afternoon rush hours, but only a shallow drop during the middle day. Difference in profiles from the 6 sites suggest that there are different emission profiles within the urban area. Diurnal profiles on Saturdays have less variation throughout the day and more emissions in the evening. Sundays are very different from both weekdays and Saturdays with a gradual increase until the early evening. The results suggest that in addition to vehicle type and vehicle miles traveled, vehicle speed and congestion must be taken into account to correctly quantify morning rush hour emissions and the weekend effect.

  8. Triaxial quadrupole dynamics and the inner fission barrier of some heavy even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benrabia, K.; Medjadi, D. E.; Imadalou, M.; Quentin, P.

    2017-09-01

    Background: Inner fission barriers of actinide nuclei have been known for a long time to be unstable with respect to the axial symmetry. On the other hand, taking into account the effect of the relevant adiabatic mass parameter reduces or even may wash out this instability. A proper treatment of the dynamics for both axial and triaxial modes is thus crucial to accurately determine the corresponding fission barriers. This entails in particular an accurate description of pairing correlations. Purpose: We evaluate the potential energies, moments of inertia, and vibrational mass parameters in a two-dimensional relevant deformation space (corresponding to the usual β and γ quadrupole deformation parameters) for four actinide nuclei (236U, 240Pu, 248Cm, and 252Cf). We assess the relevance of our approach to describe the dynamics for a triaxial mode by computing the low energy spectra (exploring thus mainly the equilibrium deformation region). We evaluate the inner fission barrier heights releasing the axial symmetry constraint. Method: Calculations within the Hartree-Fock plus BCS approach are performed using the SkM* Skyrme effective interaction in the particle-hole channel and a seniority force in the particle-particle channel. The intensity of this residual interaction has been fixed to allow a good reproduction of some odd-even mass differences in the actinide region. Adiabatic mass parameters for the rotational and vibrational modes are calculated using the Inglis-Belyaev formula supplemented by a global renormalization factor taking into account the so-called Thouless-Valatin corrections. Spectra are obtained through the diagonalization of the corresponding Bohr collective Hamiltonian. Results: The experimental low energy spectra are qualitatively well reproduced by our calculations for the considered nuclei. Inner fission barrier heights are calculated and compared with available estimates from various experimental data. The reproduction of the data is better

  9. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through (a)(5... paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section, the calculated work hours must include all time performing...

  10. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through (a)(5... paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section, the calculated work hours must include all time performing...

  11. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through (a)(5... paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(5) of this section, the calculated work hours must include all time performing...

  12. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through (a)(5...

  13. 10 CFR 26.205 - Work hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work hours. 26.205 Section 26.205 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Managing Fatigue § 26.205 Work hours. (a) Individuals subject to work hour controls. Any individual who performs duties identified in § 26.4(a)(1) through (a)(5...

  14. Tracking and Explaining Credit-Hour Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwenda, Maxwell Ndigume

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights factors associated with changes in earned hours for two cohorts of incoming freshmen during their first year. The objectives of this study are twofold: (a) to derive model(s) regressing the cumulative hours earned and differential hours earned on student demographic, socioeconomic, and academic characteristics; and (b) to…

  15. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours worked prior to the... No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... hold three public listening sessions to solicit comments and information on potential hours-of- service...

  16. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  17. The Student Credit Hour: Counting What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the student credit hour (SCH). The author begins with a rethinking of the basic unit of measurement in American higher education--the SCH. The credit hour was developed at the turn of the 20th century as a measure of student time in the classroom: one hour per week in class for one semester equalled one SCH. The credit hour…

  18. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciT

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  19. Capturing Neutrinos from a Star's Final Hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    What happens on the last day of a massive stars life? In the hours before the star collapses and explodes as a supernova, the rapid evolution of material in its core creates swarms of neutrinos. Observing these neutrinos may help us understand the final stages of a massive stars life but theyve never been detected.A view of some of the 1,520 phototubes within the MiniBooNE neutrino detector. Observations from this and other detectors are helping to illuminate the nature of the mysterious neutrino. [Fred Ullrich/FNAL]Silent Signposts of Stellar EvolutionThe nuclear fusion that powers stars generates tremendous amounts of energy. Much of this energy is emitted as photons, but a curious and elusive particle the neutrino carries away most of the energy in the late stages of stellar evolution.Stellar neutrinos can be created through two processes: thermal processesand beta processes. Thermal processes e.g.,pair production, in which a particle/antiparticle pair are created depend on the temperature and pressure of the stellar core. Beta processes i.e.,when a proton converts to a neutron, or vice versa are instead linked to the isotopic makeup of the stars core. This means that, if we can observe them, beta-process neutrinos may be able to tell us about the last steps of stellar nucleosynthesis in a dying star.But observing these neutrinos is not so easilydone. Neutrinos arenearly massless, neutral particles that interact only feebly with matter; out of the whopping 1060neutrinos released in a supernova explosion, even the most sensitive detectors only record the passage of just a few. Do we have a chance of detectingthe beta-process neutrinos that are released in the final few hours of a stars life, beforethe collapse?Neutrino luminosities leading up to core collapse. Shortly before collapse, the luminosity of beta-process neutrinos outshines that of any other neutrino flavor or origin. [Adapted from Patton et al. 2017]Modeling Stellar CoresTo answer this question, Kelly

  20. Relation of cardiac troponin I measurements at 24 and 48 hours to magnetic resonance-determined infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hallén, Jonas; Buser, Peter; Schwitter, Jürg; Petzelbauer, Peter; Geudelin, Bernard; Fagerland, Morten W; Jaffe, Allan S; Atar, Dan

    2009-12-01

    Levels of circulating cardiac troponin I (cTnI) or T are correlated to extent of myocardial destruction after an acute myocardial infarction. Few studies analyzing this relation have employed a second-generation cTnI assay or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the imaging end point. In this post hoc study of the Efficacy of FX06 in the Prevention of Mycoardial Reperfusion Injury (F.I.R.E.) trial, we aimed at determining the correlation between single-point cTnI measurements and CMR-estimated infarct size at 5 to 7 days and 4 months after a first-time ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and investigating whether cTnI might provide independent prognostic information regarding infarct size at 4 months even taking into account early infarct size. Two hundred twenty-seven patients with a first-time STEMI were included in F.I.R.E. All patients received primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 hours from onset of symptoms. cTnI was measured at 24 and 48 hours after admission. CMR was conducted within 1 week of the index event (5 to 7 days) and at 4 months. Pearson correlations (r) for infarct size and cTnI at 24 hours were r = 0.66 (5 days) and r = 0.63 (4 months) and those for cTnI at 48 hours were r = 0.67 (5 days) and r = 0.65 (4 months). In a multiple regression analysis for predicting infarct size at 4 months (n = 141), cTnI and infarct location retained an independent prognostic role even taking into account early infarct size. In conclusion, a single-point cTnI measurement taken early after a first-time STEMI is a useful marker for infarct size and might also supplement early CMR evaluation in prediction of infarct size at 4 months.

  1. Payroll data based description of working hours in the Danish regions.

    PubMed

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Pedersen, Jacob; Petersen, Jindong Ding; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2018-05-15

    The aim was to describe the organization of working hours in the Danish regions according to sex, age and calendar year. Based on the Danish Working Hour Database (DWHD), individuals were classified according to schedules: Permanent day (57.8%), evening (1.7%), or night (1.2%); day/evening (22.0%); day/night (6.6%); evening/night (0.6%); and day/evening/night (10.2%). More men (9.1%) than women (5.9%) worked day/night, whereas more women (10.9%) than men (7.4%) worked day/evening/night. More young than older employees worked day/evening/night, and fewer worked permanent day or night. From 2008 to 2015 we observed a trend towards more employees working permanent day and fewer employees working other schedules. Altogether DWHD provides a strong tool in research on working hours.

  2. Childhood fever: a qualitative study on parents' expectations and experiences during general practice out-of-hours care consultations.

    PubMed

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Loonen, Nicole; Hendrix, Dagmar A S; Lepot, Julie M M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2015-10-07

    Fever in children is common and mostly caused by benign self-limiting infections. Yet consultation rates in primary care are high, especially during GP out-of-hours care. Therefore, we aimed to explore experiences of parents when having visited GP out-of-hours services with their febrile child. We performed a qualitative study using 20 semi-structured interviews among parents from different backgrounds presenting to GP out-of-hours care with a febrile child <12 years. Questions were directed at parental motivations, expectations and experiences when visiting the GP out-of-hours centre with a febrile child. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using constant comparison technique. We identified four main categories emerging from the data; (1) cautiously seeking care, (2) discrepancy between rationality and emotion, (3) expecting reassurance from a professional and (4) a need for consistent, reliable information. Not one symptom, but a combination of fever with other symptoms, made parents anxious and drove care seeking. Although parents carefully considered when to seek care, they experienced increased anxiety with increases in their child's temperature. Because parents work during the day and fever typically rises during the early evening, the decision to seek care was often made during out-of-hours care. When parents consulted a GP they did not have any set expectations other than seeking reassurance, however a proper physical examination diminished their anxiety. Parents did not demand antibiotics, but trusted on the expertise of the GP to assess necessity. Parents requested consistent, reliable information on fever and self-management strategies. Parents were inexperienced in self-management strategies and had a subsequent desire for reassurance; this played a pivotal role in out-of-hours help seeking for childhood fever. These factors provide clues to optimise information exchange between GPs and parents, by providing written, tailored

  3. Giorgio Vasari and the Image of the Hour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahtan, M. W.

    2011-06-01

    Giorgio Vasari created the first allegories of the twenty-four hours in the mid-16th century. This essay explores Vasari's novel images in the context of his visual and literary sources, the rising importance of household timepieces, and the artist's other works and writings. Although a focused study of a single motif within Vasari's oeuvre, it has implications for the broader transformation time perception and its psychological dimensions then taking place in Early Modern Europe.

  4. Subjective and objective napping and sleep in older adults: are evening naps "bad" for nighttime sleep?

    PubMed

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth

    2008-09-01

    To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.

  5. Vision, Training Hours, and Road Testing Results in Bioptic Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Bradley E.; Flom, Roanne E.; Bullimore, Mark A.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bioptic telescopic spectacles (BTS) can be used by people with central visual acuity that does not meet the state standards to obtain an unrestricted driver’s license. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among visual and demographic factors, training hours, and the results of road testing for bioptic drivers. Methods A retrospective study of patients who received an initial daylight bioptic examination at the Ohio State University and subsequently received a bioptic license was conducted. Data were collected on vision including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual field. Hours of driver training and results of Highway Patrol road testing were extracted from records. Relationships among vision, training hours, and road testing were analyzed. Results Ninety-seven patients who completed a vision examination between 2004 and 2008 and received daylight licensure with BTS were included. Results of the first Highway Patrol road test were available for 74 patients. The median interquartile range (IQR) hours of training prior to road testing was 21±17 hours, (range of 9 to 75 hours). Candidates without previous licensure were younger (p< 0.001) and had more documented training (p< 0.001). Lack of previous licensure and more training were significantly associated with having failed a portion of the Highway Patrol test and points deducted on the road test. Conclusions New bioptic drivers without previous non-bioptic driving experience required more training and performed more poorly on road testing for licensure than those who had previous non-bioptic licensure. No visual factor was predictive of road testing results after adjustment for previous experience. The hours of training received remained predictive of road testing outcome even with adjustment for previous experience. These results suggest that previous experience and trainer assessments should be investigated as potential predictors of road safety in bioptic drivers in

  6. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan.

    PubMed

    Zappe, Dion H; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1-2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (-10.6 and -13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (-9.8 and -12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (-10.7 and -13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124.

  7. Time of administration important? Morning versus evening dosing of valsartan

    PubMed Central

    Zappe, Dion H.; Crikelair, Nora; Kandra, Albert; Palatini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies suggest that bedtime dosing of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker shows a more sustained and consistent 24-h antihypertensive profile, including greater night-time blood pressure (BP) reduction. We compared the antihypertensive effects of morning (a.m.) and evening (p.m.) dosing of valsartan on 24-h BP. Methods: This 26-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of valsartan 320 mg, dosed a.m. or p.m., versus lisinopril 40 mg (a.m.), a long-acting ACE-inhibitor, in patients with grade 1–2 hypertension and at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Patients (n = 1093; BP = 156 ± 11/91 ± 8 mmHg; 62 years, 56% male, 99% white) received (1 : 1 : 1) valsartan 160 mg a.m. or p.m. or lisinopril 20 mg a.m. for 4 weeks, then force-titrated to double the initial dose for 8 weeks. At Week 12, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg was added for 14 weeks if office BP was more than 140/90 mmHg and/or ambulatory BP more than 130/80 mmHg. Results: Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (–10.6 and –13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (–9.8 and –12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (–10.7 and –13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: Once-daily dosing of valsartan 320 mg results in equally effective 24-h BP efficacy, regardless of dosing time. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00241124. PMID:25259546

  8. Break-even analysis in a nurse-managed center.

    PubMed

    McBryde-Foster, Merry J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of break-even analysis as a financial assessment tool is defined and demonstrated in evaluation of a proposed nurse-managed center. The advantages of using break-even analysis during proposal development are explored.

  9. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism.

    PubMed

    Byrne, John M; Loo, Lawrence K; Giang, Dan W

    2015-09-01

    Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = -0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients.

  10. Duty Hour Reporting: Conflicting Values in Professionalism

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, John M.; Loo, Lawrence K.; Giang, Dan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Duty hour limits challenge professional values, sometimes forcing residents to choose between patient care and regulatory compliance. This may affect truthfulness in duty hour reporting. Objective We assessed residents' reasons for falsifying duty hour reports. Methods We surveyed residents in 1 sponsoring institution to explore the reasons for noncompliance, frequency of violations, falsification of reports, and the residents' awareness of the option to extend hours to care for a single patient. The analysis used descriptive statistics. Linear regression was used to explore falsification of duty hour reports by year of training. Results The response rate was 88% (572 of 650). Primary reasons for duty hour violations were number of patients (19%) and individual patient acuity/complexity (19%). Junior residents were significantly more likely to falsify duty hours (R = −0.966). Of 124 residents who acknowledged falsification, 51 (41%) identified the primary reason as concern that the program will be in jeopardy of violating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits followed by fear of punishment (34, 27%). This accounted for more than two-thirds of the primary reasons for falsification. Conclusions Residents' falsification of duty hour data appears to be motivated by concerns about adverse actions from the ACGME, and fear they might be punished. To foster professionalism, we recommend that sponsoring institutions educate residents about professionalism in duty hour reporting. The ACGME should also convey the message that duty hour limits be applied in a no-blame systems-based approach, and allow junior residents to extend duty hours for the care of individual patients. PMID:26457145

  11. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  12. The Functional and Clinical Significance of the 24-Hour Rhythm of Circulating Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Henrik; Challet, Etienne; Ott, Volker; Arvat, Emanuela; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Lightman, Stafford; Vgontzas, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal glucocorticoids are major modulators of multiple functions, including energy metabolism, stress responses, immunity, and cognition. The endogenous secretion of glucocorticoids is normally characterized by a prominent and robust circadian (around 24 hours) oscillation, with a daily peak around the time of the habitual sleep-wake transition and minimal levels in the evening and early part of the night. It has long been recognized that this 24-hour rhythm partly reflects the activity of a master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In the past decade, secondary circadian clocks based on the same molecular machinery as the central master pacemaker were found in other brain areas as well as in most peripheral tissues, including the adrenal glands. Evidence is rapidly accumulating to indicate that misalignment between central and peripheral clocks has a host of adverse effects. The robust rhythm in circulating glucocorticoid levels has been recognized as a major internal synchronizer of the circadian system. The present review examines the scientific foundation of these novel advances and their implications for health and disease prevention and treatment. PMID:27749086

  13. Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ingre, Michael; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Kecklund, Göran

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic self-rostering. We also examined the association between personal fit and satisfaction with the work schedule and preference for a fixed and regular shift schedule, respectively. We collected questionnaire data and objective work hour data over 6-12 months from the computerized self-rostering system. The response rate of the questionnaire was 69% at the hospital and call-center and 98% among the police. In total, 29 433 shifts for 285 shift workers were included in the study. Data was analyzed by means of mixed ANOVA, Kendal tau correlations and ordinal (proportional odds) logistic regression. The results show that evening types worked relatively more hours during the evening and night hours compared to morning types as an indication of relative personal fit. Relative personal fit was also found for long shift, short rest, and morning-, evening- and night-shift frequency, but only personal fit related to morning, evening and night-shift was associated with satisfaction with work hours. Reported conflicts at the workplace about work hours and problems with lack of predictability of time for family/leisure activities, was associated with poor satisfaction and a preference for a fixed shift schedule. The present study shows that periodic self-rostering is associated with relative personal fit, in particular with respect to night, evening, and morning work. Personal fit seems to be associated with satisfaction with work hours and may be a moderator of tolerance to shift work exposure.

  14. Caffeinated Gum Maintains Vigilance, Marksmanship, and PVT Performance During a 55 Hour Field Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    effectively maintain vigilance for six hours in the early morning hours following a night without sleep (Kamimori et al., 2003) and have identified the...the significant correlations identified between marksmanship vigilance and the FIBUA task with the field laboratory task (PVT) will facilitate

  15. The Credit Hour and Public Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the ways the credit hour has come to be used by public funding systems in higher education. The literature review shows that the credit hour has become a barrier to innovation and a way to create systemic inequities between institutions or sectors in resource allocation. (SLD)

  16. 16 CFR 0.3 - Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hours. 0.3 Section 0.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.3 Hours. Principal and field offices are open on each business day from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. ...

  17. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  18. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  19. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  20. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  1. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  2. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  3. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  4. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  5. 47 CFR 0.403 - Office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office hours. 0.403 Section 0.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION General Information General § 0.403 Office hours. The main offices of the Commission are open from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., Monday through...

  6. Effectiveness of the Twelve-Hour Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Although labor unions traditionally have fought for shorter working hours, there have been recent reversals in this trend. The Pulp and Paperboard Division of Temple-Eastex Incorporated converted to a 12-hour shift and found that safety improved, productivity increased, and overtime decreased. (JOW)

  7. "Hour of Code": A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the delivery of the "Hour of Code" tutorials to college students. The college students who participated in this study were surveyed about their opinion of the Hour of Code. First, the students' comments were discussed. Next, a content analysis of the offered tutorials highlights their reliance on visual…

  8. Gender, Parenthood, and Work Hours of Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Linda; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Data from 204 young physicians (147 men, 57 women) revealed that parenthood significantly reduced women's, but not men's, practice hours. No significant gender differences existed for nonparents. Gaps between ideal and actual practice hours were smaller for mothers than for other groups, suggesting that mothers were more satisfied than other…

  9. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  10. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  11. 24-Hour Academic Libraries: Adjusting to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Adam C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the adaptive measures that academic libraries perform when implementing and operating a 24-hour schedule. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with current managerial-level librarians at 24-hour academic libraries. The exploratory interviews revealed similar measures for security, budgeting, employee…

  12. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum hours. 65.47 Section 65.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours...

  13. Experience With Flexible Hours of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Jo

    1976-01-01

    A summary of an 80-page booklet called Hours of Work When Workers Can Choose is presented. The booklet reports a survey and focuses on the benefits of flexible hours of work. It was published by the Business and Professional Women's Foundation and is available from that organization. (EC)

  14. Impacts of extended working hours in logging

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2008-01-01

    Last year at the 2007 AIM in Minneapolis, MN, the authors presented the human factors impacts to consider when implementing extended working hours in the logging industry. In a continuation of this project, we have researched existing literature to identify possible actions that logging business owners can take to reduce the impact of extended working hours on their...

  15. Vegetative conditions and management options in even-age stands on the Monongahela National Forest

    Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer; James Knibbs; John E. Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, personnel with the Northeastern Research Station and the Monongahela National Forest initiated a comprehensive survey of even-age stands that regenerated between 1964 and 1990. Preliminary results indicate that clearcutting was successful in regenerating these young stands with a variety of woody and herbaceous plant species. Early cleanings using crop-tree...

  16. Evaluation of the Fourth and Final Year of the Even Start--Padres y Progreso Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Even Start--Padres y Progreso program was a nationally funded program in Houston (Texas) designed to prepare young children to enter school not only by offering early childhood education, but also assisting their families with adult literacy/English as a second language, parenting skills training, and employment skills training. The program…

  17. Evaluation of the Even Start--Padres y Progreso Program in the Houston Independent School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Even Start-Padres y Progreso program is a nationally funded program designed to prepare young children to enter school by not only offering early childhood education, but also assisting their families with adult literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), parenting-skills training, and employment-skills training. An evaluation of the…

  18. Long working hours and pregnancy complications: women physicians survey in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masumi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ishiguro, Aya; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-07-23

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of occupational risk factors on health outcomes among physicians. However, few studies have investigated the effects on pregnancy outcomes among physicians. In this study, we examined the association between working hours during pregnancy and pregnancy complications among physicians. A cross-sectional study was based on a survey conducted in 2009-2011 of 1,684 alumnae (mean age, 44 ± 8 years) who had graduated from 13 private medical schools in Japan. Data on threatened abortion (TA), preterm birth (PTB), and the number of working hours during the first trimester of pregnancy were obtained via retrospective assessments. Of the 939 physicians with a first pregnancy, 15% experienced TA and 12% experienced PTB. Women who experienced TA (mean weekly working hours: 62 h vs. 50 h, P < .0001) or PTB (62 h vs. 50 h, P < .0001) had longer weekly working hours during the first trimester than did those without pregnancy complications. Compared with women who worked 40 hours or less per week, women who worked 71 hours or more per week had a three-fold higher risk of experiencing TA (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-6.0) even after adjusting for medical specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The risk of experiencing PTB was 2.5 times higher (95% CI:1.2-5.2) in women who worked 51-70 hours and 4.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.9-9.2) in women who worked 71 hours or more even after adjusting for specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The trend in the P statistic reflecting the effect of the quartile of hours worked per week (40 hours, 41-50 hours, 51-70 hours, ≥ 71 hours) on TA or PTB was 0.0001 in the multivariate logistic regression models. These results suggest that working long hours during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with TA and PTB.

  19. The influence of odd-even car trial on fine and coarse particles in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulia, Sunil; Harrison, Roy M; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-06-01

    The odd-even car trial scheme, which reduced car traffic between 08.00 and 20.00 h daily, was applied from 1 to 15 January 2016 (winter scheme, WS) and 15-30 April 2016 (summer scheme, SS). The daily average PM 2.5 and PM 10 exceeded national standards, with highest concentrations (313 μg m -3 and 639 μg m -3 , respectively) during winter and lowest (53 μg m -3 and 130 μg m -3 ) during the monsoon (June-August). PM concentrations during the trials can be interpreted either as reduced or increased, depending on the periods used for comparison purposes. For example, hourly average net PM 2.5 and PM 10 (after subtracting the baseline concentrations) reduced by up to 74% during the majority (after 1100 h) of trial hours compared with the corresponding hours during the previous year. Conversely, daily average PM 2.5 and PM 10 were higher by up to 3-times during the trial periods when compared with the pre-trial days. A careful analysis of the data shows that the trials generated cleaner air for certain hours of the day but the persistence of overnight emissions from heavy goods vehicles into the morning odd-even hours (0800-1100 h) made them probably ineffective at this time. Any further trial will need to be planned very carefully if an effect due to traffic alone is to be differentiated from the larger effect caused by changes in meteorology and especially wind direction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Building a New Early Childhood Professional Development System Based on the 3 Rs: Research, Rigor, and Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Professional development is a topic that is near and dear to the author's heart. The author has spent more hours than she can count trying to get her colleagues in the U.S. Department of Education to understand that early childhood professional development has to be part of the education continuum. She would argue that even if they had the luxury…

  1. Late-seasonal activity and diet of the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Nebraska

    Geluso, Keith; Damm, J.P.; Valdez, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, Nebraska represents part of the northwestern edge of the distribution for the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis). To date, little information on this bat's natural history has been published from the state or from other parts of the Great Plains. Here we report on aspects of its natural history in Nebraska from 2 localities. In late summer and early autumn of 2006, we documented individuals farther west in Nebraska (Harlan County) than previously reported and determined that individuals fed mainly on Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In 2006, evening bats appeared to migrate from Nebraska during late September-early October, and individuals were extremely fat, about 15 g, prior to migration. Evening bats likely are more widespread and common in south central Nebraska than previously documented. On 6 October 2005, we reported on an individual from eastern Nebraska (Douglas County), which represents the latest seasonal record of N. humeralis from the state.

  2. Comparison of population iodine estimates from 24-hour urine and timed-spot urine samples.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Cria G; Cogswell, Mary E; Swanson, Christine A; Sullivan, Kevin M; Chen, Te-Ching; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Dodd, Kevin W; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2014-04-01

    Median urine iodine concentration (UIC; μg/L) in spot urine samples is recommended for monitoring population iodine status. Other common measures are iodine:creatinine ratio (I/Cr; μg/g) and estimated 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE; I/Cr × predicted 24-hour Cr; μg/day). Despite different units, these measures are often used interchangeably, and it is unclear how they compare with the reference standard 24-hour UIE. Volunteers aged 18-39 years collected all their urine samples for 24 hours (n=400). Voids from morning, afternoon, evening, overnight, and a composite 24-hour sample were analyzed for iodine. We calculated median observed 24-hour UIE and 24-hour UIC, and spot UIC, I/Cr, and two measures of estimated UIE calculated using predicted 24-hour Cr from published estimates by Kesteloot and Joosens (varies by age and sex) and published equations by Mage et al. (varies by age, sex, race, and anthropometric measures). We examined mean differences and relative difference across iodine excretion levels using Bland-Altman plots. Median 24-hour UIE was 173.6 μg/day and 24-hour UIC was 144.8 μg/L. From timed-spot urine samples, estimates were: UIC 147.3-156.2 μg/L; I/Cr 103.6-114.3 μg/g, estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) 145.7-163.3 μg/day; and estimated 24-hour UIE (Mage) 176.5-187.7 μg/day. Iodine measures did not vary consistently by timing of spot urine collection. Compared with observed 24-hour UIE, on average, estimated (Mage) 24-hour UIE was not significantly different, while estimated 24-hour UIE (Kesteloot and Joosens) was significantly different for some ethnicity/sex groups. Compared with 24-hour UIC, on average, spot UIC did not differ. Estimates of UIC, I/Cr, and estimated 24-hour UIE (I/Cr × predicted 24-hour Cr) from spot urine samples should not be used interchangeably. Estimated 24-hour UIE, where predicted 24-hour Cr varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and anthropometric measures and was calculated with prediction

  3. Long Working Hours and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E.; Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G.; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997–1999 (baseline) and 2002–2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up. Long working hours also predicted decline in performance on the reasoning test (Alice Heim 4-I). Similar results were obtained by using working hours as a continuous variable; the associations between working hours and cognitive function were robust to adjustments for several potential confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, income, physical diseases, psychosocial factors, sleep disturbances, and health risk behaviors. This study shows that long working hours may have a negative effect on cognitive performance in middle age. PMID:19126590

  4. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-11-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 years, BMI: 30.0±7.1 kg/m(2)) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA-PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0.008), and have less physical

  5. Early life adversity and/or posttraumatic stress disorder severity are associated with poor diet quality, including consumption of trans fatty acids, and fewer hours of resting or sleeping in a US middle-aged population: A cross-sectional and prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gavrieli, Anna; Farr, Olivia M; Davis, Cynthia R; Crowell, Judith A; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life adversity (ELA) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with poorer psychological and physical health. Potential underlying mechanisms and mediators remain to be elucidated, and the lifestyle habits and characteristics of individuals with ELA and/or PTSD have not been fully explored. We investigated whether the presence of ELA and/or PTSD are associated with nutrition, physical activity, resting and sleeping and smoking. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 151 males and females (age: 45.6±3.5 y, BMI: 30.0±7.1kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements, as well as detailed questionnaires for dietary assessment, physical activity, resting and sleeping, smoking habits and psychosocial assessments. A prospective follow-up visit of 49 individuals was performed 2.5 years later and the same outcomes were assessed. ELA and PTSD were evaluated as predictors, in addition to a variable assessing the combined presence/severity of ELA–PTSD. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance after adjusting for several socioeconomic, psychosocial and anthropometric characteristics. Results Individuals with higher ELA or PTSD severity were found to have a poorer diet quality (DASH score: p=0.006 and p=0.003, respectively; aHEI-2010 score: ELA p=0.009), including further consumption of trans fatty acids (ELA p=0.003); the differences were significantly attenuated null after adjusting mainly for education or income and/or race. Further, individuals with higher ELA severity reported less hours of resting and sleeping (p=0.043) compared to those with zero/lower ELA severity, and the difference remained significant in the fully adjusted model indicating independence from potential confounders. When ELA and PTSD were combined, an additive effect was observed on resting and sleeping (p=0.001); results remained significant in the fully adjusted model. They also consumed more energy from trans fatty acids (p=0.017) tended to smoke more (p=0

  6. Nuclear spectroscopy of doubly-even130,132Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Gupta, Surbhi; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun

    2018-05-01

    A comparative study of some high-spin characteristic nuclear structure properties of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei has been made using two microscopic frameworks - CHFB and PSM. The yrast spectra, intrinsic quadrupole moment and deformation systematics of these nuclei have been successfully calculated. Further, the calculated data from both the frameworks is also compared with the available experimental data and a good agreement has been obtained. The present CHFB calculations describes very well the low spin structure of even-even 130,132Ba nuclei whereas PSM calculations provide a qualitative description of the high-spin band structure of doubly-even 130,132Ba nuclei.

  7. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2 + states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0 + 1 → 2 + 1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; ...

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  8. Patterns of Morning and Evening Fatigue Among Adults with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims and objectives Describe patterns of morning and evening fatigue in adults with HIV and examine their relationship to demographic and clinical factors and other symptoms. Background Most studies of HIV-related fatigue assess average levels of fatigue and do not address its diurnal fluctuations. Patterns of fatigue over the course of the day may have important implications for assessment and treatment. Design A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with six repeated measures over 72 hours. Method A convenience sample of 318 HIV-infected adults was recruited in San Francisco. Socio-demographic, clinical and symptom data were collected with questionnaires. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were obtained from medical records. Participants completed a four-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale each morning and evening for three consecutive days. Participants were grouped based on their diurnal pattern of fatigue (high evening only, high morning only, high morning and evening and low morning and evening). Group comparisons and logistic regression were used to determine the unique predictors of each fatigue pattern. Results The high evening fatigue pattern was associated with anxiety and the high morning pattern was associated with anxiety and depression. The morning fatigue pattern showed very little fluctuation between morning and evening, the evening pattern showed the largest fluctuation. The high morning and evening pattern was associated with anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance and this group reported the most fatigue-related distress and interference in functioning. Conclusions These results provide initial evidence for the importance of assessing the patient’s daily pattern of fatigue fluctuation, as different patterns were associated with different symptom experiences and perhaps different etiologies. Relevance to clinical practice Different fatigue patterns may benefit from tailored intervention strategies. Management of depressive symptoms

  9. Patterns of morning and evening fatigue among adults with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lerdal, Anners; Gay, Caryl L; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Portillo, Carmen J; Lee, Kathryn A

    2011-08-01

    Describe patterns of morning and evening fatigue in adults with HIV and examine their relationship to demographic and clinical factors and other symptoms. Most studies of HIV-related fatigue assess average levels of fatigue and do not address its diurnal fluctuations. Patterns of fatigue over the course of the day may have important implications for assessment and treatment. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used with six repeated measures over 72 hours. A convenience sample of 318 HIV-infected adults was recruited in San Francisco. Socio-demographic, clinical and symptom data were collected with questionnaires. CD4+ T-cell count and viral load were obtained from medical records. Participants completed a four-item version of the Lee Fatigue Scale each morning and evening for three consecutive days. Participants were grouped based on their diurnal pattern of fatigue (high evening only, high morning only, high morning and evening and low morning and evening). Group comparisons and logistic regression were used to determine the unique predictors of each fatigue pattern. The high evening fatigue pattern was associated with anxiety and the high morning pattern was associated with anxiety and depression. The morning fatigue pattern showed very little fluctuation between morning and evening, the evening pattern showed the largest fluctuation. The high morning and evening pattern was associated with anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance and this group reported the most fatigue-related distress and interference in functioning. These results provide initial evidence for the importance of assessing the patient's daily pattern of fatigue fluctuation, as different patterns were associated with different symptom experiences and perhaps different aetiologies. Different fatigue patterns may benefit from tailored intervention strategies. Management of depressive symptoms could be tested in patients who experience high levels of morning fatigue. © 2011 Blackwell

  10. Process and Outcomes Evaluation of an Even Start Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Walsh, Sandra; Swisher, Angie; Spring, Janet; Lewis, Harry

    The Even Start Family Literacy Program is a national program that addresses the literacy and educational needs of adults in eligible families, teaches effective parenting skills, and addresses the preschool readiness needs of young children in the family. The Monongalia County (West Virginia) Even Start Program was unusual in that it took place in…

  11. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  12. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average monthly... break-even amount, the excess shall constitute additional Project income and shall be deposited and used in the same manner as other Project income. (c) Deficit in monthly payment. When the homebuyer's...

  13. The Behavioral Impacts of Flexible Working Hours

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents new results on the behavioral responses to flextime, a sysem of flexible working hours. Flextime is of particular interest as a transportation systems management strategy that has potentially significant impacts on work schedules,...

  14. TDM Status Report: Variable Work Hours

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-08-01

    Work hour policies established by employers govern when employees travel to and from work. The policies influence not only the volume of employees traveling during peak traffic periods, but employee propensity to consider transit, carpooling and othe...

  15. Plant Operation: Exterior Maintenance, Work Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A pitched roof built over a flat roof prevented leaking at a Vermont school. The University of New Hampshire paint shop has a flexible scheduling system that allows employees to choose their work hours each day. (Author/MLF)

  16. Impact of states' nurse work hour regulations on overtime practices and work hours among registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Yoon, Jangho

    2014-10-01

    To examine the degree to which states' work hour regulations for nurses-policies regarding mandatory overtime and consecutive work hours-decrease mandatory overtime practice and hours of work among registered nurses. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of registered nurses from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses for years 2004 and 2008. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the effect of the nurse work hour policies on the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, working more than 40 hours per week, and working more than 60 hours per week for all staff nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. The mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour regulations were significantly associated with 3.9 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working overtime mandatorily and 11.5 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working more than 40 hours per week, respectively. State mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour policies are effective in reducing nurse work hours. The consecutive work hour policy appears to be a better regulatory tool for reducing long work hours for nurses. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Delinking resident duty hours from patient safety

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a powerful motivating force for change in modern medicine, and is often cited as a rationale for reducing resident duty hours. However, current data suggest that resident duty hours are not significantly linked to important patient outcomes. We performed a narrative review and identified four potential explanations for these findings. First, we question the relevance of resident fatigue in the creation of harmful errors. Second, we discuss factors, including workload, experience, and individual characteristics, that may be more important determinants of resident fatigue than are duty hours. Third, we describe potential adverse effects that may arise from – and, therefore, counterbalance any potential benefits of – duty hour reductions. Fourth, we explore factors that may mitigate any risks to patient safety associated with using the services of resident trainees. In summary, it may be inappropriate to justify a reduction in working hours on the grounds of a presumed linkage between patient safety and resident duty hours. Better understanding of resident-related factors associated with patient safety will be essential if improvements in important patient safety outcomes are to be realized through resident-focused strategies. PMID:25561349

  18. Two- and 4-hour bright-light exposures differentially effect sleepiness and performance the subsequent night.

    PubMed

    Thessing, V C; Anch, A M; Muehlbach, M J; Schweitzer, P K; Walsh, J K

    1994-03-01

    The effect of two durations of bright light upon sleepiness and performance during typical night shift hours was assessed. Thirty normal, healthy young adults participated in a 2-night protocol. On the 1st night subjects were exposed to bright or dim light beginning at 2400 hours, under one of the following three conditions: bright light for 4 hours, dim light for 2 hours followed by bright light for 2 hours or dim light for 4 hours. Following light exposure, subjects remained awake until 0800 hours in a dimly lit room and slept in the laboratory between 0800 and 1600 hours, during which time sleep was estimated with actigraphy. Throughout the 2nd night, the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), simulated assembly line task (SALT) performance, and subjective sleepiness were recorded. The single, 4-hour exposure to bright light was found to significantly increase MSLT scores and improve SALT performance during the early morning hours on the night following bright-light exposure. No significant effects were noted with a 2-hour exposure. The most likely explanation for these findings is a phase delay in the circadian rhythm of sleepiness-alertness.

  19. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  20. Distinct Evening Fatigue Profiles in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Cooper, Bruce A.; Conley, Yvette P.; Hammer, Marilyn J.; Chen, Lee-May; Paul, Steven M.; Levine, Jon D.; Miaskowski, Christine; Kober, Kord M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Fatigue is the most common and debilitating symptom experienced by oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Fatigue severity demonstrates a large amount of inter-individual and diurnal variability. Purpose Study purposes were to evaluate for subgroups of patients with distinct evening fatigue profiles and evaluate how these subgroups differed on demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics. Methods Outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer (n=1332) completed questionnaires six times over two cycles of CTX. Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) evaluated evening fatigue severity. Latent profile analysis was used to identify distinct evening fatigue profiles. Results Four distinct evening fatigue classes (i.e., Low (14.0%), Moderate (17.2%), High (36.0%), Very High (32.8%)) were identified. Compared to the Low class, patients in the Very High evening fatigue class were: younger, female, had childcare responsibilities, had more years of education, had a lower functional status, had a higher comorbidity burden, and were diagnosed with breast cancer. Patients in the Very High class reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, and evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusions Findings provide new insights into modifiable risk factors for higher levels of evening fatigue. Clinicians can use this information to identify higher risk patients and plan appropriate interventions. PMID:29725554

  1. Hourly Updated GNSS Orbit and Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Xue, J.

    2016-12-01

    With the development of the performance of GNSS, the hourly updated orbit and clock of GNSS are paid much more attention and used by more and more users because of the timeliness and high accuracy. The hourly GNSS orbit and clock are produced routinely in Shanghai Analysis Center(AC) of the International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service (iGMAS).In this article, the accuracy of hourly and 6-hourly updated ultra-rapid GPS,GLONASS,GALILEO,BDS orbit and clock (SHU1 and SHU6) are analyzed relative to the final production in detail. The analysis show that, in calculation session, there's no much difference between the mean SHU1 and SHU6 RMS and STD for GNSS orbit and clock. However, for BDS clock in prediction session, the RMS and STD of BDS SHU1 are 2.6ns and 0.5ns respectively, the RMS of BDS SHU6 increase from 2.7ns to 4.5ns from the 1st to the 6th hour prediction session, but there's no much changes of STD. For GPS clock in prediction session, the RMS and STD of GPS SHU1 is quite stable with 0.5ns and 0.2ns.The RMS of GPS SHU6 clock increase from 0.6ns to 1.0ns from the 1st to the 6th hour, but STD is stable at about 0.2ns.For the orbit in calculate session, the RMS of BDS SHU1 is a little less than that of SHU6,the RMS of GPS SHU1 and SHU6 orbit are approximately at the same level. In prediction session, the RMS of IGSO/MEO for BDS SHU1 is relative stable, but the RMS of SHU6 1st-6th hour prediction session increase from about 26.5cm to 32.7cm. The RMS of GPS SHU1 orbit's prediction session is about 3.4cm,but which increase from 3.3cm to 4.3cm for GPS SHU6 1st-6th hour prediction session.The comparison of GLONASS and GALILEO orbit and clock also will be described.The results show that the hourly update is more important for BDS at this stage.Moreover,some problems appearing in satellites and stations can be found earlier by 1 hourly updated frequency.

  2. Impact of States’ Nurse Work Hour Regulations on Overtime Practices and Work Hours among Registered Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Yoon, Jangho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the degree to which states’ work hour regulations for nurses—policies regarding mandatory overtime and consecutive work hours—decrease mandatory overtime practice and hours of work among registered nurses. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of registered nurses from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses for years 2004 and 2008. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the effect of the nurse work hour policies on the likelihood of working mandatory overtime, working more than 40 hours per week, and working more than 60 hours per week for all staff nurses working in hospitals and nursing homes. Principal Findings The mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour regulations were significantly associated with 3.9 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working overtime mandatorily and 11.5 percentage-point decreases in the likelihood of working more than 40 hours per week, respectively. Conclusions State mandatory overtime and consecutive work hour policies are effective in reducing nurse work hours. The consecutive work hour policy appears to be a better regulatory tool for reducing long work hours for nurses. PMID:24779701

  3. When Mothers' Work Matters for Youths' Daily Time Use: Implications of Evening and Weekend Shifts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Crouter, Ann C

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers' evening and weekend shifts for youths' time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts. Youths whose mothers worked more weekend shifts, however, spent more time with their mothers and exhibited less consistency in their time in all three activity domains compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer weekend shifts. Girls, not boys, spent less time alone on days when mothers worked weekend shifts than on days with standard shifts. Older but not younger adolescents spent more time hanging out with friends on evening and weekend shift days, and their unsupervised peer time was less consistent across days when mothers worked more evening shifts. These effects adjusted for sociodemographic and day characteristics, including school day, number of children in the household, mothers' marital status and work hours, and time with fathers. Our results illuminate the importance of the timing and day of mothers' work for youths' daily activities. Future interventions should consider how to increase mothers' resources to deal with constraints on parenting due to their work during nonstandard hours, with attention to child gender and age.

  4. Infant botulism, type F, presenting at 54 hours of life.

    PubMed

    Keet, Corinne A; Fox, Christine K; Margeta, Marta; Marco, Elysa; Shane, Andi L; Dearmond, Stephen J; Strober, Jonathan B; Miller, Steven P

    2005-03-01

    We report a case of botulism in a 54-hour-old infant with rapidly progressive fulminant paralysis and rapid spontaneous recovery atypical for infant botulism. Clostridium baratii and type F botulinum neurotoxin were isolated from the patient's stool. This unique presentation with rapid recovery is consistent with pharmacokinetics of type F botulinum neurotoxin. Interestingly, a muscle biopsy also revealed pathologic changes early in the disease course. This article reports the youngest known case of infant botulism and only the third reported case of this disease caused by type F neurotoxin. Botulism should be considered in patients of any age with subacute or acute neuromuscular weakness.

  5. Impact of in or out of office hours at admission time on outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Genbrugge, Cornelia; Viaene, Els; Meex, Ingrid; De Vadder, Katrien; Eertmans, Ward; Boer, Willem; Jans, Frank; De Deyne, Cathy; Dens, Jo; Ferdinande, Bert

    2017-08-01

    In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), neurological outcome is determined by the severity of neurological injury, early percutaneous coronary intervention, and application of neuroprotective temperature management. As this is a very time-intensive and manpower-intensive protocol, we hypothesized that there would be a difference in outcome between OHCA patients admitted during and out of office hours. We prospectively collected demographic data of OHCA patients in two hospitals. All patients included were treated at 33°C for 24 h, followed by a rewarming phase until 36.6°C. During office hours were defined as arriving between 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. on weekdays. Neurological outcome at 180 days was assessed following the Cerebral Performance Category scale. Forty-seven (31%) patients were admitted during office hours and 105 (69%) out of office hours (P=0.199). Patients admitted during office hours were significantly older, respectively, 66±14 and 59±15 years (P=0.014). There was no significant difference between both groups in the number of patients who underwent coronary angiography, door to angiography time, and number of affected vessels. The median time spent in the target range of PaO2, PaCO2, and lactate was also not significantly different. We found no significant difference in survival until 180 days between both groups (P=0.599), even after adjustment for age (95% confidence interval: 0.44-1.90, hazard ratio: 0.912). Survival until 180 days between OHCA patients admitted during office hours or out of office hours was not significantly different in two hospitals with a fixed protocol for neuroprotection and 24/7 streamlined access to coronary angiography.

  6. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  10. Fiber Coupled Laser Diodes with Even Illumination Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An optical fiber for evenly illuminating a target. The optical fiber is coupled to a laser emitting diode and receives laser light. The la ser light travels through the fiber optic and exits at an exit end. T he exit end has a diffractive optical pattern formed thereon via etch ing, molding or cutting, to reduce the Gaussian profile present in co nventional fiber optic cables The reduction of the Gaussian provides an even illumination from the fiber optic cable.

  11. Break-even zones for cable yarding by log size

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    The use of cable logging to extract small pieces of residue wood may result in low rates of production and a high cost per unit of wood produced. However, the logging manager can improve yarding productivity and break-even in cable residue removal operations by using the proper planning techniques. In this study, break-even zones for specific young-growth stands were...

  12. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  13. Making residency work hour rules work.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    In July 2011, the ACGME implemented new rules that limit interns to 16 hours of work in a row, but continue to allow 2nd-year and higher resident physicians to work for up to 28 consecutive hours. Whether the ACGME's 2011 work hour limits went too far or did not go far enough has been hotly debated. In this article, we do not seek to re-open the debate about whether these standards get matters exactly right. Instead, we wish to address the issue of effective enforcement. That is, now that new work hour limits have been established, and given that the ACGME has been unable to enforce work hour limits effectively on its own, what is the best way to make sure the new limits are followed in order to reduce harm to residents, patients, and others due to sleep-deprived residents? We focus on three possible national approaches to the problem, one rooted in funding, one rooted in disclosure, and one rooted in tort law. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. Work hours and absenteeism among police officers.

    PubMed

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Hartley, Tara A; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also stratified by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 - 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 - 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, > or = 3 consecutive days).

  15. Work Hours and Absenteeism Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Baughman, Penelope; Charles, Luenda E.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cross-sectional association of paid work hours with episodes of work absence was examined in a cohort of police officers. Study subjects were participants from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009. Among 395 study participants with complete data, day-by-day work history records during the one-year period prior to date of examination were used to determine episodes of one-day and three day work absence. The Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine rate ratios (RR) of work absence. Analyses were also by gender. A one-hour increase in total work hours was associated with 5% reduction in rate of stratified one-day work absence (RR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 – 0.98) and with 8% reduction in rate of three-day work absence (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89 – 0.95). The association of total work hours with episodes of one-day work absence was significant only in men while the association with episodes of three-day work absence was evident in men and women. In conclusion, in this cohort of police officers, work hours were negatively associated with both durations of work absence (one-day, ≥ 3 consecutive days). PMID:24707589

  16. The hockey-stick method to estimate evening dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in humans.

    PubMed

    Danilenko, Konstantin V; Verevkin, Evgeniy G; Antyufeev, Viktor S; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    The onset of melatonin secretion in the evening is the most reliable and most widely used index of circadian timing in humans. Saliva (or plasma) is usually sampled every 0.5-1 hours under dim-light conditions in the evening 5-6 hours before usual bedtime to assess the dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). For many years, attempts have been made to find a reliable objective determination of melatonin onset time either by fixed or dynamic threshold approaches. The here-developed hockey-stick algorithm, used as an interactive computer-based approach, fits the evening melatonin profile by a piecewise linear-parabolic function represented as a straight line switching to the branch of a parabola. The switch point is considered to reliably estimate melatonin rise time. We applied the hockey-stick method to 109 half-hourly melatonin profiles to assess the DLMOs and compared these estimates to visual ratings from three experts in the field. The DLMOs of 103 profiles were considered to be clearly quantifiable. The hockey-stick DLMO estimates were on average 4 minutes earlier than the experts' estimates, with a range of -27 to +13 minutes; in 47% of the cases the difference fell within ±5 minutes, in 98% within -20 to +13 minutes. The raters' and hockey-stick estimates showed poor accordance with DLMOs defined by threshold methods. Thus, the hockey-stick algorithm is a reliable objective method to estimate melatonin rise time, which does not depend on a threshold value and is free from errors arising from differences in subjective circadian phase estimates. The method is available as a computerized program that can be easily used in research settings and clinical practice either for salivary or plasma melatonin values.

  17. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM 10 , NO 2 , and O 3 ) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged <15 years at 19pm, while temperature was hottest at 13pm. The hourly heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethical aspects of limiting residents' work hours.

    PubMed

    Wiesing, Urban

    2007-09-01

    The regulation of residents' work hours involves several ethical conflicts which need to be systematically analysed and evaluated. ARGUMENTS AND CONCLUSION: The most important ethical principle when regulating work hours is to avoid the harm resulting from the over-work of physicians and from an excessive division of labour. Additionally, other ethical principles have to be taken into account, in particular the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence for future patients and for physicians. The article presents arguments for balancing the relevant ethical principles and analyses the structural difficulties that occur unavoidably in any regulation of the complex activities of physicians.

  19. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers’ feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (<10 years in the U.S.) immigrant mothers and children. For children, height and weight measurements were transformed into BMI z-scores using age-and sex-specific CDC standards and categorized as overweight (85th–94th percentile) and obese (≥95th percentile); mothers’ BMI was calculated. Frequency of evening family meals, eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low

  20. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Must, Aviva; Hughes, Sheryl O; Gute, David M; Sliwa, Sarah; Boulos, Rebecca J; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Tofuri, Kerline; Pirie, Alex; Economos, Christina D

    2013-06-26

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers' feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (<10 years in the U.S.) immigrant mothers and children. For children, height and weight measurements were transformed into BMI z-scores using age-and sex-specific CDC standards and categorized as overweight (85th–94th percentile) and obese (≥95th percentile); mothers’ BMI was calculated. Frequency of evening family meals, eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding

  1. Unrestricted evening use of light-emitting tablet computers delays self-selected bedtime and disrupts circadian timing and alertness.

    PubMed

    Chinoy, Evan D; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-05-01

    Consumer electronic devices play an important role in modern society. Technological advancements continually improve their utility and portability, making possible the near-constant use of electronic devices during waking hours. For most people, this includes the evening hours close to bedtime. Evening exposure to light-emitting (LE) devices can adversely affect circadian timing, sleep, and alertness, even when participants maintain a fixed 8-hour sleep episode in darkness and the duration of evening LE-device exposure is limited. Here, we tested the effects of evening LE-device use when participants were allowed to self-select their bedtimes, with wake times fixed as on work/school days. Nine healthy adults (3 women, 25.7 ± 3.0 years) participated in a randomized and counterbalanced study comparing five consecutive evenings of unrestricted LE-tablet computer use versus evenings reading from printed materials. On evenings when using LE-tablets, participants' self-selected bedtimes were on average half an hour later (22:03 ± 00:48 vs. 21:32 ± 00:27 h; P = 0.030), and they showed suppressed melatonin levels (54.17 ± 18.00 vs. 9.75 ± 22.75%; P < 0.001), delayed timing of melatonin secretion onset (20:23 ± 01:06 vs. 19:35 ± 00:59 h; P < 0.001), and later sleep onset (22:25 ± 00:54 vs. 21:54 ± 00:25 h; P = 0.041). When using LE-tablets, participants rated themselves as less sleepy in the evenings (P = 0.030) and less alert in the first hour after awakening on the following mornings (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that evening use of LE-tablets can induce delays in self-selected bedtimes, suppress melatonin secretion, and impair next-morning alertness, which may impact the health, performance, and safety of users. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Disturbance influences oyster community richness and evenness, but not diversity.

    PubMed

    Kimbro, David L; Grosholz, Edwin D

    2006-09-01

    Foundation species in space-limited systems can increase diversity by creating habitat, but they may also reduce diversity by excluding primary space competitors. These contrasting forces of increasing associate diversity and suppressing competitor diversity have rarely been examined experimentally with respect to disturbance. In a benthic marine community in central California, where native oysters are a foundation species, we tested how disturbance influenced overall species richness, evenness, and diversity. Surprisingly, overall diversity did not peak across a disturbance gradient because, as disturbance decreased, decreases in overall species evenness opposed increases in overall species richness. Decreasing disturbance intensity (high oyster abundance) led to increasing species richness of sessile and mobile species combined. This increase was due to the facilitation of secondary sessile and mobile species in the presence of oysters. In contrast, decreasing disturbance intensity and high oyster abundance decreased the evenness of sessile and mobile species. Three factors likely contributed to this decreased evenness: oysters reduced abundances of primary sessile species due to space competition; oysters supported more rare mobile species; and oysters disproportionately increased the relative abundance of a few common mobile species. Our results highlight the need for further studies on how disturbance can differentially affect the evenness and richness of different functional groups, and ultimately how these differences affect the relationship between overall diversity and ecosystem function.

  3. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  4. Geogrid reinforced road subgrade influence on the pavement evenness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiukščius, A.; Vorobjovas, V.; Vaitkus, A.

    2018-05-01

    As a result of increasing geogrid reinforcement applications in the road subgrade, there are number of projects where geogrid reinforcement is used to control road pavement evenness when there are small layers of peat or mud deeper under road construction. For this task geogrid reinforcement application is not documented but widely used in Lithuania for over a decade. This paper evaluates the long term influence of the geogrid reinforced soil influence on the road surface evenness, when the organic soils stratify in the deeper layers of the subgrade. The geological conditions of the investigated sections are reviewed. The experiment methodology and test results are described, which leads to the conclusions and insights how the pavement evenness depend on the geological conditions and its enhancement. The question is raised about the need for including this geogrid application to the normative documentation. Explanation of the problems that are encountered and the need for further research is given.

  5. Trajectories of Evening Fatigue in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is a distressing, persistent sense of physical tiredness that is not proportional to a person’s recent activity. Fatigue impacts patients’ treatment decisions and can limit their self-care activities. While significant interindividual variability in fatigue severity has been noted, little is known about predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of evening fatigue severity in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy (CTX). Objectives To determine whether demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the evening fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients who were White, diagnosed with breast, gynecological, or lung cancer, and who had more years of education, child care responsibilities, lower functional status, and higher levels of sleep disturbance and depression reported higher levels of evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusion This study identified both non-modifiable (e.g., ethnicity) and modifiable (e.g., child care responsibilities, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance) risk factors for more severe evening fatigue. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828560

  6. Wage and Hour Farm Labor Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Catherine

    This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…

  7. The Power Hour of Homework Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1991

    This booklet describes the Power Hour of Homework program for elementary school through secondary school students, including tips on implementing the program at home (i.e., checking homework, talking to the teacher, determining the correct amount of homework time for individual students) and survey responses to questions from parents and students.…

  8. Stunden-abstract (Class-Hour Plan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann, Heinz-Otto

    1977-01-01

    Offers a class-hour plan for Grade 11 on the theme of "James Thurber, 'The Peacelike Mongoose' - Discussion of Text," dividing the treatment into stages: Introduction and Reading, Text Elucidation, Comprehension Check, Summarizing Content, Reflection, Written Homework. Possible alternative approaches are discussed. (Text is in German.)…

  9. Accommodating to Restrictions on Residents' Working Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Henry W., Jr.; Seltzer, Vicki L.

    1991-01-01

    In response to New York State legislation limiting house staff working hours, a survey of obstetrics and gynecology resident programs (n=26) was conducted. Results were used to construct a prototype call schedule and a hypothetical monthly schedule indicating how a single resident would function without violating any state regulations. (MSE)

  10. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  11. Variable Work Hours--The MONY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cynthia J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment with variable work hours in one department of a large company was so successful that it has become standard procedure in various corporate areas, both staff and line. The result? Increased production, fewer errors, improved employee morale, and a significant reduction in lateness and absenteeism. (Author)

  12. 29 CFR 783.46 - Hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES... at not less than the prescribed minimum wage rate for all of the hours the employee “was actually on duty (including periods aboard ship when the employee was on watch or was, at the direction of a...

  13. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U..., prescribes certain rest periods, and prohibits unnecessary work on Sundays and certain holidays when the...; or, (d) Performing fire, lifeboat, or other drills in port or at sea. [CGD 81-059, 52 FR 38652, Oct...

  14. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U..., prescribes certain rest periods, and prohibits unnecessary work on Sundays and certain holidays when the..., (d) Performing fire, lifeboat, or other drills in port or at sea. [CGD 81-059, 52 FR 38652, Oct. 16...

  15. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U..., prescribes certain rest periods, and prohibits unnecessary work on Sundays and certain holidays when the...; or, (d) Performing fire, lifeboat, or other drills in port or at sea. [CGD 81-059, 52 FR 38652, Oct...

  16. 46 CFR 15.710 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.710 Working hours. In addition to prescribing watch requirements, 46 U..., prescribes certain rest periods, and prohibits unnecessary work on Sundays and certain holidays when the...; or, (d) Performing fire, lifeboat, or other drills in port or at sea. [CGD 81-059, 52 FR 38652, Oct...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1224 - Visiting hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Visiting hours. 13.1224 Section 13.1224 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Katmai National Park and Preserve Brooks Camp...

  18. Apparatus Producing an Even Distribution of Strain into Carries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabovský, Leopold

    2017-10-01

    In many high-rise residential buildings or multi-storey warehouses, machinery, so called lifts, is used for the vertical transportation of people or weights between two or more altitudinally distant places. Carriers used for lifts are steel ropes or sprocket chains, on which a cage or a counterbalance is hinged. Apparatus of all carriers, attached to the hinge of the cage or counterbalance, should be even. This can be made only by hammer hinge. Fixed or springe hinge cannot be a perfect equalizing apparatus. This article describes an apparatus, which allows an even distribution of the strain into lift carriers, which use springe hinge of carrier ropes.

  19. First Hours of the GW170817 Kilonova: Why So Blue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Now that the hubbub of GW170817 the first coincident detection of gravitational waves and an electromagnetic signature has died down, scientists are left with the task of taking the spectrum-spanning observations and piecing them together into a coherent picture. Researcher Iair Arcavi examines one particular question: what caused the blue color in the early hours of the neutron-star merger?Observations of the GW170817 kilonova by Hubble over a week-long span. [ESA/Hubble]Early ColorWhen the two neutron stars of GW170817 merged in August of last year, they produced not only gravitational waves, but a host of electromagnetic signatures. Chief among these was a flare of emission thought to be powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements formed in the merger a kilonova.The emission during a kilonova can come from a number of different sources from the heavy-element-rich tidal tails of the disrupting neutron stars, or from fast, light polar jets, or from a wind or a disk outflow and each of these components could reveal different information about the original neutron stars and the merger.Its therefore important that we understand the sources of the emission that we observed in the GW170817 kilonova. In particular, wed like to know where the early blue emission came from that was spotted in the first hours of the kilonova.The combined ultravioletopticalinfrared light curve of the GW170817 kilonova. The rise in the emission occurs on roughly a day-long timescale. [Arcavi 2018]Comparing ModelsTo explore this question, Iair Arcavi (Einstein Fellow at University of California, Santa Barbara and Las Cumbres Observatory) compiled infrared through ultraviolet observations of the GW170817 kilonova from nearly 20 different telescopes. To try to distinguish between possible sources, Arcavi then compared the resulting combined light curves to a variety of models.Arcavi found that the light curves for the GW170817 kilonova indicate an initial 24-hour rise of emission. This

  20. Long working hours and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Infant self-regulation and early childhood media exposure.

    PubMed

    Radesky, Jenny S; Silverstein, Michael; Zuckerman, Barry; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2014-05-01

    Examine prospective associations between parent-reported early childhood self-regulation problems and media exposure (television and video viewing) at 2 years. We hypothesized that children with poor self-regulation would consume more media, possibly as a parent coping strategy. We used data from 7450 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. When children were 9 months and 2 years old, parents completed the Infant Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSC), a validated scale of self-regulation. With daily media use at 2 years as our outcome, we conducted weighted multivariable regression analyses, controlling for child, maternal, and household characteristics. Children watched an average of 2.3 hours per day (SD 1.9) of media at age 2 years. Infants with poor self-regulation (9-month ITSC score ≥3) viewed 0.23 hour per day (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.35) more media at 2 years compared with those with 9-month ITSC score of 0 to 2; this remained significant in adjusted models (0.15 hour per day [95% CI 0.02-0.28]). Children rated as having persistent self-regulation problems (ITSC ≥3 at both 9 months and 2 years) were even more likely to consume media at age 2 (adjusted β 0.21 hour per day [95% CI 0.03-0.39]; adjusted odds ratio for >2 hours per day 1.40 [95% CI 1.14-1.71]). These associations were slightly stronger in low socioeconomic status and English-speaking households. Early childhood self-regulation problems are associated with mildly increased media exposure, even after controlling for important confounding variables. Understanding this relationship may provide insight into helping parents reduce their children's screen time. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Metabolic reprogramming: a cancer hallmark even warburg did not anticipate.

    PubMed

    Ward, Patrick S; Thompson, Craig B

    2012-03-20

    Cancer metabolism has long been equated with aerobic glycolysis, seen by early biochemists as primitive and inefficient. Despite these early beliefs, the metabolic signatures of cancer cells are not passive responses to damaged mitochondria but result from oncogene-directed metabolic reprogramming required to support anabolic growth. Recent evidence suggests that metabolites themselves can be oncogenic by altering cell signaling and blocking cellular differentiation. No longer can cancer-associated alterations in metabolism be viewed as an indirect response to cell proliferation and survival signals. We contend that altered metabolism has attained the status of a core hallmark of cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evening daylight may cause adolescents to sleep less in spring than in winter

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G.; Rea, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep restriction commonly experienced by adolescents can stem from greater sleep pressure by the homeostatic processes and from phase delays of the circadian system. With regard to the latter potential cause, we hypothesized that because there is more natural evening light during the spring than winter, a sample of adolescent students would be more phase delayed in spring than in winter, would have later sleep onset times and, because of fixed school schedules, would have shorter sleep durations. Sixteen eighth-grade subjects were recruited for the study. We collected sleep logs and saliva samples to determine their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a well-established circadian marker. Actual circadian light exposures experienced by a subset of twelve subjects over the course of seven days in winter and in spring using a personal, head-worn, circadian light measurement device are also reported here. Results showed that this sample of adolescents was exposed to significantly more circadian light in spring than in winter, especially in the evening hours when light exposure would likely delay circadian phase. Consistent with the light data, DLMO and sleep onset times were significantly more delayed, and sleep durations were significantly shorter in spring than in winter. The present ecological study of light, circadian phase, and self-reported sleep suggests that greater access to evening daylight in the spring may lead to sleep restriction in adolescents while attending school. Therefore, lighting schemes that reduce evening light in the spring may encourage longer sleep times in adolescents. PMID:20653452

  4. Growing stock levels in even-aged ponderosa pine

    Clifford A. Myers

    1967-01-01

    Growth of the most widely distributed pine in North America is under joint study by the western Forest and Range Experiment Stations of the U. S. Forest Service. Young, even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands are being examined over a wide range of tree sizes, stand densities, and site index. The single plan that co-...

  5. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  6. Turning Points in Even Start Programs. Occasional Paper #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy

    To investigate the initial experiences of the various Even Start programs, a project developed a survey that was sent to program coordinators in Ohio. It asked open-ended questions to get descriptions and perceptions of situations that preceded turning point events and the turning point events themselves. Data from eight programs highlighted their…

  7. Evenness indices measure the signal strength of biweight site chronologies

    Kurt H. Riitters

    1990-01-01

    The signal strength of a biweight site chronology is properly viewed as an outcome of analysis rather than as a property of the forest-climate system. It can be estimated by the evenness of the empirical weights that are assigned to individual trees. The approach is demonstrated for a 45-year biweight chronology obtained from 40 jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees...

  8. Alignments of parity even/odd-only multipoles in CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Ralston, John P.; Weltman, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    We compare the statistics of parity even and odd multipoles of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky from Planck full mission temperature measurements. An excess power in odd multipoles compared to even multipoles has previously been found on large angular scales. Motivated by this apparent parity asymmetry, we evaluate directional statistics associated with even compared to odd multipoles, along with their significances. Primary tools are the Power tensor and Alignment tensor statistics. We limit our analysis to the first 60 multipoles i.e. l = [2, 61]. We find no evidence for statistically unusual alignments of even parity multipoles. More than one independent statistic finds evidence for alignments of anisotropy axes of odd multipoles, with a significance equivalent to ∼2σ or more. The robustness of alignment axes is tested by making Galactic cuts and varying the multipole range. Very interestingly, the region spanned by the (a)symmetry axes is found to broadly contain other parity (a)symmetry axes previously observed in the literature.

  9. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  10. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of even...

  11. Break-Even Point for a Proof Slip Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James F.

    1972-01-01

    Break-even analysis is applied to determine what magnitude of titles added per year is sufficient to utilize economically Library of Congress proof slips and a Xerox 914 copying machine in the cataloging operation of a library. A formula is derived, and an example of its use is given. (1 reference) (Author/SJ)

  12. Height prediction equations for even-aged upland oak stands

    Donald E. Hilt; Martin E. Dale

    1982-01-01

    Forest growth models that use predicted tree diameters or diameter distributions require a reliable height-prediction model to obtain volume estimates because future height-diameter relationships will not necessarily be the same as the present height-diameter relationship. A total tree height prediction equation for even-aged upland oak stands is presented. Predicted...

  13. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  14. Teatime Threats. Choking Incidents at the Evening Meal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Susan; Stansfield, Jois

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore caregiver perceptions of the socio-environmental issues around evening meal ("teatime") which influence choking. Methodology: A qualitative study of caregivers witnessing a choking incident was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews explored perceptions of the causes. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.…

  15. Even Wars Have Laws: Upholding an American Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhihetty, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the founding of this nation, Americans have lived by the belief that wars have laws. Even in the most morally-challenging times, the principles of international humanitarian law (IHL)--which provide basic protections for the vulnerable, such as civilians, prisoners of war, and sick and injured combatants--have been championed by leaders like…

  16. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  17. 1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular dark pieces of grass up through the middle of the picture indicating posts making up the pier. Photograph made from park service cherry picker. - Dyea Dock & Association (Ruins), Skagway, Skagway, AK

  18. A break-even analysis of delivering a memory clinic by videoconferencing.

    PubMed

    Comans, Tracy A; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Gray, Leonard C; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-10-01

    We analysed the costs of two kinds of dementia clinic. In the conventional clinic, held in a rural area, the specialist travels to the clinic from the city. In the videoconferencing clinic, patients are also seen in a rural area, but the specialist conducts the assessment by video from the city. The fixed costs common to both modalities, such as clinic infrastructure, were ignored. The total fixed cost of a monthly conventional clinic was $522 and the total fixed cost of a monthly videoconferencing clinic was $881. The additional variable cost of the specialist travelling to the conventional clinic was $2.62 per minute of the specialist's travelling time. The break-even point at which the cost of the two modalities is the same was just over two hours (138 min round trip). A sensitivity analysis showed that the break-even point was not particularly sensitive to changes in staff wages, but slightly more sensitive to the non labour costs of videoconferencing. Air travel is not an efficient alternative to travel by car. Reducing the number of clinics to six per year results in a much higher cost of running the videoconferencing service compared to the conventional service. Videoconferencing for the purpose of diagnosing dementia is both a reliable and cost effective method of health service provision when a specialist is required to drive for more than about two hours (round trip) to provide a memory disorder clinic service.

  19. Subjective versus objective evening chronotypes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anda; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Depp, Colin A; Miller, Shefali; Do, Dennis; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Ketter, Terence A

    2018-01-01

    Disturbed sleep timing is common in bipolar disorder (BD). However, most research is based upon self-reports. We examined relationships between subjective versus objective assessments of sleep timing in BD patients versus controls. We studied 61 individuals with bipolar I or II disorder and 61 healthy controls. Structured clinical interviews assessed psychiatric diagnoses, and clinician-administered scales assessed current mood symptom severity. For subjective chronotype, we used the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) questionnaire, using original and modified (1, ¾, ⅔, and ½ SD below mean CSM score) thresholds to define evening chronotype. Objective chronotype was calculated as the percentage of nights (50%, 66.7%, 75%, or 90% of all nights) with sleep interval midpoints at or before (non-evening chronotype) vs. after (evening chronotype) 04:15:00 (4:15:00a.m.), based on 25-50 days of continuous actigraph data. BD participants and controls differed significantly with respect to CSM mean scores and CSM evening chronotypes using modified, but not original, thresholds. Groups also differed significantly with respect to chronotype based on sleep interval midpoint means, and based on the threshold of 75% of sleep intervals with midpoints after 04:15:00. Subjective and objective chronotypes correlated significantly with one another. Twenty-one consecutive intervals were needed to yield an evening chronotype classification match of ≥ 95% with that made using the 75% of sleep intervals threshold. Limited sample size/generalizability. Subjective and objective chronotype measurements were correlated with one another in participants with BD. Using population-specific thresholds, participants with BD had a later chronotype than controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Forecasting Kp from solar wind data: input parameter study using 3-hour averages and 3-hour range values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintoft, Peter; Wik, Magnus; Matzka, Jürgen; Shprits, Yuri

    2017-11-01

    We have developed neural network models that predict Kp from upstream solar wind data. We study the importance of various input parameters, starting with the magnetic component Bz, particle density n, and velocity V and then adding total field B and the By component. As we also notice a seasonal and UT variation in average Kp we include functions of day-of-year and UT. Finally, as Kp is a global representation of the maximum range of geomagnetic variation over 3-hour UT intervals we conclude that sudden changes in the solar wind can have a big effect on Kp, even though it is a 3-hour value. Therefore, 3-hour solar wind averages will not always appropriately represent the solar wind condition, and we introduce 3-hour maxima and minima values to some degree address this problem. We find that introducing total field B and 3-hour maxima and minima, derived from 1-minute solar wind data, have a great influence on the performance. Due to the low number of samples for high Kp values there can be considerable variation in predicted Kp for different networks with similar validation errors. We address this issue by using an ensemble of networks from which we use the median predicted Kp. The models (ensemble of networks) provide prediction lead times in the range 20-90 min given by the time it takes a solar wind structure to travel from L1 to Earth. Two models are implemented that can be run with real time data: (1) IRF-Kp-2017-h3 uses the 3-hour averages of the solar wind data and (2) IRF-Kp-2017 uses in addition to the averages, also the minima and maxima values. The IRF-Kp-2017 model has RMS error of 0.55 and linear correlation of 0.92 based on an independent test set with final Kp covering 2 years using ACE Level 2 data. The IRF-Kp-2017-h3 model has RMSE = 0.63 and correlation = 0.89. We also explore the errors when tested on another two-year period with real-time ACE data which gives RMSE = 0.59 for IRF-Kp-2017 and RMSE = 0.73 for IRF-Kp-2017-h3. The errors as function

  1. A comparative analysis of alpha-decay half-lives for even-even 178Pb to 234U isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay from the even-even transitions of 178Pb to 234U isotopes has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The alpha decay half-lives are considered from different theoretical approaches using Semi-empirical formula of Poenaru et al. (SemFIS), the Universal Decay law (UDL) of Qi et al., Akrawy-Dorin formula of Akrawy and Poenaru (ADF), the Scaling law of Brown (SLB) and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al. (SLH). The numerical results obtained by the CPPM and compared with other method as well the experimental data.

  2. Alcohol outlet business hours and violent crime in New York state.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy P; Denson, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm places a significant strain on victims, perpetrators and society. The present research reports on how licensed alcohol outlet business hours may influence the reported incidence of interpersonal violence and the associated burden of disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol outlet business hours and violent crime in 2009 in New York State (excluding New York City). Regression analyses modeled the burden of disease for the violence associated with outlet business hours. Every 1 h increase in weekly outlet business hours was associated with a greater reported incidence of violent crimes generally, more reported aggravated assaults and more reported non-gun violence. The estimated cost from having licensed premises open after 1 a.m. was $194 million in 2009. The findings suggest that alcohol outlet business hours affect the incidence of reported violence even in regions that would not be considered to have severe problems with alcohol-fueled violence.

  3. The evening versus morning polypill utilization study: the TEMPUS rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Lafeber, Melvin; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bots, Michiel L; Thom, Simon; Webster, Ruth; Rodgers, Anthony; Visseren, Frank L J; Spiering, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    In clinical practice, blood pressure (BP)-lowering agents are generally prescribed for use in the morning, whereas (short-acting) statins are recommended for use in the evening. There is evidence that the reduction in LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) achieved with short-acting statins is superior when taken in the evening and reported improvement in BP control when aspirin and BP-lowering agents are taken in the evening. However, it is unclear whether the additional reduction in LDL-c and BP is offset by a reduction in adherence, given that taking medication in the evening may be less typical or convenient. There is therefore uncertainty concerning the best timing of administration of a cardiovascular combination pill such as the polypill. The aim of TEMPUS (NCT01506505), a prospective randomized open blinded endpoint (PROBE) crossover trial, is to evaluate whether there is a difference in LDL-c levels or 24-hour ambulatory BP in individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease when the cardiovascular polypill is taken in the evening compared to the morning. An additional aim is to assess the effect of the polypill on LDL-c and BP compared to the administration of separate pills of identically dosed components of the polypill. In total 75 participants with established cardiovascular disease or an intermediate to high risk for cardiovascular disease are randomly allocated to the sequence of three different treatments of 6-8 weeks: (1) the cardiovascular polypill (aspirin 75 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) in the evening; (2) the polypill in the morning; and (3) the use of the identically dosed agents in separate pills taken at different time points during the day. The primary endpoint is the difference in LDL-c and mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP. Secondary outcomes are the difference in relative risk reduction, biochemistry, platelet function and pulse wave analysis, participants' adherence, and acceptability. TEMPUS will

  4. Trends in the work hours of physicians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Staiger, Douglas O; Auerbach, David I; Buerhaus, Peter I

    2010-02-24

    Recent trends in hours worked by physicians may affect workforce needs but have not been thoroughly analyzed. To estimate trends in hours worked by US physicians and assess for association with physician fees. A retrospective analysis of trends in hours worked among US physicians using nationally representative workforce information from the US Census Bureau Current Population Survey between 1976 and 2008 (N = 116,733). Trends were estimated among all US physicians and by residency status, sex, age, and work setting. Trends in hours were compared with national trends in physician fees, and estimated separately for physicians located in metropolitan areas with high and low fees in 2001. Self-reported hours worked in the week before the survey. After remaining stable through the early 1990s, mean hours worked per week decreased by 7.2% between 1996 and 2008 among all physicians (from 54.9 hours per week in 1996-1998 to 51.0 hours per week in 2006-2008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-9.0%; P < .001). Excluding resident physicians, whose hours decreased by 9.8% (95% CI, 5.8%-13.7%; P < .001) in the last decade due to duty hour limits imposed in 2003, nonresident physician hours decreased by 5.7% (95% CI, 3.8%-7.7%; P < .001). The decrease in hours was largest for nonresident physicians younger than 45 years (7.4%; 95% CI, 4.7%-10.2%; P < .001) and working outside of the hospital (6.4%; 95% CI, 4.1%-8.7%; P < .001), and the decrease was smallest for those aged 45 years or older (3.7%; 95% CI, 1.0%-6.5%; P = .008) and working in the hospital (4.0%; 95% CI, 0.4%-7.6%; P = .03). After adjusting for inflation, mean physician fees decreased nationwide by 25% between 1995 and 2006, coincident with the decrease in physician hours. In 2001, mean physician hours were less than 49 hours per week in metropolitan areas with the lowest physician fees, whereas physician hours remained more than 52 hours per week elsewhere (P < .001 for difference). A steady decrease in hours

  5. Trends in the Work Hours of Physicians in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, Douglas O.; Auerbach, David I.; Buerhaus, Peter I.

    2010-01-01

    Context Recent trends in hours worked by physicians may affect workforce needs but have not been thoroughly analyzed. Objectives To estimate trends in hours worked by US physicians and assess for association with physician fees. Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective analysis of trends in hours worked among US physicians using nationally representative workforce information from the US Census Bureau Current Population Survey between 1976 and 2008 (N=116 733). Trends were estimated among all US physicians and by residency status, sex, age, and work setting. Trends in hours were compared with national trends in physician fees, and estimated separately for physicians located in metropolitan areas with high and low fees in 2001. Main Outcome Measure Self-reported hours worked in the week before the survey. Results After remaining stable through the early 1990s, mean hours worked per week decreased by 7.2% between 1996 and 2008 among all physicians (from 54.9 hours per week in 1996–1998 to 51.0 hours per week in 2006–2008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%–9.0%; P<.001). Excluding resident physicians, whose hours decreased by 9.8% (95% CI, 5.8%–13.7%; P<.001) in the last decade due to duty hour limits imposed in 2003, nonresident physician hours decreased by 5.7% (95% CI, 3.8%–7.7%; P<.001). The decrease in hours was largest for nonresident physicians younger than 45 years (7.4%; 95% CI, 4.7%–10.2%; P<.001) and working outside of the hospital (6.4%; 95% CI, 4.1%–8.7%; P<.001), and the decrease was smallest for those aged 45 years or older (3.7%; 95% CI, 1.0%–6.5%; P=.008) and working in the hospital (4.0%; 95% CI, 0.4%–7.6%; P=.03). After adjusting for inflation, mean physician fees decreased nationwide by 25% between 1995 and 2006, coincident with the decrease in physician hours. In 2001, mean physician hours were less than 49 hours per week in metropolitan areas with the lowest physician fees, whereas physician hours remained more than 52

  6. Impact of the recent reduction in working hours (the 80 hour work week) on surgical resident cancer education.

    PubMed

    Vetto, John T; Robbins, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Resident work hours were recently reduced to 80 hours per week by a mandate from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and subsequent Federal law (HR 3236). This mandate became effective July 1st, 2003. We sought to determine any impact this change had on perceived and real resident cancer education and knowledge. Of the total 85 residents in our large, university-based surgical training program, we focused on the 40 who had been in the clinical program (rather than research) before and after the work hour reduction. Perceived impact on cancer education was determined by survey, and real impact by before (2002) and after (2004) scores on the overall and cancer-specific portion of the annual American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). All eligible residents responded to the survey. The majority (83% to 85%) indicated that exposure to cancer patients on wards and in clinics remained the same. Thirty percent felt that their exposure to cancer operations and tumor boards had decreased; 60% to 65% felt that exposure to these activities were unchanged. Approximately half of residents reported an increase in their cancer-related reading and Internet learning activities--the other half felt they had not changed. The majority (88%) reported no change in their participation in extraprogrammatic cancer-related continuing medical education activities. Of the survey responders, 23 had completed the ABSITE in both 2002 and 2004; their mean scores between the 2 time periods increased by 7% for the overall test and decreased by 3% for the cancer-specific portion. Overall, the recent reduction in work hours does not appear to have changed residents' experience with cancer patient care, although possible early reductions in attendance at cancer operations and tumor boards merits further study and possibly future schedule changes. The reported perceived increase in cancer-related reading and Internet learning has not yet translated into improved

  7. [Economic assessment of low flow anesthesia with analysis of the break-even point. Experience at an underutilized operating room].

    PubMed

    Varesio, V; Agosta, I; Masullo, F; Malnati, R; Martegani, G M

    1997-04-01

    Many authors indicate the importance of economic saving obtained with the use of the inhalation rebreathing anaesthesia instead of non rebreathing anaesthesia, always referring to parameters which are the duration of anesthesia (1 hour) and the use of the operating theatre each year. It is presumed that the utilization of rebreathing system is at least a 1.000 hours/year. However it is not necessary that all the operating theatres employ 1.000 hours/year in rebreathing anesthesia. This method requires annual depreciation costs of the capital invested for the purchase of new adequate ventilators, to modificative those already existing and guarantee adequate monitoring and the maintenance of these equipment. The importance is stressed of individuating a method of economical evaluation comparing the effective savings obtained with the real utilization of rebreathing anesthesia for each operating theatre and the costs of purchasing and maintaining the equipment. From our point of view the break-even point analysis has demonstrated to be a consistent instrument for the evaluation of the real economic advantage of rebreathing system in each hospital. It is suggested to utilize a conventional formula for the determination of the break even point, which means the minimal number of hours for year that justifies economically the adoption of rebreathing anaesthesia. An example of this analysis has been applied for an operating theatre in the hospital of Morbegno, where the major utilization of regional anaesthesia leads to a reduced number hours/year of rebreathing anesthesia which remains anyhow economically advantageous.

  8. Late-night hours draw busy patients.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    Planned Parenthood of Houston and southeast Texas is currently implementing a reproductive health care clinic with night-time hours. The clinic provides for the reproductive health care needs of college students with after-class jobs, women with two jobs or with night-shift employment, and all other women who do not have time to go to a daytime clinic. The clinic operates twice a month on Fridays and was initially open 10:30 p.m. - 7 a.m., but now it has changed its hours to 7:30 p.m. - 3:30 a.m. The clinic is staffed by one clinician and two clinic assistants, which attend to an average of 17-22 patients per night's schedule. Women who use the clinic keep their appointments better and do not have to wait so long for care.

  9. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciT

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  10. Fermilab | Visit Fermilab | Hours, Maps and Directions

    , which also includes days that our main building and exhibits are closed. Hours Fermilab's site is open Education Center. The ground and first floor of Wilson Hall are open to the public every day from 8 a.m.-5 , are on Wilson Hall's 15th floor. It is open to the public Monday to Friday, 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m., and on

  11. Multicenter Evaluation of a 0-Hour/1-Hour Algorithm in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction With High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Christ, Michael; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jorge; deFilippi, Christopher; McCord, James; Body, Richard; Panteghini, Mauro; Jernberg, Tomas; Plebani, Mario; Verschuren, Franck; French, John; Christenson, Robert; Weiser, Silvia; Bendig, Garnet; Dilba, Peter; Lindahl, Bertil

    2016-07-01

    We aim to prospectively validate the diagnostic accuracy of the recently developed 0-h/1-h algorithm, using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) for the early rule-out and rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. We enrolled patients presenting with suspected acute myocardial infarction and recent (<6 hours) onset of symptoms to the emergency department in a global multicenter diagnostic study. Hs-cTnT (Roche Diagnostics) and sensitive cardiac troponin I (Siemens Healthcare) were measured at presentation and after 1 hour, 2 hours, and 4 to 14 hours in a central laboratory. Patient triage according to the predefined hs-cTnT 0-hour/1-hour algorithm (hs-cTnT below 12 ng/L and Δ1 hour below 3 ng/L to rule out; hs-cTnT at least 52 ng/L or Δ1 hour at least 5 ng/L to rule in; remaining patients to the "observational zone") was compared against a centrally adjudicated final diagnosis by 2 independent cardiologists (reference standard). The final diagnosis was based on all available information, including coronary angiography and echocardiography results, follow-up data, and serial measurements of sensitive cardiac troponin I, whereas adjudicators remained blinded to hs-cTnT. Among 1,282 patients enrolled, acute myocardial infarction was the final diagnosis for 213 (16.6%) patients. Applying the hs-cTnT 0-hour/1-hour algorithm, 813 (63.4%) patients were classified as rule out, 184 (14.4%) were classified as rule in, and 285 (22.2%) were triaged to the observational zone. This resulted in a negative predictive value and sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction of 99.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 98.2% to 99.7%) and 96.7% (95% CI 93.4% to 98.7%) in the rule-out zone (7 patients with false-negative results), a positive predictive value and specificity for acute myocardial infarction of 77.2% (95% CI 70.4% to 83.0%) and 96.1% (95% CI 94.7% to 97.2%) in the rule-in zone, and a prevalence of acute myocardial infarction of 22.5% in the observational zone. The hs

  12. Even Illumination from Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    A method of equipping fiber-optic-coupled laser diodes to evenly illuminate specified fields of view has been proposed. The essence of the method is to shape the tips of the optical fibers into suitably designed diffractive optical elements. One of the main benefits afforded by the method would be more nearly complete utilization of the available light. Diffractive optics is a relatively new field of optics in which laser beams are shaped by use of diffraction instead of refraction.

  13. Even "unconscious thought" is influenced by attentional mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Mukherjee, Sumitava

    2014-02-01

    In this commentary, we focus on the role of attentional mechanisms in unconscious thought. We argue that even distracted or unconscious thought is capacity limited and differences in scope of attention influence processing during unconscious thought. Attention also would influence processes at different stages in the proposed lens model. We conclude that there is a clear need to understand the role of attention to better understand conscious or unconscious thought.

  14. A favorable outcome despite a 39-hour treatment delay for arterial gas embolism: case report.

    PubMed

    Covington, Derek; Bielawski, Anthony; Sadler, Charlotte; Latham, Emi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) occurs when gas enters the cerebral arterial vasculature. CAGE can occur during sitting craniotomies, cranial trauma or secondary to gas embolism from the heart. A far less common cause of CAGE is vascular entrainment of gas during endoscopic procedures. We present the case of a 49-year-old male who developed a CAGE following an esophagoduodenoscopy (EGD) biopsy. Due to a delay in diagnosis, the patient was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy until 39 hours after the inciting event. Despite presenting to our institution non-responsive and with decorticate posturing, the patient was eventually discharged to a rehabilitation facility, with only mild left upper extremity weakness. This delay in HBO₂ treatment represents the longest delay in treatment to our knowledge for a patient suffering from CAGE secondary to EGD. In addition to the clinical case report, we discuss the etiology of CAGE and the evidence supporting early HBO₂ treatment, as well as the data demonstrating efficacy even after considerable treatment delay. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  15. Evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) cake as an unconventional protein source.

    PubMed

    Golabczak, J; Py, R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient procedure of a protein isolate production from the evening primrose cake was developed. The cake is a by-product of oil extraction from seeds by using the cold pressing method. The evening primrose cake contains 22.7% of protein. Its content in the protein isolate derived from the cake is 74%. Proteins present in evening primrose seeds are rich in Trp (7%) and Met (3%), but Lys-deficient (1.3%) as compared to the FAO protein standard. Apart from the proteins, the protein isolate contains 8.5% (w/w per s.s.) dietary fiber, that negatively affects its digestibility. To enhance the bio-availability of the protein isolate, it was partially hydrolyzed with commercial preparations of trypsin and other proteases (Alcalase and Flavourzyme, Novozymes. Denmark). The most advanced proteolysis (52%) was achieved by 6 h digestion of 2% protein suspension with a mixture of Flavourzyme and Alcalase (350 and 600 U per g of protein, respectively) at 50 degrees C and pH 9.0.

  16. The 100 ampere-hour nickel cadmium battery development program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.

    1974-01-01

    A program to develop a long-life, reliable and safe 100 ampere-hour sealed nickel-cadmium cell and battery module with ancillary charge control and automated test equipment to fulfill the requirements of a large Manned Orbital Space Station which uses Solar Arrays as its prime source for 25 kW of electrical power was conducted. A sealed 100 ampere-hour cell with long life potential and a replaceable, space maintainable battery module has been developed for Manned Space Station applications. The 100 ampere-hour cell has been characterized for initial (early life) anticipated conditions.

  17. Deep venous thrombophlebitis: detection with 4-hour versus 24-hour platelet scintigraphy

    SciT

    Seabold, J.E.; Conrad, G.R.; Ponto, J.A.

    Thirty-one nonheparinized patients with suspected deep venous thrombophlebitis (DVT) underwent contrast venography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy (In-111 PS). Venography permitted identification of acute DVT in 12 of 31 cases (39%). One additional patient was considered to have acute DVT despite nonconclusive venography results. In-111 PS results were positive at 4 hours in nine of 13 cases (69%) and at 24 hours in 12 of 13 cases (92%). Two of four patients with false-negative 4-hour In-111 PS studies had received warfarin. Thus, the sensitivity of 4-hour In-111 PS in patients not receiving anticoagulants was 82%. Venography results were negative for acutemore » DVT in 18 cases, and 4-hour In-111 PS studies were negative or equivocal in each. In-111 PS is an alternative to contrast venography for detecting acute DVT. If 4-hour In-111 PS results are positive, anticoagulation can be initiated. Delayed images are necessary if the 4-hour images are negative or equivocal.« less

  18. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Reoperations within 48 hours following 7942 pediatric neurosurgery procedures.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anil K; Chu, Jason; Bozeman, Caroline; Sarda, Samir; Sawvel, Michael; Chern, Joshua J

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Various indicators are used to evaluate the quality of care delivered by surgical services, one of which is early reoperation rate. The indications and rate of reoperations within a 48-hour time period have not been previously reported for pediatric neurosurgery. METHODS Between May 1, 2009, and December 30, 2014, 7942 surgeries were performed by the pediatric neurosurgery service in the operating rooms at a single institution. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics associated with each of the operations were prospectively collected. The procedures were grouped into 31 categories based on the nature of the procedure and underlying diseases. Reoperations within 48 hours at the conclusion of the index surgery were reviewed to determine whether the reoperation was planned or unplanned. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze risk factors associated with unplanned reoperations. RESULTS Cerebrospinal fluid shunt-and hydrocephalus-related surgeries accounted for 3245 (40.8%) of the 7942 procedures. Spinal procedures, craniotomy for tumor resections, craniotomy for traumatic injury, and craniofacial reconstructions accounted for an additional 8.7%, 6.8%, 4.5%, and 4.5% of surgical volume. There were 221 reoperations within 48 hours of the index surgery, yielding an overall incidence of 2.78%; 159 of the reoperation were unplanned. Of these 159 unplanned reoperations, 121 followed index operations involving shunt manipulations. Using unplanned reoperations as the dependent variable (n = 159), index operations with a starting time after 3 pm and admission through the emergency department (ED) were associated with a two- to threefold increase in the likelihood of reoperations (after-hour surgery, odds ratio [OR] 2.01 [95% CI 1.43-2.83, p < 0.001]; ED admission, OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.32-2.96, p < 0.05]). CONCLUSIONS Approximately 25% of the reoperations within 48 hours of a pediatric neurosurgical procedure were planned. When

  20. Differences in Resident Perceptions by Postgraduate Year of Duty Hour Policies: An Analysis from the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) Trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anthony D; Chung, Jeanette W; Dahlke, Allison R; Biester, Thomas; Quinn, Christopher M; Matulewicz, Richard S; Odell, David D; Kelz, Rachel R; Shea, Judy A; Lewis, Frank; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2017-02-01

    In the Flexibility in Duty Hour Requirements for Surgical Trainees (FIRST) trial, there were several differences in residents' perceptions of aspects of their education, well-being, and patient care that differed between standard and flexible duty hour policies. Our objective was to assess whether these perceptions differed by level of training. A survey assessed residents participating in the FIRST trial's perceptions of the effect of duty hour policies on aspects of patient safety, continuity of care, resident education, clinical training, and resident well-being. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine the association between residents' perceptions, study arm, and level of training (interns, junior residents, and senior residents). In the Standard Policy arm, as the PGY level increased, residents more frequently reported that duty hour policies negatively affected patient safety, professionalism, morale, and career choice (all interactions p < 0.001). However, in the Flexible Policy arm, as the PGY level increased, residents less frequently perceived negative effects of duty hour policies on resident health, rest, and time for family and friends and extracurricular activities (all interactions p < 0.001). Overall, there was an increase by PGY level in the proportion of residents expressing a preference for training in programs with flexible duty hour policies, and this preference for flexible duty hour policies was even more apparent among residents who were in the Flexible Policy arm (p < 0.001). As PGY level increased, residents had increasing concerns about patient care and resident education and training under standard duty hour policies, but they had decreasing concerns about well-being under flexible policies. When given the choice between training under standard or flexible duty hour policies, only 14% of residents expressed a preference for standard policies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Improving Immunizations in Children: A Clinical Break-even Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Spain, Chad; Wright, Hannah; Gren, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    Immunizing the population is a vital public health priority. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement project to improve the immunization rates of children under 3 years of age at two urban family medicine residency clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as a break-even cost analysis to the clinics for the intervention. Immunization records were distributed to provider-medical assistant teamlets daily for each pediatric patient scheduled in clinic to decrease missed opportunities. An outreach intervention by letter, followed by telephone call reminders, was conducted to reach children under 3 years of age who were behind on recommended immunizations for age (total n=457; those behind on immunizations n=101). Immunization rates were monitored at 3 months following start of intervention. A break-even analysis to the clinics for the outreach intervention was performed. Immunizations were improved from a baseline of 75.1% (n=133) and 79.6% (n=223) at the two clinics to 92.1% (n=163) and 89.6% (n=251), respectively, at 3 months following the start of intervention (P<0.01). The average revenue per immunization given was $81.57. The financial break-even point required 36 immunizations to be administered. Significant improvement in the immunization rate of patients under 3 years of age at two family medicine residency training clinics was achieved through decreasing missed opportunities for immunization in clinic, and with outreach through letters and follow-up phone calls. The intervention showed positive revenue to both clinics. © 2015 Marshfield Clinic.

  2. Effect of evening postexercise cold water immersion on subsequent sleep.

    PubMed

    Robey, Elisa; Dawson, Brian; Halson, Shona; Gregson, Warren; King, Stuart; Goodman, Carmel; Eastwood, Peter

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion after evening exercise on subsequent sleep quality and quantity in trained cyclists. In the evenings (~1900 h) on three separate occasions, male cyclists (n = 11) underwent either no exercise (control, CON), exercise only (EX), or exercise followed by cold water immersion (CWI). EX comprised cycling for 15 min at 75% peak power, then a 15-min maximal time trial. After each condition, a full laboratory-based sleep study (polysomnography) was performed. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, salivary melatonin, ratings of perceived fatigue, and recovery were measured in each trial. No differences were observed between conditions for any whole night sleep measures, including total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, rapid eye movement onset latency, wake after sleep onset, or proportion of the night spent in different sleep stages. Core temperature in EX and CWI trials was higher than CON, until it decreased below that of EX and CON until bedtime in CWI. After bedtime, core temperature was similar for all conditions throughout the night, except for a 90-min period where it was lower for CWI than EX and CON (3.5-4.5 h postexercise). Heart rates for EX and CWI were both significantly higher than CON postexercise until bedtime, whereas skin temperature after CWI was significantly lower than EX and CON, remaining lower than EX until 3 h postexercise. Melatonin levels and recovery ratings were similar between conditions. Fatigue ratings were significantly elevated after exercise in both CWI and EX conditions, with EX still being elevated compared with CON at bedtime. Whole night sleep architecture is not affected by evening exercise alone or when followed by CWI.

  3. [Anesthetic management of a patient with HOCM even after PTSMA].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hiroko; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Ohki, Hiroshi; Goto, Takahisa

    2008-10-01

    A 74-year-old woman previously treated with percutaneous transluminnal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) for severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. The PTSMA was performed for HOCM 5 month before surgery and the left ventricular outflow pressure gradient (LVOTG) was reduced from 100 mmHg to 30 mmHg. After anesthetic induction, severe hypotension occurred concomitantly with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) and systolic anterior movement of the mitral valve leaflet (SAM). Hypotension was treated with fluid therapy and the vasopressors (methoxamine and noradrenaline). Care should be taken for the anesthetic management of a patient with HOCM even after PTSMA.

  4. Effects of direction of rotation in continuous and discontinuous 8 hour shift systems

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, P.; Smith, L.; Macdonald, I.; Folkard, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Previous research has produced conflicting evidence on the relative merits of advancing and delaying shift systems. The current study assessed the effects of the direction of shift rotation within 8 hour systems, upon a range of measures including sleep, on shift alertness, physical health, and psychological wellbeing.
METHODS—An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by four groups of industrial shiftworkers on relatively rapidly rotating 8 hour systems (n=611). Two groups worked continuous systems that were either advancing or delaying; the other two groups worked discontinuous systems that were either advancing or delaying.
RESULTS—Few effects were found of direction of rotation on chronic measures of health and wellbeing, even when the systems incorporated "quick returns" (a break of only 8 hours when changing from one shift to another). This was despite the use of measures previously shown to be sensitive to the effects of a broad range of features of shift systems. However, advancing continuous systems seemed to be associated with marginally steeper declines in alertness across the shift (F (3,1080)=2.87, p<0.05). They were also associated with shorter sleeps between morning shifts (F (1,404)=4.01, p<0.05), but longer sleeps between afternoons (F (1,424)=4.16, p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—The absence of negative effects of advancing shifts upon the chronic outcome measures accorded with previous evidence that advancing shifts may not be as harmful as early research indicated. However, this interpretation is tempered by the possibility that difficult shift systems self select those workers most able to cope with their deleterious effects. The presence of quick returns in advancing continuous systems seemed to impact upon some of the acute measures such as duration of sleep, although the associated effects on alertness seemed to be marginal.


Keywords: shift

  5. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit hours...

  6. Atrial Fibrillation Detection During 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Comparison With 24-Hour Electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Kalogeropoulos, Petros; Kyriakoulis, Konstantinos G; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a novel 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitor (Microlife WatchBP O3 Afib) with implemented algorithm for automated atrial fibrillation (AF) detection during each ABP measurement. One hundred subjects (mean age 70.6±8.2 [SD] years; men 53%; hypertensives 85%; 17 with permanent AF; 4 paroxysmal AF; and 79 non-AF) had simultaneous 24-hour ABP monitoring and 24-hour Holter monitoring. Among a total of 6410 valid ABP readings, 1091 (17%) were taken in ECG AF rhythm. In reading-to-reading ABP analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ABP monitoring in detecting AF were 93%, 87%, and 88%, respectively. In non-AF subjects, 12.8% of the 24-hour ABP readings indicated false-positive AF, of whom 27% were taken during supraventricular premature beats. There was a strong association between the proportion of false-positive AF readings and that of supraventricular premature beats ( r =0.67; P <0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that in paroxysmal AF and non-AF subjects, AF-positive readings at 26% during 24-hour ABP monitoring had 100%/85% sensitivity/specificity (area under the curve 0.91; P <0.01) for detecting paroxysmal AF. These findings suggest that in elderly hypertensives, a novel 24-hour ABP monitor with AF detector has high sensitivity and moderate specificity for AF screening during routine ABP monitoring. Thus, in elderly hypertensives, a 24-hour ABP recording with at least 26% of the readings suggesting AF indicates a high probability for AF diagnosis and should be regarded as an indication for performing 24-hour Holter monitoring. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. 20130416_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-04-24

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 4/16/13.

  8. 20140430_Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thibedeau, Joe

    2014-05-05

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 01 April to 30 April 2014.

  9. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data 20130731

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-08-30

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 7/1/13 to 7/31/13.

  10. Green Machine Florida Canyon Hourly Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Vanderhoff, Alex

    2013-07-15

    Employing innovative product developments to demonstrate financial and technical viability of producing electricity from low temperature geothermal fluids, coproduced in a mining operation, by employing ElectraTherm's modular and mobile heat-to-power "micro geothermal" power plant with output capacity expected in the 30-70kWe range. The Green Machine is an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant. The Florida Canyon machine is powered by geothermal brine with air cooled condensing. The data provided is an hourly summary from 6/1/13 to 6/30/13

  11. The Hours: between safety and servitude.

    PubMed

    Charles, Marilyn

    2004-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of how character is created and re-created in the context of relationships. This theme, salient in the recent film The Hours, has been particularly problematic for creative women, who are often caught in tensions between self-development and relationship. Two case examples are given, in counterpoint to the film and to illustrations from Woolf's life and work. Through these various lenses, we can consider the complex interplays between our conjectures as to the expected price of relationship, and the actual price exacted as our various dramas unfold.

  12. Birth after 12 hours of oocyte refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Coban, Onder; Hacifazlioglu, Oguzhan; Ciray, H Nadir; Ulug, Ulun; Tekin, H Ibrahim; Bahceci, Mustafa

    2010-12-01

    To assess cycle outcome after oocyte refrigeration. Case report. Private IVF center. One couple in a donor oocyte program. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection and blastocyst culture after refrigeration of oocytes for 12 hours. Birth. Fourteen two-pronuclei zygotes from 17 metaphase II refrigerated oocytes resulted in transfer of two blastocysts at day 5 and cryopreservation of six excess embryos at day 6. The patient delivered one healthy male baby after 38 weeks' gestation. The successful outcome of oocyte refrigeration indicates that this protocol could be useful in circumstances in which a delay in obtaining spermatozoa arises. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategies for 96-hour critical infrastructure compliance.

    PubMed

    Storbakken, Steven H; Kendall, Shannon; Lackey, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Organizations that stand the best chance at survival following a disaster do so because they can depend on the sharing of resources and mutual ideologies, the authors claim, pointing out that when it comes to strategizing for 96-hour critical infrastructure compliance, it is important to keep at the forefront not only the idea of collaborative planning from within the organization--involving security and safety, clinical, facilities and administrative staffs--but also includes collaborative planning with the local and regional businesses surrounding the organization.

  14. Is Red Heavier Than Yellow Even for Blind?

    PubMed

    Barilari, Marco; de Heering, Adélaïde; Crollen, Virginie; Collignon, Olivier; Bottini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do.

  15. APPROXIMATING SYMMETRIC POSITIVE SEMIDEFINITE TENSORS OF EVEN ORDER*

    PubMed Central

    BARMPOUTIS, ANGELOS; JEFFREY, HO; VEMURI, BABA C.

    2012-01-01

    Tensors of various orders can be used for modeling physical quantities such as strain and diffusion as well as curvature and other quantities of geometric origin. Depending on the physical properties of the modeled quantity, the estimated tensors are often required to satisfy the positivity constraint, which can be satisfied only with tensors of even order. Although the space P02m of 2mth-order symmetric positive semi-definite tensors is known to be a convex cone, enforcing positivity constraint directly on P02m is usually not straightforward computationally because there is no known analytic description of P02m for m > 1. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for enforcing the positivity constraint on even-order tensors by approximating the cone P02m for the cases 0 < m < 3, and presenting an explicit characterization of the approximation Σ2m ⊂ Ω2m for m ≥ 1, using the subset Ω2m⊂P02m of semi-definite tensors that can be written as a sum of squares of tensors of order m. Furthermore, we show that this approximation leads to a non-negative linear least-squares (NNLS) optimization problem with the complexity that equals the number of generators in Σ2m. Finally, we experimentally validate the proposed approach and we present an application for computing 2mth-order diffusion tensors from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images. PMID:23285313

  16. Early prediction of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia by early parathyroid hormone measurement.

    PubMed

    Yetkin, Gurkan; Citgez, Bulent; Yazici, Pinar; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Sit, Erhan; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication of total thyroidectomy (TT). Postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia occurs 24 to 48 hours after the operation. It prolongs the length of hospital stay, even though transient in most cases. The aim of this study was to predetermine the patients who may develop postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia by using early postoperative serum intact parathormone (iPTH) and calcium (Ca2+) measurements, and to investigate the effects of early initiated oral calcium and vitamin D treatments on the development of transient hypocalcemia. Patients who underwent TT after initiation of the early iPTH measurement protocol in January 2013 were included into the study group (Group 1, n=202). The control group (Group 2) was composed of 72 patients who underwent TT before the protocol. Prior to the initiation of the protocol, Ca2+ was measured instead of iPTH. In the study group, the serum Ca2+ and iPTH levels were measured before surgery, and 1 and 24-hours after. A calcium level below 8 mg/dL was accepted as biochemical hypocalcaemia, and a iPTH level under 15pg/mL was accepted as hypoparathyroidism. In the study group, patients with below normal iPTH levels were treated with prophylactic oral calcium and vitamin D. In Group 1, 15.8% (n=32) of the patients had hypoparathyroidism on the 1h and 24 h iPTH measurements. There was no statistically difference with regard to PTH levels measured in the postoperative 1st hour and at the 24th hour (p= 0.078). Biochemical hypocalcaemia developed in 16 (7.9%) and 13 (18%) patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, 24 hours after thyroidectomy (p<0.05). Mean length of hospital stay was 2.17 and 3.26 days in the study and control groups (p<0.001). We believe that the measurement of iPTH levels one hour after thyroidectomy, when compared to levels at 24 hours after procedure, is a safe, reliable, and adequate method for the effective management of plausible postthyroidectomic hypocalcemia. It yields significantly

  17. The Brain's Reward Response Occurs Even Without Actual Reward!

    PubMed

    Fielding, A; Fu, Y; Franz, E A

    2018-06-01

    What if the brain's response to reward occurs even when there is no reward? Wouldn't that be a further concern for people prone to problem gambling and other forms of addiction, like those related to eating? Electroencephalography was employed to investigate this possibility using probabilistic feedback manipulations and measures of known event-related potentials (ERPs) related to reward processing. We tested the hypothesis-that reward-based ERPs would occur even in the absence of a tangible reward and when manipulations on expectation are implicit. The well-known P300 response potential was a key focus, and was assessed in non-gambling volunteer undergraduates on a task involving experimentally-manipulated probabilities of positive or negative feedback comprising three trial types-80, 50, or 20% positive feedback. A feedback stimulus (F1) followed a guess response between two possible outcomes (implicit win/loss), and then a second feedback stimulus (F2) was presented to confirm an alleged 'win' or 'loss' (explicit win/loss). Results revealed that amplitude of the P300 in F1-locked data (implicit manipulation) was larger (more positive) on average for feedback outcomes that were manipulated to be less likely than expected. The effect is pronounced after increased time on task (later trials), even though the majority of participants were not explicitly aware of our probability manipulations. For the explicit effects in F2-locked data, no meaningful or significant effects were observed. These findings point to the existence of proposed success-response mechanisms that operate not only explicitly but also with implicit manipulations that do not involve any direct indication of a win or loss, and are not associated with tangible rewards. Thus, there seems to be a non-explicit form of perception (we call 'implicit') associated with an internal experience of wins/losses (in the absence of actual rewards or losses) that can be measured in associated brain processes. The

  18. Long working hours and sleep disturbances: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E; Gimeno, David; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether exposure to long working hours predicts various forms of sleep disturbance; short sleep, difficulty falling asleep, frequent waking, early waking and waking without feeling refreshed. Prospective study with 2 measurements of working hours (phase 3, 1991-1994 and phase 5, 1997-1999) and 2 measurements of subjective sleep disturbances (phase 5 and phase 7, 2002-2004). The Whitehall II study of British civil servants. Full time workers free of sleep disturbances at phase 5 and employed at phases 5 and 7 (n = 937-1594) or at phases 3, 5, and 7 (n = 886-1510). Working more than 55 hours a week, compared with working 35-40 hours a week, was related to incident sleep disturbances; demographics-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) 1.98 (1.05, 3.76) for shortened sleeping hours, 3.68 (1.58, 8.58) for difficulty falling asleep; and 1.98 (1.04, 3.77) for waking without feeling refreshed. Repeat exposure to long working hours was associated with odds ratio 3.24 (1.45, 7.27) for shortened sleep, 6.66 (2.64, 16.83) for difficulty falling asleep, and 2.23 (1.16, 4.31) for early morning awakenings. Some associations were attenuated after adjustment for other risk factors. To a great extent, similar results were obtained using working hours as a continuous variable. Imputation of missing values supported the findings on shortened sleep and difficulty in falling asleep. Working long hours appears to be a risk factor for the development of shortened sleeping hours and difficulty falling asleep.

  19. [Differences in the reduction of blood pressure according to drug administration at activity hours or rest hours].

    PubMed

    Helena Ponte Márquez, Paola; José Solé, Maria; Arroyo, Juan Antonio; Matas, Laia; Benet, Maria Teresa; Roca-Cusachs, Àlex

    2015-01-20

    In this study, 123 recordings of blood pressure (BP) obtained by ambulatory BP monitoring were analyzed. These recordings were measured in 2011 in patients from a Spanish tertiary university hospital. All participating patients were treated with 2, 3 or 4 anti-hypertensive drugs. The main aim of this study was to determine differences in BP control, if any, depending on the medication schedule. Thus, BP levels were studied at 3 periods of the day: activity hours, rest hours and 24h. We compared subjects taking all anti-hypertensive agents during the day (n=70, group 1) with those taking at least one at night (n=53, group 2). Significant differences were found on diastolic BP, where group 2 patients had lower levels at activity, 24h periods and sleep-time. Even if it was not statistically significant, lower levels of systolic BP from group 2 were also observed at activity and 24h periods as well as lower levels of systolic, diastolic and mean BP at rest hours periods. There were also significant group differences in relation to the number of prescribed agents (with the mean being higher for group 2) and the type of agent (beta-blockers and calcium antagonists were more prevalent in group 2). Nevertheless, the multivariate regression analysis done taking into account these variables did not change the observed statistical significance. The administration of anti-hypertensive drugs at night could be associated with lower BP levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    SciT

    Ghumman, S. S.

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  1. Outcome in patients admitted outside regular hospital working hours: does time until regular working hours matter?

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Makoto; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Yonehara, Toshiro; Watanabe, Masaki; Ando, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stratifying patients according to the time period from admission to the start of regular working hours would help detect a weekend effect in acute stroke patients. Ischemic stroke patients admitted between October 2002 and March 2012 were analyzed. Working hours were defined as 9:00-17:00 on weekdays. Patients were divided into those admitted during working hours (no-wait group) and three other groups according to the time from admission to working hours: ≤24 h (short-wait group), 24-48 h (medium-wait group), and >48 h (long-wait group). The modified Rankin Scale score and mortality at three-months were compared among the groups. Of 5625 patients, 3323 (59%) were admitted outside working hours. The proportion of patients with an mRS score 0-1 at three-months showed a decreasing trend with the time period before working hours: 47% (no-wait group), 42% (short-wait group), 42% (medium-wait group), and 38% (long-wait group), respectively (P < 0·001). When the no-wait group was used as a reference, the odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score 0-1 was 0·88 (95% confidence interval, 0·75-1·04) in the short-wait group, 0·86 (0·69-1·07) in the medium-wait group, and 0·67 (0·53-0·85) in the long-wait group after adjusting for sex, age, premorbid mRS score, previous morbidity, stroke severity, and vascular risk factors. Mortality at three-months was not different between the no-wait group and the other groups. A weekend effect might be evident if patients were stratified according to the time period from admission until working hours. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  2. The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening--an event-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    To examine whether young adults' alcohol consumption during the course of an evening was affected by the number of friends present, and the interaction between participants' gender and number of friends present. Participants used the internet-based cellphone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT) to complete a series of cellphone questionnaires every Thursday, Friday and Saturday evening over five weekends. A multi-level growth curve model (hourly assessments, clustered within evenings, clustered within individuals) with time-invariant and time-varying covariates was estimated. French-speaking Switzerland. A total of 183 young adults (53.0% female, mean age = 23.1) who completed 7205 questionnaires on 1441 evenings. Alcohol consumption and number of friends present assessed at 8 p.m., 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m. and midnight. Drinking pace accelerated notably over the course of the evening on Saturdays (b = 0.047; P < 0.01). Men consumed more alcohol than women, particularly at the beginning of the evening (b = 0.152; P < 0.05). However, this effect was no longer significant when the impact of friends was accounted for (b = 0.096; P = 0.139). The higher the number of friends present, the higher the number of drinks consumed at a given time during the course of the evening (b = 0.070; P < 0.001). Cross-level interaction effects indicated that this relationship was stronger for men than women (b = 0.027; P < 0.05). Among young adults in Switzerland, the number of friends present is associated positively with hourly drinking frequency during the course of weekend evenings. The impact of the drinking group size on alcohol use is stronger for men than women. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Oscillations in human orbitofrontal cortex during even chance gambling.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kevin; Kerr, Matthew S D; Park, Hyun-Joo; Thompson, Susan; Bulacio, Juan; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Sarma, Sridevi V; Gale, John

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating value and risk as well as comparing expected and actual outcomes is the crux of decision making and reinforcement based learning. In this study, we record from stereotactic electroencephalograph depth electrodes in a human subject in numerous areas in the brain. We focus on the lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex while they perform a gambling task involving betting on a high card. Preliminary time-frequency analysis shows modulations in the 5-15 Hz band that is well synced to the different events of the task. These oscillations increase in both high betting scenarios as well as in losing scenarios though their effects cannot be decoupled. However, the activity between lateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex is a lot more homogenous than previously seen. Additionally, the timing of some of these oscillations occurs before even a response in the visual cortex. This evidence hints that these areas encode priors that influence our decision in future statistically ambiguous scenarios.

  4. Even 'safe' medications need to be administered with care.

    PubMed

    Lutwak, Nancy; Howland, Mary Ann; Gambetta, Rosemarie; Dill, Curt

    2013-01-02

    A 60-year-old man with a history of hepatic cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy underwent transoesophageal echocardiogram. He received mild sedation and topical lidocaine. During the recovery period the patient developed ataxia and diplopia for about 30 mins, a result of lidocaine toxicity. The patient was administered a commonly used local anaesthetic, a combination of 2% viscous lidocaine, 4% lidocaine gargle and 5% lidocaine ointment topically to the oropharnyx. The total dose was at least 280 mg. Oral lidocaine undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and its clearance is quite dependent on rates of liver blood flow as well as other factors. The patient's central nervous system symptoms were mild and transient but remind us that to avoid adverse side effects, orally administered drugs with fairly high hepatic extraction ratio given to patients with chronic liver disease need to be given in reduced dosages. Even 'Safe' medications need to be carefully administered.

  5. Scalar Casimir energies in M4>=N for even N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantowski, R.; Milton, Kimball A.

    1987-01-01

    We construct a Green's-function formalism for computing vacuum-fluctuation energies of scalar fields in 4+N dimensions, where the extra N dimensions are compactified into a hypersphere SN of radius a. In all cases a leading cosmological energy term ucosmo~aN/b4+N results. Here b is an ultraviolet cutoff at the Planck scale. In all cases an unambiguous Casimir energy is computed. For odd N these energies agree with those calculated by Candelas and Weinberg. For even N, the Casimir energy is logarithmically divergent: uCasimir~(αN/a4)ln(a/b). The coefficients αN are computed in terms of Bernoulli numbers.

  6. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B; Lewis, Mark A; Ades, Peter K; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun; Cousens, Roger D

    2016-09-06

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects-reductions in individual fitness at low population density-may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out.

  7. Why projects often fail even with high cost contingencies

    SciT

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2002-02-28

    In this note we assume that the individual risks have been adequately quantified and the total project cost contingency adequately computed to ensure an agreed-to probability or confidence level that the total project cost estimate will not be exceeded. But even projects that implement such a process are likely to result in significant cost overruns and/or project failure if the project manager allocates the contingencies to the individual subsystems. The intuitive and mathematically valid solution is to maintain a project-wide contingency and to distribute it to the individual risks on an as-needed basis. Such an approach ensures cost-efficient risk management,more » and projects that implement it are more likely to succeed and to cost less. We illustrate these ideas using a simplified project with two independent risks. The formulation can readily be extended to multiple risks.« less

  8. Evening Transition by a River Sampled Using a Remotely-Piloted Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenger, B.; Cuxart, J.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements made with instruments aboard a remotely-piloted multicopter flying across the Weser river in Germany provide information on the thermal structure of the boundary layer over the river and adjacent land, in this case in summer for late afternoon, the evening transition and early night on a clear calm day. The river has a characteristic width of 100 m. The stratification over the land and river are of opposite signs at the lower levels, except during part of the evening transition. The multicopter allows to qualitatively estimate the evolution of the thermal contrast between both surfaces, showing that the river banks experience very significant daytime cooling and nocturnal warming due to river-bank circulations, with the change of sign taking place well before sunset.

  9. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    PubMed

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  10. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor’s degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor’s degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist’s career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor’s degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry. PMID:27170815

  11. New ACGME Work-Hour Guidelines and Their Impact on Current Residency Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattar, S. Pirzada; Basith, Fatima; Madison, James; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has introduced new work-hour guidelines for residents in ACGME accredited programs that were implemented in July 2003. The new ACGME policies impact several practices in various psychiatry residency programs across the U.S., even though psychiatry has not been at the forefront…

  12. The English Experiment: An Hour a Day Keeps Illiteracy at Bay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries like the United States and Britain, the continuing challenge for educators is to sort through the choices of an all-you-can-eat school system and teach the basic skills. Despite so-called universal education, an alarming number of people still fail to reach even basic levels of literacy. The "literacy hour" was…

  13. Early College High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  14. Finite temperature behavior of the CPT-even and parity-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension

    SciT

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr; Rodrigues, Josberg S.

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we examine the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and Lorentz-invariance-violating (LIV) electrodynamics of the standard model extension, represented by the term W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}F{sup {alpha}}{sup {nu}}F{sup {rho}}{sup {phi}}. We begin analyzing the Hamiltonian structure following the Dirac's procedure for constrained systems and construct a well-defined and gauge invariant partition function in the functional integral formalism. Next, we specialize for the nonbirefringent coefficients of the tensor W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}. In the sequel, the partition function is explicitly carried out for the parity-even sector of the tensor W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}. The modifiedmore » partition function is a power of the Maxwell's partition function. It is observed that the LIV coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black body angular energy density distribution. The Planck's radiation law, however, retains its frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the usual form, except for a change in the Stefan-Boltzmann constant by a factor containing the LIV contributions.« less

  15. Clinical outcome of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after hours: the role of urgent endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Won; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Hyub; Shin, Cheol Min; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical role of urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) performed by experienced endoscopists after hours. A retrospective analysis was performed for consecutively collected data of patients with ANVUGIB between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 158 patients visited the emergency unit for ANVUGIB after hours. Among them, 60 underwent urgent EGD (within 8 hours) and 98 underwent early EGD (8 to 24 hours) by experienced endoscopists. The frequencies of hemodynamic instability, fresh blood aspirate on the nasogastric tube, and high-risk endoscopic findings were significantly higher in the urgent EGD group. Primary hemostasis was achieved in all except two patients. There were nine cases of recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality occurred in three patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary hemostasis, recurrent bleeding, and 30-day mortality. In a multiple linear regression analysis, urgent EGD significantly reduced the hospital stay compared with early EGD. In patients with a high clinical Rockall score (more than 3), urgent EGD tended to decrease the hospital stay, although this was not statistically significant (7.7 days vs. 12.0 days, p > 0.05). Urgent EGD after hours by experienced endoscopists had an excellent endoscopic success rate. However, clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the urgent and early EGD groups.

  16. Evening daylight may cause adolescents to sleep less in spring than in winter.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Rea, Mark S

    2010-07-01

    Sleep restriction commonly experienced by adolescents can stem from a slower increase in sleep pressure by the homeostatic processes and from phase delays of the circadian system. With regard to the latter potential cause, the authors hypothesized that because there is more natural evening light during the spring than winter, a sample of adolescent students would be more phase delayed in spring than in winter, would have later sleep onset times, and because of fixed school schedules would have shorter sleep durations. Sixteen eighth-grade subjects were recruited for the study. The authors collected sleep logs and saliva samples to determine their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a well-established circadian marker. Actual circadian light exposures experienced by a subset of 12 subjects over the course of 7 days in winter and in spring using a personal, head-worn, circadian light measurement device are also reported here. Results showed that this sample of adolescents was exposed to significantly more circadian light in spring than in winter, especially during the evening hours when light exposure would likely delay circadian phase. Consistent with the light data, DLMO and sleep onset times were significantly more delayed, and sleep durations were significantly shorter in spring than in winter. The present ecological study of light, circadian phase, and self-reported sleep suggests that greater access to evening daylight in the spring may lead to sleep restriction in adolescents while attending school. Therefore, lighting schemes that reduce evening light in the spring may encourage longer sleep times in adolescents.

  17. Scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting improve adaptation to night shift work in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chinoy, Evan D; Harris, Michael P; Kim, Min Ju; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2016-12-01

    We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy) and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in 18 older adults (57.2±3.8 years; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol. 4 day shifts were followed by 3 night shifts in the laboratory. Participants slept at home and were randomised to either the treatment group (scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting during the latter half of night shifts) or control group (ad-lib sleep and typical lighting during night shifts). Compared with day shifts, alertness and sustained attention declined on the first night shift in both groups, and was worse in the latter half of the night shifts. Alertness and attention improved on nights 2 and 3 for the treatment group but remained lower for the control group. Sleep duration in the treatment group remained similar to baseline (6-7 hours) following night shifts, but was shorter (3-5 hours) following night shifts in the control group. Treatment group circadian timing advanced by 169.3±16.1 min (mean±SEM) but did not shift (-9.7±9.9 min) in the control group. The combined treatment of scheduled evening sleep and enhanced lighting increased sleep duration and partially aligned circadian phase with sleep and work timing, resulting in improved night shift alertness and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Ageing, working hours and work ability.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Sartori, S

    2007-11-01

    The current paper reports the main results of several studies carried out on Italian workers using the work ability index as a complementary tool for workers' periodical health surveillance. The work ability index shows a general decreasing trend over the years, but it changes differently according to working conditions and personal health status. In jobs with higher mental involvement and autonomy, but lower physical constraint, it remains quite constant and high over the years, while it significantly decreases with a steeper trend the higher the physical work load and the lower the job control are. Sex and working hours appear to act concurrently in influencing work ability, particularly in association with more physically demanding jobs. It is therefore necessary to adopt flexible interventions, able to give ageing shift workers a proper support for maintaining a satisfactory work ability, by means of actions addressed both to work organization and psycho-physical conditions.

  19. Driver performance while texting: even a little is too much.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Joshua D; Schultheis, Maria T; Padmanaban, Vennila; Blasco, Allison

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of text messaging and other in-car behaviors on driving performance under simple and naturalistic road conditions in a driving simulator. Data from 28 healthy individuals (12 female) are presented. Participant age ranged from 18 to 28 (mean = 21.0). Average driving experience was 3.8 years (SD = 2.5). Participants completed a baseline loop condition in which they drove normally through a realistic virtual environment. Next, participants drove an identical loop, and at 3 specified points during this drive, participants were required to (1) complete a radio-tuning task; (2) type and send a text message containing "Drexel University"; and (3) type and send "I am driving to the store." Driving performance and task duration was compared between conditions. Across all tasks, both lane management, F(1,27) = 11.1, P = .002, and velocity, F(1,27) = 10.3, P = .003, varied significantly more while task-engaged. Average lane deviation was significantly greater during a text messaging task than during the baseline drive of the same road segment, t(27) = -2.9, P = .007. Comparison of task durations indicated that both texting tasks took significantly longer to complete than the radio task, with the "Drexel University" text (118 s) taking almost twice as long as the radio-tuning task (60 s). Unexpected and novel findings emerged in the evaluation of duration of texting tasks using the varying text-entry methods, with touch-screen modality taking significantly longer than others. Engaging in secondary tasks while operating a motor vehicle may have deleterious effects on driving performance and increase risk, even under the simplest of driving conditions. Text messaging may constitute a "perfect storm" of risk compared to other in-vehicle tasks such as tuning the car radio. The current investigation demonstrated detrimental effects of text messaging on driving behaviors such as lane maintenance, speed maintenance, and shifts of attention, even under relatively

  20. Change from slowly rotating 8-hour shifts to rapidly rotating 8-hour and 12-hour shifts using participative shift roster design.

    PubMed

    Smith, P A; Wright, B M; Mackey, R W; Milsop, H W; Yates, S C

    1998-01-01

    The study examined the impact of change, from slowly rotating continuous 8-hour shifts to more rapidly rotating continuous 8-hour and 12-hour shifts, on the health and quality of life of shift workers. Self-report survey data were collected from 72 shift workers at 3 sewage treatment plants before and several months after roster change. After the change 1 plant first worked a rapidly rotating, 8-hour shift roster and then worked a 12-hour shift roster, and the other 2 plants worked continuous 12-hour shift rosters. After the change the shift workers at each plant reported increased satisfaction with roster design, a decrease in physical and psychological circadian malaise associated with shift work, improved day sleep quality, less tiredness, and improvements in the quality of home, social and work life. A between-plant comparison of the rapidly rotating 8-hour and 12-hour shift rosters showed greater improvements had been obtained with the 12-hour shift roster, and no significant differences in tiredness or sleep quality between the redesigned 8- and 12-hour shift rosters. However, a within-plant matched-pairs comparison at the 1st plant of the rapidly rotating 8-hour shift roster and the 12-hour shift roster showed no significant differences. The results show that the prior level of support for change may best explain the impact of roster redesign on individual well-being. They lend further support to shift worker participation in roster design.

  1. Hourly laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in Puerto Rico

    Wayne Arendt

    2011-01-01

    Temporal aspects of egg deposition are important factors governing avian reproductive success. I report hourly egg-laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico during 1979–2000. Initiatory eggs were laid by early morning (median 5 0642 hrs, AST) and almost half of the eggs were laid by...

  2. 29 CFR 2530.200b-2 - Hour of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regular work schedule of 40 hours per week. The employee's hourly rate of compensation is, therefore, $4... is scheduled to work 371/2 hours per week (although from time to time working overtime). B must... calculated on the basis of units of time (weeks). C has no regular work schedule but works at least 50 hours...

  3. 48 CFR 552.236-74 - Working Hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working Hours. 552.236-74... Hours. As prescribed in 536.570-5, insert the following clause: Working Hours (APR 1984) (a) It is contemplated that all work will be performed during the customary working hours of the trades involved unless...

  4. 48 CFR 16.602 - Labor-hour contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor-hour contracts. 16... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 16.602 Labor-hour contracts. Description. A labor-hour contract is a variation of the time-and-materials...

  5. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue.

  6. Change from an 8-hour shift to a 12-hour shift, attitudes, sleep, sleepiness and performance.

    PubMed

    Lowden, A; Kecklund, G; Axelsson, J; Akerstedt, T

    1998-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of a change from a rotating 3-shift (8-hour) to a 2-shift shift (12 hour) schedule on sleep, sleepiness, performance, perceived health, and well-being. Thirty-two shift workers at a chemical plant (control room operators) responded to a questionnaire a few months before a change was made in their shift schedule and 10 months after the change. Fourteen workers also filled out a diary, carried activity loggers, and carried out reaction-time tests (beginning and end of shift). Fourteen day workers served as a reference group for the questionnaires and 9 were intensively studied during a week with workdays and a free weekend. The questionnaire data showed that the shift change increased satisfaction with workhours, sleep, and time for social activities. Health, perceived accident risk, and reaction-time performance were not negatively affected. Alertness improved and subjective recovery time after night work decreased. The quick changes in the 8-hour schedule greatly increased sleep problems and fatigue. Sleepiness integrated across the entire shift cycle showed that the shift workers were less alert than the day workers, across workdays and days off (although alertness increased with the 12-hour shift). The change from 8-hour to 12-hour shifts was positive in most respects, possibly due to the shorter sequences of the workdays, the longer sequences of consecutive days off, the fewer types of shifts (easier planning), and the elimination of quick changes. The results may differ in groups with a higher work load.

  7. Calculations of the Low-Lying Structures in the Even-Even Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su Youn; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Young Jun

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear structure of deformed nuclei has been studied using the interacting boson model (IBM). In this study, energy levels and E2 transition probabilities were determined for even nuclei in the Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy chains which have a transition characteristic between the rotational, SU(3) and vibrational, U(5) limits. The structure of the nuclei exhibits a slight breaking of the SU(3) symmetry in the direction of U(5), and therefore, we add the d-boson number operator n d , which is the main term of the U(5) symmetric Hamiltonian, to the SU(3) Hamiltonian of the IBM. The calculated results for low-lying energy levels and E2 transition rates in Nd/Sm/Gd/Dy isotopes are in reasonably good agreement with known experimental results.

  8. Theoretical estimates of supernova-neutrino cross sections for the stable even-even lead isotopes: Charged-current reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Ydrefors, E.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed study of the charged-current supernova electron neutrino and electron antineutrino scattering off the stable even-mass lead isotopes A =204 , 206, and 208 is reported in this work. The proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) is adopted to construct the nuclear final and initial states. Three different Skyrme interactions are tested for their isospin and spin-isospin properties and then applied to produce (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections for (anti)neutrino energies below 80 MeV. Realistic estimates of the nuclear responses to supernova (anti)neutrinos are computed by folding the computed cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electron (anti)neutrino energies. The computed cross sections are compared with earlier calculations and the analyses are extended to take into account the effects coming from the neutrino oscillations.

  9. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  10. Quantifying evenly distributed states in exclusion and nonexclusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2011-04-01

    Spatial-point data sets, generated from a wide range of physical systems and mathematical models, can be analyzed by counting the number of objects in equally sized bins. We find that the bin counts are related to the Pólya distribution. New measures are developed which indicate whether or not a spatial data set, generated from an exclusion process, is at its most evenly distributed state, the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. To this end, we define an index in terms of the variance between the bin counts. Limiting values of the index are determined when objects have access to the entire domain and when there are subregions of the domain that are inaccessible to objects. Using three case studies (Lagrangian fluid particles in chaotic laminar flows, cellular automata agents in discrete models, and biological cells within colonies), we calculate the indexes and verify that our theoretical CSR limit accurately predicts the state of the system. These measures should prove useful in many biological applications.

  11. Microscopic interpretation of inelastic electron scattering from even Ni isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Ogawa, Kengo

    1990-10-01

    Transition charge densities of inelastic electron scattering for the excitation of 2+ and 4+ states in even-mass Ni isotopes are investigated in terms of the standard shell model of the (p3/2,p1/2,f5/2)n configurations. Effective transition operators pertinent to the model space are derived by considering particle-hole excitations up to 12ħω for C2 and 14ħω for C4 transitions within the framework of a first-order perturbation theory. It is shown that surface-peaked transition charge densities can be obtained for the first excited 2+ and 4+ states, being in agreement with experiment. Particle-hole excitations up to λħω, e.g., λ=2 for C2 transition, are most responsible for that feature. Higher ħω excitations appear relatively significant in the interior region of the nucleus: They enhance the peak around the surface, improving further agreement with experiment, but for C2 transition they tend to generate another peak inside the nucleus and thus seem to deteriorate agreement with experiment. Transition densities for the 0+g.s.-->2+2,3 and 0+g.s.-->4+2 transitions are also discussed.

  12. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    PubMed

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  13. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth – 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers’ marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men’s work-family balance. PMID:28280281

  14. The Problem with Probability: Why rare hazards feel even rarer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Even as scientists improve the accuracy of their forecasts for large-scale events like natural hazards and climate change, a gap remains between the confidence the scientific community has in those estimates, and the skepticism with which the lay public tends to view statements of uncertainty. Beyond the challenges of helping the public to understand probabilistic forecasts lies yet another barrier to effective communication: the fact that even when humans can estimate or state the correct probability of a rare event, we tend to distort that probability in our minds, acting as if the likelihood is higher or lower than we know it to be. A half century of empirical research in psychology and economics leaves us with a clear view of the ways that people interpret stated, or described probabilities--e.g., "There is a 6% chance of a Northridge-sized earthquake occurring in your area in the next 10 years." In the past decade, the focus of cognitive scientists has turned to the other method humans use to learn probabilities: intuitively estimating the chances of a rare event by assessing our personal experience with various outcomes. While it is well understood that described probabilities are over-weighted when they are small (e.g., a 5% chance might be treated more like a 10% or 12% chance), it appears that in many cases, experienced rare probabilities are in fact under-weighted. This distortion is not an under-estimation, and therefore cannot be prevented by reminding people of the described probability. This paper discusses the mechanisms and effects of this difference in the way probability is used when a number is provided, as opposed to when the frequency of a rare event is intuited. In addition to recommendations based on the current state of research on the way people appear to make decisions from experience, suggestions are made for how to present probabilistic information to best take advantage of people's tendencies to either amplify risk or ignore it, as well

  15. Subjective alertness and sleep quality in connection with permanent 12-hour day and night shifts.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, M

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare permanent 12-hour day and night shifts (shift change over times at 0500 and 1700) in a shift system with 3 work periods followed by 4 free days. Sleep diaries were collected after main periods of sleep, and sleepiness ratings [Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS)] were obtained 4 times during the last free day and also during the following 3 workshifts. Eighteen to twenty night workers and 8-10 day workers (depending on the instrument) participated. The day workers were significantly sleepier during their workdays. Times for going to bed and for rising differed between the groups. The amount of sleep per week did not differ between groups, but the pattern across days did in that the day workers had a short sleep (5 hours) before the first day and 6 hours of sleep after the other two. Night workers slept long (9 hours) before the first shift and had 6.5-hour sleep periods after the other shifts. During free time the day workers slept around 9 hours and the night workers around 8 hours. Sleep quality and ease of awakening showed no group differences in overall levels, but the day workers had difficulties awakening before their shifts. The night workers had little variation in sleep quality or difficulties awakening. The suggested explanation for the greater sleepiness and difficulties awakening among the day workers was the early start of the shift and the difficulties the workers had with phase advancing their sleep-wake rhythm.

  16. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other’s edits over the period 2001–2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other’s edits and these sterile “fights” may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots’ interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively “dumb” bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles. PMID:28231323

  17. Antibiotics impact plant traits, even at small concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Deloy, Andrea; Volkert, Anna Martina; Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Pufal, Gesine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotics of veterinary origin are released to agricultural fields via grazing animals or manure. Possible effects on human health through the consumption of antibiotic exposed crop plants have been intensively investigated. However, information is still lacking on the effects of antibiotics on plants themselves, particularly on non-crop species, although evidence suggests adverse effects of antibiotics on growth and performance of plants. This study evaluated the effects of three major antibiotics, penicillin, sulfadiazine and tetracycline, on the germination rates and post-germinative traits of four plant species during ontogenesis and at the time of full development. Antibiotic concentrations were chosen as to reflect in vivo situations, i.e. concentrations similar to those detected in soils. Plant species included two herb species and two grass species, and represent two crop-species and two non-crop species commonly found in field margins, respectively. Germination tests were performed in climate chambers and effects on the remaining plant traits were determined in greenhouse experiments. Results show that antibiotics, even in small concentrations, significantly affect plant traits. These effects include delayed germination and post-germinative development. Effects were species and functional group dependent, with herbs being more sensitive to antibiotics then grasses. Responses were either negative or positive, depending on plant species and antibiotic. Effects were generally stronger for penicillin and sulfadiazine than for tetracycline. Our study shows that cropland species respond to the use of different antibiotics in livestock industry, for example, with delayed germination and lower biomass allocation, indicating possible effects on yield in farmland fertilized with manure containing antibiotics. Also, antibiotics can alter the composition of plant species in natural field margins, due to different species-specific responses, with unknown

  18. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spent in certain types of activities which would not be regarded as working time under the Act if no compensation were provided. Preliminary and postliminary activities and time spent in eating meals between... pertinent facts that the parties have agreed to treat such time as hours worked. Except for certain activity...

  19. 29 CFR 778.320 - Hours that would not be hours worked if not paid for.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... spent in certain types of activities which would not be regarded as working time under the Act if no compensation were provided. Preliminary and postliminary activities and time spent in eating meals between... pertinent facts that the parties have agreed to treat such time as hours worked. Except for certain activity...

  20. Analysis of 24-hour versus 48-hour traffic counts for HPMS sampling.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to : allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway : Perf...

  1. Hours to Graduation: A National Survey of Credit Hours Required for Baccalaureate Degrees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe; And Others

    In the context of an increased emphasis on accountability in higher education and time taken to earn a baccalaureate degree, the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida conducted a national survey of 75 public universities concerning the minimum credit hours required for the baccalaureate degree for various disciplines. The…

  2. Mortality and morbidities among very premature infants admitted after hours in an Australian neonatal intensive care unit network.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Bajuk, Barbara; Oei, Julee; Lui, Kei

    2006-05-01

    To assess risk-adjusted early (within 7 days) mortality and major morbidities of newborn infants at < 32 weeks' gestation who are admitted after office hours to a regional Australian network of NICUs where statewide caseload is coordinated and staffed by on-floor registrars working in shift rosters. We hypothesize that adverse sequelae are increased in these infants. We conducted a database review of the records of infants (n = 8654) at < 32 weeks' gestation admitted to a network of 10 tertiary NICUs in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory from 1992 to 2002. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for case-mix and significant baseline characteristics. Sixty-five percent of infants were admitted to the NICUs after hours. These infants did not have an increase in early neonatal mortality or major neonatal sequelae compared with their office-hours counterparts. Admissions during late night hours after midnight or fatigue risk periods before the end of a medical 12-hour shift were not associated with higher early mortality. Risk factors significantly predictive of early neonatal death were lack of antenatal steroid treatment, Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes, male gender, gestation age, and being small for gestation. Current staffing levels, specialization, and networking are associated with lower circadian variation in adverse outcomes and after-hours admission to this NICU network and have no significant impact on early neonatal mortality and morbidity.

  3. Life of a Six-Hour Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kay L.; Molinari, John

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Claudette developed from a weak vortex in 6 h as deep convection shifted from downshear into the vortex center, despite ambient vertical wind shear exceeding 10 m/s. Six hours later it weakened to a tropical storm, and 12 h after the hurricane stage a circulation center could not be found at 850 hPa by aircraft reconnaissance. At hurricane strength the vortex contained classic structure seen in intensifying hurricanes, with the exception of 7-12 C dewpoint depressions in the lower troposphere upshear of the center. These extended from the 100-km radius to immediately adjacent to the eyewall, where equivalent potential temperature gradients reached 6 K/km. The dry air was not present prior to intensification, suggesting that it was associated with vertical shear-induced subsidence upshear of the developing storm. It is argued that weakening of the vortex was driven by cooling associated with the mixing of dry air into the core, and subsequent evaporation and cold downdrafts. Evidence suggests that this mixing might have been enhanced by eyewall instabilities after the period of rapid deepening. The existence of a fragile, small, but genuinely hurricane-strength vortex at the surface for 6 h presents difficult problems for forecasters. Such a "temporary hurricane" in strongly sheared flow might require a different warning protocol than longer-lasting hurricane vortices in weaker shear.

  4. A break-even price calculation for the use of sirolimus-eluting stents in angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Galanaud, Jean-Philippe; Delavennat, Juliette; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2003-03-01

    One of the major complications of angioplasty is the early occurrence of restenosis requiring a repeat procedure. When bare-metal stents are used, clinical restenosis results in a repeat procedure in 10% to 15% of cases. Based on the results of an international, randomized clinical trial, the use of sirolimus-eluting stents reduces this risk. The aims of this study were to calculate the theoretical break-even price for sirolimus-eluting stents in France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and to determine the additional health care cost per patient. The break-even price was calculated by adding the savings resulting from a 15% decrease in the rate of clinical restenosis to the price of bare-metal stents. Costs were computed from the viewpoint of the health care system, exclusive of other societal costs. The break-even prices were 1291 Euro to 1489 Euro in France, 2028 Euro in the Netherlands, and 2708 Euroin the United States (1.00 Euro = 1.00 US dollar in purchasing power parity). These results indicate that the commercial price of sirolimuseluting stents will increase hospital spending for patients undergoing angioplasty by 17% to 55% per patient. This additional cost to the health care system should be discussed in view of possible productivity savings and improved quality of life for patients.

  5. How Different are SMOS Morning and Evening Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Midwest, specifically where agriculture is a dominant land use. It is important that relative humidity data utilized from a source outside of an agricultural field is representative of the conditions occurring within the crop canopy, which is generally higher. SMOS pixels were chosen for regions where > 75% of the land area was comprised of agriculture. Days were chosen where there was a satellite pass both at 6am and 6pm, on days when no rainfall occurred. As such, changes in soil moisture would be minimal. The brightness temperatures obtained were normalized using the polarization index, which uses both v-pol and h-pol outputs to remove the influence of changes in surface temperature on the brightness temperature. As such, changes in the brightness temperature can be attributed to changes in the water content of the crop canopy or the presence of dew. Identifying changes in the signal between morning and evening passes will aid in determining if the presence of dew on crop canopy is an important source of error in soil moisture measurements at L-band, and more importantly, if 6pm measurements appear to be viable for soil moisture retrieval.

  6. Ergonomic Microscope: Need of the Hour

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Shubhangi Ashok; Ahmad, Malik Ajaz; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Prabhu, Shweta; Pardhe, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of conventional microscope develops musculo-skeletal injuries like chronic pain syndrome, including shoulder, neck, back aches & fatigue. Since the problems go unnoticed, the injuries can lead to some serious permanent damages. This further leads to a compromise in the health and welfare of the person and the institute. Hence, an understanding about the ergonomics is the need of the hour in this postmodern era. Inspite of few studies and surveys about ergonomics, there is still a steep rise in the musculoskeletal disorders. Aim of the Study The aim of our study was to gauge the general awareness of pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists towards ergonomics in their profession. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey based study was de­signed, which included a questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions with four alternatives. Professionals (pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists) were included in the survey. Teaching faculty (Professors, Associate Professors and Lecturers) and Post graduate students formed the study group. Results and Observations The response to the questionnaire was 100%. Less than 50% of oral pathologists were aware of the importance of ergonomics in their profession. The most common site affected was neck and back. One of the drastic observations was that, Oral Pathologists suffered from a combination of problems affecting neck, back, eyes, headache, shoulders, arms and wrists. Conclusion Increase in our understanding regarding ergonomic­ally designed microscopes can increase our efficiency and in turn improve our general well-being. With improvements in ergonomics, professionals would be able to modify and optimize their working conditions. Certain guidelines need to be followed by the profes­sionals to reduce chances of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26155565

  7. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  8. First observations of the midlatitude evening anomaly using Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Larquier, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ravindran Varrier, N.; Lester, M.

    2011-10-01

    Under geomagnetically quiet conditions, the daytime midlatitude ionosphere is mainly influenced by solar radiation: typically, electron densities in the ionosphere peak around solar noon. Previous observations from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar (ISR) have evidenced the presence of evening electron densities higher than daytime densities during the summer. The recent development of midlatitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars over North America and Japan has revealed an evening enhancement in ground backscatter during the summer. SuperDARN observations are compared to data from the Millstone Hill ISR, confirming a direct relation between the observed evening enhancements in electron densities and ground backscatter. Statistics over a year of data from the Blackstone radar show that the enhancement occurs during sunset for a few hours from April to September. The evening enhancement observed by both SuperDARN and the Millstone Hill ISR is shown to be related to recent satellite observations reporting an enhancement in electron densities over a wide range of longitudes in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude sector during summer time. Finally, global results from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and the horizontal wind model (HWM07) are presented in relation with previously published experimental results and proposed mechanisms of the evening enhancement, namely, thermospheric horizontal winds and geomagnetic field configuration. It is shown that the IRI captures the features of the evening enhancement as observed by SuperDARN radars and satellites.

  9. Predation of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) by an Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus): even small boids may be a potential threat to small-bodied platyrrhines.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco Antônio; Ferrari, Stephen Francis; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; da Silva, Claudia Regina; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias

    2016-07-01

    Predation has been suggested to play a major role in the evolution of primate ecology, although reports of predation events are very rare. Mammalian carnivores, raptors, and snakes are known predators of Neotropical primates, and most reported attacks by snakes are attributed to Boa constrictor (terrestrial boas). Here, we document the predation of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) by an Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus), the first record of the predation of a platyrrhine primate by this boid. The event was recorded during a nocturnal herpetological survey in the Piratuba Lake Biological Reserve, in the north-eastern Brazilian Amazon. The snake was encountered at 20:00 hours on the ground next to a stream, at the final stage of ingesting the monkey. The C. hortulanus specimen was 1620 mm in length (SVL) and weighed 650 g, while the S. sciureus was a young adult female weighing 600 g, 92 % of the body mass of the snake and the largest prey item known to have been ingested by a C. hortulanus. The evidence indicates that the predation event occurred at the end of the afternoon or early evening, and that, while capable of capturing an agile monkey like Saimiri, C. hortulanus may be limited to capturing small platyrrhines such as callitrichines.

  10. Sunlight Exposure, Work Hours, Caffeine Consumption, and Sleep Duration in the Naval Environment.

    PubMed

    Shattuck, Nita L; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2017-06-01

    Sailors in the U.S. Navy are habitual shiftworkers, often experiencing circadian misalignment due to their irregular work/rest schedules. This study assessed the effect of sunlight exposure, work hours, and caffeinated beverage consumption on the daily sleep duration of crewmembers of a U.S. Navy ship during a 2-wk underway period. Working in an artificially lit area with no access to sunlight during work hours, U.S. Navy crew members (N = 91) used daily logs to report their daily activity, caffeinated beverage consumption, and exposure to sunlight while off-duty; sleep was assessed by wrist-worn actigraphy. Hours of sunlight exposure, work duration, and the amount of coffee/tea/soft drinks were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. On average, crewmembers who reported more than one half-hour of sunlight each day slept on average ∼40 min (10%) less than their peers working the same shifts who received less than one half-hour of sunlight (on average 6.05 ± 0.90 h vs. 6.71 ± 0.91 h, respectively). Exposure to sunlight, work hours, and consumption of caffeinated beverages are important factors when planning watchstanding schedules at sea. Even though further research is needed, our results suggest that even brief exposure to sunlight may contribute to circadian misalignment that negatively affects sleep in the operational environment. Educating crewmembers about sleep hygiene, especially the important roles played by sunlight and caffeine, could potentially improve the sleep and fatigue levels of this population of maritime shiftworkers.Shattuck NL, Matsangas P. Sunlight exposure, work hours, caffeine consumption, and sleep duration in the naval environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):579-585.

  11. Effects of health care provider work hours and sleep deprivation on safety and performance.

    PubMed

    Lockley, Steven W; Barger, Laura K; Ayas, Najib T; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2007-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in the impact of resident-physician and nurse work hours on patient safety. The evidence demonstrates that work schedules have a profound effect on providers' sleep and performance, as well as on their safety and that of their patients. Nurses working shifts greater than 12.5 hours are at significantly increased risk of experiencing decreased vigilance on the job, suffering an occupational injury, or making a medical error. Physicians-in-training working traditional > 24-hour on-call shifts are at greatly increased risk of experiencing an occupational sharps injury or a motor vehicle crash on the drive home from work and of making a serious or even fatal medical error. As compared to when working 16-hours shifts, on-call residents have twice as many attentional failures when working overnight and commit 36% more serious medical errors. They also report making 300% more fatigue-related medical errors that lead to a patient's death. The weight of evidence strongly suggests that extended-duration work shifts significantly increase fatigue and impair performance and safety. From the standpoint of both providers and patients, the hours routinely worked by health care providers in the United States are unsafe. To reduce the unacceptably high rate of preventable fatigue-related medical error and injuries among health care workers, the United States must establish and enforce safe work-hour limits.

  12. Relationship between long working hours and periodontitis among the Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanhyung; Lim, Sung-Shil; Kim, Byurira; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2017-08-11

    We aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and periodontitis, and whether such an association constitutes an exposure-response relationship. Data for this study were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2007 to 2014; 17,533 workers (9,483 of men and 8,050 of women) were included. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the analysis of periodontitis defined as positive of Community Periodontal Index in relation to working hours were calculated using multiple logistic regression models with various stratifications. Compared to participants who worked ≤40 hours per week, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) for the periodontitis was 1.19 (1.14-1.24) and full adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.09 (1.02-1.18) in participants who worked over 40 hours per week. The OR (95% CI) for periodontitis were 1.09 (0.99-1.19) in working group of 40< and ≥52 and 1.10 (1.01-1.20) in working group of >52 hours per week with a significant trend (p = 0.0233) even after adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, healthy behaviour, chronic disease, and dental care status. Long working hours are associated with periodontitis among Korean workers in an exposure-response manner.

  13. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. [63 FR 64593, Nov. 23, 1998, as amended...

  14. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. [63 FR 64593, Nov. 23, 1998, as amended...

  15. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. [63 FR 64593, Nov. 23, 1998, as amended...

  16. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. [63 FR 64593, Nov. 23, 1998, as amended...

  17. 5 CFR 550.1303 - Hourly rates of basic pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... generally consist of 24-hour shifts with a significant amount of designated standby and sleep time), the... annual rate in effect at the time the hour was actually worked. [63 FR 64593, Nov. 23, 1998, as amended...

  18. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including an assessment of evening and morning behavior: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Douglas K; Sumner, Calvin R; Casat, Charles D; Coury, Daniel L; Quintana, Humberto; Saylor, Keith E; Sutton, Virginia K; Gonzales, Jill; Malcolm, Sandra K; Schuh, Kory J; Allen, Albert J

    2004-07-01

    Atomoxetine seems to be as effective for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when the daily dose is administered once in the morning as when the dose is divided and administered in the morning and evening. In the present study, the efficacy of atomoxetine administered once daily among children with ADHD was assessed throughout the day, including the evening and early morning. Another goal was to determine how early in treatment it was possible to discern a specific effect of the drug on ADHD symptoms. This study was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 12 outpatient sites in the United States. A total of 197 children, 6 to 12 years of age, who had been diagnosed as having ADHD, on the basis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria, were randomized to receive 8 weeks of treatment with atomoxetine or placebo, dosed once daily in the mornings. ADHD symptoms were assessed with parent and investigator rating scales. The primary outcome measure was the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator-Administered and Scored total score. Daily parent assessments of children's home behaviors in the evening and early morning were recorded with an electronic data entry system. This instrument measures 11 specific morning or evening activities, including getting up and out of bed, doing or completing homework, and sitting through dinner. Seventy-one percent of the children enrolled were male, 69% met criteria for the combined subtype (both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms), and the most common psychiatric comorbidity was oppositional defiant disorder (35%). Once-daily atomoxetine (final mean daily dose of 1.3 mg/kg) was significantly more effective than placebo in treating core symptoms of ADHD. Mean reductions in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator-Administered and Scored

  19. A comparison of graft and patient outcomes following kidney transplantation in extended hour and conventional haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    See, Emily J; Hawley, Carmel M; Cho, Yeoungjee; Toussaint, Nigel D; Agar, John Wm; Pascoe, Elaine M; Lim, Wai H; Francis, Ross S; Collins, Michael G; Johnson, David W

    2018-01-08

    Differences in early graft function between kidney transplant recipients previously managed with either haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis are well described. However, only two single-centre studies have compared graft and patient outcomes between extended hour and conventional HD patients, with conflicting results. This study compared the outcomes of all extended hour (≥24 hours/week) and conventional HD patients transplanted in Australia and New Zealand between 2000 and 2014. The primary outcome was delayed graft function (DGF), defined in an ordinal manner as either a spontaneous fall in serum creatinine of less than 10% within 24 hours, or the need for dialysis within 72 hours following transplantation. Secondary outcomes included the requirement for dialysis within 72 hours post-transplant, acute rejection, estimated glomerular filtration rate at 12 months, death-censored graft failure, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and a composite of graft failure and mortality. A total of 4,935 HD patients (378 extended hour HD, 4,557 conventional HD) received a kidney transplant during the study period. Extended hour HD was associated with an increased likelihood of DGF compared with conventional HD (adjusted proportional odds ratio 1.33; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.67). There was no significant difference between extended hour and conventional HD in terms of any of the secondary outcomes. Compared to conventional HD, extended hour HD was associated with DGF, although long-term graft and patient outcomes were not different. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress relaxation properties of four orthodontic aligner materials: A 24-hour in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luca; Martines, Elisa; Mazzanti, Valentina; Arreghini, Angela; Mollica, Francesco; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the stress release properties of four thermoplastic materials used to make orthodontic aligners when subjected to 24 consecutive hours of deflection. Four types of aligner materials (two single and two double layered) were selected. After initial yield strength testing to characterize the materials, each sample was subjected to a constant load for 24 hours in a moist, temperature-regulated environment, and the stress release over time was measured. The test was performed three times on each type of material. All polymers analyzed released a significant amount of stress during the 24-hour period. Stress release was greater during the first 8 hours, reaching a plateau that generally remained constant. The single-layer materials, F22 Aligner polyurethane (Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, Padova, Italy) and Duran polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (SCHEU, Iserlohn, Germany), exhibited the greatest values for both absolute stress and stress decay speed. The double-layer materials, Erkoloc-Pro (Erkodent, Pfalzgrafenweiler, Germany) and Durasoft (SCHEU), exhibited very constant stress release, but at absolute values up to four times lower than the single-layer samples tested. Orthodontic aligner performance is strongly influenced by the material of their construction. Stress release, which may exceed 50% of the initial stress value in the early hours of wear, may cause significant changes in the behavior of the polymers at 24 hours from the application of orthodontic loads, which may influence programmed tooth movement.

  1. Infrared thermography in newborns: the first hour after birth.

    PubMed

    Christidis, Iris; Zotter, Heinz; Rosegger, Hellfried; Engele, Heidi; Kurz, Ronald; Kerbl, Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the surface temperature in newborns within the first hour after delivery. Furthermore, the influence of different environmental conditions with regard to surface temperature was documented. Body surface temperature was recorded under several environmental conditions by use of infrared thermography. 42 newborns, all delivered at term and with weight appropriate for date, were investigated under controlled conditions. The surface temperature immediately after birth shows a uniform picture of the whole body; however, it is significantly lower than the core temperature. Soon after birth, peripheral sites become cooler whereas a constant temperature is maintained at the trunk. Bathing in warm water again leads to a more even temperature profile. Radiant heaters and skin-to-skin contact with the mother are both effective methods to prevent heat loss in neonates. Infrared thermography is a simple and reliable tool for the measurement of skin temperature profiles in neonates. Without the need of direct skin contact, it may be helpful for optimizing environmental conditions at delivery suites and neonatal intensive-care units. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work. (b...

  3. 5 CFR 551.521 - Fractional hours of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fractional hours of work. 551.521 Section... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Fractional Hours of Work § 551.521 Fractional hours of work. (a) An employee shall be compensated for every minute of regular overtime work. (b...

  4. 29 CFR 778.114 - Fixed salary for fluctuating hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the workweek. If during the course of 4 weeks this employee works 40, 44, 50, and 48 hours, his... hours of work do not customarily follow a regular schedule but vary from week to week, whose overtime work is never in excess of 50 hours in a workweek, and whose salary of $250 a week is paid with the...

  5. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Cheryl, Ed.; Wolman, Dianne Miller, Ed.; Johns, Michael M. E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Medical residents in hospitals are often required to be on duty for long hours. In 2003 the organization overseeing graduate medical education adopted common program requirements to restrict resident workweeks, including limits to an average of 80 hours over 4 weeks and the longest consecutive period of work to 30 hours in order to protect…

  6. Myths and realities of the 80-hour work week.

    PubMed

    Schenarts, Paul J; Anderson Schenarts, Kimberly D; Rotondo, Michael F

    2006-01-01

    Myths are so ingrained into cultural traditions that emotion frequently overshadows a rational evaluation of the facts. The reduction in resident work hours has resulted in the formation of several myths. The purpose of this review is to examine the published data on resident work hours to separate out myth from reality. An electronic database was searched for publications related to resident training, work-hours, continuity of care, sleep deprivation, quality of life, patient safety, clinical/operative experience, faculty work hours, and surgical education. Sleep deprivation has been shown to be harmful, and residents played a role in advocating for work-hour limits. Surgical residents have seen a less dramatic improvement in quality of life compared with other disciplines. Work-hour reductions have decreased participation in clinic but have not resulted in a significant decline in clinical or operative exposure. Limiting resident work hours will unlikely result in a decrease health-care cost. Reduction in resident work hours has not resulted in an improvement or deterioration in patient outcome. Reduction of work hours has not increased faculty work hours nor made surgery a more attractive career choice. Despite strongly held opinions, resident work-hour reduction has resulted in little significant change in lifestyle, clinical exposure, patient well-being, faculty work hours, or medical student recruitment.

  7. 5 CFR 551.421 - Regular working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regular working hours. 551.421 Section... Activities § 551.421 Regular working hours. (a) Under the Act there is no requirement that a Federal employee... distinction based on whether the activity is performed by an employee during regular working hours or outside...

  8. 46 CFR 386.1 - Hours of admission to property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Academy property shall be closed to the public during other than normal working hours, as well as during... not apply where the Superintendent has approved the after normal working hours use of buildings or athletic facilities for authorized activities. During normal working hours, property shall be closed to the...

  9. 48 CFR 536.570-5 - Working hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working hours. 536.570-5... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 536.570-5 Working hours. Insert 552.236-74, Working Hours, in solicitations and contracts if construction, dismantling...

  10. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....184. This average is computed by dividing the total unscheduled duty hours for the annual period... workday means each day in the criminal investigator's basic workweek during which the investigator works at least 4 hours, excluding— (1) Overtime hours compensated under 5 U.S.C. 5542 and § 550.111; (2...

  11. 29 CFR 4.178 - Computation of hours worked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.178 Computation of hours worked. Since employees subject to the... such hours are adequately segregated, as indicated in § 4.179, compensation in accordance with the Act will be required for all hours of work in any workweek in which the employee performs any work in...

  12. 48 CFR 1316.602 - Labor-hour contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor-hour contracts. 1316... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.602 Labor-hour contracts. ...

  13. 48 CFR 2816.602 - Labor-hour contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Labor-hour contracts. 2816... and Contract Types TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 2816.602 Labor-hour contracts. The limitations set forth in 2816.601 for time-and-material contracts also apply...

  14. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  15. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  16. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of directors...

  17. 12 CFR 7.3000 - Bank hours and closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of directors...

  18. "Hour of Code": Can It Change Students' Attitudes toward Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jie; Wimmer, Hayden; Rada, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The Hour of Code is a one-hour introduction to computer science organized by Code.org, a non-profit dedicated to expanding participation in computer science. This study investigated the impact of the Hour of Code on students' attitudes towards computer programming and their knowledge of programming. A sample of undergraduate students from two…

  19. 29 CFR 778.324 - Effect on hourly rate employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pay, the average hourly rate is thereby increased as in § 778.322. If the reduction in work schedule... Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.324 Effect on hourly rate employees. A similar situation is presented where employees have been hired at an hourly rate of pay and have...

  20. 29 CFR 778.324 - Effect on hourly rate employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pay, the average hourly rate is thereby increased as in § 778.322. If the reduction in work schedule... Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.324 Effect on hourly rate employees. A similar situation is presented where employees have been hired at an hourly rate of pay and have...

  1. 19 CFR 101.6 - Hours of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of business. 101.6 Section 101.6 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.6 Hours of business. Except as specified in paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section, each CBP office shall be open for the transactions of general CBP business between the hours of 8...

  2. 29 CFR 778.100 - The maximum-hours provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The maximum-hours provisions. 778.100 Section 778.100 Labor... Requirements Introductory § 778.100 The maximum-hours provisions. Section 7(a) of the Act deals with maximum... specifically exempt from its overtime pay requirements. It prescribes the maximum weekly hours of work...

  3. 29 CFR 778.101 - Maximum nonovertime hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum nonovertime hours. 778.101 Section 778.101 Labor... Requirements Introductory § 778.101 Maximum nonovertime hours. As a general standard, section 7(a) of the Act provides 40 hours as the maximum number that an employee subject to its provisions may work for an employer...

  4. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene...

  5. NEXIS Reservoir Cathode 2000 Hour Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Polk, Jay; Goebel, Dan; Ohlinger, Wayne; Hill, D. Norm

    2004-01-01

    The current design of the Nuclear Electric Xenon Ion System (NEXIS) employs a reservoir cathode as both the discharge and neutralizer cathode to meet the 10 yr thruster design life. The main difference between a reservoir cathode and a conventional discharge cathode is the source material (barium-containing compound) is contained within a reservoir instead of in an impregnated insert in the hollow tube. However, reservoir cathodes do not have much life test history associated with them. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reservoir cathode as an integral part of the NEXIS ion thruster, a 2000 hr life test was performed. Several proof-of-concept (POC) reservoir cathodes were built early in the NEXIS program to conduct performance testing as well as life tests. One of the POC cathodes was sent to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where it was tested for 2000 hrs in a vacuum chamber. The cathode was operated at the NEXIS design point of 25 A discharge current and a xenon flow rate of 5.5 sccm during the 2000 hr test. The cathode performance parameters, including discharge current, discharge voltage, keeper current; keeper voltage, and flow rate were monitored throughout test. Also, the temperature upstream of cathode heater, the temperature downstream of the cathode heater, and the temperature of the orifice plate were monitored throughout the life of the test. The results of the 2000 hr test will be described in this paper. Included in the results will be time history of discharge current, discharge voltage, and flow rate. Also, a time history of the cathode temperature will be provided.

  6. Changes in Physical Activity in the School, Afterschool, and Evening Periods During the Transition From Elementary to Middle School.

    PubMed

    Lau, Erica Y; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L; Pate, Russell R

    2017-07-01

    We examined longitudinal changes in children's physical activity during the school day, afterschool, and evening across fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. The analytical sample included children who had valid accelerometer data in fifth grade and at least one other time-point, and provided complete sociodemographic information (N = 768, 751, and 612 for the 3 time-periods studied). Accelerometer-derived total physical activity (TPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were expressed in minutes per hour for the school day (∼7:45 am to 3:30 pm), afterschool (∼2:25 to 6:00 pm), and evening (6:00 to 10:00 pm) periods. We used growth curve analyses to examine changes in TPA and MVPA. School day TPA and MVPA declined significantly; we observed a greater decrease from fifth to sixth grades than from sixth to seventh grades. Afterschool TPA declined significantly, but MVPA increased significantly among girls and remained stable for boys. Evening TPA decreased significantly and MVPA declined significantly in girls and remained stable among boys. To inform the development of effective intervention strategies, research should focus on examining factors associated with the decline in physical activity during the transition from elementary to middle school, particularly during the hours when children are in school. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  7. Analyzing a 35-Year Hourly Data Record: Why So Difficult?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    At the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center, we have recently added a 35-Year record of output data from the North American Land Assimilation System (NLDAS) to the Giovanni web-based analysis and visualization tool. Giovanni (Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) offers a variety of data summarization and visualization to users that operate at the data center, obviating the need for users to download and read the data themselves for exploratory data analysis. However, the NLDAS data has proven surprisingly resistant to application of the summarization algorithms. Algorithms that were perfectly happy analyzing 15 years of daily satellite data encountered limitations both at the algorithm and system level for 35 years of hourly data. Failures arose, sometimes unexpectedly, from command line overflows, memory overflows, internal buffer overflows, and time-outs, among others. These serve as an early warning sign for the problems likely to be encountered by the general user community as they try to scale up to Big Data analytics. Indeed, it is likely that more users will seek to perform remote web-based analysis precisely to avoid the issues, or the need to reprogram around them. We will discuss approaches to mitigating the limitations and the implications for data systems serving the user communities that try to scale up their current techniques to analyze Big Data.

  8. Delay of constant light-induced persistent vaginal estrus by 24-hour time cues in rats.

    PubMed

    Weber, A L; Adler, N T

    1979-04-20

    The normal ovarian cycle of female rats is typically replaced by persistent estrus when these animals are housed under constant light. Evidence presented here shows that the maintenance of periodicity in the environment can at least delay (if not prevent) the photic induction of persistent vaginal estrus. Female rats in constant light were exposed to vaginal smearing at random times or at the same time every day. In another experiment, female rats were exposed to either constant bright light, constant dim light, or a 24-hour photic cycle of bright and dim light. The onset of persistent vaginal estrus was delayed in rats exposed to 24-hour time cues even though the light intensities were the same as or greater than those for the aperiodic control groups. The results suggest that the absence of 24-hour time cues in constant light contributes to the induction of persistent estrus.

  9. Characteristics of worst hour rainfall rate for radio wave propagation modelling in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osita, Ibe; Nymphas, E. F.

    2017-10-01

    Radio waves especially at the millimeter-wave band are known to be attenuated by rain. Radio engineers and designers need to be able to predict the time of the day when radio signal will be attenuated so as to provide measures to mitigate this effect. This is achieved by characterizing the rainfall intensity for a particular region of interest into worst month and worst hour of the day. This paper characterized rainfall in Nigeria into worst year, worst month, and worst hour. It is shown that for the period of study, 2008 and 2009 are the worst years, while September is the most frequent worst month in most of the stations. The evening time (LT) is the worst hours of the day in virtually all the stations.

  10. 2,445 Hours of Code: What I Learned from Facilitating Hour of Code Events in High School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a school librarian's experience with initiating an Hour of Code event for her school's student body. Hadi Partovi of Code.org conceived the Hour of Code "to get ten million students to try one hour of computer science" (Partovi, 2013a), which is implemented during Computer Science Education Week with a goal of…

  11. Who breaches the four-hour emergency department wait time target? A retrospective analysis of 374,000 emergency department attendances between 2008 and 2013 at a type 1 emergency department in England.

    PubMed

    Bobrovitz, Niklas; Lasserson, Daniel S; Briggs, Adam D M

    2017-11-02

    arrival to the ED. Efforts to reduce the number of breaches could explore late-evening/overnight staffing, access to diagnostic tests, rapid discharge facilities, and early assessment and input on diagnostic and management strategies from a senior practitioner.

  12. Work-hour restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Robert O; Austin, Mary T; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the standardized work-hour limitations have created an ethical dilemma for residents. A survey tool was designed to assess factors that influence the number of hours residents work and report. The program directors of pediatrics, internal medicine, and general surgery at our institution supported their residents' participation. A voluntary, anonymous survey of these residents was performed. One hundred seventy of 265 eligible residents were surveyed. Eighty-one percent of residents surveyed responded. Eighty percent of respondents reported exceeding work-hour restrictions at least once within the past 6 months. The factor of greatest influence measured was concern for patient care (80%). Forty-nine percent of respondents admitted underreporting their work hours. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions have created an ethical dilemma for residents. Our data show that a significant number of residents feel compelled to exceed work-hour regulations and report those hours falsely.

  13. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    PubMed

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening

  14. Temporal Change in Functional Richness and Evenness in the Eastern African Plio-Pleistocene Carnivoran Guild

    PubMed Central

    Werdelin, Lars; Lewis, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze functional richness and functional evenness of the carnivoran guild in eastern Africa from 3.5 Ma to 1.5 Ma, and compare them to the present day. The data consist of characters of the craniodental apparatus of 76 species of fossil and extant carnivorans, divided into four 0.5 Ma time slices from 3.5 to 1.5 Ma, together with the modern fauna. Focus is on large (>21.5 kg) carnivores. Results show that the large carnivore guild has lost nearly 99% of its functional richness since 3.5 Ma, in a process starting prior to 2 Ma. Measurement of functional evenness shows the modern large carnivore guild to be unique in being randomly distributed in morphospace while in all past time slices there is significant clustering of species. The results are analyzed in the light of known changes to climate and environment in eastern Africa. We conclude that climate change is unlikely to explain all of the changes found and suggest that the evolution of early hominins into carnivore niche space, especially the evolution of derived dietary strategies after 2 Ma, played a significant part in the reduction of carnivore functional richness. PMID:23483948

  15. The work hours of GPs: survey of English GPs.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Hugh; Hole, Arne Risa

    2007-02-01

    There is no current information about the hours worked by English GPs. To compare the reported hours worked by GPs with that of other professions and to explain the variation in GP hours worked and on call. National postal survey of 1871 GPs in February 2004. English general practice. Multiple regression analyses of part-time versus full-time status, hours worked, and hours on call. Full-time male GPs report more hours worked (49.6; 95% CI [confidence interval] = 48.9 to 50.2) than males in other professional occupations (47.9; 95% CI = 47.6 to 48.1) and male managers (49.1; 95% CI = 48.8 to 49.5). Full-time female GPs report fewer hours (43.2; 95% CI = 42.0 to 44.3) than females in other professional occupations (44.7; 95% CI = 44.4 to 45.0) and female managers (44.1; 95% CI = 43.7 to 44.5). The number of hours worked decreased with practice list size, and increased with the number of patients per GP. GPs work longer hours in practices with older patients and with a higher proportion of patients in nursing homes. Fewer hours are worked in practices with higher 'additional needs' payments. Having children under 18 years of age increased the probability that female GPs work part-time but has no effect on the probability of male GPs working part-time. Given full-time/part-time status, having children under 18 years of age reduces the hours of male and female GPs. Male English GPs report longer hours worked than other professional groups and managers. The sex differences between GPs in hours worked are mostly attributable to the differential impact of family circumstances, particularly the number of children they have. Perversely, 'additional needs' payments are higher in practices where GPs work fewer hours.

  16. Assessment of early post-operative pain following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, P; Antoszewski, B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate pain incidence and intensity in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, and to assess analgesic treatment effectiveness, in the first 7 days after surgery. Prospective outcomes analysis using visual analogue scale assessment of pain intensity in the first 7 post-operative days. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 29 women and 28 men, aged 18 to 51 years. All were treated for post-traumatic deformity of the external nose and/or nasal septum, with either septorhinoplasty or septoplasty. In the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, patients' mean visual analogue scale pain score exceeded the range denoting 'analgesic success', and showed considerable exacerbation in the evening. Patients' pain decreased to a mean score of 15.4 one hour after administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (metamizole). Analgesia is recommended for all patients in the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, especially in the early evening.

  17. Vaccinations Administered During Off-Clinic Hours at a National Community Pharmacy: Implications for Increasing Patient Access and Convenience

    PubMed Central

    Goad, Jeffery A.; Taitel, Michael S.; Fensterheim, Leonard E.; Cannon, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am–6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. RESULTS During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience. PMID:24019274

  18. Spatial updating depends on gaze direction even after loss of vision.

    PubMed

    Reuschel, Johanna; Rösler, Frank; Henriques, Denise Y P; Fiehler, Katja

    2012-02-15

    Direction of gaze (eye angle + head angle) has been shown to be important for representing space for action, implying a crucial role of vision for spatial updating. However, blind people have no access to vision yet are able to perform goal-directed actions successfully. Here, we investigated the role of visual experience for localizing and updating targets as a function of intervening gaze shifts in humans. People who differed in visual experience (late blind, congenitally blind, or sighted) were briefly presented with a proprioceptive reach target while facing it. Before they reached to the target's remembered location, they turned their head toward an eccentric direction that also induced corresponding eye movements in sighted and late blind individuals. We found that reaching errors varied systematically as a function of shift in gaze direction only in participants with early visual experience (sighted and late blind). In the late blind, this effect was solely present in people with moveable eyes but not in people with at least one glass eye. Our results suggest that the effect of gaze shifts on spatial updating develops on the basis of visual experience early in life and remains even after loss of vision as long as feedback from the eyes and head is available.

  19. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  20. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  1. mHealth to the Rescue: Growing use of wireless and mobile technologies improves community health, even in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    In rural areas, it is not unusual for patients to travel 50 miles or more to reach their doctors? offices or for doctors to refer patients to specialists whose offices are 80, 100, even 200-plus miles away. The sheer distance is a major obstacle for patients of all kinds: those who need urgent specialist care, those who have a chronic condition that requires regular visits, those who live in areas prone to poor weather-related driving conditions-really, anyone who has better things to do than spend hours traveling to and from a medical appointment.

  2. Allocation of Internal Medicine Resident Time in a Swiss Hospital: A Time and Motion Study of Day and Evening Shifts.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nathalie; Méan, Marie; Castioni, Julien; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Garnier, Antoine

    2017-04-18

    Little current evidence documents how internal medicine residents spend their time at work, particularly with regard to the proportions of time spent in direct patient care versus using computers. To describe how residents allocate their time during day and evening hospital shifts. Time and motion study. Internal medicine residency at a university hospital in Switzerland, May to July 2015. 36 internal medicine residents with an average of 29 months of postgraduate training. Trained observers recorded the residents' activities using a tablet-based application. Twenty-two activities were categorized as directly related to patients, indirectly related to patients, communication, academic, nonmedical tasks, and transition. In addition, the presence of a patient or colleague and use of a computer or telephone during each activity was recorded. Residents were observed for a total of 696.7 hours. Day shifts lasted 11.6 hours (1.6 hours more than scheduled). During these shifts, activities indirectly related to patients accounted for 52.4% of the time, and activities directly related to patients accounted for 28.0%. Residents spent an average of 1.7 hours with patients, 5.2 hours using computers, and 13 minutes doing both. Time spent using a computer was scattered throughout the day, with the heaviest use after 6:00 p.m. The study involved a small sample from 1 institution. At this Swiss teaching hospital, internal medicine residents spent more time at work than scheduled. Activities indirectly related to patients predominated, and about half the workday was spent using a computer. Information Technology Department and Department of Internal Medicine of Lausanne University Hospital.

  3. Typology of after-hours care instructions for patients

    PubMed Central

    Bordman, Risa; Bovett, Monica; Drummond, Neil; Crighton, Eric J.; Wheler, David; Moineddin, Rahim; White, David

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a typology of after-hours care (AHC) instructions and to examine physician and practice characteristics associated with each type of instruction. DESIGN Cross-sectional telephone survey. Physicians’ offices were called during evenings and weekends to listen to their messages regarding AHC. All messages were categorized. Thematic analysis of a subset of messages was conducted to develop a typology of AHC instructions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between physician and practice characteristics and the instructions left for patients. SETTING Family practices in the greater Toronto area. PARTICIPANTS Stratified random sample of family physicians providing office-based primary care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Form of response (eg, answering machine), content of message, and physician and practice characteristics. RESULTS Of 514 after-hours messages from family physicians’ offices, 421 were obtained from answering machines, 58 were obtained from answering services, 23 had no answer, 2 gave pager numbers, and 10 had other responses. Message content ranged from no AHC instructions to detailed advice; 54% of messages provided a single instruction, and the rest provided a combination of instructions. Content analysis identified 815 discrete instructions or types of response that were classified into 7 categories: 302 instructed patients to go to an emergency department; 122 provided direct contact with a physician; 115 told patients to go to a clinic; 94 left no directions; 76 suggested calling a housecall service; 45 suggested calling Telehealth; and 61 suggested other things. About 22% of messages only advised attending an emergency department, and 18% gave no advice at all. Physicians who were female, had Canadian certification in family medicine, held hospital privileges, or had attended a Canadian medical school were more likely to be directly available to their patients. CONCLUSION Important issues identified

  4. [Studies of termination of early pregnancy with Bromo-Geraminum].

    PubMed

    Hou, Z K; Liu, D G; Kao, F S; Chen, S L

    1984-08-01

    The authors introduced 3 ml of 2-3% Bromo-Geraminum (BG) solution into the uterine cavities to induce abortion in 356 early pregnant women from March 1979 through June 1980. The success rate in the termination of early pregnancy was 80.1% and even 96.5% in those who had been pregnant for less than 5 weeks. The mean abortion time was 40.9 porn 19.7 hours. It was noticed that the blood HCG level dropped dramatically after introducing into the uterine cavity. It has been demonstrated experimentally and clinically that this method is effective, safe, simple, and inexpensive and that the normal menstrual cycle recovers very soon without side effects.

  5. Effect of the 80-hour workweek on resident burnout.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Dmitri V; Podnos, Yale D; Carmichael, Joseph C; Saltzman, Darin J; Wilson, Samuel E; Williams, Russell A

    2004-09-01

    With the introduction of the newly mandated restrictions on resident work hours, we expected improvement in subjective feelings of personal accomplishment and lessened emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Residents and faculty members completed an anonymous online Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (3rd ed; Consulting Psychologist Press Inc, Palo Alto, Calif) and work-hour registry before and after implementation of new restrictions. Urban, university-based department of surgery. All house staff (n = 37) and faculty (n = 27). Introduction of new Institutional Standards for Resident Duty Hours 2003. Main Outcome Measure Resident work hours and levels of emotional exhaustion, perceived degree of depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Resident work hours per week decreased from 100.7 to 82.6 (P < .05) with introduction of the new schedule. Home call and formal educational activity time within working hours (eg, clinical conferences) significantly (P < .05) decreased from 11.5 and 4.8 hours to 4.6 and 2.5 hours per week, respectively. Operating room hours, clinic time, and duration of rounds did not show a significant change. Changes in parameters of resident and faculty emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment did not show statistical significance (P > .05). Despite successful reductions in resident work hours, measures of burnout were not significantly affected. However, important clinical activities such as time spent in the operating room, clinic, and making rounds were maintained. Formal in-hospital education time was reduced.

  6. Work hours reform: perceptions and desires of contemporary surgical residents.

    PubMed

    Whang, Edward E; Perez, Alexander; Ito, Hiromichi; Mello, Michelle M; Ashley, Stanley W; Zinner, Michael J

    2003-10-01

    New Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements on resident duty hours are scheduled to undergo nationwide implementation in July 2003. General surgery residents, because of their long duty hours, are likely to be among those most affected by changes imposed to comply with the ACGME requirements. There are few contemporary data on their attitudes toward work hours reform. The study entailed a region-wide survey of residents enrolled in general surgery residencies in New England to characterize the perceptions and desires of surgical residents on the issue of work hours reform. Respondents reported working a mean of 105 +/- 0.7 hours per week, considerably more than the 80-hour limit stipulated by the ACGME. Of the respondents, 81% reported that sleep deprivation had negatively affected their work. A strong majority of respondents believe that work hours reform would improve their quality of life but less than one half expect it to have a positive impact on patient care. A greater percentage of senior residents than junior residents (p < 0.05) have negative perceptions of work hour limitations, particularly with respect to consequences for patient care. Other findings suggest that residents who have actually experienced work hour restrictions are less positive about such restrictions than these residents who had not yet experienced them. Changes imposed by residency programs to comply with work hour requirements might have detrimental effects on senior residents and patient care. The impact of such changes should be carefully monitored as the ACGME requirements are implemented.

  7. Effects on subjective and objective alertness and sleep in response to evening light exposure in older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Münch, M; Scheuermaier, KD; Zhang, R; Dunne, SP; Guzik, AM; Silva, EJ; Ronda, JM; Duffy, JF

    2011-01-01

    Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 yrs; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5–8 the subjects were exposed for 2 h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75–11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (p<0.05). The light exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (p<0.05). The increase in wake EEG alpha activity during the light exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (p<0.05). Evening light exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. PMID:21664380

  8. Alternative diagnostic criteria for idiopathic hypersomnia: A 32-hour protocol.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Elisa; Lopez, Régis; Barateau, Lucie; Chenini, Sofiene; Bosco, Adriana; Jaussent, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2018-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of extended sleep duration on a controlled 32-hour bed rest protocol in idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). One hundred sixteen patients with high suspicion of IH (37 clear-cut IH according to multiple sleep latency test criteria and 79 probable IH), 32 with hypersomnolence associated with a comorbid disorder (non-IH), and 21 controls underwent polysomnography, modified sleep latency tests, and a 32-hour bed rest protocol. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to find optimal total sleep time (TST) cutoff values on various periods that discriminate patients from controls. TST was longer in patients with clear-cut IH than other groups (probable IH, non-IH, and controls) and in patients with probable IH than non-IH and controls. The TST cutoff best discriminating clear-cut IH and controls was 19 hours for the 32-hour recording (sensitivity = 91.9%, specificity = 85.7%) and 12 hours (100%, 85.7%) for the first 24 hours. The 19-hour cutoff displayed a specificity and sensitivity of 91.9% and 81.2% between IH and non-IH patients. Patients with IH above the 19-hour cutoff were overweight, had more sleep inertia, and had higher TST on all periods compared to patients below 19 hours, whereas no differences were found for the 12-hour cutoff. An inverse correlation was found between the mean sleep latency and TST during 32-hour recording in IH patients. In standardized and controlled stringent conditions, the optimal cutoff best discriminating patients from controls was 19 hours over 32 hours, allowing a clear-cut phenotypical characterization of major interest for research purposes. Sleepier patients on the multiple sleep latency test were also the more severe in terms of extended sleep. Ann Neurol 2018;83:235-247. © 2018 American Neurological Association.

  9. A single-bout of one-hour spinning exercise increases troponin T in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Duttaroy, Smita; Thorell, Daniel; Karlsson, Lena; Börjesson, Mats

    2012-02-01

    While long-term endurance exercise is known to increase cardiac biomarkers, only a few studies on short-term exercise and these markers have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a one-hour bicycle spinning on cardiac biomarkers in healthy individuals. Serum levels of high-sensitive troponin T (TnT), creatinine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), creatinine kinase (CK) and myoglobin were measured at baseline, 1 and 24 hour after one hour of spinning exercise in ten healthy and fit (age 31.0 ± 6.6 years) individuals. TnT doubled one hour post-exercise (All values ≤ 5 - 9.7 ± 6.0 ng/L, p < 0.001). Two individuals had TnT levels above upper reference limit, URL (20.7 and 20.2 ng/L, URL = 12 ng/L). Myoglobin levels increased 72% one hour post-exercise (38 ± 20 - 66 ± 41 mg/L, p < 0.02). TnT and myoglobin levels returned to baseline 24 hour post-exercise. Serum levels of CK-MB, NT-proBNP and CK were not significantly changed. A single-bout of one-hour bicycle spinning transiently increases TnT and myoglobin in healthy subjects. Some subjects even have TnT release above URL. Thus, recently performed exercise also of short duration should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of acute chest pain with release of cardiac TnT.

  10. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    PubMed

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  11. Work-Family Conflict, Children, and Hour Mismatches in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jeremy; Aletraris, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    This article helps integrate research on work hours and work-family issues by examining how work-family conflict is related to the desire for more and fewer hours of work. Using the first wave of the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey, we find that work-to-family conflict is associated with a desire for fewer hours of work.…

  12. The working hours of general practitioners 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Aasland, Olaf G; Rosta, Judith

    2011-06-03

    There is little reliable information available on the working hours of general practitioners (GPs). The purpose of our study is to describe the development of weekly working hours of Norwegian general practitioners in the period from 2000 to 2008, as well as the length of their patient lists and their perceived workload. General practitioners in the reference panel of the Research Institute of the Norwegian Medical Association have reported their weekly working hours for 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2008, and the length of their patient lists for 2002 and 2008. We used non-overlapping 95 per cent confidence intervals for testing inter-group differences in interval variables and proportions. From 227 to 316 general practitioners responded to each survey round. Average weekly working hours constituted 45.1 hours (95 per cent CI: 43.6-46.5 hours) in 2000 and 46.4 hours (95 per cent CI: 45.2-47.6 hours) in 2008. The number of hours increased for women GPs, while the number of hours remained basically unchanged for men from 2000 to 2008. Average length of the patient lists in 2002 and 2008 constituted 1,325 and 1,278 for men, and 1,155 and 1,144 for women GPs respectively. The proportion of GPs who responded that they perceived their workload as unacceptable decreased significantly, from 38.1 per cent in 2000 to 25.5 per cent in 2008. Average weekly working hours for GPs increased by approximately one hour from 2000 to 2008, and this increase is found mainly among women GPs. We believe that the reduction in the proportion reporting to have an unacceptable workload can be explained by the introduction of the list-patient system, which has given the doctors better control of their own workload.

  13. Stochastic modeling of hourly rainfall times series in Campania (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgio, M.; Greco, R.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of flowslides and floods in small catchments is uneasy to predict, since it is affected by a number of variables, such as mechanical and hydraulic soil properties, slope morphology, vegetation coverage, rainfall spatial and temporal variability. Consequently, landslide risk assessment procedures and early warning systems still rely on simple empirical models based on correlation between recorded rainfall data and observed landslides and/or river discharges. Effectiveness of such systems could be improved by reliable quantitative rainfall prediction, which can allow gaining larger lead-times. Analysis of on-site recorded rainfall height time series represents the most effective approach for a reliable prediction of local temporal evolution of rainfall. Hydrological time series analysis is a widely studied field in hydrology, often carried out by means of autoregressive models, such as AR, ARMA, ARX, ARMAX (e.g. Salas [1992]). Such models gave the best results when applied to the analysis of autocorrelated hydrological time series, like river flow or level time series. Conversely, they are not able to model the behaviour of intermittent time series, like point rainfall height series usually are, especially when recorded with short sampling time intervals. More useful for this issue are the so-called DRIP (Disaggregated Rectangular Intensity Pulse) and NSRP (Neymann-Scott Rectangular Pulse) model [Heneker et al., 2001; Cowpertwait et al., 2002], usually adopted to generate synthetic point rainfall series. In this paper, the DRIP model approach is adopted, in which the sequence of rain storms and dry intervals constituting the structure of rainfall time series is modeled as an alternating renewal process. Final aim of the study is to provide a useful tool to implement an early warning system for hydrogeological risk management. Model calibration has been carried out with hourly rainfall hieght data provided by the rain gauges of Campania Region civil

  14. [General practitioners' participation in out-of-hours work].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Hogne; Zakariassen, Erik; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-10-04

    Out-of-hours work is often perceived as burdensome and there is an inherent increased risk of making mistakes. The aim of the study was to examine Regular General Practitioners' (RGPs') experiences with and attitudes to out-of-hours work. A questionnaire was sent to all RGPs in Norway. Participation in out-of-hours work was analysed against characteristics of the physician, list, and municipality. 2,913 RGPs responded (78%). 50% participated fully, 15% partly, and 35% did not participate in out-of-hours work. 28% were formally exempted, and 13% had a regular locum. Women and elderly RGPs participated less, as did RGPs in large and central municipalities. Out-of-hours cooperatives covering several municipalities reduced the amount of work, but did not increase the RGPs' participation rate. List characteristics had little influence on the participation rate. 60% of the RGPs tried to give away most of their duties, 16% wanted more out-of-hours work than their regular duties and 16% of those below 55 years who were still doing out-of-hours work wanted to continue after 55 years. RGPs in small and remote municipalities considered out-of-hours work more challenging, but less remunerating, and more often wanted to move from the municipality. Many RGPs do not participate in out-of-hours work. As Norwegian RGPs constitute an aging cohort, this may become an increasing problem.

  15. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Juliana da Costa; Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Griep, Rosane Harter

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. This is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279). Men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. Both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  16. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  17. Regulating danger on the highways: hours of service regulations.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Daniel; Kryger, Meir

    2015-12-01

    Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers in place in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union are summarized and compared to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of such provisions in preventing fatigue and drowsiness among truck drivers. Current hours of service provisions governing commercial truck drivers were derived from governmental sources. The commercial truck driver hours of service provisions in the United States, Canada, and the European Union permit drivers to work 14 hours and those of Australia permit drivers to work 12 hours a day on a regular basis. The regulations do not state what a driver may do with time off. They are consistent with a driver being able to drive after 24 hours without sleep. They do not take into account circadian rhythm by linking driving or rest to time of day. Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers leave gaps--permitting drivers to work long hours on a regular basis, permitting driving after no sleep for 24 hours, and failing to take into account the importance of circadian rhythm, endangering the public safety and the truck drivers themselves. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Migration plans and hours of work in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gillin, E D; Sumner, D A

    1985-01-01

    "This article describes characteristics of prospective migrants in the Malaysian Family Life Survey and investigates how planning to move affects hours of work. [The authors] use ideas about intertemporal substitution...to discuss the response to temporary and permanent wage expectations on the part of potential migrants. [An] econometric section presents reduced-form estimates for wage rates and planned migration equations and two-stage least squares estimates for hours of work. Men currently planning a move were found to work fewer hours. Those originally planning only a temporary stay at their current location work more hours." excerpt

  19. Morning-evening difference of team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Mhenni, Thouraya; Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Mejri, Mohamed Arbi; Yousfi, Narimen; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the two different time-of-day effect on team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances. At two different time-of-day, fifteen young female team handball players performed different physical tests: HandGrip (HG) test, Ball-Throwing Velocity (BTV) test, Modified Agility T-test (MAT) and Repeated Shuttle-Sprint and Jump Ability (RSSJA) test. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was determined following the termination of the last test. Measurements were performed at two separate testing sessions (i.e., in the morning (7:00-8:30 h) and in the early evening (17:00-18:30 h)) in a randomised and counter-balanced setting on non-consecutive days. The results showed that HG (P = 0.0013), BTV (P = 0.0027) and MAT (P < 0.001) performances were better in the evening compared with the morning. During RSSJA, both best and mean sprint times were shorter in the evening compared to the morning (P < 0.001). Moreover, during the latter test, mean jump performance was higher in the evening compared to the morning (P = 0.026). However, there was no morning-evening difference in the best jump performance during RSSJA. Likewise, jump performance decrement was not affected by the time-of-day of testing. On the other hand, RPE fluctuated, with morning nadirs and afternoon/early evening highest values. The findings suggest that in female team handball players, team-handball-related short-term maximal physical performances were better in the afternoon than in the morning.

  20. Revealing the Experience of Children and Teachers Even in Their Absence: Documenting in the Early Childhood Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Will

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the educational approach in the municipal pre-primary schools and infant-toddler centers of Reggio Emilia, Italy, two studio teachers and a researcher participant in Portland, Oregon capture classroom work, make investigations and interpretations in the studio as a laboratory space of learning, help children represent thinking, and…

  1. Septic shock with no diagnosis at 24 hours: a pragmatic multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Contou, Damien; Roux, Damien; Jochmans, Sébastien; Coudroy, Rémi; Guérot, Emmanuel; Grimaldi, David; Ricome, Sylvie; Maury, Eric; Plantefève, Gaëtan; Mayaux, Julien; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Brun-Buisson, Christian; de Prost, Nicolas

    2016-11-06

    The lack of a patent source of infection after 24 hours of management of shock considered septic is a common and disturbing scenario. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the causes of shock with no diagnosis 24 hours after its onset, and to compare the outcomes of patients with early-confirmed septic shock to those of others. We conducted a pragmatic, prospective, multicenter observational cohort study in ten intensive care units (ICU) in France. We included all consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with suspected septic shock defined by clinical suspicion of infection leading to antibiotic prescription plus acute circulatory failure requiring vasopressor support. A total of 508 patients were admitted with suspected septic shock. Among them, 374 (74 %) had early-confirmed septic shock, while the 134 others (26 %) had no source of infection identified nor microbiological documentation retrieved 24 hours after shock onset. Among these, 37/134 (28 %) had late-confirmed septic shock diagnosed after 24 hours, 59/134 (44 %) had a condition mimicking septic (septic shock mimicker, mainly related to adverse drug reactions, acute mesenteric ischemia and malignancies) and 38/134 (28 %) had shock of unknown origin by the end of the ICU stay. There were no differences between patients with early-confirmed septic shock and the remainder in ICU mortality and the median duration of ICU stay, of tracheal intubation and of vasopressor support. The multivariable Cox model showed that the risk of day-60 mortality did not differ between patients with or without early-confirmed septic shock. A sensitivity analysis was performed in the subgroup (n = 369/508) of patients meeting the Sepsis-3 definition criteria and displayed consistent results. One quarter of the patients admitted in the ICU with suspected septic shock had no infection identified 24 hours after its onset and almost half of them were eventually diagnosed with a septic shock mimicker. Outcome did not differ

  2. Circadian mechanisms of 24-hour blood pressure regulation and patterning.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Michael H; Hermida, Ramón C; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    In most persons, blood pressure (BP) rises slowly during late sleep, increases rapidly upon morning awakening and commencement of diurnal activity, exhibits two - morning and afternoon/early evening - daytime peaks, shows a minor midday nadir, and undergoes a decline during nighttime sleep by 10-20% in systolic BP and somewhat lesser amount in diastolic BP relative to wake-time means. Nyctohemeral cycles of ambient temperature, light, noise and behaviorally driven temporal patterns in food, liquid, salt, and stimulant consumption, mental/emotional stress, posture, and physical activity intensity plus circadian rhythms of wake/sleep, pineal gland melatonin synthesis, autonomic and central nervous, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, renal hemodynamic, endothelial, vasoactive peptide, and opioid systems constitute the key regulators and determinants of the BP 24 h profile. Environmental and behavioral cycles are believed to be far more influential than circadian ones. However, the facts that the: i) BP 24 h pattern of secondary hypertension, e.g., diabetes and renal disease, is characterized by absence of BP fall during sleep, and ii) scheduling of conventional long-acting medications at bedtime, rather than morning, results in much better hypertension control and vascular risk reduction, presumably because highest drug concentration coincides closely with the peak of most key circadian determinants of the BP 24 h profile, indicate endogenous rhythmic influences are of greater importance than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heart Rate Variability in Obstetricians Working 14-Hour Call Compared to 24-Hour Call in Labour and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Robin H; Yoon, Eugene; Murphy, Kellie E; Windrim, Rory; Farrugia, M Michéle

    2017-12-01

    Obstetricians have stressful and demanding jobs that may impact their health. A physiological measurement of cardiac function which varies with stress is heart rate variability (HRV). By measuring the cyclic variations in R-R intervals, or beat-to-beat differences, HRV reflects the continuous interplay of the controlling forces in the autonomic nervous system. Studies have shown HRV to be reduced during periods of work-induced stress, including 24-hour shifts. Our study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between length of shift worked and HRV. We hypothesised that working for a full 24-hour period is more stressful than a shorter, nighttime-only period, and HRV analyses were used to measure this objectively. Obstetricians wore an HRV monitor for 24 hours during both a regular day followed by a 14-hour night shift and a continuous 24-hour shift in labour and delivery. The 24-hour samples were analysed using standard HRV measurements. HRV measurements obtained from each physician were then compared according to shift type, with each physician acting as his or her own comparator. There were no statistically significant differences in the most important measures of HRV between 24-hour periods which included either a 14-hour overnight shift or a continuous 24-hour shift on labour and delivery. We found no significant differences in key HRV measures in obstetricians working 14 hours versus 24 hours in labour and delivery. An anecdotal increase in physician awareness of his/her own health related to working conditions was noted during the study. Future studies should attempt to control for the hours prior to a night shift, assess associated endocrine variations, and focus upon HRV in the post-shift period. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing the formula of residents' work hours in internal medicine: moving from "years in training" to "hours in training".

    PubMed

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-03-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.

  5. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  6. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  7. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n = 1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n = 1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n = 1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models. PMID:25559388

  8. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible...

  9. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible...

  10. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible...

  11. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible...

  12. 19 CFR 360.107 - Hours of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hours of operation. 360.107 Section 360.107 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.107 Hours of operation. The automatic licensing system will generally be accessible...

  13. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND...

  14. 12 CFR 905.3 - Location and business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Location and business hours. (a) Location. All office units of the Finance Board are located at 1777 F... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location and business hours. 905.3 Section 905.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND...

  15. 21 CFR 1316.45 - Filings; address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filings; address; hours. 1316.45 Section 1316.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.45 Filings; address; hours. Documents required or...

  16. 75 FR 71545 - Changes to NARA Facilities' Hours of Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... 2313 Red River St., Austin, TX 78705-5702. The phone number is 512-721-0200 and the fax number is 512... Archives Building is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20408. Hours for the Research Center and the Central Research Room are posted at http://www.archives.gov . The exhibit areas' hours of...

  17. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11... duty records. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 50397, Aug. 12, 2011. (a) In general. Each... electronically, concerning the hours of duty of each employee. Each contractor or subcontractor of a railroad...

  18. 49 CFR 228.11 - Hours of duty records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hours of duty records. 228.11 Section 228.11... duty records. (a) In general. Each railroad, or a contractor or a subcontractor of a railroad, shall keep a record, either manually or electronically, concerning the hours of duty of each employee. Each...

  19. Number of Instructional Days/Hours in the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…

  20. The future of work hours--the European view.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran

    2005-01-01

    In Europe the way work hours are handled varies between different countries. However, there are some issues that dominate the discussion in Europe and seem representative for what is happening. One such is the reduction of working hours--which was attempted in several countries but which now seems to be backfiring--probably related to the competition from countries outside Europe. Another area is compressed work hours--the drive towards maximizing the hours per work day in order to increase the number of days off. The health effects are debated--some find clear positive effects. A third area is company oriented flexible work hours, permitting the employer to make moderate changes in work hours when needed. The health impacts have not been evaluated but the loss of individual influence at work is obvious. In some parts of Europe self-determined work hours have been tried with very positive effects. The EU work hour directive is intended to provide uniformity but permits a counterproductive "opting out", creating problems of imbalance.

  1. 5 CFR 551.511 - Hourly regular rate of pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... remuneration paid to an employee in the workweek by the total number of hours of work in the workweek for which... of work performed by an employee in excess of eight in a day, or in excess of the normal workweek applicable to the employee; (6) Extra compensation provided by a premium rate paid for hours of work...

  2. Moisture content calculations for 1000-hour timelag fuels

    Michael A. Fosberg; Richard C. Rothermel; Patricia L. Andrews

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to calculate 1000-hour timelag fuel moistures were developed from theory of water movement in wood. The 1000-hour timelag fuel moisture is computed from mean daily temperatures and humidities and precipitation duration. Comparison of calculated and observed fuel moistures showed good agreement. Techniques to determine the seasonal starting value of the 1000-...

  3. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of the...

  4. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.3 Business address; hours. The principal office of...

  5. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The...

  6. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The...

  7. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules are...

  8. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three Lafayette...

  9. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three Lafayette...

  10. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in these...

  11. 17 CFR 171.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 171.3 Section 171.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... MEMBER RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.3 Business address; hours. The principal office of...

  12. 39 CFR 959.3 - Office, business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office, business hours. 959.3 Section 959.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.3 Office, business hours. The offices of the officials mentioned in these rules are...

  13. 39 CFR 952.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 952.4 Section 952.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.4 Office business hours. The offices of the officials identified in these...

  14. 17 CFR 10.4 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business address; hours. 10.4 Section 10.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE General Provisions § 10.4 Business address; hours. The Office of Proceedings is located at Three Lafayette...

  15. 17 CFR 12.3 - Business address; hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Business address; hours. 12.3 Section 12.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.3 Business address; hours. The...

  16. 39 CFR 954.4 - Office business hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office business hours. 954.4 Section 954.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.4 Office business hours. The offices of the...

  17. The 1973 dust storm on Mars: Maps from hourly photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hourly progress of the 1973 major Martian storm was mapped using photographic images from the International Planetary Patrol. Two series of 20 daily maps show the semi-hourly positions of the storm brightenings in red light and blue light. The maps indicate that the 1973 storm had many similarities to the 1971 storm.

  18. 76 FR 26681 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    .... Jovanis, J.P., Wu, K.F., and Chen, C., ``Hours of Service and Driver Fatigue--Driver Characteristics... 2010. Sando, T., Mtoi, E., and Moses, R., ``Potential Causes Of Driver Fatigue: A Study On Transit Bus..., 390, and 395 [Docket No. FMCSA-2004-19608] RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service of Drivers AGENCY: Federal...

  19. Is the Professor In? Faculty Presence during Office Hours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfund, Rory A.; Rogan, Jessica D.; Burnham, Bryan R.; Norcross, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on the availability of full-time faculty during their posted office hours. In the first, we surveyed students and faculty at a single university on their estimates of the percentage of faculty present during office hours. Students ("N" = 380) and faculty ("N" = 176) estimated that 77% and 83% of…

  20. 17 CFR 230.110 - Business hours of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours of the Commission. 230.110 Section 230.110 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.110 Business hours of the Commission...